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1

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTES FROM THE CORN WET MILLING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot plant aerated lagoon and laboratory completely mixed activated sludge treatment studies of corn wet milling wastes showed that either process could produce a satisfactory effluent. A full scale completely mixed activated sludge treatment plant was designed from laboratory r...

2

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

1991-04-01

3

Catalytic wet oxidation: an environmental solution for organic pollutant removal from paper and pulp industrial waste liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of organics from paper and pulp industrial waste was investigated employing wet oxidation (WO) and catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) techniques using a high-pressure reaction system. Different types of catalysts prepared from single metals (transition\\/noble) and mixed metals (transition–transition\\/transition\\/noble metal) were used in the CWO studies. The paper and pulp liquor treatments were conducted in selected different environments such

Deepak B Akolekar; Suresh K Bhargava; Irfan Shirgoankar; Jaidev Prasad

2002-01-01

4

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1993-07-01

5

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1993--1994 interim report  

SciTech Connect

Process development research is continuing on a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system that has been demonstrated to convert organics in water (dilute or concentrated) to useful and environmentally safe gases. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEESO), treats a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from hazardous organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of continuous-feed, tubular reactors systems for testing catalysts and feedstocks in the process. A range of catalysts have been tested, including nickel and other base metals, as well as ruthenium and other precious metals. Results of extensive testing show that feedstocks, ranging from 2% para-cresol in water to potato waste and spent grain, can be processed to > 99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The product fuel gas contains from 40% up to 75% methane, depending on the feedstock. The balance of the gas is mostly carbon dioxide with < 5% hydrogen and usually < 1% ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics from 10 to 1,000 mg/l COD, depending on the feedstock. The level of development of TEES has progressed to the initial phases of industrial process demonstration. Testing of industrial waste streams is under way at both the bench scale and engineering scale of development.

Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Deverman, G.S.; Werpy, T.A.; Phelps, M.R.; Baker, E.G.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1995-03-01

6

Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis\\/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350°C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities

D. C. Elliott; T. H. Scheer

1992-01-01

7

Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis\\/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350°C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of

D. C. Elliott; T. H. Scheer

1992-01-01

8

Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is worldwide interest in deriving energy from bio-based materials via gasification. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of wet gasification for treatment\\/energy conversion of both animal and municipal wastes. Wet wastes such as swine manure and raw sewage sludge could be processed directly via current wet gasification technology. Furthermore, these wastes generated high amounts of net energy

Kyoung S. Ro; Keri Cantrell; Douglas Elliott; Patrick G. Hunt

2007-01-01

9

Wet precipitator design for hazardous waste incineration  

SciTech Connect

Currently there are fluid plate precipitators operating on both liquid and solid hazardous waste incinerators with flue gas volumes ranging from 7,000 to 40,000 ACFM. The oldest unit has been in operation since 1976 with no replacement or major repair to either the FRP components or the Hastelloy C-276, emitting electrodes due to corrosion. The authors discuss how the high concentrations of chlorides, fluorides, and sulfur compounds encountered in conjunction with the successful control of acid mist and ash emissions has demonstrated the merit of the corrosion resistant wet precipitator for the control of hazardous waste incinerator emissions.

Sebille, A.J.; Swift, A.E. (Dresser Industries, Inc., Houston, TX (USA). Petroleum Services Div.)

1987-01-01

10

ENERGY RECOVERY FROM WET WASTES - A VIABLE CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTION?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 NSW Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) Summary In response to the emerging interest in waste as a source of renewable energy, the NSW Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) commissioned a study in 1998 to determine the viability of recovering energy from wet waste streams (1). Wet wastes are biomass derived wastes that are predominantly water and that are generally

Marguerite Lake; Stuart Pullar; Robert Pagan; Nicole Ghiotto

11

Heat recovery from wet wood waste  

SciTech Connect

Overall heat recovery from wet wood waste, particularly sawmill generated hog fuel, is improved by a process for predrying the fuel. A wet oversize fraction of the fuel is combusted in a fluid bed reactor providing heat for drying the remaining smaller sized fraction of the waste pile to about 10-30% moisture by weight. The gaseous products of the fluid bed burning are contacted with the fuel fraction in, preferably, a rotary dryer. The dried fuel is then screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction is fed onto a grate of a wood waste boiler. The fines fraction is injected into the boiler combustion in an air suspension. The amount of fuel fed to the fluid bed reactor is 10-25% of the total fuel flow, depending upon the moistu content of the fuel. The gases fed to the rotary dryer are less than about 1,200/sup 0/F., to minimize ''blue haze,'' by combining with minimum outside air.

Spurrell, R.M.

1980-11-25

12

Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect

This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis (eds.)

2004-06-15

13

Steel Industry Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

1978-01-01

14

Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

Not Available

1994-01-01

15

CENTURY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS FRP-100 WET SCRUBBER EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field test evaluation of the performance of the Century Industrial Products FRP-100 wet scrubber installed on a lightweight aggregate kiln. Inlet/outlet tests for particle size distribution with cascade impactors and extractive sampling with an elect...

16

Idaho Solid Waste Management Industrial Survey Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An industrial solid waste survey was conducted to compile information on the types and amounts of solid waste generated and the solid waste management techniques employed by Idaho's manufacturing industries. The survey was conducted using personal intervi...

1973-01-01

17

Solid Waste Management in the Drug Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a description and analysis of solid waste management in the drug industry. A general description of the industry is presented followed by a description of the products and production processes of the industry. The solid wastes produce...

D. M. Shilesky K. W. Krause R. J. Sullivan

1973-01-01

18

Guide for Industrial Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Guide is to provide facility managers, state and tribal regulators, and the interested public with recommendations and tools to better address the management of land-disposed, non-hazardous industrial wastes. The Guide can help facilit...

2004-01-01

19

Centralized treatment of industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

A low-cost and effective alternative to on-site treatment of industrial wastes which can be used by firms in many areas of the country is described. Under the CWT approach, firms send their wastes to a common processing plant. In the right situations and with the proper kind of inexpensive retrofitting measures, CWT can drastically reduce the cost of treating industrial wastewater because of economies of scale. As well as saving money, CWT has several environmental advantages. First, these facilities are operated by professional waste handlers who should be able to treat and manage the waste more effectively than the generating firms. Second, the CWT can dramatically increase the potential for recovery of chemicals, which not only reduces the firm's wastewater costs but also the burdens of sludge handling and disposal. EPA, consultants, and local communities have been working on this concept for the last three years. During that time, they have been studying the feasibility of several CWT alternatives already in use in foreign countries for treating electroplating wastewater. In addition to waste treatment, CWT can also provide cogeneration of power, common laboratory facilities and, probably a bulk purchasing cooperative. 3 figures. (JMT)

Saltzberg, E.R.

1982-08-01

20

Industrial waste reduction: The process problem  

SciTech Connect

Industrial waste problems, especially those involving hazardous waste, seem to be pervasive. The national media report newly discovered waste problems and sites with alarming regularity. Examples that immediately come to mind are Love Canal, New York; Times Beach, Missouri; and Seveso, Italy. Public perceptions of the industrial waste problem, reflecting the media's focus, appear to be that: large corporations are solely responsible for creating waste dumps, and the only role of government is to prevent illegal dumping and to regulate, fine, and require corporations to rectify the problem; all efforts should be directed toward preventing illegal dumping and treatment of the existing waste dumps; all industrial wastes can be classified as hazardous in nature. This general impression is both inaccurate and incomplete. All industrial waste is not hazardous (although most of it is not benign). All waste producers are not large corporations: nearly all industries produce some wastes. And, while existing waste sites must be effectively treated, additional efforts are needed at other points in the industrial waste cycle. Most people would agree both that waste dumping must be carefully regulated because of its negative impacts on the environment and that the less waste the better, even with carefully regulated disposal. Since nearly all industry now produces some waste and no one expects industry to shut down to resolve the waste problem, other strategies need to be available to deal with the problem at the front end. This paper discusses alternative strategies.

Valentino, F.W.; Walmet, G.E.

1986-09-01

21

Evaluations of catalysts for wet oxidation waste management in CELSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wet oxidation method is considered to be one of the most effective methods of waste processing and recycling in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System). The first test using rabbit waste as raw material was conducted under a decomposition temperature of 280 °C for 30 minutes and an initial pure oxygen pressure of 4.9 MPa (50 kgf/cm2) before heating, and the following results were obtained. The value of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) was reduced 82.5 % by the wet oxidation. And also the Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration was decreased 98.8%. However, the organic carbon compound in the residual solution was almost acetic acid and ammonia was produced. In order to activate the oxidation more strongly, the second tests using catalysts such as Pd, Ru and Ru+Rh were conducted. As the results of these tests, the effectiveness of catalysts for oxidizing raw material ws shown as follows: COD and the Kjeldahl nitrogen values were drastically decreased 99.65 % and 99.88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the quantity of acetic acid and ammonia were reduced considerably. On the other hand, nitrate was showed a value 30 times as much as without catalytic oxidation.

Oguchi, Mitsuo; Nitta, Keiji

1992-11-01

22

Recycling of solid waste rich in organic nitrogen from leather industry: Mineral nutrition of rice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leather industry produces a large quantity of solid waste (wet blue leather), which contains a high amount of chromium. After its removal from wet blue leather, a solid collagenic material is recovered, containing high nitrogen levels, which can be used as a nitrogen source in agriculture. In order to take more advantage of the collagen, it was enriched with

Francisco G. E. Nogueira; Isabela A. Castro; Ana R. R. Bastos; Guilherme A. Souza; Janice G. de Carvalho; Luiz C. A. Oliveira

2011-01-01

23

NEW JERSEY INDUSTRIAL WASTE STUDY (WASTE PROJECTION AND TREATMENT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The study demonstrates a procedure for projecting the hazardous waste shipped off-site by industry. The projection system develops ratios of hazardous waste per employee by SIC code. These ratios can be used to estimate the hazardous waste shipped off-site for any industrial area...

24

Industrial waste stream utilization to conserve energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several R and D projects funded by both private industry and DOE will result in significant energy savings for the country while providing profit for the industrial users. This paper discusses the waste streams, technologies, energy savings, markets, economics and analyses of two successful projects funded by the Office of Industrial Programs, Waste Products Utilization Branch. The first project is

Cranford

1982-01-01

25

Centralized waste treatment of industrial wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Centralized waste treatment (CWT) for industrial wastewater is described in this book. With the CWT approach, industrial firms send their wastes to a common processing plant. The book addresses the engineering and business-related problems that are encountered by private CWT firms, local governments, and industry in creating sufficient CWT capacity to meet the growing demand for CWT services.

Saltzberg, E.R.; Cushnie, G.C. Jr.

1985-01-01

26

Crime in the waste oil industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1970s, a new pattern of criminality appeared: the illegal disposal of toxic wastes by previously legitimate waste oil dealers, especially by selling a mixture of liquid toxic wastes and waste oils as fuel oil. This pattern of crime was caused by changes in the social conditions determining economic self?interest in the petroleum industry, and by changes in

Alan A. Block; Thomas J. Bernard

1988-01-01

27

Industrial Waste Heat for Greenhouse Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economical conditions of utilizing industrial waste heat for greenhouse heating has been investigated. The investment cost and yearly operational costs of greenhouses and heating systems have been calculated as a function of the temperature of waste h...

S. E. Ransmark

1983-01-01

28

Biomass fuels dehydration with industrial waste heat  

SciTech Connect

The advantages and techniques for utilizing industrial waste heat for drying biomass fuels are discussed. In particular, the use of waste heat fuel dryers in the sugar industry to dry bagasse for cogeneration, is examined. The Hilo Coast Processing Company of Hawaii which operates a very efficient power generating plant with its raw sugar mill is given as an example.

Young, W.O.

1981-02-01

29

Production of greases from industrial petroleum wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum-containing industrial wastes and petroleum products lost during processes (losses) are quantitatively and qualitatively\\u000a basic environmental pollutants-of water, soil, and air. Some petroleum wastes from production and use of lubricants (greases,\\u000a motor and industrial oils, etc.) are collected and regenerated. Wastes which are not regenerated due to their physicochemical\\u000a properties are dangerous environmental pollutants.

V. V. Ostrikov; E. V. Smolyakova

2007-01-01

30

Assessment of Industrial Hazardous Waste Practices, Rubber and Plastics Industry. Rubber Products Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This industry study is one of a series under the Office of Solid Waste Management Program of the Hazardous Waste Management Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report concentrates on the rubber and plastics industry. It characterizes these...

J. M. Kushnir S. F. Nagy

1978-01-01

31

Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia

K. Kravarik; M. Stubna; A. Pekar; T. Krajc; M. Zatkulak; Z. Holicka; M. Slezak

2006-01-01

32

Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste,

Teija Aarnio; Anne Hämäläinen

2008-01-01

33

INFORMATION FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTE COMBUSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Developed to support effluent guidelines for the commercial hazardous Waste Combustor Subcategory of the Waste Combustors Point Source category. Data were used o develop environmental impacts, regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation and to identify t...

34

Experimental Investigation of the Wet Oxidation Destruction of Shipboard Waste Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasingly stringent water qualtiy regulations anticipate the need for treating all shipboard waste streams containing combustible matter. Wet air oxidation or pressurized aqueous combustion conducted at 475 to 600F at operating pressures from 600 to 18...

P. Schatzberg D. F. Jackson C. M. Kelly

1974-01-01

35

Waste Heat Recovery Potential in Selected Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research project was initiated with the overall objective of identifying the points, qualities, and quantities, of waste heat discharged to the environment by energy intensive industries and emerging technologies for energy development. These data may...

J. G. Menningmann S. R. Latour

1981-01-01

36

Disposal of hazardous wastes in industrial boilers and furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This book describes industrial boilers, survey of hazardous waste generation and disposal, industrial boiler population, characterization of industrial boilers, theoretical approach to thermal destruction of hazardous wastes, use of industrial boilers to burn hazardous waste, secondary impacts of hazardous waste cofiring, schematics of industrial boiler types showing isothermal zones, heat transfer results - computer listings, model application - an example case, furnaces, kilns, and combustors, introduction, waste selection and characterization, hazardous waste destruction model for identifying waste categories destructible in industrial processes, process assessment, hazardous wastes with potential for thermal destruction, and initial listing of high-temperature processes.

Castaldini, C.

1986-01-01

37

Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

Zhang, Pengchong

38

Recovery Technology of DMF from Wet Type Polyurethane Synthetic Leather Waste Gas * * Supported by the Science and Technology Fund of Zhejiang Province, China (2006C13072)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new recovery technology is developed to recycle N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) in waste gas from wet type polyurethane synthetic leather industry. Given that the concentration of DMF in waste gas was as low as 325.6–688.3 mg·m?3, it was necessary to make sure two phases contact adequately and strengthen the mass transfer by increasing contact area and enhancing the turbulence.

Shunhua ZHAO; Xijin SONG; Ning PEI; Jingzhu ZHANG; Shuqing LIU

2008-01-01

39

Procedure to use phosphogypsum industrial waste for mineral CO 2 sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wet phosphoric acid production in Huelva (SW Spain) has led to the controversial stockpiling of waste phosphogypsum by-products, resulting in the release of significant quantities of toxic impurities in salt marshes in the Tinto river estuary. In the framework of the fight against global climate change and the effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a simple and efficient procedure

C. Cárdenas-Escudero; V. Morales-Flórez; R. Pérez-López; A. Santos; L. Esquivias

2011-01-01

40

Characterization of Industrial Process Waste Heat and Input Heat Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial p...

G. L. Wilfert H. B. Huber R. E. Dodge B. A. Garrett-Price L. L. Fassbender

1984-01-01

41

Waste to energy by industrially integrated supercritical water gasification – Effects of alkali salts in residual by-products from the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a method by which biomass can be converted into a hydrogen-rich gas product. Wet industrial waste streams, which contain both organic and inorganic material, are well suited for treatment by SCWG. In this study, the gasification of two streams of biomass resulting from the pulp and paper industry, black liquor and paper sludge, has been investigated.

I. Rönnlund; L. Myréen; K. Lundqvist; J. Ahlbeck; T. Westerlund

2011-01-01

42

Economic Census 1997: Manufacturing, Industry Series. Wet Corn Milling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the Nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

1999-01-01

43

Recovering waste industrial heat efficiently  

SciTech Connect

Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC's) are being used in the generation of electrical or mechanical power in situations where little demand exists for process steam. Using organic fluids in Rankine cycles improves the potential for economic recovery of waste heat. The right organic fluid can enhance the conversion efficiency by tailoring the ORC heat recovery cycle to the thermodynamic characteristics of the waste heat stream. The selection of the working fluid is affected by its flammability, toxicity, environmental impact, materials compatibility, and cost. Water, ethanol, 2-methyl Pyridine/H2O, Flourinol, Toluene, Freon R-11, and Freon R-113 are compared. An organic cycle using toluene as the working fluid is schematicized.

