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1

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTES FROM THE CORN WET MILLING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot plant aerated lagoon and laboratory completely mixed activated sludge treatment studies of corn wet milling wastes showed that either process could produce a satisfactory effluent. A full scale completely mixed activated sludge treatment plant was designed from laboratory r...

2

Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels  

E-print Network

of subcritical and supercritical wet oxidation technologies to chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, wood-pulping, and coal-washing wastes. Each application is evaluated for technical and economic feasibility as well as its national applicability...

Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

3

Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

4

Fermentation industry. [Industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review of wastes generated from the fermentation industry, and their reuse in biomass production, animal feeds, fertilizers and building materials is presented. Several waste treatment alternatives are discussed for breweries, yeast manufacturing, distilleries, wineries, and pharmaceutical companies.

S. C. Chiesa; R. L. Irvine; J. F. Jr. Manning

1982-01-01

5

Assessment for development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low-grade fuels. Final report, October 18, 1989--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this program was to demonstrate safe, reliable, and effective operation of the supercritical water oxidation process (SCWO) at a pilot plant-level throughput. This program was a three phase program. Phase 1 of the program preceded MODEC`s participation in the program. MODEC did participate in Phases 2 and 3 of the program. In Phase 2, the target waste and industry were pulp mill sludges from the pulp and paper industry. In Phase 3, the target was modified to be DOE-generated mixed low level waste; wastes containing RCRA hazardous constituents and radionuclide surrogates were used as model wastes. The paper describes the research unit planning and design; bench-scale development of SCWO; research and development of wet oxidation of fuels; and the design of a super-critical water pilot plant.

Sundback, C.

1995-05-01

6

Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

7

ENERGY RECOVERY FROM WET WASTES - A VIABLE CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTION?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 NSW Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) Summary In response to the emerging interest in waste as a source of renewable energy, the NSW Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) commissioned a study in 1998 to determine the viability of recovering energy from wet waste streams (1). Wet wastes are biomass derived wastes that are predominantly water and that are generally

Marguerite Lake; Stuart Pullar; Robert Pagan; Nicole Ghiotto

8

Industrial Waste Heat Recovery  

E-print Network

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVREY M. E. Ward and N. G. Solomon E. S. Tabb Solar Turbines International and Gas Research Institute San Diego, California Chicago, Illinois ABSTRACT i I One hundred fifty reports were reviewed along with interviews...INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVREY M. E. Ward and N. G. Solomon E. S. Tabb Solar Turbines International and Gas Research Institute San Diego, California Chicago, Illinois ABSTRACT i I One hundred fifty reports were reviewed along with interviews...

Ward, M. E.; Solomon, N. G.; Tabb, E. S.

1980-01-01

9

Steel Industry Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

1978-01-01

10

Industrial waste management in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Systematic management for industrial waste in Japan has been carried out based on the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law which was enacted in 1970. The law and its ordinances designate 19 kinds of waste materials discharged from business activities as industrial waste and prescribe the generator's responsibility, requirements for treatment contractors, standards for consignment, specific personnel, etc. from the view of proper management. And they also prescribe disposal standards, structure, and maintenance standards for treatment facilities, including final disposal sites, from the view of proper treatment and disposal. The Standard for Verification provides criteria to categorize as hazardous or nonhazardous industrial waste which is subjected to treatment and disposal in conformity with each standard. The fundamental policies to cope with industrial waste focus on reduction of generation, promotion of recycling, establishment of a comprehensive information management system and participation of the public which can contribute well to prevent environmental pollution caused by inappropriate management of industrial waste.

Hirota, Y.

1986-12-01

11

Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

Not Available

1994-01-01

12

Catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastes  

E-print Network

The effective removal of toxic chemicals from water is a problem of increasing importance. Aqueous phase oxidation of dilute organic contaminants is an attractive alternative to separation and/or incineration for the treatment of waste water...

Thomas, Brook James

2012-06-07

13

CENTURY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS FRP-100 WET SCRUBBER EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field test evaluation of the performance of the Century Industrial Products FRP-100 wet scrubber installed on a lightweight aggregate kiln. Inlet/outlet tests for particle size distribution with cascade impactors and extractive sampling with an elect...

14

Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.  

PubMed

Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ? 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization. PMID:24073987

Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

2013-11-01

15

Industrial Waste Heat for Greenhouse Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economical conditions of utilizing industrial waste heat for greenhouse heating has been investigated. The investment cost and yearly operational costs of greenhouses and heating systems have been calculated as a function of the temperature of waste h...

S. E. Ransmark

1983-01-01

16

Waste Management Trends in Texas Industrial Plants  

E-print Network

, including reporting. Some reporting is required of all industrial plants, but the reporting requirements and procedures differ in accordance with the type and amount of waste generated. Future changes in federal and state laws regarding waste management...

Smith, C. S.; Heffington, W. M.

17

Treatment of industrial waste water  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for processing industrial waste waters and , in particular, blow down water from thermal electric plants. The water is processed to concentrate the salts contained therein and to obtain a concentrated brine which can then be passed to a thermal evaporator and/or solar evaporation ponds. The water is processed by the addition of magnesium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in amounts sufficient to precipitate the calcium as calcium carbonate, thereby obtaining a water reduced in calcium content and increased in magnesium content from the industrial waste water. The treated water is processed to recover a purified water from a brine, preferably by reverse osmosis. Calcium hydroxide is added to the brine generated by the reverse osmosis process in an amount sufficient to precipitate magnesium hydroxide therefrom which can be recycled to supply the magnesium hydroxide used in pre-treatment of the water prior to the reverse osmosis process. A clarified brine is recovered from the magnesium hydroxide precipitation step and may then be naturally or thermally evaporated to produce a saturated slurry of salt solids. This slurry can then be further reduced to dryness by solar evaporation.

Anderson, D. R.

1980-02-12

18

Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-01-01

19

Biomass fuels dehydration with industrial waste heat  

SciTech Connect

The advantages and techniques for utilizing industrial waste heat for drying biomass fuels are discussed. In particular, the use of waste heat fuel dryers in the sugar industry to dry bagasse for cogeneration, is examined. The Hilo Coast Processing Company of Hawaii which operates a very efficient power generating plant with its raw sugar mill is given as an example.

Young, W.O.

1981-02-01

20

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and\\/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly

Larry D Claxton; Virginia S Houk; Thomas J Hughes

1998-01-01

21

Wet oxidation of oil-bearing sulfide wastes  

SciTech Connect

Oil-bearing metal sulfide sludges produced in treatment of an industrial wastewater, which includes plating wastes, have yielded to treatment by electrooxidation and hydrogen peroxide processes. The oxidation can be controlled to be mild enough to avoid decomposition of the organic phase while oxidizing the sulfides to sulfates. The pH is controlled to near neutral conditions where iron, aluminum and chromium(III) precipitate as hydrous oxides. Other metals, such as lead and barium, may be present as sulfate precipitates with limited solubility, while metals such as nickel and cadmium would be present as complexed ions in a sulfate solution. The oxidations were found to proceed smoothly, without vigorous reaction; heat liberation was minimal. 2 refs., 12 figs.

Miller, R.L.; Hotz, N.J.

1991-01-01

22

Wet vs Dry Gas Cleaning In the Steel Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deciding whether the gas should be cleaned by a “dry” system or a “wet” system requires a full consideration of all factors of which the capital cost is only one. Anticipating the various problems which might be expected and designing adequate measures for each calls for major engineering effort,but onlythen can a best choice be made. The principles which govern

H. C. Henschen

1968-01-01

23

Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

Zhang, Pengchong

24

Wet scrubbing for particulate removal on industrial boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1972, the State of New York passed the Air Pollution Control Act, thereby establishing limits for the emission of particulates and various obnoxious gases. Industries were required to perform tests on emission sources and prepare plans and schedules for compliance on each source exceeding the established limits. This discussion will center on United States Gypsum Company's Oakfield, New York,

L. E. Faught

1975-01-01

25

Industrial wastes and sludges management by vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vermicomposting has been arising as an innovative ecotechnology for the conversion of various types of wastes into vermicompost.\\u000a Vermicompost is humus like, finely granulated and stabilized material which can be used as a soil conditioner to reintegrate\\u000a the organic matter to the agricultural soils. Industrial wastes remain largely unutilized and often cause environmental problems\\u000a like ground and surface water pollution,

Anoop Yadav; V. K. Garg

26

Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains technical papers published as they were presented at a recent specialty conference sponsored by the Air & Waste Management Association, titled Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, held March 26-27, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Papers touch on compilance concerns for air pollution, air monitoring methodologies, risk assessment, and problems related to public anxiety. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database from this proceedings.

NONE

1996-12-31

27

Use of waste marble powder in brick industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usability of waste marble dust as an additive material in industrial brick were investigated. Marble wastes were collected from marble deposits which are located at Southwest of Turkey and industrial brick mortar was obtained from a brick company in Istanbul. Waste marble dust and brick mortar were prepared for various processes of industrial brick investigation. Waste material in different

N. Bilgin; H. A. Yeprem; S. Arslan; A. Bilgin; E. Günay; M. Mar?oglu

28

Industrial Wastes as a Fuel  

E-print Network

With the advent of scarce supplies and rising costs for traditional industrial fuels such as natural gas and fuel oil, a large amount of technical data has been collected and published to encourage their efficient use. This same data is readily...

Richardson, G.; Hendrix, W.

1980-01-01

29

RECOVERY, REUSE, AND RECYCLE OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The major goal of this work is to produce a document useful in planning efforts aimed at elimination of industrial wastes through the application of recycle, recovery, and reuse technology. The pollutants considered in this study are basically organic and inorganic by-products fr...

30

INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN RELATION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

PubMed Central

Principal responsibility for preventing stream pollution by industrial wastes should be placed on the plants themselves. But municipalities should not depend upon out-of-date purification plants, but should utilize new methods. State health officers should have regulatory powers under standardized laws conforming to Federal practices. Imagesp198-a PMID:18010452

Donaldson, Wellington

1921-01-01

31

WASTE HEAT RECOVERY POTENTIAL IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The research project was initiated with the overall objective of identifying the points, qualities, and quantities, of waste heat discharged to the environment by energy intensive industries and emerging technologies for energy development. These data may then be utilized to eval...

32

Intrinsic remediation of an industrial waste impoundment  

SciTech Connect

Intrinsic remediation, also known as natural restoration, was evaluated as a potential corrective action alternative for an industrial surface impoundment previously used for the disposal of waste treatment biosolids, organic wastes, and fly ash. Organic waste constituents included chlorobenzene, aniline, xylenes, benzene, toluene, acetone, p-cresol, 2-butanone, fluorene, and ethylbenzene. The evaluation demonstrated that the impoundment contains an active microbial community including aerobic, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microbes, and that environmental conditions were favorable for their growth. Laboratory studies confirmed that these microbes could biodegrade the organic waste constituents under varying redox conditions. The sorptive properties of the residual biosolids and fly ash contribute to the immobilization of chemical constituents and may enhance biodegradation by sequestering chemicals onto surfaces where microbes grow. Based on this field and laboratory evaluation, it was concluded that intrinsic remediation offers significant environmental benefits over other corrective action alternatives that would not allow these natural restoration processes to continue in the surface impoundment.

Swindoll, C.M.; Lee, M.D.; Wood, K.N.; Hartten, A.S.; Bishop, A.L.; Connor, J.M.

1995-12-31

33

Waste-to-energy industry maturing  

SciTech Connect

The rapidly developing waste-to-energy industry is showing that it is offering some very real solutions to their waste-disposal problems. A recent survey showed that there were 196 resource recovery facilities, having a combined processing capacity of 156,000 tons per day (TPD), either operating, under construction, or in the advanced planning stages in the US at this time. There are growing indications, however, that the industry is already moving from the early gold rush days to the maturation stage. There is also increasing environmental opposition as the not-in-my-backyard syndrome spreads and as environmental groups increase their activities. There is every indication that politics will continue to play an important role in waste management decisions. Changing economics can also have their effect. While projects may be delayed or postponed indefinitely, there is no doubt that the waste-to-energy industry will continue to bring plants on-line. A review of 9 contract award announcements and new plant dedications is made.

Marier, D.

1987-09-01

34

Radioactive waste management in developing and newly industrialized countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive wastes are mostly produced in countries with military nuclear programmes. However, non-nuclear weapon countries, with solely commercial nuclear industries, also produce radioactive wastes. Moreover, uranium and thorium mining and milling wastes, as well as other kinds of low-level radioactive wastes like those resulting from radiological accidents, can also be found in developing and newly industrialized countries. The paper discusses

A. S. Paschoa; A. Tranjan Filho

1995-01-01

35

Industrial waste in highway construction K. Aravind1  

E-print Network

Industrial waste in highway construction K. Aravind1 and Animesh Das2 Introduction Civilization for alternative materials for highway construction, and industrial waste product is one such category be used in highway construction: Table-1: Possible usage of industrial waste products in highway

Das, Animesh

36

Potential utilization of guar gum industrial waste in vermicompost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of guar gum industrial waste through vermitechnology was studied under laboratory conditions by using composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier). Three different combination of guar gum industrial waste namely guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 40:30:30 ratio (T1), guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 60:20:20 ratio (T2), and guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 75:15:10 ratio (T3)

Surendra Suthar

2006-01-01

37

Industrial solid waste flow analysis of eco-industrial parks: implications for sustainable waste management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable waste management in the industrial ecology perspective brings enormous challenges to the existing methodology\\u000a of waste analysis at the industrial park (IP) scale. In this study, a four-step method was proposed for industrial solid waste\\u000a (ISW) flow analysis of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) and applied to two IPs in eastern China. According to a park-wide census\\u000a of 619 industrial enterprises

Yongpeng Lü; Kai Yang; Yue Che; Zhaoyi Shang; Jun Tai; Yun Jian

38

Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.  

PubMed

Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories. PMID:25154913

Sasao, Toshiaki

2014-11-01

39

INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

40

NOAA Climate Data Prepares Oahu Construction Industry for Wet Season Each year NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, a part of the  

E-print Network

NOAA Climate Data Prepares Oahu Construction Industry for Wet Season Each year NOAA. This year, for example, climate data have been immensely valuable to the construction industry on Oahu and landfill. Without the headsup, not only PVT but Oahu's entire construction industry would have been

41

SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

2009-10-01

42

Dioxin emissions after installation of a polishing wet scrubber in a hazardous waste incineration facility.  

PubMed

Dioxin levels measured after wet scrubbing systems have been found to be higher than levels measured before the scrubber. It is believed that there is an adsorption of PCDD/Fs on plastic materials in the scrubber. The PCDD/F levels after a polishing wet scrubber were followed continuously for 18 months using long-time sampling equipment at a hazardous waste incineration facility in Sweden. Each sampling period lasted two weeks. It was found that the levels during and shortly after start-up periods were elevated. The decline was very slowly, which supports a memory effect in the scrubber. Further, a multivariate model showed that the relation between different homologues changed over time, which is in agreement with a desorption model, taking into account the vapour pressures for different congeners. PMID:16182858

Löthgren, Carl-Johan; van Bavel, Bert

2005-10-01

43

ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF BIOACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater (Selenastrum capricornutum) and estuarine (Skeketonema costatum) algae were exposed to liquid wastes from 10 industrial sites in laboratory bioassays. All wastes affected algal growth either by stimulation or by stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at high ...

44

Biochemical treatment technologies for gas industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

Sequential chemical and biological amendments as well as sequential biological processes (e.g. anaerobic-aerobic) may have potential in reducing pollutants present in Gas Industry wastes. Several Town Gas soils have been characterized regarding Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) levels and soil particle distributions prior to and following biological treatment. Multivariate statistical analyses have revealed that the presence of biodegradable PAHs such as naphthalene in a sand matrix have significant influence on the effectiveness of biological treatment schemes. Integrated chemical-biological treatment processes have been devised that are effective in achieving extensive PAH degradation, even in soils that are dominated by persistent and normally recalcitrant PAHs. Other research is addressing gas industry wastes contaminated with PCBs. Anaerobic dechlorination has been demonstrated for PCBs present in Aroclor 1242. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment is being evaluated for PCB-laden gas condensate waters and contaminated soils. A focused effort is being directed at testing some of these technologies during field experimentation. A Town Gas soil is being subjected to such a field test this summer using conventional land treatment technology. 2 refs., 8 figs.

Gauger, W.K.; Kelley, R.L.; Srivastava, V.J.

1991-01-01

45

Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams  

SciTech Connect

The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

1984-05-01

46

Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal energy storage systems designed for energy conservation through the recovery, storage, and reuse of industrial process waste heat are reviewed. Consideration is given to systems developed for primary aluminum, cement, the food processing industry, paper and pulp, and primary iron and steel. Projected waste-heat recovery and energy savings are listed for each category.

Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

1978-01-01

47

Waste-to-energy application in an industrial district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial districts present some features that can be recognized and exploited in the plant engineering through the proposal of solutions which are not simple applications of models created for individual companies. This work illustrates a waste-to-energy plant to be used for the industrial waste of the district of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The project from the union between university and local

Antonella Meneghetti; Gioacchino Nardin; Patrizia Simeoni

2002-01-01

48

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Oollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 211 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-03-01

49

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

50

A theory of waste behaviour in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of waste within the construction industry need to be reduced for environmental and economic reasons. Changing people's wasteful behaviour can make a significant contribution. This paper describes a research project that used Ajzen's 'theory of planned behaviour' to investigate the attitudinal forces that shape behaviour at the operative level. It concludes that operatives see waste as an inevitable by-product

M. M. M. Teo; M. Loosemore

2001-01-01

51

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents. A review  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in the document. The importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the sources of contamination so that efforts aimed at control and minimization can be implemented. Of even greater significance is the immediate concern for the welfare of human health and the environment. Subheadings of the document include an introduction, a summary of the various genetic bioassays that have been used to test industrial wastes, a compendium of methods commonly used to prepare crude waste samples for bioassay, and a review of the genetic toxicity of wastes and effluents. Wastes have been grouped according to major industrial source. Within each industrial category, a synopsis of individual studies is presented, followed by an interpretation of results on an industry-wide basis.

Houk, V.S.

1992-01-01

52

Lessons in waste minimization from nuclear industry experience  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has been very successful at reducing waste volumes and waste sources. The success has been driven by escalating cost, decreasing disposal ability, and a desire by the industry to achieve excellence. The result has been a cycle of continuing improvement resulting in reduced cost. Many of the examples of Dry Active Waste reduction are applicable to the Department of Energy in both operations and remedial activities. This paper discusses several successful examples of utility applications in this area.

Devgun, J.S.; Thuot, J.R.; Vrtis, J.

1996-07-01

53

Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the UK to offer reasons why it has not been more widely used. This paper presents a model that calculates the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) on a twenty year investment in a 30,000 tonnes per annum wet mesophilic AD plant in the UK for the treatment of source separated organic waste, which is judged to be a suitable technology for the UK climate. The model evaluates the financial significance of the different alternative energy outputs from this AD plant and the resulting economic subsidies paid for renewable energy. Results show that renewable electricity and renewable heat sales supported by renewable electricity and renewable heat tariffs generates the greatest IRR (31.26%). All other uses of biogas generate an IRR in excess of 15%, and are judged to be a financially viable investment. Sensitivity analysis highlights the financial significance of: economic incentive payments and a waste management gate fee; and demonstrates that the fate of the digestate by-product is a source of financial uncertainty for AD investors. PMID:21481437

Dolan, T; Cook, M B; Angus, A J

2011-06-01

54

The Energy Impact of Industrial Recycling and Waste Exchange  

E-print Network

THE ENERGY IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL RECYCLING AND WASTE EXCHANGE W. CURTIS PHILLIPS, SYSTEMS ENGINEER/INDUSTRIAL PROJECT MANAGER, N.C. ENERGY DIVISION, RALEIGH, NC ABSTRACT Recycling and waste exchange, particularly in the industrial sector, has a... substantial positive energy impact and one that can often be accomplished at little or no expense. Recycling saves energy because the secondary materials being recycled are "pre-processed", and this requires less manufacturing operations than creating...

Phillips, W. C.

55

Co-gasification of wet sewage sludge and forestry waste in situ steam agent.  

PubMed

The co-gasification of wet sewage sludge (80 wt.% moisture, WSS) and forestry waste (FW) blends was studied. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that weight loss and the maximum weight loss rate of the sample increased with the increase in FW content. The co-gasification process was performed in a lab-scale fixed bed gasifier to investigate the effects of WSS content and reactor temperature on product yields, gas composition and gasification performance. The results indicated that steam generated from the moisture content in WSS took part in the gasification with char. The gas yield decreased with the increasing WSS content. And the concentrations of H(2) and CO reached the maximum when the WSS content was 50%. The LHV of fuel gas ranged from 11.89 MJ/Nm(3) to 12.72 MJ/Nm(3) when the reactor temperature increased from 700 °C to 900 °C. PMID:22503423

Peng, Lixin; Wang, Yongxiu; Lei, Zhihong; Cheng, Gong

2012-06-01

56

Solid waste management in non-ferrous industries in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the production capacity, type and quantity of solid wastes generated, their chemical composition and treatment\\/disposal options for the Indian aluminium, copper lead and zinc industries. Red mud, spent pot lining (SPL), fly ash from aluminium industries; scrap, slag, dross, reverts, slime, flue dust, mill scales, sludge etc. from copper industries; zinc tailing, slag, leach residue, jarosite residue,

A Agrawal; K. K Sahu; B. D Pandey

2004-01-01

57

Purdue University industrial waste conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This book contains information about: Hazardous and Toxic Wastes; Aerobic Processes; Anaerobic Processes; and Heavy Metal Wastes. It includes applications; research; methods and techniques; required details; selected and reviewed case histories; and operating data.

Not Available

1988-01-01

58

Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

1993-10-01

59

Energy Conservation and Waste Reduction in the Metal Fabrication Industry  

E-print Network

of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, are conducting combined energy and waste assessments for small and medium-size manufacturers. The Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center is field...

Kirk, M. C. Jr.; Looby, G. P.

60

WASTE MINIMIZATION IN THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD INDUSTRY: CASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents information on waste minimization practices currently employed in the printed circuit board (PCB) and semiconductor manufacturing industries. Case studies conducted at six facilities evaluated the technical, environmental and cost impacts associated with the i...

61

Investigation of briquetting of metal waste from the bearing industry.  

PubMed

An economical method to process the metal waste that comes from the ball-bearing industry is presented. The purpose of the study was to determine the physical-chemical properties of the material, to present the most suitable binders and identify the factors that can affect briquette strength. The mechanical strength and resistance to gravitational drop were defined for both fresh briquettes and those that had been seasoned. The briquette structure was also tested. On the basis of the results of experimental studies and laboratory trials two techniques for processing the waste from the ballbearing industry on an industrial technological scale were developed. The economic and ecological impacts of these industrial applications were examined. The results of the investigations suggest that the briquettes might be recycled in steel-making furnaces. The reported solution to the problem of management of this type of waste appears to be universal and could also be applied by other waste-related enterprises. PMID:16273956

Borowski, Gabriel; Kuczmaszewski, Jozef

2005-10-01

62

SURVEY OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Stabilization/solidification or fixation is a process for treating industrial solid wastes (primarily sludges) that contain hazardous constituents to prevent dissolution and loss of toxic materials into the environment. Most of these treatment processes are designed to produce a ...

63

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

64

STUDY OF CODISPOSED MUNICIPAL AND TREATED/UNTREATED INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to determine the long-term effects of codisposal of industrial waste (IW) and municipal solid waste (MSW) under controlled, simulated landfill conditions. Three IW's (treated or untreated by solidification) were disposed with MSW in nine specially designed ...

65

ENVIRONMENTAL AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION CONSIDERATIONS OF STEEL INDUSTRY SOLID WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines the solid wastes generated by the iron and steel industry relative to the impact of Section 4004 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The quantities, properties, and origin of wastes which pose a potential problem are identified using flow diagrams, ...

66

WASTE RECYCLING CONCEPTS IN THE BREWING AND FOOD INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic waste represents a disposal problem in the brewing and food industry but 30-50% of the energy demand of a brewery can be covered by means of special treatment and thermal recycling of spent grains. One possibility within a 'no-waste' concept is the thermal recycling of residual materials from the production process. According to requirements, mechanical as well as thermal

M Härtl; G Majan

67

Constructed wetland (CW) for industrial waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constructed wetland (CW) in Gradiš?e (Slovenia) has been in operation since 1991 for the purification of waste waters from a food processing plant. It functions according to the method of horizontal subsurface flow. Waste waters are composed of industrial, faecal and meteor waters. The CW is composed of two beds, filled with substrate and planted with Carex gracilis and

Dani Vrhovšek; Vlasta Kukanja; Tjaša Bulc

1996-01-01

68

Byssinosis in the cotton waste industry.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 772 workers in 27 mills in the North of England involved in the processing of cotton waste. The overall prevalence of byssinosis as defined by Schilling's criteria was 9.8 per cent with 5.4 per cent having grades 2 and 3. The prevalence in workers who had only ever had cotton waste exposure (5 per cent) was significantly less than for those who had mixed waste and raw cotton exposure. There was no clear relationship between prevalence of byssinosis and years of exposure or dust levels. PMID:1921343

Docker, A; Jones, R D; Thomas, P G; Benn, T

1991-01-01

69

Waste heat utilization in industrial processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

1978-01-01

70

Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

1995-01-01

71

MUTAGENISTIC TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES FROM REPRESENTATIVE ORGANIC CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The general applicability of the Ames test for screening wastewater samples was investigated. Application of the Ames test to raw and treated wastewaters from representative organic chemical industries involved the investigation of several problems: (1) the feasibility of using t...

72

Influence of commercial and residual sorbents and silicates as additives on the stabilisation\\/solidification of organic and inorganic industrial waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental problem of the foundry activities is the management of industrial waste generated in different processes. The foundry sludge from gas wet cleaning treatment that contains organic and inorganic compounds and a high content of water is an interesting example. Due to their characteristics, they can be managed using different stabilisation\\/solidification (S\\/S) technologies prior to land disposal. The purpose

A. Coz; A. Andrés; S. Soriano; J. R. Viguri; M. C. Ruiz; J. A. Irabien

2009-01-01

73

Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report  

SciTech Connect

Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-01-01

74

Reduction of Solvent Wastes in the Electronics Industry. Waste Reduction Grant Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The microelectronics component manufacturing processes at Hewlett Packard's San Jose facility were used as a model to study the techniques required to reduce the volume and type of organic solvent wastes in the electronics industry. Although organic solve...

1988-01-01

75

Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste  

E-print Network

dry to greater than 90% water. Fluid beds are particularly applicable to volatile solvents, sludges and tarry wastes, which are difficult to handle in a conven tional boiler, while materials with significant amounts of coarse non... in the fluid bed. Alter natively excess heat may be absorbed via excess air or in-bed water injection. 4. Feed materials with an SFC less than 2600 (2400 with 1200?F air preheat) are non-autogenous even with internal heat recuperation and. will require...

Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

76

Utilization of a leather industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of leather the main waste that remains after splitting of limed hides before tanning is the lowest layer of the skin together with the underlying fatty tissue (subcutis). It is characterized by a very high water content (up to 870 g kg?1) and a balanced content of protein (40–60 g kg?1 of the dry mass), fat (10–20

L. S. Simeonova; P. G. Dalev

1996-01-01

77

Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.  

PubMed

Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. PMID:22465397

Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

2012-08-01

78

Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO 2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis, 1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste subsystem analysis and atmospheric management within the ALS Project.

Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

2004-01-01

79

Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.  

PubMed

Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved. PMID:25194519

Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

2014-12-15

80

Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

2003-02-24

81

PCDD/DF concentrations at the inlets and outlets of wet scrubbers in Korean waste incinerators.  

PubMed

To further understand the effects of wet scrubbers on PCDD/DF levels, it was measured the concentrations of PCDD/DF, dust, and other gaseous pollutants at both the inlets and the outlets of seven wet scrubbers. As a result, the concentrations of PCDD/DF at the inlets and outlets of the wet scrubbers ranged from 0.2 to 37.4, and 0.8 to 6.0 ng TEQ N m-3, respectively. With the exceptions of wet scrubbers F and G, the PCDD/DF levels decreased by and large in most wet scrubbers. It was thought that their relatively high removal efficiencies were more increased with heavier loads of dust and particle-bound PCDD/DF. On the other hand, it was also surveyed the increase of gaseous PCDD/DF in wet scrubber, where the total level of PCDD/DF was decreased. However, it was not sure whether it had been resulted from the thermal adsorption/desorption phenomenon between packing materials and emission gases or not. At the very least, however, although there still remains an unexplained aspect for the increase of gaseous PCDD/DF, it is clear that wet scrubbers can be sufficiently applied to remove PCDD/DF to a certain extent, if only removal efficiencies for the particle loads are high, and if a significant part of the PCDD/DF at the inlets is particle associated. PMID:16793115

Choi, Ki-In; Lee, Dong-Hoon

2007-01-01

82

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

83

Uses and analysis of sulfites in the corn wet milling industry.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the purpose and principal uses of sulfiting agents in corn wet milling, together with the residual levels of sulfiting agents in finished products. Comparative results of the Monier-Williams method, an iodometric method, and a pararosaniline method for sulfur dioxide are discussed. PMID:3949708

Coker, L E

1986-01-01

84

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in the document. The importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the sources of contamination so that efforts aimed at control and minimization can be implemented. Of even

V HOUK

1992-01-01

85

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL WASTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

We evaluated a variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes. en samples were studied for hepatotoxicity: hese samples and an additional five were studied ...

