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1

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTES FROM THE CORN WET MILLING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot plant aerated lagoon and laboratory completely mixed activated sludge treatment studies of corn wet milling wastes showed that either process could produce a satisfactory effluent. A full scale completely mixed activated sludge treatment plant was designed from laboratory r...

2

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

1991-04-01

3

Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels  

E-print Network

of subcritical and supercritical wet oxidation technologies to chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, wood-pulping, and coal-washing wastes. Each application is evaluated for technical and economic feasibility as well as its national applicability...

Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

4

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1993-07-01

5

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1993--1994 interim report  

SciTech Connect

Process development research is continuing on a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system that has been demonstrated to convert organics in water (dilute or concentrated) to useful and environmentally safe gases. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEESO), treats a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from hazardous organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of continuous-feed, tubular reactors systems for testing catalysts and feedstocks in the process. A range of catalysts have been tested, including nickel and other base metals, as well as ruthenium and other precious metals. Results of extensive testing show that feedstocks, ranging from 2% para-cresol in water to potato waste and spent grain, can be processed to > 99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The product fuel gas contains from 40% up to 75% methane, depending on the feedstock. The balance of the gas is mostly carbon dioxide with < 5% hydrogen and usually < 1% ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics from 10 to 1,000 mg/l COD, depending on the feedstock. The level of development of TEES has progressed to the initial phases of industrial process demonstration. Testing of industrial waste streams is under way at both the bench scale and engineering scale of development.

Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Deverman, G.S.; Werpy, T.A.; Phelps, M.R.; Baker, E.G.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1995-03-01

6

Gaseous and particulate emission control on industrial solid waste incinerators using wet scrubbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type of waste which is burned in a solid waste incinerator dictates whether or not secondary air pollution control equipment will be required and the type of air pollution control equipment which must be used. Both gas phase and particulate emissions are produced by these incinerators. The most common emission is HCl gas produced by the combustion of chlorine

J. D. Brady; J. H. Andros

1983-01-01

7

Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

8

Assessment for development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low-grade fuels. Final report, October 18, 1989--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this program was to demonstrate safe, reliable, and effective operation of the supercritical water oxidation process (SCWO) at a pilot plant-level throughput. This program was a three phase program. Phase 1 of the program preceded MODEC`s participation in the program. MODEC did participate in Phases 2 and 3 of the program. In Phase 2, the target waste and industry were pulp mill sludges from the pulp and paper industry. In Phase 3, the target was modified to be DOE-generated mixed low level waste; wastes containing RCRA hazardous constituents and radionuclide surrogates were used as model wastes. The paper describes the research unit planning and design; bench-scale development of SCWO; research and development of wet oxidation of fuels; and the design of a super-critical water pilot plant.

Sundback, C.

1995-05-01

9

Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

1990-04-01

10

Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

11

Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect

This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis (eds.)

2004-06-15

12

Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

2007-02-21

13

Catalytic wet gasification of municipal and animal wastes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, there is worldwide interest in deriving energy from bio-based materials via gasification. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of wet gasification for treatment/energy conversion of both animal and municipal wastes. Wet wastes such as swine manure and raw sewage sludge could be pro...

14

Steel Industry Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

1978-01-01

15

Steel industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

In this annual literature review, the regulations of the EPA which apply to the steel industry are discussed. Coke plant wastes are discussed. The characterization of the suspended solids in steel plant river intake water and in plant discharge effluent by electron-optical and x-ray diffraction techniques are discussed. 12 references.

Chung, N.K.

1985-06-01

16

Industrial waste management in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Systematic management for industrial waste in Japan has been carried out based on the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law which was enacted in 1970. The law and its ordinances designate 19 kinds of waste materials discharged from business activities as industrial waste and prescribe the generator's responsibility, requirements for treatment contractors, standards for consignment, specific personnel, etc. from the view of proper management. And they also prescribe disposal standards, structure, and maintenance standards for treatment facilities, including final disposal sites, from the view of proper treatment and disposal. The Standard for Verification provides criteria to categorize as hazardous or nonhazardous industrial waste which is subjected to treatment and disposal in conformity with each standard. The fundamental policies to cope with industrial waste focus on reduction of generation, promotion of recycling, establishment of a comprehensive information management system and participation of the public which can contribute well to prevent environmental pollution caused by inappropriate management of industrial waste.

Hirota, Y.

1986-12-01

17

Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

Not Available

1994-01-01

18

Industrial and hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

This book provides information on the harmful effects of industrial and hazardous waste. Includes theories on conservation, equalization and neutralization of wastes, as well as practical applications for such methods. It provides case histories of waste problems and solutions, and concludes with brief evaluations of all major liquid industrial wastes. Extensive photographs, diagrams, and charts. Thorough references included in each chapter. Some background in both chemistry and engineering required. Appropriate for universities, as a student textbook, and for engineering collections of research libraries. (LEF).

Nemerow, N.L.; Dasgupta, A.

1991-01-01

19

CENTURY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS FRP-100 WET SCRUBBER EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field test evaluation of the performance of the Century Industrial Products FRP-100 wet scrubber installed on a lightweight aggregate kiln. Inlet/outlet tests for particle size distribution with cascade impactors and extractive sampling with an elect...

20

Accelerated carbonation treatment of industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of industrial waste presents major logistical, financial and environmental issues. Technologies that can reduce the hazardous properties of wastes are urgently required. In the present work, a number of industrial wastes arising from the cement, metallurgical, paper, waste disposal and energy industries were treated with accelerated carbonation. In this process carbonation was effected by exposing the waste to

Peter J. Gunning; Colin D. Hills; Paula J. Carey

2010-01-01

21

Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

Vachon, D.T. (Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario); Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

1982-06-01

22

Thermochemical gasification of wet biomass and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been conducting laboratory research on the low-temperature (under 450{sup 0}C) gasification of biomass and biomass model compounds for several years. Work in this area has been carried out for both the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Division of Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology. One of the main thrusts in this work has been to investigate the role of selected catalysts at high water-to-biomass ratios (typically in excess of 9:1 by weight). A 1-liter batch reactor has employed to obtain overall gas yield and composition data, along with limited information regarding the actual rate of gas production. These batch studies have clearly demonstrated the utility of the concept, in which high-moisture slurries up to 95 wt% moisture of various biomass feedstocks have been gasified at high carbon conversion to gas at temperatures as low as 380{sup 0}C.

Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

1988-01-01

23

Industrial waste reduction: The process problem  

SciTech Connect

Industrial waste problems, especially those involving hazardous waste, seem to be pervasive. The national media report newly discovered waste problems and sites with alarming regularity. Examples that immediately come to mind are Love Canal, New York; Times Beach, Missouri; and Seveso, Italy. Public perceptions of the industrial waste problem, reflecting the media's focus, appear to be that: large corporations are solely responsible for creating waste dumps, and the only role of government is to prevent illegal dumping and to regulate, fine, and require corporations to rectify the problem; all efforts should be directed toward preventing illegal dumping and treatment of the existing waste dumps; all industrial wastes can be classified as hazardous in nature. This general impression is both inaccurate and incomplete. All industrial waste is not hazardous (although most of it is not benign). All waste producers are not large corporations: nearly all industries produce some wastes. And, while existing waste sites must be effectively treated, additional efforts are needed at other points in the industrial waste cycle. Most people would agree both that waste dumping must be carefully regulated because of its negative impacts on the environment and that the less waste the better, even with carefully regulated disposal. Since nearly all industry now produces some waste and no one expects industry to shut down to resolve the waste problem, other strategies need to be available to deal with the problem at the front end. This paper discusses alternative strategies.

Valentino, F.W.; Walmet, G.E.

1986-09-01

24

Waste Management Trends in Texas Industrial Plants  

E-print Network

The Industrial Assessment Center at Texas A&M University has performed several waste and energy minimization surveys in small- and medium- sized industrial manufacturing plants in Texas. During these surveys, Industrial Assessment Center personnel...

Smith, C. S.; Heffington, W. M.

25

Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.  

PubMed

Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ? 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization. PMID:24073987

Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

2013-11-01

26

Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

Weitzmann, A. L.

1977-01-01

27

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and\\/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly

Larry D Claxton; Virginia S Houk; Thomas J Hughes

1998-01-01

28

Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste,

Teija Aarnio; Anne Hämäläinen

2008-01-01

29

Slag waste heat recovery and utilization in the elemental phosphorus industry. Final report, October 28, 1977April 30, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 80 x 10¹² Btu\\/y of thermal energy are contained in molten slags produced by the elemental phosphorus industry, the iron and steel industry, the copper industry, and wet-bottom coal-fired boilers. This study evaluates the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of recovering this wasted energy; the impact of slag waste-heat recovery on the industries in question; and the steps necessary

T. E. Ctvrtnicek; R. J. McCormick; R. W. Serth; A. Wojtowicz; D. L. Zanders

1978-01-01

30

INFORMATION FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTE COMBUSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Developed to support effluent guidelines for the commercial hazardous Waste Combustor Subcategory of the Waste Combustors Point Source category. Data were used o develop environmental impacts, regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation and to identify t...

31

Accelerated carbonation treatment of industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of industrial waste presents major logistical, financial and environmental issues. Technologies that can reduce the hazardous properties of wastes are urgently required. In the present work, a number of industrial wastes arising from the cement, metallurgical, paper, waste disposal and energy industries were treated with accelerated carbonation. In this process carbonation was effected by exposing the waste to pure carbon dioxide gas. The paper and cement wastes chemically combined with up to 25% by weight of gas. The reactivity of the wastes to carbon dioxide was controlled by their constituent minerals, and not by their elemental composition, as previously postulated. Similarly, microstructural alteration upon carbonation was primarily influenced by mineralogy. Many of the thermal wastes tested were classified as hazardous, based upon regulated metal content and pH. Treatment by accelerated carbonation reduced the leaching of certain metals, aiding the disposal of many as stable non-reactive wastes. Significant volumes of carbon dioxide were sequestrated into the accelerated carbonated treated wastes.

Gunning, Peter J., E-mail: gunning_peter@hotmail.co [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom); Hills, Colin D.; Carey, Paula J. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15

32

Energy Efficiency Improvements and Cost Saving Opportunities in the Corn Wet Milling Industry  

E-print Network

Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry in the food and kindred products group (SIC 20). Plants typically spend approximately $15 to 25 million per year on energy, one of its largest operating costs, making energy efficiency...

Galitsky, C.; Worrell, E.

33

Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions.  

PubMed

With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent's concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I2/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5M I2/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe4BTBP showed good removal of mercury, with an extraction efficiency of 97.5 ± 0.7% being achieved in a single stage. Better removal of mercury was achieved in a single stage using the extractants Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 923 in kerosene, respectively. PMID:25443097

Tunsu, Cristian; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

2015-02-01

34

Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

Zhang, Pengchong

35

Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

Not Available

1994-03-29

36

High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.  

PubMed

High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3. PMID:22546797

Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

2012-01-01

37

Industrial wastes and sludges management by vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vermicomposting has been arising as an innovative ecotechnology for the conversion of various types of wastes into vermicompost.\\u000a Vermicompost is humus like, finely granulated and stabilized material which can be used as a soil conditioner to reintegrate\\u000a the organic matter to the agricultural soils. Industrial wastes remain largely unutilized and often cause environmental problems\\u000a like ground and surface water pollution,

Anoop Yadav; V. K. Garg

38

Development of a Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Method to Produce Feedstock Gases from Waste Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given the high cost of space launch, the repurposing of biological and plastic wastes to reduce the need for logistical support during long distance and long duration space missions has long been recognized as a high priority. Described in this paper are the preliminary efforts to develop a wet air oxidation system in order to produce fuels from waste polymers. Preliminary results of partial oxidation in near supercritical water conditions are presented. Inherent corrosion and salt precipitation are discussed as system design issues for a thorough assessment of a second generation wet air oxidation system. This work is currently being supported by the In-Situ Resource Utilization Project.

Kulis, Michael J.; Guerrero-Medina, Karen J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2012-01-01

39

Hazardous and industrial wastes: Proceedings of the twenty-seventh Mid-Atlantic industrial waste conference  

SciTech Connect

The Mid-Atlantic Industrial and Hazardous Waste Conference is an annual gathering of consultants, industrial environmental managers, regulators and academicians. The purpose is to exchange ideas and information and also to initiate healthy debates on environmental issues facing the industries and the society as a whole. The central theme of the 27th Conference is ``Enhancing Industrial Growth and Protecting Our Environment: A Partnership between Industries, Academia and the Government.`` Approximately ninety technical papers in areas as diverse as Waste Minimization and Reuse, Regulations, and Ethical Issues, Biological Treatment, Soil Treatment and Characterization, Heavy Metals Removal, etc., are presented. Individual paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Sengupta, A.K. [ed.] [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

40

Studies in treatment of disperse dye waste: Membrane-wet oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

An integrated process, membrane-wet oxidation (MEMWO) has been demonstrated to treat the disperse dye bath waste. The dye bath waste stream containing azo class disperse dye CL 79, was studied to demonstrate the process. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) showed > 99% color and 97% chemical oxygen demand (COD) rejection of dye compound. The concentrate was then treated by wet oxidation (WO) process. WO of dye was studied in the range of 160--225 C and oxygen partial pressure 0.69--1.38 MPa. A homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a suitable catalyst to effectively destroy the dye as well as the real waste. While non catalytic WO of dye achieved 75% reduction in COD during 120 min with 99% color destruction, the catalytic WO showed about 90% reduction in COD. The performance of WO of actual waste stream was comparable with that of pure dye molecule.

Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V.

2000-07-01

41

PYROLYSIS OF MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper provides a historical overview of some 21 U.S. research and development activities associated with municipal/industrial waste and biomass conversion-to-energy pyrolysis technologies. The history begins in the early 1970's and is brought forward to the present. Of the 21...

42

INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN RELATION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

PubMed Central

Principal responsibility for preventing stream pollution by industrial wastes should be placed on the plants themselves. But municipalities should not depend upon out-of-date purification plants, but should utilize new methods. State health officers should have regulatory powers under standardized laws conforming to Federal practices. Imagesp198-a PMID:18010452

Donaldson, Wellington

1921-01-01

43

RECOVERY, REUSE, AND RECYCLE OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The major goal of this work is to produce a document useful in planning efforts aimed at elimination of industrial wastes through the application of recycle, recovery, and reuse technology. The pollutants considered in this study are basically organic and inorganic by-products fr...

44

WASTE HEAT RECOVERY POTENTIAL IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The research project was initiated with the overall objective of identifying the points, qualities, and quantities, of waste heat discharged to the environment by energy intensive industries and emerging technologies for energy development. These data may then be utilized to eval...

45

Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the

R. J. Radel; M. P. Willis

1993-01-01

46

Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package  

SciTech Connect

This document consists of page replacements for the Y-12 industrial waste landfill. The cover page is to replace the old page, and a new set of text pages are to replace the old ones. A replacement design drawing is also included.

NONE

1994-10-14

47

Biophenols from agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Large quantities of agro-based liquid wastes are produced every year and their disposal is often a problem for industries. In light of that, in this study prudent effort was done to screen the agro-industrial wastes - pineapple waste (PAW) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) for valuable biophenols product. Three different solvents; ethanol, acetone and distilled water were screened in order to enhance the process. All experiments were performed using fixed process conditions of solid to solvent ratio, temperatures, time and agitation speed. Effectiveness of extraction process to produce biophenol was based on high amount with more activity. POME was selected as potential source with biophenol content of 125.42 mg/L GAE. PMID:19025008

Jamal, P; Alam, M Z; Suhani, F

2008-07-01

48

Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.  

PubMed

Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

2010-07-01

49

40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

2012-07-01

50

40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

2013-07-01

51

40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

2014-07-01

52

40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

2011-07-01

53

40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

2010-07-01

54

Radioactive waste management in developing and newly industrialized countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive wastes are mostly produced in countries with military nuclear programmes. However, non-nuclear weapon countries, with solely commercial nuclear industries, also produce radioactive wastes. Moreover, uranium and thorium mining and milling wastes, as well as other kinds of low-level radioactive wastes like those resulting from radiological accidents, can also be found in developing and newly industrialized countries. The paper discusses

A. S. Paschoa; A. Tranjan Filho

1995-01-01

55

Industrial waste in highway construction K. Aravind1  

E-print Network

Industrial waste in highway construction K. Aravind1 and Animesh Das2 Introduction Civilization for alternative materials for highway construction, and industrial waste product is one such category be used in highway construction: Table-1: Possible usage of industrial waste products in highway

Das, Animesh

56

Procedures for making gaseous industrial waste safe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of various methods (adsorption, absorption, thermal afterburning, catalytic purification, and others) for the removal of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, toxic organic compounds, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon monoxide from industrial waste gases is described. Much attention is devoted to the catalytic procedure for making the gases safe using an energy collecting non-stationary method (reversible process). The advantages and limitations of various gas purification methods are considered. The bibliography includes 279 references.

Matros, Yu Sh; Noskov, Aleksandr S.

1990-10-01

57

Industrial solid waste flow analysis of eco-industrial parks: implications for sustainable waste management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable waste management in the industrial ecology perspective brings enormous challenges to the existing methodology\\u000a of waste analysis at the industrial park (IP) scale. In this study, a four-step method was proposed for industrial solid waste\\u000a (ISW) flow analysis of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) and applied to two IPs in eastern China. According to a park-wide census\\u000a of 619 industrial enterprises

Yongpeng Lü; Kai Yang; Yue Che; Zhaoyi Shang; Jun Tai; Yun Jian

58

INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

59

Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.  

PubMed

Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories. PMID:25154913

Sasao, Toshiaki

2014-11-01

60

The Energy Impact of Industrial Recycling and Waste Exchange  

E-print Network

. Problems in handling some industrial wastes has contaminated drinking water, caused families to relocate, led to liability suits, caused the loss of valuable land resources, and deepened the public distrust of industry and the regulatory process (1..., avoid, or eliminate the generation of industrial wastes during the design, manufacture, use and discard phases of product flow. Actions taken away from the waste recycling generatl.n,3 activity, Including off-site waste recycling or treatment...

Phillips, W. C.

61

Design for application of the DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation process to mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual engineering has been performed for application of the DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation process to treatment of specific mixed waste types. Chemical compositions, mass balances, energy balances, temperatures, pressures, and flows have been used to define design parameters for treatment units capable of destroying 5. Kg per hour of polychlorinated biphenyls and 25. Kg per hour of tributyl phosphate. Equipment for the units has been sized and materials of construction have been specified. Secondary waste streams have been defined. Environmental safety and health issues in design have been addressed. Capital and operating costs have been estimated based on the conceptual designs.

Bell, R.A.; Dhooge, P.M.

1994-04-01

62

Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building. PMID:18514765

Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

2008-07-01

63

Bench-scale operation of the DETOX wet oxidation process for mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

Waste matrices containing organics, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. A means of destroying hazardous organic components while safely containing and concentrating metals would be extremely useful in mixed waste volume reduction or conversion to a radioactive-only form. Previous studies have found the DETOX, a patented process utilizing a novel catalytic wet oxidation by iron(III) oxidant, cold have successful application to mixed wastes, and to many other waste types. This paper describes the results of bench scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for the design of a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent organic reaction rate orders, and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on the contact area, were measured for vacuum pump oil, scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. It was found that reaction rate was proportional to contact area above about 2.% w/w loading of organic. Oxidations in a 4 liter. volume, mixed bench top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 99.9999+% for common organics. Reaction rates achieved in the mixedbench top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10. to 100.+ grams of organic per liter-hour,depending on the nature and concentration of the organic.

Dhooge, P.M.

1993-01-01

64

Bench-scale operation of the DETOX wet oxidation process for mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

Waste matrices containing organics, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. A means of destroying hazardous organic components while safely containing and concentrating metals would be extremely useful in mixed waste volume reduction or conversion to a radioactive-only form. Previous studies have found the DETOX, a patented process utilizing a novel catalytic wet oxidation by iron(III) oxidant, cold have successful application to mixed wastes, and to many other waste types. This paper describes the results of bench scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for the design of a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent organic reaction rate orders, and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on the contact area, were measured for vacuum pump oil, scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. It was found that reaction rate was proportional to contact area above about 2.% w/w loading of organic. Oxidations in a 4 liter. volume, mixed bench top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 99.9999+% for common organics. Reaction rates achieved in the mixedbench top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10. to 100.+ grams of organic per liter-hour,depending on the nature and concentration of the organic.

Dhooge, P.M.

1993-03-01

65

Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

2015-02-01

66

ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF BIOACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater (Selenastrum capricornutum) and estuarine (Skeketonema costatum) algae were exposed to liquid wastes from 10 industrial sites in laboratory bioassays. All wastes affected algal growth either by stimulation or by stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at high ...

67

Implementation of Industrial Assessment Center Energy and Waste Management Recommendations  

E-print Network

by which the industries may reduce their energy consumption and waste production to reduce production costs. The energy conservation and waste reduction projects are studied by the students and formally presented in a technical report detailing...

King, J. D.; Eggebrecht, J. A.; Heffington, W. M.

68

SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

2009-10-01

69

Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams  

SciTech Connect

The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

1984-05-01

70

NOAA Climate Data Prepares Oahu Construction Industry for Wet Season Each year NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, a part of the  

E-print Network

NOAA Climate Data Prepares Oahu Construction Industry for Wet Season Each year NOAA. This year, for example, climate data have been immensely valuable to the construction industry on Oahu and landfill. Without the headsup, not only PVT but Oahu's entire construction industry would have been

71

Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator. PMID:18956484

Huang, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Jim Juimin

2008-11-01

72

Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

Huang, M.-C. [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: u9315915@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw; Lin, Jim Juimin [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

2008-11-15

73

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation

1992-01-01

74

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource

1992-01-01

75

Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal energy storage systems designed for energy conservation through the recovery, storage, and reuse of industrial process waste heat are reviewed. Consideration is given to systems developed for primary aluminum, cement, the food processing industry, paper and pulp, and primary iron and steel. Projected waste-heat recovery and energy savings are listed for each category.

Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

1978-01-01

76

Detrimental effects of pharmaceutical industrial waste on microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical industrial waste was collected from Ghaziabad (Cooper Pharma Ltd.) and analyzed for color, odor, specific gravity, turbidity, pH, total solids, suspended solids, dissolved solids, volatile solids, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), organic and inorganic nitrogen, sulfur, chlorides, sulfates and phosphates. The detrimental effects of industrial waste on microorganisms were studied in the system

M. Ajmal; A. Ahmad; M. Z. Hasan; Azhar A. Nomani

1980-01-01

77

Waste-to-energy application in an industrial district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial districts present some features that can be recognized and exploited in the plant engineering through the proposal of solutions which are not simple applications of models created for individual companies. This work illustrates a waste-to-energy plant to be used for the industrial waste of the district of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The project from the union between university and local

Antonella Meneghetti; Gioacchino Nardin; Patrizia Simeoni

2002-01-01

78

Utilization of paper waste sludge in the building construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of an investigation of utilization of paper waste sludge obtained from a paper manufacturing industry, as a replacement to the mineral filler material in various concrete mixes. The physical and chemical properties of the waste material were studied. Concrete mixes containing various contents of the waste were prepared and basic strength characteristics, such as

B Ahmadi; W Al-Khaja

2001-01-01

79

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

80

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Oollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 211 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-03-01

81

A theory of waste behaviour in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of waste within the construction industry need to be reduced for environmental and economic reasons. Changing people's wasteful behaviour can make a significant contribution. This paper describes a research project that used Ajzen's 'theory of planned behaviour' to investigate the attitudinal forces that shape behaviour at the operative level. It concludes that operatives see waste as an inevitable by-product

M. M. M. Teo; M. Loosemore

2001-01-01

82

Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The over all objective of the effort described here is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of these multi-component wastes, with the aim of providing a versatile, non-thermal method which will destroy hazardous organic compounds while simultaneously containing and concentrating toxic and radioactive metals for recovery or disposal in a readily stabilized matrix. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. The metal catalysts are in the form of salts dissolved in a dilute acid solution. A typical catalyst composition is 60% ferric chloride, 3--4% hydrochloric acid, 0.13% platinum ions, and 0.13% ruthenium ions in a water solution. The catalyst solution is maintained at 423--473 K. Wastes are introduced into contact with the solution, where their organic portion is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. If the organic portion is chlorinated, hydrogen chloride will be produced as a product. The process is a viable alternative to incineration for the treatment of organic mixed wastes. Estimated costs for waste treatment using the process are from $2.50/kg to $25.00/kg, depending on the size of the unit and the amount of waste processed. Process units can be mobile for on-site treatment of wastes. Results from phase 1 and 2, design and engineering studies, are described.

Dhooge, P.M.

1994-12-31

83

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

SciTech Connect

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

Smith, K.P.

1992-09-01

84

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

SciTech Connect

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

Smith, K.P.

1992-01-01

85

Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the UK to offer reasons why it has not been more widely used. This paper presents a model that calculates the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) on a twenty year investment in a 30,000 tonnes per annum wet mesophilic AD plant in the UK for the treatment of source separated organic waste, which is judged to be a suitable technology for the UK climate. The model evaluates the financial significance of the different alternative energy outputs from this AD plant and the resulting economic subsidies paid for renewable energy. Results show that renewable electricity and renewable heat sales supported by renewable electricity and renewable heat tariffs generates the greatest IRR (31.26%). All other uses of biogas generate an IRR in excess of 15%, and are judged to be a financially viable investment. Sensitivity analysis highlights the financial significance of: economic incentive payments and a waste management gate fee; and demonstrates that the fate of the digestate by-product is a source of financial uncertainty for AD investors. PMID:21481437

Dolan, T; Cook, M B; Angus, A J

2011-06-01

86

Purdue University industrial waste conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This book contains information about: Hazardous and Toxic Wastes; Aerobic Processes; Anaerobic Processes; and Heavy Metal Wastes. It includes applications; research; methods and techniques; required details; selected and reviewed case histories; and operating data.