Hnat, J.G.; Bartone, L.M.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

1983-03-01

44

Development of a Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Method to Produce Feedstock Gases from Waste Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given the high cost of space launch, the repurposing of biological and plastic wastes to reduce the need for logistical support during long distance and long duration space missions has long been recognized as a high priority. Described in this paper are the preliminary efforts to develop a wet air oxidation system in order to produce fuels from waste polymers. Preliminary results of partial oxidation in near supercritical water conditions are presented. Inherent corrosion and salt precipitation are discussed as system design issues for a thorough assessment of a second generation wet air oxidation system. This work is currently being supported by the In-Situ Resource Utilization Project.

Kulis, Michael J.; Guerrero-Medina, Karen J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2012-01-01

45

Industrial Liquid Waste Surveys: Training Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This training manual consists of a series of outlines on various topics associated with the planning and conduct of in-plant industrial waste surveys. The manual is divided into five sections: I - Sources and Effects, which includes outlines concerning in...

C. E. Sponagle

1973-01-01

46

PYROLYSIS OF MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper provides a historical overview of some 21 U.S. research and development activities associated with municipal/industrial waste and biomass conversion-to-energy pyrolysis technologies. The history begins in the early 1970's and is brought forward to the present. Of the 21...

47

Spain's Leather Industry: Prospects for Blue Chrome (Wet-Blue) Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid expansion of the Spanish leather-goods industry has created a serious problem of pollution from tannery effluents. The use of chrome (wet-blue) leather in Spanish tanneries would reduce the pollution caused by cleaning and dehairing of conventional ...

A. D. V. Pintos H. H. Taylor

1977-01-01

48

Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.  

PubMed

Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

2010-07-01

49

Wet air oxidation of solid waste made of polymers  

SciTech Connect

Wet air oxidation was attempted on synthetic (mixture of plastics of various compositions) and natural (cellulose substances) solid polymers. The temperature was maintained at 270 C and the oxygen pressure varied from 0 to 2 MPa (from understoichiometric conditions to oxygen excess). No valorizable compounds were found, even in runs carried out under an oxygen deficit. Suitable conditions for the total destruction of the initial polymers were temperatures above 270 C, an excess of oxygen, and a residence time of less than 1 h. Only such degradable compounds as acetic and benzoic acids are found at low concentrations. Formation of chlorine and gaseous hydrochloric acid can be limited by adding CaCO{sub 3} as a neutralizing agent.

Krisner, E.; Ambrosio, M.; Massiani, C.

2000-03-01

50

Potential utilization of guar gum industrial waste in vermicompost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of guar gum industrial waste through vermitechnology was studied under laboratory conditions by using composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier). Three different combination of guar gum industrial waste namely guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 40:30:30 ratio (T1), guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 60:20:20 ratio (T2), and guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 75:15:10 ratio (T3)

Surendra Suthar

2006-01-01

51

Industrial solid waste flow analysis of eco-industrial parks: implications for sustainable waste management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable waste management in the industrial ecology perspective brings enormous challenges to the existing methodology\\u000a of waste analysis at the industrial park (IP) scale. In this study, a four-step method was proposed for industrial solid waste\\u000a (ISW) flow analysis of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) and applied to two IPs in eastern China. According to a park-wide census\\u000a of 619 industrial enterprises

Yongpeng Lü; Kai Yang; Yue Che; Zhaoyi Shang; Jun Tai; Yun Jian

52

Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building. PMID:18514765

Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

2008-07-01

53

Waste Audit Study of the Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a study conducted to identify opportunities for waste reduction available to the printed circuit board manufacturing industry. A generic audit protocol, which can be used by manufacturers to assess their own waste reduct...

1987-01-01

54

ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF BIOACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater (Selenastrum capricornutum) and estuarine (Skeketonema costatum) algae were exposed to liquid wastes from 10 industrial sites in laboratory bioassays. All wastes affected algal growth either by stimulation or by stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at high ...

55

Biochemical treatment technologies for gas industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

Sequential chemical and biological amendments as well as sequential biological processes (e.g. anaerobic-aerobic) may have potential in reducing pollutants present in Gas Industry wastes. Several Town Gas soils have been characterized regarding Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) levels and soil particle distributions prior to and following biological treatment. Multivariate statistical analyses have revealed that the presence of biodegradable PAHs such as naphthalene in a sand matrix have significant influence on the effectiveness of biological treatment schemes. Integrated chemical-biological treatment processes have been devised that are effective in achieving extensive PAH degradation, even in soils that are dominated by persistent and normally recalcitrant PAHs. Other research is addressing gas industry wastes contaminated with PCBs. Anaerobic dechlorination has been demonstrated for PCBs present in Aroclor 1242. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment is being evaluated for PCB-laden gas condensate waters and contaminated soils. A focused effort is being directed at testing some of these technologies during field experimentation. A Town Gas soil is being subjected to such a field test this summer using conventional land treatment technology. 2 refs., 8 figs.

Gauger, W.K.; Kelley, R.L.; Srivastava, V.J.

1991-01-01

56

Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams  

SciTech Connect

The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

1984-05-01

57

Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator. PMID:18956484

Huang, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Jim Juimin

2008-11-01

58

Aluminum extraction from aluminum industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste from the Egyptian Aluminum Company (Egyptalum), was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum sulfate alum (Al2(SO4)3·12H2O) and ammonium aluminum alum {(NH4)2SO4AL2 (SO4)3·24H2O}. This was carried out in two processes. The first involves leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of aluminum sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purified aluminum dross tailings thus produced. This was carried out in an autoclave. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on pressure leaching and extraction processes were studied in order to specify the optimum conditions to be applied in the bench scale production as well as the kinetics of leaching process.

Amer, A. M.

2010-05-01

59

CAPITAL AND O AND M COST RELATIONSHIPS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION: ADDENDUM NO. 1 - IONIZING WET SCRUBBER COSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report addresses certain cost aspects of hazardous waste incineration; specifically capital and operating costs for ionizing wet scrubbers (IWS). It is an addendum to a more comprehensive report 'Capital and O&M Cost Relationships for Hazardous Waste Incineration,' which dev...

60

Industrial response to a waste minimization survey in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous waste minimization is becoming increasingly important as the United States struggles to safely treat and dispose of existing wastes. The extent to which hazardous wastes will be minimized-in either volume and/or toxicity-in the production process depends largely upon the response of industrial waste generators. A survey of large Tennessee waste generators was carried out in the summer of 1987. It found that industry has begun to implement a number of waste minimization practices and that the overall attitude of generators toward waste minimization was positive. There were some statistically significant differences in the survey responses from generators of differing volumes. These differences are important and indicated that among large waste generators, the larger have taken more significant steps to date than have smaller waste generators.

Barkenbus, J.N. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA)); Barkenbus, B.D. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1989-07-01

61

Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial adva...

F. T. Bolinsky J. Ross D. S. Dennis J. S. Huston

1991-01-01

62

Cellar waste minimization in the wine industry: a systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste minimization is slowly being adopted in the wine industry, owing to a combination of powerful drivers, which are either internally or externally motivated. However, these waste minimization practices in the wine industry are still carried out in an ad hoc fashion and have proven to be inefficient in many cases. The lack of a systematic methodology of synthesizing and

Ndeke Musee; Leon Lorenzen; Chris Aldrich

2007-01-01

63

Reuse of waste catalysts from petrochemical industries for cement substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolite catalysts have been widely used in oil refinery and petrochemical industries. Two types of waste catalysts, equilibrium catalyst (Ecat), and electrostatic precipitator catalyst (EPcat), can be obtained after fluid catalytic cracking. This study analyzes the properties of these waste catalysts and examines the feasibility of reusing them to substitute part of the cement required in mortar preparation. These waste

Nan Su; Hung-Yuan Fang; Zong-Huei Chen; Fu-Shung Liu

2000-01-01

64

Utilization of paper waste sludge in the building construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of an investigation of utilization of paper waste sludge obtained from a paper manufacturing industry, as a replacement to the mineral filler material in various concrete mixes. The physical and chemical properties of the waste material were studied. Concrete mixes containing various contents of the waste were prepared and basic strength characteristics, such as

B Ahmadi; W Al-Khaja

2001-01-01

65

Lessons in waste minimization from nuclear industry experience  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has been very successful at reducing waste volumes and waste sources. The success has been driven by escalating cost, decreasing disposal ability, and a desire by the industry to achieve excellence. The result has been a cycle of continuing improvement resulting in reduced cost. Many of the examples of Dry Active Waste reduction are applicable to the Department of Energy in both operations and remedial activities. This paper discusses several successful examples of utility applications in this area.

Devgun, J.S.; Thuot, J.R.; Vrtis, J.

1996-07-01

66

Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The over all objective of the effort described here is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of these multi-component wastes, with the aim of providing a versatile, non-thermal method which will destroy hazardous organic compounds while simultaneously containing and concentrating toxic and radioactive metals for recovery or disposal in a readily stabilized matrix. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. The metal catalysts are in the form of salts dissolved in a dilute acid solution. A typical catalyst composition is 60% ferric chloride, 3--4% hydrochloric acid, 0.13% platinum ions, and 0.13% ruthenium ions in a water solution. The catalyst solution is maintained at 423--473 K. Wastes are introduced into contact with the solution, where their organic portion is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. If the organic portion is chlorinated, hydrogen chloride will be produced as a product. The process is a viable alternative to incineration for the treatment of organic mixed wastes. Estimated costs for waste treatment using the process are from $2.50/kg to $25.00/kg, depending on the size of the unit and the amount of waste processed. Process units can be mobile for on-site treatment of wastes. Results from phase 1 and 2, design and engineering studies, are described.

Dhooge, P.M.

1994-12-31

67

Purdue University industrial waste conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This book contains information about: Hazardous and Toxic Wastes; Aerobic Processes; Anaerobic Processes; and Heavy Metal Wastes. It includes applications; research; methods and techniques; required details; selected and reviewed case histories; and operating data.

Not Available

1988-01-01

68

Meat-, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

Litchfield, J.H.

1982-06-01

69

Management of soil systems for the disposal of industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Research continues to provide improved information about the toxicity of materials, their transport in soil, and the kinetics of detoxification that is most useful in evaluating alternative approaches for safely managing industrial wastes. The placement of industrial wastes into soil systems is a satisfactory management approach if the material is nontoxic, if the soil has the capability of detoxifying the material, or if the soil prevents the material from entering the biosphere. Examples from the literature of successful applications of industrial wastes to soil are discussed.

Corey, J C

1981-01-01

70

Hydrometallurgically treating antimony-bearing industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many instances, by-products or wastes containing antimony are generated during metallurgical processes. Although these materials pose environmental, recycling, and marketing challenges worldwide, the use of antimony hydrometallurgical leaching principles and technologies may provide a remedy. This paper outlines techniques for treating antimony-containing wastes and offers examples of applications for those wastes and by-products.

Anderson, C. G.

2001-01-01

71

Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the UK to offer reasons why it has not been more widely used. This paper presents a model that calculates the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) on a twenty year investment in a 30,000 tonnes per annum wet mesophilic AD plant in the UK for the treatment of source separated organic waste, which is judged to be a suitable technology for the UK climate. The model evaluates the financial significance of the different alternative energy outputs from this AD plant and the resulting economic subsidies paid for renewable energy. Results show that renewable electricity and renewable heat sales supported by renewable electricity and renewable heat tariffs generates the greatest IRR (31.26%). All other uses of biogas generate an IRR in excess of 15%, and are judged to be a financially viable investment. Sensitivity analysis highlights the financial significance of: economic incentive payments and a waste management gate fee; and demonstrates that the fate of the digestate by-product is a source of financial uncertainty for AD investors. PMID:21481437

Dolan, T; Cook, M B; Angus, A J

2011-06-01

72

Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a roller conveyor. After the drums cool, they are capped and removed from the conveyor and placed in a storage hall. Drums with bitumen product are loaded into Fiber Reinforced Concrete containers (FRC) and grouted with cement. Cement grout is prepared from mixture of cement, additive and radioactive concentrates. By formulating the cement grout with evaporator concentrates the maximum radioactivity is fixed in cement matrix and volume of final waste product is minimized. A batch mixer with rotating blades is used produce the cement grout. FRCs loaded with bitumen drums are placed on roller conveyor and moved along the cementation line. Grouted FRCs are stored in the expedition hall for 28 days of curing and then transported to final disposal. After placed in operation the FTC provides treatment for all liquid and wet LLW produced from the operation of the Mochovce NPP. The final product of the FTC is a FRC loaded with 7 drums of waste fixed in bitumen and the space between the drums is grouted with cement. This container meets all limits for final disposal in the National Radioactive Waste Repository at Mochovce. (authors)

Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z. [VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Slezak, M. [SE - VYZ, 919 31 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

2006-07-01

73

WASTE MINIMIZATION IN THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD INDUSTRY: CASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents information on waste minimization practices currently employed in the printed circuit board (PCB) and semiconductor manufacturing industries. Case studies conducted at six facilities evaluated the technical, environmental and cost impacts associated with the i...

74

Quantification of Municipal Disposal Methods for Industrially Generated Hazardous Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimations of the amounts of industrial hazardous wastes being disposed of according to various methods of disposal were generated for significant portions of the five following SIC codes: 28, Chemical and Allied Products; 29, Petroleum Refining and Rela...

H. VanNoordwyk L. Schalit W. Wyss H. Atkins

1979-01-01

75

Management of Soil Systems for the Disposal of Industrial Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research continues to provide improved information about the toxicity of materials, their transport in soil, and the kinetics of detoxification that is most useful in evaluating alternative approaches for safely managing industrial wastes. The placement o...

J. C. Corey

1981-01-01

76

SURVEY OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Stabilization/solidification or fixation is a process for treating industrial solid wastes (primarily sludges) that contain hazardous constituents to prevent dissolution and loss of toxic materials into the environment. Most of these treatment processes are designed to produce a ...

77

Assessment of industrial hazardous waste practices, leather tanning and finishing industry. Final report Jun 1975--Nov 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report, which covers the leather tanning and finishing industry, is one of a series of studies which examine land-destined waste from selected industries. For purposes of this study, the tanning industry has been categorized by the types of process solid wastes generated. A total of seven different categories were established. Process solid wastes from the industry consist primarily of

E. T. Conrad; G. L. Mitchell; D. H. Bauer

1976-01-01

78

Co-gasification of wet sewage sludge and forestry waste in situ steam agent.  

PubMed

The co-gasification of wet sewage sludge (80 wt.% moisture, WSS) and forestry waste (FW) blends was studied. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that weight loss and the maximum weight loss rate of the sample increased with the increase in FW content. The co-gasification process was performed in a lab-scale fixed bed gasifier to investigate the effects of WSS content and reactor temperature on product yields, gas composition and gasification performance. The results indicated that steam generated from the moisture content in WSS took part in the gasification with char. The gas yield decreased with the increasing WSS content. And the concentrations of H(2) and CO reached the maximum when the WSS content was 50%. The LHV of fuel gas ranged from 11.89 MJ/Nm(3) to 12.72 MJ/Nm(3) when the reactor temperature increased from 700 °C to 900 °C. PMID:22503423

Peng, Lixin; Wang, Yongxiu; Lei, Zhihong; Cheng, Gong

2012-06-01

79

Enhancing denitrification using a carbon supplement generated from the wet oxidation of waste activated sludge.  

PubMed

This study compared the effect of four pure carbon supplements on biological denitrification to a liquor derived as a by-product from the wet oxidation (WO) of waste activated sludge. Sequencing batch reactors were used to acclimate sludge biomass, which was used in batch assays. Acetate, WO liquor and ethanol-supplementation generated the fastest denitrification rates. Acetate and WO liquor were efficiently utilised by all acclimated biomass types, while poor rates were achieved with methanol and formate. When comparing an inoculum from an ethanol-supplemented and non-supplemented wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), the ethanol-acclimated sludge obtained superior denitrification rates when supplemented with ethanol. Similarly high nitrate removal rates were achieved with both sludge types with acetate and WO liquor supplementation, indicating that WO liquors could achieve excellent rates of nitrate removal. The performance of the WO liquor was attributed to the variety of organic carbon substrates (particularly acetic acid) present within the liquor. PMID:21196117

Strong, P J; McDonald, B; Gapes, D J

2011-05-01

80

Biological sulphate reduction using food industry wastes as carbon sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment with dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria has been considered the most promising alternative for\\u000a decontamination of sulphate rich effluents. These wastewaters are usually deficient in electron donors and require their external\\u000a addition to achieve complete sulphate reduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of using\\u000a food industry wastes (a waste from the wine industry and

Mónica Martins; Maria Leonor Faleiro; Raúl Jorge Barros; Ana Raquel Veríssimo; Maria Clara Costa

2009-01-01

81

Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40–90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence

B. V. Peterson; M. Hummerick; M. S. Roberts; V. Krumins; A. L. Kish; J. L. Garland; S. Maxwell; A. Mills

2004-01-01

82

Industry and Trade Summary: Wood Pulp and Waste Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes trade and industry conditions for the wood pulp and waste paperindustry for the time period 1996-2000. Wood pulp and waste paper are both intermediateproducts and are used as raw materials in the manufacture of paper, paperboard, an...