86

PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a laboratory testing program to investigate the properties of raw and chemically fixed hazardous industrial wastes and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludges. Specimens of raw and fixed sludges were subjected to a variety of tests commonly used...

87

Use of some industrial wastes as energy storage media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is stored using different solid storage materials, both chemical and metallic industrial wastes. The materials tested in the present study are paraffin wax, copper slag, aluminium slag, iron slag, cast iron slag and copper chips. Solar energy is stored in these materials, and the energy is then recovered with a water stream at different flow rates, and the

Aghareed M. Tayeb

1996-01-01

88

Building with Local Materials: Stabilized Soil and Industrial Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the chemical stabilization of the soil to produce building units such as bricks, tiles, paving roads and wall plaster. The stabilizers used are Portland cement and industrial wastes with latent hydraulic and pozzolanic properties. Mixes are designed depending on the mineralogical composition of the soil. The durability of the mixes is evaluated through testing the compressive strength

H. Y. Ghorab; A. Anter; H. El Miniawy

2007-01-01

89

The prediction of PCDD/DF levels in wet scrubbers associated with waste incinerators.  

PubMed

Wet scrubber is one of the most conventional types of air pollutant control devices (APCDs), which is specially designed to treat dust and acidic gases in the flue gas simultaneously. In spite of its outstanding ability to control them, however, wet scrubbers have been considered as potential contaminant sources that may increase PCDD/DF concentrations in the flue gas. In this study, we investigated the change of PCDD/DF concentrations at the inlets and outlets of seven wet scrubbers, and compared them with other published data. With a multi-regression analysis of dust concentrations and temperature at the inlets and outlets of given wet scrubbers, we developed an empirical model to understand factors dominating the change of PCDD/DF concentrations. As a result, we confirmed that the changes of PCDD/DF concentrations in wet scrubbers are closely related to their concentrations at the inlets, which would usually be determined by the type of APCDs installed upstream of the wet scrubber. PMID:16860845

Choi, Ki-In; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Osako, Masahiro; Kim, Sam-Cwan

2007-01-01

90

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

2003-07-01

91

Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

Mueller, Julia R., E-mail: mueller.143@osu.edu [Ohio State University, William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, OH (United States) and University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia) and Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States); Boehm, Michael W. [University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia); Drummond, Charles [Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States)

2012-08-15

92

Electrostatic separation of brass from industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have demonstrated that electrostatic separation can be successfully employed for the recycling of nonferrous metals from chopped electric wire and cable scrap. The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of using the electric field forces for the selective sorting of other granular mixtures, such as brass dross. Laboratory tests of electrostatic separation were carried out on three samples: 0.08--1 mm, 0.08--0.2 mm, and 0.2--1 mm, containing more than 66% of brass. Sample 1 was separated in a corona-electrostatic field, generated by a standard electrode arrangement: a grounded rotating roll electrode (diameter 150 mm) and two high-voltage electrodes (wire-type dual corona electrode + tubular electrode). Processing of the other two samples was carried out in a custom-designed separator comprising an extended corona field generated between a matrix-type multineedle corona electrode and a roll electrode of large diameter (250 mm). Chemical analysis of the products showed that more than 90% of the brass can be recovered with a purity higher than 95%. The extended corona field electrode arrangement proposed in this paper seems to be a promising solution for the effective recycling of other granular wastes containing copper, aluminum, and their alloys.

Iuga, A.; Morar, R.; Samuila, A.; Mihailescu, M. [Technical Univ. of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Technical Univ. of Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cuglesan, I. [Mining R and D Inst., Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Mining R and D Inst., Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dascalescu, L. [IUT d`Angouleme (France). Lab. Universitaire de Technologies Electriques et Electroniques Avancees] [IUT d`Angouleme (France). Lab. Universitaire de Technologies Electriques et Electroniques Avancees

1999-05-01

93

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

94

Solid Waste Management in Vietnam An Industrial Ecology Study by Thao Nguyen  

E-print Network

Solid Waste Management in Vietnam An Industrial Ecology Study by Thao Nguyen School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University Adviser: Prof. Nickolas J. Themelis, Earth greatly magnified the problems with Vietnam's solid waste management system, pushing waste management

Columbia University

95

Industrial-waste exchange: a mechanism for saving energy and money  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial-waste exchanges have been established to assist in the transfer of waste materials to companies that can use them, as is or treated, to displace virgin raw materials as process inputs. A waste exchange may provide information that expedites the transfer, or it may actually take possession of the material. Benefits of industrial-waste exchange include avoided disposal costs and reduced

Gaines

1982-01-01

96

Design, fabrication and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for manned space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wet oxidation of sewage sludge during space flight was studied for water and gas recovery, and the elimination of overboard venting. The components of the system are described. Slurry and oxygen supply modules were fabricated and tested. Recommendations for redesign of the equipment are included.

1975-01-01

97

Microbial treatment of sulfur-contaminated industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the microbial removal of sulfur from a solid industrial waste in liquid culture under laboratory conditions. The study involved the use of two bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 isolated from a Mexican soil. Experimentation for industrial waste biotreatment was done in liquid culture using 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL Starkey modified culture medium and incubated at 30°C during 7 days. The industrial waste was added at different pulp densities (8.25-100% w/v) corresponding to different sulfur contents from 0.7 to 8.63% (w/w). Sulfur-oxidizing activity of the strain AZCT-M125-5 produced 281 and 262 mg/g of sulfate and a sulfur removal of 60% and 45.7% when the pulp density was set at 8.25 and 16.5% (w/v), respectively. In comparison, the strain A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 showed a lower sulfur-oxidizing activity with a sulfate production of 25.6 and 12.7 mg/g and a sulfur removal of 6% and 2.5% at the same pulp densities, respectively. Microbial growth was limited by pulp densities higher than 25% (w/v) of industrial waste with minimal sulfur-oxidizing activity and sulfur removal. The rate of sulfur removal for Acidithiobacillus thioxidans AZCT-M125-5 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 was 0.185 and 0.0159 mg S g(-1) h(-1) with a pulp density of 16.5% (w/v), respectively. This study demonstrated that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 possesses a high sulfur-oxidizing activity, even at high sulfur concentration, which allows the treatment of hazardous materials. PMID:24171423

Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Zarco-Tovar, Karina; Aburto, Jorge; de León, Roberto García; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

2014-01-01

98

[Purification of complicated industrial organic waste gas by complex absorption].  

PubMed

Complicated industrial organic waste gas with the characteristics of low concentration,high wind volume containing inorganic dust and oil was employed the research object by complex absorption. Complex absorption mechanism, process flow, purification equipment and engineering application were studied. Three different surfactants were prepared for the composite absorbent to purify exhaust gas loaded with toluene and butyl acetate, respectively. Results show that the low surface tension of the composite absorbent can improve the removal efficiency of toluene and butyl acetate. With the advantages of the water film, swirl plate and fill absorption device, efficient absorption equipment was developed for the treatment of complicated industrial organic waste gas. It is with superiorities of simple structure, small size, anti-jam and high mass transfer. Based on absorption technology, waste gas treatment process integrated with heating stripping, burning and anaerobic and other processes, so that emissions of waste gas and absorption solution could meet the discharge standards. The technology has been put into practice, such as manufacturing and spraying enterprises. PMID:22468539

Chen, Ding-Sheng; Cen, Chao-Ping; Tang, Zhi-Xiong; Fang, Ping; Chen, Zhi-Hang

2011-12-01

99

Industrial waste recycling at an automotive component manufacturing facility  

SciTech Connect

The AC Rochester Division of General Motors Corporation (GM) develops and manufacturers automotive components for engine management systems at nine facilities in the US. Its largest facility is located in flint, Michigan, and is known as the Flint East site. The Flint East site covers nearly two square miles and consists of several plants housing manufacturing operations for spark plugs, glow plugs, oil filters, air filters, air cleaner assemblies, fuel pumps, fuel level sensors, cruise control systems, and other components. The volume and diversity of the scrap and wastes generated from these operations require skillful waste management to provide environmentally safe and cost-effective disposal options. Over time, a full-scale recycling and waste disposal operation evolved at Flint East. The operation has grown over the past thirty years to handle over 68,000 tons of material annually. Flint East`s program is regarded as a model industrial waste reduction and recycling operation. Elements of the program are presented here as a guide to establishing a successful industrial recycling program.

Jaffurs, J.A.; Hubler, R.L.; Behaylo, D.P. [General Motors Corp., Flint, MI (United States). AC Rochester Div.

1995-09-01

100

Marine pollution effects of pulp and paper industry wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scale of waste discharges to the marine environment from the pulp and paper industry in various parts of the world is outlined and a brief description of the major characteristics of such wastes is given. The information available on the direct toxicity of these wastes to marine fauna and flora is assessed including both lethal and sublethal effects. The environmental impact of waste discharge and subsequent ecosystem modifications are considered in detail; the complex adjustments to the nutrient and carbon budgets of the water column and sediment involved in direct alterations to their oxygen balance and other indirect eutrophication effects are described. It is concluded that whereas the direct toxicity of these wastes has minimal effect in the marine environment the complex problems created by increasing the oxygen demand of the receiving waters can have considerable impact in inshore areas. Methods of minimising the effect of such impacts and of forecasting their extent are outlined. “He saw its excreta poisoning the seas. He became watchful” (Hughes, 1970).

Pearson, T. H.

1980-03-01

101

Energy Efficiency Improvements and Cost Saving Opportunities in the Corn Wet Milling Industry  

E-print Network

has usually been done in multiple effect evaporators (3-5 effects), but mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) has been used as well since the early 1990's (1). The com steep liquor is used for commercial purposes as an ingredient in animal feed... dewatering Germ dewatering Fiber dewatering Starch dewatering filters Drying Technology Process integration/pinch technology Multiple effect evaporators Controls on heaters between steps Thermal and mechanical vapor recompression Reusing waste...

Galitsky, C.; Worrell, E.

102

Wet Chemical Oxidation of Organic Waste Using Nitric-Phosphoric Acid Technology  

SciTech Connect

Experimental progress has been made in a wide range of areas which support the continued development of the nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation process for combustible, solid organic wastes. An improved understanding of the overall process operation has been obtained, acid recovery and recycle systems have been studied, safety issues have been addressed, two potential final waste forms have been tested, preliminary mass flow diagrams have been prepared, and process flowsheets have been developed. The flowsheet developed is essentially a closed-loop system which addresses all of the internally generated waste streams. The combined activities aim to provide the basis for building and testing a 250-400 liter pilot-scale unit. Variations of the process now must be evaluated in order to address the needs of the primary customer, SRS Solid Waste Management. The customer is interested in treating job control waste contaminated with Pu-238 for shipment to WIPP. As a result, variations for feed preparation, acid recycle, and final form manufacturing must be considered to provide for simpler processing to accommodate operations in high radiation and contamination environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a nitric-phosphoric acid destruction technology which can treat a heterogeneous waste by oxidizing the solid and liquid organic compounds while decontaminating noncombustible items.

Pierce, R.A.

1998-10-06

103

Engineering development and demonstration of DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

DETOX{sup SM}, a catalyzed chemical oxidation process, is under development for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites. To support this effort, developmental engineering studies have been formed for aspects of the process to help ensure safe and effective operation. Subscale agitation studies have been preformed to identify a suitable mixing head and speed for the primary reaction vessel agitator. Mechanisms for feeding solid waste materials to the primary reaction vessel have been investigated. Filtration to remove solid field process residue, and the use of various filtration aids, has been studied. Extended compatibility studies on the materials of construction have been performed. Due to a change to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) for the mixed waste portion of the demonstration, types of wastes suitable and appropriate for treatment at RFETS had to be chosen. A Prototype unit has been fabricated and will be demonstrated on hazardous and mixed wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS) and RFETS during 1997 and 1998. The unit is in shakedown testing at present. Data validation and an engineering evaluation will be performed during the demonstration.

Dhooge, P.M.; Goldblatt, S.D.; Moslander, J.E.; Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Zigmond, J.A.

1997-12-01

104

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES  

E-print Network

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES Kelly Traditional approaches for reducing energy and waste in industrial processes typically focus on improving and more apparent to us. In our experience, this approach for reducing energy use and waste generation

Kissock, Kelly

105

26 CFR 17.1 - Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules...Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules...the proceeds of which are used to provide solid waste disposal facilities. Section...

2010-04-01

106

International mobility of hazardous products, industries, and wastes.  

PubMed

The export of hazards to developing countries, frequently associated with the transfer of technology, is an increasing public health problem. It may arise from the export of hazardous products and wastes, or from the transfer of hazardous industries in the absence of appropriate safeguards. Multinational corporations bear a major responsibility for having lower standards of health protection in manufacturing and marketing in the developing countries than in home-country operations. These firms are coming under growing international pressure from concerned citizens, unions, environmental groups, national governments and international organizations, religious groups, the media, and public health professionals. PMID:3692646

Castleman, B I; Navarro, V

1987-01-01

107

International mobility of hazardous products, industries, and wastes  

SciTech Connect

The export of hazards to developing countries, frequently associated with the transfer of technology, is an increasing public health problem. It may arise from the export of hazardous products and wastes, or from the transfer of hazardous industries in the absence of appropriate safeguards. Multinational corporations bear a major responsibility for having lower standards of health protection in manufacturing and marketing in the developing countries than in home-country operations. These firms are coming under growing international pressure from concerned citizens, unions, environmental groups, national governments and international organizations, religious groups, the media, and public health professionals.

Castleman, B.I.; Navarro, V.

1987-01-01

108

Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the

T. Dolan; M. B. Cook; A. J. Angus

2011-01-01

109

Method for producing SNG or syn-gas from wet solid waste and low grade fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat, lignite, coal, many forms of biomass (land or marine) and solid wastes may have from 1\\/2 to 30 times as much water associated with the dry solids. Some of this water may be chemically bound or otherwise may be practically inseparable by mechanical means. The solids may be partially oxidized by oxygen or air in the first chemical reactions

Othmer

1981-01-01

110

Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2010 Bechtel Power -Heliostat Assembly Waste Management  

E-print Network

was to recommend to Bechtel Power a set of plans for a heliostat assembly waste management system. The waste management system includes information regarding the equipment needed to compact waste, transportationPENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2010 Bechtel Power - Heliostat Assembly Waste

Demirel, Melik C.

111

Recycle of Wastes of Clay Brick Industry for Producing Eco-cement  

E-print Network

This work aims at recycling of the solid wastes of clay brick industry (WCB) in the manufacture of blended cement. The various characteristics of collected samples of the waste were determined. WCB was ground to different surface areas. Different...

Amin, A. M

2010-01-01

112

CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

113

Microbial leaching of metals from solid industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Biotechnological applications for metal recovery have played a greater role in recovery of valuable metals from low grade sulfide minerals from the beginning of the middle era till the end of the twentieth century. With depletion of ore/minerals and implementation of stricter environmental rules, microbiological applications for metal recovery have been shifted towards solid industrial wastes. Due to certain restrictions in conventional processes, use of microbes has garnered increased attention. The process is environmentally-friendly, economical and cost-effective. The major microorganisms in recovery of heavy metals are acidophiles that thrive at acidic pH ranging from 2.0-4.0. These microbes aid in dissolving metals by secreting inorganic and organic acids into aqueous media. Some of the well-known acidophilic bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Sulfolobus spp. are well-studied for bioleaching activity, whereas, fungal species like Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger have been thoroughly studied for the same process. This mini-review focuses on the acidophilic microbial diversity and application of those microorganisms toward solid industrial wastes. PMID:24390831

Mishra, Debaraj; Rhee, Young Ha

2014-01-01

114

SNG or syn-gas from wet solid waste and low grade fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substitute natural gas (SNG) or a synthesis gas (syngas) is prepared by partly oxidizing wastes and low-grade fuels (peat, lignite, many forms of biomass) containing 0.5-30 times as much water as the dry solids with O or air at 240-300°C and 70-100 atmospheres. Sulfur in high S coal is oxidized selectively to SOâ⁻², and the heat to bring the

Othmer

1981-01-01

115

Production of vermifertilizer from guar gum industrial wastes by using composting earthworm Perionyx sansibaricus (Perrier)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts have been made to convert the guar gum industrial waste into a value-added product, by employing a new earthworm species\\u000a for vermicomposting e.g. Perionyx sansibaricus (Perrier) (Megascolecidae), under laboratory conditions. Industrial lignocellulosic waste was amended with other organic\\u000a supplements (saw dust and cow dung); and three types of vermibeds were prepared: guar gum industrial waste + cow dung + saw\\u000a dust in 40:

Surendra Suthar

2007-01-01

116

Methodology for industrial solid waste management: Implementation to sludge management in Asturias (Spain).  

PubMed

Nowadays, the industry produces an enormous amount of solid waste that has very negative environmental effects. Owing to waste variety and its scattered sites of production, selecting the most proper solid waste treatment is difficult. Simultaneously, social concern about environmental sustainability rises every day and, as a consequence, improvement on waste treatment systems is being demanded. However, when a waste treatment system is being designed, not only environmental but also technical and economic issues should be considered. This article puts forward a methodology to provide industrial factories with an easy way to identify, evaluate and select the most suitable solid waste treatment. PMID:25336451

Mesa Fernández, José M; Palacios, Henar Morán; Alvarez Cabal, José V; Martínez Huerta, Gemma M

2014-11-01

117

[Soil contamination from industrial and community waste in the Cracow area].  

PubMed

Problems are discussed connected with the contamination of soil with industrial and community waste in the period 1980-1987. In the Cracow area 82 million tons of waste was accumulated on dumping grounds, waste heaps and in sedimentation ponds for sewage which cover already 1.2% of the area. Among this waste 34% is produced by steel plants, 16% is mineral waste, 9% waste is produced by power plants, and 8% by chemical plants. Particular risk is connected with toxic waste produced mainly by the Lenin Steel Plant, Alwernia Chemical Plant, and Bonarka Cracow Inorganic Industry Plant. In the last 4 years an increase was observed in the amount of processed waste and the amount of dumped waste has decreased by 7.6% in the years 1984-1987. Nevertheless, the problem of processing or neutralization of toxic waste remains to be solved. PMID:2267553

Jarosz, A; Zo?dak, M

1990-01-01

118

Use of Thermal Energy Storage to Enhance the Recovery and Utilization of Industrial Waste Heat  

E-print Network

evaluation involving process data from 12 industrial plants to determine if thermal energy storage (TES) systems can be used with commercially available energy management equipment to enhance the recovery and utilization of industrial waste heat. Results...

McChesney, H. R.; Bass, R. W.; Landerman, A. M.; Obee, T. N.; Sgamboti, C. T.

1982-01-01

119

Assessment of industrial hazardous waste practices, storage and primary batteries industries. Final report, Apr--Sep 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report, which covers battery manufacturing operations, is one of a series of several studies which examine land-destined wastes from selected industries. The battery industry is divided into two groups by the Bureau of Census: Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3691 Storage Batteries (such as lead--acid automobile batteries) and SIC 3692 Primary Batteries (such as carbon--zinc flashlight batteries). The battery industry

L. C. McCandless; R. Wetzel; J. Casana; K. Slimak

1975-01-01

120

Use of bioassay-based whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests to predict benthic community response to a complex industrial effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are a usefulmonitoring tool because they provide a rapid andreplicable measure of the potential ecotoxicologicaleffect of effluents. Although WET tests have beenincorporated into toxicity-based effluent limits toprotect receiving systems from adverse effects, fewstudies have attempted to quantitativelyfield-validate laboratory-derived toxicity thresholds.In this study, we examine the ability of WET tests topredict response thresholds of an invertebratecommunity

Helen C. Sarakinos; Joseph B. Rasmussen

1997-01-01

121

Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

Dasgupta, A.

1983-01-01

122

Characterisation of keratin biomass from butchery and wool industry wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and structural characteristics of wool and horn-hoof were compared with the aim of better addressing possible exploitation of protein biomasses available as waste from textile industry and butchery. Amino acid analysis showed that wool has a higher amount of cystine and a lower amount of the amino acids that favour ?-helix formation than horn-hoof. The difference in the ?-helix content is confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Electrophoresis separation patterns showed two characteristic protein fractions related to low-sulphur proteins (between 60,000 and 45,000 Da) in wool, while different low-sulphur proteins are present in horn-hoof. These data are partially confirmed by DSC analyses that showed different endothermic peaks at temperatures higher than 200 °C in the horn-hoof thermograms, probably due to denaturation of ?-keratins at different molecular weights. Moreover, wool keratin was more hygroscopic and showed a higher extractability with reducing agents than horn-hoof. On the basis of these results, waste wool is a more suitable source than horn-hoof for uses involving protein extraction, but application can be envisaged also in surfactant foams for fire extinguishers and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

Zoccola, Marina; Aluigi, Annalisa; Tonin, Claudio

2009-12-01

123

Correlation of wood-based components and dewatering properties of waste activated sludge from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

Large amounts of wet sludge are produced annually in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Already in pulp and paper industry, more than ten million tons of primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and de-inking sludge is generated. Waste activated sludge contains large quantities of bound water, which is difficult to dewater. Low water content would be a matter of high calorific value in incineration but it also has effects on the volume and the quality of the matter to be handled in sludge disposal. In this research waste activated sludges from different pulp and paper mills were chemically characterised and dewatered. Correlations of chemical composition and dewatering properties were determined using multivariate analysis. Chemical characterisation included basic sludge analysis, elementary analysis and analysis of wood-based components, such as hemicelluloses and lignin-derived material. Dewatering properties were determined using measurements of dry solids content, flux and flocculant dosage. The effects of different variables varied according to the response concerned. The variables which were significant regarding cake DS increase in filtration or centrifugation and flocculant dosage needed in filtration were different from those which were significant regarding flux. PMID:20651444

Kyllönen, H; Lehto, J; Pirkonen, P; Grönroos, A; Pakkanen, H; Alén, R

2010-01-01

124

Adsorptive Removal of Cobalt from Aqueous Solutions by Utilizing Industrial Waste and its Cement Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the adsorption potential of battery industry waste as adsorbent has been investigated for the removal of cobalt from aqueous solutions. The results have shown that the prepared adsorbent adsorbs cobalt to a sufficient extent (35 mg\\/g). The adsorption of cobalt has been studied on this battery industry waste as a function of contact time, concentration, and temperature

Amit Bhatnagar; Ashwani K. Minocha

2007-01-01

125

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

126

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

127

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

128

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

129

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

130

Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries  

SciTech Connect

The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

1980-11-01

131

RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED INDUSTRIAL WASTES ON MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE STABILIZATION IN SIMULATED LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a retrospective evaluation of ten years of leachate and gas data collected from 19 simulated landfills (landfill cells) containing municipal solid waste codisposed with sewage sludge or industrial wastes. Physical and chemical parameters from each landfill cell are ...

132

Technological options for waste minimisation in the mining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just as the application of technology in mining processes can cause pollution, it can also be harnessed to minimise, and sometimes eliminate, mine-related contaminants. Waste minimisation can be achieved through decreased waste production, waste collection, waste recycling, and the neutralisation of pollutants into detoxified forms. This article reviews examples of how technology can be used to minimise air, water, land

Catherine Driussi; Janis Jansz

2006-01-01

133

Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP. The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated

Hak-Joon Kim; Bangwoo Han; Yong-Jin Kim; Seok-Jun Yoa; Tetsuji Oda

2012-01-01

134

Waste treatment: Beverage industry. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment in the alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage industries. Brewery effluent and wastewater management and disposal are reviewed. References cover aerobic treatment, sources of effluents, waste reduction, waste fermentation, effluent purification, and cost-effectiveness evaluation. The use of wastes for biogas production and for building material manufacture is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-08-01

135

Guidelines for the classification and coding of industrial and hazardous wastes (revised)  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this guidance document is to help generators of industrial and hazardous waste follow state and federal requirements on classifying and coding these wastes, on keeping proper records, and on notifying the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) about the wastes, when required. Specifically, this document gives guidance on the regulations in Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 335, Subchapter R (Waste Classification).

NONE

1998-11-01

136

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01

137

Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

138

Management of Environmental Risk: A Limited Integrated Assessment of the Waste Oil Refining Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on a review of the Waste Oil Rerefining Industry. The analysis assesses the industry's current health, and glimpses into the future by looking at five different issue areas critical to the industry and useful to environmental policyma...

S. D. Liroff

1978-01-01

139

Synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose from waste of cotton ginning industry.  

PubMed

The aim of present work was to isolate cellulose from cotton gin waste (CGW) and synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from it. Scoured and bleached CGW was used to investigate the effects of temperature, reaction time, acid-base concentration on the physiology of the resultant cellulose polymer. The isolated cellulose from CGW was converted to CMC by etherification using sodium monochloroacetic acid and different sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations (5-40g/100mL) were tested to get high quality product. The optimum condition for carboxymethylation was found to be 20g/100mL NaOH which provided the highest viscosity and degree of substitution (DS=0.874). Isolated cellulose and CMC were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FT-IR analysis revealed that the produced cellulose was of very good quality. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis spotlighted crystalline nature of cellulose. SEM images showed rough structure of cellulose while that of the CMC had a smooth surface. This optimized method will be tested at pilot scale in collaboration with local industry. PMID:25256482

Haleem, Noor; Arshad, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf

2014-11-26

140

DIOXINS. VOLUME II. ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this research project was to develop a unified analytical approach for use in quantifying ppt levels of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDD's) in various chemical wastes. Waste samples from plants manufacturing trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, and hexac...

141

EMISSIONS TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste incinerators are regulated under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). On the other hand processes that produce energy and only incidently burn hazardous waste materials are currently exempt from the RCRA incinerator regulations. EPA has initiated a Regul...

142

Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs.

Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

1991-10-01

143

Industrial wastes and public health: some historical notes, Part I, 1876-1932.  

PubMed Central

This article has focused on the relatively low priority accorded industrial wastes compared to human wastes by the public health community in the period from 1876 through 1932. The critical reason for this prioritization was the potential for acute health effects from human wastes as compared with the belief that industrial wastes had only indirect effects. State departments of health normally only responded to industrial wastes when they endangered the potable nature of water supplies or interfered with water and sewage treatment processes. Within the public health community, however, a relatively small group of interdisciplinary professionals argued for attention to the indirect health effects of industrial wastes and their impacts on the total stream environment. In conjunction with other groups interested in clean streams--such as sportsmen and manufacturers who required high quality process water--they pushed for a broader state legislative mandate in regard to pollution control. Some states created new bureaus or boards with responsibility for industrial wastes and the larger stream environment but the attack on industrial pollution remained limited in this period. The final significant development regarding industrial pollution and public health concerned the formulation by Streeter-Phelps of the Public Health Service of a theory of stream purification with a set of general quantitative indicators. This application was of particular importance in regard to the high-oxygen consuming nature of organic industrial wastes and the wide variety of effluents that existed. Industrial wastes constituted what Harvey Brooks, in his essay "Science Indicators and Science Priorities" calls a very "messy" research problem--one that does "not lend itself to elegant and widely applicable generalizations."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p1061-a p1061-b p1063-a p1065-a PMID:3895993

Tarr, J A

1985-01-01

144

[Hygienic requirements for transportation of industrial waste and consumption residues].  