Not Available

1988-01-01

87

Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

2003-11-21

88

SURVEY OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Stabilization/solidification or fixation is a process for treating industrial solid wastes (primarily sludges) that contain hazardous constituents to prevent dissolution and loss of toxic materials into the environment. Most of these treatment processes are designed to produce a ...

89

Energy Conservation and Waste Reduction in the Metal Fabrication Industry  

E-print Network

Reductions of energy use and waste generation can help manufacturers to be more profitable and more environmentally acceptable. Industrial Assessment Centers located at universities throughout the United States, funded by the U.S. Department...

Kirk, M. C. Jr.; Looby, G. P.

90

Mitigation of Metal Ion Pollution from Industrial Waste Water Using Waste Wool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the adsorption of copper (II) ions from the aqueous solution on waste wool had been carried out to analyze the adsorption capacity of waste wool, thereby aiming towards mitigation of metal ion pollution in industrial waste water. The effect of varying concentration of copper ions and varying time period, was studied on fixed weight of waste wool. The initial and final concentration of copper ions was measured by conductometric and spectrophotometric methods. Adsorption data were modeled with the langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherm and first order equation were found to be applicable. Removal of metal ions using industrial waste wool is found to be favourable. Thus the work can be extended to study various physico-chemical parameters for removal of copper (II) ions from industrial effluents using waste wool. A later work can be involved where the waste wool adsorption parameter can be further utilized for composite ceramic products.

Prajapat, Garima; Purohit, Praveen

91

Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

1993-10-01

92

Selected biological investigations on deep sea disposal of industrial wastes  

E-print Network

, the EPA specified that a company must provide information concerning the physical and chemical descriptions and amounts of materials to be dumped, transportation and barging schedules and activities, etc. , and in addition . the permittee shall... offshore depending on the type of waste and regulatory procedures imposed. (Most industrial waste disposal operations in the Gulf of Mexico are conducted beyond the 400-fathom line). The wastes are transported to sea in tank barges ranging in capacity...

Page, Sandra Lea

1975-01-01

93

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

94

Utilization of Petrochemical Industry Waste Water for Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of petrochemical industry waste water on certain physico-chemical properties of soil and on growth, yield and quality of corn (Zea mays L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss). The pH of the waste water was near about neutral but it contained a higher amount of nitrogen, potassium, phosphate, sodium, chloride,

Ozair Aziz; Arif Inam; Samiullah

1999-01-01

95

ENVIRONMENTAL AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION CONSIDERATIONS OF STEEL INDUSTRY SOLID WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines the solid wastes generated by the iron and steel industry relative to the impact of Section 4004 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The quantities, properties, and origin of wastes which pose a potential problem are identified using flow diagrams, ...

96

Waste management in the Tapioca based starch industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tapioca based starch industry is addressed. Presented are the process details, water consumption and wastewater generation and characteristics, solid waste generation and low and non?waste technologies of production. Bench scale treatability studies were conducted to reach the most viable treatment option for treatment of starch wastewater. A total of five treatment options with recourse to energy recovery were suggested.

T. Nandy; S. N. Kaul; V. S. S. Sekhar

1995-01-01

97

HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS  

EPA Science Inventory

With more liquid wastes due to be banned from land disposal facilities, expanding hazardous waste incineration capacity becomes increasingly important. At the same time, industrial plants are increasingly seeking to find new sources of lower cost fuel, specifically from the dispo...

98

Industrial-waste management in developing countries: The case of Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a critical assessment of the existing Lebanese industrial sector, namely the current status and classification of industrial establishments based on a comparative synthesis and analysis of recent nationwide surveys and studies pertaining to industrial-waste management. Characterisation of solid and liquid industrial wastes generated, including hazardous wastes, is presented together with current and projected waste loads, recycling opportunities,

M. El-Fadel; M. Zeinati; K. El-Jisr; D. Jamali

2001-01-01

99

Waste-Heat thermoelectric power source for industrial wireless transmitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Seebeck effect-based thermoelectric power source utilizing waste heat in manufacturing processes for industrial wireless transmitters. An industrial wireless transmitter can be supplied by its internal battery in combination with the proposed thermoelectric power source to conserve battery lifetime. Moreover, the proposed power source can operate as the backup power supply for new battery replacement without tuning the

Teerawat Thepmanee; Prasit Julsereewong; N. Taratanaphol

2010-01-01

100

QUANTIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL DISPOSAL METHODS FOR INDUSTRIALLY GENERATED HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimations of the amounts of industrial hazardous wastes being disposed of according to various methods of disposal were generated for significant portions of the five following SIC codes: 28, Chemical and Allied Products; 29, Petroleum Refining and Related Industries; 30, Rubbe...

101

Co-firing of pulverized coal with combustible industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

In Japan, incineration of combustible industrial wastes is chiefly used to reduce their volume in waste disposal and has not been treated as an effective material compared with combustible non-industrial wastes, because cheap and stabilized electric power supply has not been expected from their incineration. In other words, it means that collecting and transporting of combustible industrial wastes are not easy for power generation, and it is too costly to install and to operate a facility and to assure the extraction of harmful materials contained in the wastes. Then, the generated power cost becomes inevitably too high. Consequently, CCUJ has tried to develop a technology to remove those harmful materials from the wastes, so as to produce cheap and stabilized power efficiently by co-firing. As a result, CCUJ has successfully made clear the following items: (1) Manufacturing conditions of RDF by coal and combustible industrial wastes; (2) Relation between combustibility and their mixing rates; (3) Adsorption of harmful materials (heavy metals) by coal ash and coal-char; (4) Removal method of dioxins by using activated carbon which is cheaply produced from coal; (5) Leaching of coal ash and utilization of coal ashes by melting; (6) Material and heat balance of co-firing; and (7) Generated power cost by co-firing.

Hara, M.; Asahiro, N.; Kamijyo, T.

1999-07-01

102

Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

1995-01-01

103

Evaluation of Electrokinetic Technique for Industrial Waste Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several industrial activities produce large amounts of metal-polluted sludge, disposal of which could pose serious environmental and ecological problems because of the usual high content of mobile metals. In this work, an electrokinetic technique was used to reduce the high metal content of two industrial wastes: sludges from mining (SM) and from the iron-steel (SIS) industry. Initially, a physical-chemical characterization

M. Pazos; M. T. Alcántara; C. Cameselle; M. A. Sanromán

2009-01-01

104

Industrial utilization of waste derived energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technical and economic feasibility study of a partial oxidation unit was conducted. Major objectives of the program were: (1) disposal of both urban (municipal refuse and sewage sludge) and agricultural (dairy) wastes; and (2) the production of a medium-Btu fuel gas. The investigated wasteshed includes those portions of Western San Bernardino County, Eastern Los Angeles County, and Northwestern Riverside County. The available waste supply, transportation of these waste materials, product quantities and energy products of fuel gas steam, and electricity, markets, ferrous metals, aluminum, nonferrous metals, and slag are studied.

1981-06-01

105

Industrial Low Temperature Waste Heat Utilization  

E-print Network

compressors or heat pumps. l Unfortunately, due to the high cost and mainte ance of rotating equipment, mechanical compressio~ for waste heat temperature boosting is not economirallY feasible for most applications at this time. One widely considered...

Altin, M.

1981-01-01

106

Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste  

E-print Network

Because of its unique ability to handle a wide variety of liquids and solids in an energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner, fluid bed combustion is being increasingly applied to the utilization of waste materials and low grade fuels...

Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

107

Solid Waste Management in Vietnam An Industrial Ecology Study by Thao Nguyen  

E-print Network

Solid Waste Management in Vietnam An Industrial Ecology Study by Thao Nguyen School greatly magnified the problems with Vietnam's solid waste management system, pushing waste management ..................................................................................................................................3 3. Solid Waste Management in Vietnam 3.1 Generation and Components

Columbia University

108

Waste heat utilization in industrial processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

1978-01-01

109

Procedure to use phosphogypsum industrial waste for mineral CO2 sequestration.  

PubMed

Industrial wet phosphoric acid production in Huelva (SW Spain) has led to the controversial stockpiling of waste phosphogypsum by-products, resulting in the release of significant quantities of toxic impurities in salt marshes in the Tinto river estuary. In the framework of the fight against global climate change and the effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a simple and efficient procedure for CO(2) mineral sequestration is presented in this work, using phosphogypsum waste as a calcium source. Our results demonstrate the high efficiency of portlandite precipitation by phosphogypsum dissolution using an alkaline soda solution. Carbonation experiments performed at ambient pressure and temperature resulted in total conversion of the portlandite into carbonate. The fate of trace elements present in the phosphogypsum waste was also investigated, and trace impurities were found to be completely transferred to the final calcite. We believe that the procedure proposed here should be considered not only as a solution for reducing old stockpiles of phosphogypsum wastes, but also for future phosphoric acid and other gypsum-producing industrial processes, resulting in more sustainable production. PMID:21982535

Cárdenas-Escudero, C; Morales-Flórez, V; Pérez-López, R; Santos, A; Esquivias, L

2011-11-30

110

Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes.  

PubMed

A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production. PMID:20359816

Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S

2010-07-15

111

Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial Park level: A case of Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers.

Yong Geng; Qinghua Zhu; Murray Haight

2007-01-01

112

Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes  

E-print Network

For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

Ruch, M. A.

1981-01-01

113

Treatment of Waste Water from Wet Lime (Stone) Flue Gas Desulfurization Plants with Aid of Crossflow Microfiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A treatment method has been developed to remove heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn very efficiently from waste water from wet lime(stone)-gypsum flue gas desulfurization plants (FGD).This method has been based on coprecipitation of heavy metal hydroxides and sulfides followed by crossflow microfiltration as a post-treatment. The experiments were carried out on

G. D. Enoch; W. Spiering; P. Tigchelaar; J. de Niet; J. B. Lefers

1990-01-01

114

Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.  

PubMed

Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved. PMID:25194519

Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

2014-12-15

115

Waste-to-energy technologies in continuous process industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of new waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies in continuous process industries have been analyzed in terms of conversion,\\u000a energy saving, heat recovery, electricity generation, transportation fuel, storing energy and fuel, environmental emissions,\\u000a and recycling management. This new group of WtE technologies is an emerging technology group for energy-intensive industries\\u000a apart from the wide concept of “clean energy technologies”. The current

Arturo Villar; Juan José Arribas; Jorge Parrondo

116

Cermet-lined tubes from industrial wastes by centrifugal SHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cermet-lined tubes were prepared by centrifugal SHS from industrial wastes (scale) and recycled aluminum. Process parameters\\u000a were optimized and some alloying agents were tested. The wear resistance of cermet-lined tubes was found to exceed that of\\u000a uncoated steel pipes by a factor of above 20. The results can be used as a basis for elaborating a technology for reprocessing\\u000a industrial

D. E. Andreev; V. N. Sanin; N. V. Sachkova; V. I. Yukhvid

2011-01-01

117

Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: an overview.  

PubMed

The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a "Hazardous Waste Management Plan" if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory. PMID:18337002

Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

2008-10-01

118

Optimizing and developing a continuous separation system for the wet process separation of aluminum and polyethylene in aseptic composite packaging waste.  

PubMed

The consumption of milk in China is increasing as living standards rapidly improve, and huge amounts of aseptic composite milk packaging waste are being generated. Aseptic composite packaging is composed of paper, polyethylene, and aluminum. It is difficult to separate the polyethylene and aluminum, so most of the waste is currently sent to landfill or incinerated with other municipal solid waste, meaning that enormous amounts of resources are wasted. A wet process technique for separating the aluminum and polyethylene from the composite materials after the paper had been removed from the original packaging waste was studied. The separation efficiency achieved using different separation reagents was compared, different separation mechanisms were explored, and the impacts of a range of parameters, such as the reagent concentration, temperature, and liquid-solid ratio, on the separation time and aluminum loss ratio were studied. Methanoic acid was found to be the optimal separation reagent, and the suitable conditions were a reagent concentration of 2-4 mol/L, a temperature of 60-80°C, and a liquid-solid ratio of 30 L/kg. These conditions allowed aluminum and polyethylene to be separated in less than 30 min, with an aluminum loss ratio of less than 3%. A mass balance was produced for the aluminum-polyethylene separation system, and control technique was developed to keep the ion concentrations in the reaction system stable. This allowed a continuous industrial-scale process for separating aluminum and polyethylene to be developed, and a demonstration facility with a capacity of 50t/d was built. The demonstration facility gave polyethylene and aluminum recovery rates of more than 98% and more than 72%, respectively. Separating 1t of aluminum-polyethylene composite packaging material gave a profit of 1769 Yuan, meaning that an effective method for recycling aseptic composite packaging waste was achieved. PMID:25458854

Yan, Dahai; Peng, Zheng; Liu, Yuqiang; Li, Li; Huang, Qifei; Xie, Minghui; Wang, Qi

2015-01-01

119

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

120

Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO 2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis, 1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste subsystem analysis and atmospheric management within the ALS Project.

Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

2004-01-01

121

Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste subsystem analysis and atmospheric management within the ALS Project. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

2004-01-01

122

PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a laboratory testing program to investigate the properties of raw and chemically fixed hazardous industrial wastes and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludges. Specimens of raw and fixed sludges were subjected to a variety of tests commonly used...

123

Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

Not Available

1994-01-01

124

Energy and Waste Reduction Opportunities in Industrial Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional approach for reducing energy and waste in industrial processes typically focus on improving the efficiency of the primary energy conversion equipment. Unfortunately, this approach frequently results in incremental improvement at high costs, since most energy and mass conversion equipment is relatively efficient to begin with and upgrading to higher efficiency equipment is usually quite costly.In this article, we describe

Kelly Kissock; Kevin Hallinan; Wayne Bader

2001-01-01

125

THE GENOTOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in this document. he importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the...

126

Recovering Industrial Waste Heat by the Means of Thermoelectricity  

E-print Network

Recovering Industrial Waste Heat by the Means of Thermoelectricity Spring 2010 Department dependent. A calorimeter has been used to measure the heat supplied by a thermoelectric module #12;(operated difference across the device. We found that work is lost in a thermoelectric device due to heat conduction

Kjelstrup, Signe

127

DIALYSIS FOR CONCENTRATION AND REMOVAL OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This project evaluates dialysis for its potential for treatment/recovery of a number of organics and inorganics found in industrial wastes along the Lower Mississippi River. The feasibility of three membrane techniques was developed. (1) The use of acid and base conjugation on th...

128

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper as a preliminary country paper for the UNIDO's programe on Industrial waste water purification, which embraces eight countries from Africa, is prepared in such a way that it could serve as source materi al for the programs implementation in the country. The program's main objective being developing the most appropriate and effective means to deal with long term

Mebratu

1990-01-01

129

Use of some industrial wastes as energy storage media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is stored using different solid storage materials, both chemical and metallic industrial wastes. The materials tested in the present study are paraffin wax, copper slag, aluminium slag, iron slag, cast iron slag and copper chips. Solar energy is stored in these materials, and the energy is then recovered with a water stream at different flow rates, and the

Aghareed M. Tayeb

1996-01-01

130

Conversion of polyester/cotton industrial waste to higher value  

SciTech Connect

The primary textile industry in 1981 produced 1.5 billion pounds of blended polyester/cotton (PET/Cotton) yarns that are chiefly polyester. The polyester component, which is almost entirely poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), is polymerized from petroleum products and furnished to the textile industry as staple fiber. About 3% of the PET/Cotton production is waste. Although substantial markets exist for the separate products, the problem of economically separating the components has not been solved. The alternative is to develop an application for the unseparated waste. This project was undertaken to study the feasibility of using the waste blends as feedstock for injection molded plastic. Thermal and mechanical properties were determined on the compacts.

Barnhardt, R.A.; Cowgill, W.P.; Walsh, W.K.; Cates, D.M.

1986-01-01

131

Hazardous solid waste from metallurgical industries.  

PubMed Central

Types of land disposed residuals from selected metal smelting and refining industries are described, as are the origin and disposition of land disposed residuals from the primary copper industry as an example. Quantities of land-disposed or stored residuals, including slags, sludges, and dusts, are given per unit of metal production for most primary and secondary metal smelting and refining industries. Assessments of the hazard potential of residuals are given. Present treatment and disposal of residuals are discussed and assessed for health and environmental protection. Possible technologies for protection of ground and surface water contamination are presented. These include lined lagoons, chemical fixation of sludge, and ground sealing. Possibilities of resource recovery from residuals are discussed. Data are presented showing attenuation of heavy metal ions and fluorides in selected soils. The leachability and mobility of smelting and refining residuals constituents, including heavy metals and fluorides, and other potential toxicants in specific soil, geologic, and hydrologic disposal environments must be carefully considered in setting disposal requirements. PMID:738242

Leonard, R P

1978-01-01

132

Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

Mueller, Julia R., E-mail: mueller.143@osu.edu [Ohio State University, William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, OH (United States) and University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia) and Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States); Boehm, Michael W. [University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia); Drummond, Charles [Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States)

2012-08-15

133

Recycled lightweight concrete made from footwear industry waste and CDW.  

PubMed

In this paper two types of recycled aggregate, originated from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) waste, were used in the production of concrete. The EVA waste results from cutting off the EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of shoes in the footwear industry. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of the use of these recycled aggregates as replacements of the natural coarse aggregate, upon density, compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and flexural behavior of recycled concrete. The experimental program was developed with three w/c ratios: 0.49, 0.63 and 0.82. Fifteen mixtures were produced with different aggregate substitution rates (0%, 50% EVA, 50% CDW, 25% CDW-25% EVA and 50% CDW-50% EVA), by volume. The results showed that it is possible to use the EVA waste and CDW to produce lightweight concrete having semi-structural properties. PMID:20189792

Lima, Paulo Roberto Lopes; Leite, Mônica Batista; Santiago, Ediela Quinteiro Ribeiro

2010-06-01

134

A research on dioxin generation from the industrial waste incineration.  

PubMed

By using fluidized-bed furnace and rotary-kiln+stoker furnace and four different kinds of industrial wastes such as waste wood, coffee mill, waste oils and waste plastics, we have drawn the following conclusions: (1) A relationship between H6CBz and DXN is acquired, which is DXN = 0.34 x H6CBz(1.1) (2) The following means of emission reduction can be considered. (a) Reduction of DXN and Cl accumulation within the furnace, (b) control by the incinerated object, (c) control through the precursors of H6CBz, (d) improvement through operational control, (e) ammonia injection into the high-temperature zone of the furnace seems to be effective in reducing DXN and (f) DXN concentration is high with CO above 1,800 ppm, though it decreases with CO below approximately 10 ppm. PMID:12002456

Yoneda, Kenichi; Ikeguchi, Takasi; Yagi, Yoshio; Tamade, Yoshinori; Omori, Kosaku

2002-03-01

135

Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033  

SciTech Connect

The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

Butez, Marc [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France)] [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)] [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Beguin, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)] [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)

2013-07-01

136

Development of sustainable construction material using industrial and agricultural solid waste: A review of waste-create bricks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of unmanaged industrial or agricultural solid waste especially in developing countries has resulted in an increased environmental concern. Recycling of such wastes as a sustainable construction material appears to be viable solution not only to pollution problem but also an economical option to design of green buildings. In view of utilization of industrial and agricultural waste material for developing

S. P. Raut; R. V. Ralegaonkar; S. A. Mandavgane

2011-01-01

137

2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

138

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

139

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

140

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

141

Wet and dry cooling systems optimization applied to a modern waste-to-energy cogeneration heat and power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Brescia, Italy, heat is delivered to 70% of 200.000 city inhabitants by means of a district heating system, mainly supplied by a waste to energy plant, utilizing the non recyclable fraction of municipal and industrial solid waste (800,000tons\\/year, otherwise landfilled), thus saving annually over 150,000tons of oil equivalent and over 400,000tons of CO2 emissions.This study shows how the performance

G. Barigozzi; A. Perdichizzi; S. Ravelli

2011-01-01

142

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

2003-07-01

143

Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

1978-01-01

144

Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

2014-05-01

145

Trends and Opportunities in Industrial Hazardous Waste Minimization  

E-print Network

-04-07 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1998 Table 1. Percentages of BRS Facilities Reporting Source Reduction and Recycling Activities and Barriers BRS Year Facility investigated..., the percentages of BRS facilities that systematically investigated opportunities for source reduction or recycling, that began or expanded those waste minimization efforts, and that confronted various barriers to such efforts. Several important conclusions...

Atlas, M.

146

Preparation of clinker from paper pulp industry wastes.  

PubMed

The production of paper pulp by the Kraft method generates considerable amounts of wastes. Namely, lime mud generated in the recovery circuit of chemical reagents, biological sludge from the wastewater treatment of wood digestion process and fly ash collected in the fluidized bed combustor used to generate electricity from biomass burning. The final destination of such wastes is an important concern, since environmental regulations are becoming stricter regarding their landfill. Driven by this fact, industries are looking for more sustainable solutions, such as the recycling in distinct products. This work tested these wastes as secondary raw materials to produce clinker/cement that was then experienced in mortar formulations. The first step involved the residues detailed characterization and a generated amounts survey. Then, specific but simple steps were suggested, aiming to facilitate transport and manipulation. Distinct blends were prepared and fired in order to get belitic and Portland clinkers. The Portland clinkers were processed at lower temperatures than the normally used in the industry due to the presence of mineralizing impurities in some wastes. Belite-based cements were used to produce mortars that developed satisfactory mechanical strength and did not reveal signs of deterioration or durability weaknesses. PMID:25590818

Buruberri, Leire H; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

2015-04-01

147

Industrial waste recycling at an automotive component manufacturing facility  

SciTech Connect

The AC Rochester Division of General Motors Corporation (GM) develops and manufacturers automotive components for engine management systems at nine facilities in the US. Its largest facility is located in flint, Michigan, and is known as the Flint East site. The Flint East site covers nearly two square miles and consists of several plants housing manufacturing operations for spark plugs, glow plugs, oil filters, air filters, air cleaner assemblies, fuel pumps, fuel level sensors, cruise control systems, and other components. The volume and diversity of the scrap and wastes generated from these operations require skillful waste management to provide environmentally safe and cost-effective disposal options. Over time, a full-scale recycling and waste disposal operation evolved at Flint East. The operation has grown over the past thirty years to handle over 68,000 tons of material annually. Flint East`s program is regarded as a model industrial waste reduction and recycling operation. Elements of the program are presented here as a guide to establishing a successful industrial recycling program.

Jaffurs, J.A.; Hubler, R.L.; Behaylo, D.P. [General Motors Corp., Flint, MI (United States). AC Rochester Div.

1995-09-01

148

Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sen, R.K. [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01

149

Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Sen, R.K. (Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-02-01

150

Composting of agricultural and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning agricultural and industrial waste treatment by composting. Articles discuss techniques, source materials, end product uses, and cost effectiveness. Materials considered include sawdust, wood chips, straw, manures, produce wastes, and industrial waste sludges. Applications of end products include pressed containers, fertilizers and soil amendments, and topsoil replacement. Composting of municipal wastes and sewage wastes is referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 80 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

151

Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

2012-04-01

152

Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

No Name

2014-10-01

153

Design, fabrication and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for manned space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wet oxidation of sewage sludge during space flight was studied for water and gas recovery, and the elimination of overboard venting. The components of the system are described. Slurry and oxygen supply modules were fabricated and tested. Recommendations for redesign of the equipment are included.

1975-01-01

154

Characterization of dolochar wastes generated by the sponge iron industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid wastes generated by the metallurgical industry contribute significantly towards the enhancement of environmental pollution. The handling, utilization, and safe disposal of these solid wastes are major concerns for the world. Dolochar is such a solid waste generated by the sponge iron industry. Investigations were carried out on the physical, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics for the efficient utilization of dolochar. The detailed studies on physico-chemical properties and petrography were carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characterization studies revealed that the dolochar consists of quartz (free as well as locked), free lime, Fe particles, and Ca or Mg and/or Ca+Mg+Fe oxide phases. The washability data of -300 ?m dolochar samples indicated that clean coal with 41wt% ash at 18% yield can be produced from dolochar with 78wt% ash. The studies further suggested that the liberation of the dolochar is hard to achieve for clear separation. The dolochar is observed to have high ash fusion temperature and the unburned carbon can be best utilized for power generation.

Dwari, Ranjan Kumar; Rao, Danda Srinivas; Swar, Akhila Kumar; Reddy, Palli Sita Ram; Mishra, Barada Kanta

2012-11-01

155

Opportunities for direct-contact waste heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential industrial applications of the direct-contact waste heat recuperator (DCWHR) for the 353 K to 672 K temperature range were identified. The DCWHR increases the heat transfer area per unit volume over typical heat exchangers, and holds promise for latent heat recovery from waste streams. Results show that, for selected industrial waste heat sources, the production of hot process

S. L. Richlen; T. T. Semler

1981-01-01

156

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES  

E-print Network

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES Kelly Traditional approaches for reducing energy and waste in industrial processes typically focus on improving and more apparent to us. In our experience, this approach for reducing energy use and waste generation

Kissock, Kelly

157

Corn Wet Milling Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Description: Wet Corn Milling is an industrial process that that converts corn to a wide variety of by-products. The wet milling industry is the largest non-feed user of corn, using approximately 1 billion bushels annually. This lab looks at the separation steps in the industrial processing of corn.

Olson, Eric

158

Hybrid composites prepared from Industrial waste: Mechanical and swelling behavior  

PubMed Central

In this assessment, hybrid composites were prepared from the combination of industrial waste, as marble waste powder (MWP) with conventional fillers, carbon black (CB) as well as silica as reinforcing material, incorporated with natural rubber (NR). The properties studied were curing, mechanical and swelling behavior. Assimilation of CB as well as silica into MWP containing NR compound responded in decreasing the scorch time and cure time besides increasing in the torque. Additionally, increasing the CB and silica in their respective NR hybrid composite increases the tensile, tear, modulus, hardness, and cross-link density, but decreases the elongation and swelling coefficient. The degradation property e.g., thermal aging of the hybrid composite was also estimated. The overall behavior at 70 °C aging temperature signified that the replacement of MS by CB and silica improved the aging performance. PMID:25750756

Ahmed, Khalil

2013-01-01

159

Test results: hazardous waste disposal in an industrial boiler  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the key test results of a program designed to evaluate the environmental and technical consequences of burning hazardous waste in an industrial boiler. The boiler tested was one of four units at the Harley-Davidson Motor Company, Inc., facility located in York, Pennsylvania. SYSTECH Corporation conducted this evaluation in early 1982 for the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste (EPA/OSW) under Contract No. 68-01-6071. The primary conclusion resulting from this study is that the test boiler achieved DREs of at least 99.99 percent in 15 of the 19 test determinations. Measured DREs less than 99.99 percent were observed in three cases for methyl acetate and in one case for methanol. In all test cases the DREs for 1,1,1trichloroethane exceeded 99.99 percent.