2002-01-01

83

STUDY OF CODISPOSED MUNICIPAL AND TREATED/UNTREATED INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to determine the long-term effects of codisposal of industrial waste (IW) and municipal solid waste (MSW) under controlled, simulated landfill conditions. Three IW's (treated or untreated by solidification) were disposed with MSW in nine specially designed ...

84

HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS  

EPA Science Inventory

With more liquid wastes due to be banned from land disposal facilities, expanding hazardous waste incineration capacity becomes increasingly important. At the same time, industrial plants are increasingly seeking to find new sources of lower cost fuel, specifically from the dispo...

85

Treatment of TENORM waste: Phosphogypsum produced in fertilizer industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns treatment of phosphogypsum (PG) waste from phosphoric acid production, containing 226Ra as major radioactive contaminant. Physical and chemical treatment was performed. The physical treatment was based on the\\u000a particle size separation (dry and wet frationation), whereas the chemical treatment was carried out using leaching solutions\\u000a (single and sequential leaching processes). The results showed that the particle size

E. M. El Afifi; M. F. Attallah; M. A. Hilal; S. A. El Reefy

2010-01-01

86

Poultry processing industry waste to energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of experimental approach on chicken farms residues for energy generation. Based on complete thermal-physical-chemical characterization a series of waste to energy conversion chains are proposed as alternative to incineration disposal solution. The researched focused on combustibility properties quantification for the appropriate waste to energy chain identification. The experiments were carried out for elemental composition, primary

Cosmin Marculescua; Constantin Stana

2011-01-01

87

COD and AOX abatement in catalytic wet oxidation of halogenated liquid wastes using CeO 2-based catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of halogenated containing compounds is one of the more promising applications of catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reaction. The aim of this work is to compare the abatement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) parameters in three halogenated liquid wastes: a landfill leachate, a pulp and paper bleaching liquor and a heavily organic halogen polluted

Daniele Goi; Carla de Leitenburg; Giuliano Dolcetti; Alessandro Trovarelli

2006-01-01

88

QUANTIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL DISPOSAL METHODS FOR INDUSTRIALLY GENERATED HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimations of the amounts of industrial hazardous wastes being disposed of according to various methods of disposal were generated for significant portions of the five following SIC codes: 28, Chemical and Allied Products; 29, Petroleum Refining and Related Industries; 30, Rubbe...

89

Industrial-waste management in developing countries: The case of Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a critical assessment of the existing Lebanese industrial sector, namely the current status and classification of industrial establishments based on a comparative synthesis and analysis of recent nationwide surveys and studies pertaining to industrial-waste management. Characterisation of solid and liquid industrial wastes generated, including hazardous wastes, is presented together with current and projected waste loads, recycling opportunities,

M. El-Fadel; M. Zeinati; K. El-Jisr; D. Jamali

2001-01-01

90

Co-firing of pulverized coal with combustible industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

In Japan, incineration of combustible industrial wastes is chiefly used to reduce their volume in waste disposal and has not been treated as an effective material compared with combustible non-industrial wastes, because cheap and stabilized electric power supply has not been expected from their incineration. In other words, it means that collecting and transporting of combustible industrial wastes are not easy for power generation, and it is too costly to install and to operate a facility and to assure the extraction of harmful materials contained in the wastes. Then, the generated power cost becomes inevitably too high. Consequently, CCUJ has tried to develop a technology to remove those harmful materials from the wastes, so as to produce cheap and stabilized power efficiently by co-firing. As a result, CCUJ has successfully made clear the following items: (1) Manufacturing conditions of RDF by coal and combustible industrial wastes; (2) Relation between combustibility and their mixing rates; (3) Adsorption of harmful materials (heavy metals) by coal ash and coal-char; (4) Removal method of dioxins by using activated carbon which is cheaply produced from coal; (5) Leaching of coal ash and utilization of coal ashes by melting; (6) Material and heat balance of co-firing; and (7) Generated power cost by co-firing.

Hara, M.; Asahiro, N.; Kamijyo, T.

1999-07-01

91

Industrial utilization of waste derived energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technical and economic feasibility study of a partial oxidation unit was conducted. Major objectives of the program were: (1) disposal of both urban (municipal refuse and sewage sludge) and agricultural (dairy) wastes; and (2) the production of a medium-Btu fuel gas. The investigated wasteshed includes those portions of Western San Bernardino County, Eastern Los Angeles County, and Northwestern Riverside County. The available waste supply, transportation of these waste materials, product quantities and energy products of fuel gas steam, and electricity, markets, ferrous metals, aluminum, nonferrous metals, and slag are studied.

1981-06-01

92

A survey of waste minimization recommendations for three industrial sectors  

SciTech Connect

What changes can manufacturers make to reduce waste streams and save money? A recent modification to a successful Department of Energy energy audit program has included a focus on waste minimization for small and medium-sized manufacturers. The program change was incorporated over two years ago and approximately 2,000 assessments have been completed nationwide since the change. This article will examine the results of the combined energy/waste assessments. Most of the material contained is derived from a paper published at the ASEE 1997 Annual Meeting. The paper focuses on the typical waste recommendations made for three sectors of Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) 20-39. Recommendations vary from typical conservation measures such as recycling pallets and cardboard to direct process modifications that reduce water or chemical usage. While some recommendations are general and can be applied to any industry, others are industry-specific.

Dunning, S.; Martin, P.

1998-12-31

93

Catalytic wet-oxidation of a mixed liquid waste: COD and AOX abatement.  

PubMed

A series of catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reactions, at temperatures of 430-500 K and in a batch bench-top pressure vessel were carried out utilizing a strong wastewater composed of landfill leachate and heavily organic halogen polluted industrial wastewater. A CeO2-SiO2 mixed oxide catalyst with large surface area to assure optimal oxidation performance was prepared. The catalytic process was examined during batch reactions controlling Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) parameters, resulting AOX abatement to achieve better effect. Color and pH were also controlled during batch tests. A simple first order-two stage reaction behavior was supposed and verified with the considered parameters. Finally an OUR test was carried out to evaluate biodegradability changes of wastewater as a result of the catalytic reaction. PMID:15691200

Goi, D; de Leitenburg, C; Trovarelli, A; Dolcetti, G

2004-12-01

94

40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66...boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. ...requirements for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas...720 hours operating time when burning hazardous waste, the...

2009-07-01

95

40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66...boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. ...requirements for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas...720 hours operating time when burning hazardous waste, the...

2010-07-01

96

Vermicomposting of milk processing industry sludge spiked with plant wastes.  

PubMed

This work illustrates the vermistabilization of wastewater sludge from a milk processing industry (MPIS) unit spiked with cow dung (CD), sugarcane trash (ST) and wheat straw (WS) employing earthworms Eisenia fetida. A total of nine experimental vermibeds were established and changes in chemical parameters of waste material have been observed for 90 days. Vermistabilization caused significant reduction in pH, organic carbon and C:N ratio and substantial increase in total N, available P and exchangeable K. The waste mixture containing MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+ST (30%) and MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+WS (30%) had better waste mineralization rate among waste mixtures studied. The earthworm showed better biomass and cocoon numbers in all vermibeds during vermicomposting operation. Results, thus suggest the suitability of E. fetida for conversion of noxious industrial waste into value-added product for land restoration programme. PMID:22609678

Suthar, Surindra; Mutiyar, Pravin K; Singh, Sushma

2012-07-01

97

Industrial Water Softener Waste Brine Reclamation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discharge of brine wastes from water softener regeneration to sewers or receiving streams is often undesirable because of possible pollution. Brine reclamation and reuse has been studied for one year at a central regeneration plant for portable ion exchan...

J. Burton E. Kreusch

1974-01-01

98

Waste heat utilization in industrial processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

1978-01-01

99

Evaluation of Electrokinetic Technique for Industrial Waste Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several industrial activities produce large amounts of metal-polluted sludge, disposal of which could pose serious environmental and ecological problems because of the usual high content of mobile metals. In this work, an electrokinetic technique was used to reduce the high metal content of two industrial wastes: sludges from mining (SM) and from the iron-steel (SIS) industry. Initially, a physical-chemical characterization

M. Pazos; M. T. Alcántara; C. Cameselle; M. A. Sanromán

2009-01-01

100

MUTAGENISTIC TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES FROM REPRESENTATIVE ORGANIC CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The general applicability of the Ames test for screening wastewater samples was investigated. Application of the Ames test to raw and treated wastewaters from representative organic chemical industries involved the investigation of several problems: (1) the feasibility of using t...

101

Mobile encapsulation and volume reduction system for wet low-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the program entitled ''A Preconceptual Study for a Transportable Vitrification Process''. The objective of the study is to determine the feasibility of a Mobile Encapsulation and Volume Reduction System (MEVS). The report contains design criteria, a preconceptual design of the system, a comparison of disposal costs with other solidification technologies, and an assessment of utility interests in the transportable volume reduction service MEVS can provide. The MEVS design employs the use of a joule-heated glass melter to convert the wet low-level wastes into glass. The process is self-sufficient, requiring no direct facility services or reactor personnel. It is capable of servicing one waste type from a minimum of three reactors. The design was used to prepare capital and operating cost estimates. The capital cost for the MEVS is $4,680,000, which includes all labor necessary for design, engineering, inspection, and licensing. The operating cost of the system for servicing a minimum of three reactors is $1,530,000/y for resins or $2,280,000/y for concentrated liquids. The cost estimates compared favorably to the more common solidification process of cementation. Total MEVS operating costs which include processing, transportation and burial, are $191 to $218/ft/sup 3/ waste, whereas quoted costs for cementation and disposal from reactor operators range from $155 to $350/ft/sup 3/. The report concludes with the requirements for additional development, which can be accomplished for less than one sixth of the capital costs. The report also presents the results of an assessment conducted with utility representatives to obtain their expressions of interest in a service of this type.

Buelt, J.L.

1985-08-01

102

Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges.  

PubMed

This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long-term stability tests were conducted in trickle-bed reactors. The catalyst did not leach upon treatment of Kraft bleaching plant and olive oil mill effluents, and could be either recycled or used for long periods of time in continuous reactors. Conversely, these catalysts were rapidly leached when used to treat effluents from the production of polymeric membranes containing N,N-dimethylformamide. The intermediate formation of amines, such as dimethylamine and methylamine with a high complexing capacity for the metal, was shown to be responsible for the metal leaching. These heterogeneous catalysts also deactivated upon CWAO of sewage sludges due to the adsorption of the solid organic matter. Pre-sonication of the sludge to disintegrate the flocs and improve solubility was inefficient. PMID:21214003

Besson, M; Descorme, C; Bernardi, M; Gallezot, P; di Gregorio, F; Grosjean, N; Minh, D Pham; Pintar, A

2010-12-01

103

Wet-milling of wheat flour: industrial processes and small-scale test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial manufacture of wheat starch and vital wheat gluten involves physical separation of starch granules and gluten particles formed in a neutral aqueous system. The wet-separation of gluten proteins and starch from wheat flour is based on their water insolubility, density, and particle size. Upon wetting, gluten proteins in wheat endosperm aggregate and form particles that are larger in size

Abdulvahit Sayaslan

2004-01-01

104

Waste Recovery from Industrial Sludge Jegalakshimi Jewaratnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this project, sludge from a waste water treatment plant was used to perform resource recovery activity due to its heavy metals content. It contains large amount of aluminum, calcium and ferum and traces of zinc, copper, nickel, magnesium and stanum. Firstly, the traces of metals were recovered using electrodeposition method and the remaining materials were used to produce samples

105

40 CFR Table Tt-1 to Subpart Tt of... - Default DOC and Decay Rate Values for Industrial Waste Landfills  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Waste Landfills Pt. 98...and Decay Rate Values for Industrial Waste Landfills Industry... 0 0 0 0 Other Industrial Solid Waste (not otherwise...recirculated from company records or engineering estimates and...

2013-07-01

106

[Control of industrial waste consumption residues: ecological and hygienic aspects].  

PubMed

The problem in the provision of safe handling of industrial waste and consumption residues is relatively current. According with the United Nations Organization's data, 25 to 33% of the world's notified diseases are directly associated with the low quality of the human environment. Up to now, a list of chemicals encountered in the waste and residues is unavailable in Russia and foreign countries. By keeping in mind the ubiquitous spread of industrial waste and consumption resides due to human vital activity, their huge formations and their very wide diversity in composition, type, and pattern of a possible dangerous effect, it is important to consider the problem associated with waste handling, by evaluating their environmental and hygienic hazard. PMID:18159741

Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Solov'eva, A V; Shemiakina, Iu V

2007-01-01

107

Biological sulphate reduction using food industry wastes as carbon sources.  

PubMed

Biological treatment with dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria has been considered the most promising alternative for decontamination of sulphate rich effluents. These wastewaters are usually deficient in electron donors and require their external addition to achieve complete sulphate reduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of using food industry wastes (a waste from the wine industry and cheese whey) as carbon sources for dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria. The results show that these wastes can be efficiently used by these bacteria provided that calcite tailing is present as a neutralizing and buffer material. A 95 and 50 % sulphate reduction was achieved within 20 days of experiment by a consortium of dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria grown on media containing waste from the wine industry or cheese whey respectively. Identification of the dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria community using the dsr gene revealed the presence of the species Desulfovibrio fructosovorans, Desulfovibrio aminophilus and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. The findings of the present study emphasise the potential of using wastes from the wine industry as carbon source for dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria, combined with calcite tailing, in the development of cost effective and environmentally friendly bioremediation processes. PMID:19137404

Martins, Mónica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Barros, Raúl Jorge; Veríssimo, Ana Raquel; Costa, Maria Clara

2009-07-01

108

Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.  

PubMed

Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. PMID:22465397

Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

2012-08-01

109

Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial Park level: A case of Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers.

Yong Geng; Qinghua Zhu; Murray Haight

2007-01-01

110

Utilization of a leather industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of leather the main waste that remains after splitting of limed hides before tanning is the lowest layer of the skin together with the underlying fatty tissue (subcutis). It is characterized by a very high water content (up to 870 g kg?1) and a balanced content of protein (40–60 g kg?1 of the dry mass), fat (10–20

L. S. Simeonova; P. G. Dalev

1996-01-01

111

Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes are investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces are conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

Merrigan, M. A.

1981-01-01

112

Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery  

SciTech Connect

Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes have been investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat-pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces have been conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-01-01

113

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

The paper as a preliminary country paper for the UNIDO's programe on Industrial waste water purification, which embraces eight countries from Africa, is prepared in such a way that it could serve as source materi al for the programs implementation in the country. The program's main objective being developing the most appropriate and effective means to deal with long term problems associated with generation and treatment of industrial waste water influence, every effort is made to present what ever relevant informations pertaining to the program's objective and goal. To this end, the first chapter delivers general background information about the countries natural resource and the prevailing industrial feature, while the second chapter deliberates on the results of the investigation and evaluation of the selected subsectors and factories from the industrial sector. Finally, an overview of other side factors which could possibly have effects on the project's activity is presented in the third chapter.

Mebratu, D.

1990-09-10

114

Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes are investigated. Economic studies of the use of

M. A. Merrigan

1981-01-01

115

RO treatment of waste waters from dairy industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem in the dairy industry is posed by the disposal of very polluting wastes like milk whey (COD 60,000+70,000 mg\\/l) and washing waters. Reverse osmosis can be used to concentrate milk whey (C.F. 2.5+3) in the dairy industry thus obtaining a water stream that can be re-used for the process needs and a concentrated milk whey stream that

G. Del Re; G. Di Giacomo; L. Aloisio; M. Terreri

1998-01-01

116

Hazardous solid waste from metallurgical industries.  