PubMed

All wishing legal persons and individual entrepreneurs are presently engaged in garbage disposal Sanitary-and-epidemiological examination of activities in transportation of waste is complicated by that the existing sanitary regulations lack no requirements for storage, repair, washing, sanitization of waste-carrying transport, particularly epidemiologically dangerous (domestic, food, and biological waste, animal excreta, cut hair, etc.). PMID:20143485

Metel'ski?, S V; Sin'kova, N V

2009-01-01

145

Concrete made from ceramic industry waste: Durability properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete which contains waste products as aggregate is called ‘Green’ concrete. Use of hazardous waste in concrete-making will lead to green environment and sustainable concrete technology and so such concrete can also be called as ‘Green’ concrete. Concrete made with ceramic electrical insulator waste as coarse aggregate shows good workability, compressive, tensile and flexural strengths and modulus of elasticity. Further,

R. M. Senthamarai; P. Devadas Manoharan; D. Gobinath

2011-01-01

146

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

147

An application for treating semiconductor manufacturing industrial waste water to EPA drinking water standards  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the City of Chandler Industrial Process Waste Treatment Facility (IPWTF) began operating. As of January 1999, the facility had treated and recharged over 600 million gallons (2.3 {times} 1O{sup 9} L) of treated industrial waste water into local aquifers. The Chandler IPWTF accepts and treats industrial waste water from a nearby semiconductor manufacturing facility. This paper discusses the challenges this facility has faced since startup and how it has managed to overcome the effects of its diverse feed stream.

Sandoval, A. [Intel Corp., Chandler, AZ (United States)

1999-11-01

148

Direct and indirect generation of waste in the Spanish paper industry.  

PubMed

The paper industry has a relatively high degree of reliance on suppliers when compared to other industries. Exploring the role of the paper industry in terms of consumption of intermediate inputs from other industries may help to understand how the production of paper does not only generate waste by itself but also affects the amount of waste generated by other industries. The product Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful analytical tool to examine and assess environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of a product "from cradle to grave" but it is costly and time intensive. In contrast, Economic Input Output Life Cycle Assessment Models (IO-LCA) that combine LCA with Input-Output analysis (IO) are more accurate and less expensive, as they employ publicly available data. This paper represents one of the first Spanish studies aimed at estimating the waste generated in the production of paper by applying IO-LCA. One of the major benefits is the derivation of the contribution of direct and indirect suppliers to the paper industry. The results obtained show that there was no direct relationship between the impact on output and the impact on waste generation exerted by the paper industry. The major contributors to waste generation were the mining industry and the forestry industry. PMID:24112853

Ruiz Peñalver, Soraya María; Rodríguez Molina, Mercedes; Camacho Ballesta, José Antonio

2014-01-01

149

Wasted skills: The hospitality industry and its you ng chefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid changes in industry and the world of work req uire vocational education training (VET) providers to consider their role in industry skills shortages and how they respond to pressure from government and industry groups to address the need for effective training. This research seeks to throw li ght on how large training organisations, such as TAFE and industry have

Richard McDermott

150

Effect of Fluoride on Nitrification of a Concentrated Industrial Waste  

PubMed Central

The potential for biological nitrification of an industrial waste containing 4,000 mg of ammonia N (NH4+-N) and 10,000 mg of fluoride per liter was investigated. Ammonium sulfate and sodium fluoride were tested in various combinations of 100 to 2,000 mg of NH4+-N per liter and 0 to 5,000 mg of F? per liter in suspended-growth stirred-tank reactors containing enriched cultures of nitrifying bacteria from a municipal sewage treatment plant. The stirred-tank reactors were fed once per day at a constant hydraulic retention period and cell retention time of 10 days. Temperature was 23°C, and pH was 7.0 to 7.5. Clarified secondary effluent was used to make up feeds and to provide minor nutrients. Steady-state data, confirmed by mass balances, were obtained after five to six retention periods. In the absence of fluoride, nitrification efficiency was near 100% for up to 500 mg of NH4+-N per liter. The influence of fluoride was studied at a low ammonia concentration (100 mg/liter) and exerted no significant effect on nitrification at concentrations of up to 200 mg/liter. Maximum effect of fluoride was reached at 800 mg of F? per liter, and no greater inhibition was observed for up to 5,000 mg of F? per liter. At the highest concentrations studied, ion pairing of ammonium and fluoride may exert a significant effect on kinetic coefficients. Kinetic analyses showed maximum specific substrate removal rates (qmax) of NH4+-N to be about 2.3 mg of N per mg of volatile suspended solids per day in the absence of fluoride and 0.85 mg of N per mg of volatile suspended solids per day in the presence of fluoride. The form of inhibition due to the presence of fluoride was shown to be not competitive, conforming to a mixed inhibition model. PMID:16347827

Clarkson, William W.; Collins, Anthony G.; Sheehan, Pamela L.

1989-01-01

151

Process Waste Heat Recovery in the Food Industry - A System Analysis  

E-print Network

An analysis of an industrial waste heat recovery system concept is discussed. For example purposes, a food processing plant operating an ammonia refrigeration system for storage and blast freezing is considered. Heat is withdrawn from...

Lundberg, W. L.; Mutone, G. A.

1983-01-01

152

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

153

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions: source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

154

Waste Management Recommendations in the Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center Program  

E-print Network

The Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) was one of the four Energy Analysis & Diagnostic Centers (EADC) that began providing waste management, in addition to energy and demand conservation, assessments in January, 1994. Over 30...

Eggebrecht, J. A.; Heffington, W. M.

155

DETERMINATION OF CYANIDE IN ALUMINUM INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ion chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, was applied in determining cyanide concentrations in the waste waters generated by the processing of calthode electrodes in the aluminum industry. Ion chromatography data were compared with the results obtained from conv...

156

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains a minimum of 103 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

157

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

158

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

159

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

160

TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF DISPOSING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of industrial boilers for the destruction of hazardous wastes is increasing at a rapid rate. This is partly due to the fact that the practice changes a 'negative value' waste material into a 'positive value' fuel and partly to the fact that current RCRA regulations specif...

161

Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG)

M. T. Rashid; R. P. Voroney; M. Khalid

2010-01-01

162

Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches.In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical

Antonio C. Caputo; Federica Scacchia; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

2003-01-01

163

Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1994-12-01

164

Emissions from the incineration of electronics industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strategy for dealing with electronics waste is to incinerate the combustible fraction of the waste, either to reduce its volume prior to landfilling or to concentrate valuable metals in the residual ash so they can be reclaimed in a subsequent operation. Since no emissions data are available, experiments were performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator over a range

E. S. Stewart; P. M. Lemieux

2003-01-01

165

Removal of chromium(VI) from electroplating industry wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste product generated in the sugar industry in India has been converted into a cheap potential adsorbent. This has been characterised and utilized for the removal of chromium (VI) from synthetic and actual wastewater. The sorption efficiency decreases with increase in pH. Adsorption of Cr (VI) on bagasse fly ash follows the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and these have

Vinod K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan; Saurabh Sharma; Kuk T. Park

1998-01-01

166

Production of gibberellic acid by Aspergillus niger using some food industry wastes.  

PubMed

The production of gibberellic acid by Aspergillus niger and the possibility of utilizing food industry waste and residues as the sources of carbon in media were investigated. Media prepared from molasses, vinasse, whey, sugar-beet waste and fruit pomace were used and GA3 yields were found in concentrations 310, 273.14, 120, 73, 118.13 mg/l in such media, respectively. It was observed that food industry wastes can be used as cheap sources of carbon for gibberellic acid production by Aspergillus niger. PMID:9127484

Cihangir, N; Aksöz, N

1996-01-01

167

Day wetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 1% of healthy children over the age of 5 years have troublesome daytime wetting. Two-thirds of those who wet by day are reliably dry at night. The problem is more common in girls and is usually the result of urge incontinence. Although the wetting may be exacerbated by giggling and\\/or stress, pure giggle micturition and isolated stress incontinence are

S. R. Meadow

1990-01-01

168

Selected biological investigations on deep sea disposal of industrial wastes  

E-print Network

carolinus), brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), a marine dinoflagellate (Glenodinium halli), and a marine d(t (~C1 11 ) d b(1g( 1 ' f j petrochemical wastes in a preliminary study designed to develop criteria for ocean disposal of the wastes. Standard acute... considerably with the 96-hour TLm values ranging from 0. 0074% to 1. 5X. The brown shrimp proved to be the most hardy of the four test species. For each waste the brown shrimp survived for 96 hours at a higher concentration than the pompano or phytoplankton...

Page, Sandra Lea

2012-06-07

169

LOCAL MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES FROM SMALL-SCALE AND COTTAGE INDUSTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews, documents and discusses the hazardous waste problems associated with small-scale and cottage industries (SSIs) in developing countries. It aims at achieving a better understanding of the characteristics of SSIs, helps to identify those industries that contribute significantly to environmental pollution and occupational exposure, and focuses attention on local management options. Four case studies confirm that the troublesome

Carl R. Bartone; Livia Benavides

1997-01-01

170

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. MAIN REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

171

Removal of cadmium and nickel from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse fly ash, an industrial solid waste of sugar industry, was used for the removal of cadmium and nickel from wastewater. As much as 90% removal of cadmium and nickel is possible in about 60 and 80min, respectively, under the batch test conditions. Effect of various operating variables, viz., solution pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature, particle size, etc.,

Vinod K. Gupta; C. K. Jain; Imran Ali; M. Sharma; V. K. Saini

2003-01-01

172

Construction waste management based on industrial management models: a Swedish case study.  

PubMed

This paper describes a methodology for estimating the true internal costs of construction waste, aimed at promoting environmentally friendly waste management. The study employs cost-benefit analysis, contribution margin analysis, the polluter-pays principle and a mathematical model: the model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE), which has been introduced previously by the author for assigning industrial costs to waste. The calculations are performed on construction waste created in a case study of a building project. Moreover, waste is regarded as, in a business sense, having the same basic status as any normal industrial product, namely the 'equality principle'. Application of the methodology is suggested to create incentives for environmental and profitability improvement in construction companies and other types of industrial sectors. The results of the case study show the generation of construction waste to substantially decrease the final operating income, due to the internal shadow price cost it creates. This paper is intended to reduce the gap between the choice of waste management procedures and their economic impact, the overall objective being to accomplish an improved industrial environmental situation. PMID:15751391

Stenis, Jan

2005-02-01

173

Evaluating waste treatment, recycle and reuse in industrial system: an application of the eMergy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the application of emergy analysis of industrial systems in considering wastes. Making process system engineering decisions that are ecologically conscious requires emergy analysis of both industrial and ecological processes. The traditional emergy analysis methods of a natural ecological system usually do not consider the impact of wastes. This paper considers the impact of wastes and improves

Hui Yang; Yourun Li; Jingzhu Shen; Shanying Hu

2003-01-01

174

Trends and Opportunities in Industrial Hazardous Waste Minimization  

E-print Network

This paper describes trends and opportunities in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste minimization. It uses U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data gathered since 1989 from over 20,000 facilities that account for almost all...

Atlas, M.

175

Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry  

E-print Network

recently, the Singer Furniture Co., Lenoir, N. Carolina, purchased a 450 kilowatt steam turbine/induction generator set to use extra steam - produced by 'free' waste wood fuel - in generating 15% of the plant's electrical energy demand. The turbine...

Nailen, R. L.

1981-01-01

176

National economic models of industrial water use and waste treatment. [technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of air emission and solid waste restrictions on production costs and resource use by industry is investigated. A linear program is developed to analyze how resource use, production cost, and waste discharges in different types of production may be affected by resource limiting policies of the government. The method is applied to modeling ethylene and ammonia plants at the design stage. Results show that the effects of increasingly restrictive wastewater effluent standards on increased energy use were small in both plants. Plant models were developed for other industries and the program estimated effects of wastewater discharge policies on production costs of industry.

Thompson, R. G.; Calloway, J. A.

1974-01-01

177

Superfund at work: Hazardous-waste cleanup efforts nationwide (City Industries). Fact sheet  

SciTech Connect

The Fact Sheet profiles the EPA's successful cleanup of City Industries, a former waste handling facility. Because of quick and effective cooperation between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (FDER) eliminated the threats posed by the City Industries hazardous waste site in the community of Goldenrod, Florida. The decisive actions taken by EPA and FDER at City Industries illustrate Superfund's commitment to protecting citizens and the environment, as well as the Agency's diligence in making polluters pay for cleaning up the environmental damage they have caused.

Not Available

1992-01-01

178

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

179

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

180

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

181

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

182

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

183

Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.  

PubMed

The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning. PMID:24507977

Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

2014-10-01

184

Waste heat recovery systems in the sugar industry: An Indian perspective  

SciTech Connect

This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country`s processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in a table). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitation clarification process, is estimated at 5757.9 KJ/kg of sugar. Efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) systems could help arrest the trend of increasing production costs. This would help the sugar industry not only in India, but in many other countries as well. The innovative methods suggested and discussed briefly in this article include dehydration of prepared cane, bagasse drying, and juice heating using waste heat. These methods can reduce the cost of energy in sugar production by at least 10% and improve efficiency and productivity.

Madnaik, S.D.; Jadhav, M.G. [Walchand Inst. of Tech., Maharashtra (India)

1996-04-01

185

Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.  

PubMed

Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO?-intensive. But most CO? is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other. PMID:22573713

Thomanetz, Erwin

2012-04-01

186

Recovery of polypropylene and polyethylene from packaging plastic wastes without contamination of chlorinated plastic films by the combination process of wet gravity separation and ozonation.  

PubMed

Wet gravity separation technique has been regularly practiced to separate the polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) (light plastic films) from chlorinated plastic films (CP films) (heavy plastic films). The CP films including poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and poly vinylidene chloride (PVDC) would float in water even though its density is more than 1.0g/cm(3). This is because films are twisted in which air is sometimes entrapped inside the twisted CP films in real existing recycling plant. The present research improves the current process in separating the PP and PE from plastic packaging waste (PPW), by reducing entrapped air and by increasing the hydrophilicity of the CP films surface with ozonation. The present research also measures the hydrophilicity of the CP films. In ozonation process mixing of artificial films up to 10min reduces the contact angle from 78° to 62°, and also increases the hydrophilicity of CP films. The previous studies also performed show that the artificial PVDC films easily settle down by the same. The effect of ozonation after the wet gravity separation on light PPW films obtained from an actual PPW recycling plant was also evaluated. Although actual light PPW films contained 1.3% of CP films however in present case all the CP films were removed from the PPW films as a settled fraction in the combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation. The combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation is the more beneficial process in recovering of high purity PP and PE films from the PPW films. PMID:21530222

Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

2011-08-01

187

Biological industrial waste treatment. January 1980-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Feb 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sluge proccesses, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 140 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1992-01-01

188

Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Waste Tanks: A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to develop a basic understanding of the fate and transport of caustic radioactive brines through the vadose zone. Research is focused primarily on migration of high level waste leaked from single-shell tanks under environmental conditions, and over temporal and spatial scales relevant to the Hanford Site. Understanding the fate and transport of these wastes through the vadose zone is critical to the development of a framework for evaluating different waste retrieval/remediation strategies and the associated health risks. The hypothesis underlying this project is that elevated surface tension of the leaked tank wastes will strongly inhibit lateral contaminant spreading, giving rise to narrow fingers of infiltration through the vadose zone. The extent and persistence of these fingers will be enhanced by the water migrating into the saline zone in response to the osmotic potential gradient. To validate this hypothesis, this project combines a series of laboratory, field, and numerical experiments with the following specific objectives: (1) investigate the effect of elevated surface tension of highly saline fluids on wetting front instability, finger formation, and contaminant mobility; (2) investigate the conditions under which osmotically driven vapor flux is operative and quantify its impact on plume transport; and (3) develop and incorporate a theory describing these processes into an existing DOE-developed, numerical simulator to allow prediction of contaminant migration at realistic spatial and temporal scales.

Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Tyler, Scott W.

1999-06-01

189

Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: a case of Zarqa City.  

PubMed

There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study. PMID:16112562

Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R

2006-01-01

190

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INDUSTRIAL COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a' pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

191

PROCEEDINGS: INDUSTRY BRIEFING ON IERL-RTP LIME/LIMESTONE WET SCRUBBING TEST PROGRAMS (5TH) (DECEMBER 1979)  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings document presentations made during the December 5, 1979, industry briefing conference which dealt with the status of EPA/IERL-RTP's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) research, development, and application programs. Subjects considered included: lime/limestone scrubbi...

192

Heat transfer modeling in rotary kilns burning hazardous industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

A heat transfer model for rotary kilns that is based on the zone approach is described. The model provides estimates of gas temperatures, bed heating rates, and wall temperatures. The model also predicts the effects of solid flow direction (coflow or counterflow) on bed temperature, and it allows for the cooling of the bed by evaporation of water. As such it is well suited for predicting wet, contaminated soil heating rates in rotary kilns. Predictions based on this model typical operating conditions indicate that 10 percent by weight moisture can lower peak soil temperatures by 200 to 300 {Kappa}. Peak soil temperatures for coflowing solids are 200{Kappa} lower than those obtained under counterflowing conditions. In addition, solids temperatures in the kiln are fairly insensitive to afterburner temperature.

Silcox, G.D.; Pershing, D.W. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, 3290 MEB - Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1988-01-01

193

Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies have shown which pulping plants generate the most genotoxic effluents, which process wastes are most hazardous, have isolated and identified the compounds responsible for the genotoxic activity, have described the environmental fate of these compounds, have evaluated the types of genetic damage likely to occur upon exposure to the effluents, and have identified several treatment methods that effectively reduce the genotoxicity of the effluents. The coupling of bioassays for biological analysis with chemical evaluation provides the most powerful approach to assessing the overall health effects of complex industrial wastes and effluents.

Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

1989-01-01

194

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

2009-01-06

195

Burning wastes as an industrial resource. Their effect on Portland cement clinker  

SciTech Connect

The use of industrial wastes as an alternative fuel in the cement industry is a reality in several countries because wastes are removed and economic incomes are obtained preserving non-renewable energy resources. In the present work, the effect of the addition of small amounts of ashes from pyrolysis of used oil from cars in the clinkering process of Portland cement is studied. The study simulates the burning process in an industrial furnace that uses up to 30% of this kind of waste fuel. The different behaviors of the clinker so obtained (clinkering, milling, phases, hydration, etc.) are discussed and these behaviors are compared with those of a clinker obtained without additions. Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Blaine specific surface, calorimetry, Differential thermal analysis-thermal gravimetry (DTA-TG), pyrometric cone equivalent, porosimetry and mechanical strength were used as the main evaluation techniques.

Trezza, M.A.; Scian, A.N.

2000-01-01

196

Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: a survey of recent literature.  

PubMed

Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic codigestion to identify applications of codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes, industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two-stage processes), and the operation temperature (e.g., mesophilic or thermophilic). Only a few reports on pilot- and full-scale studies were found. These evaluate general process performance and pretreatment of codigestates, energy production, and treatment costs. PMID:16894987

Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Samar, Parviz; Cox, Huub H J; Ahring, Birgitte K; Iranpour, Reza

2006-06-01

197

Industrial hardboard and other panels binder from waste lignocellulosic liquors\\/phenol-formaldehyde resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a waste chestnut-wood lignocellulosic black liquor composed in almost equal parts of carbohydrates coming from\\u000a partially degraded hemicelluloses, of non-sulphited lignin and of low reactivity hydrolysable chestnut tannin, produced as\\u000a waste from the humid-type binderless hardboard manufacturing process has been shown to be very useful at industrial level\\u000a for coreaction with simple, unsophisticated PF resins and flocculation

A. Trosa; A. Pizzi

1998-01-01

198

Waste heat recovery: Textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning descriptions and evaluations of waste heat recovery operations used in the textile industry. Heat recovery and utilization from wastewater streams, flue gas, finishing processes, dyeing operations, and air jet systems are presented. The use of waste heat for space heating and process preheating is considered. (Contains a minimum of 162 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01

199

An exploratory waste audit study of the Oregon automobile dealership industry to develop a model toxics use and hazardous waste reduction plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The move from hazardous waste management to pollution prevention is viewed as a paradigm shift in American industry. Pollution prevention involves source reduction to reduce the amount of hazardous waste that is generated, and recycling of those wastes that cannot be prevented within the production process. The first piece of federal pollution prevention legislation was enacted in 1990. Subsequently, six

1993-01-01

200

Ruminal waste stream as a source of industrial chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, which are volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are present in significant concentration in the rumen of cattle and other ruminant animals. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) burden carried by rumen wastes and ways to salvage the value-added enzymes, ?-amylase and cellulases, which are present in substantial quantities are presented. An average COD for grain\\/grass-fed animals was

Ajoy Koppolu; L. Davis Clements

2004-01-01

201

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-07-01

202

Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

1997-07-01

203

Metal Oxides Remove Hydrogen Sulfide from Landfill Gas Produced from Waste Mixed with Plaster Board under Wet Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major odorant in landfills. We have studied H2S production from landfill residual waste with and without sulfur-containing plaster board, including the influence of the water content in the waste. The laboratory experiments were conducted in 30-L polyethylene containers with a controlled water level. We also studied how different materials removed H2S in reactive layers on

Ove Bergersen; Ketil Haarstad; Van Bowersox; Christopher Lehmann; David Grantz; Kathleen Brown; Walid Bouhamra; Denise Lamoureux; John Evans; Petros Koutrakis; James Winebrake; James Corbett; Aaron Falzarano; J. Hawker; Karl Korfmacher; Sai Ketha; Steve Zilora; Serap Erdal; Laurel Berman; Daniel Hryhorczuk; Saeed Abolhasani; H. Frey; Kangwook Kim; William Rasdorf; Phil Lewis; Shih-Hao Pang; Allan Chambers; Melvin Strosher; Tony Wootton; Jan Moncrieff; Philip McCready; Litao Wang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Shuxiao Wang; Junhua Li; Qiang Zhang; David Streets; Joshua Fu; Carey Jang; Hideto Takekawa; Satoru Chatani; Stephanie Konopa; James Mulholland; Matthew Realff; Paul Lemieux; Jaehyun Lim; Liya Yu; Yu. Kostetski; Cheolsoo Lim; Jungho Ryu; Jongchoon Kim; Christian Hogrefe; Kevin Civerolo; Winston Hao; Jia-Yeong Ku; Eric Zalewsky; Gopal Sistla; Ram Hashmonay

2008-01-01

204

Application of reutilization technology to waste from liquid crystal display (LCD) industry.  

PubMed

This investigation studies the recycling utility of two major waste products from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry, panel glass and calcium fluoride sludge, which remain after the treatment of waste water. Waste panel glass was mixed with calcium fluoride sludge in various ratios and then subject to conditioning and melting treatment in order to yield glass-ceramics. Heavy metal leaching tests indicated that reductive conditions lowered the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate to an order of magnitude below that in the waste glass and sludge. A 5:5 (wt%) mixture of glass and sludge melted at 1200 degrees C for 60 min achieves a specific gravity, water absorption, unit mass, porosity ratio, and soundness that meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for fine aggregates. Therefore, waste panel glass can indeed be efficiently recycled into a useful construction material. PMID:20390905

Liu, Wei T; Li, Kung C

2010-01-01

205

Use prospect of a full-scale installation of ``wet`` oxidation of organic wastes for CLSS closure increase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously in the works carried out at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS a fundamental use feasibility of organic wastes mineralization in H _{2}O _{2} aqueous solution under effect of alternating current was shown. It was proved that the reactor products (mineralized solution and gas) could be involved into an intrasystem mass exchange in the capacity of plants mineral nutrition without their productivity decrease. Here the working volume of the experimental installation was 1L that was not enough for one-time utilization of the crew wastes. At the next stage the research was aimed at the process scaling up to investigate the efficiency the wastes mineralization process in the installation with a working volume equal to 6L corresponding to a daily norm of the 2-members’ crew. Besides the mineralization parameters of human exometabolites and plant wastes were considered to develop an automatic control of the reactor. The process scale magnification was determined to increase its efficiency by temporal and energy characteristics at the same time maintaining a sufficient level of wastes mineralization. An experimental system of the reactor automatic control was created capable to independently operate wastes mineralization according to the regime set up to the reaction termination and completing the reactor work.

Trifonov, Sergey V.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, D.. Yurii A.

206

Bioconversion of herbal industry waste into vermicompost using an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bioconversion of industrial herbal waste to vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermibeds were made using a mixture of herbal waste and cowdung (1?:?1) in comparison with the use of cowdung alone as substrate, resulting in vermicomposts 1 and 2, respectively. Different parameters were studied and it was observed that the nutrient profile of vermicompost 1 strongly influenced the growth of pea (Pisum sativum) and marigold plant (Tagetus erectus). The dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots, number of flowers, total yield in terms of fruit showed significant increase with vermicompost 1. Furthermore, vermicompost 1 (herbal waste and cow dung as substrate) resulted in a significant reduction in TOC by 58% in comparison with vermicompost 2 (cowdung as substrate). The C?:?N ratio was less than 20 in vermicompost 1 as well as in vermicompost 2, which indicated an advanced degree of stabilization and mineralization. The ability of earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermibed fed with the herbal waste indicates the sustainability and efficiency of a heterogeneous kind of organic waste. The results of the study suggested that bulk industrial herbal waste can be utilized as a substrate for vermicomposting and this can be proposed as an alternative for waste disposal in a clean green manner, promoting the concept of organic farming. PMID:20952444

Kumari, Mamta; Kumar, Sudhir; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Ravikanth, K

2011-11-01

207

REMOVAL OF SO2 FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses technology for sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution control by flue gas cleaning (called 'scrubbing') in the utility industry, a technology that has advanced significantly during the past 5 years. Federal Regulations are resulting in increasingly large-scale applica...

208

Heat-exchanger needs for recovering waste heat in the glass-making industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The state of the art of waste heat recovery technology in the glass-making industry is assessed. Fouling and corrosion glass furnace regenerators are reviewed. Heat recovery from the exhaust gases leaving the brick checkers regenerator of a soda lime glass furnace is addressed. Research and development needs that will advance the use of secondary heat recovery in the glass industry are identified. (LEW)

Webb, R.L.; Kulkarni, A.K.

1983-02-01

209

Health care industries: potential generators of genotoxic waste.  

PubMed

Health care waste includes all the waste generated by health care establishments, research facilities, and laboratories. This constitutes a variety of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals, radionuclides, solvents, and disinfectants. Recently, scientists and environmentalists have discovered that wastewater produced by hospitals possesses toxic properties due to various toxic chemicals and pharmaceuticals capable of causing environmental impacts and even lethal effects to organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Many of these compounds resist normal wastewater treatment and end up in surface waters. Besides aquatic organisms, humans can be exposed through drinking water produced from contaminated surface water. Indeed, some of the substances found in wastewaters are genotoxic and are suspected to be potential contributors to certain cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of wastewaters from two hospitals and three clinical diagnostic centers located in Jaipur (Rajasthan State), India using the prokaryotic Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames assay) and the eukaryotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiration inhibition assay. In the Ames assay, untreated wastewaters from both of the health care sectors resulted in significantly increased numbers of revertant colonies up to 1,000-4,050 as measured by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains (with and without metabolic activation) after exposure to undiluted samples, which indicated the highly genotoxic nature of these wastewaters. Furthermore, both hospital and diagnostic samples were found to be highly cytotoxic. Effective concentrations at which 20 % (EC20) and 50 % (EC50) inhibition of the respiration rate of the cells occurred ranged between ~0.00 and 0.52 % and between 0.005 and 41.30 % (calculated with the help of the MS excel software XLSTAT 2012.1.01; Addinsoft), respectively, as determined by the S. cerevisiae assay. The results indicated that hospital wastewaters contain genotoxic and cytotoxic components. In addition, diagnostic centers also represent small but significant sources of genotoxic and cytotoxic wastes. PMID:23361179

Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Manish; Mathur, N; Singh, A; Bhatnagar, P; Sogani, M

2013-08-01

210

Packaging waste recycling in Europe: is the industry paying for it?  

PubMed

This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste management. In fact, if the savings attained by diverting packaging waste from other treatment (e.g. landfilling) and the public subsidies to the investment on the "recycling system" are not considered, it seems that the industry should increase the financial support to local authorities (by 125% in France, 50% in Portugal and 170% in Romania). However, in France and Portugal the industry is paying local authorities more than just the incremental costs of recycling (full costs of selective collection and sorting minus the avoided costs). To provide a more definitive judgment on the fairness of the systems it will be necessary to assess the cost efficiency of waste management operators (and judge whether operators are claiming costs or eliciting "prices"). PMID:24262429

da Cruz, Nuno Ferreira; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

2014-02-01

211

Comparative biomonitoring of leachates from hazardous solid waste of two industries using Allium test.  