Higgins, G.M.

1983-06-01

160

Hybrid composites prepared from Industrial waste: Mechanical and swelling behavior.  

PubMed

In this assessment, hybrid composites were prepared from the combination of industrial waste, as marble waste powder (MWP) with conventional fillers, carbon black (CB) as well as silica as reinforcing material, incorporated with natural rubber (NR). The properties studied were curing, mechanical and swelling behavior. Assimilation of CB as well as silica into MWP containing NR compound responded in decreasing the scorch time and cure time besides increasing in the torque. Additionally, increasing the CB and silica in their respective NR hybrid composite increases the tensile, tear, modulus, hardness, and cross-link density, but decreases the elongation and swelling coefficient. The degradation property e.g., thermal aging of the hybrid composite was also estimated. The overall behavior at 70 °C aging temperature signified that the replacement of MS by CB and silica improved the aging performance. PMID:25750756

Ahmed, Khalil

2015-03-01

161

ESEEM of industrial silica-bearing powders: reactivity of defects during wet processing in the ceramics production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is undertaken to ascertain whether changes in the speciation of inorganic radicals are occurring during the ceramic industrial production that involves abundant silica powders as raw material. Industrial dusts were sampled in two ceramic firms, immediately after the wet mixing stage, performed with the aid of a relevant pressure. The dusts were then characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, analysis of the trace elements through chemical methods, granulometry, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies. The results of the characterisation point to a relevant change in the speciation of the two samples; namely, a prevailing contribution due to an inorganic radical different from that pertaining to pure quartz is pointed out. The combined interpretation of EPR and ESEEM data suggests the attribution of the main paramagnetic contribution to the A-centre in kaolinite, a constituent that is added to pure quartz at the initial stage of the ceramic production. In one of the two samples, a second weak EPR signal is attributed to the quartz's hAl species. By taking into account the relative quantities of quartz and kaolinite mixed in the two samples, and the relative abundances of the two radical species, we propose that the partial or complete suppression of the hAl species in favour of the A-centre of kaolinite has occurred. Although this change is apparently fostered by the mixture between quartz and another radical-bearing raw material, kaolinite, the suppression of the hAl centre of quartz is ascribed to the role played by the pressure and the wet environment during the industrial mixing procedure. This suppression provides a net change of radical speciation associated with quartz, when this phase is in contact with workers' respiratory system.

Romanelli, Maurizio; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Pardi, Luca A.; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio

2014-12-01

162

Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2010 Bechtel Power -Heliostat Assembly Waste Management  

E-print Network

was to recommend to Bechtel Power a set of plans for a heliostat assembly waste management system. The waste management system includes information regarding the equipment needed to compact waste, transportationPENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2010 Bechtel Power - Heliostat Assembly Waste

Demirel, Melik C.

163

International mobility of hazardous products, industries, and wastes.  

PubMed

The export of hazards to developing countries, frequently associated with the transfer of technology, is an increasing public health problem. It may arise from the export of hazardous products and wastes, or from the transfer of hazardous industries in the absence of appropriate safeguards. Multinational corporations bear a major responsibility for having lower standards of health protection in manufacturing and marketing in the developing countries than in home-country operations. These firms are coming under growing international pressure from concerned citizens, unions, environmental groups, national governments and international organizations, religious groups, the media, and public health professionals. PMID:3692646

Castleman, B I; Navarro, V

1987-01-01

164

Evaluation of chemical exposures in the hazardous waste industry  

SciTech Connect

The assessment of personnel exposure to volatile solvent vapors is an important aspect in any comprehensive health and safety program. This is particularly true at Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) and other industries dealing with volatile solvents. This paper presents monitoring data from seven TSDFs and exposure data from several routine small business and household activities. By examining data from a specialized business such as a TSDF along with data from more routine activities, a different perspective may be gained on the potential hazards associated with hazardous waste disposal activities.

Pedersen, B.A. [Systech Environmental Corp., Xenia, OH (United States); Higgins, G.M.

1994-12-31

165

Waste glass behavior in a loamy soil of a wet repository site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermediate-level operational waste from a nuclear power plant was immobilized in borosilicate (BS) glass in a pilot vitrification plant. Glass blocks weighing in average 30 kg with a waste loading of 35 wt% and total ?-, ?-activity of about 3.75×10 6 Bq/kg were prepared and placed for testing in a near-surface repository and on an open site. Results of 12 years of exposure are presented.

Ojovan, M. I.; Ojovan, N. V.; Startceva, I. V.; Tchuikova, G. N.; Golubeva, Z. I.; Barinov, A. S.

2001-09-01

166

Recycle of Wastes of Clay Brick Industry for Producing Eco-cement  

E-print Network

This work aims at recycling of the solid wastes of clay brick industry (WCB) in the manufacture of blended cement. The various characteristics of collected samples of the waste were determined. WCB was ground to different surface areas. Different...

Amin, A. M

2010-01-01

167

CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

168

Making Green Building Units By Using Some Wastes of Ceramic Industry  

E-print Network

The ceramic tiles industry produces a lot of wastes such as ceramic sludge, broken under quality tiles and the ceramic dust. The accumulated wastes comprise a great pollution problem on the surrounded environment. The ceramic properties of Egyptian...

Abd El-Ghafour, N.G.

2010-01-01

169

Wet Chemical Oxidation of Organic Waste Using Nitric-Phosphoric Acid Technology  

SciTech Connect

Experimental progress has been made in a wide range of areas which support the continued development of the nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation process for combustible, solid organic wastes. An improved understanding of the overall process operation has been obtained, acid recovery and recycle systems have been studied, safety issues have been addressed, two potential final waste forms have been tested, preliminary mass flow diagrams have been prepared, and process flowsheets have been developed. The flowsheet developed is essentially a closed-loop system which addresses all of the internally generated waste streams. The combined activities aim to provide the basis for building and testing a 250-400 liter pilot-scale unit. Variations of the process now must be evaluated in order to address the needs of the primary customer, SRS Solid Waste Management. The customer is interested in treating job control waste contaminated with Pu-238 for shipment to WIPP. As a result, variations for feed preparation, acid recycle, and final form manufacturing must be considered to provide for simpler processing to accommodate operations in high radiation and contamination environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a nitric-phosphoric acid destruction technology which can treat a heterogeneous waste by oxidizing the solid and liquid organic compounds while decontaminating noncombustible items.

Pierce, R.A.

1998-10-06

170

Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.  

PubMed

As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard. PMID:21746756

Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

2011-10-01

171

Laboratory scale studies on removal of chromium from industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Chromium being one of the major toxic pollutants is discharged from electroplating and chrome tanning processes and is also found in the effluents of dyes, paint pigments, manufacturing units etc. Chromium exists in aqueous systems in both trivalent (Cr(3+)) and hexavalent (Cr(6+)) forms. The hexavalent form is carcinogenic and toxic to aquatic life, whereas Cr(3+) is however comparatively less toxic. This study was undertaken to investigate the total chromium removal from industrial effluents by chemical means in order to achieve the Pakistan NEQS level of 1 mg/L by the methods of reduction and precipitation. The study was conducted in four phases. In phase I, the optimum pH and cost effective reducing agent among the four popular commercial chemicals was selected. As a result, pH of 2 was found to be most suitable and sodium meta bisulfate was found to be the most cost effective reducing agent respectively. Phase II showed that lower dose of sodium meta bisulfate was sufficient to obtain 100% efficiency in reducing Cr(6+) to Cr(3+), and it was noted that reaction time had no significance in the whole process. A design curve for reduction process was established which can act as a tool for treatment of industrial effluents. Phase III studies indicated the best pH was 8.5 for precipitation of Cr(3+) to chromium hydroxide by using lime. An efficiency of 100% was achievable and a settling time of 30 minutes produced clear effluent. Finally in Phase IV actual waste samples from chrome tanning and electroplating industries, when precipitated at pH of 12 gave 100% efficiency at a settling time of 30 minutes and confined that chemical means of reduction and precipitation is a feasible and viable solution for treating chromium wastes from industries. PMID:12938996

Baig, M A; Mir, Mohsin; Murtaza, Shazad; Bhatti, Zafar I

2003-05-01

172

Treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater by wet air oxidation--A case study  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of high concentration chemical wastewater obtained from a petrochemical company by wet air oxidation (WAO) is studied. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the mixer speed, operating pressure, initial pH of wastewater and temperature on the pollutant (chemical oxygen demand or COD) removal. Both air and oxygen were tested to determine their respective effect on the COD removal. Results showed that over 50% of COD removal can be easily realized in an hour of WAO treatment. Also considered in the present study was the catalytic WAO treatment of the high concentration wastewater. Copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}), cobalt oxide (Co{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) were employed as the catalysts. The COD removal efficiency of the catalytic WAO process was found to vary significantly with the catalyst utilized with CuSO{sub 4} being the most effective.

Lin, S.H.; Ho, S.J. [Yuan Ze Inst. of Tech., Neili, Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yuan Ze Inst. of Tech., Neili, Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-12-31

173

Characterization of NORM solid waste produced from the petroleum industry.  

PubMed

The accumulation of scales in the production pipe lines is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and leading to costly remediation and disposal programmes. Thus, an accurate determination of the activity of the radionuclides in scale samples is essential for environmental protection. The present study focuses on the characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in scales generated from the petroleum industry to develop a suitable NORM waste management plan. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in 32 representative samples, collected from a number of drums at the NORM Decontamination Facility storage, were determined using gamma spectrometry. It was found that the highest concentrations were 2922, 254 and 1794?Bq?g(-1) for (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb, respectively. A comparison to the reported worldwide values was made. Statistical approaches, namely Box plot, ANOVA and principal components analysis were applied on the total results. Maximal correlation was demonstrated by (226)Ra activity concentration and count per second (cps) to density ratio. To obtain an accurate characterization of the radionuclides studied in the scale samples, method validation of gamma measurement procedure was carried out, in which minimum detectable activity, repeatability, intermediate precision and assessment of uncertainty were the parameters investigated. The work is a forefront for the proper and safe disposal of such radioactive wastes. PMID:25358443

Al Attar, Lina; Doubal, Wael; Al Abdullah, Jamal; Khalily, Hussam; Abdul Ghani, Basem; Safia, Bassam

2015-05-01

174

Engineering development and demonstration of DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

DETOX{sup SM}, a catalyzed chemical oxidation process, is under development for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites. To support this effort, developmental engineering studies have been formed for aspects of the process to help ensure safe and effective operation. Subscale agitation studies have been preformed to identify a suitable mixing head and speed for the primary reaction vessel agitator. Mechanisms for feeding solid waste materials to the primary reaction vessel have been investigated. Filtration to remove solid field process residue, and the use of various filtration aids, has been studied. Extended compatibility studies on the materials of construction have been performed. Due to a change to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) for the mixed waste portion of the demonstration, types of wastes suitable and appropriate for treatment at RFETS had to be chosen. A Prototype unit has been fabricated and will be demonstrated on hazardous and mixed wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS) and RFETS during 1997 and 1998. The unit is in shakedown testing at present. Data validation and an engineering evaluation will be performed during the demonstration.

Dhooge, P.M.; Goldblatt, S.D.; Moslander, J.E.; Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Zigmond, J.A.

1997-12-01

175

Object-oriented industrial solid waste identification using HJ satellite imagery: a case study of phosphogypsum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing volume of industrial solid wastes presents a critical problem for the global environment. In the detection and monitoring of these industrial solid wastes, the traditional field methods are generally expensive and time consuming. With the advantages of quick observations taken at a large area, remote sensing provides an effective means for detecting and monitoring the industrial solid wastes in a large scale. In this paper, we employ an object-oriented method for detecting the industrial solid waste from HJ satellite imagery. We select phosphogypsum which is a typical industrial solid waste as our target. Our study area is located in Fuquan in Guizhou province of China. The object oriented method we adopted consists of the following steps: 1) Multiresolution segmentation method is adopted to segment the remote sensing images for obtaining the object-based images. 2) Build the feature knowledge set of the object types. 3) Detect the industrial solid wastes based on the object-oriented decision tree rule set. We analyze the heterogeneity in features of different objects. According to the feature heterogeneity, an object-oriented decision tree rule set is then built for aiding the identification of industrial solid waste. Then, based on this decision tree rule set, the industrial solid waste can be identified automatically from remote sensing images. Finally, the identified results are validated using ground survey data. Experiments and results indicate that the object-oriented method provides an effective method for detecting industrial solid wastes.

Fu, Zhuo; Shen, Wenming; Xiao, Rulin; Xiong, Wencheng; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Baisong

2012-10-01

176

Methodology for industrial solid waste management: implementation to sludge management in Asturias (Spain).  

PubMed

Nowadays, the industry produces an enormous amount of solid waste that has very negative environmental effects. Owing to waste variety and its scattered sites of production, selecting the most proper solid waste treatment is difficult. Simultaneously, social concern about environmental sustainability rises every day and, as a consequence, improvement on waste treatment systems is being demanded. However, when a waste treatment system is being designed, not only environmental but also technical and economic issues should be considered. This article puts forward a methodology to provide industrial factories with an easy way to identify, evaluate and select the most suitable solid waste treatment. PMID:25336451

Mesa Fernández, José M; Palacios, Henar Morán; Alvarez Cabal, José V; Martínez Huerta, Gemma M

2014-11-01

177

Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

This article describes and evaluates the DETOX{sup sm} process for processing of mixed wastes. Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides, often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The DETOX{sup sm} process, patented by Delphi Research, uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. Included are the following subject areas: project description (phases I-IV); results of all phases; and future work. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Dhooge, P.M.

1994-11-01

178

Wet Chemical Oxidation and Stabilization of Mixed and Low Level Organic Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Mixed acid oxidation is a non-incineration process capable of destroying organic compounds, including papers, plastics, resins, and oils, at moderate temperatures and pressures. The technology, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a holding medium which allows appreciable amounts of the oxidant to be retained in solution at atmospheric pressure and at the temperatures needed for oxidation. The phosphoric acid also provides the raw materials for making a final waste which contains the metal contaminants from the waste stream. Savannah River has designed, built, and started up a 40-liter pilot reaction vessel to demonstrate the process and its sub-systems on a larger scale than earlier testing. The unit has been demonstrated and has provided important data on the operation of the oxidation and acid recovery systems. Specific results will be presented on oxidation conditions, acid recovery efficiency, chloride removal, metal retention, and process monitoring. Additional studies have been conducted with a smaller vessel in a radioactive hood. Testing with plutonium-bearing waste simulants was performed to make preliminary predictions about the behavior of plutonium in the process. Samples of the remaining phosphoric acid from these tests has been converted to two separate final forms for analysis. Results will be presented on plutonium fractionation during the oxidation process and waste form stability.

Pierce, R.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Livingston, R.R.; Burge, D.A.; Ramsey, W.G. [CeraChem Technologies, Aiken, SC (United States)

1998-03-01

179

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practice, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability would be greatly improved if peel could be used to produce higher value produ...

180

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3-4 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practices, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability could be greatly improved if this amount of peel can be used to produce high...

181

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practice, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability would be greatly improved if peels could be used to produce higher value produ...

182

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

183

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

184

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

185

Industrial waste heat recovery case studies at 18 Ohio sites. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the waste heat recovery study was to demonstrate and document the economically attractive energy savings realized by the use of waste heat recovery units on industrial devices. The demonstrations were to be on units in SIC categories 20 through 37. The project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of waste heat recovery on a number of different types of

L. W. Rogers; B. L. Steiger

1981-01-01

186

Useful Byproducts from Cellulosic Wastes of Agriculture and Food Industry—A Critical Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose, an important cell wall polysaccharide, which is replenished constantly in nature by photosynthesis, goes waste in a lion's share in the form of pre-harvest and post-harvest agricultural losses and wastes of food processing industry. These cellulose wastes have an immense potential to be utilized for the production and recovery of several products and ingredients in food application. In this

HIMANISH DAS; SUDHIR KUMAR SINGH

2004-01-01

187

Application of reutilization technology to waste from liquid crystal display (LCD) industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation studies the recycling utility of two major waste products from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry, panel glass and calcium fluoride sludge, which remain after the treatment of waste water. Waste panel glass was mixed with calcium fluoride sludge in various ratios and then subject to conditioning and melting treatment in order to yield glass-ceramics. Heavy metal leaching

Wei T. Liu; Kung C. Li

2010-01-01

188

Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

Wooding, N. Henry

189

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

190

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

191

Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries  

SciTech Connect

The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

1980-11-01

192

Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

Levin, V.

1996-04-01

193

Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.  

PubMed

The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2. PMID:16784172

Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

2006-06-01

194

Industrial-waste management in developing countries: the case of Lebanon.  

PubMed

This paper presents a critical assessment of the existing Lebanese industrial sector, namely the current status and classification of industrial establishments based on a comparative synthesis and analysis of recent nationwide surveys and studies pertaining to industrial-waste management. Characterisation of solid and liquid industrial wastes generated, including hazardous wastes, is presented together with current and projected waste loads, recycling opportunities, and export/import practices. Institutional capacity and needs pertaining to the enforcement of relevant environmental legislation, staffing and resources, monitoring schemes, and public participation are critically evaluated. Finally, realistic options for industrial-waste management in the context of country-specific institutional economic and technical limitations are outlined. The industrial sector in Lebanon consists of small-scale industries (84% employ less than 10 persons), primarily involved in light manufacturing (96%). These industries which are distributed among 41 ill-defined zones and deficient in appropriate physical infrastructure, generate solid, liquid, and hazardous waste estimated at 346,730 tons/year, 20,169,600 m3/year and between 3000 to 15,000 tons/year, respectively. Although the growth of this sector contributes significantly to the socio-economic development of the country (industry accounts for 17% of the gross domestic product), in the absence of a comprehensive environmental management plan, this expansion may not be sustained into the coming millennium. The anticipated expansion will inevitably amplify adverse environmental impacts associated with industrial activities due to rising waste volumes and improper waste handling and disposal practices. These impacts are further aggravated by a deficient institutional framework, a lack of adequate environmental laws, and lax enforcement of regulations governing industrial-waste management. PMID:11383102

el-Fadel, M; Zeinati, M; el-Jisr, K; Jamali, D

2001-04-01

195

Waste treatment: Beverage industry. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment in the alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage industries. Brewery effluent and wastewater management and disposal are reviewed. References cover aerobic treatment, sources of effluents, waste reduction, waste fermentation, effluent purification, and cost-effectiveness evaluation. The use of wastes for biogas production and for building material manufacture is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-08-01

196

Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. PMID:21550223

Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

2011-08-01

197

Energy Conservation Opportunities in Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses waste heat recovery opportunities. Some of the opportunities are taken from energy audits and feasibility studies carried out in various plants located in Ontario, Canada. Opportunities discussed in the article include compressed air waste heat recovery, the application of a condensing economizer for heating boiler make-up water, waste heat recovery from coffee roasters, waste heat recovery from

Kaushik Bhattacharjee

2010-01-01

198

Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

199

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01

200

Development of the Monolith Froth Reactor for Catalytic Wet Oxidation of CELSS Model Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aqueous phase oxidation of acetic acid, used as a model compound for the treatment of CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) waste, was carried out in the monolith froth reactor which utilizes two-phase flow in the monolith channels. The catalytic oxidation of acetic acid was carried out over a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at temperatures and pressures below the critical point of water. The effect of externally controllable parameters (temperature, liquid flow rate, distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate) on the rate of acetic acid oxidation was investigated. Results indicate reaction rate increased with increasing temperature and exhibited a maximum with respect to liquid flow rate. The apparent activation energy calculated from reaction rate data was 99.7 kJ/mol. This value is similar to values reported for the oxidation of acetic acid in other systems and is comparable to intrinsic values calculated for oxidation reactions. The kinetic data were modeled using simple power law kinetics. The effect of "froth" feed system characteristics was also investigated. Results indicate that the reaction rate exhibits a maximum with respect to distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate. Fundamental results obtained were used to extrapolate where the complete removal of acetic acid would be obtained and for the design and operation of a full scale CELSS treatment system.

Fisher, John W.; Abraham, Martin

1993-01-01

201

Development of the Monolith Froth Reactor for Catalytic Wet Oxidation of CELSS Model Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aqueous phase oxidation of acetic acid, used as a model compound for the treatment of CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) waste, was carried out in the monolith froth reactor which utilizes two-phase flow in the monolith channels. The catalytic oxidation of acetic acid was carried out over a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, prepared at The University of Tulsa, at temperatures and pressures below the critical point of water. The effect of externally controllable parameters (temperature, liquid flow rate, distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate) on the rate of acetic acid oxidation was investigated. Results indicate reaction rate increased with increasing temperature and exhibited a maximum with respect to liquid flow rate. The apparent activation energy calculated from reaction rate data was 99.7 kJ/mol. This value is similar to values reported for the oxidation of acetic acid in other systems and is comparable to intrinsic values calculated for oxidation reactions. The kinetic data were modeled using simple power law kinetics. The effect of "froth" feed system characteristics was also investigated. Results indicate that the reaction rate exhibits a maximum with respect to distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate. Fundamental results obtained were used to extrapolate where the complete removal of acetic acid would be obtained and for the design and operation of a full scale CELSS treatment system.

Abraham, Martin; Fisher, John W.

1995-01-01

202

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

203

Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs.

Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

1991-10-01

204

Industrial wastes and public health: some historical notes, Part I, 1876-1932.  

PubMed Central

This article has focused on the relatively low priority accorded industrial wastes compared to human wastes by the public health community in the period from 1876 through 1932. The critical reason for this prioritization was the potential for acute health effects from human wastes as compared with the belief that industrial wastes had only indirect effects. State departments of health normally only responded to industrial wastes when they endangered the potable nature of water supplies or interfered with water and sewage treatment processes. Within the public health community, however, a relatively small group of interdisciplinary professionals argued for attention to the indirect health effects of industrial wastes and their impacts on the total stream environment. In conjunction with other groups interested in clean streams--such as sportsmen and manufacturers who required high quality process water--they pushed for a broader state legislative mandate in regard to pollution control. Some states created new bureaus or boards with responsibility for industrial wastes and the larger stream environment but the attack on industrial pollution remained limited in this period. The final significant development regarding industrial pollution and public health concerned the formulation by Streeter-Phelps of the Public Health Service of a theory of stream purification with a set of general quantitative indicators. This application was of particular importance in regard to the high-oxygen consuming nature of organic industrial wastes and the wide variety of effluents that existed. Industrial wastes constituted what Harvey Brooks, in his essay "Science Indicators and Science Priorities" calls a very "messy" research problem--one that does "not lend itself to elegant and widely applicable generalizations."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p1061-a p1061-b p1063-a p1065-a PMID:3895993

Tarr, J A

1985-01-01

205

Supercritical extraction of lycopene from tomato industrial wastes with ethane.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds) was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO? and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane). The recovery of all-E-lycopene increased with pressure, decreased with the increase of the particle size in the initial stages of the extraction and was not practically affected by the solvent superficial velocity. The effect of the temperature was more complex. When the temperature increased from 40 to 60 °C the recovery of all-E-lycopene increased from 80 to 90%. However, for a further increase to 80 °C, the recovery remained almost the same, indicating that some E-Z isomerization could have occurred, as well as some degradation of lycopene. The recovery of all-E-lycopene was almost the same for feed samples with different all-E-lycopene content. Furthermore, when a batch with a higher all-E-lycopene content was used, supercritical ethane and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane showed to be better solvents than supercritical CO? leading to a faster extraction with a higher recovery of the carotenoid. PMID:22785267

Nobre, Beatriz P; Gouveia, Luisa; Matos, Patricia G S; Cristino, Ana F; Palavra, António F; Mendes, Rui L

2012-01-01

206

EMISSIONS TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste incinerators are regulated under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). On the other hand processes that produce energy and only incidently burn hazardous waste materials are currently exempt from the RCRA incinerator regulations. EPA has initiated a Regul...

207

Hazardous waste management in the Texas construction industry  

E-print Network

This pilot study reports the statewide, regulatory compliance of general construction contractors in Texas who generated regulated amounts of hazardous waste during 1990, defined by existing state and federal hazardous-waste-management regulations...

Sprinkle, Donald Lee

1991-01-01

208

AIR EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL BOILERS BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste incinerators are tightly regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On the other hand, processes for which the primary purpose is production of energy but, incidentially, burning hazardous wastes are exempt from the RCRA incineration regula...

209

DIOXINS. VOLUME II. ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this research project was to develop a unified analytical approach for use in quantifying ppt levels of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDD's) in various chemical wastes. Waste samples from plants manufacturing trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, and hexac...

210

Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment  

PubMed Central

The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment. PMID:21711877

2011-01-01

211

Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.  

PubMed

Abstract Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed. PMID:25163531

Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

2014-08-28

212

Thermal plasma treatment of industrial residues and waste  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of metals from complex mixed wastes is a challenging task of modern material and waste management strategies. Thermal methods are an important tool in this respect. Plasma turned out to be particularly useful for treatment of complex or toxic wastes and residuals. In order to study plasma processes at reasonable costs, a pilot plasma plant has been used and wastes like spent Raney-Nickel catalysts, copper and aluminum drosses, and other metal containing wastes were investigated. The paper summarizes the most significant findings.