PubMed Central

Types of land disposed residuals from selected metal smelting and refining industries are described, as are the origin and disposition of land disposed residuals from the primary copper industry as an example. Quantities of land-disposed or stored residuals, including slags, sludges, and dusts, are given per unit of metal production for most primary and secondary metal smelting and refining industries. Assessments of the hazard potential of residuals are given. Present treatment and disposal of residuals are discussed and assessed for health and environmental protection. Possible technologies for protection of ground and surface water contamination are presented. These include lined lagoons, chemical fixation of sludge, and ground sealing. Possibilities of resource recovery from residuals are discussed. Data are presented showing attenuation of heavy metal ions and fluorides in selected soils. The leachability and mobility of smelting and refining residuals constituents, including heavy metals and fluorides, and other potential toxicants in specific soil, geologic, and hydrologic disposal environments must be carefully considered in setting disposal requirements.

Leonard, R P

1978-01-01

117

Hazardous solid waste from metallurgical industries.  

PubMed

Types of land disposed residuals from selected metal smelting and refining industries are described, as are the origin and disposition of land disposed residuals from the primary copper industry as an example. Quantities of land-disposed or stored residuals, including slags, sludges, and dusts, are given per unit of metal production for most primary and secondary metal smelting and refining industries. Assessments of the hazard potential of residuals are given. Present treatment and disposal of residuals are discussed and assessed for health and environmental protection. Possible technologies for protection of ground and surface water contamination are presented. These include lined lagoons, chemical fixation of sludge, and ground sealing. Possibilities of resource recovery from residuals are discussed. Data are presented showing attenuation of heavy metal ions and fluorides in selected soils. The leachability and mobility of smelting and refining residuals constituents, including heavy metals and fluorides, and other potential toxicants in specific soil, geologic, and hydrologic disposal environments must be carefully considered in setting disposal requirements. PMID:738242

Leonard, R P

1978-12-01

118

DIALYSIS FOR CONCENTRATION AND REMOVAL OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This project evaluates dialysis for its potential for treatment/recovery of a number of organics and inorganics found in industrial wastes along the Lower Mississippi River. The feasibility of three membrane techniques was developed. (1) The use of acid and base conjugation on th...

119

Bioremediation of gas industry wastes: Current status and new directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental issues of concern to the gas industry include the cleanup of hazardous wastes. The types of pollutants include polychlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Some of these pollutants are present in gas transmission systems and others at existing facilities or abandoned manufactured gas plants. Although most applicable to sites laden with organic pollutants, bioremediation may also

W. K. Gauger; V. J. Srivastava

1990-01-01

120

Using of industrial wastes as secondary resources for metal recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for metals in the world has required intensive studies for the extraction of metals from low-grade ores and\\/or secondary resources. The recovery of base metals from industrial wastes by acidic and alkaline leaching yields solutions rich in metals, such as Molybdenum, Cobalt, Nickel and Vanadium in addition to Alumina or Silica, up to the studied material. Extraction

A. Ognyanova; F. Ferella; I. De Michelis; G. Taglieri; F. Vegliò

121

Hot particles in industrial waste and mining tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial waste was studied concerning its radioactive pollution. Using known properties of the solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 we found among a high concentration of more or less homogeneously distributed single ?-tracks discrete spots of very high enrichments of ?-particles created by so called hot particles. We will report about the ?-activity, the concentration of hot particles and about

K. Selchau-Hansen; R. Ghose; K. Freyer; Ch. Treutler; W. Enge

1999-01-01

122

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL WASTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

We evaluated a variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes. en samples were studied for hepatotoxicity: hese samples and an additional five were studied ...

123

Kalina cycles for power generation from industrial waste heat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities to produce power from industrial waste heat, using cycles with non-azeotropic ammonia-water mixtures. In this study, some simple Kalina cycle designs have been calculated for applications of indust...

E. Olsson E. Thorin G. Svedberg

1993-01-01

124

Survey of occupational exposure of waste industry workers to infectious waste in Washington State.  

PubMed Central

We surveyed 940 Washington state waste industry workers to evaluate occupational exposure to potentially infectious materials (response rate 47 percent). Only 26 percent were trained specifically to deal with safety hazards associated with medical waste. For the year preceding the survey, 50 percent of respondents reported having received cuts and scratches on the job, 22 percent reported direct contact with waste blood on their clothing or shoes, 8 percent had blood exposure on their skin, 3 percent blood exposure on their face or eyes, and 6 percent occupational hypodermic needlestick injuries (10 percent among waste collectors.

Turnberg, W L; Frost, F

1990-01-01

125

Conversion of polyester/cotton industrial waste to higher value  

SciTech Connect

The primary textile industry in 1981 produced 1.5 billion pounds of blended polyester/cotton (PET/Cotton) yarns that are chiefly polyester. The polyester component, which is almost entirely poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), is polymerized from petroleum products and furnished to the textile industry as staple fiber. About 3% of the PET/Cotton production is waste. Although substantial markets exist for the separate products, the problem of economically separating the components has not been solved. The alternative is to develop an application for the unseparated waste. This project was undertaken to study the feasibility of using the waste blends as feedstock for injection molded plastic. Thermal and mechanical properties were determined on the compacts.

Barnhardt, R.A.; Cowgill, W.P.; Walsh, W.K.; Cates, D.M.

1986-01-01

126

Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

Mueller, Julia R., E-mail: mueller.143@osu.edu [Ohio State University, William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, OH (United States) and University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia) and Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States); Boehm, Michael W. [University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia); Drummond, Charles [Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States)

2012-08-15

127

Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste subsystem analysis and atmospheric management within the ALS Project. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

2004-01-01

128

A research on dioxin generation from the industrial waste incineration.  

PubMed

By using fluidized-bed furnace and rotary-kiln+stoker furnace and four different kinds of industrial wastes such as waste wood, coffee mill, waste oils and waste plastics, we have drawn the following conclusions: (1) A relationship between H6CBz and DXN is acquired, which is DXN = 0.34 x H6CBz(1.1) (2) The following means of emission reduction can be considered. (a) Reduction of DXN and Cl accumulation within the furnace, (b) control by the incinerated object, (c) control through the precursors of H6CBz, (d) improvement through operational control, (e) ammonia injection into the high-temperature zone of the furnace seems to be effective in reducing DXN and (f) DXN concentration is high with CO above 1,800 ppm, though it decreases with CO below approximately 10 ppm. PMID:12002456

Yoneda, Kenichi; Ikeguchi, Takasi; Yagi, Yoshio; Tamade, Yoshinori; Omori, Kosaku

2002-03-01

129

Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033  

SciTech Connect

The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

Butez, Marc [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France)] [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)] [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Beguin, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)] [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)

2013-07-01

130

Potential Industrial Applications for Direct Contact Waste Heat Recuperator Systems. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the potential industrial applications of direct contact waste heat recuperator systems has been conducted. This study examines the prospects for the use of direct contact waste heat recuperator systems in the major energy consuming industries e...

T. T. Semler E. J. Hansen S. L. Richlen

1981-01-01

131

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

132

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

133

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

134

Energy Efficient Membrane Separation Processes for the Corn Wet Milling Industry. Phase 1, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High solubles water, the principal recycle stream in corn wet milling, is about 3.5% in total solids. Suspended solids 10 to 50 microns in diameter constitute an appreciable fraction of the total solids. Also present are dissolved solids of molecular weig...

H. P. Gregor

1985-01-01

135

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

2003-07-01

136

Toxicity of Industrial Wastes and Waste Leaching Test Eluates Containing Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching tests, CEN prEN 12457-2, CEN PrEN 12457-3, and NEN 7349, were conducted for varnish residue and urea resin waste, two industrial wastes containing organic chemicals. The leaching test eluates were analyzed for solvent concentrations and total organic carbon. Aqueous leaching tests were found to be suitable for both chemical and biological testing. Ecotoxicity was assessed by luminescent bacteria, plant

Eija Schultz; Kati Vaajasaari; Anneli Joutti; Jukka Ahtiainen

2002-01-01

137

Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

2014-05-01

138

Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

1978-01-01

139

Management of food industry waste employing vermicomposting technology.  

PubMed

This paper reports the vermicomposting of food industry sludges (FIS) mixed with different organic wastes employing Eisenia fetida. A total of 10 vermicomposting units containing different wastes combinations were established. After 15 weeks significant increase in total nitrogen (N(total)) (60-214%), total available phosphorous (P(avail)) (35.8-69.6%), total sodium (Na(total)) (39-95%), and total potassium (K(total)) (43.7-74.1%), while decrease in pH (8.45-19.7%), total organic carbon (OC(total)) (28.4-36.1%) and C:N ratio (61.2-77.8%) was recorded. The results indicated that FIS may be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if spiked with other organic wastes in appropriate quantities. PMID:22197330

Garg, V K; Suthar, S; Yadav, Anoop

2012-12-01

140

Nonsteady-state testing of industrial boilers burning hazardous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents test results on three industrial boilers cofiring liquid wastes spiked with hazardous organic compounds. The boiler tested comprise the major watertube design types: one gas- and oil-fired packaged boiler, one field erected gas-fired boiler, and one coal-fired stocker. Emission sampling included detailed evaluations of volatile and semivolatile organic pollutants in the flue gas for determination of destruction

C. Castaldini; R. Chang; H. Lips; C. Pickett

1987-01-01

141

Industrial orange waste as organic fertilizer in durum wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays agro-industrial waste induces increasing problems due to the high economic cost and heavy environmental impact of\\u000a disposal. By contrast, its potential re-use as organic fertilizer could represent a sustainable approach to recycling nutrients\\u000a and reintegrating organic matter into soil. Such recycling should be particularly beneficial in Mediterranean areas because\\u000a there is a progressive loss of soil fertility. To assess

Rosalena Tuttobene; Giovanni Avola; Fabio Gresta; Valerio Abbate

2009-01-01

142

Simulation investigations of industrial waste migration in heterogeneously layered medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the mutual influence of macro- and micro salt diffusion upon migration of model industrial wastes in heterogeneously\\u000a layered medium (sandy and clayey rocks alternation) is developed. We found that micro salt diffusion into blocks will be minimal,\\u000a if it occurs under natural conditions. In the case of mutual diffusion and sorption of isotopes as one chemical agent,

Yu. V. Fedorova

2009-01-01

143

[Purification of complicated industrial organic waste gas by complex absorption].  

PubMed

Complicated industrial organic waste gas with the characteristics of low concentration,high wind volume containing inorganic dust and oil was employed the research object by complex absorption. Complex absorption mechanism, process flow, purification equipment and engineering application were studied. Three different surfactants were prepared for the composite absorbent to purify exhaust gas loaded with toluene and butyl acetate, respectively. Results show that the low surface tension of the composite absorbent can improve the removal efficiency of toluene and butyl acetate. With the advantages of the water film, swirl plate and fill absorption device, efficient absorption equipment was developed for the treatment of complicated industrial organic waste gas. It is with superiorities of simple structure, small size, anti-jam and high mass transfer. Based on absorption technology, waste gas treatment process integrated with heating stripping, burning and anaerobic and other processes, so that emissions of waste gas and absorption solution could meet the discharge standards. The technology has been put into practice, such as manufacturing and spraying enterprises. PMID:22468539

Chen, Ding-Sheng; Cen, Chao-Ping; Tang, Zhi-Xiong; Fang, Ping; Chen, Zhi-Hang

2011-12-01

144

Assessment of non-hazardous industrial waste codisposal in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the issues associated with the codisposal of the diverse non-hazardous industrial wastes (NHIWs) in Oklahoma's municipal sanitary waste landfills (MSWLs). One aspect of the study focused on the selection of a representative cross section of NHIWs, typical of those wastes currently being codisposed in Oklahoma, and to characterize the representative waste streams based on all available physical and chemical data. Following the waste characterizations, a NHIW classification scheme was developed to distinguish amongst the potential risks posed by the different NHIWs if codisposed in municipal landfills. Another aspect of the study examined other state regulatory programs in an effort to determine the overall direction of NHIW codisposal regulations, nationwide. All state agencies were contacted and subsequently interviewed by telephone, followed by a request to send any pertinent literature and/or regulations. A synopsis of each state's general solid waste management practices were included, in addition to any specific details on NHIW regulations and/or handling procedures. The results of this specific survey indicated that a wide spectrum of NHIW regulations and procedures are being implemented nationwide. A final aspect of the study identified the best management and disposal options currently available for the NHIWs requiring codisposal. The basis for the pretreatment and/or disposal recommendations includes data obtained from both the waste characterization documentation and other state programs. Finally, the study made recommendations to the Oklahoma State Department of Health for the step-by-step development of comprehensive NHIW codisposal guidelines and recommendations, i.e., a major objective of this study.

Raleigh, L.H.

1991-01-01

145

Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The BIF (boiler/industrial furnace) specialty conference has become an annual forum for regulators, industry, scientists, equipment suppliers, consultants, and the public to discuss issues revolving around the combustion of hazardous waste. Coming from different perspectives, the common goals of all participants are the protection of human health and the reduction of environmental pollution. Papers were presented that illustrate real-world experiences and the occasional clash between theory and reality. The challenges to write effective regulations that can be achieved by industry and accepted by the public were debated. The papers serve as a starting point and stimulation for interactions between the various interested parties. This year sessions focused on: the proposed combustor MACT rule; developments with CEMs; CKD management; trial burns; permitting; laboratory issues; multipathway risk assessments; and communicating with the public. The 35 papers of the proceedings are arranged under the these topics and have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1998-12-31

146

Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

2012-04-01

147

Wet scrubber process for removing total reduced sulfur compounds from industrial gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for the removal of total reduced sulfur compounds and recovery of non-magnetic entrained particulates from an industrial gas. It comprises: scrubbing the industrial gas with an aqueous absorbent slurry containing activated manganese dioxide absorbent particles in a reaction zone to effect oxidation of the total reduced sulfur compounds and recovery of total reduced sulfur compound

Iannicelli

1990-01-01

148

Process and apparatus to purify waste industrial gases  

SciTech Connect

A process to purify industrial waste gases containing sulfur dioxide together with other polluting constituent gases selected from the group consisting of hydrogen fluoride, hydrochloric acid and sulfur trioxide, said process including the steps of: increasing the dew point of industrial waste gases as a first stage within a reaction tank by the partial evaporaiton therewith of a solution of ammonium sulfate containing ammonium ions, cooling the gases below the elevated dew point with a solution of ammonium sulfate as a second stage in the reaction tank, supplying oxygen and/or NOx into said reaction tank and treating the cooled gases with an ammonia mist as a third stage in the reaction tank to form ammonium salts from the polluting constituent gaseous content of the treated gases, delivering the treated gases as a fourth stage into the bottom of the reaction tank to precipitate the ammonium salts therefrom by treatment of the polluting consitiuent gaseous content with a solution of ammonium sulfate containing ammonium ions, collecting the precipitated ammonium salts below said fourth stage in a reservoir, and feeding the purified waste gases from the reaction tank through a cooler for discharge into the atmosphere.

Haese, E.; Moll, H.; Willms, R.

1980-07-22

149

Sampling surveys of hazardous wastes at industrial facilities  

SciTech Connect

Many organizations and their consultants are involved in sampling programs to characterize waste streams and materials at industrial facilities. Due to financial limitations, calendar deadlines, or other practical restrictions, a short-term, survey-type sampling plan (sampling survey) may need to be implemented. Survey results can be used to determine if the wastes are hazardous or if they are bring managed in accordance with applicable regulations. This paper brings together practical experience and diverse information to identify the major concerns in conducting sampling surveys and to suggest methods of approaching these concerns. The paper addresses sampling in time and space, correct sampling to minimize bias, selecting equipment to minimize contamination, sample handling, and quality assurance/quality control. Even a quick sampling survey can be a high quality effort with a careful approach to the critical issues.

Boomer, B.A.; Dux, T.P.; March, D.J.

1988-11-01

150

Corn Wet Milling Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Description: Wet Corn Milling is an industrial process that that converts corn to a wide variety of by-products. The wet milling industry is the largest non-feed user of corn, using approximately 1 billion bushels annually. This lab looks at the separation steps in the industrial processing of corn.

Olson, Eric; Warren, Noreen

2008-10-27

151

International mobility of hazardous products, industries, and wastes  

SciTech Connect

The export of hazards to developing countries, frequently associated with the transfer of technology, is an increasing public health problem. It may arise from the export of hazardous products and wastes, or from the transfer of hazardous industries in the absence of appropriate safeguards. Multinational corporations bear a major responsibility for having lower standards of health protection in manufacturing and marketing in the developing countries than in home-country operations. These firms are coming under growing international pressure from concerned citizens, unions, environmental groups, national governments and international organizations, religious groups, the media, and public health professionals.