PubMed

Hazardous industrial wastes are inevitable source of environmental pollution. Leachates from these wastes might contaminate the origins of potable water and affect human health. The study was carried out to determine the possible genotoxic effects of leachates from solid waste of a metal and dye industry using the Allium cepa chromosome aberrations assay. The 10% leachates were prepared from solid wastes obtained from both the industries and examined for the presence of heavy metal content and genotoxicity. To simulate the field and laboratory conditions, A. cepa bulbs were exposed through soil and aqueous medium for 48 h to 2.5-10% leachates. The results revealed that both metal waste leachate (MWL) and dye waste leachate (DWL) contained high concentrations of chromium, nickel and iron that significantly induced cytogenetic alterations. Significant inhibition of mitotic index (MI), inductions of chromosomal/mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) and micronuclei (MN) formation were found in all experimental groups exposed to MWL and DWL. The effects observed were concentration dependent and the frequency of aberrations was higher with treatment of MWL than DWL. The MI was severely inhibited at 10% aqueous exposure it was 4.59+/-0.69 (P<0.001) in MWL and almost half to that induced by DWL that was 8.62+/-0.69 (P<0.05). Significant frequency of CA/MA and MN induced by MWL was 14.21 (P<0.001) and 0.33 (P<0.001) whereas CA/MA and MN induced by DWL was 7.81 (P<0.001) and 0.13 (P<0.05) in the aqueous medium. The investigations inferred that abnormalities caused by MWL were higher than DWL both in soil and aqueous media. These toxic responses may have relied on raised heavy metal concentrations of metal-based than dye industrial wastes. PMID:16084966

Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Murthy, R C; Saxena, P N; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

2005-07-15

212

OC-ALC hazardous waste minimization strategy: Reduction of industrial biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment facilities  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is one of five US Air Force Logistic Centers that perform depot level maintenance of aircraft. As part of the maintenance process, aircraft are cleaned, chemically depainted, repainted, and electroplated. These repair/maintenance processes generate large quantities of dilute liquid effluent which are collected and treated in the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) prior to hazardous waste disposal. OC-ALC is committed to reducing the use of hazardous materials in the repair and maintenance of aircraft and ancillary components. A major Air Force initiative is to reduce the amount of hazardous waste discharged off-site by 25% by the end of CY96 and 50% by CY99 end. During maintenance and repair operations, organic chemicals are employed. These organics are discharged to the IWTP for biological degradation. During the biological digestion process, a biological sludge is generated. OC-ALC engineers are evaluating the applicability of a biosludge acid/heat treatment process. In the acid hydrolysis process, an acid is added to the biosludge and processed through a hot, pressurized reactor where the majority of the biosolids are broken down and solubilized. The resulting aqueous product stream is then recycled back to the traditional biotreatment process for digestion of the solubilized organics. The solid waste stream is dewatered prior to disposal. The objective of the subsequent effort is to achieve a reduction in hazardous waste generation and disposal by focusing primarily on end-of-the-pipe treatment at the IWTP. Acid hydrolysis of biosludge is proving to be a practical process for use in industrial and municipal wastewater biotreatment systems that will lower environmental and economic costs by minimizing the production and disposal of biosludge.

Hall, F.E. Jr. [OC-ALC/EMV, Tinker AFB, OK (United States)

1997-12-31

213

Waste Heat Doesn't Have to be a Waste of Money- The American & Efird Heat Recovery Project: A First for the Textile Industry  

E-print Network

during off-peak hours, and American & Efird will enjoy lower overall energy costs. BACKGROUND Textile Manufacturing is the largest A more innovative approach involves the industry in North Carolina, employing more use of industrial process heat pumps... industry is vital to the economy are used in many industries to recover of the region. In recent years, the waste heat from manufacturing processes textile industry has made great strides in and lower overall energy costs for modernizing its...

Smith, S. W.

214

Maternal residential proximity to waste sites and industrial facilities and conotruncal heart defects in offspring.  

PubMed

Most studies of the relationship between maternal residential proximity to sources of environmental pollution and congenital cardiovascular malformations have combined heart defects into one group or broad subgroups. The current case-control study examined whether risk of conotruncal heart defects, including subsets of specific defects, was associated with maternal residential proximity to hazardous waste sites and industrial facilities with recorded air emissions. Texas Birth Defects Registry cases were linked to their birth or fetal death certificate. Controls without birth defects were randomly selected from birth certificates. Distances from maternal addresses at delivery to National Priority List (NPL) waste sites, state superfund waste sites, and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities were determined for 1244 cases (89.5% of those eligible) and 4368 controls (88.0%). Living within 1 mile of a hazardous waste site was not associated with risk of conotruncal heart defects [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.54, 1.27]. This was true whether looking at most types of defects or waste sites. Only truncus arteriosus showed statistically elevated ORs with any waste site (crude OR: 2.80, 95% CI 1.19, 6.54) and with NPL sites (crude OR: 4.63, 95% CI 1.18, 13.15; aOR 4.99, 95% CI 1.26, 14.51), but the latter was based on only four exposed cases. There was minimal association between conotruncal heart defects and proximity to TRI facilities (aOR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.91, 1.33). Stratification by maternal age or race/ethnic group made little difference in effect estimates for waste sites or industrial facilities. In this study population, maternal residential proximity to waste sites or industries with reported air emissions was not associated with conotruncal heart defects or its subtypes in offspring, with the exception of truncus arteriosus. PMID:19523079

Langlois, Peter H; Brender, Jean D; Suarez, Lucina; Zhan, F Benjamin; Mistry, Jatin H; Scheuerle, Angela; Moody, Karen

2009-07-01

215

Isolation and Screening of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria from Pulp, Paper, and Cardboard Industry Wastes  

PubMed Central

Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236?g/L and 4.042?g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production. PMID:24288534

Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

2013-01-01

216

Grand Rounds: An Outbreak of Toxic Hepatitis among Industrial Waste Disposal Workers  

PubMed Central

Context Industrial waste (which is composed of various toxic chemicals), changes to the disposal process, and addition of chemicals should all be monitored and controlled carefully in the industrial waste industry to reduce the health hazard to workers. Case presentation Five workers in an industrial waste plant developed acute toxic hepatitis, one of whom died after 3 months due to fulminant hepatitis. In the plant, we detected several chemicals with hepatotoxic potential, including pyridine, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, and methylenedianiline. The workers had been working in the high-vapor-generating area of the plant, and the findings of pathologic examination showed typical features of acute toxic hepatitis. Discussion Infectious hepatitis and drug-induced hepatitis were excluded by laboratory findings, as well as the clinical course of hepatitis. All cases of toxic hepatitis in this plant developed after the change of the disposal process to thermochemical reaction–type treatment using unslaked lime reacted with industrial wastes. During this chemical reaction, vapor containing several toxic materials was generated. Although we could not confirm the definitive causative chemical, we suspect that these cases of hepatitis were caused by one of the hepatotoxic agents or by a synergistic interaction among several of them. Relevance to clinical or professional practice In the industrial waste treatment process, the danger of developing toxic hepatitis should be kept in mind, because any subtle change of the treatment process can generate various toxic materials and threaten the workers’ health. A mixture of hepatotoxic chemicals can induce clinical manifestations that are quite different from those predicted by the toxic property of a single agent. PMID:17366828

Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun A; Choi, Jung-Keun; Choi, Sung-Bong; Suh, Jeong-Ill; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Jung Ran

2007-01-01

217

Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions  

SciTech Connect

United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

2006-04-01

218

The calculation of shadow prices for industrial wastes using distance functions: An analysis for Spanish ceramic pavements firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the calculation of shadow prices for two industrial wastes generated on their production processes by 18 firms belonging to the Spanish ceramic pavements industry. These prices are then used to calculate an extended productivity index which takes into consideration wastes going with the production of marketable goods. We follow the methodological approach first proposed by Färe

Ernest Reig-Mart??nez; Andrés Picazo-Tadeo; Francesc Hernández-Sancho

2001-01-01

219

Removal of chromium(III) from tannery wastewater using activated carbon from sugar industrial waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium is commonly found in huge quantities in tannery wastewaters. For this reason, the removal and recovery of the chromium content of tannery wastewaters is crucial for environmental protection and economic reasons. Removal and recovery of chromium were carried out by using low-cost potential adsorbents. For this purpose three types of activated carbon; C1, the waste generated from sugar industry

N. F. Fahim; B. N. Barsoum; A. E. Eid; M. S. Khalil

2006-01-01

220

Status Report of Projects in Waste Management in the Livestock Industry  

E-print Network

of British Columbia Prepared for: Fraser River Action Plan Fraser Pollution Abatement Office Environmental Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 3015 Ord Rd., Kamloops, B.C. V2B 8A9 and 2 University College of the Cariboo and monitoring projects in the area of pollution prevention and waste minimization in the livestock industry

221

Industrial waste water treatment: large scale development of a light-enhanced Fenton reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of a large scale application of the light-enhanced Fenton reaction has been investigated for the treatment of a highly contaminated industrial waste water containing toxic aromatic amines (dimethyl anilines or xylidines) as the main pollutants. The Fenton reagent, a combination of hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt, is a potent oxidizing agent of organic compounds in acidic aqueous

Esther Oliveros; Omar Legrini; Mathias Hohl; Thomas Müller; André M. Braun

1997-01-01

222

POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

223

FORMATION OF CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS IN A HAZARDOUS-WASTE-FIRING INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

This research examined the potential for emissions of polychlorinated diebnzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from industrial boilers that cofire hazardous waste. PCDD/F emissions were sampled from a 732 kW (2.5 x 106 Btu/h), 3-pass, firetube boiler using #2 fuel oil cofired wit...

224

Thermodynamics -2 An industrial plant produces a waste stream of hot compressed air  

E-print Network

Thermodynamics - 2 An industrial plant produces a waste stream of hot compressed air: Pressure P from this stream as it is discharged to the atmosphere (T = 300 K, P = 100 kPa). a) (50 pts.) What is maximum work that can be produced if the air is discharged to the atmosphere at atmospheric pressure

Virginia Tech

225

Evaluation of coupling agents to manufacture hybrid hardboard made from industrial waste fiberglass and wood fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every day, tons of fibrous material are landfilled that could otherwise be used for structural panel products. In this study, we looked at combining fibers from industrial fiberglass insulation trim waste with commercial hardboard fibers and with recycled cor- rugated container fibers to improve the properties of a structural hardboard-like panel. This study also investigated the effectiveness of two coupling

John F. Hunt; Charles B. Vick

226

A MARINE ALGAL BIOASSAY METHOD: RESULTS WITH PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple marine algal bioassay method is described for short- and long-term studies on pesticides and industrial wastes. It can be used for rapid screening of a variety of substances with single-species and multiple-species tests and gives relative toxicities of the pollutants te...

227

ASSESSMENT OF HAZARD POTENTIAL FROM COMBUSTION OF WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the extent of the present onsite use of waste fuel in industrial boilers and related process equipment, the nature and quantities of the materials so disposed of, and current regulations concerning such use. The study responds to a...

228

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

229

EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL STABILIZATION AND SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSES FOR ARSENIC CONTAINING INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is in many industrial raw materials, products, and wastes, and is a contaminant of concern in soil and groundwater at many remediation sites. Because arsenic readily changes valence state and reacts to form species with varying toxicity and mobility, effective treatment o...

230

Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste heat recovery, and food industry wastes from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and processing of fruits and vegetables. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer, and uses in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste is also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

231

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

232

Enzyme Activities and Chemical Changes in Wet Olive Cake after Treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus or Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the enzyme activities and chemical changes recorded in a recalcitrant phenolic-rich\\u000a waste after treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus or Eisenia fetida. The waste used was wet olive cake (alperujo in Spanish), a waste produced in huge amounts by the olive oil industry. Both P. ostreatus and E. fetida were very effective in removing phenolic

M. Saavedra; E. Benitez; C. Cifuentes; R. Nogales

2006-01-01

233

Isolation of a biodegradable sterol-rich fraction from industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Several industrial waste materials were screened for their sterol content. The possibility of using these industrial by-products as sterol sources for the microbiological production of 4-androsten-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androsta-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) was investigated. Two methods of obtaining the sterol fraction from wastes were developed. Sterol-rich (96-98%) fractions were isolated in a yield above 70%, from a tall-oil effluent of a paper pulp industry and from edible-oil deodorizates. These fractions were subsequently used as a substrate for microbial degradation by a Mycobacterium sp. strain and proved to be easily converted to AD and ADD. PMID:11991074

Dias, A C P; Fernandes, P; Cabral, J M S; Pinheiro, H M

2002-05-01

234

New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 5. Analysis of solid waste impacts  

SciTech Connect

This study provides an analysis of the impacts of emission controls on disposal of solid wastes from coal-fired industrial boilers. Examination is made of boiler systems, coal types, emission control alternatives, waste streams, waste disposal and utilization alternatives, and pertinent Federal regulations. Twenty-four representative model case scenarios are studied in detail. Expected disposal/utilization alternatives and disposal costs are developed. Comparison of the systems studied indicates that the most cost-effective SO/sub 2/ control technologies from the perspective of waste disposal cost per unit SO/sub 2/ control are, in decreasing order: physically cleaned coal/double alkali combination; double alkali; lime/limestone; spray drying; fluidized-bed combustion; and sodium throwaway.

Boldt, K.; Davis, H.; Delaney, B.; Grundahl, N.; Hyde, R.; Malloch, R.; Tusa, W.

1980-09-01

235

Pilot plant for biomethanation of dairy-industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to demonstrate the application of two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) for simultaneous stabilization and biomethanation of high-COD cheese-waste-dairy-manure mixtures by a pilot-plant operation in Wellsville, Utah. The TPAD system exhibited a total COD (TCOD) reduction of up to 97% with feed COD concentration of 60,000 to 45,000 mg/l. The TCOD reduction decreased as the variability as well as the strength of the feed increased. A quick surge of the feed TCOD concentration to 125,000 mg/l effected a large drop in TCOD reduction, but the integrity of the methane digester, which produced 78 {approximately}87 mol% methane-content gas, was measured and TPAD system performance could be restored to normal levels by diluting the feed to obtain TCOD concentrations below 70,000 mg/l. The TPAD system exhibited a methane yield of 0.27 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD charged (0.36 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD removed).

Ghosh, S.; Fukushi, K.; Liu, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

236

Residential proximity to waste sites and industrial facilities and chromosomal anomalies in offspring.  

PubMed

A few studies have found chromosomal anomalies in offspring associated with a maternal residence near waste sites, but did not examine the effect of living near industrial facilities, and most combined specific anomalies into heterogeneous groups. With a case-control study design, we investigated whether maternal residential proximity to hazardous waste sites or industrial facilities with chemical air emissions was associated with chromosomal anomalies in births. Maternal residences of 2099 Texas births with chromosomal anomalies and 4368 control births without documented malformations were related to boundaries of hazardous waste sites and street addresses of industrial facilities through geographic information systems. With adjustment for maternal age, race/ethnicity, and education, maternal residence within 1mile of a hazardous waste site (relative to farther away) was not associated with chromosomal anomalies in offspring except for Klinefelter variants among Hispanic births (odds ratios (OR) 7.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-42.4). Women 35 years or older who lived within 1mile of industries with emissions of heavy metals were two times more likely (95% CI 1.1-4.1) than women living farther away to have offspring with chromosomal anomalies including trisomies 13, 18, or 21 or sex chromosome abnormalities. Among women 40 years or older, maternal residence within a mile of industries with solvent emissions was associated with chromosomal anomalies in births (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.2-42.8). Study findings suggest some relation between residential proximity to industries with emissions of solvents or heavy metals and chromosomal anomalies in births to older mothers. PMID:17470415

Brender, Jean D; Zhan, F Benjamin; Langlois, Peter H; Suarez, Lucina; Scheuerle, Angela

2008-03-01

237

The value of resource efficiency in the food industry: a waste minimisation project in East Anglia, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste minimisation can be as successful in the food and drink industry as in other industries often seen as more polluting. £1.1m was realised in annual savings by 13 companies in the East Anglian Waste Minimisation in the Food and Drink Industry Project, which exceeded the Project investment of £412,000 plus the £335,000 invested by companies in cleaner technologies. The

Stefan Henningsson; Katherine Hyde; Ann Smith; Miranda Campbell

2004-01-01

238

Exploring the life cycle management of industrial solid waste in the case of copper slag.  

PubMed

Industrial solid waste has potential impacts on soil, water and air quality, as well as human health, during its whole life stages. A framework for the life cycle management of industrial solid waste, which integrates the source reduction process, is presented and applied to copper slag management. Three management scenarios of copper slag are developed: (i) production of cement after electric furnace treatment, (ii) production of cement after flotation, and (iii) source reduction before the recycling process. A life cycle assessment is carried out to estimate the environmental burdens of these three scenarios. Life cycle assessment results showed that the environmental burdens of the three scenarios are 2710.09, 2061.19 and 2145.02 Pt respectively. In consideration of the closed-loop recycling process, the environmental performance of the flotation approach excelled that of the electric furnace approach. Additionally, although flash smelting promotes the source reduction of copper slag compared with bath smelting, it did not reduce the overall environmental burdens resulting from the complete copper slag management process. Moreover, it led to the shifting of environmental burdens from ecosystem quality damage and resources depletion to human health damage. The case study shows that it is necessary to integrate the generation process into the whole life cycle of industrial solid waste, and to make an integrated assessment for quantifying the contribution of source reduction, rather than to simply follow the priority of source reduction and the hierarchy of waste management. PMID:23512953

Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Li, Bo

2013-06-01

239

Poly ?-Hydroxybutyrate Production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 Using Sugar Industry Waste Water  

PubMed Central

The production of poly ?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14?g?h?1?L?1, using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297?g/L of poly ?-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management. PMID:24027767

Singh, Gulab; Kumari, Anish; Mittal, Arpana; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K.

2013-01-01

240

Relation between substrate feeding pattern and development of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge processes: Part III. applications with industrial waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory scale activated sludge systems were operated under regimes of continuous or intermittent feeding of the waste water. Industrial waste waters from breweries, a dairy plant and a petro-chemical plant were investigated. The systems were started up with sludge from a municipal waste water plant or more often with sludges obtained from the corresponding industrial waste water treatment plants. It

E. Van den Eynde; L. Vriens; H. Verachtert

1982-01-01

241

Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

Earle, T.C.

1981-06-01

242

Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.  

PubMed

Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. PMID:22739430

Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

2012-10-01

243

Wet scrubbers: Match the spray nozzle to the operation  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial processes rely on gas scrubbers to remove unwanted constituents from gas streams. For instance, for flue-gas treatment, wet scrubbers are used to cool and moisten the exhaust stream, and remove SOx, NOx, volatile organic compounds and other volatile organic compounds and other acid gases, and particulates prior to discharge. Wet scrubbers are widely used to treat exhaust streams from power plants, waste incinerators, and stationary diesel engines. They are also used during clinker or cement production. Wet scrubbers rely on a finely atomized stream of liquid to capture particulate and gaseous pollutants from an exhaust stream. Heat and mass transfer are accomplished by the direct contact of the exhaust gas with finely atomized droplets of scrubbing liquid. The rate of chemical or physical reaction between the liquid and gas phases is a function of the amount of surface area the liquid droplets offer. Therefore, selection of the appropriate atomizing nozzle has a direct impact on scrubber performance.

Bendig, L. [Lechler GmbH and Co., Metzingen (Germany)

1995-03-01

244

The technologies of pollution prevention/waste treatment for small industrial operations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents some waste treatment/pollution prevention technologies which can be adopted by small industrial operations. The technologies or systems include selected biological and physicochemical water pollution control processes, sludge dewatering/treatment technologies, and air pollution control systems. More specific applications, such as pollution prevention technologies/devices used for metal finishing industries, solvent degreasing, and dry cleaning, are discussed. Some medical waste treatment alternatives are also presented. During the selection of a system for pollution control application, several factors shall be considered: (1) legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for the protection of public health and welfare; (2) social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located; and (3) economic limitations imposed by funding constraints. The second and the third factors are especially critical for small businesses or industries because they are usually located in or close to metropolitan areas and funding resources are often limited. Pollution prevention is one of the few areas where environmental goals and industry`s economic interests clearly coincide.

Huang, C.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

245

Comparison of alkaline industrial wastes for aqueous mineral carbon sequestration through a parallel reactivity study.  

PubMed

Thirty-one alkaline industrial wastes from a wide range of industrial processes were acquired and screened for application in an aqueous carbon sequestration process. The wastes were evaluated for their potential to leach polyvalent cations and base species. Following mixing with a simple sodium bicarbonate solution, chemistries of the aqueous and solid phases were analyzed. Experimental results indicated that the most reactive materials were capable of sequestering between 77% and 93% of the available carbon under experimental conditions in four hours. These materials - cement kiln dust, spray dryer absorber ash, and circulating dry scrubber ash - are thus good candidates for detailed, process-oriented studies. Chemical equilibrium modeling indicated that amorphous calcium carbonate is likely responsible for the observed sequestration. High variability and low reactive fractions render many other materials less attractive for further pursuit without considering preprocessing or activation techniques. PMID:24735991

Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Nakles, David V; Hawthorne, Steven B; Heebink, Loreal V; Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Michael; Ghosh, Rajat S

2014-10-01

246

Waste heat - use or watch it - during the electric industry restructuring  

SciTech Connect

The waste heat issue in energy management has not changed. The ability to convert energy to useful work and minimizing heat losses continues to be the goal of energy efficiency. The electric utility restructuring at least in California has given business and industry another reason to keep a close focus on current utility and secondary energy resource costs. The secondary energy resources include: steam, compressed air and cooling water. This paper will outline some of the waste heat management techniques such as: unit energy cost, facility energy balance and monthly energy management reporting. These techniques have been applied in industrial and commercial settings. The focus will be on how to integrate these technical topics into your particular electric deregulated environment.

Rosenthal, J.W.

1997-06-01

247

Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research  

SciTech Connect

The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

Bickford, D.F.

1993-12-31

248

Medium-Pressure Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion Turbine Systems for Utilization of Industrial Waste Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recovery of waste heat is an effective means of achieving energy conservation, and the total amount of industrial waste heat is still notable. However, the value of waste heat as an energy source is low (low exergy). Its utilization therefore requires larger recovery systems with increased costs. The concept of introducing a second, high-quality heat source in the form of H2-O2 combustion in order to improve the system's performance is presented here. System analysis of the combination effect (higher output from combined than from separate sources) was conducted. The investigation results show that the systems under consideration have the potential for significant merits under moderate conditions. The proposed combination of low- and high-quality heat sources also permits reductions in the system size and cost.

Furutani, Hirohide; Uzunow, Nikolaj

249

>Removal of Lead from Wastewater Using Bagasse Fly Ash—A Sugar Industry Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent and has been used for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions in the 4.80 à 10 to 4.83 à 10 M concentration range. Maximum removal takes place at pH 3.0 using lOg of the adsorbent of particle size 150–200 mesh.

Vinod K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan; Saurabh Sharma

1998-01-01

250

Artificial weathering pools of calcium-rich industrial waste for CO 2 sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes of carbonation of calcium-rich aqueous industrial wastes from acetylene production were performed mimicking rock weathering, using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as reactant. This residue was carbonated exposing it to the air in artificial pools with controlled solid-to-liquid and surface-to-volume ratios, and the efficiency of this simple mineral carbonation process was maximized. Considering realistic values of just one acetylene production

V. Morales-Flórez; A. Santos; A. Lemus; L. Esquivias

2011-01-01

251

Energy-saving cements obtained from chemical gypsum and other industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

The main sources, properties and uses of chemical gypsum are reviewed and the possibility of its utilization for the manufacturing process of calcium sulfoaluminate cements is explored. In this process other industrial wastes, as sources of reactive silica and alumina, can be employed. Phosphogypsum, blast-furnace slag and fly ash were the main by-products investigated. The principal properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cements, such as synthesis, hydration and strength, were discussed. Some durability problems and suggested solutions were particularly emphasized.

Beretka, J. [CSIRO Div. of Building, Construction and Engineering, Highett, Victoria (Australia)] [CSIRO Div. of Building, Construction and Engineering, Highett, Victoria (Australia); Cioffi, R. [Univ. Degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione] [Univ. Degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione; Marroccoli, M.; Valenti, G.L. [Univ. della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell`Ambiente] [Univ. della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell`Ambiente

1996-12-31

252

Waste-to-energy possibilities for industrial olive and grape by-products in Extremadura  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive and grape agro-industrial sectors have a major economic importance in Extremadura. Annual production of olive oil is more than 50×103t, and of wine is more than 3×106hectolitres. The large amounts of by-products are in most cases under-used, although they could be converted into a zero cost of the waste at the point of origin. In this context, the

A. R. Celma; S. Rojas; F. López-Rodríguez

2007-01-01

253

Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater laden with heavy metals.  

PubMed

Industrial wastes, such as, fly ash, blast furnace slag and sludge, black liquor lignin, red mud, and waste slurry, etc. are currently being investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of the heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that modified industrial wastes showed higher adsorption capacity. The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from the industrial wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions etc. on the adsorption of heavy metals have also been discussed in this article. From the review, it is evident that certain industrial waste materials have demonstrated high removal capacities for the heavy metals laden with wastewater. However, it is to be mentioned that adsorption capacities of the adsorbents vary depending on the characteristics of the adsorbents, the extent of chemical modification and the concentration of adsorbates. There are also few issues and drawbacks on the utilization of industrial wastes as low-cost adsorbents that have been addressed. In order to find out the practical utilization of industrial waste as low-cost adsorbents on the commercial scale, more research should be conducted in this direction. PMID:21669401

Ahmaruzzaman, M

2011-08-10

254

Subacute inhalation toxicity assessment of fly ash from industrial waste incinerators.  

PubMed

Fly ash from industrial waste incinerators has been a significant concern because of their constituent toxic heavy metals and organic compounds. The objective of this study was to identify the subacute inhalation toxicity of fly ash from industrial waste incinerators, using whole body inhalation exposure chambers. Male and female groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to fly ash by inhalation of concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200?mg/m(3), for 6?h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight, and relative organ weight to body weight, between the exposure groups and the control group. Hematological examinations revealed a significant increase of monocyte counts in fly ash exposed rats and brown pigment laden macrophage was found in the lungs of rats exposed to high concentration of fly ash. A decrease of blood glucose levels and an increase in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase activity were observed in fly ash treated rats. There was also a significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase levels in rat blood exposed fly ash. A significant dose-dependent increase of DNA damage was found in lymphocytes, spleen, bronchoalveolar lavage, liver, lung, and thymus of rats exposed to fly ash. In addition, the level of lipid peroxidation was increased in the plasma of rats exposed to a high concentration of fly ash. These results suggest that inhalation of fly ash from industrial waste incinerators can induce histopathologic, hematological, and serum biochemical changes and oxidative damage. PMID:22954398

Shim, Ilseob; Oh, Eunha; Yang, Sangyoung; Ryu, Taekwon; Soh, Jaewon; Sul, Donggeun; Kim, Pilje

2012-09-01

255

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01

256

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

257

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

258

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE INDICATOR FOR MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF INCINERATORS, INDUSTRIAL FURNACES, AND BOILERS BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of a simple indicator-- Unsatisfied Oxygen Demand (UOD)--for measuring the performance of incinerators, industrial furnaces, and boilers burning hazardous waste. urrent RCRA regulations use destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of the princi...

259

Improving the mechanical characteristics and restraining heavy metal evaporation from sintered municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by wet milling.  