Burkhard, R.; Hoffelner, W. [Moser-Glaser and Co. Ltd., Muttenz (Switzerland). Energy and Plasma Technology

1995-07-01

213

Waste Management Recommendations in the Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center Program  

E-print Network

The Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) was one of the four Energy Analysis & Diagnostic Centers (EADC) that began providing waste management, in addition to energy and demand conservation, assessments in January, 1994. Over 30...

Eggebrecht, J. A.; Heffington, W. M.

214

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

215

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions: source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

216

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND LEACH TESTING OF SOLIDIFIED/STABILIZED INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical property and leaching tests were conducted to assess the engineering characteristics and pollution potential of five industrial wastes. Four solidification/stabilization processes which are under development or commercially available and represent different containment p...

217

DETERMINATION OF CYANIDE IN ALUMINUM INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ion chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, was applied in determining cyanide concentrations in the waste waters generated by the processing of calthode electrodes in the aluminum industry. Ion chromatography data were compared with the results obtained from conv...

218

The Effects of Industrial Wastes of Memphis and Shelby County on Primary Planktonic Producers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity and total numbers of plankton, particularly diatoms, were analyzed and correlated with physical factors of water. Diversity index values appear to provide an indication of pollution of water by industrial and domestic wastes. (AL)

Staub, R.; And Others

1970-01-01

219

Evaluation of Industrial Energy Options for Cogeneration, Waste Heat Recovery and Alternative Fuel Utilization  

E-print Network

This paper describes the energy options available to Missouri industrial firms in the areas of cogeneration, waste heat recovery, and coal and alternative fuel utilization. The project, being performed by Synergic Resources Corporation...

Hencey, S.; Hinkle, B.; Limaye, D. R.

1980-01-01

220

ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT REPORT--HAZARDOUS WASTE COFIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents results of 42 hazardous waste combustion tests performed on 11 full-scale industrial boilers. The report discusses the boiler operating conditions, measured organic and other gaseous emissions, and the achieved destruction efficiency of principal organic haz...

221

Process Waste Heat Recovery in the Food Industry - A System Analysis  

E-print Network

An analysis of an industrial waste heat recovery system concept is discussed. For example purposes, a food processing plant operating an ammonia refrigeration system for storage and blast freezing is considered. Heat is withdrawn from...

Lundberg, W. L.; Mutone, G. A.

1983-01-01

222

Potential industrial applications for direct contact waste heat recuperator systems. Final report. [Waste heat streams 175 to 750°F  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the potential industrial applications of direct contact waste heat recuperator systems has been conducted. This study examines the prospects for the use of direct contact waste heat recuperator systems in the major energy consuming industries excluding only the petroleum and chemical industries. Four potential applications have been chosen for economic analysis. They are: (a) stack gas from

T. T. Semler; E. J. Hansen; S. L. Richlen

1981-01-01

223

Production of lignin modifying enzymes on industrial waste material by solid-state cultivation of fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the use of three industrial waste materials as substrates for white-rot fungi in solid-state cultivation (SSC). The materials used were oat husks and waste from paper process industry: fibre sludge and combined fibre and de-inking sludge (FDS). The aim of the work was to find suitable fungi able to grow and produce lignin modifying enzymes,

Erika Winquist; Ulla Moilanen; Aila Mettälä; Matti Leisola; Annele Hatakka

2008-01-01

224

Adsorption of 2,4-D and carbofuran pesticides using fertilizer and steel industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and carbofuran from aqueous solution was studied by using fertilizer industry waste (carbon slurry) and steel industry wastes (blast furnace slag, dust, and sludge) as adsorbents in batch. Adsorption was found to be in decreasing order: carbon slurry, blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag, respectively. Carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry exhibited the uptake

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali; Suhas; Vipin K. Saini

2006-01-01

225

Risk of boron and heavy metal pollution from agro-industrial wastes applied for plant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of various agro-industrial wastes were investigated when applied to soil alone or in combination\\u000a with chemical fertilizers, regarding the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution of soils and plants. Nine combinations of\\u000a production residues from various agro-industries, urban wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes in a field\\u000a experiment. The content of available

Müzeyyen Seçer; ?afak Ceylan; Ömer Lütfü Elmaci; Hüseyin Akdemir

2010-01-01

226

Improvement In The Strength Of Concrete By Using Industrial And Agricultural Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

To redue the impact on the environnent due to industriel and agricultural waste products such as Rice Husk Ash (RHA)and (coconut fibers)COIR which are the waste products of paddy industry and agricultural industry.Use of these materials in concrete is not only improves the strength of concrete but also leads to the proper disposal of these materials, resulting in reducing the

Pravin V Domke; Rajiv Gandhi

2012-01-01

227

Hazardous industrial waste management in Vietnam: current status and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concentrates on the existing situation of hazardous industrial waste management in Vietnam. To realize the importance\\u000a of the development of a Vietnam national strategy based on the reduce, reuse, recycle (3R) concept to the year 2020, the author\\u000a summarizes the practice of recycling activities of hazardous industrial waste and discusses the challenges arising from increases\\u000a in the quantity

Nguyen Thi Kim Thai

2009-01-01

228

Investigation of industrial tea-leaf-fibre waste material for its sound absorption properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sound absorption of an industrial waste, developed during the processing of tea leaves has been investigated. Three different layers of tea-leaf-fibre waste materials with and without backing provided by a single layer of woven textile cloth were tested for their sound absorption properties. The experimental data indicate that a 1cm thick tea-leaf-fibre waste material with backing, provides sound absorption

Sezgin Ersoy; Haluk Küçük

2009-01-01

229

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains a minimum of 103 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

230

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

231

TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF DISPOSING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of industrial boilers for the destruction of hazardous wastes is increasing at a rapid rate. This is partly due to the fact that the practice changes a 'negative value' waste material into a 'positive value' fuel and partly to the fact that current RCRA regulations specif...

232

Synthesis of bioplastics from food industry wastes with activated sludge biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from food industry wastes by a mixed culture of activated sludge microorganisms. The physical and chemical properties of the bioplastics produced by the microorganisms from malt and soy wastes were different. The melting points of the products were compared, and the co-polymer composition of the products was investigated by gas chromatography

A. L. Wong; H. Chua; W. H. Lo; P. H. F. Yu

233

Potential applications of thermoelectric waste heat recovery in the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several proposed applications of thermoelectric (TE) waste heat recovery devices in the automotive industry are reviewed. To assess the feasibility of these applications at a vehicle level, the effect of electrical load and weight on fuel economy for a series of cars and trucks was investigated. These results will help us to identify the appropriate vehicle platforms for TE waste

J. Yang

2005-01-01

234

The Diffusion of Biological Waste-Water Treatment Plants in the Dutch Food and Beverage Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops an economic model of environmental technology adoption decisions. The model is applied econometrically to the diffusion of biological waste-water treatment plants in the Dutch food and beverage industry. It shows that it is possible to explain the overall diffusion pattern of biological waste-water treatment plants in terms of a rational choice model in which prospective adopters trade

René Kemp

1998-01-01

235

Opportunities for direct-contact waste heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery. [353 to 672°K  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to identify and assess the potential industrial applications of the direct-contact waste heat recuperator (DCWHR) for the 353 to 672°K temperature range was conducted. The DCWHR increases the heat transfer area per unit volume over typical heat exchangers, and holds promise for latent heat recovery from waste streams. The technology can also be used with dusty or corrosive

S. L. Richlen; T. T. Semler

1981-01-01

236

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF COSTS AND CREDITS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides preliminary information on the costs and credits associated with hazardous waste co-firing in industrial boilers. The main objective is to identify and evaluate the costs/credits inherent in current hazardous waste co-firing practices, plus the additional cos...

237

Treatment of industrial liquid wastes by electrocoagulation: Experimental investigations and an overall interpretation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of treatment of concentrated wastes by electrocoagulation using sacrificial aluminium (Al) anodes. Tests were carried out batchwise in an electrochemical cell with recirculation for various wastes of industrial significance: the technique was shown to allow efficient abatement of the suspensions with concentrations of dissolved Al ranging from 150 to 500mgl-1. Hydrogen evolution

Mohamed Khemis; Jean-Pierre Leclerc; Gaëlle Tanguy; Gérard Valentin; François Lapicque

2006-01-01

238

Utilization of industrial waste products as adsorbents for the removal of dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of low cost adsorbents from steel and fertilizer industries wastes have been prepared and investigated for the removal of anionic dyes such as ethyl orange, metanil yellow and acid blue 113 from aqueous solutions. The results indicate that inorganic wastes, i.e. blast furnace dust, sludge and slag from steel plants are not suitable for the removal of organic

A. K Jain; V. K Gupta; A Bhatnagar; Suhas

2003-01-01

239

Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches.In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical

Antonio C. Caputo; Federica Scacchia; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

2003-01-01

240

Wood–Thermoplastic Composites Based on Industrial Waste and Virgin High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigated the water resistance, mechanical and thermal properties, and the microstructure of wood–plastic composites, which were made by hot pressing using either virgin or high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as industrial waste with wood filler. The waste polyethylene was collected from residues of polymer production from Petrochemical plant, and wood particles were obtained from a local sawmill. The mechanical and

M. Perisi?; V. Radojevi?; P. S. Uskokovi?; D. Stojanovi?; B. Joki?; R. Aleksi?

2009-01-01

241

Utilization and recycling of industrial magnesite refractory waste material for removal of certain radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Increased industrialization over the last years in Egypt has resulted in an increased and uncontrolled generation of industrial hazardous waste. The current lack of management of the solid waste in Egypt has created a situation where large parts of the land (especially industrial areas) are covered by un-planned dumps of industrial wastes. Consequently, in the present work, industrial magnesite waste produced in large quantities after production process of magnesium sulfate in Zinc Misr factory, Egypt, was tried to be recycled. Firstly, this material has been characterized applying different analytical techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (IR), surface analyzer (BET), particle size distribution (PSD), elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The magnesite material has been used as a source of producing aluminum, chromium, and magnesium oxides that has better chemical stability than conventional metal oxides. Secondly, utilization of magnesite material for removal of certain radionuclides was applied. Different factors affecting the removal capability such as pH, contacting time, metal concentration, particle size were systematically investigated. The overall objective was aimed at determining feasible and economic solution to the environmental problems related to re-use of the industrial solid waste for radioactive waste management. (authors)

Morcos, T.N.; Tadrous, N.A.; Borai, E.H. [Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

2007-07-01

242

Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1994-12-01

243

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Waste Gas Treatment Plants for the Glass Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effectiveness of different plant solutions for glass furnace waste gas cleaning is compared in the present paper. Plant arrangements based on electrostatic precipi-tator or fabric filter dust collectors and wet, semi-dry, or dry processes for acid gas removal have been considered. A critical survey of each solution's advantages and disadvantages has been presented, taking into account both effectiveness and costs

Antonio C. Caputo; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

1999-01-01

244

Geography of contamination: The location of industrial waste dumps in Catalonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The handling of the solid industrial waste (SIW) generated in Catalonia is one of the main problems of industrial and territorial policy confronting the public bodies controlling this area of activity. The most recent estimates in this regard indicate that the annual production of SIW is 1,700,000 tons and that only 300,000 tons are treated.

M. Angels Alió; J. Brú

1990-01-01

245

Biopolymers production with carbon source from the wastes of a beer brewery industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential and feasibility of malt wastes, and other food wastes, such as soy wastes, ice-cream wastes, confectionery wastes, vinegar wastes, milk waste and sesame oil, in the induction of biosynthesis of PHA, in the cellular assembly of novel PHA with improved physical and chemical properties, and in the reduction of the cost of PHA production. In the first part of the experiments, a specific culture of Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 was selected to ferment several types of food wastes as carbon sources into biopolymers. In addition, the biopolymer production, by way of using malt waste, of microorganisms from municipal activated sludge was also investigated. In the second part, the experiments focused on the synthesis of biopolymer with a higher molecular mass via the bacterial strain, which was selected and isolated from sesame oil, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PHB were studied by GPC. Molecular weight of PHB produced from various types of food wastes by Alcaligenes latus was higher than using synthetic sucrose medium as nutrient, however, it resulted in the reverse by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thermal properties of biopolymers were studied by DSC and TG. Using malt wastes as nutrients by Alcaligenes latus gave a higher melting temperature. Using sucrose, confectionery and sesame oil as nutrients by Staphylococcus epidermidis gave higher melting temperature. Optimization was carried out for the recovery of microbial PHB from Alcaligenes latus. Results showed that molecular weight can be controlled by changing the hypochlorite concentration, the ratio of chloroform to hypochlorite solution and the extraction time. In addition, the determination of PHB content by thermogravimetric analysis method with wet cell was the first report in our study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Wong, Phoeby Ai Ling

246

National economic models of industrial water use and waste treatment. [technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of air emission and solid waste restrictions on production costs and resource use by industry is investigated. A linear program is developed to analyze how resource use, production cost, and waste discharges in different types of production may be affected by resource limiting policies of the government. The method is applied to modeling ethylene and ammonia plants at the design stage. Results show that the effects of increasingly restrictive wastewater effluent standards on increased energy use were small in both plants. Plant models were developed for other industries and the program estimated effects of wastewater discharge policies on production costs of industry.

Thompson, R. G.; Calloway, J. A.

1974-01-01

247

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

248

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

249

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

250

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

251

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

252

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

253

Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

Nges, Ivo Achu, E-mail: Nges.Ivo_Achu@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2012-01-15

254

Analysis of the stability of high-solids anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The pilot-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of agro-industrial wastes and sewage sludge was analysed in terms of stability by monitoring the most common parameters used to check the performance of anaerobic digesters, i.e. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen, pH, alkalinity and methane production. The results reflected similar evolution for the parameters analysed, except for an experiment that presented an unsuccessful start-up. The rest of the experiments ran successfully, although the threshold values proposed in the literature for the detection of an imbalance in wet processes were exceeded, proving the versatility of HS-AD to treat different wastes. The results evidence the need for understanding the dynamics of a high-solids system so as to detect periods of imbalance and to determine inhibitory levels for different compounds formed during anaerobic decomposition. Moreover, the findings presented here could be useful in developing an experimental basis to construct new control strategies for HS-AD. PMID:23859986

Aymerich, E; Esteban-Gutiérrez, M; Sancho, L

2013-09-01

255

Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.  

PubMed

The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning. PMID:24507977

Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

2014-10-01

256

Industrial waste exchange: a mechanism for saving energy and money  

SciTech Connect

Although considerable savings of both energy and money are possible through waste exchange, several major impediments limit the number of actual exchanges that take place. These impediments include the lack of economical separation technology, the small quantities of material available at each site, restrictive or uncertain regulation, and lack of knowledge on the part of potential waste users. None of these barriers is insurmountable if appropriate action is taken.

Gaines, L.L.

1983-01-01

257

Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.  

PubMed

Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO?-intensive. But most CO? is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other. PMID:22573713

Thomanetz, Erwin

2012-04-01

258

Nasreya: a treatment and disposal facility for industrial hazardous waste in Alexandria, Egypt: phase I.  

PubMed

A facility for the treatment and disposal of industrial hazardous waste has been established in Alexandria, Egypt. Phase I of the facility encompassing a secure landfill and solar evaporation ponds is ready to receive waste, and Phase II encompassing physico-chemical treatment, solidification, and interim storage is underway. The facility, the Nasreya Centre, is the first of its kind in Egypt, and represents the nucleus for the integration, improvement and further expansion of different hazardous waste management practices and services in Alexandria. It has been developed within the overall legal framework of the Egyptian Law for the Environment, and is expected to improve prospects for enforcement of the regulatory requirements specified in this law. It has been developed with the overall aim of promoting the establishment of an integrated industrial hazardous waste management system in Alexandria, serving as a demonstration to be replicated elsewhere in Egypt. For Phase I, the Centre only accepts inorganic industrial wastes. In this respect, a waste acceptance policy has been developed, which is expected to be reviewed during Phase II, with an expansion of the waste types accepted. PMID:15864958

Ramadan, Adham R; Kock, Per; Nadim, Amani

2005-04-01

259

First waste-to-energy power station put into operation in Vietnam has successfully produced electricity from household and industrial waste as a  

E-print Network

First waste-to-energy power station put into operation in Vietnam Vietnam has successfully produced electricity from household and industrial waste as a newly-generated power supply has come online Company held a conference at a waste treatment unit in the city's Binh Tan district to introduce

Columbia University

260

Opportunities for direct-contact waste heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential industrial applications of the direct-contact waste heat recuperator (DCWHR) for the 353 K to 672 K temperature range were identified. The DCWHR increases the heat transfer area per unit volume over typical heat exchangers, and holds promise for latent heat recovery from waste streams. Results show that, for selected industrial waste heat sources, the production of hot process water by direct-contact heat exchange can be economically accomplished for waste heat (hot gas) streams at 478 K to 672 K with greater than 4.72 cu m/sec exhaust. Additionally, a DCWHR is particularly recommended for particulate-laden exhaust streams where scrubbing is already required by environmental consideration; the recovered heat becomes a factor in reducing the negative cash flow attributable to the use of scrubbing equipment. Incentives and obstacles to early market penetration of the technology are recognized.

Richlen, S. L.; Semler, T. T.

261

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

2009-01-06

262

TRANSPORT PLANNING MODEL FOR WIDE AREA RECYCLING SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE PLASTIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the majority of industrial waste plastic generated in an urban city has been processed into landfill. However, it is now necessary to actively utilize that plastic as a useful resource to create a recycling society with a low environment influence. In order to construct a reasonable recycling system, it is necessary to address the "transportation problem," which means determining how much industrial waste plastic is to be transported to what location. With the goal of eliminating landfill processing, this study considers a transport planning model for industrial waste plastic applying linear programming. The results of running optimized calculations under given scenarios clarified not only the possibilities for recycle processing in the Metropolitan area, but also the validity of wide area recycling system.

Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hisashi; Koizumi, Akira; Mogi, Satoshi

263

WASTE TO VALUE: INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS FOR SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Technical Challenge: Investigators will examine the role of technology innovations as well as environmental justice (EJ) obligations in initiating and implementing urban-industrial symbiosis in Commerce City (CC), CO. The sustainability challenge invol...

264

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-07-01

265

HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the results of several studies relating to hazardous waste combustion in cement and lime kilns. The tests included in the study are four kilns tested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, four kilns tested by State agencies or the kiln operator, two C...

266

Chemical durability of glasses obtained by vitrification of industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The vitrification of zinc-hydrometallurgy wastes, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), drainage mud, and granite mud was shown to immobilize the hazardous components in these wastes. Batch compositions were prepared by mixing the wastes with glass-cullet and sand to force the final glass composition into the glass forming region of the SiO2-Fe2O3-(CaO, MgO) system. The vitrification was carried out in the 1400-1450 degrees C temperature range followed by quenching in water or on stainless steel mold. The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used as a standard method for evaluating the leachability of the elements in the glasses and glass-ceramics samples made with different percentages of wastes. The results for EAFD glasses highlighted that the chemical stability is influenced by the glass structure formed, which, in turn, depends on the Si/O ratio in the glass. The chemical durability of jarosite glasses and glass-ceramics was evaluated by 24 h contact in NaOH, HCl and Na2CO3, at 95 degrees C. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing pyroxene (J40) are more durable than the parent glass in HCl. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing magnetite type spinels (J50) have a durability similar to the parent glass and even lower in HCl because the magnetite is soluble in HCl. PMID:11150126

Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Karamanov, A; Pelino, M

2001-01-01

267

Reducing industrial toxic wastes and discharges: The role of POTWs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intended for use by elected and appointed local officials, the guidebook makes recommendations as to how publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) can promote hazardous waste minimization. The guide suggests that POTWs can significantly reduce their toxic discharges to the sewer (without transferral of same pollutants to another media) by developing programs which combine features of three options - educational programs that

S. Sherry; J. Corbett; T. Eulo

1988-01-01

268

Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry  

E-print Network

In a typical furniture factory, up to 70% of all incoming lumber ends up as useless waste. Though burnable, its enormous volume far exceeds the fuel needs of the plant's steam supply system. The excess must go to scarce, costly landfill sites...

Nailen, R. L.

1981-01-01

269

Waste heat recovery: Textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning descriptions and evaluations of waste heat recovery operations used in the textile industry. Heat recovery and utilization from wastewater streams, flue gas, finishing processes, dyeing operations, and air jet systems are presented. The use of waste heat for space heating and process preheating is considered. (Contains a minimum of 162 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01

270

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste

Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

2009-01-01

271

Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1). The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed. PMID:24963093

Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

2014-06-24

272

Binational management of hazardous waste: The maquiladora industry at the US-Mexico border  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreign-owned industry in the form of assembly plants, termed maquiladora, has become very important in Mexico to the extent that it represents the second largest source of foreign exchange and is a valuable source for employment and regional development. The economic prosperity gained from the rapid growth of the maquiladora industry has been accompanied by increased environmental and human health risks associated with generation of hazardous waste. Diversification of industry has resulted in the predomination of those sectors that likely use hazardous substances. The Mexicali-Calexico border region was selected to demonstrate the potential for environmental and health risks associated with the generation of hazardous waste. Estimates for the generation of hazardous waste were obtained from 34 maquiladora plants in Mexicali, represented by the electronic and electrical equipment and parts, mechanical and transportation equipment, and toys and sporting equipment sectors. Repeated detection of volatile organic compounds in the New River at the US-Mexico border suggests that hazardous waste from the printed circuit board industry in Mexicali is not being disposed of in a proper manner. Potential adverse health effects, such as carcinogenic and mutagenic responses associated with the detected volatiles, are discussed. US and Mexico national legislation and the Binational Environmental Agreement were examined for their adequacy to ensure proper management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry. Environmental policy options are presented that focus on: (1) increased environmental accountability of US parent companies for their maquiladora assembly plants in Mexico; and (2) more integration between US Customs and border states with the US Environmental Protection Agency to improve the binational management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry.

Perry, Diane M.; Sanchez, Roberto; Glaze, William H.; Mazari, Marisa

1990-07-01

273

Very, Very Fast Wetting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just after formation, optical fibers are wetted stably with acrylate at capillary numbers routinely exceeding 1000. It is hypothesized that this is possible because of dissolution of air into the liquid coating. A lubrication/boundary integral analysis that includes gas diffusion and solubility is developed. It is applied using conservatively estimated solubility and diffusivity coefficients and solutions are found that are consistent with industry practice and with the hypothesis. The results also agree with the claim of Deneka, Kar & Mensah (1988) that the use of high solubility gases to bathe a wetting line allows significantly greater wetting speeds. The solutions indicate a maximum speed of wetting which increases with gas solubility and with reduction in wetting-channel diameter.

Jacqmin, David; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor); Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

274

Real-time supervision of industrial waste-water treatment plants applied to the surface treatment industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project described in this paper consists of two main stages: the development of a dedicated instrument enabling continuous simultaneous measures of industrial pollutants (e.g. metal ions: Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, …) and the design of a Real-time Expert System (RTES) which would provide better information and decision support so as to improve the supervision of waste-water treatment plants in real-time,

Konrad Szafnicki; Jacques Bourgois; Didier Graillot; Dominique Di Benedetto; Philippe Breuil; Jean-Pierre Poyet

1998-01-01

275

Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Results Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Conclusion Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems. PMID:24423020

2014-01-01

276

The mutagenic potential of soil and runoff water from land treatment of three hazardous industrial wastes  

E-print Network

THE MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF SOIL AND RUNOFF WATER FROM LAND TREATMENT OF THREE HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES A Thesis by PHEBE DAYOL Submitted to the Graduate College of Te xa s ASM Un i ver s i ty in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Soil Science THE MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF SOIL AND RUNOFF WATER FROM LAND TREATMENT OF THREE HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES A Thesis by PHEBE DAVDL Approved. s to style and content by: Kirk W...

Davol, Phebe

1987-01-01

277

Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

1997-07-01

278

Application of reutilization technology to waste from liquid crystal display (LCD) industry.  

PubMed

This investigation studies the recycling utility of two major waste products from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry, panel glass and calcium fluoride sludge, which remain after the treatment of waste water. Waste panel glass was mixed with calcium fluoride sludge in various ratios and then subject to conditioning and melting treatment in order to yield glass-ceramics. Heavy metal leaching tests indicated that reductive conditions lowered the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate to an order of magnitude below that in the waste glass and sludge. A 5:5 (wt%) mixture of glass and sludge melted at 1200 degrees C for 60 min achieves a specific gravity, water absorption, unit mass, porosity ratio, and soundness that meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for fine aggregates. Therefore, waste panel glass can indeed be efficiently recycled into a useful construction material. PMID:20390905

Liu, Wei T; Li, Kung C

2010-01-01

279

Study of Material Used in Nanotechnology for the Recycling of Industrial Waste Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of our study is to recycle the industrial waste water of a industrial Complex after treatment by the bioprocess MBR (membrane bioreactor). In order to apply this bioprocess, the water quality in question was first of all studied. To characterize this industrial waste water, a series of physicochemical analysis was carried out according to standardized directives and methods. Following-up the water quality to meet the regulatory requirements with rejection of this industrial waste water, a study was done thanks to the permanently monitoring of the following relevant parameters(P): the flow, the potential of hydrogen (pH), the total suspended solids(TSS), the turbidity (Turb), the chemical oxygen demand (COD),the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), the Kjeldahl total nitrogen (KTN) and ammonia (NH4+), the total phosphorus (Ptot), the fluorine (F), the oils (O), the fats (F) and the phenols (Ph). According to collected information, it was established the sampling rates to which the quality control was done, the selected analytical methods were validated by the control charts and the analysis test number was determined by the Cochran test. The results of the quality control show that some rejected water contents are not in the Algerian standards, but, in our case, the objective is the preoccupation for a standard setting of these industrial water parameters so as to recycle it. The process adopted by MBR for waste water treatment is being studied, first in the development of the experimental characterizing of the reactor and the selected membrane.

Larbi, L.; Fertikh, N.; Toubal, A.