Castleman, B.I.; Navarro, V.

1987-01-01

152

International mobility of hazardous products, industries, and wastes.  

PubMed

The export of hazards to developing countries, frequently associated with the transfer of technology, is an increasing public health problem. It may arise from the export of hazardous products and wastes, or from the transfer of hazardous industries in the absence of appropriate safeguards. Multinational corporations bear a major responsibility for having lower standards of health protection in manufacturing and marketing in the developing countries than in home-country operations. These firms are coming under growing international pressure from concerned citizens, unions, environmental groups, national governments and international organizations, religious groups, the media, and public health professionals. PMID:3692646

Castleman, B I; Navarro, V

1987-01-01

153

Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types  

SciTech Connect

A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators will be shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented.

MacKenzie, D.R.

1988-01-01

154

Microbial Degradation of High Nitrogen Contents (Primarily Nitrate) in Industrial Waste Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study deals with the denitrification of industrial waste water of high nitrate content, including waste water from the recovery process for nuclear material. At first the autotrophic process employing Thiob. denitrificans was investigated: kinetics, ...

G. Claus H. J. Kutzner

1984-01-01

155

Case Studies of New Waste Conservation and Recycle Methods for the Electroplating Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents case studies of new waste conservation and recycle methods for the electroplating industry. Electroplating shops can save water and substantially reduce hazardous waste generation by reducing plating solution drag-out; employing one or ...

E. R. Saltzberg G. Hunt

1995-01-01

156

CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

157

Sfw-Funk Process for Gasification of Solid Urban and Industrial Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and testing of an urban and industrial waste gasification plant are described. Domestic waste of different compostion, grain size and closeness of grain and rubber and wood were gasified at varying operating conditions (composition, quanti...

H. Hummelsiep F. Heinrich

1982-01-01

158

Engineering development and demonstration of DETOX(sup SM) wet oxidation for mixed waste treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DETOX(sup SM), a catalyzed chemical oxidation process, is under development for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites. To support this effort, developmental engineering studies have been formed for aspects of the process to...

P. M. Dhooge S. D. Goldblatt J. E. Moslander D. T. Robertson T. W. Rogers

1997-01-01

159

Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.  

PubMed

As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard. PMID:21746756

Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

2011-10-01

160

Wet Chemical Oxidation of Organic Waste Using Nitric-Phosphoric Acid Technology  

SciTech Connect

Experimental progress has been made in a wide range of areas which support the continued development of the nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation process for combustible, solid organic wastes. An improved understanding of the overall process operation has been obtained, acid recovery and recycle systems have been studied, safety issues have been addressed, two potential final waste forms have been tested, preliminary mass flow diagrams have been prepared, and process flowsheets have been developed. The flowsheet developed is essentially a closed-loop system which addresses all of the internally generated waste streams. The combined activities aim to provide the basis for building and testing a 250-400 liter pilot-scale unit. Variations of the process now must be evaluated in order to address the needs of the primary customer, SRS Solid Waste Management. The customer is interested in treating job control waste contaminated with Pu-238 for shipment to WIPP. As a result, variations for feed preparation, acid recycle, and final form manufacturing must be considered to provide for simpler processing to accommodate operations in high radiation and contamination environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a nitric-phosphoric acid destruction technology which can treat a heterogeneous waste by oxidizing the solid and liquid organic compounds while decontaminating noncombustible items.

Pierce, R.A.

1998-10-06

161

Microbial leaching of metals from solid industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Biotechnological applications for metal recovery have played a greater role in recovery of valuable metals from low grade sulfide minerals from the beginning of the middle era till the end of the twentieth century. With depletion of ore/minerals and implementation of stricter environmental rules, microbiological applications for metal recovery have been shifted towards solid industrial wastes. Due to certain restrictions in conventional processes, use of microbes has garnered increased attention. The process is environmentally-friendly, economical and cost-effective. The major microorganisms in recovery of heavy metals are acidophiles that thrive at acidic pH ranging from 2.0-4.0. These microbes aid in dissolving metals by secreting inorganic and organic acids into aqueous media. Some of the well-known acidophilic bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Sulfolobus spp. are well-studied for bioleaching activity, whereas, fungal species like Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger have been thoroughly studied for the same process. This mini-review focuses on the acidophilic microbial diversity and application of those microorganisms toward solid industrial wastes. PMID:24390831

Mishra, Debaraj; Rhee, Young Ha

2014-01-01

163

Heterogeneous catalytic wet peroxide oxidation systems for the treatment of an industrial pharmaceutical wastewater.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to assess the treatment of wastewater coming from a pharmaceutical plant through a continuous heterogeneous catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) process using an Fe(2)O(3)/SBA-15 nanocomposite catalyst. This catalyst was preliminary tested in a batch stirred tank reactor (STR), to elucidate the influence of significant parameters on the oxidation system, such as temperature, initial oxidant concentration and initial pH of the reaction medium. In that case, a temperature of 80 degrees C using an initial oxidant concentration corresponding to twice the theoretical stoichiometric amount for complete carbon depletion and initial pH of ca. 3 allow TOC degradation of around 50% after 200 min of contact time. Thereafter, the powder catalyst was extruded with bentonite to prepare pellets that could be used in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Results in the up-flow FBR indicate that the catalyst shows high activity in terms of TOC mineralization (ca. 60% under steady-state conditions), with an excellent use of the oxidant and high stability of the supported iron species. The activity of the catalyst is kept constant, at least, for 55h of reaction. Furthermore, the BOD(5)/COD ratio is increased from 0.20 to 0.30, whereas the average oxidation stage (AOS) changed from 0.70 to 2.35. These two parameters show a high oxidation degree of organic compounds in the outlet effluent, which enhances its biodegradability, and favours the possibility of a subsequent coupling with a conventional biological treatment. PMID:19447465

Melero, J A; Martínez, F; Botas, J A; Molina, R; Pariente, M I

2009-09-01

164

The Cost of Clean Water. Volume III. Industrial Waste Profiles No. 7. Leather Tanning and Finishing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates the total relationship of products produced, waste pollution load, economics involved, and long term environmental quality factors of the leather tanning and finishing industries.

1967-01-01

165

Radon effective dose from TENORM waste associated with petroleum industries.  

PubMed

Technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) associated with petroleum industries can be accumulated with elevated quantities and therefore can threat the workers through external and internal exposure. Measurements of radon-related parameters give information about the radioactivity levels in the TENORM waste using the well-established correlation. Also, it is useful to calculate the internal exposure due to radon inhalation in terms of effective radon dose. Among radon-related parameters, areal exhalation rate is the most suitable for characterising land and objects with only upper surface contamination in the case of petroleum waste. The TENORM in this study is collected from waste storage areas located near oilfields at south Sinai governorate, Egypt. The average values of exhalation rates as measured by Lucas cell based on delay count method are 273 +/- 144 and 38 +/- 8 Bq m(-2) h(-1) for scale and sludge, respectively. Whereas, two count method gives results with 18 and 20 % lower values for scale and sludge, respectively with good correlation coefficient of 0.999 and 0.852, respectively. Sealed cup fitted with CR-39 gives results compatible with Lucas cell with minor deviation in case of scale due to its thoron content. The results of CR-39 are qualified by taking into consideration the correction for back diffusion effect. The effective radon dose was calculated for different simulated radioactive waste storage areas with different contaminated areas and air ventilation rate. Minimising the contaminated areas and building up efficient ventilation systems can reduce the internal exposure even in the case of RWSA-containing TENORM with elevated radioactivity. PMID:19706722

Abo-Elmagd, M; Soliman, H A; Daif, Manal M

2009-09-01

166

Engineering development and demonstration of DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

DETOX{sup SM}, a catalyzed chemical oxidation process, is under development for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites. To support this effort, developmental engineering studies have been formed for aspects of the process to help ensure safe and effective operation. Subscale agitation studies have been preformed to identify a suitable mixing head and speed for the primary reaction vessel agitator. Mechanisms for feeding solid waste materials to the primary reaction vessel have been investigated. Filtration to remove solid field process residue, and the use of various filtration aids, has been studied. Extended compatibility studies on the materials of construction have been performed. Due to a change to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) for the mixed waste portion of the demonstration, types of wastes suitable and appropriate for treatment at RFETS had to be chosen. A Prototype unit has been fabricated and will be demonstrated on hazardous and mixed wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS) and RFETS during 1997 and 1998. The unit is in shakedown testing at present. Data validation and an engineering evaluation will be performed during the demonstration.

Dhooge, P.M.; Goldblatt, S.D.; Moslander, J.E.; Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Zigmond, J.A.

1997-12-01

167

Oxidation of anthracene using waste Mn oxide minerals: the importance of wetting and drying sequences.  

PubMed

PAHs are a common problem in contaminated urban soils due to their recalcitrance. This study presents results on the oxidation of anthracene on synthetic and natural Mn oxide surfaces. Evaporation of anthracene spiked Mn oxide slurries in air results in the oxidation of 30% of the anthracene to anthraquinone. Control minerals, quartz and calcite, also oxidised a small but significant proportion of the anthracene (4.5% and 14% conversion, respectively) when spiked mineral slurries were evaporated in air. However, only Mn oxide minerals showed significant anthracene oxidation (5-10%) when evaporation took place in the absence of oxygen (N2 atmosphere). In the fully hydrated systems where no drying took place, natural Mn oxides showed an increase in anthracene oxidation with decreasing pH, with a conversion of 75% anthracene at pH 4. These results show both acidification and drying favor the oxidation of anthracene on Mn oxide mineral surfaces. It has also been demonstrated that non-redox active mineral surfaces, such as calcite, may play a role in contaminant breakdown during wetting and drying sequences. Given that climate changes suggest that wetting and drying sequences are likely to become more significant these results have important implications for contaminated land remediation technologies. PMID:22264889

Clarke, Catherine; Tourney, Janette; Johnson, Karen

2012-02-29

168

The Cost of Clean Water. Volume III. Industrial Waste Profiles No. 9. Dairies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The profile is a qualitative and quantitative description of wastes and wastewater generated in the Dairy Industry. The industry is examined in its important major subdivisions as follows: Creamery butter; Cheese, natural and processed; Condensed and evap...

1967-01-01

169

Assessment of industrial hazardous waste practices, storage and primary batteries industries. Final report, Apr--Sep 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report, which covers battery manufacturing operations, is one of a series of several studies which examine land-destined wastes from selected industries. The battery industry is divided into two groups by the Bureau of Census: Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3691 Storage Batteries (such as lead--acid automobile batteries) and SIC 3692 Primary Batteries (such as carbon--zinc flashlight batteries). The battery industry

L. C. McCandless; R. Wetzel; J. Casana; K. Slimak

1975-01-01

170

Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater laden with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastes, such as, fly ash, blast furnace slag and sludge, black liquor lignin, red mud, and waste slurry, etc. are currently being investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of the heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that modified industrial wastes showed higher adsorption capacity. The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from the industrial wastes as a replacement

M. Ahmaruzzaman

2011-01-01

171

Development of the Monolith Froth Reactor for Catalytic Wet Oxidation of CELSS Model Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aqueous phase oxidation of acetic acid, used as a model compound for the treatment of CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) waste, was carried out in the monolith froth reactor which utilizes two-phase flow in the monolith channels. The ca...

M. Abraham J. W. Fisher

1995-01-01

172

Wet Chemical Oxidation and Stabilization of Mixed and Low Level Organic Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Mixed acid oxidation is a non-incineration process capable of destroying organic compounds, including papers, plastics, resins, and oils, at moderate temperatures and pressures. The technology, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a holding medium which allows appreciable amounts of the oxidant to be retained in solution at atmospheric pressure and at the temperatures needed for oxidation. The phosphoric acid also provides the raw materials for making a final waste which contains the metal contaminants from the waste stream. Savannah River has designed, built, and started up a 40-liter pilot reaction vessel to demonstrate the process and its sub-systems on a larger scale than earlier testing. The unit has been demonstrated and has provided important data on the operation of the oxidation and acid recovery systems. Specific results will be presented on oxidation conditions, acid recovery efficiency, chloride removal, metal retention, and process monitoring. Additional studies have been conducted with a smaller vessel in a radioactive hood. Testing with plutonium-bearing waste simulants was performed to make preliminary predictions about the behavior of plutonium in the process. Samples of the remaining phosphoric acid from these tests has been converted to two separate final forms for analysis. Results will be presented on plutonium fractionation during the oxidation process and waste form stability.

Pierce, R.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Livingston, R.R.; Burge, D.A.; Ramsey, W.G. [CeraChem Technologies, Aiken, SC (United States)

1998-03-01

173

Method for producing SNG or syn-gas from wet solid waste and low grade fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat, lignite, coal, many forms of biomass (land or marine) and solid wastes may have from 1\\/2 to 30 times as much water associated with the dry solids. Some of this water may be chemically bound or otherwise may be practically inseparable by mechanical means. The solids may be partially oxidized by oxygen or air in the first chemical reactions

Othmer

1981-01-01

174

40 CFR 62.14640 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS...Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced... If you use an air pollution control device other than a wet scrubber, or...

2013-07-01

175

Alkaline subcritical water gasification of dairy industry waste (Whey).  

PubMed

The near-critical water gasification of dairy industry waste in the form of Whey, a product composed of mixtures of carbohydrates (mainly lactose) and amino acids such as glycine and glutamic acid, has been studied. The gasification process involved partial oxidation with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of NaOH. The reactions were studied over the temperature range from 300°C to 390°C, corresponding pressures of 9.5-24.5 MPa and reaction times from 0 min to 120 min. Hydrogen production was affected by the presence of NaOH, the concentration of H(2)O(2), temperature, reaction time and feed concentration. Up to 40% of the theoretical hydrogen gas production was achieved at 390°C. Over 80% of the Whey nitrogen content was found as ammonia, mainly in the liquid effluent. PMID:21398111

Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

2011-05-01

176

Mine waste management: A resource for mining industry professionals, regulators and consulting engineers  

SciTech Connect

Mine Waste Management is a valuable resource for mining industry professionals, regulators, and consulting engineers. This book deals with many of the important water quality and design issues at mine waste management units. Topics include an evaluation of the performance of waste containment at modern mining operations, the philosophy of waste containment, mine waste characterization, disposal facility liner and closure designs, ground water monitoring, heap leach operations, and an analysis of the cost impacts of mine waste disposal. The material presented includes technical discussions and information, as well as recommendations on how the technical issues can be accommodated in mine waste regulations.

Hutchison, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D. (eds.)

1992-01-01

177

Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

Dasgupta, A.

1983-01-01

178

SNG or syn-gas from wet solid waste and low grade fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substitute natural gas (SNG) or a synthesis gas (syngas) is prepared by partly oxidizing wastes and low-grade fuels (peat, lignite, many forms of biomass) containing 0.5-30 times as much water as the dry solids with O or air at 240-300°C and 70-100 atmospheres. Sulfur in high S coal is oxidized selectively to SOâ⁻², and the heat to bring the

Othmer

1981-01-01

179

Adsorptive Removal of Cobalt from Aqueous Solutions by Utilizing Industrial Waste and its Cement Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the adsorption potential of battery industry waste as adsorbent has been investigated for the removal of cobalt from aqueous solutions. The results have shown that the prepared adsorbent adsorbs cobalt to a sufficient extent (35 mg\\/g). The adsorption of cobalt has been studied on this battery industry waste as a function of contact time, concentration, and temperature

Amit Bhatnagar; Ashwani K. Minocha

2007-01-01

180

Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: Current state of the field and primary challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey

Güray Salihoglu

2010-01-01

181

Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: A case of Zarqa City  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country.Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These

Bassam Mrayyan; Moshrik R.. Hamdi

2006-01-01

182

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

183

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

184

Carbon mineralization from composts and food industry wastes added to soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the short term C mineralization of six wastes from important food industries, one sludge from a biogas plant and three composts. All the wastes were characterized chemically and fractionated according to the Van Soest method. The fresh wastes were incubated under controlled environment conditions to determine the C mineralization rate. Based on first order mineralization kinetics, we

Stefaan De Neve; Steven Sleutel; Georges Hofman

2003-01-01

185

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

186

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

187

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

188

Characterization and recovery of tartaric acid from wastes of wine and grape juice industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tartaric acid is mainly used in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industries. In this study, the waste samples, which contain\\u000a tartaric acid, from the wastes of wine and grape juice industries were characterized by using TG, DSC, FTIR and XRD techniques.\\u000a HPLC was used to determine tartaric acid content of samples. The decomposition temperatures of waste samples were found to\\u000a be

D. Yalcin; O. Ozcalik; E. Altiok; O. Bayraktar

2008-01-01

189

Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

Levin, V.