PubMed

The milling process has a verified stabilizing effect on the leaching of heavy metals into the environment from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash. The aim of this current study is to further improve and confirm the effectiveness of the process by exploring its effects on the evaporation of heavy metals and on the mechanical characteristics of the sintered MSWI fly ash. The chemical composition of the MSWI fly ash is first altered by the addition of water treatment plant sludge (WTS) and cullet, and then processed to produce sintered specimens suitable for reuse as an aggregate. In the experiments, fly ash, WTS and cullet (40%: 30%: 30%, respectively) were mixed and milled for 1h. Samples were sintered for 60 min at temperatures of 850, 900, 950 and 1000°C. Test results confirm that milling increased the compressive strength of the sintered specimens. The compressive strength of unmilled specimens sintered at 900°C was only 90 kg/cm(2), but that of milled specimens was 298 kg/cm(2) when sintered at only 850°C. There was also an improvement in the soundness ranging from 11.04% to 0.02% and a reduction in the evaporation rates of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn from 54-64%, 43-49%, 38-43%, 30-40% and 14-35% (900-1000°C) to 19-21%, 19-21%, 14-19%, 12-19% and 14-17% (850-1000°C), respectively. The improvement in compressive strength was attained by the combination in the liquid sintering stage of powdered ash with the amorphous material. The amorphousness of the material also helped to seal the surface of the fly ash, thereby reducing the evaporation of heavy metals during the heating process. PMID:21917374

Sun, Chang-Jung; Li, Ming-Guo; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wang, Ya-Hui; Jan, Yi-Lin

2011-11-15

260

Use of sepiolite as an adsorbent for the removal of copper (II) from industrial waste leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land filling is the most common method of disposal of solid waste all over the world. As well as municipal solid waste, industrial wastes, which may contain hazardous substances, are also received by landfills in many countries. Leachate is one of the problems arising from landfills. When water percolates through solid wastes, contaminants are leached into solution. The major concern with the movement of leachate into the subsurface aquifer is the fate of the constituents found in leachate. The fate of heavy metals is the greatest interest in leachate. Several treatment technologies have been developed for eliminating heavy metals recently. Adsorption is one of the most interesting methods that it has been successfully applied for the heavy metal removal. Activated carbons were widely used as adsorbent materials because of their extended surface area, microporous structure, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. However, it is restricted due to its relatively high price, high operation costs, and problems with generation for the industrial scale applications. Recently, more research efforts have been focused on effective sorbents material in order to minimize the processing cost and solve their disposal problems in an environmentally sustainable way. Adsorption of metal ions onto clay minerals has been studied extensively because both metal ions and clays are common components in nature. The cost of clays is relatively low as compared to other alternative adsorbents. Furthermore, the high specific surface area, chemical and mechanical stability, variety of structural and surface properties and higher values of cation exchange capacities make the clays an excellent group of adsorbents. Sepiolite (Si12O30Mg8(OH)4(H2O)4•8H2O) is a natural, fibrous clay mineral with fine microporous channels running parallel to the length of the fibers. The structure of sepiolite, in some aspects, is similar to those of other 2:1 trioctahedral silicates, such as talc, but it has discontinuities and inversion of the silica sheets, which give rise to structural tunnels and blocks. In the inner blocks, all corners of the silica tetrahedral are connected to adjacent blocks, but in the outer blocks, some of the corners are Si atoms bound to hydroxyls (Si-OH). This unique structure allows the penetration of organic and inorganic species into the structure and assigns sepiolite an industrial importance in adsorption. The objective of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of using sepiolite for the adsorptive removal of Cu (II) from the industrial waste leachate. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies are determined. The pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order, Elovich and the intra particle diffusion kinetic models are used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The adsorption of Cu (II) from the aqueous leachate of industrial wastes onto sepiolite was performed using a batch equilibrium technique. At first stage, one-factor-at-a-time experiments were performed to see the individual effects of initial pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The adsorption of Cu (II) was favorably influenced by an increase in the adsorbent dosage. The maximum percent removal of Cu (II) were observed at pH>6, and significantly decreased at lower pH value. The optimum contact time is found as 10 min. for the removal of Cu (II). The increment in contact time from 10 min. to 120 min. did not show a significant effect on efficiency. The maximum Cu (II) adsorption efficiencies were obtained at 94.45%. The pseudo second order kinetic model agrees very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous leachate of industrial waste onto sepiolite. The results indicate that the use of sepiolite that is locally available and almost free of cost as an adsorbent could be a viable alternative to activated carbon for the removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

Gamze Turan, N.; Ardali, Yüksel

2013-04-01

261

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

262

Case study: apparel industry waste management: a focus on recycling in South Africa.  

PubMed

The need for effective apparel waste management is motivated by the increasing cost and decreasing availability of landfill space and the dwindling of natural resources. The aim of this study was to identify the current solid waste disposal and recycling practices of the apparel industry in South Africa and to determine their attitude and willingness towards recycling, their perception of the feasibility thereof, barriers to recycling and marketing strategies that would be appropriate for products made from recycled materials. A structured questionnaire was mailed to apparel manufacturers in South Africa. The results indicated that most apparel manufacturers use landfills to dispose of their waste, while approximately half recycle some of the waste. They are fairly positive towards recycling, with consideration of economical feasibility. Phi-coefficients show no practically significant relationship between company size and the use of recycled materials. The most important barriers to recycling are lack of equipment and technology, lack of material to recycle and lack of consumer awareness. Marketing strategies for recycled products are recommended. It is concluded that consumer awareness and knowledge regarding recycled apparel products should be developed in order to ensure a market and that apparel manufacturers should be encouraged to recycle more extensively, in order to ensure that resources will not be exhausted unnecessarily and the environment will be preserved optimally. PMID:19710119

Larney, M; van Aardt, A M

2010-01-01

263

Bioleaching of zinc and aluminium from industrial waste sludges by means of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed

Biological solubilisation of heavy metals contained in two different kinds of industrial wastes was performed in batches employing a strain of Thiobacillus ferroxidans. The wastes tested were: a dust coming from the iron-manganese alloy production in an electric furnace (sludge 1) and a sludge coming from a process treatment plant of aluminium anodic oxidation (sludge 2). The experimental results pointed out the ability of the used strain to maintain the environment, that initially has a pH about 8, at strongly acid conditions (pH 2.5-3.5), producing sulphuric acid that is the chemical agent responsible for the metals solubilisation. At wastes initial concentration of 1%, the percentage of solubilised metals was 76 and 78% for the wastes 1 and 2, respectively, but the lag phase was considerably longer for sludge 2 than for sludge 1, indicating a different affinity of microorganisms for the solid phase. Increasing the initial slurry concentration, the percentage of removed metal reached 72-73% for the sludge 1, while in case of sludge 2, the total amount of solubilized metal progressively decreased. Two kinetic models are proposed to describe the trends of metals solubilization curves. PMID:12214978

Solisio, C; Lodi, A; Veglio, F

2002-01-01

264

Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.  

PubMed

Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (?10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (?70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

2013-07-01

265

Next Generation Wet Electrostatic Precipitators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-pollutant control technologies will become more important in the future. This new membrane wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) system is ideally suited to, and very cost effective for, removing PM2.5, SO3 and Hg +2 after limestone wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) scrubbers in the utility industry. Several coal-fired utilities have been experiencing increased SO3 emissions from their existing WFGD scrubbers, especially

Hardik G Shah; John C Caine

266

Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production. PMID:24274475

Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

2014-01-01

267

Potential of thermal treatment for decontamination of mercury containing wastes from chlor-alkali industry.  

PubMed

Old dumps of mercury waste sludges from chlor-alkaline industry are an environmental threat if not properly secured. Thermal retortion can be used to remove mercury from such wastes. This treatment reduces the total mercury content, and also may reduce the leachability of the residual mercury. The effects of treatment temperature and treatment time on both residual mercury levels and mercury leachability according to the US EPA TCLP leaching procedure, were investigated. Treatment for 1h at 800°C allowed to quantitatively remove the mercury. Treatment at 400°C and above allowed to decrease the leachable Hg contents to below the US EPA regulations. The ultimate choice of treatment conditions will depend on requirements of further handling options and cost considerations. PMID:21093149

Busto, Y; Cabrera, X; Tack, F M G; Verloo, M G

2011-02-15

268

Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

2009-12-01

269

Use of alkaline aluminum-containing waste products of industrial plants for waste-water treatment  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to investigate the coagulating power of sodium aluminate, and to determine the optimum dose of the reagent and pH range of the water being purified. A solution of sodium aluminate, 0.5 M as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, was used, prepared by dissolving aluminum metal in concentrated alkali solution. The pH of the solution obtained was 13.80 at 20/sub 0/, and the alkalinity, determined by titration of the sodium aluminate with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution with the use of bromophenol blue as indicator, was 3.75 g-eq/liter. The industrial coagulant used was spent solution from processes of chemical scouring of aluminum and its alloys, containing 40 g/liter of aluminum, with a pH of 13.86 and an alkalinity of 7.5 g-eq/liter. It was determined that the optimum doses were 60-90 mg/liter as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The criteria of good coagulation were a formation, during 1 min, of coarse rapidly setting flakes of aluminum hydroxide, and a low residual aluminum content not exceeding 0.5 mg/liter.

Shut'ko, A.P.; Butchenko, L.I.

1987-10-20

270

Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: May 1, 2010-October 31, 2010  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (#LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

271

Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

272

Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

Mike lewis

2013-02-01

273

Substituting energy crops with organic wastes and agro-industrial residues for biogas production.  

PubMed

In this study, industrial and agro-industrial by-products and residues (BRs), animal manures (AMs), and various types of organic wastes (OWs) were analyzed to evaluate their suitability as substitutes for energy crops (ECs) in biogas production. A comparison between the costs of the volume of biogas that can be produced from each substrate was presented with respect to the prices of the substrates in the Italian market. Furthermore, four different feeding mixtures were compared with a mixture of EC and swine manure (Mixture A) used in a full-scale plant in Italy. Swine manure is always included as a basic substrate in the feeding mixtures, because many of the Italian biogas plants are connected to farms. When EC were partially substituted with BR (Mixture B), the cost (0.28 euro Nm(-3)) of the volume of biogas of Mixture A dropped to 0.18 euro Nm(-3). Furthermore, when the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and olive oil sludge (OS) were used as possible solutions (Mixtures C and D), the costs of the volume of biogas were -0.20 and 0.11euroNm(-3), respectively. The negative price signifies that operators earn money for treating the waste. For the fifth mix (Mixture E) of the OFMSW with a high solid substrate, such as glycerin from biodiesel production, the resulting cost of the volume of biogas produced was -0.09 euro Nm(-3). By comparing these figures, it is evident that the biogas plants at farm level are good candidates for treating organic residues of both municipalities and the agro-industrial sector in a cost-effective way, and in providing territorially diffused electric and thermal power. This may represent a potential development for agrarian economy. PMID:19254824

Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Adani, Fabrizio

2009-06-01

274

Removal of DDD and DDE from wastewater using bagasse fly ash, a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste from the sugar industry, was converted into an effective adsorbent and was used for the removal of DDD [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] and DDE [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] pesticides from wastewater. The DDD and DDE are removed by the developed adsorbent up to 93% at pH 7.0, with the adsorbent dose of 5 g\\/l of particle size 200–250 ?m at 30°C. The removal of

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2001-01-01

275

Technology for industrial waste heat recovery by organic Rankine cycle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of industrial waste heat and the conversion thereof to useful electric power by use of Rankine cycle systems is studied. Four different aspects of ORC technology were studied: possible destructive chemical reaction between an aluminum turbine wheel and R-113 working fluid under wheel-to-rotor rub conditions; possible chemical reaction between stainless steel or carbon steel and any of five different ORC working fluids under rotor-stator rub conditions; effects on electric generator properties of extended exposure to an environment of saturated R-113 vapor/fluid; and operational proof tests under laboratory conditions of two 1070 kW, ORC, R-113 hermetic turbogenerator power module systems.

Cain, W. G.; Drake, R. L.; Prisco, C. J.

1984-10-01

276

Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

Andreasen, J. K.; Stroud, Richard K.

1987-01-01

277

Utilization of industrial waste products as adsorbents for the removal of dyes.  

PubMed

A number of low cost adsorbents from steel and fertilizer industries wastes have been prepared and investigated for the removal of anionic dyes such as ethyl orange, metanil yellow and acid blue 113 from aqueous solutions. The results indicate that inorganic wastes, i.e. blast furnace dust, sludge and slag from steel plants are not suitable for the removal of organic materials, whereas a carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry of fertilizer industry was found to adsorb 198, 211 and 219mg/g of ethyl orange, metanil yellow and acid blue 113, respectively. The adsorption of dyes on this adsorbent was studied as a function of contact time, concentration, particle size and temperature by batch method. The adsorption isotherm conformed to Langmuir model and the adsorption was found to be exothermic and physical in nature. Kinetic data conforms to Lagergren's equation with good correlation coefficients varying from 0.9998 to 0.9999 indicating that the adsorption is a first-order process. The adsorption data on carbonaceous adsorbent was compared to a standard activated charcoal sample and it was found that the prepared adsorbent is about 80% as efficient as standard activated charcoal and therefore, can be used as low cost alternative ( approximately 100 US dollars per ton) for colour removal from effluents. PMID:12850318

Jain, A K; Gupta, V K; Bhatnagar, A; Suhas

2003-07-01

278

Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.  

PubMed

Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1). PMID:19765979

Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

2010-01-01

279

Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of a dilute biosolid industrial waste product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements were made of upwelled spectral signatures of various concentrations of industrial waste products mixed with water in a large water tank. Radiance and reflectance spectra for a biosolid waste product (sludge) mixed with conditioned tap water and natural river water are reported. Results of these experiments indicate that reflectance increases with increasing concentration of the sludge at practically all wavelengths for concentration of total suspended solids up to 117 ppm in conditioned tap water and 171 ppm in natural river water. Significant variations in the spectra were observed and may be useful in defining spectral characteristics for this waste product. No significant spectral differences were apparent in the reflectance spectra of the two experiments, especially for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance values, however, were generally greater in natural river water for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance may be considered to increase linearly with concentration of total suspended solids from 5 to 171 ppm at all wavelengths without introducing errors larger than 10 percent.

Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

1979-01-01

280

Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.  

PubMed

The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment. PMID:11387023

Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

2001-01-01

281

Establishing and Implementing a Waste Minimization Program in the Chemical and Oil Industries  

E-print Network

chemicals and chemical processes, and are the best equipped to manage and reduce waste. It is the responsibility of all companies that manufacture a product or generate a waste to understand the meaning of proper waste management hierarchy, waste...

Hollod, G. J.; Marton, R. J.

282

The Importance of Building and Enhancing Worldwide Industry Cooperation in the Areas of Radiological Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of vital importance. This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry ' s involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG. (authors)

Saint-Pierre, S. [World Nuclear Association (WNA), 22a St. James's Square, London SWIY 4JH (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

283

Treatability study of industrial waste using sanitary sewage to supply nutrients  

E-print Network

and settling Trickling filters degree of treating the waste. In 1951, Helmers, Frame, Greenberg and Sawyer (14) used sanitary sewage to supply nutrients to cotton kiering waste, rag rope pulping waste and brewery waste. The joint treatment of the sewage... and settling Trickling filters degree of treating the waste. In 1951, Helmers, Frame, Greenberg and Sawyer (14) used sanitary sewage to supply nutrients to cotton kiering waste, rag rope pulping waste and brewery waste. The joint treatment of the sewage...

Ferguson, James Ritchie

2012-06-07

284

Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. March 1985-October 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for March 1985-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food-processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste-heat recovery, meat processing, seafood processing, dairy wastes, beverage industry, fruits and vegetables, and other food-industry wastes. Waste utilization includes animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, conversion to fertilizer, composting, and recovery and recycling of usable chemicals. Food-packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 169 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-11-01

285

Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent  

DOEpatents

A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

2001-01-01

286

Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to choose the heat source first and then design the most appropriate structure for the source by applying analytical methods. This report describes how to design a prototype of a thermoelectric power generator using the analytical approach and the results of performance evaluation tests carried out in the field.

Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

2014-05-01

287

LAND CULTIVATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES. STATE-OF-THE-ART STUDY. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL SUMMARY AND LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the available literature on land cultivation of industrial wastewater and sludge, and municipal solid waste was conducted. This review was supplemented by field investigations at 10 operating sites, including soil and vegetation analyses. Soil is a natural environment...

288

Techno-economic feasibility of high-temperature high-lift chemical heat pumps for upgrading industrial waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a techno-economic feasibility study on two high-temperature high-lift chemical heat pumps for upgrading industrial waste heat. The study was set up in order to select the most promising heat pump concept for further development. First, a market study is performed to assess the amount of waste heat and the temperature dependence thereof. Based on

S. Spoelstra; W. G. Haije; J. W. Dijkstra

2002-01-01

289

Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

Sax, R.I. [Biothane Corporation, Camden, NJ (United States); Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-11-01

290

Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4 (0.1), (NH4)2SO4 (0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4 (0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio. PMID:24031986

Singh, Renu; Kapoor, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay

2012-01-01

291

Isolation of a strain of Aspergillus fumigatus able to grow in minimal medium added with an industrial cyanide waste.  

PubMed

The present note refers the results about the isolation of an Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on an industrial cyanide waste as nitrogen source. The fungus was selected from an alkaline unpolluted soil in enrichment cultures in 50 ml of Minimal Medium added with 20 mmol glucose and supplemented initially with 0.1 mmol KCN and then with 70 ?l of a waste solution from a jewelry industry containing free cyanide and cyanide complexes of heavy metal ions including copper, silver, nickel, and others. The cyanide content of the waste was 1,500 ppm. The fungal growth was monitored determining dry weight, protein content and glucose consumption. The fungus efficiently utilized the cyanide as evidenced by the decrease in the inoculated medium of the compound under detection limits within 24 h and the concomitant growth within 15 days during which periodical additions of the waste to the cultures were made. The amount of the cyanide in the biomass of the fungus grown in presence of the waste was very scarce and comparable to that in absence of the pollutant. Furthermore the fungus was able to sequestrate metals such Ag, Cu, and Ni as a resistance mechanism against heavy metals. In conclusion our results are of interest for biodegradation plans of electroplating industrial wastes containing cyanide based pollutants. PMID:22806792

Sabatini, Luigia; Ferrini, Claudio; Micheloni, Mauro; Pianetti, Anna; Citterio, Barbara; Parlani, Chiara; Bruscolini, Francesca

2012-01-01

292

Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.  

PubMed

The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications. PMID:24424298

Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

2014-04-21

293

Comprehensive planning for classification and disposal of solid waste at the industrial parks regarding health and environmental impacts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it. PMID:24688552

Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

2014-01-01

294

Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker's yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker's yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

El-Tayeb, T S; Abdelhafez, A A; Ali, S H; Ramadan, E M

2012-10-01

295

Removal of lead from wastewater using bagasse fly ash -- a sugar industry waste material  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent and has been used for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions in the 4.80 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 4.83 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M concentration range. Maximum removal takes place at pH 3.0 using 10 g/L of the adsorbent of particle size 150--200 mesh. The effect of the presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time has also been studied. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The adsorbent has been satisfactorily used for the removal of Pb{sup 2+} from the effluent of a metal-finishing plant.

Gupta, V.K.; Mohan, D.; Sharma, S. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-06-01

296

Chloride extraction for quality improvement of municipal solid waste incinerator ash for the concrete industry.  

PubMed

Coal ash from power stations has long been used successfully in the cement industry as binders in several Portland formulations. This is not the case for municipal solid waste (MSW) ash as chloride concentrations, ranging from 10 to 200 g kg(-1) dry weight in the bottom and fly ash, respectively, exceed the maximum allowable concentration in most cement mixtures. To reduce chloride content in MSW bottom ash, a laboratory investigation was carried out based on the exhaustive washing in tap water. The influence of operative parameters such as temperature, granulometric properties and solid/liquid ratio of extraction was evaluated. In addition to optimization of the mentioned operative parameters for full-scale application, the paper gives preliminary indications on mechanistic aspects of the washing operation. PMID:15751396

Boghetich, Giancarlo; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Palma, Maria; Petruzzelli, Domenico

2005-02-01

297

Hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes using single-stage photofermentation.  

PubMed

Beet molasses and black strap are two major waste streams of the sugar industry. They both contain high amounts of sucrose, making them suitable substrates for biological hydrogen production. Photofermentation, usually used to convert organic acids to hydrogen, has the potential capacity to effectively use a variety of feed stocks, including sugars. A comparative study on photofermentative biohydrogen production from beet molasses, black strap, and sucrose was conducted. With yields of 10.5 mol H(2)/mol sucrose for beet molasses (1g/l sugar); 8 mol H(2)/mol sucrose for black strap (1g/l sugar) and 14 mol H(2)/mol sucrose for pure sucrose, a one stage photofermentation system appears promising as an alternative to two-stage systems given the potential savings in energy input and operational costs. PMID:22420990

Keskin, Tugba; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

2012-05-01

298

Research on heavy metals in Ruditapes philippinarum and soda industry wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals pollution in Jiaozhou Bay was studied in Ruditapes. philippinarum, a bioindicator of seawater pollution. Heavy metals in soda industry wastes “white mud” were also studied. Comparison of microwave digestion method with general digestion method revealed that microwave digestion is superior to general digestion in precision, recovery, digestion speed and efficiency, etc. Cd concentration in Hongdao R. philippinarum samples exceeded the national standard by 0.046 mg/kg, that of Yinghai sample by 0.02 mg/kg, and that of Hongshiya sample by 0.22 mg/kg. Sample Pb concentration in Hongshiya was found to exceed the national standard by 0.02 mg/kg. However the heavy metals concentration in R. philippinarum near the Qingdao Alkaline Factory was complied with the standard. This was proved by Penaeus chinensis culture experiment. Therefore, the possible contamination source may come from other land areas.

Zhu, Xiaobin; Xu, Weihai; Wang, Xinting; Huang, Xinping; Deng, Liping; Kang, Xinglun; Jiang, Zhigang; Ma, Xuli

2005-03-01

299

Reduction of chemical oxygen demand of industrial wastes using subcritical water oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

If wastes have strong toxicity, high organic content, and a deep hue, they are difficult to handle in the waste disposal. It is very practical that waste of this kind is treated by Subcritical Water Oxidation (SWO). In our work, caprolactum (CPL) waste, purged from a petrochemical plant, and dyeing waste, purged from a textile plant, were individually treated by

Chiehming J. Chang

1992-01-01

300

Preparation and characterization of masonry units, lightweight concrete based and agro-industrial wastes: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discussion about the new composite materials that integrate agro industrial residues for the masonry unit's production, which are directed towards its implementation in projects of affordable housing, is a subject of interest to the public and productive sector of the country. For this reason, it presents a descriptive review of primary and secondary sources, which support the project under study. The methodology consisted in finding research articles in databases supported by the scientific community, which are ordered, integrated and prioritized, creating a matrix synthesis, which condensed the objectives, type of material, studied properties and main results found. It was found that the composite materials for masonry use mainly clay or cement as matrix and as reinforcement, agro waste like paper fibers, bamboo, rice husks, among others are used. Moreover, the properties that determine its potential use are low density, stress resistance and low thermal conductivity. Comparing the results with traditional specimens as the block of clay, concrete, adobe vs. experimental models made of the compounds analyzed, favorable results were obtained in the case of integrating waste materials into its composition, optimized their properties. Thus, science and architecture converge through recognition of the properties of materials that expand the alternatives of building spaces, economic and environmentally sustainable.

Díaz-Fuentes, C. X.

2013-11-01

301

Assessment of food processing and pharmaceutical industrial wastes as potential biosorbents: a review.  

PubMed

There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options. PMID:25110656

El-Sayed, Hanan E M; El-Sayed, Mayyada M H

2014-01-01

302

Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review  

PubMed Central

There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options. PMID:25110656

El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

2014-01-01

303

A meta-analysis of mortality data in Italian contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps.  

PubMed

Objectives. Adverse effects of waste management represent a public health issue. Mortality meta-analysis in Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs) with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps is presented. Methods. 24 NPCSs include industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps. Class 1 (10 NPCSs with industrial waste landfills) and Class 2 (14 NPCSs with illegal dumps) were categorized. Random-effects model meta-analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios non-adjusted (SMRs) and adjusted for Deprivation (DI-SMRs) computed for each CS (1995-2002) were performed for overall 24 NPCSs and the two classes. The North- Southern gradient was considered. Results. 24 CSs pooled-SMRs are significantly increased in both genders for cancer of liver (men: SMR = 1.13; women: SMR = 1.18), bladder (men: SMR = 1.06; women: SMR = 1.11), and for cirrhosis (men: SMR = 1.09; women: SMR = 1.13). In Class 2 the increase is confirmed in both genders for liver and bladder cancers and for cirrhosis and in men only for lung cancer. Congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal conditions are not increased. Conclusion. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of adverse health effects of non-adequately managed hazardous waste. Causal interpretation is not allowed, but the meta-analytic approach provides more confidence in the findings. PMID:25292275

Fazzo, Lucia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Pirastu, Roberta; Bellino, Mirella; Falleni, Fabrizio; Comba, Pietro; Bianchi, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

304

FT-IR characterization of articulated ceramic bricks with wastes from ceramic industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 30 ceramic test samples with the kaolinitic clay and ceramic rejects (in the as-received state and sintered at temperatures 900-1200 °C) were investigated through spectral studies in order to elucidate the possibility of recycling the wastes from the government ceramic industry of Vriddhachalam, Tamilnadu state, South India. A detailed attribution of all the spectroscopic frequencies in the spectra recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 region was attempted and their assignment to different minerals was accomplished. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to demonstrate the reliability of IR attributions. The indication of well-ordered kaolinite is by the band at 1115 cm-1 in the raw samples which tends to shift towards 1095 cm-1 in all the fired samples. The peaks at 563 cm-1 and 795 cm-1 can be assigned to anorthite and dickite respectively. The presence of quartz and anorthite is confirmed both by XRD and FTIR. The microstructural observations were done through the SEM images which visualized the vitrification of the fired bricks at higher temperatures. The refractory properties of the samples found through the XRF analysis are also appreciable. The present work suggests that the incorporation of the rejects into the clay mixture will be a valid route for the ceramic industries to reduce the costs of the ceramic process.

Nirmala, G.; Viruthagiri, G.

305

Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products.  

PubMed

The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in conventional raw materials and some solid industrial wastes and by-products which are being used or have a potential for use in the building and ceramic industries in Australia has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The majority of materials examined in this work showed fairly low levels of radioactivity. Some samples of red mud, phosphogypsum, zircon products and fly ash did show higher levels of radioactivity than would be acceptable on the basis of a criterion formula for gamma-ray activity suggested for use in some OECD countries. But this higher level of radioactivity should not pose an environmental health problem when these materials constitute a relatively small portion of the materials used in a normal building. The present work has also shown that the radioactivity levels of some of the materials can be reduced through the removal of fines by sieving, as the fines seem to contain a higher concentration of radioactive nuclides. PMID:3967976

Beretka, J; Matthew, P J

1985-01-01

306

Physical and mechanical properties of composites based on polypropylene and timber industry waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood polymer composites (WPC) are widely used materials in different industries because of many application, processing and recycling advantages compared to traditional thermoplastic polymer composites containing mineral fillers [1]. However, the commercial success of these materials primarily depends on improvements in moisture performance, and ability to use recycled and waste material as a wood filler. The research regarding WPC is focused on the chemical interaction between dissimilar material components with an aim to provide strong adhesion to the surface of wood filler-polymer matrix [2]. The goal of this paper was to present results of investigations of exploitation properties of composites containing different plywood production industry byproducts and polypropylene. It was shown that modification of all composites with coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP) considerably improve physical mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact strength) of WPC. MAPP (5 wt.%) additions also significantly improve water resistance of WPC. SEM investigations confirmed positive action of interfacial modifiers on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix that give considerable increase of exploitation properties of the WPC.

Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

2014-12-01

307

Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766?571?metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, ‘filter’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘butts’). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959–2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. Results The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20?years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Conclusions Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste. PMID:21504919

Novotny, Thomas E

2011-01-01

308

WORKSHOP ON IN-PLANT WASTE REDUCTION IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY, HELD AT UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON, DECEMBER 13-14, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Presented are the proceedings of a workshop on in-plant waste reduction in the meat industry. Forty-five participants from industry, government, and private firms exchanged ideas and experiences on waste reduction during the two-day session. Topics covered were: pens, blood conse...

309

EVALUATION OF THE RCRA (RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT) EXTRACTION PROCEDURE - LYSIMETER STUDIES WITH MUNICIPAL/INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was initiated to determine the accuracy with which the Extraction Procedures (EP), employed in the regulations promulgated under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (40 CFR 26.124), simulates the leaching an industrial waste would undergo when codis...

310

Activated carbon: Utilization in sewage and industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of activated carbon in treating sewage and industrial wastes. The citations include engineering studies, site evaluations, and regeneration techniques. References to air pollution are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

311

Activated carbon: Utilization in sewage and industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of activated carbon in treating sewage and industrial wastes. The citations include engineering studies, site evaluations, and regeneration techniques. References to air pollution are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

312

Effects of metal stress on biochemical response of some aquatic macrophytes growing along an industrial waste discharge channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research work focused on the metal translocation in the soil-plant system and subsequent metal stress on biochemical response of aquatic macrophytes growing along an industrial waste discharge channel. The bottom sediment of the effluent channel is highly contaminated with metals. High transfer factor (TF) for most of the metals indicated higher metal uptake by aquatic macrophytes of which

Sumanta Nayek; Srimanta Gupta; Rajnarayan Saha

2010-01-01

313

USEPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM ON REMEDIATION AND CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC AND MERCURY IN SOILS, INDUSTRIAL WASTES, AND GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the U.S. and around the world, mercury and arsenic contaminated soils, industrial wastes, and groundwater are difficult to effectively and cheaply remediate and contain. Mercury is a serious health concern and has been identified as a contaminant in the air, soil, sediment, su...