280

Development of a Cutting Tool from an Industrial Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TiC-reinforced iron-based composites have been synthesized by aluminothermic reduction of siliceous sand, a waste product of aluminum extraction plant, containing oxides of different elements such as Fe, Ti, Si, etc., in the presence of carbon. The microstructure, hardness, thermal expansion coefficient, and abrasive wear behavior of composites have been evaluated. The feasibility of TiC-reinforced Fe-based composite as a cutting

Karabi Das; T. K. Bandyopadhyay; S. Ghosh; A. B. Chattopadhyay

2004-01-01

281

Packaging waste recycling in Europe: is the industry paying for it?  

PubMed

This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste management. In fact, if the savings attained by diverting packaging waste from other treatment (e.g. landfilling) and the public subsidies to the investment on the "recycling system" are not considered, it seems that the industry should increase the financial support to local authorities (by 125% in France, 50% in Portugal and 170% in Romania). However, in France and Portugal the industry is paying local authorities more than just the incremental costs of recycling (full costs of selective collection and sorting minus the avoided costs). To provide a more definitive judgment on the fairness of the systems it will be necessary to assess the cost efficiency of waste management operators (and judge whether operators are claiming costs or eliciting "prices"). PMID:24262429

da Cruz, Nuno Ferreira; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

2014-02-01

282

Packaging waste recycling in Europe: Is the industry paying for it?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • We study the recycling schemes of France, Germany, Portugal, Romania and the UK. • The costs and benefits of recycling are compared for France, Portugal and Romania. • The balance of costs and benefits depend on the perspective (strictly financial/economic). • Financial supports to local authorities ought to promote cost-efficiency. - Abstract: This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste management. In fact, if the savings attained by diverting packaging waste from other treatment (e.g. landfilling) and the public subsidies to the investment on the “recycling system” are not considered, it seems that the industry should increase the financial support to local authorities (by 125% in France, 50% in Portugal and 170% in Romania). However, in France and Portugal the industry is paying local authorities more than just the incremental costs of recycling (full costs of selective collection and sorting minus the avoided costs). To provide a more definitive judgment on the fairness of the systems it will be necessary to assess the cost efficiency of waste management operators (and judge whether operators are claiming costs or eliciting “prices”)

Ferreira da Cruz, Nuno, E-mail: nunocruz@ist.utl.pt; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

2014-02-15

283

Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.  

PubMed

The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth, indicating that it can be part of a long-term strategy to increase soil organic carbon in degraded soil from a desertification hotspot. PMID:25464939

do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

2015-02-01

284

REMOVAL OF SO2 FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses technology for sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution control by flue gas cleaning (called 'scrubbing') in the utility industry, a technology that has advanced significantly during the past 5 years. Federal Regulations are resulting in increasingly large-scale applica...

285

Isolation and Screening of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria from Pulp, Paper, and Cardboard Industry Wastes  

PubMed Central

Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236?g/L and 4.042?g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production. PMID:24288534

Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

2013-01-01

286

Isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates producing bacteria from pulp, paper, and cardboard industry wastes.  

PubMed

Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236?g/L and 4.042?g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production. PMID:24288534

Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

2013-01-01

287

Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions  

SciTech Connect

United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

2006-04-01

288

OC-ALC hazardous waste minimization strategy: Reduction of industrial biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment facilities  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is one of five US Air Force Logistic Centers that perform depot level maintenance of aircraft. As part of the maintenance process, aircraft are cleaned, chemically depainted, repainted, and electroplated. These repair/maintenance processes generate large quantities of dilute liquid effluent which are collected and treated in the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) prior to hazardous waste disposal. OC-ALC is committed to reducing the use of hazardous materials in the repair and maintenance of aircraft and ancillary components. A major Air Force initiative is to reduce the amount of hazardous waste discharged off-site by 25% by the end of CY96 and 50% by CY99 end. During maintenance and repair operations, organic chemicals are employed. These organics are discharged to the IWTP for biological degradation. During the biological digestion process, a biological sludge is generated. OC-ALC engineers are evaluating the applicability of a biosludge acid/heat treatment process. In the acid hydrolysis process, an acid is added to the biosludge and processed through a hot, pressurized reactor where the majority of the biosolids are broken down and solubilized. The resulting aqueous product stream is then recycled back to the traditional biotreatment process for digestion of the solubilized organics. The solid waste stream is dewatered prior to disposal. The objective of the subsequent effort is to achieve a reduction in hazardous waste generation and disposal by focusing primarily on end-of-the-pipe treatment at the IWTP. Acid hydrolysis of biosludge is proving to be a practical process for use in industrial and municipal wastewater biotreatment systems that will lower environmental and economic costs by minimizing the production and disposal of biosludge.

Hall, F.E. Jr. [OC-ALC/EMV, Tinker AFB, OK (United States)

1997-12-31

289

Effects of waste recovery on carbon footprint: a case study of the Gulf of Bothnia steel and zinc industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the impact of waste recovery on climate change mitigation on a regional scale. We focus on the EU End of Waste (EoW) policy, which aims at reducing negative impacts on the environment through the minimization of generated waste. At the same time, the EU climate objectives set challenging goals for the industry to lower greenhouse gas emissions.

Olli Salmi; Maaria Wierink

2011-01-01

290

Recovery of organic wastes in the Spanish wine industry. Technical, economic and environmental analyses of the composting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main organic wastes produced in modern wine industries include grape pomace (62%), lees (14%), stalk (12%) and dewatered sludge (12%). Some of these wastes are being used as by-products (grape pomace and lees) whereas the rest of organic wastes (stalk and wastewater sludge) has been traditionally incinerated or disposed in landfill. In this work, composting is proposed for the

Luz Ruggieri; Erasmo Cadena; Julia Martínez-Blanco; Carles M. Gasol; Joan Rieradevall; Xavier Gabarrell; Teresa Gea; Xavier Sort; Antoni Sánchez

2009-01-01

291

Industrial wastes as a promising renewable source for production of microbial lipid and direct transesterification of the lipid into biodiesel.  

PubMed

Two strategies of converting industrial wastes to microbial lipid and direct transesterification of obtained lipid into biodiesel were attempted. Several oleaginous yeasts were cultivated on industrial wastes. The yeasts grew well on the wastes with low C/N ratio (i.e. serum latex) but accumulated high lipid content only when the wastes had a high C/N ratio (i.e. palm oil mill effluent and crude glycerol). The yeast lipids have similar fatty acid composition to that of plant oil indicating their potential use as biodiesel feedstocks. The combination of these wastes and two-phase cultivation for cell growth and lipid accumulation improved lipid productivity of the selected yeast. The direct transesterification process that eliminates cell drying and lipid extraction steps, gave comparable yield of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester >70% within 1h) to that of conventional method. These two successful strategies may contribute greatly to industrializing oil production from microbes and industrial wastes. PMID:23747444

Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Louhasakul, Yasmi

2013-08-01

292

Concentration and congener patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in industrial and municipal waste incinerator flue gas, Korea.  

PubMed

In the present study, individual PCB congeners were determined in the flue gases of 10 industrial and 5 municipal solid waste incinerators using HRGC/HRMS. The total PCBs concentration of all congeners (168 tetra to deca-chlorinated congeners) ranged from 26 to 343 ng/Nm(3), and from 36 to 1095 ng/Nm(3) in industrial waste incinerators (IWI) and municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI), respectively. The total TEQ concentrations of PCBs, calculated using WHO-TEF values, varied from 0.001 to 0.55 ng-TEQ/Nm(3) and from 0.001 to 8.29 ng-TEQ/Nm(3) in the industrial waste incinerators and municipal solid waste incinerators, respectively. In all samples, the contribution of PCB 126 to total TEQ of PCBs was higher than 87%. The homologue pattern of PCBs in the incinerator flue gas samples was generally dominated by tetra- and penta-CBs. The distribution of other homologues was less than 15% in most of the incinerators. The fraction of co-PCBs against to total PCBs ranged from 1% to 19% and from 2% to 31% in IWI and MSWI flue gas samples. Results of the present study reveal that the presence of non-ortho PCB congeners in the flue gas originated form the combustion process. PMID:16325998

Shin, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; You, Jae-Cheon; Song, Byung-Joo; Kim, Jong-Guk

2006-05-20

293

Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste heat recovery, and food industry wastes from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and processing of fruits and vegetables. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer, and uses in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste is also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

294

FORMATION OF CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS IN A HAZARDOUS-WASTE-FIRING INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

This research examined the potential for emissions of polychlorinated diebnzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from industrial boilers that cofire hazardous waste. PCDD/F emissions were sampled from a 732 kW (2.5 x 106 Btu/h), 3-pass, firetube boiler using #2 fuel oil cofired wit...

295

Recycling of industrial essential oil waste: Brutieridin and Melitidin, two anticholesterolaemic active principles from bergamot albedo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bergamot albedo, the white tissues between the skin and the pulp, is a polluting waste in the production of the renowned fragrance and is easily available by simple industrial processes. Brutieridin and melitidin are found in bergamot albedo and possess statin-like activity. Their anticholesterolaemic effect has been proved in vitro. Different procedures were exploited to assay the presence of brutieridin

Leonardo Di Donna; Giselda Gallucci; Naim Malaj; Elvira Romano; Antonio Tagarelli; Giovanni Sindona

2011-01-01

296

Thermodynamics -2 An industrial plant produces a waste stream of hot compressed air  

E-print Network

, produce the maximum work predicted in (b). Show all turbines, heat exchangers, heat engines, etc. AlsoThermodynamics - 2 An industrial plant produces a waste stream of hot compressed air: Pressure P show all mass, work, and heat transfers within the system and between the system and the environment

Virginia Tech

297

A MARINE ALGAL BIOASSAY METHOD: RESULTS WITH PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple marine algal bioassay method is described for short- and long-term studies on pesticides and industrial wastes. It can be used for rapid screening of a variety of substances with single-species and multiple-species tests and gives relative toxicities of the pollutants te...

298

Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

299

EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL STABILIZATION AND SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSES FOR ARSENIC CONTAINING INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is in many industrial raw materials, products, and wastes, and is a contaminant of concern in soil and groundwater at many remediation sites. Because arsenic readily changes valence state and reacts to form species with varying toxicity and mobility, effective treatment o...

300

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

301

Preparing waste waters of the by-product coking industry for biological treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistency in all factors affecting the vital activity of microorganisms is necessary in order to achieve reliable operation of facilities for the biological treatment of the waste waters of the by-product coking industry. One of these factors is stability of the quality of the influent to the facilities. Detailed studies of these factors are presented in a number of fundamental

P. G. Muravkov; L. N. Nikonorova; I. N. Konkina

1984-01-01

302

Characteristics and kinetic study of chitosan prepared from seafood industry waste for oil spills cleanup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan being a biodegradable material would be an eco-friendly and effective alternative in the cleaning up of oil spills. In the present study, adsorbent (Chitosan) was prepared from the seafood industry waste, prawn shells for removal of oil from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the kinetics for the removal of oil from oil–water solutions using chitosan.

Amita Ummadisingu; Suresh Gupta

2012-01-01

303

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional approaches for reducing energy and waste in industrial processes typically focus on improving the efficiency of the primary energy conversion equipment. Unfortunately, this approach frequently results in incremental improvement at high costs, since most energy and mass conversion equipment is relatively efficient to begin with and upgrading to higher efficiency equipment is usually quite costly. In this paper, we

Kelly Kissock; Kevin Hallinan; Wayne Bader

304

Evaluation of a biomass drying process using waste heat from process industries: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry biomass provides considerable benefits for combustion, such as increased boiler efficiency, lower flue gas emissions and improved boiler operations, compared to fuels with high moisture. Drying is however an energy-intensive pre-treatment. Utilising low-grade, waste heat – of which large amounts are available from many process industries – could significantly reduce energy consumption. The integration of a drying process into

Hanning Li; Qun Chen; Xiaohui Zhang; Karen N. Finney; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

305

Industrial Special Wastes Generated in Iowa and Manpower Characteristics of Employee Handlers, Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, Vol. I in a set, presents information obtained from a survey of industry in Iowa to determine the use and quantities, distribution, and treatment and disposal practices of hazardous waste generators. Additionally, it tabulated the number and manpower characteristics of employees who are in daily contact with such hazardous…

Pierce, David R.

306

Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

307

Preparation and properties of high iron oxide content glasses obtained from industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formulation and preparation of new glasses has been carried out by the recycling of goethite (FeOOH) industrial wastes originating from zinc hydrometallurgy with glass cullet and dolomite as complementary raw materials. The mineralogic (XRD) and microstructural (SEM, TEM) characterization of the product has been determined and the thermal, mechanical and chemical properties of original glasses have been measured. The

M. Romero; J. Ma. Rincón

1998-01-01

308

Industrial waste water treatment: large scale development of a light-enhanced Fenton reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of a large scale application of the light-enhanced Fenton reaction has been investigated for the treatment of a highly contaminated industrial waste water containing toxic aromatic amines (dimethyl anilines or xylidines) as the main pollutants. The Fenton reagent, a combination of hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt, is a potent oxidizing agent of organic compounds in acidic aqueous

Esther Oliveros; Omar Legrini; Mathias Hohl; Thomas Müller; André M. Braun

1997-01-01

309

POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

310

Sugars metabolism and ethanol production by different yeast strains from coffee industry wastes hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of wastes are generated by the coffee industry, among of which, coffee silverskin (CS) and spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundantly generated during the beans roasting and instant coffee preparation, respectively. This study evaluated the sugars metabolism and production of ethanol by three different yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis and Kluyveromyces fragilis) when cultivated in

Solange I. Mussatto

2012-01-01

311

CLASTOGENICITY EVALUATION OF SEVEN CHEMICALS COMMONLY FOUND AT UNCONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven chemicals commonly found at industrial waste sites were tested with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay to evaluate their clastogenic potential. They were: Aldrin, arsenic trioxide, l,2 benz(a,h)anthracene, dieldrin, heptachlor, lead tetraacetate, and tetrachloro...

312

ASSESSMENT OF HAZARD POTENTIAL FROM COMBUSTION OF WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the extent of the present onsite use of waste fuel in industrial boilers and related process equipment, the nature and quantities of the materials so disposed of, and current regulations concerning such use. The study responds to a...

313

Plant Fiber — Industrial Waste Reinforced Polymer Composites as a Potential Wood Substitute Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation deals with the property characterization and utilization of abundantly available and renewable resources of plant fibers such as jute and sisal. These plant fibers along with industrial wastes (fly ash and red mud) have been used for synthesizing value added composite materials. Relevant engineering properties such as physical and mechanical, resistance to abrasive wear, weathering and fire, etc.,

Mohini Saxena; R. K. Morchhale; P. Asokan; B. K. Prasad

2008-01-01

314

Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

315

Optimization of a waste heat utilization network in an eco-industrial park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an eco-industrial park (EIP) has drawn attention as a promising approach seeking for the mutual benefit to the economy and environment. In recent years, the reduction of energy consumption has become a global necessity due to the high oil price and environmental regulations. In order to find energy strategies in an EIP, a framework to investigate waste heat

Song Hwa Chae; Sang Hun Kim; Sung-Geun Yoon

2010-01-01

316

Use prospect of a full-scale installation of ``wet`` oxidation of organic wastes for CLSS closure increase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously in the works carried out at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS a fundamental use feasibility of organic wastes mineralization in H _{2}O _{2} aqueous solution under effect of alternating current was shown. It was proved that the reactor products (mineralized solution and gas) could be involved into an intrasystem mass exchange in the capacity of plants mineral nutrition without their productivity decrease. Here the working volume of the experimental installation was 1L that was not enough for one-time utilization of the crew wastes. At the next stage the research was aimed at the process scaling up to investigate the efficiency the wastes mineralization process in the installation with a working volume equal to 6L corresponding to a daily norm of the 2-members’ crew. Besides the mineralization parameters of human exometabolites and plant wastes were considered to develop an automatic control of the reactor. The process scale magnification was determined to increase its efficiency by temporal and energy characteristics at the same time maintaining a sufficient level of wastes mineralization. An experimental system of the reactor automatic control was created capable to independently operate wastes mineralization according to the regime set up to the reaction termination and completing the reactor work.

Trifonov, Sergey V.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, D.. Yurii A.

317

PROCEEDINGS: INDUSTRY BRIEFING ON IERL-RTP LIME/LIMESTONE WET SCRUBBING TEST PROGRAMS (5TH) (DECEMBER 1979)  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings document presentations made during the December 5, 1979, industry briefing conference which dealt with the status of EPA/IERL-RTP's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) research, development, and application programs. Subjects considered included: lime/limestone scrubbi...

318

Enzyme Activities and Chemical Changes in Wet Olive Cake after Treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus or Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the enzyme activities and chemical changes recorded in a recalcitrant phenolic-rich\\u000a waste after treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus or Eisenia fetida. The waste used was wet olive cake (alperujo in Spanish), a waste produced in huge amounts by the olive oil industry. Both P. ostreatus and E. fetida were very effective in removing phenolic

M. Saavedra; E. Benitez; C. Cifuentes; R. Nogales

2006-01-01

319

Heterogeneous Fenton process using steel industry wastes for methyl orange degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steel industry wastes (iron-containing waste) could be used as a Fenton-catalyst for the decolorization of methyl orange dye. Various reaction conditions were investigated including catalyst concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH value. The obtained results indicated that the dye degradation rate increases with increasing catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations and with decreasing pH value. Over 98 % decolorization of the dye was achieved within 30 min at optimum reaction conditions; 200 mg/L catalyst and 34 mM H2O2 concentrations at pH 2 for 20 mg/L initial dye concentration. Reaction kinetics was also carried out to determine the order of reaction in both catalyst and H2O2 concentrations. Stability and reusability of Iron-containing waste were investigated. The iron-containing waste as catalyst can be reused several times with nearly same efficiency of Fenton-like oxidation of MO.

Ali, Mohamed E. M.; Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Badawy, Mohamed I.

2013-03-01

320

New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 5. Analysis of solid waste impacts  

SciTech Connect

This study provides an analysis of the impacts of emission controls on disposal of solid wastes from coal-fired industrial boilers. Examination is made of boiler systems, coal types, emission control alternatives, waste streams, waste disposal and utilization alternatives, and pertinent Federal regulations. Twenty-four representative model case scenarios are studied in detail. Expected disposal/utilization alternatives and disposal costs are developed. Comparison of the systems studied indicates that the most cost-effective SO/sub 2/ control technologies from the perspective of waste disposal cost per unit SO/sub 2/ control are, in decreasing order: physically cleaned coal/double alkali combination; double alkali; lime/limestone; spray drying; fluidized-bed combustion; and sodium throwaway.

Boldt, K.; Davis, H.; Delaney, B.; Grundahl, N.; Hyde, R.; Malloch, R.; Tusa, W.

1980-09-01

321

Low-energy treatment of colourant wastes using sponge biofilters for the personal care product industry.  

PubMed

Four trickling biofilter designs were assessed as low-energy alternatives to aerobic activated sludge (AS) for the treatment of personal care product industry wastes. The designs included partially submerged packed-media and sponge reactors with and without active aeration. Partial submergence was used to reduce active aeration needs. Simulated colourant wastes (up to COD=12,480 mg/L, TN=128 mg/L) were treated for 201 days, including wastes with elevated oxidant levels. COD and TN removal efficiencies were always >79% and >30% (even without aeration). However, aerated sponge reactors consistently had the highest removal efficiencies, especially for TN (?60%), and were most tolerant of elevated oxidants. This study shows sponge biofilters have great potential for treating colourant wastes because they achieve high treatment efficiencies and reduce energy use by >40% relative to AS systems. PMID:23294645

Ahammad, S Z; Zealand, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Armstrong, D V; Graham, D W

2013-02-01

322

DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

2009-03-31

323

Solid recovered fuel production from biodegradable waste in grain processing industry.  

PubMed

Management of biodegradable waste is one of the most important environmental problems in the grain-processing industry since this waste cannot be dumped anymore due to legal requirements. Biodegradable waste is generated in each stage of grain processing, including the waste-water and air emissions treatment processes. Their management causes some environmental and financial problems. The majority of Lithuanian grain-processing enterprises own and operate composting sites, but in Lithuania the demand for compost is not given. This study focused on the analysis of the possibility of using biodegradable waste for the production of solid recovered fuel, as a local renewable fuel with the purpose of increasing environmental performance and decreasing the direct costs of grain processing. Experimental research with regard to a pilot grain-processing plant has proven that alternative fuel production will lead to minimizing of the volume of biodegradable waste by 75% and the volume of natural gas for heat energy production by 62%. Environmental indicators of grain processing, laboratory analysis of the chemical and physical characteristics of biodegradable waste, mass and energy balances of the solid recovered fuel production, environmental and economical benefits of the project are presented and discussed herein. PMID:23179508

Kliopova, Irina; Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Petraskiene, Violeta

2013-04-01

324

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

325

Poly ?-Hydroxybutyrate Production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 Using Sugar Industry Waste Water  

PubMed Central

The production of poly ?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14?g?h?1?L?1, using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297?g/L of poly ?-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management. PMID:24027767

Singh, Gulab; Kumari, Anish; Mittal, Arpana; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K.

2013-01-01

326

Pilot plant for biomethanation of dairy-industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to demonstrate the application of two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) for simultaneous stabilization and biomethanation of high-COD cheese-waste-dairy-manure mixtures by a pilot-plant operation in Wellsville, Utah. The TPAD system exhibited a total COD (TCOD) reduction of up to 97% with feed COD concentration of 60,000 to 45,000 mg/l. The TCOD reduction decreased as the variability as well as the strength of the feed increased. A quick surge of the feed TCOD concentration to 125,000 mg/l effected a large drop in TCOD reduction, but the integrity of the methane digester, which produced 78 {approximately}87 mol% methane-content gas, was measured and TPAD system performance could be restored to normal levels by diluting the feed to obtain TCOD concentrations below 70,000 mg/l. The TPAD system exhibited a methane yield of 0.27 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD charged (0.36 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD removed).

Ghosh, S.; Fukushi, K.; Liu, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

327

World first in high level waste vitrification - A review of French vitrification industrial achievements  

SciTech Connect

AREVA has more than 30 years experience in operating industrial HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) vitrification facilities (AVM - Marcoule Vitrification Facility, R7 and T7 facilities). This vitrification technology was based on borosilicate glasses and induction-heating. AVM was the world's first industrial HLW vitrification facility to operate in-line with a reprocessing plant. The glass formulation was adapted to commercial Light Water Reactor fission products solutions, including alkaline liquid waste concentrates as well as platinoid-rich clarification fines. The R7 and T7 facilities were designed on the basis of the industrial experience acquired in the AVM facility. The AVM vitrification process was implemented at a larger scale in order to operate the R7 and T7 facilities in-line with the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants. After more than 30 years of operation, outstanding record of operation has been established by the R7 and T7 facilities. The industrial startup of the CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) technology with enhanced glass formulation was possible thanks to the close cooperation between CEA and AREVA. CCIM is a water-cooled induction melter in which the glass frit and the waste are melted by direct high frequency induction. This technology allows the handling of highly corrosive solutions and high operating temperatures which permits new glass compositions and a higher glass production capacity. The CCIM technology has been implemented successfully at La Hague plant.

Brueziere, J.; Chauvin, E. [AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Piroux, J.C. [Joint Vitrification Laboratory - LCV, Marcoule, BP171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

2013-07-01

328

Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.  

PubMed

Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances. PMID:22426843

Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

2013-01-01

329

Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.  

PubMed

Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency. PMID:25305683

Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

2015-01-01

330

Metal oxides remove hydrogen sulfide from landfill gas produced from waste mixed with plaster board under wet conditions.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major odorant in landfills. We have studied H2S production from landfill residual waste with and without sulfur-containing plaster board, including the influence of the water content in the waste. The laboratory experiments were conducted in 30-L polyethylene containers with a controlled water level. We also studied how different materials removed H2S in reactive layers on top of the waste. The organic waste produced H2S in concentrations of up to 40 parts per million (ppm) over a period of 80 days. When plaster board was added, the H2S concentration increased to 800 ppm after a lag period of approximately 40 days with a high water level, and to approximately 100 ppm after 50 days with a low water level. The methane (CH4) concentration in the initial experiment was between 5 and 70% after 80 days. The CH4 concentration in the second experiment increased to nearly 70% in the container with a high water level, slowly declining to approximately 60% between days 20 and 60. The CH4 concentrations during the experiments resembled normal landfill concentrations. Metallic filter materials were very efficient in removing H2S, whereas organic filter materials showed poor H2S removal. PMID:18720651

Bergersen, Ove; Haarstad, Ketil

2008-08-01

331

Analysis of potential RDF resources from solid waste and their energy values in the largest industrial city of Korea.  

PubMed

The production potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in the largest industrial city of Korea is discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy potential of the RDF obtained from utilizing combustible solid waste as a fuel resource. The total amount of generated solid waste in the industrial city was more than 3.3 million tonnes, which is equivalent to 3.0tonnes per capita in a single year. The highest amount of solid waste was generated in the city district with the largest population and the biggest petrochemical industrial complex (IC) in Korea. Industrial waste accounted for 89% of the total amount of the solid waste in the city. Potential RDF resources based on combustible solid wastes including wastepaper, wood, rubber, plastic, synthetic resins and industrial sludge were identified. The amount of combustible solid waste that can be used to produce RDF was 635,552tonnes/yr, consisting of three types of RDF: 116,083tonnes/yr of RDF-MS (RDF from municipal solid waste); 146,621tonnes/yr of RDF-IMC (RDF from industrial, municipal and construction wastes); and 372,848tonnes/yr of RDF-IS (RDF from industrial sludge). The total obtainable energy value from the RDF resources in the industrial city was more than 2,240,000x10(6)kcal/yr, with the following proportions: RDF-MS of 25.6%, RDF-IMC of 43.5%, and RDF-IS of 30.9%. If 50% or 100% of the RDF resources are utilized as fuel resources, the industrial city can save approximately 17.6% and 35.2%, respectively, of the current total disposal costs. PMID:19136242

Dong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

2009-05-01

332

Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

Earle, T.C.