1996-04-01

190

Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.  

PubMed

Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester. PMID:21975301

Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

2012-01-01

191

Waste treatment: Beverage industry. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment in the alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage industries. Brewery effluent and wastewater management and disposal are reviewed. References cover aerobic treatment, sources of effluents, waste reduction, waste fermentation, effluent purification, and cost-effectiveness evaluation. The use of wastes for biogas production and for building material manufacture is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-08-01

192

Industrial reprocessing and waste minimization at COGEMA, La Hague  

Microsoft Academic Search

COGEMA is making significant progress in waste volume reduction at the UP3 reprocessing plant. The plant was designed to generate three-quarters of a canister of vitrified high-level waste and three drums of bitumenized medium-level waste per metric ton of reprocessed uranium. With the ongoing plant modifications and new waste management practices, the need for bitumen waste form will disappear by

Ledermann

1993-01-01

193

Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. PMID:21550223

Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

2011-08-01

194

Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

195

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01

196

Development of the Monolith Froth Reactor for Catalytic Wet Oxidation of CELSS Model Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aqueous phase oxidation of acetic acid, used as a model compound for the treatment of CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) waste, was carried out in the monolith froth reactor which utilizes two-phase flow in the monolith channels. The catalytic oxidation of acetic acid was carried out over a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, prepared at The University of Tulsa, at temperatures and pressures below the critical point of water. The effect of externally controllable parameters (temperature, liquid flow rate, distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate) on the rate of acetic acid oxidation was investigated. Results indicate reaction rate increased with increasing temperature and exhibited a maximum with respect to liquid flow rate. The apparent activation energy calculated from reaction rate data was 99.7 kJ/mol. This value is similar to values reported for the oxidation of acetic acid in other systems and is comparable to intrinsic values calculated for oxidation reactions. The kinetic data were modeled using simple power law kinetics. The effect of "froth" feed system characteristics was also investigated. Results indicate that the reaction rate exhibits a maximum with respect to distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate. Fundamental results obtained were used to extrapolate where the complete removal of acetic acid would be obtained and for the design and operation of a full scale CELSS treatment system.

Abraham, Martin; Fisher, John W.

1995-01-01

197

Development of the Monolith Froth Reactor for Catalytic Wet Oxidation of CELSS Model Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aqueous phase oxidation of acetic acid, used as a model compound for the treatment of CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) waste, was carried out in the monolith froth reactor which utilizes two-phase flow in the monolith channels. The catalytic oxidation of acetic acid was carried out over a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at temperatures and pressures below the critical point of water. The effect of externally controllable parameters (temperature, liquid flow rate, distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate) on the rate of acetic acid oxidation was investigated. Results indicate reaction rate increased with increasing temperature and exhibited a maximum with respect to liquid flow rate. The apparent activation energy calculated from reaction rate data was 99.7 kJ/mol. This value is similar to values reported for the oxidation of acetic acid in other systems and is comparable to intrinsic values calculated for oxidation reactions. The kinetic data were modeled using simple power law kinetics. The effect of "froth" feed system characteristics was also investigated. Results indicate that the reaction rate exhibits a maximum with respect to distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate. Fundamental results obtained were used to extrapolate where the complete removal of acetic acid would be obtained and for the design and operation of a full scale CELSS treatment system.

Fisher, John W.; Abraham, Martin

1993-01-01

198

Supercritical extraction of lycopene from tomato industrial wastes with ethane.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds) was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO? and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane). The recovery of all-E-lycopene increased with pressure, decreased with the increase of the particle size in the initial stages of the extraction and was not practically affected by the solvent superficial velocity. The effect of the temperature was more complex. When the temperature increased from 40 to 60 °C the recovery of all-E-lycopene increased from 80 to 90%. However, for a further increase to 80 °C, the recovery remained almost the same, indicating that some E-Z isomerization could have occurred, as well as some degradation of lycopene. The recovery of all-E-lycopene was almost the same for feed samples with different all-E-lycopene content. Furthermore, when a batch with a higher all-E-lycopene content was used, supercritical ethane and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane showed to be better solvents than supercritical CO? leading to a faster extraction with a higher recovery of the carotenoid. PMID:22785267

Nobre, Beatriz P; Gouveia, Luisa; Matos, Patricia G S; Cristino, Ana F; Palavra, António F; Mendes, Rui L

2012-01-01

199

Industrial wastes and public health: some historical notes, Part I, 1876-1932.  

PubMed Central

This article has focused on the relatively low priority accorded industrial wastes compared to human wastes by the public health community in the period from 1876 through 1932. The critical reason for this prioritization was the potential for acute health effects from human wastes as compared with the belief that industrial wastes had only indirect effects. State departments of health normally only responded to industrial wastes when they endangered the potable nature of water supplies or interfered with water and sewage treatment processes. Within the public health community, however, a relatively small group of interdisciplinary professionals argued for attention to the indirect health effects of industrial wastes and their impacts on the total stream environment. In conjunction with other groups interested in clean streams--such as sportsmen and manufacturers who required high quality process water--they pushed for a broader state legislative mandate in regard to pollution control. Some states created new bureaus or boards with responsibility for industrial wastes and the larger stream environment but the attack on industrial pollution remained limited in this period. The final significant development regarding industrial pollution and public health concerned the formulation by Streeter-Phelps of the Public Health Service of a theory of stream purification with a set of general quantitative indicators. This application was of particular importance in regard to the high-oxygen consuming nature of organic industrial wastes and the wide variety of effluents that existed. Industrial wastes constituted what Harvey Brooks, in his essay "Science Indicators and Science Priorities" calls a very "messy" research problem--one that does "not lend itself to elegant and widely applicable generalizations."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p1061-a p1061-b p1063-a p1065-a

Tarr, J A

1985-01-01

200

Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs.

Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

1991-10-01

201

Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment  

PubMed Central

The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

2011-01-01

202

Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial Park level: A case of Tianjin, China  

SciTech Connect

Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers. Such an approach requires industrial park managers to assess the overall use of resources, and to seek waste reduction, reuse and recycling opportunities both at the individual company level and among different tenant companies. The adoption of this method can bring both economic and environmental benefits. This paper introduces the planning efforts of a real case in China. It first presents the basic information on Tianjin Economic Development Area (TEDA), and then introduces its current practices on solid waste management. The main focus of this paper is to describe how to plan an integrated solid waste management system at TEDA. Benefits and challenges are all identified and analyzed. The experiences and methods from this case study should be applied in other industrial parks so as to improve the overall eco-efficiency of the whole industrial park.

Geng Yong [Institute for Eco-planning and Development, School of Management Building, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning Province 116024 (China)]. E-mail: ecoplan@dlut.edu.cn; Zhu Qinghua [Institute for Eco-planning and Development, School of Management Building, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning Province 116024 (China); Haight, Murray [Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2007-07-01

203

Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial park level: a case of Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers. Such an approach requires industrial park managers to assess the overall use of resources, and to seek waste reduction, reuse and recycling opportunities both at the individual company level and among different tenant companies. The adoption of this method can bring both economic and environmental benefits. This paper introduces the planning efforts of a real case in China. It first presents the basic information on Tianjin Economic Development Area (TEDA), and then introduces its current practices on solid waste management. The main focus of this paper is to describe how to plan an integrated solid waste management system at TEDA. Benefits and challenges are all identified and analyzed. The experiences and methods from this case study should be applied in other industrial parks so as to improve the overall eco-efficiency of the whole industrial park. PMID:17055715

Geng, Yong; Zhu, Qinghua; Haight, Murray

2007-01-01

204

Sustainable waste management: The beneficial reuse of industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste products as soil amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable waste management involves the reuse of waste in ways that are both economically- and environmentally-beneficial. Sustainable waste management encompasses a wide range of disciplines and applications and is increasingly important today in reducing the disposal of wastes in landfills. This study identified two areas where new knowledge was required to enhance the sustainability of current waste management systems. First,

Jason Peter de Koff

2008-01-01

205

Karakterisering og behandling af spildevand fra roeggasafsvovling ved vaadabsorptionsprocessen med efterfoelgende oxidation. (Characterization and management of waste water from desulphurization of flue gas by the wet absorption process with following oxidation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of the wet absorption process for the desulphurization of flue gas from coal fired power plants produces calcium sulphate, and waste water containing nitrate, neutral salts and a certain amount of heavy metals. The conditions which influen...

B. Mose Pedersen G. Holm Kristensen

1990-01-01

206

Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects  

SciTech Connect

The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

1989-11-09

207

Effect of Fluoride on Nitrification of a Concentrated Industrial Waste  

PubMed Central

The potential for biological nitrification of an industrial waste containing 4,000 mg of ammonia N (NH4+-N) and 10,000 mg of fluoride per liter was investigated. Ammonium sulfate and sodium fluoride were tested in various combinations of 100 to 2,000 mg of NH4+-N per liter and 0 to 5,000 mg of F? per liter in suspended-growth stirred-tank reactors containing enriched cultures of nitrifying bacteria from a municipal sewage treatment plant. The stirred-tank reactors were fed once per day at a constant hydraulic retention period and cell retention time of 10 days. Temperature was 23°C, and pH was 7.0 to 7.5. Clarified secondary effluent was used to make up feeds and to provide minor nutrients. Steady-state data, confirmed by mass balances, were obtained after five to six retention periods. In the absence of fluoride, nitrification efficiency was near 100% for up to 500 mg of NH4+-N per liter. The influence of fluoride was studied at a low ammonia concentration (100 mg/liter) and exerted no significant effect on nitrification at concentrations of up to 200 mg/liter. Maximum effect of fluoride was reached at 800 mg of F? per liter, and no greater inhibition was observed for up to 5,000 mg of F? per liter. At the highest concentrations studied, ion pairing of ammonium and fluoride may exert a significant effect on kinetic coefficients. Kinetic analyses showed maximum specific substrate removal rates (qmax) of NH4+-N to be about 2.3 mg of N per mg of volatile suspended solids per day in the absence of fluoride and 0.85 mg of N per mg of volatile suspended solids per day in the presence of fluoride. The form of inhibition due to the presence of fluoride was shown to be not competitive, conforming to a mixed inhibition model.

Clarkson, William W.; Collins, Anthony G.; Sheehan, Pamela L.

1989-01-01

208

Use of waste ash from palm oil industry in concrete.  

PubMed

Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product from the palm oil industry, is disposed of as waste in landfills. In this study, POFA was utilized as a pozzolan in concrete. The original size POFA (termed OP) was ground until the median particle sizes were 15.9 microm (termed MP) and 7.4 microm (termed SP). Portland cement Type I was replaced by OP, MP, and SP of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of binder. The properties of concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength, and expansion due to magnesium sulfate attack were investigated. The results revealed that the use of POFA in concretes caused delay in both initial and final setting times, depending on the fineness and degree of replacement of POFA. The compressive strength of concrete containing OP was much lower than that of Portland cement Type I concrete. Thus, OP is not suitable to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete. However, the replacement of Portland cement Type I by 10% of MP and 20% of SP gave the compressive strengths of concrete at 90 days higher than that of concrete made from Portland cement Type I. After being immersed in 5% of magnesium sulfate solution for 364 days, the concrete bar mixed with 30% of SP had the same expansion level as that of the concrete bar made from Portland cement Type V. The above results suggest that ground POFA is an excellent pozzolanic material and can be used as a cement replacement in concrete. It is recommended that the optimum replacement levels of Portland cement Type I by MP and SP are 20% and 30%, respectively. PMID:16497498

Tangchirapat, Weerachart; Saeting, Tirasit; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood; Siripanichgorn, Anek

2007-01-01

209

DETERMINATION OF CYANIDE IN ALUMINUM INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ion chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, was applied in determining cyanide concentrations in the waste waters generated by the processing of calthode electrodes in the aluminum industry. Ion chromatography data were compared with the results obtained from conv...

210

Health Assessment for Cemetery Industrial Waste Dump, Rose Township, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980794663.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cemetery Industrial Waste Dump National Priorities List Site is located in Rose Township, Oakland County, Michigan. Contamination at the site consists of an unknown quantity of buried drums which, when sampled, indicated the presence of metals, polych...

1988-01-01

211

Economic Impact Analysis of Proposed Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations under Sections 111 and 129 of the Clean Air Act for commercial and industrial incineration units that burn nonhazardous solid waste materials. EPA identified 122 commercial and indus...

1999-01-01

212

Economic Impact Analysis of Proposed Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations under Sections 111 and 129 of the Clean Air Act for commercial and industrial incineration units that burn nonhazardous solid waste materials. Control measures implemented to comply ...

1999-01-01

213

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

214

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions: source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

215

ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT REPORT--HAZARDOUS WASTE COFIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents results of 42 hazardous waste combustion tests performed on 11 full-scale industrial boilers. The report discusses the boiler operating conditions, measured organic and other gaseous emissions, and the achieved destruction efficiency of principal organic haz...

216

ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT REPORT--HAZARDOUS WASTE COFIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents results of 42 hazardous waste combustion tests performed on 11 full-scale industrial boilers. The report discusses the boiler operating conditions, measured organic and other gaseous emissions, and the achieved destruction efficiency of principal organic haz...

217

Swift model for a lower heating value prediction based on wet-based physical components of municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

To establish an empirical model for predicting a lower heating value (LHV) easily and economically by multiple regression analysis. A wet-based physical components model (WBPCM) was developed and based on physical component analysis without dewatering. Based on 497 samples of municipal solid waste (MSW) gathered from 14 incinerators in western parts of Taiwan from 2002 to 2009. The proposed model was verified by independent samples from other incinerators through parameters multiple correlation coefficients (R), relative percentage deviation (RPD) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Experimental results indicated that R, RPD and MAPE were 0.976, 17.1 and 17.7, respectively. This finding implies that LHV predicted by the WBPCM could well explain the LHV characteristics of MSW. The WBPCM was also compared with existing prediction models of LHV on a dry basis. While more accurately predicting LHV predicting than those models based on proximate analysis, the WBPCM was comparable with models based on physical component analysis in term of RPD and MAPE. Experimental results further indicated that the prediction accuracy of the WBPCM varied with MSW moisture parabolically. No specific relation was observed in the results of the previous prediction model. The accuracy of the WBPCM was almost approached to that of ultimate analysis in moisture ranging from 40% to 55%. The model was applicable within this moisture range. We conclude that the WBPCM is a faster and more economical model for LHV predictions with comparable accuracy than those models based on physical component analysis. The proposed WBPCM is highly promising for use in designing and operating incinerators. PMID:23238521

Lin, Chien-Jung; Chyan, Jih-Ming; Chen, I-Ming; Wang, Yi-Tun

2013-02-01

218

The hydrometallurgical extraction of rhenium from copper industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made in this investigation to develop a wet chemical method for treating a rhenium-containing lead slime produced during copper manufacture. The effects of temperature, grain size, oxygen partial pressure, and leaching time as well as the kinetics of the leaching process were studied.