314

Utilisation of bagasse fly ash (a sugar industry waste) for the removal of copper and zinc from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste produced in sugar industries, has been converted into an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. The product was characterised by different chemical and physical methods and has been used for the removal of copper and zinc from wastewater. Various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal ions concentrations, temperature, particle size, etc. were optimised. Copper and

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2000-01-01

315

Studies on the uptake of lead and zinc by lignin obtained from black liquor – a paper industry waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin extracted from black liquor ? a paper industry waste material, has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and zinc metals. The uptake of lead is found to be greater than the uptake of zinc, and the sorption capacity increases with increasing pH. Adsorption on lignin follows the Freundlich and Langmuir models. Isotherms have been used to

S. K. Srivastava; A. K. Singh; Ashutosh Sharma

1994-01-01

316

Evaluation of waste activated sludge as a coagulant aid for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing mixed surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater generated by the industry manufacturing detergents and various kinds of consumer products normally contains very high contents of mixed surfactants, organic matters expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and phosphates that must be treated prior to discharge to the aquatic environment. In this study, jar-test experiments were conducted to evaluate the waste activated sludge (WAS) as a coagulation aid

Tongchai Sriwiriyarat; Siriprapha Jangkorn

2009-01-01

317

Sludge dewatering: sewage and industrial wastes. January 1978-January 1988 (citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-January 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in sewage, and industrial, mining, petroleum and municipal waste-sludge dewatering. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 233 citations, 51 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-02-01

318

Vugraph presentations of the fourth DOE Industry/University/Lab Forum on Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management  

SciTech Connect

This document is a compilation of various presentations from the Fourth DOE Industry/University/Lab Forum on Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management held in Albuquerque, New Mexico July 19--21, 1993. Separate abstracts were prepared for each presentation of this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

319

Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

320

Rapid screening procedure to optimise the anaerobic codigestion of industrial biowastes and agricultural livestock wastes in Cyprus.  

PubMed

Small-scale experimental investigations were undertaken on the anaerobic digestion (AD) and codigestion of livestock waste and industrial biowastes. A simple procedure was developed to rapidly determine the suitability of wastes for digestion. The experiment was split into two phases; initially, the seed (digested brewery waste) was replaced by the test waste over a period of 5 days. During the second phase, the test waste was incubated and monitored for methanogenesis. Dairy cattle slurry was the most efficient co-substrate which, when codigested with pig slurry in an equal ratio achieved volatile solids destruction of 32%, CH(4) production rate of 97.4 ml d(-1), maximum CH(4) content of 61.6% and total gas yield of 2229 ml after 529 h. High fat content wastes were unsuitable for AD due to low pH value and because the dominant microbial reaction was fermentation. Codigestion was investigated to overcome any inhibitions; however, dairy cattle slurry, abattoir wastewater and NaOH additions did not lead to methanogenesis. Treating these wastes by AD is feasible but without CH(4) production. PMID:18691864

Monou, M; Kythreotou, N; Fatta, D; Smith, S R

2009-02-01

321

Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.  

PubMed

From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10?gm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32?gm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois. PMID:23199452

Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

2013-03-15

322

Evaluation of Industrial Energy Options for Cogeneration, Waste Heat Recovery and Alternative Fuel Utilization  

E-print Network

resource) should suffi ciently control NO and SOx emissions, while baghouse, x wet scrubbers or electrostatic precipitators will control particulate emissions. SEMINARS The Missouri Division of Energy is planning a series of seminars to disseminate... resource) should suffi ciently control NO and SOx emissions, while baghouse, x wet scrubbers or electrostatic precipitators will control particulate emissions. SEMINARS The Missouri Division of Energy is planning a series of seminars to disseminate...

Hencey, S.; Hinkle, B.; Limaye, D. R.

1980-01-01

323

Research on the limiting parameters of the upgrading process for polystyrene wastes coming from packing industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last years many companies have implanted quality systems to ensure quality for both materials and processes; this new philosophy has arrived to recycling industry on which quality considerations are of maximum relevance. So, some recycling companies, with minimum enterprise projection, have developed quality systems that ensure certain quality levels for materials they offer. Otherwise, we have no data to think about the use of this philosophy to material reception. In the present work, we analyse the different variables that take part on the upgrading process for polystyrene wastes coming from packing industry; we make a differentiation between those parameters related with the material structure and those related with processing conditions. Once we have identified these critical variables they are individually investigated by using different analytical techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The use of these techniques has allowed to identify changes on polystyrene characteristics when subjected to certain conditions such as temperature, environmental agents action (mainly UV radiation), presence of small amounts of impurities (mainly PP). This study about high impact polystyrene has allowed to know much more about the critical variables influencing on its characteristics (mechanical, thermal...). Furthermore, we have used and optimized different techniques to evaluate changes on its behaviour. All these studies have established the main aspects to be considered to develop a rigorous quality control process also for material reception and for final material. This study will help recycling companies to define the basis to obtain a quality certificate for upgraded high impact polystyrene.

Parres Garcia, Francisco J.

324

View graph presentations of the sixth DOE industry/university/lab forum on robotics for environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Robotics Technology Development Program involves the following: develop robotic systems where justified by safety, cost, and/or efficiency arguments; integrate the best talent from National Labs, industry, and universities in focused teams addressing complex-wide problems; and involve customers in the identification and development of needs driven technologies. This presentation focuses on five areas. They are: radioactive tank waste remediation (Richland); mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal (Idaho Falls); decontamination and decommissioning (Morgantown); landfill stabilization (Savannah River); and contaminant plumes containment and remediation (Savannah River).

NONE

1995-10-01

325

Integration of a non-metallic ESP and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) for the semiconductor manufacturing industry have economic drawbacks. For example, ESPs with metal components require the use of expensive anti-corrosive metallic materials to protect against the corrosive gases produced in the semiconductor industry. This paper evaluates a non-metallic, two-stage ESP that uses a carbon brush charger, carbon forced resin plate ground channels, and polyvinyl chloride collection

Hak-Joon Kim; Bangwoo Han; Yong-Jin Kim; Seok-Jun Yoa; Tetsuji Oda

2012-01-01

326

Carotene production from agro-industrial wastes by Arthrobacter globiformis in shake-flask culture.  

PubMed

Industrial waste substrates, sugarcane molasses, and corn steep liquor were used for production of carotenes by Arthrobacter globiformis in this study. At the first stage, a one-factor-at-a-time approach was used for optimization of different media components such as carbon, nitrogen, MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, and KH(2)PO(4), as well as pH, temperature, liquid medium volume, and inoculums level. The response surface method was further applied to determination of optimum values of process variables for maximum carotenes concentration. Results showed that the optimum combination for carotenes formation was as follows (g/L): sugarcane molasses, 40.00; corn steep liquor, 50.00; MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, 0.75; KH(2)PO(4), 1.00. The maximum carotene concentration of 1.19 ± 0.02 mg/g dry biomass, about 113% of 1.05 ± 0.02 mg/g dry biomass growing in basal medium, was demonstrated by confirmatory experiments to be the optimum in liquid medium at 100 rpm, 30°C, initial pH of 7.5, and cultivation for 60 hr. In a second stage, detailed studies showed about 1.64-fold and 1.43-fold increase in carotene concentration (mg/g dry biomass) in the presence of addition of ethanol (4%, v/v) and addition of hydrogen peroxide (4%, v/v) at 40 hr, and 32 hr in liquid medium, separately. PMID:24320236

Zhai, Yu-Gui; Han, Mei; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Qian, He

2014-01-01

327

Investigation of the effect of culture type on biological hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

The bio-hydrogen generation potential of sugar industry wastes was investigated. In the first part of the study, acidogenic anaerobic culture was enriched from the mixed anaerobic culture (MAC) through acidification of glucose. In the second part of the study, glucose acclimated acidogenic seed was used, along with the indigenous microorganisms, MAC, 2-bromoethanesulfonate treated MAC and heat treated MAC. Two different COD levels (4.5 and 30 g/L COD) were investigated for each culture type. Reactors with initial COD concentration of 4.5 g/L had higher H{sub 2} yields (20.3-87.7 mL H{sub 2}/g COD) than the reactors with initial COD concentration of 30 g/L (0.9-16.6 mL H{sub 2}/g COD). The 2-bromoethanesulfonate and heat treatment of MAC inhibited the methanogenic activity, but did not increase the H{sub 2} production yield. The maximum H{sub 2} production (87.7 mL H{sub 2}/g COD) and minimum methanogenic activity were observed in the unseeded reactor with 4.5 g/L of initial COD.

Ozkan, Leyla; Erguder, Tuba H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Demirer, Goksel N., E-mail: goksel@metu.edu.t [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

2010-05-15

328

Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH (11.4-14.8%), organic carbon (4.2-30.5%) and an increase in total nitrogen (6-29%), AP (5-29%), exchangeable potash (6-21%) and turnover rate (52-66%). Maximum mortality (18.10%) of worms was recorded in T5 treatment. A high manurial value and a matured product was achieved in T3 treatment. The data reveal that pressmud mixed with spent wash can be decomposed through vermicomposting and can help to enhance the quality of vermicompost. PMID:22720423

Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Shanmugaprakash, M; Aravind, J; Namasivayam, S Karthick Raja

2012-01-01

329

Management of Radioactive Waste Arising from the Medical, Industrial, and Research Use of Radionuclides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The management of radioactive wastes in Australia is reviewed. Technical criteria for regulated user-disposal, shallow ground disposal and long-term storage are examined. Options for ensuring adequate regional and national access to waste repositories are...

1985-01-01

330

Recycle as an alternative to algal TSS and BOD removal from an industrial waste stabilization pond system  

SciTech Connect

Reuse of wastewater is acquiring a more important role in the overall concept of water conservation management. Information on industrial waste stabilization pond (WSP) effluent recycling or reuse for cooling water purposes is virtually nonexistent. This paper presents data from investigations that were conducted to determine the feasibility of recycling a WSP series effluent back within the system for BOD and total suspended solids (TSS) reduction, which were algal in origin, and separately, to evaluate whether recycling the final WSP effluent to the industry`s cooling water ponds would show corrosion compatibility. The second part of this paper contains data developed form analyses of the settling characteristics of the algal standing crop in the industrial WSPs in question to determine the extent to which autosedimentation could occur.

Davis, E.M.; Downs, T.D.; Shi, Y.; Ajgaonkar, A.A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-11-01

331

The mutagenic potential of soil and runoff water from land treatment of three hazardous industrial wastes  

E-print Network

at Superfund sites (Hazardous Waste News, 1985). The waste will be referred to as PENT S throughout this thesis. A storm-water runoff impoundment sludge was collected from a refinery settling basin which collected runoff water from streets and buildings... at Superfund sites (Hazardous Waste News, 1985). The waste will be referred to as PENT S throughout this thesis. A storm-water runoff impoundment sludge was collected from a refinery settling basin which collected runoff water from streets and buildings...

Davol, Phebe

2012-06-07

332

Development of Operating Windows for Treatment of Industrial Wastes using Blended Binder Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment by stabilisation\\/solidification (S\\/S) with hydraulic binders is often proposed for residual wastes that can not be destroyed or recycled. Mixing such wastes with cementitious or pozzolanic binders ideally results in a durable monolithic matrix in which pollutants are physically trapped and may have low solubility. Depending on the level of contamination and other waste characteristics that affect the final

J. A. Stegemann; Q. Zhou; A. Li

333

Hepatitis A Virus Infection and the Waste Handling Industry: A Seroprevalence Study  

PubMed Central

Waste collectors have a theoretical risk of Hepatitis A virus infection. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis A virus infection (HAV) among municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) in a municipality of central Greece. A seroprevalence study of HAV was conducted among 208 employees (100 waste collectors and 108 municipal gardeners) of a municipality in central Greece. Total antibodies against HAV were measured and information regarding potential risk factors was collected through a face to face interview. The prevalence of HAV infection among the municipal waste collectors was 61% vs. 27% among municipal gardeners. Logistic regression analysis showed that exposure to waste (OR = 2.87; 95% CI = 1.24–6.62) and age (OR = 22.57; 95% CI = 7.29–69.88) were independently associated with the anti-HAV positivity. Moreover, waste collectors who reported smoking/drinking/eating during waste collection were at higher risk of HAV infection (RR = 2.84; 95% CI = 1.73–4.63). Stratified analysis among municipal waste collectors indicated an independent association between eating/smoking/drinking during waste collection and anti-HAV (+) (OR = 3.85; 95% CI = 1.34–11.06). Occupational exposure to waste is a potential risk factor for HAV infection. Smoking/eating/drinking during waste collection could be the mode of hepatitis A virus transmission among municipal waste collectors. PMID:23222205

Rachiotis, George; Papagiannis, Dimitrios; Thanasias, Efthimios; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2012-01-01

334

How to Put the Dollar Value on Waste Heat Recovery in the Process Industry  

E-print Network

Waste heat recovery projects should be evaluated on their actual fuel savings and not on Btu recovery. By equating waste heat recovery with potential steam savings, the fuel (or dollar) values of the waste heat as function of its temperature can...

Campagne, W. V. L.

1982-01-01

335

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

336

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

337

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

338

Genotoxicity studies in semiconductor industry. 1. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of waste samples resulting from plasma etching  

SciTech Connect

Solid waste samples taken from the etching reactor, the turbo pump, and the waste air system of a plasma etching technology line in semiconductor production were studied as to their genotoxic properties in a bacterial repair test, in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay, in the SOS chromotest, in primary mouse hepatocytes, and in Chinese hamster V79 cell cultures. All three waste samples were found to be active by inducing of unscheduled DNA-synthesis in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In the bacterial rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis, waste samples taken from the turbo pump and the vacuum pipe system were not genotoxic. The waste sample taken from the chlorine-mediated plasma reactor was clearly positive in the bacterial repair assay and in the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli. Mutagenic activity was demonstrated for all samples in the presence and absence of S9 mix made from mouse liver homogenate. Again, highest mutagenic activity was recorded for the waste sample taken from the plasma reactor, while samples collected from the turbo pump and from the waste air system before dilution and liberation of the air were less mutagenic. For all samples chromosomal damage in V79 cells was not detected, indicating absence of clastogenic activity in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate generation of genotoxic and mutagenic products as a consequence of chlorine-mediated plasma etching in the microelectronics industry and the presence of genotoxins even in places distant from the plasma reactor. Occupational exposure can be expected both from the precipitated wastes and from chemicals reaching the environment with the air stream.

Braun, R.; Huettner, E.M.; Merten, H.; Raabe, F. (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany))

1993-07-01

339

Utilization of industrial waste products as pozzolanic material in cemented paste backfill of high sulphide mill tailings.  

PubMed

In this study, the potential use of the industrial waste products including waste glass (WG), fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and silica fume (SF) as pozzolanic additive for the partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in cemented paste backfill (CPB) of sulphide-rich mill tailings was investigated. The influence of these industrial waste products on the short- and long-term mechanical performance of CPB was demonstrated. The rate of development of strength of CPB samples tended to slow down when the pozzolanic wastes were incorporated or increased in dosage in the binder phase. Severe losses (by 26%) in the strength of CPB samples produced from exclusively OPC occurred after an initial curing period of 56 days. The addition of WG (10-30 wt%) as a partial replacement of OPC was observed to aggravate further the strength losses of CPB samples. GBFS, FA and SF appeared to improve the long-term performance of CPB samples; albeit, only GBFS and SF could be incorporated into the binder phase only at certain levels i.e. up to 20 wt% GBFS and 15wt% SF in order to maintain a threshold strength level of 0.7MPa over 360 days. SEM studies have provided further insight into the microstucture of CPB and confirmed the formation of deleterious gypsum as the expansive phase. These findings have demonstrated that the industrial waste products including GBFS and SF can be suitably used as mineral additives to improve the long-term mechanical performance of CPB produced from sulphide-rich tailings as well as to reduce the binder costs in a CPB plant. PMID:19299080

Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

2009-09-15

340

Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique. PMID:19700268

Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Deepak, Venkatraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Rameshkumar, Neelamegam; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2009-11-01

341

Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

1990-01-01

342

REMOVAL OF THIOCYANATE BY INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE Fe(III)\\/Cr(III) HYDROXIDE: KINETIC AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of thiocyanate by adsorption onto industrial solid waste Fe(III)\\/Cr(III) hydroxide has been investigated. Pretreated adsorbent was found to be more efficient in the uptake of thiocyanate compared to untreated adsorbent. Effect of pH on the adsorption was studied in the pH range 4.0 to 10.0. Optimum pH for maximum removal was found to be 4.0. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm

Chinnaya. Namasivayam; K. Prathap

343

Chemolytic and solid-state spectroscopic evaluation of organic matter transformation during vermicomposting of sugar industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular structure of humic acid (HA) extracted was investigated by FT-IR and 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy during the vermicomposting of sugar industry wastes, viz. pressmud, trash and bagasse for 60days. A rapid decrease in C\\/N and lignocellulosic (lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose) content was observed in vermicompost during early phase of the process. The FT-IR and 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectra of

Biswarup Sen; T. S. Chandra

2007-01-01

344

Distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in solid waste from selected sites in the industrial belt of Delhi, India.  

PubMed

Solid waste samples were collected from five small-scale industrial sites in the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. These industrial sites represent the regional spread of the industrial belt in the NCT of Delhi. Solid waste samples were digested using aqua-regia and HF in air tight teflon bombs for the quantitative analysis of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn) by GBC model 902 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Hg was analysed using hydrid generator attachment. Beside this sequential extraction was used to fractionate five heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn) into six operationally defined phases, viz. water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate-bound, Fe-Mn oxides, organic-bound and residual fractions to ascertain the relative mobility of these metals. The result obtained showed metal concentration to be in the range of Hg 0.42-2.3; Pb 23-530; Cd 014-224; Mn 494-19 964; Fe 35 684-233 119; Ni 192-1534; Cu 3065-10 144 and Zn 116-23 321 (all units in mg kg(-1)) in all the industrial areas studied. The fractionated toxic metals like Pb, Ni and Cd were observed to be in the range of 25-35, 15-50 and 40-50%, respectively, in mobile or bio-available fractions of solid waste. As this waste is often disposed-off by the roadsides, low lying areas, abandoned quarries or in landfill sites which are often not properly planned, thus posing potential risk to ground and surface water quality to millions of people living downstream. PMID:15195826

Moturi, M C Z; Rawat, M; Subramanian, V

2004-07-01

345

In-line measurements of chlorine containing polymers in an industrial waste sorting plant by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of chlorine containing waste polymers in-line of an industrial materials sorting plant. Material from municipal waste plastic collection containing different types of plastic pieces and impurities is measured without pre-treatment directly on the conveyor belt (conveyor speed 2 m/s). The encapsulated LIBS system mounted to the conveyor comprises a fast Nd:YAG laser and spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector, a distance sensor, and a software for quasi real-time evaluation of measured LIBS spectra. Approximately 800,000 spectra are collected during the in-line measurement series using one laser pulse per spectrum. The optical plasma emission of Cl I at 837.6 nm is detected to identify waste polymers with high Cl content such as polyvinylchloride (PVC). The LIBS spectra are evaluated employing a fast linear correlation algorithm. The correlation histogram for more than 20,000 spectra shows three distinct peaks that are associated to different materials containing high amount of Chlorine (>20 wt %), Titanium, and low amount of Cl (<20 wt%). Signals of the LIBS sensor and a commercial near-infrared (NIR) optical reflection sensor were found to deviate for some samples. Such deviations might be caused by dark PVC samples that are detected by LIBS but missed by NIR reflection. Our results show that fast in-line identification of Cl containing waste polymer by LIBS is feasible under industrial conditions.

Huber, N.; Eschlböck-Fuchs, S.; Scherndl, H.; Freimund, A.; Heitz, J.; Pedarnig, J. D.

2014-05-01

346

Assessment of the anaerobic acidogenesis of wet olive cake from a two-phase olive oil mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the anaerobic acidogenesis of wet olive cake or olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from the two-phase olive oil mill industry was carried out. Eight different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 50.0–10.7 days were studied. An increase of 935.7 % in total volatile fatty acids (VFA) over the initial acidic concentration in the OMSW (1.4 g L

Bárbara Rincón; Rafael Borja

2012-01-01

347

WASTE/SOIL TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR FOUR COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL WASTES: METHODOLOGIES AND RESULTS. VOLUME 2. WASTE LOADING IMPACTS ON SOIL DEGRADATION, TRANSFORMATION, AND IMMOBILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report presents information pertaining to quantitative evaluation of the soil treatment potential resulting from waste-soil interaction studies for four specific wastes listed under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Volume 2 contains resul...

348

Immunotoxic effects of an industrial waste incineration site on groundwater in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The discharge of organic waste from the petrochemical industry into the Mercier lagoons caused major groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to determine the immunotoxic potential of three groundwater wells at increasing distance from the incinerator dumping site (1.17, 2.74 and 5.40 km). Rainbow Trout were exposed to increasing concentrations of water from three groundwater wells for 14 days. Immunocompetence was characterized by phagocytosis, mitogen-stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis. A significant increase in innate (phagocytosis) and specific immune response (B lymphocyte proliferation) was observed in trout exposed to water collected from the well at 2.74 km. However, phagocytosis activity was suppressed in groups at 1.17 and 5.40 km. The proportion of lymphocytes in S phase was significantly increased in groups at 2.74 and 5.40 km, while lymphocytes in G0/G1 phase were decreased in all three exposure groups. Additionally, dexamethasone (DEX)-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes was significantly reduced in the group at 2.74 km, which suggests decreased lymphocyte turnover. Furthermore, the ratio of DEX-induced apoptosis/apoptosis was lower in the groups at 2.74 and 5.40 km. In summary, our experiments have shown that exposure to the mixture of organic compounds present in Mercier groundwater modulates phagocytosis and cell proliferation, disrupts the cell cycle and reduces the ratio of DEX-induced apoptosis/apoptosis. It is concluded that groundwater collected in the vicinity of an incinerator containment field could impact immunocompetence in fish. PMID:25079628

Benchalgo, Nadjet; Gagné, François; Fournier, Michel

2014-05-01

349

A novel kinetic determination of dissolved chromium species in natural and industrial waste water.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive, selective and simple kinetic method was developed for the determination of dissolved chromium species based on the catalytic effect of Cr(III) and/or Cr(VI) on the oxidation of 2-amino-5-methylphenol (AMP) with H(2)O(2). The fixed time and initial rate variants were used for kinetic spectrophotometric measurements by tracing the oxidized product at 400nm for 10min after starting the reaction. Boric acid and Tween-40 exerted pronounced activating and micellar sensitizing effects on the studied redox reaction, respectively. The optimum reaction conditions were: 3.0mmoll(-1) AMP, 0.45moll(-1) H(2)O(2), 0.50moll(-1) boric acid, 4v/v% Tween-40, 10mmoll(-1) phosphate buffer and pH 6.45+/-0.02 at 35 degrees C. Both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions exerted the same catalytic effect on the studied reaction. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for the determination of up to 6.0ngml(-1) Cr with detection limits of 0.054 and 0.10ngml(-1) Cr; following the fixed time and initial rate methods, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the speciation and determination of trace levels of dissolved Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in natural and effluents of industrial waste water. The total dissolved Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species was determined first. In a second run, Cr(VI) was determined alone after precipitation of Cr(III) ions in presence of Al(OH)(3) collector, where Cr(III) is then determined by difference. Moreover, published catalytic-spectrophotometric methods for chromium determination were reviewed. PMID:18970793

Mohamed, Ashraf A; Mubarak, Ahmed T; Marstani, Zakaria M H; Fawy, Khaled F

2006-09-15

350

Study on the strategies of waste solvent minimization in automobile production industry  

SciTech Connect

There are six automobile manufacturers who produce several kinds of vehicles in Taiwan. To meet the consumer`s needs, the automobile coating processes are necessary for the basic functions of anti-rust protection, weatherproofing and appearance. Some kinds of solvents are added as thinners and additives to avoid excessive viscosity of the coating materials and to increase facility productivity. The total consumption of volatile organic solvents is about 407,000 ton/year of which about 100,700 ton/year is used in surface coating. It is worthy of attention that solvents used in automobile industries account for 7,200 ton/year in major coating processes, including electrodeposition coating, primer coating, top coating, and bar coating, according to statistics of VOCs emission rate calculated from the data of consumption provided by each automobile plant. The amount of solvents used for washing spray gun and base coating are about 3,350 ton/year; and about 1,700 ton/year for primer coat and clear coat. The species of organic solvents include toluene, xylene, ethylacetate, n-butyl acetate, ketone, etc. VOCs emission factor from each plant lies between 500 to 650 g-VOCs/L coating. To reduce the amount of coating and waste liquor, the suggested methods include increasing gun spray efficiency, lengthening same colors painting period, reducing the solvent content in paint, and adding treatment equipment. The high solid content painting, waterborne coat, and powder coat should be used for traditional painting. Additionally, a carbon adsorption bed and zeolite rotator recovery system can replace scrubbers since they can be used as solvent recovery equipment.

Chang, C.T.; Lin, K.L.; Wu, Y.P.; Lan, W.L.; Jeng, F.T. [National I-Lan Inst. of Agriculture and Technology (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

1998-12-31

351

Ionic liquids for extraction of metals and metal containing compounds from communal and industrial waste water.  

PubMed

In a fundamental study the potential of ionic liquids based on quaternary ammonium- and phosphonium cations and thiol-, thioether-, hydroxyl-, carboxylate- and thiocyanate-functionalized anions has been assessed for future application in advanced sewage treatment. The elimination of the metal(oid)s Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Pt, Sn, Zn and the cancerostatic platinum compounds cisplatin and carboplatin was screened using a liquid phase micro-extraction set-up. The analytical tool-set consisted of ICP-SFMS and LC-ICP-MS for quantification of metal(oid)s and cancerostatic platinum compounds, respectively. The purity of the ILs was assessed for the investigated metal(oid)s on the base of present EU environmental quality standards and was found to be sufficient for the intended use. In model solutions at environmental relevant concentrations extraction efficiencies?95% could be obtained for Ag, Cu, Hg and Pt with both phosphonium- and ammonium-based ILs bearing sulphur functionality in the form of thiosalicylate and 2-(methylthiobenzoate) anions, as well as with tricaprylmethylammonium thiocyanate within an extraction time of 120 min. All other metals were extracted to a lower extent (7-79%). In the case of cancerostatic platinum compounds a phosphonium-based IL bearing thiosalicylate functionality showed high extraction efficiency for monoaquacisplatin. For the first time, liquid phase micro extraction with ionic liquids was applied to industrial and communal waste water samples. The concentration of all investigated metal(oid)s could be significantly reduced. The degree of elimination varied with the initial concentration of metals, pH and the amount of suspended particulate matter. PMID:21742365

Fischer, Lisa; Falta, Thomas; Koellensperger, Gunda; Stojanovic, Anja; Kogelnig, Daniel; Galanski, Markus; Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hann, Stephan

2011-10-01

352

Diversified forest ecosystems can grow on industrial waste residues: evidence from a multiproxy approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smelter activities in the Lorraine region (North-East France) have lead to the creation of flotation ponds that were used to eliminate wastes, mainly slag. After industrial decline, some of these flotation ponds were colonized by vegetation and evolved to forest ecosystems. One of these old flotation ponds, situated in Pompey, close to Nancy (North-East France), was studied by collecting information on several physico-chemical and biological indicators. The main objective was to understand the biological functioning of this system, whose soil can be classified as a pure Technosol, characterised by a very complex stratified profile created by successive slag deposits. Soil is characterized by its apparent heterogeneity, but also its high agronomic fertility and particularly high metal contents. Holorganic horizons can vary from one to several centimetres. Macrofauna is characterized by a very low abundance of earthworms and a dominance of millipedes. Furthermore, whereas earthworms do accumulate metals, this is not the case for millipedes. Mesofauna is typical of a temperate forest system, dominated by Collembola. Soil organo-mineral associations showed a high proportion of faecal pellets from Oribatid mites, Isopods and Diplopods. Furthermore, Mn, which is highly associated to metals (especially Zn and Pb) seems to play an important role in organo-mineral associations, including bacteria. An organic fraction is also directly associated to Calcium, Pb and Cu. Vegetation presents a high diversity, with more than 70 species, with very low metal transfer to plants. Results from soil respirometry are typical from temperate forest ecosystems. All this information has been combined to propose a model for the biochemical functioning of a such Technosol.

Cortet, Jerome; Schwartz, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Nahmani, Johanne; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Sirguey, Catherine; Watteau, Francoise; Morel, Jean Louis

2010-05-01

353

Management strategies on the industrialization road of state-of-the-art technologies for e-waste recycling: the case study of electrostatic separation--a review.  