1981-06-01

333

Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.  

PubMed

Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. PMID:22739430

Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

2012-10-01

334

Comparison of alkaline industrial wastes for aqueous mineral carbon sequestration through a parallel reactivity study.  

PubMed

Thirty-one alkaline industrial wastes from a wide range of industrial processes were acquired and screened for application in an aqueous carbon sequestration process. The wastes were evaluated for their potential to leach polyvalent cations and base species. Following mixing with a simple sodium bicarbonate solution, chemistries of the aqueous and solid phases were analyzed. Experimental results indicated that the most reactive materials were capable of sequestering between 77% and 93% of the available carbon under experimental conditions in four hours. These materials - cement kiln dust, spray dryer absorber ash, and circulating dry scrubber ash - are thus good candidates for detailed, process-oriented studies. Chemical equilibrium modeling indicated that amorphous calcium carbonate is likely responsible for the observed sequestration. High variability and low reactive fractions render many other materials less attractive for further pursuit without considering preprocessing or activation techniques. PMID:24735991

Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Nakles, David V; Hawthorne, Steven B; Heebink, Loreal V; Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Michael; Ghosh, Rajat S

2014-10-01

335

Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater laden with heavy metals.  

PubMed

Industrial wastes, such as, fly ash, blast furnace slag and sludge, black liquor lignin, red mud, and waste slurry, etc. are currently being investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of the heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that modified industrial wastes showed higher adsorption capacity. The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from the industrial wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions etc. on the adsorption of heavy metals have also been discussed in this article. From the review, it is evident that certain industrial waste materials have demonstrated high removal capacities for the heavy metals laden with wastewater. However, it is to be mentioned that adsorption capacities of the adsorbents vary depending on the characteristics of the adsorbents, the extent of chemical modification and the concentration of adsorbates. There are also few issues and drawbacks on the utilization of industrial wastes as low-cost adsorbents that have been addressed. In order to find out the practical utilization of industrial waste as low-cost adsorbents on the commercial scale, more research should be conducted in this direction. PMID:21669401

Ahmaruzzaman, M

2011-08-10

336

Heavy metal pollution of soil from industrial and municipal wastes in Chittagong, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal pollution was assessed in soils collected from 0–15, 15–30 and 30–45-cm depths of three industrial (FMC, PMC and CMC), and two municipal (BSD and MLF) waste disposal sites around Chittagong city in 2008. Soils were analysed for pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available P, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and Na, and total Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn.

Sabrina Sharmeen Alam; Khan Towhid Osman

2011-01-01

337

Energy-saving cements obtained from chemical gypsum and other industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

The main sources, properties and uses of chemical gypsum are reviewed and the possibility of its utilization for the manufacturing process of calcium sulfoaluminate cements is explored. In this process other industrial wastes, as sources of reactive silica and alumina, can be employed. Phosphogypsum, blast-furnace slag and fly ash were the main by-products investigated. The principal properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cements, such as synthesis, hydration and strength, were discussed. Some durability problems and suggested solutions were particularly emphasized.

Beretka, J. [CSIRO Div. of Building, Construction and Engineering, Highett, Victoria (Australia)] [CSIRO Div. of Building, Construction and Engineering, Highett, Victoria (Australia); Cioffi, R. [Univ. Degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione] [Univ. Degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione; Marroccoli, M.; Valenti, G.L. [Univ. della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell`Ambiente] [Univ. della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell`Ambiente

1996-12-31

338

Use of Thermal Energy Storage to Enhance the Recovery and Utilization of Industrial Waste Heat  

E-print Network

USE OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO ENHANCE THE RECOVERY AND UTILIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT H. R. McChesney, R. W. Bass, A. M. Landerman, T. N. Obee and C. T. Sgambati United Technologies Research Center East Hartford, Connecticut... energy management/thermal energy storage technology (TES) systems can be used with commercially avail to avoid the cost of fossil energy while maintain able energy management equipment to enhance the ing the supply of process heat or electricity...

McChesney, H. R.; Bass, R. W.; Landerman, A. M.; Obee, T. N.; Sgamboti, C. T.

1982-01-01

339

Waste-to-energy possibilities for industrial olive and grape by-products in Extremadura  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive and grape agro-industrial sectors have a major economic importance in Extremadura. Annual production of olive oil is more than 50×103t, and of wine is more than 3×106hectolitres. The large amounts of by-products are in most cases under-used, although they could be converted into a zero cost of the waste at the point of origin. In this context, the

A. R. Celma; S. Rojas; F. López-Rodríguez

2007-01-01

340

Properties of concrete reinforced with different kinds of industrial waste fibre materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the use of different types of sub-products in cement-based materials has become a common practice in concrete industry. This paper discusses the feasibility of adding metallic and polypropylene by-product fibres as reinforcement of normal concrete. The effects of the incorporation of various types of waste metallic fibres (WMF) and polypropylene fibres (WPF) on the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced concrete

Mohammed Seddik Meddah; Mohamed Bencheikh

2009-01-01

341

Nuclear microprobe applications to radioactive waste management basic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management is one of the major technical and scientific challenge to be solved by industrialized countries near the beginning of the 21st century. Relevant questions arise about the extrapolation of the long term-behavior of materials from waste package, engineered barriers and near field repository. Whatever the strategical option might be, wet atmosphere or water intrusion through the different

P. Trocellier; V Badillo; N Barré; L Bois; C Cachoir; J. P Gallien; S Guilbert; F Mercier; C Tiffreau

1999-01-01

342

Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water  

PubMed Central

The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions. PMID:24883258

Ellison, Michael B.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

343

Screening tests for assessing treatability of inorganic industrial wastes by stabilisation/solidification with cement.  

PubMed

Stabilisation/solidification with cementitious or pozzolanic binders (S/S) is an option for reducing leachability of contaminants from residual, predominantly inorganic, industrial wastes and contaminated soils before disposal or reuse. Treatment by S/S is complicated by the fact that the presence of impurities, such as the contaminants and bulk matrix components present in industrial wastes, can have deleterious effects on cements. Therefore, careful laboratory development and testing of S/S formulations are required prior to full-scale application, to avoid technology failures, including problems with handling and contaminant retention. An understanding of cement chemistry and contaminant immobilisation mechanisms has been used to propose a series of test methods and performance thresholds for use in efficient evaluation of the treatability of industrial wastes by S/S, and optimising S/S formulations: measurement of stabilised/solidified product workability, bleeding and setting time (for flowable mixtures) or Proctor compaction (for compactable mixtures), together with unconfined compressive strength, leachability in a batch extraction with distilled water, and hydraulic conductivity. PMID:18456403

Stegemann, J A; Zhou, Q

2009-01-15

344

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

345

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01

346

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

347

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE INDICATOR FOR MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF INCINERATORS, INDUSTRIAL FURNACES, AND BOILERS BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of a simple indicator-- Unsatisfied Oxygen Demand (UOD)--for measuring the performance of incinerators, industrial furnaces, and boilers burning hazardous waste. urrent RCRA regulations use destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of the princi...

348

A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

Puig, Rita, E-mail: rita.puig@eei.upc.edu [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Bala, Alba [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

2013-12-15

349

Predictive capabilities of a finite difference model of copper leaching in low grade industrial sulfide waste dumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite difference model describing industrial leaching of low grade sulfide waste and efforts to test the model are reviewed. The model includes air convection, heat balance, temperature dependent mixed oxidation kinetics, and bacterial catalysis. The model is shown to have general validity, but detailed predictions of how a given waste will leach in a given dump are not possible.

L. M. Cathles

1979-01-01

350

Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48?h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30?min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

2012-01-01

351

Use of sepiolite as an adsorbent for the removal of copper (II) from industrial waste leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land filling is the most common method of disposal of solid waste all over the world. As well as municipal solid waste, industrial wastes, which may contain hazardous substances, are also received by landfills in many countries. Leachate is one of the problems arising from landfills. When water percolates through solid wastes, contaminants are leached into solution. The major concern with the movement of leachate into the subsurface aquifer is the fate of the constituents found in leachate. The fate of heavy metals is the greatest interest in leachate. Several treatment technologies have been developed for eliminating heavy metals recently. Adsorption is one of the most interesting methods that it has been successfully applied for the heavy metal removal. Activated carbons were widely used as adsorbent materials because of their extended surface area, microporous structure, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. However, it is restricted due to its relatively high price, high operation costs, and problems with generation for the industrial scale applications. Recently, more research efforts have been focused on effective sorbents material in order to minimize the processing cost and solve their disposal problems in an environmentally sustainable way. Adsorption of metal ions onto clay minerals has been studied extensively because both metal ions and clays are common components in nature. The cost of clays is relatively low as compared to other alternative adsorbents. Furthermore, the high specific surface area, chemical and mechanical stability, variety of structural and surface properties and higher values of cation exchange capacities make the clays an excellent group of adsorbents. Sepiolite (Si12O30Mg8(OH)4(H2O)4•8H2O) is a natural, fibrous clay mineral with fine microporous channels running parallel to the length of the fibers. The structure of sepiolite, in some aspects, is similar to those of other 2:1 trioctahedral silicates, such as talc, but it has discontinuities and inversion of the silica sheets, which give rise to structural tunnels and blocks. In the inner blocks, all corners of the silica tetrahedral are connected to adjacent blocks, but in the outer blocks, some of the corners are Si atoms bound to hydroxyls (Si-OH). This unique structure allows the penetration of organic and inorganic species into the structure and assigns sepiolite an industrial importance in adsorption. The objective of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of using sepiolite for the adsorptive removal of Cu (II) from the industrial waste leachate. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies are determined. The pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order, Elovich and the intra particle diffusion kinetic models are used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The adsorption of Cu (II) from the aqueous leachate of industrial wastes onto sepiolite was performed using a batch equilibrium technique. At first stage, one-factor-at-a-time experiments were performed to see the individual effects of initial pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The adsorption of Cu (II) was favorably influenced by an increase in the adsorbent dosage. The maximum percent removal of Cu (II) were observed at pH>6, and significantly decreased at lower pH value. The optimum contact time is found as 10 min. for the removal of Cu (II). The increment in contact time from 10 min. to 120 min. did not show a significant effect on efficiency. The maximum Cu (II) adsorption efficiencies were obtained at 94.45%. The pseudo second order kinetic model agrees very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous leachate of industrial waste onto sepiolite. The results indicate that the use of sepiolite that is locally available and almost free of cost as an adsorbent could be a viable alternative to activated carbon for the removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

Gamze Turan, N.; Ardali, Yüksel

2013-04-01

352

A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

Reaven, S.J.

1994-08-01

353

Use of the Microscreen phage-induction assay to assess the genotoxicity of 14 hazardous industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage lambda in Escherichia coli WP2s lambda, was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial-waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Eleven of the 14 wastes induced prophage, and induction was observed at concentrations as low as 0.4 picograms per ml. Comparisons between the mutagenicity of these waste samples in Salmonella and their ability to induce prophage lambda indicate that the Microscreen phage-induction assay detected genotoxic activity in all but one of the wastes that were mutagenic in Salmonella. Moreover, the Microscreen assay detected as genotoxic 5 additional wastes that were not detected in the Salmonella assay. The applicability of the Microscreen phage-induction assay for screening hazardous wastes for genotoxic activity is discussed along with some of the problems associated with screening highly toxic wastes containing toxic volatile compounds.

Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

1988-01-01

354

Use of the microscreen phage-induction assay to assess the genotoxicity of 14 hazardous industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage lambda in Escherichia coli WP2s(lambda), was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Eleven of the 14 wastes induced prophage, and induction was observed at concentrations as low as 0.4 pg per ml. Comparisons between the ability of these waste samples to induce prophage and their mutagenicity in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay indicate that the phage-induction assay detected genotoxic activity in all but one of the wastes that were mutagenic in Salmonella. Moreover, the Microscreen assay detected as genotoxic five additional wastes that were not detected in the Salmonella assay. The applicability of the Microscreen phage-induction assay for screening hazardous wastes for genotoxic activity is discussed, as are some of the problems associated with screening highly toxic wastes containing toxic volatile compounds.

Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

1988-01-01

355

Agro-industrial waste materials and wastewater sludge for rhizobial inoculant production: a review.  

PubMed

Inoculating legumes with commercial rhizobial inoculants is a common agriculture practice. Generally, inoculants are sold in liquid or in solid forms (mixed with carrier). The production of inoculants involves a step in which a high number of cells are produced, followed by the product formulation. This process is largely governed by the cost related to the medium used for rhizobial growth and by the availability of a carrier source (peat) for production of solid inoculant. Some industrial and agricultural by-products (e.g. cheese whey, malt sprouts) contain growth factors such as nitrogen and carbon, which can support growth of rhizobia. Other agro-industrial wastes (e.g. plant compost, filtermud, fly-ash) can be used as a carrier for rhizobial inoculant. More recently, wastewater sludge, a worldwide recyclable waste, has shown good potential for inoculant production as a growth medium and as a carrier (dehydrated sludge). Sludge usually contains nutrient elements at concentrations sufficient to sustain rhizobial growth and heavy metals are usually below the recommended level. In some cases, growth conditions can be optimized by a sludge pre-treatment or by the addition of nutrients. Inoculants produced in wastewater sludge are efficient for nodulation and nitrogen fixation with legumes as compared to standard inoculants. This new approach described in this review offers a safe environmental alternative for both waste treatment/disposal and inoculant production. PMID:17336515

Ben Rebah, F; Prévost, D; Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D

2007-12-01

356

Aerobic treatability of waste effluent from the leather finishing industry. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The Seton Company supplies finished leather products exclusively for the automotive industry. In the process of finishing leather, two types of wastewaters are generated. The majority of the wastewater is composed of water-based paint residuals while the remainder is composed of solvent-based coating residuals. Aerobic treatability studies were conducted using water-based and solvent-based waste recirculatory waters from the Seton Company's Saxton, Pennsylvania processing plant. The specific objective was to determine the potential for using aerobic biological processes to biodegrade the industry's wastes and determine the potential for joint treatment at the local publicly owned treatment works (POTW). This study was accomplished in two phases. Phase I was conducted during the Spring Semester 1993 and consisted of aerobic respirometer tests of the raw wastes and mass balance analysis. The results of Phase I were published in a report to the Seton Company as Environmental Resources Research Institute project number 92C.II40R-1. Phase II was conducted during the Summer Semester 1993 and consisted of bench-scale reactor tests and additional aerobic respirometer tests. The aerobic respirometer batch tests and bench-scale reactor tests were used to assess the treatability of solvent-based and water-based wastewaters and determine the degree of biodegradability of the wastewaters. Mass balance calculations were made using measured characteristics.

Vinger, J.A.

1993-12-01

357

Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.  

PubMed

Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70°C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics. PMID:25449606

Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

2015-01-01

358

Recent developments and perspectives on the treatment of industrial wastes by mineral carbonation — a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides producing a substantial portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the industrial sector also generates significant quantities of solid residues. Mineral carbonation of alkaline wastes enables the combination of these two by-products, increasing the sustainability of industrial activities. On top of sequestering CO2 in geochemically stable form, mineral carbonation of waste materials also brings benefits such as stabilization of leaching, basicity and structural integrity, enabling further valorization of the residues, either via reduced waste treatment or landfilling costs, or via the production of marketable products. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of this technology and the latest developments in this field. Focus is given to the beneficial effects of mineral carbonation when applied to metallurgical slags, incineration ashes, mining tailings, asbestos containing materials, red mud, and oil shale processing residues. Efforts to intensify the carbonation reaction rate and improve the mineral conversion via process intensification routes, such as the application of ultrasound, hot-stage processing and integrated reactor technologies, are described. Valorization opportunities closest to making the transition from laboratory research to commercial reality, particularly in the form of shaped construction materials and precipitated calcium carbonate, are highlighted. Lastly, the context of mineral carbonation among the range of CCS options is discussed.

Bodor, Marius; Santos, Rafael M.; Van Gerven, Tom; Vlad, Maria

2013-12-01

359

A comparative adsorption study with different industrial wastes as adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four adsorbents have been prepared from industrial wastes obtained from the steel and fertilizer industries and investigated for their utility to remove cationic dyes. Studies have shown that the adsorbents prepared from blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag have poor porosity and low surface area, resulting in very low efficiency for the adsorption of dyes. On the other hand, carbonaceous

Amit Bhatnagar; A. K. Jain

2005-01-01

360

Major congenital malformations and residential proximity to a regional industrial park including a national toxic waste site: An ecological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Public concern about exposure to emissions from the regional industrial park (IP), including 17 chemical plants and the national industrial toxic waste site, initiated this study of the possible association between major congenital malformations (MCM) and residence near the IP in Israel's Southern District. METHODS: The study was conducted during the period 1995–2000 and included 63,850 deliveries. Data on

Yaakov Bentov; Ella Kordysh; Reli Hershkovitz; Ilana Belmaker; Marina Polyakov; Natasha Bilenko; Batia Sarov

2006-01-01

361

Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2012-October 31, 2013  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

362

Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: May 1, 2010-October 31, 2010  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (#LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

363

Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

364

Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

Mike lewis

2013-02-01

365

Characterization of the carbonaceous materials obtained from different agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

This paper reports the preparation and characterization of carbonaceous materials obtained from three types of vegetable wastes provided by agricultural industries. Soft carbonization (280°C) and H3PO4-activation procedures were used to convert the agricultural wastes to carbon powders with high adsorbent capacities. This process is excellent for eliminating and exploiting the huge masses (many tons) of vegetable residues remaining after each harvest every year in several Colombian agro-industries. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption isotherms. XRD and IR verified the formation of carbons, and SEM showed small particles (20-500?µm) with characteristic morphology for each type of residue used and abundant cavities of different sizes. The N2-adsorption analyses showed that the carbons had high adsorption capacities with important surface area values and large pore volumes. The use of the activated carbonaceous materials as adsorbent of azo dyes (allura red and sunset yellow) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. The results showed a good adsorption capacity indicating the potentiality of these materials as pollutant adsorbents in food industry wastewaters. These results indicate that these powders can be used as potential adsorbents for different gaseous or liquid pollutants. PMID:25189634

Ensuncho-Muñoz, A E; Carriazo, J G

2015-03-01

366

Fundamentals of gas flow in shale; What the unconventional reservoir industry can learn from the radioactive waste industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tight formations, such as shale, have a wide range of potential usage; this includes shale gas exploitation, hydrocarbon sealing, carbon capture & storage and radioactive waste disposal. Considerable research effort has been conducted over the last 20 years on the fundamental controls on gas flow in a range of clay-rich materials at the British Geological Survey (BGS) mainly focused on radioactive waste disposal; including French Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, Belgian Boom Clay, Swiss Opalinus Clay, British Oxford Clay, as well as engineered barrier material such as bentonite and concrete. Recent work has concentrated on the underlying physics governing fluid flow, with evidence of dilatancy controlled advective flow demonstrated in Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. This has resulted in a review of how advective gas flow is dealt with in Performance Assessment and the applicability of numerical codes. Dilatancy flow has been shown in Boom clay using nano-particles and is seen in bentonite by the strong hydro-mechanical coupling displayed at the onset of gas flow. As well as observations made at BGS, dilatancy flow has been shown by other workers on shale (Cuss et al., 2012; Angeli et al. 2009). As well as experimental studies using cores of intact material, fractured material has been investigated in bespoke shear apparatus. Experimental results have shown that the transmission of gas by fractures is highly localised, dependent on normal stress, varies with shear, is strongly linked with stress history, is highly temporal in nature, and shows a clear correlation with fracture angle. Several orders of magnitude variation in fracture transmissivity is seen during individual tests. Flow experiments have been conducted using gas and water, showing remarkably different behaviour. The radioactive waste industry has also noted a number of important features related to sample preservation. Differences in gas entry pressure have been shown across many laboratories and these may be attributed to different core preparation techniques. Careful re-stressing of core barrels and sealing techniques also ensure that experiments are conducted on near in situ condition. The construction of tunnels within shale clearly aids our understanding of the interaction of engineered operations (borehole drilling or tunnelling) on the behaviour of the rock. References: Angeli, M., Soldal, M., Skurtveit, E. and Aker, E., (2009) Experimental percolation of supercritical CO2 through a caprock. Energy Procedia 1, 3351-3358 Cuss, R.J., Harrington, J.F., Giot, R., and Auvray, C. (2012) Experimental observations of mechanical dilation at the onset of gas flow in Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone. Poster Presentation 5th International Meeting Clays in Natural and Engineered Barriers for Radioactive Waste Confinement, Montpellier, France October 22nd - 25th 2012.

Cuss, Robert; Harrington, Jon; Graham, Caroline

2013-04-01

367

Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

2009-12-01

368

Potential of thermal treatment for decontamination of mercury containing wastes from chlor-alkali industry.  

PubMed

Old dumps of mercury waste sludges from chlor-alkaline industry are an environmental threat if not properly secured. Thermal retortion can be used to remove mercury from such wastes. This treatment reduces the total mercury content, and also may reduce the leachability of the residual mercury. The effects of treatment temperature and treatment time on both residual mercury levels and mercury leachability according to the US EPA TCLP leaching procedure, were investigated. Treatment for 1h at 800°C allowed to quantitatively remove the mercury. Treatment at 400°C and above allowed to decrease the leachable Hg contents to below the US EPA regulations. The ultimate choice of treatment conditions will depend on requirements of further handling options and cost considerations. PMID:21093149

Busto, Y; Cabrera, X; Tack, F M G; Verloo, M G

2011-02-15

369

Innovative approach to facilitate reuse of nonhazardous industrial solid waste as building material  

SciTech Connect

The steel industry generates large volumes of inorganic nonhazardous solid waste. During the last five years, Quebec`s steel industry has developed new technologies to recover metal from slags and tailings. Since these processes recover 10 to 30 percent of the metal, large volumes of nonhazardous residues still need to be recycled or disposed of. In order to encourage recycling initiatives, le Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (MEF) (Quebec`s Ministry of Environment and Wildlife) established guidelines for the management of nonhazardous industrial solid waste. The aim of these guidelines is to propose a test procedure to evaluate the quality of the material and to define material classes based on their potential for reuse. The evaluation procedure is based on standard tests, generally used for the evaluation of stabilized and solidified hazardous waste. The protocol includes an analysis of the total content of metals in the residue, the determination of the acid neutralization capacity and the prediction of the acid generation potential when the residue contains significant levels of sulfides. The protocol includes three different leachate tests in order to evaluate the mobility of contaminants present in the residue. The leaching procedures are: (1) an equilibrium extraction with water, (2) a modified TCLP extraction, and (3) an acid rain simulation effect extraction. A method is actually under development to collect leachate from a material pile subject to 18 months of rainfall. Materials are categorized into different classes according to their test results. Various potential reuse options are associated with material classes. Evaluation criteria were defined by using water quality standards and results obtained by testing reference construction material supplied by the Quebec`s Ministere des Transports (Ministry of Transportation).

St-Laurent, S.G.; Boutin, A. [Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec, Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

1997-12-31

370

Life Cycle Inventory for Use of Waste Solvent as Fuel Substitute in the Cement Industry - A Multi-Input Allocation Model (11 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The Swiss chemical industry produces large amounts of organic waste solvents. Some of these solvents cannot be recovered. A common option for the treatment of such organic waste solvents is the incineration in hazardous waste incinerators. Alternatively, the waste solvents can be used as fuel in cement production. On the one hand, solvent incineration in cement kilns saves fossil

Christina Seyler; Stefanie Hellweg; Michel Monteil; Konrad Hungerbühler

2005-01-01

371

Liquid wastes and industrial sludge. New investigation fields to recycle metals  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is to propose some alternatives to the landfilling of metallic hydroxide sludge coming from the classical physico-chemical treatment of liquid wastes containing metallic cations. A downstream treatment was investigated. It consists of a selective leaching of filter-press cakes. This chemical treatment allows the elimination of toxic metals from the sludge and produces an inertized residue. An upstream treatment was studied: the selective precipitation of metallic cations. In this case, it is possible to obtain zinc sulfide and iron oxide. These products meet the acceptance conditions for the zinc and steel industry.

Meux, E.; Leclerc, N.; Peneliau, F.; Muller, P.

1999-07-01

372

Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

Andreasen, J.K.; Stroud, Richard K.

1987-01-01

373

Selection of Waste Water Equalization Systems for Multi Product Batch Production Facility: An Industrial Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation rates of waste water from a batch plant causes significant variations in the flow rate as well as concentrations in the influent to effluent treatment plant. Flow equalization systems are used to reduce the shock loads. The present study deals with the suitability of two flow equalization schemes practiced in the industry with an objective of increasing production flexibility. The simulation study has conclusively established suitability of combined segregation tanks over distributed segregation tanks for a given production capacity. It is also shown that the production flexibility is more for combined scheme in comparison with the distributed scheme.

Bhatt, Vaidehi; Srinivasarao, Meka.; Dhanwani, Anand

2010-10-01

374

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

375

Use of a mixed algal culture to characterize industrial waste waters  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of five freshwater algae was cultivated with additions of waste water samples from chemical, mining, polyvinylchloride, textile, paper mill, and oil refinery industries. Two water samples from chemical industries and one from an oil refinery stimulated the algal growth in a nutrient-poor medium, while growth in other samples, including a nutrient-rich medium, was inhibited in several different ways. For eight of the water samples a delayed growth of 2-4 days was noted. Decreased growth rate and lowered maximal biomass occurred in seven of the samples. The photosynthetic capacity of the algal cells was measured by using in vivo fluorescence of chlorophyll a. These quick measurements mostly agreed with those of the growth rates. When the species composition of the mixed algal culture was investigated, large differences in sensitivities between the different species were found. Stimulation or inhibition were observed in the same sample for different species but also for the same species at different concentrations.

Claesson, A.

1984-02-01

376

Recycling of hazardous waste from tertiary aluminium industry in a value-added material.  