Amer, Ashraf

2008-08-01

219

Chemical durability of glasses obtained by vitrification of industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vitrification of zinc-hydrometallurgy wastes, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), drainage mud, and granite mud was shown to immobilize the hazardous components in these wastes. Batch compositions were prepared by mixing the wastes with glass-cullet and sand to force the final glass composition into the glass forming region of the SiO2–Fe2O3–(CaO, MgO) system. The vitrification was carried out in the

P. Pisciella; S. Crisucci; A. Karamanov; M. Pelino

2001-01-01

220

Utilization of industrial wastes and unprocessed micro-fillers for making cost effective mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fly ash, slag, silica fume and marble dust as replacement of cement on the compressive strength and cost effectiveness of low w\\/c ratio superplasticized portland cement mortars was investigated. The blending of industrial wastes in mortars was also studied. Cement mortars (1:3 and 1:6) incorporating various proportions of industrial wastes were designed to have a flow of

S. K. Agarwal; Deepali Gulati

2006-01-01

221

Hazardous industrial waste management in Vietnam: current status and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concentrates on the existing situation of hazardous industrial waste management in Vietnam. To realize the importance\\u000a of the development of a Vietnam national strategy based on the reduce, reuse, recycle (3R) concept to the year 2020, the author\\u000a summarizes the practice of recycling activities of hazardous industrial waste and discusses the challenges arising from increases\\u000a in the quantity

Nguyen Thi Kim Thai

2009-01-01

222

Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches.In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical

Antonio C. Caputo; Federica Scacchia; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

2003-01-01

223

Utilization of industrial waste for cadmium removal from water and immobilization in cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the adsorption potential of metal sludge (a waste product of the electroplating industry) for the removal of cadmium from water. The adsorption capacity of the waste sludge for cadmium was ca. 40mgg?1 at 25°C. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, concentration and temperature by batch experiments. The adsorption has been found to

Amit Bhatnagar; Ashwani Kumar Minocha

2009-01-01

224

Study on the Desulphurization Characteristics of Industry Alkaline Wastes during Coal Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desulphurization characteristics of industry alkaline wastes and limestone were studied by means of flue gas analyzer and the high temperature tube reactor. Pore structure and desulphurization product characteristic were investigated respectively by mercury porosimeter and XRD diffraction technology. The reasons why wastes and limestone hold the different desulphurization capability were deeply discussed. The result shows that white clay and

Bin Zheng; Ji Li-Xia Ji; Lu Chun-Mei

2009-01-01

225

Characterisation of the impact of aqueous industrial waste in mesocosms: biological indicators and pilot streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of exposure biomarkers in measuring the impact of aqueous waste holds out promise because such tools have short response times, are of flexible use and give an indication of the type of pollution. However, their ecological significance has not yet been demonstrated. During field studies focusing on aqueous industrial waste, the correlations obtained between several biocoenotic indicators and

A. Bassères; B. Tramier

226

Biological pretreatment applied to industrial organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW): Effect on anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the industrial organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) has currently been of special interest. The main barrier in the treatment of this type or organic waste is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for

L. A. Fdez.-Güelfo; C. Álvarez-Gallego; D. Sales Márquez; L. I. Romero García

2011-01-01

227

Screening and characterization of pollution potential from solid industrial waste dumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid industrial waste dumps, being an anthropogenic part of the vadose zone, are potential non-point sources of ground water contamination. The early warning provided from qualitative and quantitative information on contaminant migration within a dump is an essential element in monitoring and screening sites for hazardous waste deposition that prevents degradation of recoverable ground water resources and permits to avoid

Irena Twardowska; Jadwiga Szczepanska

1993-01-01

228

Assessment of industrial solid waste management and resource recovery practices in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on industrial solid waste management (ISWM) and resource recovery practices was carried out in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Practices pertaining to generation, storage, collection and transportation, processing, and final disposal were investigated. The ISW was also quantified and characterised. It is observed that 89% of sources of ISW produce process solid waste only while the remaining 11%

Stephen E. Mbuligwe; Mengiseny E. Kaseva

2006-01-01

229

The Relationship between Waste Paper and Other Inputs in the Swedish Paper Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of life-cycle assessment studies havecompared the environmental impacts of materialrecycling and incineration of waste paper. Theyhave shown that, in most cases, a recyclingscenario results in lower total energy use, butgreater use of fossil fuels. If waste paper andfossil fuels are complements, parts of theenvironmental argument for recycling isabolished. This paper estimates a cost functionfor the Swedish paper industry.

Eva Samakovlis

2003-01-01

230

TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF DISPOSING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of industrial boilers for the destruction of hazardous wastes is increasing at a rapid rate. This is partly due to the fact that the practice changes a 'negative value' waste material into a 'positive value' fuel and partly to the fact that current RCRA regulations specif...

231

Siting of a metals industry landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent application by a steel-manufacturing plant to obtain a permit for an industrial landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds near the city of Syracuse, New York, resulted in an extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical investigation. This investigation was initiated because of (1) previous disposal of waste by the metal manufacturer at this site and (2) the unique location of

M. B. Rinaldo-Lee; A. F. Diffendorf; J. A. Hagarman

1983-01-01

232

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF COSTS AND CREDITS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides preliminary information on the costs and credits associated with hazardous waste co-firing in industrial boilers. The main objective is to identify and evaluate the costs/credits inherent in current hazardous waste co-firing practices, plus the additional cos...

233

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

234

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains a minimum of 103 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

235

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

236

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

237

Bioleaching of zinc and aluminium from industrial waste sludges by means of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological solubilisation of heavy metals contained in two different kinds of industrial wastes was performed in batches employing a strain of Thiobacillus ferroxidans. The wastes tested were: a dust coming from the iron-manganese alloy production in an electric furnace (sludge 1) and a sludge coming from a process treatment plant of aluminium anodic oxidation (sludge 2). The experimental results pointed

C Solisio; A Lodi; F Veglio’

2002-01-01

238

UK (United Kingdom) Landfill Gas and Municipal Solid Waste Digestion Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the UK more than 90% of all generated wastes are eventually disposed of to landfill. The biodegradable portions of the waste invariably decompose and produce a methane rich landfill gas. This gas can be exploited and a growing industry is evolving to t...

K. M. Richards

1988-01-01

239

Treatment of industrial liquid wastes by electrocoagulation: Experimental investigations and an overall interpretation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of treatment of concentrated wastes by electrocoagulation using sacrificial aluminium (Al) anodes. Tests were carried out batchwise in an electrochemical cell with recirculation for various wastes of industrial significance: the technique was shown to allow efficient abatement of the suspensions with concentrations of dissolved Al ranging from 150 to 500mgl-1. Hydrogen evolution

Mohamed Khemis; Jean-Pierre Leclerc; Gaëlle Tanguy; Gérard Valentin; François Lapicque

2006-01-01

240

Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1994-12-01

241

Emissions testing of industrial processes burning hazardous-waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous-waste incinerators are regulated under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). On the other hand processes that produce energy and only incidently burn hazardous-waste materials are currently exempt from the RCRA incinerator regulations. EPA has initiated a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) to determine if and to what degree regulation of such processes may be required. As part of the RIA

R. A. Olexsey; R. E. Mournighan

1984-01-01

242

Emissions from the incineration of electronics industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strategy for dealing with electronics waste is to incinerate the combustible fraction of the waste, either to reduce its volume prior to landfilling or to concentrate valuable metals in the residual ash so they can be reclaimed in a subsequent operation. Since no emissions data are available, experiments were performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator over a range

E. S. Stewart; P. M. Lemieux

2003-01-01

243

Removal of chromium(VI) from electroplating industry wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste product generated in the sugar industry in India has been converted into a cheap potential adsorbent. This has been characterised and utilized for the removal of chromium (VI) from synthetic and actual wastewater. The sorption efficiency decreases with increase in pH. Adsorption of Cr (VI) on bagasse fly ash follows the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and these have

Vinod K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan; Saurabh Sharma; Kuk T. Park

1998-01-01

244

Effect of fluoride on nitrification of a concentrated industrial waste  

SciTech Connect

The potential for biological nitrification of an industrial waste from semiconductor manufacturing containing 4,000 mg of ammonia N (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N) and 10,000 mg of fluoride per liter was investigated. Ammonium sulfate and sodium fluoride were tested in various combinations of 100 to 2,000 mg of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N per liter and 0 to 5,000 mg of F{sup {minus}} per liter in suspended-growth stirred-tank reactors containing enriched cultures of nitrifying bacteria from a municipal sewage treatment plant. The stirred-tank reactors were fed once per day at a constant hydraulic retention period and cell retention time of 10 days. Temperature was 23{degree}C, and pH was 7.0 to 7.5. Clarified secondary effluent was used to make up feeds and to provide minor nutrients. Steady-state data, confirmed by mass balances, were obtained after five to six retention periods. In the absence of fluoride, nitrification efficiency was near 100% for up to 500 mg of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N per liter. The influence of fluoride was studied at a low ammonia concentration (100 mg/liter) and exerted no significant effect on nitrification at concentrations of up to 200 mg/liter. Maximum effect of fluoride was reached at 800 mg of F{sup {minus}} per liter, and no greater inhibition was observed for up to 5,000 mg of F{sup {minus}} per liter. At the highest concentrations studied, ion pairing of ammonium and fluoride may exert a significant effect on kinetic coefficients. Kinetic analyses showed maximum specific substrate removal rates (q{sub max}) of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N to be about 2.3 mg of N per mg of volatile suspended solids per day in the absence of fluoride and 0.85 mg of N per mg of volatile suspended solids per day in the presence of fluoride. The form of inhibition due to the presence of fluoride was shown to be not competitive, conforming to a mixed inhibition model.

Clarkson, W.W.; Collins, A.G.; Sheehan, P.L. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam NY (USA))

1989-01-01

245

Substituting energy crops with organic wastes and agro-industrial residues for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, industrial and agro-industrial by-products and residues (BRs), animal manures (AMs), and various types of organic wastes (OWs) were analyzed to evaluate their suitability as substitutes for energy crops (ECs) in biogas production. A comparison between the costs of the volume of biogas that can be produced from each substrate was presented with respect to the prices of

Andrea Schievano; Giuliana D'Imporzano; Fabrizio Adani

2009-01-01

246

Removal of cadmium and nickel from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse fly ash, an industrial solid waste of sugar industry, was used for the removal of cadmium and nickel from wastewater. As much as 90% removal of cadmium and nickel is possible in about 60 and 80min, respectively, under the batch test conditions. Effect of various operating variables, viz., solution pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature, particle size, etc.,

Vinod K. Gupta; C. K. Jain; Imran Ali; M. Sharma; V. K. Saini

2003-01-01

247

Construction waste management based on industrial management models: a Swedish case study.  

PubMed

This paper describes a methodology for estimating the true internal costs of construction waste, aimed at promoting environmentally friendly waste management. The study employs cost-benefit analysis, contribution margin analysis, the polluter-pays principle and a mathematical model: the model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE), which has been introduced previously by the author for assigning industrial costs to waste. The calculations are performed on construction waste created in a case study of a building project. Moreover, waste is regarded as, in a business sense, having the same basic status as any normal industrial product, namely the 'equality principle'. Application of the methodology is suggested to create incentives for environmental and profitability improvement in construction companies and other types of industrial sectors. The results of the case study show the generation of construction waste to substantially decrease the final operating income, due to the internal shadow price cost it creates. This paper is intended to reduce the gap between the choice of waste management procedures and their economic impact, the overall objective being to accomplish an improved industrial environmental situation. PMID:15751391

Stenis, Jan

2005-02-01

248

Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations of ammonia or long chain fatty acids is in most cases expected to be the cause of microbial inhibitions/imbalances while foaming in the prestorage tanks and digesters is the most important practical process problem at the plants. A correlation between increased residual biogas production (suboptimal process conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate process surveillance, especially with regard to volatile fatty acids, and 4) insufficient pre-storage capacity causing inexpedient mixing and hindering exact dosing of the different waste products. PMID:18957768

Nielsen, H B; Angelidaki, I

2008-01-01

249

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

250

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

251

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

252

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

253

Towards sets of hazardous waste indicators. Essential tools for modern industrial management.  

PubMed

Decision-makers require useful tools, such as indicators, to help them make environmentally sound decisions leading to effective management of hazardous wastes. Four hazardous waste indicators are being tested for such a purpose by several countries within the Sustainable Development Indicator Programme of the United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development. However, these indicators only address the 'down-stream' end-of-pipe industrial situation. More creative thinking is clearly needed to develop a wider range of indicators that not only reflects all aspects of industrial production that generates hazardous waste but considers socio-economic implications of the waste as well. Sets of useful and innovative indicators are proposed that could be applied to the emerging paradigm shift away from conventional end-of-pipe management actions and towards preventive strategies that are being increasingly adopted by industry often in association with local and national governments. A methodological and conceptual framework for the development of a core-set of hazardous waste indicators has been developed. Some of the indicator sets outlined quantify preventive waste management strategies (including indicators for cleaner production, hazardous waste reduction/minimization and life cycle analysis), whilst other sets address proactive strategies (including changes in production and consumption patterns, eco-efficiency, eco-intensity and resource productivity). Indicators for quantifying transport of hazardous wastes are also described. It was concluded that a number of the indicators proposed could now be usefully implemented as management tools using existing industrial and economic data. As cleaner production technologies and waste minimization approaches are more widely deployed, and industry integrates environmental concerns at all levels of decision-making, it is expected that the necessary data for construction of the remaining indicators will soon become available. PMID:12094535

Peterson, Peter J; Granados, Asa

2002-01-01

254

Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

Nges, Ivo Achu, E-mail: Nges.Ivo_Achu@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2012-01-15

255

Basic engineering characteristics of construction materials utilizing industrial waste byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the problems of disposal of waste by-products and depletion of natural construction materials, this research intends to show a promising solution to solve these problems by utilizing waste by-products as viable construction materials. Three different kinds of materials, dihydrate phosphogypsum, by-product aggregate, and incinerator residue, were investigated. The core studies are to evaluate the basic engineering characteristics including

Cheng-I Lai

1990-01-01

256

Mössbauer studies of materials used to immobilise industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity to immobilise waste safely requires the development of stable materials. Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used to help understand and obtain desirable properties in alkali borosilicate glasses, phosphate glasses and vitrified sewage sludge ash. Phosphate glasses suitable for waste immobilisation have been microwaved and conventionally melted and differences reported. The environment of Fe in promising ceramics has also been studied. Mössbauer studies of irradiated vitrified wasteforms show their resistance to radiation damage.

Forder, S. D.; Bingham, P. A.; McGann, O. J.; Stennett, M. C.; Hyatt, N. C.

2013-04-01

257

Analysis of the stability of high-solids anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The pilot-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of agro-industrial wastes and sewage sludge was analysed in terms of stability by monitoring the most common parameters used to check the performance of anaerobic digesters, i.e. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen, pH, alkalinity and methane production. The results reflected similar evolution for the parameters analysed, except for an experiment that presented an unsuccessful start-up. The rest of the experiments ran successfully, although the threshold values proposed in the literature for the detection of an imbalance in wet processes were exceeded, proving the versatility of HS-AD to treat different wastes. The results evidence the need for understanding the dynamics of a high-solids system so as to detect periods of imbalance and to determine inhibitory levels for different compounds formed during anaerobic decomposition. Moreover, the findings presented here could be useful in developing an experimental basis to construct new control strategies for HS-AD. PMID:23859986

Aymerich, E; Esteban-Gutiérrez, M; Sancho, L

2013-09-01

258

Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.  

PubMed

Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO?-intensive. But most CO? is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other. PMID:22573713

Thomanetz, Erwin

2012-04-01

259

Biological industrial waste treatment. January 1980-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Feb 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sluge proccesses, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 140 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1992-01-01

260

Utilizing urban and dairy wastes to provide energy for industry  

SciTech Connect

Technologies rated highest for the co-utilization of urban and dairy wastes are PUROX II, biodigestion, and multiple hearth incinerators. A combination of processes such as biodigestion, with the digested sludge being fed to an Andco-Torrax of multiple hearth furnace, has the potential of producing a clean burning fuel gas and an inert residue, codisposing of dairy wastes, and minimizing air emissions. If it is decided to proceed with a single-purpose project such as disposing of only municipal refuse, then the use of refuse-derived fuel in boilers, Andco-Torrax, and mass-burning waterwall incinerators should also be considered.

Humphreys, G.B.; Escobar, B.C.

1980-01-01

261

WASTE TO VALUE: INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS FOR SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Technical Challenge: Investigators will examine the role of technology innovations as well as environmental justice (EJ) obligations in initiating and implementing urban-industrial symbiosis in Commerce City (CC), CO. The sustainability challenge invol...

262

Chemical durability of glasses obtained by vitrification of industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The vitrification of zinc-hydrometallurgy wastes, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), drainage mud, and granite mud was shown to immobilize the hazardous components in these wastes. Batch compositions were prepared by mixing the wastes with glass-cullet and sand to force the final glass composition into the glass forming region of the SiO2-Fe2O3-(CaO, MgO) system. The vitrification was carried out in the 1400-1450 degrees C temperature range followed by quenching in water or on stainless steel mold. The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used as a standard method for evaluating the leachability of the elements in the glasses and glass-ceramics samples made with different percentages of wastes. The results for EAFD glasses highlighted that the chemical stability is influenced by the glass structure formed, which, in turn, depends on the Si/O ratio in the glass. The chemical durability of jarosite glasses and glass-ceramics was evaluated by 24 h contact in NaOH, HCl and Na2CO3, at 95 degrees C. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing pyroxene (J40) are more durable than the parent glass in HCl. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing magnetite type spinels (J50) have a durability similar to the parent glass and even lower in HCl because the magnetite is soluble in HCl. PMID:11150126

Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Karamanov, A; Pelino, M

2001-01-01

263

Borax Production from Borax Slime, an Industrial Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borax slime is formed during the production of borax from tincal, which is an important borate ore. It is a liquid containing the suspanded solid particles at high levels and is formed under the rich-in-borax solution in the reactor. This waste is discharged into the Marmara Sea and so causes environmental problems in Bandirma Golf. In this work, Borax production

Recep Boncukcuo?lu; M. Muhtar Kocakkerim; Mahir Alkan

1998-01-01

264

HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the results of several studies relating to hazardous waste combustion in cement and lime kilns. The tests included in the study are four kilns tested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, four kilns tested by State agencies or the kiln operator, two C...