PubMed

Electronic waste (e-waste) management is pressing as global production has increased significantly in the past few years and is rising continuously at a fast rate. Many countries are facing hazardous e-waste mountains, most of which are disposed of by backyard recyclers, creating serious threats to public health and ecosystems. Industrialization of state-of-the-art recycling technologies is imperative to enhance the comprehensive utilization of resources and to protect the environment. This article aims to provide an overview of management strategies solving the crucial problems during the process of industrialization. A typical case study of electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards was discussed in terms of parameters optimization, materials flow control, noise assessment, risk assessment, economic evaluation and social benefits analysis. The comprehensive view provided by the review could be helpful to the progress of the e-waste recycling industry. PMID:23129606

Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

2013-02-01

354

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

355

Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.  

PubMed

Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24652574

Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

2014-07-01

356

RAPID MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES LEAKED FROM HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS: A STUDY OF SALINITY GRADIENTS, WETTED PATH GEOMETRY AND WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the 54 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste stored in mostly single-shelled, underground tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site, an estimated 1 million gallons have leaked into the vadose zone. It has long been assumed that leaked radionuclides did not travel far from ...

357

The Expanding Dairy Industry: Impact on Ground Water Quality and Quantity with Emphasis on Waste Management System Evaluation for Open Lot Dairies  

E-print Network

TR-155 1993 The Expanding Dairy Industry: Impact on Ground Water Quality and Quantity With Emphasis on Waste Management System Evaluation for Open Lot Dairies J.M. Sweeten M.L. Wolfe Texas Water...TR-155 1993 The Expanding Dairy Industry: Impact on Ground Water Quality and Quantity With Emphasis on Waste Management System Evaluation for Open Lot Dairies J.M. Sweeten M.L. Wolfe Texas Water...

Sweeten, John M.; Wolfe, Mary Leigh

358

Development of process flow sheet for recovery of high pure cobalt from sulfate leach liquor of LIB industry waste: A mathematical model correlation to predict optimum operational conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains a new hydrometallurgical process flow sheet for the recovery of high pure cobalt sulfate solution\\/salt from waste LiCoO2 cathodic active material generated from lithium ion battery (LIB) industry waste. Cobalt was recovered as cobalt sulfate from sulfate leach liquor by solvent extraction process using Cyanex 272 as an extractant. For quantitative extraction of pure cobalt from waste

Basudev Swain; Jinki Jeong; Jae-chun Lee; Gae-Ho Lee

2008-01-01

359

Waste treatment: Beverage industry. January 1972-December 1983 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1972-December 1983  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of effluents from beverage-industry processes. Particular emphasis is on brewery and winery effluent treatment. Characteristics of the waste products and pre-treatment and treatment methods are discussed. Regulations governing waste disposal are also considered along with the economics of waste disposal. Both alcoholic and soft drink beverages are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 312 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-11-01

360

Waste treatment: Beverage industry. January 1984-October 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1984-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of effluents from beverage-industry processes. Particular emphasis is on brewery and winery effluent treatment. Characteristics of the waste products and pre-treatment and treatment methods are discussed. Regulations governing waste disposal are also considered along with the economics of waste disposal. Both alcoholic and soft drink beverages are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 223 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-11-01

361

Design and application of a pre-composting test step to determine the effect of high fat food wastes on an industrial scale in-vessel composting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high fat content in food wastes was suspected to inhibit an industrial in-vessel composting process from reaching the European Union Animal By-Product Regulation (composting temperature >70 °C for 1 h). The aim of this study was to design a test step to guide the mixing ratio of food waste to green waste to meet the regulation. A 15-compartment composting unit was

Ashoke David Maliki; Ka-Man Lai

2011-01-01

362

An industry perspective on commercial radioactive waste disposal conditions and trends.  

PubMed

The United States is presently served by Class-A, -B and -C low-level radioactive waste and naturally-occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material disposal sites in Washington and South Carolina; a Class-A and mixed waste disposal site in Utah that also accepts naturally-occurring radioactive material; and hazardous and solid waste facilities and uranium mill tailings sites that accept certain radioactive materials on a site-specific basis. The Washington site only accepts low-level radioactive waste from 11 western states due to interstate Compact restrictions on waste importation. The South Carolina site will be subject to geographic service area restrictions beginning 1 July 2008, after which only three states will have continued access. The Utah site dominates the commercial Class-A and mixed waste disposal market due to generally lower state fees than apply in South Carolina. To expand existing commercial services, an existing hazardous waste site in western Texas is seeking a Class-A, -B and -C and mixed waste disposal license. With that exception, no new Compact facilities are proposed. This fluid, uncertain situation has inspired national level rulemaking initiatives and policy studies, as well as alternative disposal practices for certain low-activity materials. PMID:17033459

Romano, Stephen A

2006-11-01

363

Oregon State University Development of a Bio-based Industry Utilizing Organic Waste Streams  

E-print Network

capable of performing feast-famine PHA synthesis. A second waste stream of interest to Dr. Coat's team and manure waste streams. Sun Grant Western Regional Center #12;Progress (cont.) The second research.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration Cost share: University

Tullos, Desiree

364

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 2. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 1-01-001-01 TO 1-02-007-03  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

365

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 8. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-05-010-99 TO 3-06-010-01  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

366

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 6. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-02-014-01 TO 3-04-002-03  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

367

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 9. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-06-011-01 TO 3-90-005-33  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

368

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 4. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 2-04-001-01 TO 3-01-025-05  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

369

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 5. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-01-025-10 TO 3-02-013-01  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

370

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 7. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-04-002-04 TO 3-05-010-03  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

371

Industry  

E-print Network

Blok, 2003a) and strip casting in the steel industry (Luitennet shape casting. ULCOS (Ultra-Low CO 2 Steel making), acasting, introduced in the 1970s and 1980s, saves both energy and mate- rial, and now accounts for 88% of global steel

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01

372

Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.  

PubMed

Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value. PMID:24617063

Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

2013-01-01

373

Metal uptake by xerothermic plants introduced into Zn-Pb industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dusty surfaces of post-flotation wastes contain high concentrations of toxic compounds and spread widely if appropriate\\u000a vegetation is not introduced. It has been previously established that effective restoration of such waste areas are best met\\u000a by xerothermic, mycorrhiza-assisted plants (Turnau et al. Plant and Soil 305:267–280, 2008). The aim of the current study was to improve phytostabilisation practices by

Katarzyna Turnau; Beata Ostachowicz; Grzegorz Wojtczak; Teresa Anielska; ?ukasz Sobczyk

2010-01-01

374

FORMATION OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN OIL SHALE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SOLID WASTES DURING PHYTOREMEDIATION AND BIOAUGMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil shale thermal processing has resulted in solid waste dump sites containing up to 100 million tons of solid waste. The\\u000a processed oil shale contains complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds and is highly toxic. Laboratory and field\\u000a experiments were carried out in order to test the effect of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation for remediation of pollutants\\u000a in semi-coke. Microbial

J. Truu; E. Heinaru; E. Vedler; J. Juhanson; M. Viirmäe; A. Heinaru

375

Waste  

SciTech Connect

A process for converting wastes in molten salts into usable fuels is described. The molten salt acts as a reaction medium and potential acidic pollutants are retained in the melt. The waste is converted to a fuel gas by reacting it with insufficient air for complete conversion to CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O. The product gas is cleared of particles using a baghouse or venturi scrubber and it is then burned in a boiler to produce steam. The results for waste streams containing a high-sulfur oil refinery waste, rubber, wood, leather scraps, and waste x-ray film are presented in this article.

Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Grantham, L.F.; Yosim, S.J.

1981-09-01

376

Characterisation of environmentally exposed cement-based stabilised/solidified industrial waste.  

PubMed

A metal-plating waste filter cake treated by stabilisation/solidification (S/S) using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and pulverised fuel ash (PFA) has been characterised after exposure to the environment in SE England for approximately 10 years. The surface region ( approximately 5cm) was severely degraded, extensively carbonated and had reduced acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) compared to bulk samples. Large 'plate-like' deposits of predominantly calcium hydroxide with a calcium carbonate upper layer were found close to, but below the surface of the exposed S/S waste. Calcium zinc hydroxide (Ca(Zn(OH)(3))(2).2H(2)O) was the major crystalline phase found in the S/S waste in the region below the calcium hydroxide plates (10-15cm). Samples taken from the bulk of the environmentally exposed S/S waste, at a depth of approximately 0.5m, were more amorphous, contained no readily identifiable crystalline phases and had negligible strength but retained high acid neutralisation capacity. Metal analysis of homogenised samples taken from different depths into the S/S waste indicated a reduction in the concentration of heavy metals, such as Zn, Fe and Cr, in the top 5cm of the S/S waste and an increase in concentration of these metals in bulk samples. The majority of crystalline mineral phases detected in the 28-day samples were not identified in the 10-year-old samples. PMID:12935757

Fitch, J R; Cheeseman, C R

2003-08-01

377

Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry.  

PubMed

The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the peel extract was greatest and followed by that of the inside and seed extracts in all bioassays. Significant reductions in the root and shoot growth were observed as the extract concentration was increased. The concentrations of abscisic acid-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-GE) in peel, inside and seeds separated from the C. junos fruit waste were determined, since ABA-GE was found to be one of the main growth inhibitors in C. junos fruit. The concentration was greatest in the peel, followed by the inside and seeds; there was a good correspondence between these concentrations and the inhibitory activities of the extracts. This suggests that ABA-GE may also be involved in the growth inhibitory effect of C. junos waste. These results suggested that C. junos waste may possess allelopathic potential, and the waste may be potentially useful for weed management. PMID:15158515

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Yukitoshi

2004-09-01

378

ANALYSIS OF MODIFIED WET-AIR OXIDATION FOR SOIL DETOXIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents the results of research on wet-air oxidation as a method for the destruction of hazardous wastes. For organics in the presence of large amounts of water, the water need not be vaporized during wet-air oxidation, an attractive characteristic for energy conserva...

379

A novel approach to realize SANI process in freshwater sewage treatment--Use of wet flue gas desulfurization waste streams as sulfur source.  

PubMed

SANI (Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated) process has been approved to be a sludge-minimized sewage treatment process in warm and coastal cities with seawater supply. In order to apply this sulfur-based process in inland cold areas, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can be simplified and integrated with SANI process, to provide sulfite as electron carrier for sulfur cycle in sewage treatment. In this study, a lab-scale system of the proposed novel process was developed and run for over 200 days while temperature varied between 30 and 5 °C, fed with synthetic FGD wastewaters and sewage. The sulfite-reducing upflow anaerobic sludge bed (SrUASB) reactor, as the major bioreactor of the system, removed 86.9% of organics while the whole system removed 94% of organics even when water temperature decreased to around 10 °C. The bactericidal effect of sulfite was not observed in the SrUASB reactor, while thiosulfate was found accumulated under psychrophilic conditions. The sludge yield of the SrUASB reactor was determined to be 0.095 kg VSS/kg COD, higher than of sulfate reduction process but still much lower than of conventional activated sludge processes. The dominant microbes in the SrUASB reactor were determined as Lactococcus spp. rather than sulfate-reducing bacteria, but sulfite reduction still contributed 85.5% to the organic carbon mineralization in this reactor. Ammonia and nitrate were effectively removed in the aerobic and anoxic filters, respectively. This study confirms the proposed process was promising to achieve sludge-minimized sewage treatment integrating with flue gas desulfurization in inland and cold areas. PMID:23886546

Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Liang; Peng, Guo-Liang; Liang, Si-Yun; Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Chen, Guang-Hao

2013-10-01

380

Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

2012-03-15

381

Monitoring needs in the U.S. southeast: Impact of dioxins and other industrial wastes and wildlife  

SciTech Connect

The US southeast is a center for forest industry activities and over 180 pulp and paper mills have been reported from Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana. Many of these facilities emit bleached kraft mill effluents (BKMEs) into receiving waters. Contaminants present in these mill effluents and in other industrial activities known to adversely affect wildlife and fisheries resources include chlorinated phenolics, dioxins, furans and resin acids. Tennessee and North Carolina have issued fish consumption advisories for specific areas and a fishery has been closed in Arkansas. The extent of injury to wildlife resources from dioxins and other effluents from mill and industrial waste is not presently known. However, preliminary studies indicate effects on biota at several localities. Bioaccumulation of dioxins from mill effluents has been documented in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) (1--2 ppt) and soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx ferox) (17--31 ppt) from pulp/paper mill effluent in St. Joseph`s and Perdido Bays, Florida; reproductive abnormalities were noted in female Gambusia (sp.) exposed to mill effluent. In Jacksonville, Arkansas abnormalities > 10% were noted in fish and reproduction of wood duck (Aix sponsa) was impaired downstream from a chemical plant. Further work is needed to define mill and industrial facilities in the southeast and to monitor adverse effects on fish and wildlife resources.

Glooschenko, V. [National Biological Survey, Atlanta, GA (United States); Brim, M. [USFWS, Panama City, FL (United States); Augspurger, T. [USFWS, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

382

Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys  

SciTech Connect

Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

1993-07-01

383

Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: Study of the reaction  

SciTech Connect

Mineralogical studies of different wastes of the sugar industry, mainly sugar cane bagasse ash and sugar cane straw ash, have shown that such by-products are likely to be pozzolanic. Their use in lime-pozzolana binders could become an interesting alternative for developing countries. This paper presents a study that was aimed at monitoring the reaction between lime and wastes of the sugar industry having pozzolanic properties by evaluating (1) content of calcium hydroxide, dependent on time; (2) development of the pore structure, dependent on time; (3) study on the reaction products at different stages; and (4) mechanical properties of hardened pastes. The presence of calcium hydroxide was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis of powder from samples of hydrated lime-pozzolana pastes. The reaction products in hydrated pastes were observed in a scanning electron microscope, and the pore structure was assessed using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. The results of the study show that sugar cane bagasse ash does not act like a reactive pozzolana, mainly due to the presence of unburned material and carbon, whereas sugar cane straw ash shows good pozzolanic activity comparable to that of rice husk ash.

Hernandez, J.F.M. [Univ. Central de las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Middendorf, B.; Gehrke, M.; Budelmann, H. [Univ. of Kassel (Germany). Dept. of Structural Materials

1998-11-01

384

Supercritical water oxidation of dioxins and furans in waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and industrial soil.  

PubMed

Three environmental samples containing dioxins and furans have been oxidized in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under supercritical water oxidation conditions. The samples consisted of a waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and contaminated industrial soil. The reactor system was a batch, autoclave reactor operated at temperatures between 350 degrees C and 450degrees C, corresponding to pressures of approximately 20-33.5 MPa and with hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.0 to 11.25 vol%. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and temperature/pressure had a strong positive effect on the oxidation of dioxins and furans. At the highest temperatures and pressure of supercritical water oxidation of 4500C and 33.5 MPa and with 11.25 vol% of hydrogen peroxide, the destruction efficiencies of the individual polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) isomers were between 90% and 99%. There did not appear to be any significant differences in the PCDD/PCDF destruction efficiencies in relation to the different sample matrices of the waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and contaminated industrial soil. PMID:24956775

Zainal, Safari; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

2014-08-01

385

Development of mineral wool from industrial wastes. Phase i. Final report 1 Sep 80-28 Feb 81  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using unprocessed industrial wastes to produce mineral wool was investigated by literature and patent searches and by experimental production of mineral wool. Slag ash from coal burning utilities and cement kiln waste from cement companies were combined in batch formulations having acid to alkali ratios of 0.8 to 1.2, then melted, fiberized, and analyzed for physical, thermal, chemical, and optical properties. Cement kiln waste added to the slag ash in controlled quantities served as a fluxing agent, and lowered the melting point of the slag ash from 2800 degrees F to 2500 degrees F. The softening point of the fibers was between 1250 degrees F and 1480 degrees F. The surface of the fibers was smooth at a magnification of 800x, and X-ray analysis showed no crystallization. The glasses were chemically stable, and possessed the rheological properties necessary to produce mineral wool. Potential applications include using the mineral wool for insulation. Immersion in cement slurry for 24 hours did not affect the fibers, indicating that they might also be used as alkali resistant components for fiber-reinforced concrete.

Ali, M.A.

1981-02-01

386

Removing antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake and their benevolent role in waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel: conjoining the valorization of two disparate industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Valorization of oilseed processing wastes is thwarted due to the presence of several antinutritional factors such as phenolics, tannins, glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and phytates; moreover, literature reporting on their simultaneous extraction and subsequent practical application is scanty. Different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with water or an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of these antinutritive compounds from rapeseed press-cake. Acidified extraction mixtures (nonaqueous) were found to be superior to the nonacidified ones. The characteristic differences in the efficacy of these wide varieties of solvents were studied by principal component analysis, on the basis of which the mixture 0.2% perchloric acid in methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) was deemed as "the best" for detoxification of rapeseed meal. Despite its high reductive potential, hemolytic activity of the extract from this solvent mixture clearly indicated the toxicity of the above-mentioned compounds on mammalian erythrocytes. Because of the presence of a high amount of antinutritive antioxidants, the study was further extended to examine the influence of this solvent extract on the stability of waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Treatment with the extract harbored significant improvement (p < 0.05) in the induction periods and pronounced reduction in microbial load of stored biodiesel investigated herein. Thus, a suitable solvent system was devised for removing the major antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake, and the solvent extract can, thereafter, be used as an effective exogenous antioxidant for biodiesel. In other words, integrated valorization of two different industrial wastes was successfully achieved. PMID:24134775

Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Das, Subrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Dhanapati; Mandal, Manabendra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

2013-11-13

387

DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES COFIRED IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS: PILOT-SCALE PARAMETRICS TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermal destruction of wastes by direct incineration or by cofiring with conventional fuels in boilers, furnaces, or kilns is one of the most effective methods currently available for disposal of hazardous organic material. However, more information is needed on the potential for...

388

MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

389

Thermal Energy Storage/Waste Heat Recovery Applications in the Cement Industry  

E-print Network

, and the Portland Cement Association have studied the potential benefits of using waste heat recovery methods and thermal energy storage systems in the cement manufacturing process. This work was performed under DOE Contract No. EC-77-C-01-50S4. The study has been...

Beshore, D. G.; Jaeger, F. A.; Gartner, E. M.

1979-01-01

390

Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructure Transition Metal Oxides Extracted from Industrial Waste (EOFD) by Hydrothermal Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric oil furnace dust (EOFD) is a solid waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process in electric and oil furnaces. Over 7 million metric tons dust produced per annum in worldwide creates deep impacts like soil, ground water and ecology pollutions. This article reports the simple one step process for the extraction of nanostructured metal oxides

T. C. Sabari Girisun; C. Babeela; V. Vidhya

2011-01-01

391

Chemical changes during vermicomposting ( Eisenia fetida ) of sheep manure mixed with cotton industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Castings of Eisenia fetida from sheep manure alone and mixed with cotton wastes analysed for their properties and chemical composition every 2 weeks for 3 months and compared with the same manures in the absence of earthworms. The results showed that earthworms accelerated the mineralization rate and converted the manures into castings with a higher nutritional value and degrees of

E. Albanell; J. Plaixats; T. Cabrero

1988-01-01

392

Stop Wasting Time: On Predicting the Success or Failure of Learning for Industrial Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful application of machine learning techniques to industrial problems places various demands on the collaborators.\\u000a The system designers must possess appropriate analytical skills and technical expertise, and the management of the industrial\\u000a or commercial partner must be sufficiently convinced of the potential benefits that they are prepared to invest in money and\\u000a equipment. Vitally, the collaboration also requires a

Jim E. Smith; Muhammad Atif Tahir

2007-01-01

393

Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis  

E-print Network

We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

Smyth, Katherine M.

394

State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

1980-09-01

395

Waste Gas And Particulate Control Measures For Laser Cutters In The Automotive Cloth Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demands for greater flexibility and accuracy in the manufacture of automobile trim parts has made single-ply laser cutting an attractive proposition. Lasers are able to cut a large variety of cloth types, from vinyls to velours. Unlike mechanically cut parts, which in the case of velours produce rough edges and dust problems, laster cutting of parts produces smooth edges, fumes and fine particulate. A detailed study of the nature of the laser effluent from a cross section of typical synthetic cloth found in an automotive trim plant was undertaken. Most samples were cut by a fast axial flow, 500 Watt, continuous wave CO2 laser. A 254 mm (10-inch) focussing optics package was used. The width of the kerf varied with the material, and values were determined at between 0.2 and 0.7 mm. Particle size distribution analysis and rates of particulate emission for each cloth were determined. Gases were collected in gas sample bags and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared analysis. Low boiling point organics were collected on activated charcoal tubes, identified on a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, and quantified on a gas chromatograph. Inorganic contaminants were collected on filter paper and analysed on an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. A number of different effluent control systems were evaluated. Due to the very fine and sticky nature of the particulate, filters capable of removing particulate sizes in the 10 ?m or lower range, tend to clog rapidly. Laboratory scale models of wet scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitators were built and tested. The most effective dust and effluent gas control was given by a wet electrostatic precipitator. This system, in conjunction with a scrubber, should maintain emission levels within environmental standards.

Ball, R. D.; Kulik, B. F.; Stoncel, R. J.; Tan, S. L.

1986-11-01

396

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1988 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for January 1976-June 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 246 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-06-01

397

Enrichment of elements in industrial waste incineration bottom ashes obtained from three different types of incinerators, as studied by ICP-AES and ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elemental composition of the industrial waste incineration bottom ash (IWIBA) samples collected from three different types of incinerator with different kinds of wastes were compared. The major-to-ultratrace elements in the IWIBA samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a result, ca. 40 elements in the concentration range

Eiji Fujimori; Kazuaki Minamoto; Seiko Iwata; Koichi Chiba; Hiroki Haraguchi

2004-01-01

398

WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and requires accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained.

Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

1999-07-01

399

Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat and waste heat recovery in the iron and steel industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system identified operates from the primary arc furnace evacuation system as a heat source. Energy from the fume stream is stored as sensible energy in a solid medium (packed bed). A steam-driven turbine is arranged to generate power for peak shaving. A parametric design approach is presented since the overall system design, at optimum payback is strongly dependent upon the nature of the electric pricing structure. The scope of the project was limited to consideration of available technology so that industry-wide application could be achieved by 1985. A search of the literature, coupled with interviews with representatives of major steel producers, served as the means whereby the techniques and technologies indicated for the specific site are extrapolated to the industry as a whole and to the 1985 time frame. The conclusion of the study is that by 1985, a national yearly savings of 1.9 million barrels of oil could be realized through recovery of waste heat from primary arc furnace fume gases on an industry-wide basis. Economic studies indicate that the proposed system has a plant payback time of approximately 5 years.

Katter, L. B.; Peterson, D. J.

1978-01-01

400

Odor compounds in waste gas emissions from agricultural operations and food industries.  

PubMed

In the last decades, large-scale agricultural operations and food industries have increased. These operations generate numerous types of odors. The reduction of land areas available for isolation of agricultural and food processing industrial operations from the public area and the increase in sensitivity and demand of the general public for a clean and pleasant environment have forced all of these industries to control odor emissions and toxic air pollutants. To develop environmentally sound, sustainable agricultural and food industrial operations, it is necessary to integrate research that focuses on modern analytical techniques and latest sensory technology of measurement and evaluation of odor and pollution, together with a fundamental knowledge of factors that are the basic units contributing to the production of odor and pollutants. Without a clear understanding of what odor is, how to measure it, and where it originates, it will be difficult to control the odor. The present paper reviews the available information regarding odor emissions from agricultural operations and food industries by giving an overview about odor problems, odor detection and quantification, and identifying the sources and the mechanisms that contribute to the odor emissions. Finally, ways of reducing or controlling the odor problem are discussed. PMID:16129591

Rappert, S; Müller, R

2005-01-01

401

Fermentation industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with

1980-01-01

402

Fermentation industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review of the fermenation industry's wastes is presented. In addition to studies on the characterization, treatment, and disposal of wastes in alcohol fuel production, studies concerning wastes from breweries, wineries, yeast manufacture, pharmaceutical production, and distilleries are reviewed. (JMT)

S. C. Chiesa; J. F. Jr. Manning

1983-01-01

403

Fermentation industry  

SciTech Connect

A literature review of the fermenation industry's wastes is presented. In addition to studies on the characterization, treatment, and disposal of wastes in alcohol fuel production, studies concerning wastes from breweries, wineries, yeast manufacture, pharmaceutical production, and distilleries are reviewed. (JMT)

Chiesa, S.C. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis); Manning, J.F. Jr.

1983-06-01

404

Seismic analysis of Industrial Waste Landfill 4 at Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

This calculation was to seismically evaluate Landfill IV at Y-12 as required by Tennessee Rule 1200-1-7-04(2) for seismic impact zones. The calculation verifies that the landfill meets the seismic requirements of the Tennessee Division of Solid Waste, ``Earthquake Evaluation Guidance Document.`` The theoretical displacements of 0.17 in. and 0.13 in. for the design basis earthquake are well below the limiting seimsic slope stability design criteria. There is no potential for liquefaction due to absence of chohesionless soils, or for loss or reduction of shear strength for the clays at this site as result of earthquake vibration. The vegetative cover on slopes will most likely be displaced and move during a large seismic event, but this is not considered a serious deficiency because the cover is not involved in the structural stability of the landfill and there would be no release of waste to the environment.

NONE

1995-04-07

405

Application of Extraction Chromatography to the Recovery of Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium from an Industrial Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale investigation was made to evaluate the possible application of the extraction Chromatographie method (LLC) to the partitioning of alpha emitters from liquid wastes containing traces of transuranium elements. A secondary purpose was to obtain pure AmO2, which is used to produce alpha, gamma, and neutron sources.The process developed for “alpha partitioning” consists essentially of the extraction of

C. Madic; C. Kertesz; R. Sontag; G. Koehly

1980-01-01

406

Ionometric determination of copper in electroplating baths and waste water from the electroplating industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the development of an ionometric procedure for the determination of copper (II) in electroplating baths and waste waters from electroplating plants that accounts for the components that they contain. The authors used a solid-phase electrode based on CuâS.AgâS manufactured by the ''Kvant'' Scientific-Production Association. The reference electrode was an ESL-1M3 silver chloride electrode. The emf

I. P. Nikolenko; N. A. Makulov; R. D. Tsingarelli

1985-01-01

407

Metal Tolerant Mycorrhizal Plants: A Review from the Perspective on Industrial Waste in Temperate Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The chapter summarizes research carried out on the role of mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of heavy-metal-rich wastes\\u000a in temperate regions. Symbiotic fungi are an important component of soil microbiota, especially under harsh conditions. Properly\\u000a developed mutual symbiosis enhances the survival of plants in polluted areas by improving nutrient acquisition and water relations.\\u000a In addition, mycorrhizal fungi were found to play

Katarzyna Turnau; Przemys?aw Ryszka; Grzegorz Wojtczak

408

Management of old landfills by utilizing forest and energy industry waste flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of landfill capacity, forthcoming EU waste disposal and landfill management legislation and the use of non-renewable and energy intensive natural resources for the end-treatment of old landfills increase pressures to develop new landfill management methods. This paper considers a method for the end-management of old landfills in Finland, which is based on the utilization of forest and paper

Ville Niutanen; Jouni Korhonen

2002-01-01

409

Agricultural potential of anaerobically digested industrial orange waste with and without aerobic post-treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of anaerobically digested orange waste with (AAD) and without (AD) aerobic post-treatment for use in agriculture was evaluated through chemical analyses, short-term phytotoxicity and long-term plant assays. Chemical analyses showed that AD contained ammonia and organic acids, and aerobic post-treatment did not significantly remove these phytotoxins. The N:P2O5:K2O ratio in AD was 1:0.26:0.96 and aerobic post-treatment did not

Prasad Kaparaju; Jukka Rintala; Aimo Oikari

2012-01-01

410

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

411

Repeated removal of cadmium and zinc from an industrial effluent by waste biomass Sargassum sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste biomass Sargassum sp. biosorbed 100% of Cd2+ and 99.4% of Zn2+ from a 3 and 98 mg l-1 solution (pH 4.5), respectively, at the end of four serial experiments. Of the five desorbents studied in consecutive adsorption\\/desorption cycles, CaCl2 0.05 M eluted nearly 40% of both metals and decreased the biosorption in only 8% and 17% of Cd2+ and

A. J. P. Esteves; E. Valdman; S. G. F. Leite

2000-01-01

412

Waste-to-energy plant for paper industry sludges disposal: technical-economic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a detailed technical-economic analysis of a fluidized bed based waste-to-energy system for disposal of paper manufacturing sludges has been carried out. Specific reference is made to a case study represented by the largest plant in Italy producing recycled paper, with a daily sludge output of about 52t.The adopted plant has been sized for a nominal capacity of

Antonio C. Caputo; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

2001-01-01

413

IFAT `96 mirrors solid waste management`s growth into an industry  

SciTech Connect

Billed as the largest event of its kind anywhere in the world, the 1996 International Trade Fair for Waste Water and Waste Disposal: Sewage, Refuse, Recycling, Public Cleansing, and Winter Road Services (IFAT `96) was held in Munich, Germany, May 7-11, 1996, and attracted about 110,000 visitors. Approximately 1,800 companies from 36 countries exhibited, and there was a complementary range of conferences and seminars hosted by municipal, trade, and government associations. IFAT is held every three years, and the 1996 event was the 11th IFAT exhibition. It is interesting to note the origins of the event over 30 years ago, when a relatively modest regional fair showcased technology designed primarily for municipal solid waste collection and snow-clearing vehicles. IFAT has indeed snowballed, reflecting the dramatically increased levels of investment in products and services in response to the formulation of both national and European Union environmental legislation, often to the point where trade associations have complained of legislative overkill.