PubMed

The recent European Directive on waste, 2008/98/EC seeks to reduce the exploitation of natural resources through the use of secondary resource management. Thus the main objective of this study was to explore how a waste could cease to be considered as waste and could be utilized for a specific purpose. In this way, a hazardous waste from the tertiary aluminium industry was studied for its use as a raw material in the synthesis of an added-value product, boehmite. This waste is classified as a hazardous residue, principally because in the presence of water or humidity, it releases toxic gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, methane and hydrogen sulfide. The low temperature hydrothermal method developed permits the recovery of 90% of the aluminium content in the residue in the form of a high purity (96%) AlOOH (boehmite). The method of synthesis consists of an initial HCl digestion followed by a gel precipitation. In the first stage a 10% HCl solution is used to yield a 12.63 g L(-1) Al( 3+) solution. In the second stage boehmite is precipitated in the form of a gel by increasing the pH of the acid Al(3+) solution by adding 1 mol L(-1) NaOH solution. Several pH values were tested and boehmite was obtained as the only crystalline phase at pH 8. Boehmite was completely characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy. A study of its thermal behaviour was also carried out by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis. PMID:20667939

Gonzalo-Delgado, Laura; López-Delgado, Aurora; López, Félix Antonio; Alguacil, Francisco José; López-Andrés, Sol

2011-02-01

377

Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry.  

PubMed

An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), which is part of the Gruppo Minerali S.p.A. (Novara, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The pre-mixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages. PMID:12870643

Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Fiore, Silvia

2003-06-01

378

Properties of bacterial laccases and their application in bioremediation of industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The bioremediation process of industrial waste can be made more efficient using ligninolytic laccase enzymes, which are obtained from fungi, bacteria, higher plants, insects, and also in lichen. Laccase are catalyzed in the mono-electronic oxidation of a substrate from the expenditure of molecular oxygen. This enzyme belongs to the multicopper oxidases and participates in the cross linking of monomers, involved in the degradation of wide range industrial pollutants. In recent years, these enzymes have gained application in pulp and paper, textile and food industries. There are numerous reviews on laccases; however, a lot of information is still unknown due to their broad range of functions and applications. In this review, the bacterial laccases are focused for the bioremediation of various industrial pollutants. A brief description on structural molecular and physicochemical properties has been made. Moreover, the mechanism by which the reaction is catalyzed, the physical basis of thermostability and enantioselectivity, which requires more attention from researchers, and applications of laccase in various fields of biotechnology are pointed out. PMID:25590782

Chandra, Ram; Chowdhary, Pankaj

2015-02-11

379

Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. March 1985-October 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for March 1985-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food-processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste-heat recovery, meat processing, seafood processing, dairy wastes, beverage industry, fruits and vegetables, and other food-industry wastes. Waste utilization includes animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, conversion to fertilizer, composting, and recovery and recycling of usable chemicals. Food-packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 169 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-11-01

380

Energy generation power: an example of research concerning industrial waste as fuel in furniture industries used in practical classes at a mechanical engineering course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furniture industries waste could be used as fuel to co - generation of heat and power in order to minimize its disposal on the environment and environmental impact as well. Research involving 95 enterprises of different sizes and product types was made in the mountain region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A division was made in four s

Carlos Eduardo da Cunha; Paulo R. Wander

381

Risk of soft tissue sarcomas and residence in the neighbourhood of an incinerator of industrial wastes  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) in Mantua and residence near an incinerator of industrial wastes. Methods: Cases were subjects with histologically confirmed primary malignant STS diagnosed 1989–98 in the population resident in Mantua and in the three neighbouring municipalities. Controls were randomly extracted from population registries, matched for age and sex. Residential history was reconstructed for all study subjects since 1960. Main residence was geographically positioned according to GPS standards. Results: The study included 37 STS cases (17 men and 20 women) and 171 controls. The incidence of STS in the area of study was estimated as 8.8 per 100 000 in men and 5.6 per 100 000 in women. The odds ratio associated with residence within 2 km, standardised by age and sex, was 31.4 (95% CI 5.6 to 176.1), based on five exposed cases. At greater distances, risk rapidly decreased, showing a fluctuation around the null value of 1. Conclusion: The study shows a significant increase in risk of STS associated with residence within 2 km of an industrial waste incinerator; an aetiological role of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can be hypothesised. PMID:12937191

Comba, P; Ascoli, V; Belli, S; Benedetti, M; Gatti, L; Ricci, P; Tieghi, A

2003-01-01

382

Hydraulic behavior of calcium sulfoaluminate-based cements derived from industrial process wastes  

SciTech Connect

The manufacture of cements based on calcium sulfoaluminate (C[sub 4]A[sub 3][bar S]) [In this paper, the notation adopted in cement chemistry, vis. C=CO, A=Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], [bar S]=SO[sub 3], S=SiO[sub 2], and H=H[sub 2]O, has been used.] requires lower firing temperatures and lower grinding energy, as compared to ordinary Portland cements (OPC). Some of these low-energy cements can be formulated in order to develop high early strength and other performances similar to OPC. Further interest towards these types of cements relies on the possibility of using industrial process wastes as raw materials for their manufacture. It has been found that a number of industrial wastes and by-products such as phosphogypsum, bauxite fines, fly ash and blast furnace slag, can be employed without negatively affecting the hydraulic behavior of cements of planned C[sub 4]A[sub 3][bar S]:[beta]-C[sub 2]S:C[bar S] weight ratio 1.5:1:1. Blast furnace slag and fly ash can also be advantageously used as blending components of the fired products.

Beretka, J.; Sherman, N. (CSIRO, Highett, Victoria (Australia). Div. of Building); Vito, B. de (Univ. degli Studi di Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione); Santoro, L. (Univ. degli Studi di Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica); Valenti, G.L. (Univ. degli Studi della Basillicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente)

1993-09-01

383

Utilization of industrial waste products as adsorbents for the removal of dyes.  

PubMed

A number of low cost adsorbents from steel and fertilizer industries wastes have been prepared and investigated for the removal of anionic dyes such as ethyl orange, metanil yellow and acid blue 113 from aqueous solutions. The results indicate that inorganic wastes, i.e. blast furnace dust, sludge and slag from steel plants are not suitable for the removal of organic materials, whereas a carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry of fertilizer industry was found to adsorb 198, 211 and 219mg/g of ethyl orange, metanil yellow and acid blue 113, respectively. The adsorption of dyes on this adsorbent was studied as a function of contact time, concentration, particle size and temperature by batch method. The adsorption isotherm conformed to Langmuir model and the adsorption was found to be exothermic and physical in nature. Kinetic data conforms to Lagergren's equation with good correlation coefficients varying from 0.9998 to 0.9999 indicating that the adsorption is a first-order process. The adsorption data on carbonaceous adsorbent was compared to a standard activated charcoal sample and it was found that the prepared adsorbent is about 80% as efficient as standard activated charcoal and therefore, can be used as low cost alternative ( approximately 100 US dollars per ton) for colour removal from effluents. PMID:12850318

Jain, A K; Gupta, V K; Bhatnagar, A; Suhas

2003-07-01

384

Adsorption of 2,4-D and carbofuran pesticides using fertilizer and steel industry wastes.  

PubMed

The removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and carbofuran from aqueous solution was studied by using fertilizer industry waste (carbon slurry) and steel industry wastes (blast furnace slag, dust, and sludge) as adsorbents in batch. Adsorption was found to be in decreasing order: carbon slurry, blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag, respectively. Carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry exhibited the uptake capacity of 212 and 208 mg g(-1) for 2,4-D and carbofuran, respectively at 25 degrees C and pH 7.5. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics were investigated as a function of initial pH, temperature, and pesticide concentrations. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir equilibrium model in the studied concentration range of 2,4-D and carbofuran at all the temperatures studied. Two simplified models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, were used to test the adsorption kinetics. Adsorption of 2,4-D and carbofuran on carbon slurry at 25, 35, and 45 degrees C could be best fitted in the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Pore diffusion was confirmed as the essential rate-controlling step with the help of Bangham's equation. PMID:16527294

Gupta, Vinod K; Ali, Imran; Suhas; Saini, Vipin K

2006-07-15

385

Biological denitrification of high-nitrates wastes generated in the nuclear industry  

SciTech Connect

Biological denitrification appears to be one of the most effective methods to remove nitrates from wastewater streams (Christenson and Harremoes, 1975). However, most of the research and development work has been centered on removal of nitrates from sewage or agricultural drainage waters, nitrate nitrogen concentration usually less than 50 g/m/sup 3/. Work was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1974 to test the use of biological nitrification in the removal of high concentrations of nitrate (in excess of 1.0 kg NO/sub 3/-N/m/sup 3/) from uranium purification waste streams. Since then, a full-scale treatment facility, a stirred reactor, has been installed at the Y-12 plant; and a pilot-plant, using a fluidized bed, has been proposed at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The objective of this manuscript is to present some applied microbiological research relating to possible constraints in biologically denitrifying certain waste streams in the nuclear industry and comparing the effectiveness of denitrification of these waste streams in three bench scale reactors, (1) a continuous flow-stirred reactor, (2) stirred bed rector, and (3) a fluidized bed reactor.

Francis, C.W.

1980-01-01

386

Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.  

PubMed

Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin. PMID:17303316

Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

2008-02-01

387

Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of a dilute biosolid industrial waste product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements were made of upwelled spectral signatures of various concentrations of industrial waste products mixed with water in a large water tank. Radiance and reflectance spectra for a biosolid waste product (sludge) mixed with conditioned tap water and natural river water are reported. Results of these experiments indicate that reflectance increases with increasing concentration of the sludge at practically all wavelengths for concentration of total suspended solids up to 117 ppm in conditioned tap water and 171 ppm in natural river water. Significant variations in the spectra were observed and may be useful in defining spectral characteristics for this waste product. No significant spectral differences were apparent in the reflectance spectra of the two experiments, especially for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance values, however, were generally greater in natural river water for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance may be considered to increase linearly with concentration of total suspended solids from 5 to 171 ppm at all wavelengths without introducing errors larger than 10 percent.

Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

1979-01-01

388

Biological re-cultivation of industrial technological waste banks after steel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of re-cultivation of disturbed lands, after the creation of waste banks, is very important and of great scientific interest. The studies on the effectiveness of biological re-cultivation are focused mainly on activities and techniques for the acceleration of soil formation processes as. The relationship between substrate and plants is also studied, in order to create modern biotechnologies and contributes to the remediation of the re-cultivated lands within the territorial system. In this work we have studied three parts of an industrial waste bank named "The 7th of September" located in the green system of Sofia - Pernik agglomeration in Bulgaria. It consists of technological wastes produced by the steel industry. Its area of 20 dca is of special local importance. The aim of this study was to propose an appropriate technology for the biological re-cultivation, which could take place after all production activities had ceased. To achieve this aim a detailed study on the characteristics of climatic elements was carried out focusing on precipitation - limiting factor for future afforestation of waste banks. Analyses on hydro-physical and chemical parameters of substrates were undertaken in order to elaborate recommendations for their improvement and utility in biological re-cultivation. Here we present the characteristics of the vegetation which existed before the production activities and the approaches for choice of tree species in afforestation with different schemes and methods applied. On the basis of this study we were able to establish that the hydrological properties of substrates are quite similar to those of natural soils in the region. The variations obtained for some soil substrate layers were not significant. In relation to this we also outlined the quantity of organic matter and nutrient elements in waste banks as determining parameters for further biological re-cultivation. The studied site is located in the lower forest zone of the country, where the main limiting factor for plants is water content. Consequently, the nutrient elements are available for the tree species only in combination with an optimal water regime.

Sokolovska, Maria; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Bech, Jaume

2010-05-01

389

Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.  

PubMed

The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment. PMID:11387023

Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

2001-01-01

390

LAND CULTIVATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES. STATE-OF-THE-ART STUDY. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL SUMMARY AND LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the available literature on land cultivation of industrial wastewater and sludge, and municipal solid waste was conducted. This review was supplemented by field investigations at 10 operating sites, including soil and vegetation analyses. Soil is a natural environment...

391

Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to choose the heat source first and then design the most appropriate structure for the source by applying analytical methods. This report describes how to design a prototype of a thermoelectric power generator using the analytical approach and the results of performance evaluation tests carried out in the field.

Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

2015-01-01

392

Combined incineration of industrial wastes with in-plant residues in fluidized-bed utility boilers--decision relevant factors.  

PubMed

In Austria more than 50% of the high-calorific industrial residues and wastes generated are utilized for energy recovery in industrial utility boilers. This study investigated full-scale trials of combined incineration of in-plant residues with various industrial wastes. These trials were carried out in order to learn how the alternatively used fuel influences the incineration process itself as well as the quantity and quality of the various incineration products. The currently used fuel, which consisted of in-plant residues as well as externally acquired waste wood and the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) mixtures used during the full-scale trials are characterized in terms of material composition as well as chemical and physical parameters. An input-output mass balance for the incineration plant (two fluidized bed combustion units, 20 and 30 MW, respectively) has been established, based on the data collected during the full-scale incineration trials. Furthermore, pollutant concentrations in the off-gas as well as the solid incineration residue are reported. It is not only the pollutant content but also a variety of other internal as well as external factors that have to be considered if a company is to decide whether or not to thermally utilize specific waste types. Therefore a strengths and weaknesses profile for several types of waste and the specific industrial boiler is also presented. PMID:16273953

Ragossnig, Arne M; Lorber, Karl E

2005-10-01

393

Development of a waste minimization and pollution prevention training program for the upstream oil and gas industry  

SciTech Connect

The environmental, health, and safety professionals, operating staff, and management of both major and independent producers have long recognized the importance of continued education on environmental issues that impact the oil and gas producing industry. However, the information and knowledge concerning environmental practices acquired by the corporate staff is not always successfully or timely transferred to the field personnel. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) of the US Environmental Protection Agency recognized the role that field personnel have on the producing oil and gas industry`s waste generation and disposal performance. To broaden the environmental awareness and knowledge of these field personnel, OSWER funded a grant in October 1993 to the National Environmental Training Association for the development of an E and P Field Personnel Pollution Prevention Training Program. This program introduces the field E and P employee to fundamental pollution prevention and waste minimization concepts such as: the EPA waste management hierarchy -- Source Reduction, Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal; identification and categorization of the wastes that they generate; recognition of pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities; and proper handling techniques.

Pepper, J.; Megna, A.; Souders, S.

1995-12-31

394

Pollution prevention in the steel industry -- Toward a zero waste plant  

SciTech Connect

The zero waste concept can be applied to both integrated and minimills. Economic, regulatory and public pressures are forcing companies to continuously reduce environmental emissions. A zero waste perspective views environmental emissions as potential raw materials to be conserved or re-used rather than wasted. A structured zero waste methodology identifies appropriate manufacturing processes and insures bottom line cost savings. Implementing the identified projects reduces process wastes discharged, converts waste to economically beneficial material and develops new processes that eliminate waste. A successful zero waste program is incremental. The idea of a zero waste steel mill is approachable by the continuous reduction, re-use and recycling of wastes.

Wrona, L.M. [Hatch Associates Consultants, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States); Julien, G. [Hatch Associates Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-06-01

395

Comprehensive Planning for Classification and Disposal of Solid Waste at the Industrial Parks regarding Health and Environmental Impacts  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it. PMID:24688552

Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

2014-01-01

396

Comprehensive planning for classification and disposal of solid waste at the industrial parks regarding health and environmental impacts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it. PMID:24688552

Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

2014-01-01

397

Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

2012-01-01

398

Cr(VI) removal in acidic aqueous solution using iron-bearing industrial solid wastes and their stabilisation with cement.  

PubMed

In this study, iron-bearing industrial solid wastes iron filings, ETP sludge of steel and red mud of aluminium industries; were used for Cr(VI) removal at pH 3. A complete removal of Cr(VI) was found for initial 10 mg 1(-1) of 100 ml solutions in the presence of 2.5 g iron filings, 8 g ETP sludge and 10 g red mud for up to one hour of shaking at room temperature. After Cr(VI) removal, inclusion of chromium on the reacted iron filing surface was demonstrated by EDAX analysis. Leachability of chromium and iron from the reacted wastes was determined by using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This test showed a very low level of leachability of chromium as Cr(III) and iron from the reacted wastes. To minimise their leachability further, Cr(VI)-reacted solid wastes were stabilised with Portland cement in their 3:1 ratio. Leachability tests of stabilised wastes by TCLP indicated a considerable decrease in leachability of chromium and iron compared with the that of reacted wastes alone. To explore the possibility of utilisation in building materials, bricks of cement-mixed Cr(VI)-reacted wastes were made and their comprehensive strength, durability and leachability under immersion conditions were measured. PMID:11918404

Singh, I B; Singh, D R

2002-01-01

399

Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent  

DOEpatents

A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

2001-01-01

400

Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

Doye, I.; Duchesne, J. [University of Laval, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

2005-08-01

401

Differential potentiometric determination of perchlorate and iodide ions in industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

The determination of perchlorates and iodides present together in industrial wastes is hampered by the fact that these anions either are precipitated by the same organic reagents or form colored complexes with similar absorption maxima. Determining them by separation or by deducting one from their sum is a multi-step analysis which takes more time and decreases accuracy. In this paper, the authors report a rapid, single-step determination of co-present perchlorate and iodide by precipitative titration with nitron solution and potentiometric indication of the equivalence point by a perchlorate-selective membrane electrode. The perchlorate and iodide determinations were unaffected by surfactant, suspensions, and ions not precipitated with nitron. A single analysis takes 15-20 minutes. This method may also be used for analyzing single salts.

Kolbyagin, N.P.; Vlasova, E.G.; Zhilina, O.D.; Renkova, Z.S.

1986-12-01

402

Hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes using single-stage photofermentation.  

PubMed

Beet molasses and black strap are two major waste streams of the sugar industry. They both contain high amounts of sucrose, making them suitable substrates for biological hydrogen production. Photofermentation, usually used to convert organic acids to hydrogen, has the potential capacity to effectively use a variety of feed stocks, including sugars. A comparative study on photofermentative biohydrogen production from beet molasses, black strap, and sucrose was conducted. With yields of 10.5 mol H(2)/mol sucrose for beet molasses (1g/l sugar); 8 mol H(2)/mol sucrose for black strap (1g/l sugar) and 14 mol H(2)/mol sucrose for pure sucrose, a one stage photofermentation system appears promising as an alternative to two-stage systems given the potential savings in energy input and operational costs. PMID:22420990

Keskin, Tugba; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

2012-05-01

403

Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

2009-05-15

404

Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review  

PubMed Central

There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options. PMID:25110656

El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

2014-01-01

405

Preparation and characterization of masonry units, lightweight concrete based and agro-industrial wastes: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discussion about the new composite materials that integrate agro industrial residues for the masonry unit's production, which are directed towards its implementation in projects of affordable housing, is a subject of interest to the public and productive sector of the country. For this reason, it presents a descriptive review of primary and secondary sources, which support the project under study. The methodology consisted in finding research articles in databases supported by the scientific community, which are ordered, integrated and prioritized, creating a matrix synthesis, which condensed the objectives, type of material, studied properties and main results found. It was found that the composite materials for masonry use mainly clay or cement as matrix and as reinforcement, agro waste like paper fibers, bamboo, rice husks, among others are used. Moreover, the properties that determine its potential use are low density, stress resistance and low thermal conductivity. Comparing the results with traditional specimens as the block of clay, concrete, adobe vs. experimental models made of the compounds analyzed, favorable results were obtained in the case of integrating waste materials into its composition, optimized their properties. Thus, science and architecture converge through recognition of the properties of materials that expand the alternatives of building spaces, economic and environmentally sustainable.

Díaz-Fuentes, C. X.

2013-11-01

406

Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructure Transition Metal Oxides Extracted from Industrial Waste (EOFD) by Hydrothermal Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric oil furnace dust (EOFD) is a solid waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process in electric and oil furnaces. Over 7 million metric tons dust produced per annum in worldwide creates deep impacts like soil, ground water and ecology pollutions. This article reports the simple one step process for the extraction of nanostructured metal oxides from the industrial waste (EOFD) for the realization of low cost solar applications. By hydrothermal technique valuable metals were obtained in the form of metal oxides. Initially the presence of metals was identified by ICP analysis. XRD analysis confirms the formation of nano structured titanium oxide (TiO) along with traces of iron oxide (Fe2O3). The surface morphology and the particle size were analyzed by SEM analysis. Thus the metal oxides derived could be helpful to reduce the burden on the environment, increase the development of the source nano material and reduce the cost of raw materials for solar cell applications.

Girisun, T. C. Sabari; Babeela, C.; Vidhya, V.

2011-10-01

407

On the thermal stability of vitrified industrial wastes using microscale synchrotron radiation based techniques  

SciTech Connect

The effect of annealing on the local coordination of Fe in a series of vitrified industrial wastes is studied by means of x-ray fluorescence mapping, and micro- and conventional x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopies. It is demonstrated that annealing causes the formation of Fe- and Pb-rich microcrystallites which are embedded in the glass matrix. The local coordination of the Fe ion depends on the local variations of its concentration, i.e., Fe occupies octahedral sites in the Fe-rich crystalline regions and tetrahedral sites into the vitreous network. The percentage of the Fe atoms that belong to the crystalline inclusions depends on the waste content and the annealing temperature, and the stability of the vitrified product is discussed in relation to the nature of the formed microcrystallites. More specifically, when the microcrystallites are mixed Pb and Fe oxides, the material is safe since Pb is trapped both in the crystalline and vitreous regions. Finally, the effect of the different types of crystalline phases and crystalline ratio on the characteristics of the preedge peak in the near edge XAFS spectra is also discussed.

Pinakidou, F.; Katsikini, M.; Paloura, E. C. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2007-12-01

408

Evaluation of maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared from agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in physical, chemical and biological parameters to assess the maturity and stability of composts prepared from mixture of different farm and agro-industrial wastes over a period of 150 days. All the composts appeared granular, dark grey in color without foul odor and attained an ambient temperature at 120 days of composting indicating the stable nature of composts. Correlation analysis showed that the optimal values of the selected parameters for our experimental conditions are as follows: organic matter loss >42%, C:N ratio <15, water soluble organic carbon (C(w)):organic N (N(org)) ratio <0.55, humic acid (HA):fulvic acid (FA) ratio >1.9, humification index (HI) >30%, cation exchange capacity (CEC):total organic carbon (TOC) ratio >1.7 and germination index (GI) >70%. Compost enriched with sewage sludge, pressmud and poultry waste matured earlier compared to composts either enriched with distillery effluent or un-enriched. PMID:21075622

Raj, Dev; Antil, R S

2011-02-01

409

WORKSHOP ON IN-PLANT WASTE REDUCTION IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY, HELD AT UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON, DECEMBER 13-14, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Presented are the proceedings of a workshop on in-plant waste reduction in the meat industry. Forty-five participants from industry, government, and private firms exchanged ideas and experiences on waste reduction during the two-day session. Topics covered were: pens, blood conse...

410

Projected ocean dumping rates for municipal and industrial wastes in the year 2000. Report for 26 March 1984-26 August 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amounts of coal ash, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, sewage sludge, industrial waste, and seafood-processing wastes currently ocean dumped were determined, and ocean dumping of these wastes was projected for the year 2000. The projected rates were made using three different scenarios: Scenario I assumed continued ocean dumping only by current permittees, Scenario II assumed some relaxation of ocean

J. Cura; C. Menzie; J. Borchardt

1985-01-01

411

Activated carbon: Utilization in sewage and industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of activated carbon in treating sewage and industrial wastes. The citations include engineering studies, site evaluations, and regeneration techniques. References to air pollution are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-12-01

412

EVALUATION OF THE RCRA (RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT) EXTRACTION PROCEDURE - LYSIMETER STUDIES WITH MUNICIPAL/INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was initiated to determine the accuracy with which the Extraction Procedures (EP), employed in the regulations promulgated under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (40 CFR 26.124), simulates the leaching an industrial waste would undergo when codis...

413

Vugraph presentations of the fourth DOE Industry/University/Lab Forum on Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management  

SciTech Connect

This document is a compilation of various presentations from the Fourth DOE Industry/University/Lab Forum on Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management held in Albuquerque, New Mexico July 19--21, 1993. Separate abstracts were prepared for each presentation of this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

414

USEPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM ON REMEDIATION AND CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC AND MERCURY IN SOILS, INDUSTRIAL WASTES, AND GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the U.S. and around the world, mercury and arsenic contaminated soils, industrial wastes, and groundwater are difficult to effectively and cheaply remediate and contain. Mercury is a serious health concern and has been identified as a contaminant in the air, soil, sediment, su...

415

Process development for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions using red mud—an aluminium industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mud, an aluminium industry waste, has been converted into an inexpensive and efficient adsorbent and used for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions. Effect of various factors on the removal of these metal ions from water ( e.g. pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature, particle size, etc.) has been studied and discussed. The effect of presence

Vinod K Gupta; Monika Gupta; Saurabh Sharma

2001-01-01

416

The Snail as a Target Organism for the Evaluation of Industrial Waste Dump Contamination and the Efficiency of Its Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of contamination and the efficiency of remediation of an industrial waste dump (IWD) were done before and after remediation. For this study, two species of snails were used for passive and active biomonitoring: a nonnative species, Helix pomatia and young garden snails (Helix aspersa aspersa) of standardized rearing (age, 2 months). Bioaccumulation analysis of pollutants (cadmium, nickel, iron,

F. Pihan; A. de Vaufleury

2000-01-01

417

USE OF THE MICROSCREEN PHAGE-INDUCTION ASSAY TO ASSESS THE GENOTOXICITY OF 14 HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage lambda in Escherichia coli WP2s lambda, was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic act...

418

Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

419

The physical separation and recovery of metals from wastes. Process engineering for the chemical, metals and minerals industries, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This book deals with the physical processes used for the separation of secondary metals from waste sources. The introduction briefly considers the history of the secondary metals industries, defines the terms used in materials recycling and discusses the potential for resource recovery and improved processing. A comprehensive survey is given of the unit operations employed for metals recovery and reclamation, and this is followed by detailed descriptions of processes used to treat fragmentized metal wastes and granulated metal wastes. The final chapter reviews the processing of urban wastes for metals recovery, and gives details of modern plant and practices. The volume aims to bring together technical information on metals recovery from a wide range of sources in order to give a unified review of an important engineering and environmental topic. Topics include: general definitions used in materials recycling; the potential for resource recovery; secondary metals; ranking of scrap; the potential for improved processing; comminution; physical separation methods; the scrap industry; automobile composition; shredders; non-magnetic processing; metal reclamation processes; waste tire processing; battery processing; thermal processing systems; composition of urban waste; and material recovery.