O`Kane, S.A.

1996-07-01

414

Fermentation industry  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

Irvine, R.L.

1980-06-01

415

Studies on the purification of wastewater from the nitrogen fertilizer industry by intensive algal cultures. I. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris in wastes.  

PubMed

The possibility of growth of intensive cultures of Chlorella vulgaris on industrial wastewater from nitrogen fertizer plant containing ammonia, urea and nitrate was investigated. Good growth of algae was obtained when the waste was enriched with phosphorus and inoculum contained a high number of cells. The optimal pH for the culture was 7.0--8.0. The main factor limiting growth of algae on wastes on the concentration of ammonia nitrogen. Chlorella vulgaris grows quite well in wastes containing 600 mg NH4-N/l but is inhibited at concentration about 100 mg NH4-N/l. PMID:62500

Matusiak, K

1976-01-01

416

Textile Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

Talbot, R. S.

1978-01-01

417

FINDING SOLVENT REPLACEMENTS TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...

418

COMBINED TREATMENT OF LIQUID WASTES FROM INDUSTRIAL SWINE FARMS USING BLWRS (BARRIERED LANDSCAPE WATER RENOVATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The efficiency of Barriered Landscape Water Renovation (BLWRS), 1500 m2 in size, to renovate flushed slurry from the industrial pig farm was studied during two years of exploitation. A water budget for BLWRS was prepared, transformations of volatile solids, COD, TN, TKN, organic ...

419

An alternative energy source from palm wastes industry for Malaysia and Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia and Indonesia are the largest producers of palm oil product. The palm oil industry has contributed the biggest income to the countries for many years. Moreover, palm oils has emerged as one of the most important oils in the world’s oils and the market of fats. About 90% of palm oil is used as food related products worldwide, and

T. M. I Mahlia; M. Z Abdulmuin; T. M. I Alamsyah; D Mukhlishien

2001-01-01

420

Using CaO and MgO-rich industrial waste streams for carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To prevent rapid climate change, it will be necessary to reduce net anthropogenic CO2 emissions drastically. This likely will require imposition of a tax or tradable permit scheme that creates a subsidy for negative emissions. Here, we examine possible niche markets in the cement and steel industries where it is possible to generate a limited supply of negative emissions (carbon

Joshuah K. Stolaroff; Gregory V. Lowry; David W. Keith

2005-01-01

421

40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bring the boiler or industrial furnace to a point of operational readiness to conduct a trial burn, not to exceed 720 hours...conditions. The Director may extend the duration of this operational period once, for up to 720 additional hours,...

2013-07-01

422

40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.  

...bring the boiler or industrial furnace to a point of operational readiness to conduct a trial burn, not to exceed 720 hours...conditions. The Director may extend the duration of this operational period once, for up to 720 additional hours,...

2014-07-01

423

40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...bring the boiler or industrial furnace to a point of operational readiness to conduct a trial burn, not to exceed 720 hours...conditions. The Director may extend the duration of this operational period once, for up to 720 additional hours,...

2011-07-01

424

40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...bring the boiler or industrial furnace to a point of operational readiness to conduct a trial burn, not to exceed 720 hours...conditions. The Director may extend the duration of this operational period once, for up to 720 additional hours,...

2012-07-01

425

Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste.  

PubMed

This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non-combustibles (such as stone/rock and glass particles), was found in the reject material stream. PMID:24735992

Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

2014-08-01

426

Evaluation of genotoxic potential of industrial waste contaminated soil extracts of Amritsar, India.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in population together with unplanned disposal of effluents from various industries has resulted in accumulation of various heavy metals like As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil ecosystem which ultimately causes DNA damage in living systems. Considering this, the present study was designed to evaluate the content of various heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) and genotoxicity/mutagenicity of soil samples collected from the outskirts of two industries viz. zinc coating industry (SI) and copper sulphate manufacturing industry (SII) employing Allium root anaphase aberration assay (A/RAAA) and Ames assay. The physicochemical parameters like bulk density, water holding capacity, moisture content, pH, nitrates, phosphates and potassium were also estimated. It was observed that SI sample contained Ni (6.86 mg g-1), Zn (6.53 mg g-1), Co (5.05 mg g-1) and Cr (4.49 mg g-1), while SII contained Cu (32.86 mg g-1), Ni (9.66 mg g-1), Co (6.85 mg g-1) and Zn (5.41 mg g-1). In A/RAA assay, the percentage of cells with anaphase aberrations ranged from 3.63 to 10.67 and 0.38 to 4.83% for samples SI and SII, respectively. In Ames test, sample SII was found to be lethal to Salmonella tester strains at all concentrations used, while sample SI was found to be mutagenic in TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Sample SII was found to be strongly acidic with pH 3.46. The present study focuses on the increasing heavy metal pollution in Amritsar city due to industrial discharges over lands and also infers that both bioassays Ames and A/RAAA can serve as first alert indication of pollution. PMID:22167950

Katnoria, Jatinder Kaur; Arora, Saroj; Bhardwaj, Renu; Nagpal, Avinash

2011-05-01

427

Coal combustion by wet oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

1980-11-15

428

The Effect of CO2 on Algal Growth in Industrial Waste Water for Bioenergy and Bioremediation Applications  

PubMed Central

The energy, mining and mineral processing industries are point sources of metal-contaminated waste water and carbon dioxide (CO2). Freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium can be grown in metal-contaminated waste water to generate biomass for bioenergy applications and concomitantly bioremediate metals. However, interactions between CO2 addition and algal growth, which can affect bioremediation, remain untested. The addition of CO2 to algal cultures in the Ash Dam Water (ADW) from a coal-fired power station increased the biomass productivity of Oedogonium sp. from 6.8 g dry weight (DW) m-2 d-1 to a maximum of 22.5 g DW m-2 d-1. The greater productivity increased the rate of bioremediation of most elements. However, over time carbon-amended cultures experienced a decline in productivity. Possible explanations include metal toxicity at low pH or essential trace element limitation as a result of competition between toxic and essential trace elements for uptake into algae. Higher productivity increased bioremediation rate and yielded more biomass for bioenergy applications, making maintenance of maximum productivity the central aim of the integrated culture model. To do so it will be necessary to resolve the mechanisms responsible for declining yields over time in carbon-amended cultures. Regardless, our data demonstrate that freshwater macroalgae are ideal candidates for bioremediation of metal-contaminated waste streams. Algal culture delivered significant improvement in ADW quality, reducing 5 elements that were initially in excess of water quality criteria (Al, As, Cd, Ni and Zn) to meet guidelines within two to four weeks. PMID:24278451

Roberts, David A.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2013-01-01

429

The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

Barnhart, Benjamin J.

1978-01-01

430

Conversion of polyester/cotton industrial wastes to higher value products: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Several polyster/cotton waste blends were successfully used as feedstock to make injection molded products. Nucleating and plasticizing additives (commonly required in the production process) were found to be unnecessary; their functions were fulfilled by the cotton component of the waste feedstock. The properties of the injection molded parts were comparable generally to those of a great many other plastics. Cotton caused a notable increase in stiffness (modulus) of the molded part, but failed to produce a significant increase in tensile strength. Plant trials revealed difficulties that were unobserved in the smaller scale runs: sticking in the mold, release of water and other volatiles at the molding temperature, and intermittent flow. Sticking in the mold probably can be solved by including a small amount of mold release compound in the formulation just prior to pelletization. The problems of release of volatiles and intermittent flow can possibly be solved. Polyester/cotton molded products would have a price advantage as feedstock in the commodity thermoplastics market, but it is possible that this could be dissipated by higher molding costs.

Cates, D.

1986-10-30

431

Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for Food and Beverage Industry  

SciTech Connect

Food and beverage plants inherently consume a large quantity of water and generate a high volume of wastewater rich in organic content. On one hand, water discharge regulations are getting more stringent over the time, necessitating the use of different technologies to reduce the amount of wastewater and improve the effluent water quality. On the other hand, growing energy and water costs are driving the plants to extract and reuse valuable energy and water from the wastewater stream. An integrated waste-tovalue system uses a combination of anaerobic digester (AD), reciprocating gas engine/boiler, membrane bioreactor (MBR), and reverse osmosis (RO) to recover valuable energy as heat and/or electricity as well as purify the water for reuse. While individual anaerobic digestion and membrane bioreactors are being used in increasing numbers, there is a growing need to integrate them together in a waste-to-value system for enhanced energy and water recovery. However, currently operation of these systems relies heavily on the plant operator to perform periodic sampling and off-line lab analysis to monitor the system performance, detect any abnormal condition due to variations in the wastewater and decide on appropriate remedial action needed. This leads to a conservative design and operation of these systems to avoid any potential upsets that can destabilize the system.

Shi, Ruijie

2013-12-30

432

Removal of lindane and malathion from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse fly ash, obtained from the local sugar industry, has been used as inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the removal of lindane and malathion from wastewater. The optimum contact needed to reach equilibrium was found to be 60min. Maximum removal takes place at pH 6.0. The removal of the pesticides increases with an increase in adsorbent dose and decreases

Vinod K. Gupta; C. K. Jain; Imran Ali; S. Chandra; S. Agarwal

2002-01-01

433

Removal of lead and chromium from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive and effective adsorbent was developed from bagasse fly ash, obtained from a sugar industry, for the dynamic uptake of lead and chromium. Lead and chromium are sorbed by the developed adsorbent up to 96–98%. The removal of these two metal ions up to 95–96% was achieved by column experiments at a flow rate of 0.5 mlmin?1. The adsorption was found

V. K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2004-01-01

434

Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.  

PubMed

A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s?¹), particle size (varying 24.3 ?m in 88.05 ?m with regard to 110 ?m the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth. PMID:21442538

Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

2011-01-01

435

Removal of atrazine from water by low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural and industrial wastes.  

PubMed

In the present study six adsorbents viz. wood charcoal, fly ash, coconut charcoal, saw dust, coconut fiber and baggasse charcoal were studied for their capacity to remove atrazine from water. The removal efficiency of different adsorbents varied from 76.5% to 97.7% at 0.05 ppm concentration and 78.5% to 95.5% at 0.1 ppm concentration of atrazine solution, which was less than removal efficiency of activated charcoal reported as 98% for atrazine (Adams and Watson, J Environ Eng ASCE 39:327-330, 1996). Wood charcoal was a cheap (Rs 15 kg(-1)) and easily available material in house holds. Since wood charcoal was granular in nature, it could be used for the removal of atrazine from water to the extent of 95.5%-97.7%. Fly ash is a waste product of thermal plant containing 40%-50% silica, 20%-35% alumina, 12%-30% carbon and unburnt minerals having a high pH of 9-10. It is very cheap and abundant material and has comparatively good adsorption capacity. It was found that fly ash effectively removed about 84.1%-88.5% atrazine from water at 0.05 and 0.1 ppm levels. Coconut shell is also waste product. Therefore, both are inexpensive. The removal efficiency of atrazine from water was 92.4%-95.2% by coconut shell charcoal and 85.9%-86.3% by coconut fiber. Sawdust is generally used as domestic fuel and found everywhere. It is also very cheap (Re. 1 kg(-1)). Baggasse charcoal is a waste product of sugar mill and abundant material. Its cost is due to transport expense, which depends upon distance from the sugar mill. The removal efficiency of sawdust and baggasse charcoal was found 78.5-80.5 and 76.5-84.6, respectively. The efficacy of chemically treated adsorbents for the removal of atrazine from water is in the order: wood charcoal > coconut shell charcoal > fly ash > coconut fiber charcoal > baggasse charcoal > sawdust. PMID:18357400

Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Anoop; Joseph, P E

2008-05-01

436

Integron Gene Cassettes and Degradation of Compounds Associated with Industrial Waste: The Case of the Sydney Tar Ponds  

PubMed Central

Integrons are genetic platforms that accelerate lateral gene transfer (LGT) among bacteria. They were first detected on plasmids bearing single and multiple drug resistance determinants in human pathogens, and it is abundantly clear that integrons have played a major role in the evolution of this public health menace. Similar genetic elements can be found in nonpathogenic environmental bacteria and in metagenomic environmental DNA samples, and it is reasonable to suppose that integrons have facilitated microbial adaptation through LGT in niches outside infectious disease wards. Here we show that a heavily impacted estuary, exposed for almost a century to products of coal and steel industries, has developed a rich and unique cassette metagenome, containing genes likely to aid in the catabolism of compounds associated with industrial waste found there. In addition, we report that the most abundant cassette recovered in this study is one that encodes a putative LysR protein. This autoregulatory transcriptional regulator is known to activate transcription of linked target genes or unlinked regulons encoding diverse functions including chlorocatechol and dichlorophenol catabolism. Finally, only class 1 integrase genes were amplified in this study despite using different primer sets, and it may be that the cassettes present in the Tar Ponds will prove to be associated with class 1 integrase genes. Nevertheless, our cassette library provides a snapshot of a complex evolutionary process involving integron-meditated LGT likely to be important in natural bioremediation. PMID:19390587

Koenig, Jeremy E.; Sharp, Christine; Dlutek, Marlena; Curtis, Bruce; Joss, Michael; Boucher, Yan; Doolittle, W. Ford

2009-01-01

437

The Effect of Ship Scrapping Industry and its Associated Wastes on the Biomass Production and Biodiversity of Biota in in situ Condition at Alang  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main pollutants for the ship scrapping industry and its associated wastes at Alang are heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbon and bacterial contaminations. The concentration of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and mercury were 25 to 15500% more at nearshore station of Alang as compared to control site at Piram. The concentration of heavy metals in the nearshore

A. Tewari; H. V. Joshi; R. H. Trivedi; V. G. Sravankumar; C. Raghunathan; Y. Khambhaty; O. S. Kotiwar; S. K. Mandal

2001-01-01

438

Impact of Iron and Steel Industry and Waste Incinerators on Human Exposure to Dioxins, PCBs, and Heavy Metals: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the impact of two iron and steel plants and two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) in Wallonia (Belgium) on the exposure of residents to dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals. In total, 142 volunteers living around these facilities were recruited and compared with 63 referents from a rural area with no industrial source of pollution. Information about

Sébastien Fierens; Hélène Mairesse; Jean-François Heilier; Jean-François Focant; Gauthier Eppe; Edwin De Pauw; Alfred Bernard

2007-01-01

439

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 10. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-90-005-99 TO 3-90-008-99  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as an means of air pollution control. Predicitions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. indust...

440

INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 3. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 1-02-007-04 TO 2-03-999-98  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U. S. industr...

441

Evaluation of blends bauxite-calcination-method red mud with other industrial wastes as a cementitious material: Properties and hydration characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mud is generated from alumina production, and its disposal is currently a worldwide problem. In China, large quantities of red mud derived from bauxite calcination method are being discharged annually, and its utilization has been an urgent topic. This experimental research was to evaluate the feasibility of blends red mud derived from bauxite calcination method with other industrial wastes

Na Zhang; Xiaoming Liu; Henghu Sun; Longtu Li

2011-01-01

442

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. January 1978-December 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-December 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in sewage, as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal-waste sludge dewatering. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 266 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

443

Technologies development for environmental restoration and waste management: International university and research institution and industry partnerships  

SciTech Connect

The Institute for Central and Eastern European Cooperative Environmental Research (ICEECER) at Florida State University was formed in 1990 soon after the end of the Cold War. ICEECER consists of a number of joint centers which link FSU, and US as well as international funding agencies, to academic and research institutions in Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia, and the other countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. Areas of interest include risk assessment, toxicology, contaminated site remediation/characterization, waste management, emergency response, environmental technology development/demonstration/transfer, and some specialized areas of research (e.g., advanced chemical separations). Through ICEECER, numerous international conferences, symposia, training courses, and workshops have also been conducted on a variety of environmental topics. This paper summarizes the mission, structure, and administration of ICEECER and provides information on the projects conducted through this program at FSU.

Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.; Kuperberg, J.M.

1996-12-31

444

Steel slag: a waste industrial by-product as an alternative sustainable green building material in construction applications--an attempt for solid waste management.  

PubMed

This investigation explores the possibility of utilizing granular slag as an alternative to fine aggregate (natural sand) in construction applications like masonry and plastering. Construction industry utilizes large volume of fine aggregate in all the applications which has resulted into shortage of good quality naturally available fine aggregate. Use of granular slag serves two fold purposes, i.e. waste utilisation as well as alternative eco-friendly green building material for construction. The investigation highlights comparative study of properties with partial and full replacement of fine aggregate (natural sand) by granular slag in cement mortar applications (masonry and plastering). For this purpose, cement mortar mix proportions from 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 & 1:6 by volume were selected for 0, 25, 50, 75 & 100% replacement levels with w/c ratios of 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 & 0.72 respectively. Based on the study results, it could be inferred that replacement of natural sand with granular slag from 25 to 75% increased the packing density of mortar which resulted into reduced w/c ratio, increased strength properties of all mortar mixes. Hence, it could be recommended that the granular slag could be effectively utilized as fine aggregate in masonry and plastering applications in place of conventional cement mortar mixes using natural sand. PMID:23741870

Pofale, Arun D; Nadeem, Mohammed

2012-01-01

445

Selenium Waste  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides general information about selenium including its occurrence, industrial applications, toxicology, and regulations and practices regarding industrial waste disposal. The site also features links to more detailed information about each of these topics.

2007-01-26

446

Wetting of flexible fibre arrays.  

PubMed

Fibrous media are functional and versatile materials, as demonstrated by their ubiquity both in natural systems such as feathers and adhesive pads and in engineered systems from nanotextured surfaces to textile products, where they offer benefits in filtration, insulation, wetting and colouring. The elasticity and high aspect ratios of the fibres allow deformation under capillary forces, which cause mechanical damage, matting self-assembly or colour changes, with many industrial and ecological consequences. Attempts to understand these systems have mostly focused on the wetting of rigid fibres or on elastocapillary effects in planar geometries and on a fibre brush withdrawn from an infinite bath. Here we consider the frequently encountered case of a liquid drop deposited on a flexible fibre array and show that flexibility, fibre geometry and drop volume are the crucial parameters that are necessary to understand the various observations referred to above. We identify the conditions required for a drop to remain compact with minimal spreading or to cause a pair of elastic fibres to coalesce. We find that there is a critical volume of liquid, and, hence, a critical drop size, above which this coalescence does not occur. We also identify a drop size that maximizes liquid capture. For both wetting and deformation of the substrates, we present rules that are deduced from the geometric and material properties of the fibres and the volume of the drop. These ideas are applicable to a wide range of fibrous materials, as we illustrate with examples for feathers, beetle tarsi, sprays and microfabricated systems. PMID:22358841

Duprat, C; Protière, S; Beebe, A Y; Stone, H A

2012-02-23

447

Wetting failure of hydrophilic surfaces promoted by surface roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetting failure is of vital importance to many physical phenomena, such as industrial coating and drop emission. Here we show when and how the surface roughness promotes the destabilization of a moving contact line on a hydrophilic surface. Beyond the balance of the driving force and viscous resistance where a stable wetting interface is sustained, wetting failure occurs and is modified by the roughness of the surface. The promoting effect arises only when the wetting velocity is high enough to create a gas-liquid-solid composite interface in the vicinity of the moving contact line, and it is a function of the intrinsic contact angle and proportion of solid tops. We propose a model to explain splashes of rough solid spheres impacting into liquids. It reveals a novel concept that dynamic wetting on hydrophilic rough surfaces can be similar to that on hydrophobic surfaces, and brings a new way to design surfaces with specific wetting properties.

Zhao, Meng-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Qing

2014-06-01

448

Wet storage integrity update  

SciTech Connect

This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

1983-09-01

449

Value-added utilization of oil palm ash: a superior recycling of the industrial agricultural waste.  

PubMed

Concern about environmental protection has increased over the years from a global viewpoint. To date, the infiltration of oil palm ash into the groundwater tables and aquifer systems which poses a potential risk and significant hazards towards the public health and ecosystems, remain an intricate challenge for the 21st century. With the revolution of biomass reutilization strategy, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of oil palm ash industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of oil palm ash in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. PMID:19695771

Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

2009-12-30

450

Optimisation of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste streams in Brazil.  

PubMed

The important Brazilian agro-industry produces significant amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of biodegradable compounds. A lot can be gained if wastewater treatment would take place using anaerobic reactors instead of the anaerobic lagoons generally used now. Apart from preventing methane emissions to the atmosphere this would permit the use of the biogas as a source of energy. To facilitate implementation of this technology also in small and intermediate sized companies a system requiring only minimal maintenance is needed. The need for maintenance by skilled labour can be reduced using an automated process control system, which is being developed. Cassava (manioc, tapioca) processing wastewater has been treated in a lab scale UASB reactor equipped with an on-line monitoring system, to test a control strategy based mainly on pH control. Good results have been obtained treating not only pre-acidified but also treating raw (diluted) cassava processing wastewater. PMID:19001722

Boncz, M A; Bezerra, L Pinheiro; Ide, C Nobuyoshi; Paulo, P Loureiro

2008-01-01

451

Processing of leather waste: pilot scale studies on chrome shavings. Isolation of potentially valuable protein products and chromium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hides come to the tanner as a by-product of the meat industry. The tanning process, in turn, generates much greater quantities of by-products and wastes than leather. One ton of wet salted hides yields only 200kg of leather but over 600kg of solid waste, or by-product if a market can be found. In the United States, nearly 60,000 metric tons

L. F. Cabeza; M. M. Taylor; G. L. DiMaio; E. M. Brown; W. N. Marmer; R. Carrió; P. J. Celma; J. Cot

1998-01-01

452

Wet and Wild Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide uses a thematic approach to show the integration of subjects (reading, mathematics, language arts, science/fine arts) and skills to create a context for learning. The contents of this guide are presented in a holistic format. There are six major topics in the guide, each with subtopics: (1) "Getting Your Feet Wet--An Introduction to…

Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

453

PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], gammalg cos theta = gammasg - gammasl (1) In

S. Herminghaus

2005-01-01

454

Wetting transparency of graphene.  

PubMed

We report that graphene coatings do not significantly disrupt the intrinsic wetting behaviour of surfaces for which surface-water interactions are dominated by van der Waals forces. Our contact angle measurements indicate that a graphene monolayer is wetting-transparent to copper, gold or silicon, but not glass, for which the wettability is dominated by short-range chemical bonding. With increasing number of graphene layers, the contact angle of water on copper gradually transitions towards the bulk graphite value, which is reached for ~6 graphene layers. Molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical predictions confirm our measurements and indicate that graphene's wetting transparency is related to its extreme thinness. We also show a 30-40% increase in condensation heat transfer on copper, as a result of the ability of the graphene coating to suppress copper oxidation without disrupting the intrinsic wettability of the surface. Such an ability to independently tune the properties of surfaces without disrupting their wetting response could have important implications in the design of conducting, conformal and impermeable surface coatings. PMID:22266468

Rafiee, Javad; Mi, Xi; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Thomas, Abhay V; Yavari, Fazel; Shi, Yunfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Koratkar, Nikhil A

2012-03-01

455

Evaluation of waste activated sludge as a coagulant aid for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing mixed surfactants.  

PubMed

Wastewater generated by the industry manufacturing detergents and various kinds of consumer products normally contains very high contents of mixed surfactants, organic matters expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and phosphates that must be treated prior to discharge to the aquatic environment. In this study, jar-test experiments were conducted to evaluate the waste activated sludge (WAS) as a coagulation aid in the coagulation-flocculation process with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate as a coagulant for the treatment of wastewater collected from the aforementioned industry. The WAS was selected because of its adsorption capability of anionic surfactants and its availability from the wastage stream of biological wastewater treatment process. The effective dosages of both coagulants with and without the WAS additions were determined in this study. Without the WAS addition, the concentrations of 800 mg/L aluminum sulfate at the optimum pH value of 8 and 2208 mg/L ferric chloride at the optimum pH value of 12 were the optimum chemical dosages. It appears that aluminum sulfate was more effective than ferric chloride based on the chemical dosage and removal efficiency. The turbidity, suspended particles, anionic surfactants, COD, and phosphates removal efficiencies of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride under the optimum dosage were 95.6, 88.2, 78.4, 73.5, 47.3% and 98.8, 92.0, 72.7, 67.5, 53.1%, respectively. The addition of 200 mg/L WAS was sufficient to reduce the optimum dosages of both chemicals by 200 mg/L. The cationic surfactant existing in the wastewater worked as a flocculating agent leading to the flocculation of waste activated sludge resulting in the enmeshment of the suspended particles and colloids on which the COD, anionic surfactants, and phosphates were adsorbed. However, the substances removal efficiencies of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate were slightly enhanced and reduced, respectively. It is possibly explained that the settling time is insufficient to settle the aluminum hydroxide floc when it is compared to the ferric hydroxide floc because the iron floc is normally heavier than the alum floc. PMID:19241265

Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai; Jangkorn, Siriprapha

2009-04-01

456

Biorefining of selected industrial wastes to liquid fuels and organic chemicals. Final technical progress report for Phase I, June 15-December 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of processing industrial wastes to fuels or chemicals by a process incorporating anaerobic digestion and electrolytic oxidation was investigated. The primary objective of this program was the collection and testing of various waste samples for their applicability to the process. Information was gathered to choose the most promising waste material for further development of the process. An effort was also made to solicit industrial interest in this project. A review meeting was held to convey information about the process and as a forum for comments by the industrial participants. In the process, waste material is fed to an anaerobic digester in which methane formation is inhibited. This enhances formation of linear aliphatic carboxylic acids from acetic to hexanoic acid. The organic acids can be removed from the fermenter by liquid-liquid extraction and then converted to the final product by electrolytic oxidation. The product is dependent on the organic acid produced in the digestion step and the conditions of the electrolytic oxidation. The potential process products include linear alkanes (n-octane, n-decane), olefins (propylene, butenes), alcohols (propanol, pentanol), and esters (ethylacetate, propylbutyrate). The process is more sophisticated than methane production, but has a more valuable product. Reduction in wastewater BED and suspended solids (and thus a reduction in disposal costs) is similar to that for methane digestion.

Levy, P.F.; Leuschner, A.P.; Stoddart, J.H. Jr.

1983-05-27

457

2,3-Butanediol Production by Acetogenic Bacteria, an Alternative Route to Chemical Synthesis, Using Industrial Waste Gas ? †  

PubMed Central

2,3-Butanediol (23BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, the best microbial 23BD production rates have been observed using pathogenic bacteria in fermentation systems that depend on sugars as the carbon and energy sources for product synthesis. Here we present evidence of 23BD production by three nonpathogenic acetogenic Clostridium species—Clostridium autoethanogenum, C. ljungdahlii, and C. ragsdalei—using carbon monoxide-containing industrial waste gases or syngas as the sole source of carbon and energy. Through an analysis of the C. ljungdahlii genome, the complete pathway from carbon monoxide to 23BD has been proposed. Homologues of the genes involved in this pathway were also confirmed for the other two species investigated. A gene expression study demonstrates a correlation between mRNA accumulation from 23BD biosynthetic genes and the onset of 23BD production, while a broader expression study of Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes provides a transcription-level view of one of the oldest existing biochemical pathways. PMID:21685168

Kopke, Michael; Mihalcea, Christophe; Liew, FungMin; Tizard, Joseph H.; Ali, Mohammed S.; Conolly, Joshua J.; Al-Sinawi, Bakir; Simpson, Sean D.

2011-01-01

458

Development of UHPC mixtures utilizing natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand.  

PubMed

In the exploratory study presented in this paper, an attempt was made to develop different mixtures of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) using various locally available natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand. Materials such as natural pozzolana (NP), fly ash (FA), limestone powder (LSP), cement kiln dust (CKD), and pulverized steel slag (PSS), all of which are abundantly available in Saudi Arabia at little or no cost, were employed in the development of the UHPC mixtures. A base mixture of UHPC without replacement of silica fume or sand was selected and a total of 24 trial mixtures of UHPC were prepared using different percentages of NP, FA