Veasey, T.J.; Wilson, R.J. (eds.) (Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Engineering); Squires, D.M. (ed.) (Newell Engineering Ltd., Redditch (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01

420

Determining the biomass fraction of mixed waste fuels: A comparison of existing industry and (14)C-based methodologies.  

PubMed

(14)C analysis of flue gas by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were used to determine the biomass fraction of mixed waste at an operational energy-from-waste (EfW) plant. Results were converted to bioenergy (% total) using mathematical algorithms and assessed against existing industry methodologies which involve manual sorting and selective dissolution (SD) of feedstock. Simultaneous determinations using flue gas showed excellent agreement: 44.8 ± 2.7% for AMS and 44.6 ± 12.3% for LSC. Comparable bioenergy results were obtained using a feedstock manual sort procedure (41.4%), whilst a procedure based on selective dissolution of representative waste material is reported as 75.5% (no errors quoted). (14)C techniques present significant advantages in data acquisition, precision and reliability for both electricity generator and industry regulator. PMID:25318703

Muir, G K P; Hayward, S; Tripney, B G; Cook, G T; Naysmith, P; Herbert, B M J; Garnett, M H; Wilkinson, M

2015-01-01

421

Physical and mechanical properties of composites based on polypropylene and timber industry waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood polymer composites (WPC) are widely used materials in different industries because of many application, processing and recycling advantages compared to traditional thermoplastic polymer composites containing mineral fillers [1]. However, the commercial success of these materials primarily depends on improvements in moisture performance, and ability to use recycled and waste material as a wood filler. The research regarding WPC is focused on the chemical interaction between dissimilar material components with an aim to provide strong adhesion to the surface of wood filler-polymer matrix [2]. The goal of this paper was to present results of investigations of exploitation properties of composites containing different plywood production industry byproducts and polypropylene. It was shown that modification of all composites with coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP) considerably improve physical mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact strength) of WPC. MAPP (5 wt.%) additions also significantly improve water resistance of WPC. SEM investigations confirmed positive action of interfacial modifiers on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix that give considerable increase of exploitation properties of the WPC.

Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

2014-12-01

422

Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766?571?metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, ‘filter’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘butts’). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959–2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. Results The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20?years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Conclusions Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste. PMID:21504919

Novotny, Thomas E

2011-01-01

423

Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products.  

PubMed

The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in conventional raw materials and some solid industrial wastes and by-products which are being used or have a potential for use in the building and ceramic industries in Australia has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The majority of materials examined in this work showed fairly low levels of radioactivity. Some samples of red mud, phosphogypsum, zircon products and fly ash did show higher levels of radioactivity than would be acceptable on the basis of a criterion formula for gamma-ray activity suggested for use in some OECD countries. But this higher level of radioactivity should not pose an environmental health problem when these materials constitute a relatively small portion of the materials used in a normal building. The present work has also shown that the radioactivity levels of some of the materials can be reduced through the removal of fines by sieving, as the fines seem to contain a higher concentration of radioactive nuclides. PMID:3967976

Beretka, J; Matthew, P J

1985-01-01

424

Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

425

Energy and materials savings from gases and solid waste recovery in the iron and steel industry in Brazil: An industrial ecology approach  

SciTech Connect

This paper attempts to investigate, from an entropic point of view, the role of selected technologies in the production, transformation, consumption and release of energy and materials in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. In a quantitative analysis, the potential for energy and materials savings with recovery of heat, gases and tar are evaluated for the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. The technologies for heat recovery of gases include Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ), applied only in one of the five Brazilian coke integrated steel plants, Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbines (TPRT), recovery of Coke Oven Gas (COG), recovery of Blast Furnace Gas (BFG), recovery of BOF gas, recovery of tar, and thermal plant. Results indicate that, in a technical scenario, some 5.1 TWh of electricity can be generated if these technologies are applied to recover these remaining secondary fuels in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil, which is equivalent to some 45% of current total electricity consumption in the integrated plants in the country. Finally, solid waste control technologies, including options available for collection and treatment, are discussed. Estimates using the best practice methodology show that solid waste generation in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil reached approximately 18 million metric tons in 1994, of which 28% can be recirculated if the best practice available in the country is applied thoroughly.

Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

1997-07-01

426

View graph presentations of the sixth DOE industry/university/lab forum on robotics for environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Robotics Technology Development Program involves the following: develop robotic systems where justified by safety, cost, and/or efficiency arguments; integrate the best talent from National Labs, industry, and universities in focused teams addressing complex-wide problems; and involve customers in the identification and development of needs driven technologies. This presentation focuses on five areas. They are: radioactive tank waste remediation (Richland); mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal (Idaho Falls); decontamination and decommissioning (Morgantown); landfill stabilization (Savannah River); and contaminant plumes containment and remediation (Savannah River).

NONE

1995-10-01

427

Chlorine Disinfection of Wet Weather Managed Flows  

EPA Science Inventory

Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to deal with wet weather events when the hydraulic capacity of the treatment facility could be compromised. Blending consists of primary wastewater treatment plant effluent, partially bypassing secondary treatment, and then ...

428

Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.  

PubMed

From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10?gm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32?gm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois. PMID:23199452

Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

2013-03-15

429

Novel use of biomass derived alkyl-xylosides in wetting agent for paper impregnation suitable for the wood-based industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, papers impregnated with thermosetting resins like urea-formaldehyde and\\/or melamine-formaldehyde are broadly used as\\u000a covers for wood-based panels like particleboards (PB) and medium density fibreboards (MDF), because they offer flexibility\\u000a in surface decoration, mechanical endorsement and protection from emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of the panel.\\u000a The resin is enhanced with various additives, like hardeners, de-foaming agents, surfactants, wetting

E. Papadopoulou; A. Hatjiissaak; B. Estrine; S. Marinkovic

430

Behavior of cement mortars containing an industrial waste from aluminium refining: Stability in Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical interaction between a solid industrial waste from aluminium refining and saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution, as well as the effects of substituting siliceous sand for the waste on the physical and mechanical properties of mortars were studied. The waste is a solid that contains reactive alumina capable of combining with the calcium hydroxide. These reactions result in stable and insoluble compounds. This alumina, together with the halite (also present in the waste composition), chemically react with a saturated solution of Ca(OH){sub 2}, giving as a main reaction product the so-called Friedel's salt (Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}O{sub 6} {center{underscore}dot} 10 H{sub 2}O). Straetlingite and Si-hydrogarnets were among other products detected. The waste has a high specific surface area. The cement/waste mixtures therefore require a higher quantity of mixing water than cement/sand mixtures. The result is a decrease of the mechanical strengths and an increase of the total porosity. However, a decrease of the average size of the pores occurs, which can have a positive effect on the durability of the final material.

Puertas, F.; Blanco-Varela, M.T.; Vazquez, T.

1999-10-01

431

Carotene production from agro-industrial wastes by Arthrobacter globiformis in shake-flask culture.  

PubMed

Industrial waste substrates, sugarcane molasses, and corn steep liquor were used for production of carotenes by Arthrobacter globiformis in this study. At the first stage, a one-factor-at-a-time approach was used for optimization of different media components such as carbon, nitrogen, MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, and KH(2)PO(4), as well as pH, temperature, liquid medium volume, and inoculums level. The response surface method was further applied to determination of optimum values of process variables for maximum carotenes concentration. Results showed that the optimum combination for carotenes formation was as follows (g/L): sugarcane molasses, 40.00; corn steep liquor, 50.00; MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, 0.75; KH(2)PO(4), 1.00. The maximum carotene concentration of 1.19 ± 0.02 mg/g dry biomass, about 113% of 1.05 ± 0.02 mg/g dry biomass growing in basal medium, was demonstrated by confirmatory experiments to be the optimum in liquid medium at 100 rpm, 30°C, initial pH of 7.5, and cultivation for 60 hr. In a second stage, detailed studies showed about 1.64-fold and 1.43-fold increase in carotene concentration (mg/g dry biomass) in the presence of addition of ethanol (4%, v/v) and addition of hydrogen peroxide (4%, v/v) at 40 hr, and 32 hr in liquid medium, separately. PMID:24320236

Zhai, Yu-Gui; Han, Mei; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Qian, He

2014-01-01

432

Investigation of the effect of culture type on biological hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

The bio-hydrogen generation potential of sugar industry wastes was investigated. In the first part of the study, acidogenic anaerobic culture was enriched from the mixed anaerobic culture (MAC) through acidification of glucose. In the second part of the study, glucose acclimated acidogenic seed was used, along with the indigenous microorganisms, MAC, 2-bromoethanesulfonate treated MAC and heat treated MAC. Two different COD levels (4.5 and 30 g/L COD) were investigated for each culture type. Reactors with initial COD concentration of 4.5 g/L had higher H{sub 2} yields (20.3-87.7 mL H{sub 2}/g COD) than the reactors with initial COD concentration of 30 g/L (0.9-16.6 mL H{sub 2}/g COD). The 2-bromoethanesulfonate and heat treatment of MAC inhibited the methanogenic activity, but did not increase the H{sub 2} production yield. The maximum H{sub 2} production (87.7 mL H{sub 2}/g COD) and minimum methanogenic activity were observed in the unseeded reactor with 4.5 g/L of initial COD.

Ozkan, Leyla; Erguder, Tuba H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Demirer, Goksel N., E-mail: goksel@metu.edu.t [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

2010-05-15

433

Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed. PMID:23033675

Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

2012-03-01

434

Investigation of the effect of culture type on biological hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes.  

PubMed

The bio-hydrogen generation potential of sugar industry wastes was investigated. In the first part of the study, acidogenic anaerobic culture was enriched from the mixed anaerobic culture (MAC) through acidification of glucose. In the second part of the study, glucose acclimated acidogenic seed was used, along with the indigenous microorganisms, MAC, 2-bromoethanesulfonate treated MAC and heat treated MAC. Two different COD levels (4.5 and 30g/L COD) were investigated for each culture type. Reactors with initial COD concentration of 4.5g/L had higher H(2) yields (20.3-87.7mL H(2)/g COD) than the reactors with initial COD concentration of 30g/L (0.9-16.6mL H(2)/g COD). The 2-bromoethanesulfonate and heat treatment of MAC inhibited the methanogenic activity, but did not increase the H(2) production yield. The maximum H(2) production (87.7mL H(2)/g COD) and minimum methanogenic activity were observed in the unseeded reactor with 4.5g/L of initial COD. PMID:19962300

Ozkan, Leyla; Erguder, Tuba H; Demirer, Goksel N

2010-05-01

435

Waste biomass adsorbents for copper removal from industrial wastewater--a review.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu(2+)) containing wastewaters are extensively released from different industries and its excessive entry into food chains results in serious health impairments, carcinogenicity and mutagenesis in various living systems. An array of technologies is in use to remediate Cu(2+) from wastewaters. Adsorption is the most attractive option due to the availability of cost effective, sustainable and eco-friendly bioadsorbents. The current review is dedicated to presenting state of the art knowledge on various bioadsorbents and physico-chemical conditions used to remediate Cu(2+) from waste streams. The advantages and constraints of various adsorbents were also discussed. The literature revealed the maximum Cu adsorption capacities of various bioadsorbents in the order of algae>agricultural and forest>fungal>bacterial>activated carbon>yeast. However, based on the average Cu adsorption capacity, the arrangement can be: activated carbon>algal>bacterial>agriculture and forest-derived>fungal>yeast biomass. The data of Cu removal using these bioadsorbents were found best fit both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Agriculture and forest derived bioadsorbents have greater potential for Cu removal because of higher uptake, cheaper nature, bulk availability and mono to multilayer adsorption behavior. Higher costs at the biomass transformation stage and decreasing efficiency with desorption cycles are the major constraints to implement this technology. PMID:23972667

Bilal, Muhammad; Shah, Jehanzeb Ali; Ashfaq, Tayyab; Gardazi, Syed Mubashar Hussain; Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Pervez, Arshid; Haroon, Hajira; Mahmood, Qaisar

2013-12-15

436

Industrial waste utilization for low-cost production of raw material oil through microbial fermentation.  

PubMed

In view of ever-growing demand of biodiesel, there is an urgent need to look for inexpensive and promising renewable raw material oils for its production. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of industrial wastes for low-cost production of oils through microbial fermentation. Among the strains tested, Yarrowia lipolytica grew best and produced highest lipid when grown on decanter effluent from palm oil mill. When crude glycerol by-product from a biodiesel plant was added into the effluent as a co-substrate, Y. lipolytica produced a higher biomass of 3.21 g/L and a higher amount of lipid of 2.21 g/L which was 68 % of the dry weight. The scale up and process improvement in a 5-L bioreactor increased the biomass and lipid up to 5.53 and 2.81 g/L, respectively. A semi-continuous mode of operation was an effective mode for biomass enhancement while a fed-batch mode was effective for lipid enhancement. These yeast lipids have potential to be used as biodiesel feedstocks because of their similar fatty acid composition to that of plant oil. PMID:23151967

Louhasakul, Yasmi; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

2013-01-01

437

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

438

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

439

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

440

Hazardous waste reduction checklist and assessment manual for the metal finishing industry  

SciTech Connect

This publication is a checklist and assessment manual to assist metal finishing shops in evaluating waste reduction opportunities. The first section of the report provides a checklist along with tables to summarize the potential of waste reduction options. Section 2 provides the methods for evaluating the implementations potential of the options and Section 3 contains an economics worksheet for estimating costs, savings and payback periods. A waste reduction opportunities table is contained in the Appendix to prioritize waste reduction options.

Garza, D.Q.

1995-08-01

441

Genotoxicity studies in semiconductor industry. 1. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of waste samples resulting from plasma etching  

SciTech Connect

Solid waste samples taken from the etching reactor, the turbo pump, and the waste air system of a plasma etching technology line in semiconductor production were studied as to their genotoxic properties in a bacterial repair test, in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay, in the SOS chromotest, in primary mouse hepatocytes, and in Chinese hamster V79 cell cultures. All three waste samples were found to be active by inducing of unscheduled DNA-synthesis in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In the bacterial rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis, waste samples taken from the turbo pump and the vacuum pipe system were not genotoxic. The waste sample taken from the chlorine-mediated plasma reactor was clearly positive in the bacterial repair assay and in the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli. Mutagenic activity was demonstrated for all samples in the presence and absence of S9 mix made from mouse liver homogenate. Again, highest mutagenic activity was recorded for the waste sample taken from the plasma reactor, while samples collected from the turbo pump and from the waste air system before dilution and liberation of the air were less mutagenic. For all samples chromosomal damage in V79 cells was not detected, indicating absence of clastogenic activity in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate generation of genotoxic and mutagenic products as a consequence of chlorine-mediated plasma etching in the microelectronics industry and the presence of genotoxins even in places distant from the plasma reactor. Occupational exposure can be expected both from the precipitated wastes and from chemicals reaching the environment with the air stream.

Braun, R.; Huettner, E.M.; Merten, H.; Raabe, F. (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany))

1993-07-01

442

Utilization of industrial waste products as pozzolanic material in cemented paste backfill of high sulphide mill tailings.  

PubMed

In this study, the potential use of the industrial waste products including waste glass (WG), fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and silica fume (SF) as pozzolanic additive for the partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in cemented paste backfill (CPB) of sulphide-rich mill tailings was investigated. The influence of these industrial waste products on the short- and long-term mechanical performance of CPB was demonstrated. The rate of development of strength of CPB samples tended to slow down when the pozzolanic wastes were incorporated or increased in dosage in the binder phase. Severe losses (by 26%) in the strength of CPB samples produced from exclusively OPC occurred after an initial curing period of 56 days. The addition of WG (10-30 wt%) as a partial replacement of OPC was observed to aggravate further the strength losses of CPB samples. GBFS, FA and SF appeared to improve the long-term performance of CPB samples; albeit, only GBFS and SF could be incorporated into the binder phase only at certain levels i.e. up to 20 wt% GBFS and 15wt% SF in order to maintain a threshold strength level of 0.7MPa over 360 days. SEM studies have provided further insight into the microstucture of CPB and confirmed the formation of deleterious gypsum as the expansive phase. These findings have demonstrated that the industrial waste products including GBFS and SF can be suitably used as mineral additives to improve the long-term mechanical performance of CPB produced from sulphide-rich tailings as well as to reduce the binder costs in a CPB plant. PMID:19299080

Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

2009-09-15

443

How to Put the Dollar Value on Waste Heat Recovery in the Process Industry  

E-print Network

Waste heat recovery projects should be evaluated on their actual fuel savings and not on Btu recovery. By equating waste heat recovery with potential steam savings, the fuel (or dollar) values of the waste heat as function of its temperature can...

Campagne, W. V. L.

1982-01-01

444

Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.  

PubMed

The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC. PMID:25662694

Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

2015-04-20

445

Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching.  

PubMed

Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na2CO3, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na2CO3, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 20g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. PMID:25769129

Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon

2015-04-01

446

In-line measurements of chlorine containing polymers in an industrial waste sorting plant by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of chlorine containing waste polymers in-line of an industrial materials sorting plant. Material from municipal waste plastic collection containing different types of plastic pieces and impurities is measured without pre-treatment directly on the conveyor belt (conveyor speed 2 m/s). The encapsulated LIBS system mounted to the conveyor comprises a fast Nd:YAG laser and spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector, a distance sensor, and a software for quasi real-time evaluation of measured LIBS spectra. Approximately 800,000 spectra are collected during the in-line measurement series using one laser pulse per spectrum. The optical plasma emission of Cl I at 837.6 nm is detected to identify waste polymers with high Cl content such as polyvinylchloride (PVC). The LIBS spectra are evaluated employing a fast linear correlation algorithm. The correlation histogram for more than 20,000 spectra shows three distinct peaks that are associated to different materials containing high amount of Chlorine (>20 wt %), Titanium, and low amount of Cl (<20 wt%). Signals of the LIBS sensor and a commercial near-infrared (NIR) optical reflection sensor were found to deviate for some samples. Such deviations might be caused by dark PVC samples that are detected by LIBS but missed by NIR reflection. Our results show that fast in-line identification of Cl containing waste polymer by LIBS is feasible under industrial conditions.

Huber, N.; Eschlböck-Fuchs, S.; Scherndl, H.; Freimund, A.; Heitz, J.; Pedarnig, J. D.

2014-05-01

447

Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

1990-01-01

448

Management strategies on the industrialization road of state-of-the-art technologies for e-waste recycling: the case study of electrostatic separation--a review.  

PubMed

Electronic waste (e-waste) management is pressing as global production has increased significantly in the past few years and is rising continuously at a fast rate. Many countries are facing hazardous e-waste mountains, most of which are disposed of by backyard recyclers, creating serious threats to public health and ecosystems. Industrialization of state-of-the-art recycling technologies is imperative to enhance the comprehensive utilization of resources and to protect the environment. This article aims to provide an overview of management strategies solving the crucial problems during the process of industrialization. A typical case study of electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards was discussed in terms of parameters optimization, materials flow control, noise assessment, risk assessment, economic evaluation and social benefits analysis. The comprehensive view provided by the review could be helpful to the progress of the e-waste recycling industry. PMID:23129606

Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

2013-02-01

449

WASTE/SOIL TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR FOUR COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL WASTES: METHODOLOGIES AND RESULTS. VOLUME 2. WASTE LOADING IMPACTS ON SOIL DEGRADATION, TRANSFORMATION, AND IMMOBILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report presents information pertaining to quantitative evaluation of the soil treatment potential resulting from waste-soil interaction studies for four specific wastes listed under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Volume 2 contains resul...

450

Phytoremediation potential of Arabidopsis thaliana, expressing ectopically a vacuolar proton pump, for the industrial waste phosphogypsum.  

PubMed

Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphorus-fertiliser industry and represents an environmental concern since it contains pollutants such as cadmium (Cd). We have recently shown that the overexpression of a proton pump gene (TaVP1) in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) led to an enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants harbouring the TaVP1 gene to phytoremediate phosphogypsum. A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Transgenic A. thaliana plants harbouring the TaVP1 gene were grown on various substrates containing phosphogypsum (0, 25, 50 and 100 %) for 40 days. At the end of the growth period, we examined the growth (germination, root length, fresh weight) and physiological parameters (chlorophyll and protein contents, catalase activity and proteolysis) as well as the cadmium, Mg, Ca, and P contents of the A. thaliana plants. In order to evaluate Cd tolerance of the A. thaliana lines harbouring the TaVP1 gene, an in vitro experiment was also carried out. One week-old seedlings were transferred to Murashige and Skoog agar plates containing various concentrations of cadmium; the germination, total leaf area and root length were determined. The growth and physiological parameters of all A. thaliana plants were significantly altered by PG. The germination capacity, root growth and biomass production of wild-type (WT) plants were more severely inhibited by PG compared with the TaVP1 transgenic A. thaliana lines. In addition, TaVP1 transgenic A. thaliana plants maintained a higher antioxidant capacity than the WT. Interestingly, elemental analysis of leaf material derived from plants grown on PG revealed that the transgenic A. thaliana line accumulated up to ten times more Cd than WT. Despite its higher Cd content, the transgenic A. thaliana line performed better than the WT counterpart. In vitro evaluation of Cd tolerance showed that TaVP1 transgenic A. thaliana lines were more Cd-tolerant than the WT plants. These results suggested that ectopic expression of a vacuolar proton pump in A. thaliana plants can lead to various biotechnological applications including the phytoremediation of industrial wastes. PMID:22956112

Khoudi, Habib; Maatar, Yafa; Brini, Faïçal; Fourati, Amine; Ammar, Najoua; Masmoudi, Khaled

2013-01-01

451

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2012-02-01

452

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

453

Diversified forest ecosystems can grow on industrial waste residues: evidence from a multiproxy approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smelter activities in the Lorraine region (North-East France) have lead to the creation of flotation ponds that were used to eliminate wastes, mainly slag. After industrial decline, some of these flotation ponds were colonized by vegetation and evolved to forest ecosystems. One of these old flotation ponds, situated in Pompey, close to Nancy (North-East France), was studied by collecting information on several physico-chemical and biological indicators. The main objective was to understand the biological functioning of this system, whose soil can be classified as a pure Technosol, characterised by a very complex stratified profile created by successive slag deposits. Soil is characterized by its apparent heterogeneity, but also its high agronomic fertility and particularly high metal contents. Holorganic horizons can vary from one to several centimetres. Macrofauna is characterized by a very low abundance of earthworms and a dominance of millipedes. Furthermore, whereas earthworms do accumulate metals, this is not the case for millipedes. Mesofauna is typical of a temperate forest system, dominated by Collembola. Soil organo-mineral associations showed a high proportion of faecal pellets from Oribatid mites, Isopods and Diplopods. Furthermore, Mn, which is highly associated to metals (especially Zn and Pb) seems to play an important role in organo-mineral associations, including bacteria. An organic fraction is also directly associated to Calcium, Pb and Cu. Vegetation presents a high diversity, with more than 70 species, with very low metal transfer to plants. Results from soil respirometry are typical from temperate forest ecosystems. All this information has been combined to propose a model for the biochemical functioning of a such Technosol.

Cortet, Jerome; Schwartz, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Nahmani, Johanne; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Sirguey, Catherine; Watteau, Francoise; Morel, Jean Louis

2010-05-01

454

Immunotoxic effects of an industrial waste incineration site on groundwater in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The discharge of organic waste from the petrochemical industry into the Mercier lagoons caused major groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to determine the immunotoxic potential of three groundwater wells at increasing distance from the incinerator dumping site (1.17, 2.74 and 5.40 km). Rainbow Trout were exposed to increasing concentrations of water from three groundwater wells for 14 days. Immunocompetence was characterized by phagocytosis, mitogen-stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis. A significant increase in innate (phagocytosis) and specific immune response (B lymphocyte proliferation) was observed in trout exposed to water collected from the well at 2.74 km. However, phagocytosis activity was suppressed in groups at 1.17 and 5.40 km. The proportion of lymphocytes in S phase was significantly increased in groups at 2.74 and 5.40 km, while lymphocytes in G0/G1 phase were decreased in all three exposure groups. Additionally, dexamethasone (DEX)-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes was significantly reduced in the group at 2.74 km, which suggests decreased lymphocyte turnover. Furthermore, the ratio of DEX-induced apoptosis/apoptosis was lower in the groups at 2.74 and 5.40 km. In summary, our experiments have shown that exposure to the mixture of organic compounds present in Mercier groundwater modulates phagocytosis and cell proliferation, disrupts the cell cycle and reduces the ratio of DEX-induced apoptosis/apoptosis. It is concluded that groundwater collected in the vicinity of an incinerator containment field could impact immunocompetence in fish. PMID:25079628

Benchalgo, Nadjet; Gagné, François; Fournier, Michel

2014-05-01

455

Activated carbon from industrial solid waste as an adsorbent for the removal of Rhodamine-B from aqueous solution: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activated carbon was prepared using industrial solid waste called sago waste and physico-chemical properties of carbon were carried out to explore adsorption process. The effectiveness of carbon prepared from sago waste in adsorbing Rhodamine-B from aqueous solution has been studied as a function of agitation time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and desorption. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried

K. Kadirvelu; C. Karthika; N. Vennilamani; S. Pattabhi

2005-01-01

456

Sewage and industrial waste treatment: Wetlands. January 1977-December 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-December 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning developments, operations, and evaluations of natural and artificial wetlands treatment of waste water and sludge. Aquaculture treatments of industrial, municipal, and domestic waste water are examined. Topics include nutrient removal, heavy-metal recovery, and case studies of wetlands being used for waste water treatment. (This updated bibliography contains 135 citations, 23 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01