265

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Botswana  

SciTech Connect

Botswana is a landlocked country which straddles the Tropic of Capricorn in the center of the Southern African plateau. The total land area of the country is 582,000 sq km and the population is about 1.3 million inhabitants. The climate is mainly arid or semi-arid. Most rivers are ephemeral and the water supply comes mainly from several thousand boreholes. A few dams have also been constructed to satisfy the ever increasing need for water in the urban areas, industrial as well as irrigation uses. Water is a very scarce commodity in Botswana and it has to be very well protected from any kind of pollution. This need is emphasized by the fact that a lot of wastewater is being generated due to rapid rate of industrialization because of favorable economic situation for the past few years. The main industries are at present mining and livestock industries. Besides tanning, metal plating, dairy and chemical industries, breweries are also causing pollution problems as well as oils and chemicals used in industries, garages and agriculture.

Magibisela, F.

1990-09-11

266

TRANSPORT PLANNING MODEL FOR WIDE AREA RECYCLING SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE PLASTIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the majority of industrial waste plastic generated in an urban city has been processed into landfill. However, it is now necessary to actively utilize that plastic as a useful resource to create a recycling society with a low environment influence. In order to construct a reasonable recycling system, it is necessary to address the "transportation problem," which means determining how much industrial waste plastic is to be transported to what location. With the goal of eliminating landfill processing, this study considers a transport planning model for industrial waste plastic applying linear programming. The results of running optimized calculations under given scenarios clarified not only the possibilities for recycle processing in the Metropolitan area, but also the validity of wide area recycling system.

Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hisashi; Koizumi, Akira; Mogi, Satoshi

267

Industrial hardboard and other panels binder from waste lignocellulosic liquors\\/phenol-formaldehyde resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a waste chestnut-wood lignocellulosic black liquor composed in almost equal parts of carbohydrates coming from\\u000a partially degraded hemicelluloses, of non-sulphited lignin and of low reactivity hydrolysable chestnut tannin, produced as\\u000a waste from the humid-type binderless hardboard manufacturing process has been shown to be very useful at industrial level\\u000a for coreaction with simple, unsophisticated PF resins and flocculation

A. Trosa; A. Pizzi

1998-01-01

268

Testing various food-industry wastes for electricity production in microbial fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three food-industry wastes: fermented apple juice (FAJ), wine lees and yogurt waste (YW) were evaluated in combination with two sources of inoculum, anaerobic sludge and garden compost, to produce electricity in microbial fuel cells. Preliminary potentiostatic studies suggested that YW was the best candidate, able to provide up to 250mA\\/m2 at poised potential +0.3V\\/SCE. Experiments conducted with two-chamber MFCs confirmed

Bibiana Cercado-Quezada; Marie-Line Delia; Alain Bergel

2010-01-01

269

Biodegradation of agro-industrial orange waste under solid state fermentation and natural environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the possibility of the re-use of agro-industrial orange peel and pulp wastes under solid state fermentation and natural environmental condition as a source of enzymes production (? & ? amylase, cellulase, pectinase(s), lipase(s), esterase(s) and peroxidase(s)) the physiological enzymes of lysis and total protein. Different microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and yeast which were charged of waste analyse

Shahera H. Attyia; Sanaa M. Ashour

270

Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

M Murto; L Björnsson; B Mattiasson

2004-01-01

271

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste

Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

2009-01-01

272

Case studies of new waste conservation and recycle methods for the electroplating industry  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents case studies of new waste conservation and recycle methods for the electroplating industry. Electroplating shops can save water and substantially reduce hazardous waste generation by reducing plating solution drag-out; employing one or several still rinse tanks; and routing plating rinse tank solution to the acid dip rinse tank, and acid dip rinse tank solution to the alkaline cleaning rinse tank -- a technique termed `reactive rinsing`. See the Case Study Summaries Door for additional information.

Saltzberg, E.R.; Hunt, G.

1995-08-01

273

A methodology for optimising feed composition for anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimisation protocol for maximising methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of several wastes was carried out. A linear programming method was utilised to set up different blends aimed at maximising the total substrate biodegradation potential (L CH4\\/kg substrate) or the biokinetic potential (L CH4\\/kg substrate d). In order to validate the process, three agro-industrial wastes were considered: pig manure, tuna

J. A. Álvarez; L. Otero; J. M. Lema

2010-01-01

274

Preliminary Study on the Supply of Industrial Water by Advanced Treatment of Waste Water Discharged from a Sewage Treatment Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reuse of waste water in closed circuit as industrial water after centralized treatment, but without passage through the soil, was studied for application in a newly developed industrial area which includes a sewage treatment plant. The quality of the ...

D. Wallisch

1981-01-01

275

Binational management of hazardous waste: The maquiladora industry at the US-Mexico border  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreign-owned industry in the form of assembly plants, termed maquiladora, has become very important in Mexico to the extent that it represents the second largest source of foreign exchange and is a valuable source for employment and regional development. The economic prosperity gained from the rapid growth of the maquiladora industry has been accompanied by increased environmental and human health risks associated with generation of hazardous waste. Diversification of industry has resulted in the predomination of those sectors that likely use hazardous substances. The Mexicali-Calexico border region was selected to demonstrate the potential for environmental and health risks associated with the generation of hazardous waste. Estimates for the generation of hazardous waste were obtained from 34 maquiladora plants in Mexicali, represented by the electronic and electrical equipment and parts, mechanical and transportation equipment, and toys and sporting equipment sectors. Repeated detection of volatile organic compounds in the New River at the US-Mexico border suggests that hazardous waste from the printed circuit board industry in Mexicali is not being disposed of in a proper manner. Potential adverse health effects, such as carcinogenic and mutagenic responses associated with the detected volatiles, are discussed. US and Mexico national legislation and the Binational Environmental Agreement were examined for their adequacy to ensure proper management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry. Environmental policy options are presented that focus on: (1) increased environmental accountability of US parent companies for their maquiladora assembly plants in Mexico; and (2) more integration between US Customs and border states with the US Environmental Protection Agency to improve the binational management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry.

Perry, Diane M.; Sanchez, Roberto; Glaze, William H.; Mazari, Marisa

1990-07-01

276

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-07-01

277

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14+/-1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85+/-0.19 million t representing 37.22+/-6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait. PMID:14583244

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-01-01

278

Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

1997-07-01

279

Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Results Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Conclusion Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

2014-01-01

280

Evaluation of current underground injection of industrial waste in Illinois. Final draft report  

SciTech Connect

Illinois state legislation enacted in 1984 required that the Department of Energy and Natural Resources conduct an in-depth assessment of the regulations and regulatory practices of the Illinois Underground Injection Control (UIC) program as it relates to injection of industrial wastes (hazardous types) in Class I waste disposal wells. The objectives of the assessment are to determine whether underground injection is an appropriate method of waste disposal in Illinois and to provide recommendations to the Legislature, Legislative Council, Governor's office and state agencies concerning the disposal practice.

Brower, R.D.; Krapac, I.G.; Hensel, B.R.; Visocky, A.P.; Pevton, G.R.

1986-03-01

281

Bioconversion of herbal industry waste into vermicompost using an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bioconversion of industrial herbal waste to vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermibeds were made using a mixture of herbal waste and cowdung (1?:?1) in comparison with the use of cowdung alone as substrate, resulting in vermicomposts 1 and 2, respectively. Different parameters were studied and it was observed that the nutrient profile of vermicompost 1 strongly influenced the growth of pea (Pisum sativum) and marigold plant (Tagetus erectus). The dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots, number of flowers, total yield in terms of fruit showed significant increase with vermicompost 1. Furthermore, vermicompost 1 (herbal waste and cow dung as substrate) resulted in a significant reduction in TOC by 58% in comparison with vermicompost 2 (cowdung as substrate). The C?:?N ratio was less than 20 in vermicompost 1 as well as in vermicompost 2, which indicated an advanced degree of stabilization and mineralization. The ability of earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermibed fed with the herbal waste indicates the sustainability and efficiency of a heterogeneous kind of organic waste. The results of the study suggested that bulk industrial herbal waste can be utilized as a substrate for vermicomposting and this can be proposed as an alternative for waste disposal in a clean green manner, promoting the concept of organic farming. PMID:20952444

Kumari, Mamta; Kumar, Sudhir; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Ravikanth, K

2011-11-01

282

Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems.

2010-01-01

283

Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: current state of the field and primary challenges.  

PubMed

A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations. PMID:20015592

Salihoglu, Güray

2010-05-15

284

Health care industries: potential generators of genotoxic waste.  

PubMed

Health care waste includes all the waste generated by health care establishments, research facilities, and laboratories. This constitutes a variety of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals, radionuclides, solvents, and disinfectants. Recently, scientists and environmentalists have discovered that wastewater produced by hospitals possesses toxic properties due to various toxic chemicals and pharmaceuticals capable of causing environmental impacts and even lethal effects to organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Many of these compounds resist normal wastewater treatment and end up in surface waters. Besides aquatic organisms, humans can be exposed through drinking water produced from contaminated surface water. Indeed, some of the substances found in wastewaters are genotoxic and are suspected to be potential contributors to certain cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of wastewaters from two hospitals and three clinical diagnostic centers located in Jaipur (Rajasthan State), India using the prokaryotic Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames assay) and the eukaryotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiration inhibition assay. In the Ames assay, untreated wastewaters from both of the health care sectors resulted in significantly increased numbers of revertant colonies up to 1,000-4,050 as measured by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains (with and without metabolic activation) after exposure to undiluted samples, which indicated the highly genotoxic nature of these wastewaters. Furthermore, both hospital and diagnostic samples were found to be highly cytotoxic. Effective concentrations at which 20 % (EC20) and 50 % (EC50) inhibition of the respiration rate of the cells occurred ranged between ~0.00 and 0.52 % and between 0.005 and 41.30 % (calculated with the help of the MS excel software XLSTAT 2012.1.01; Addinsoft), respectively, as determined by the S. cerevisiae assay. The results indicated that hospital wastewaters contain genotoxic and cytotoxic components. In addition, diagnostic centers also represent small but significant sources of genotoxic and cytotoxic wastes. PMID:23361179

Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Manish; Mathur, N; Singh, A; Bhatnagar, P; Sogani, M

2013-08-01

285

Microbial processing of volatile organics in industrial waste streams  

SciTech Connect

A strain of Pseudomonas putida has been isolated which tolerates and metabolizes toluene and p-xylene. In the authors laboratory, this isolate has undergone selection and adaptation and presently is able to grow under a layer of 100% p-xylene. From batch studies the initial rates of degradation are 1-3 mg/min/L. This strain of P. putida also tolerates the presence of a nonionic surfactant while still maintaining its metabolic activity. Preliminary testing using this isolate under chemostat conditions indicates that the potential for developing a bioprocess to treat these waste solvents may be possible.

Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Higdem, D.M. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States))

1992-01-01

286

An assessment of the chemical composition of precipitation and throughfall in rural-industrial gradient in wet subtropics (southern Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of bulk precipitation and throughfall were analyzed, during a 1-year period (2002), in rural–urban-industry\\u000a gradients with similar forest cover (Eucalyptus spp.) in southern Brazil (Rio Grande and Porto Alegre cities). Values of pH varied from 5.0–5.1 in rural to 5.4–6.1 in industrial\\u000a sites, and were intermediate in urban sites. The major ions in bulk precipitation were Na+,

M. R. Casartelli; N. Mirlean; M. C. Peralba; S. Barrionuevo; M. X. Gómez-Rey; M. Madeira

2008-01-01

287

Maternal residential proximity to waste sites and industrial facilities and conotruncal heart defects in offspring.  

PubMed

Most studies of the relationship between maternal residential proximity to sources of environmental pollution and congenital cardiovascular malformations have combined heart defects into one group or broad subgroups. The current case-control study examined whether risk of conotruncal heart defects, including subsets of specific defects, was associated with maternal residential proximity to hazardous waste sites and industrial facilities with recorded air emissions. Texas Birth Defects Registry cases were linked to their birth or fetal death certificate. Controls without birth defects were randomly selected from birth certificates. Distances from maternal addresses at delivery to National Priority List (NPL) waste sites, state superfund waste sites, and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities were determined for 1244 cases (89.5% of those eligible) and 4368 controls (88.0%). Living within 1 mile of a hazardous waste site was not associated with risk of conotruncal heart defects [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.54, 1.27]. This was true whether looking at most types of defects or waste sites. Only truncus arteriosus showed statistically elevated ORs with any waste site (crude OR: 2.80, 95% CI 1.19, 6.54) and with NPL sites (crude OR: 4.63, 95% CI 1.18, 13.15; aOR 4.99, 95% CI 1.26, 14.51), but the latter was based on only four exposed cases. There was minimal association between conotruncal heart defects and proximity to TRI facilities (aOR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.91, 1.33). Stratification by maternal age or race/ethnic group made little difference in effect estimates for waste sites or industrial facilities. In this study population, maternal residential proximity to waste sites or industries with reported air emissions was not associated with conotruncal heart defects or its subtypes in offspring, with the exception of truncus arteriosus. PMID:19523079

Langlois, Peter H; Brender, Jean D; Suarez, Lucina; Zhan, F Benjamin; Mistry, Jatin H; Scheuerle, Angela; Moody, Karen

2009-07-01

288

Isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates producing bacteria from pulp, paper, and cardboard industry wastes.  

PubMed

Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236?g/L and 4.042?g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production. PMID:24288534

Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

2013-01-01

289

Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions  

SciTech Connect

United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

2006-04-01

290

Bacterial amelioration of bauxite residue waste of industrial alumina plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The high alkali content of bauxite residue deposits from alumina production plants in industrial nations poses a challenge\\u000a to reestablish flora and fauna at the deposit sites. The present study demonstrated that low levels of injured bacterial cells\\u000a in the bauxite residue actively grew using various added nutrients and\\/or hay. The organisms grew from less than 10 to more\\u000a than

M K Hamdy; F S Williams

2001-01-01

291

A methodology for optimising feed composition for anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

An optimisation protocol for maximising methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of several wastes was carried out. A linear programming method was utilised to set up different blends aimed at maximising the total substrate biodegradation potential (L CH(4)/kg substrate) or the biokinetic potential (L CH(4)/kg substrate d). In order to validate the process, three agro-industrial wastes were considered: pig manure, tuna fish waste and biodiesel waste, and the results obtained were validated by experimental studies in discontinuous assays. The highest biodegradation potential (321 L CH(4)/kg COD) was reached with a mixture composed of 84% pig manure, 5% fish waste and 11% biodiesel waste, while the highest methane production rate (16.4 L CH(4)/kg COD d) was obtained by a mixture containing 88% pig manure, 4% fish waste and 8% biodiesel waste. Linear programming was proved to be a powerful, useful and easy-to-use tool to estimate methane production in co-digestion units where different substrates can be fed. PMID:19833510

Alvarez, J A; Otero, L; Lema, J M

2010-02-01

292

Adsorption studies on the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using a low cost fertilizer industry waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost fertilizer industry waste material called carbon slurry, produced in generators of fuel oil-based industrial generators, was converted into an effective and efficient adsorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. The waste was chemically treated, activated, characterized, and used for the adsorption of chromium. The work involves batch experiments to investigate the effect of contact time,

Vinod K. Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; Arunima Nayak

2010-01-01

293

Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

294

ASSESSMENT OF HAZARD POTENTIAL FROM COMBUSTION OF WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the extent of the present onsite use of waste fuel in industrial boilers and related process equipment, the nature and quantities of the materials so disposed of, and current regulations concerning such use. The study responds to a...

295

Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

296

Opportunities for Direct-Contact Waste Heat Recuperators for Industrial Heat Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to identify and assess the potential industrial applications of the direct-contact waste heat recuperator (DCWHR) for the 353 to 672 exp 0 K temperature range was conducted. The DCWHR increases the heat transfer area per unit volume over typical h...

S. L. Richlen T. T. Semler

1981-01-01

297

Prediction of unconfined compressive strength of cement paste containing industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural network analysis was used to construct models of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) as a function of mix composition using existing data from literature studies of Portland cement containing real industrial wastes. The models were able to represent the known non-linear dependency of UCS on curing time and water content, and generalised from the literature data to find relationships between

J. A Stegemann; N. R Buenfeld

2003-01-01

298

Xylan-decomposing fungi and xylanolytic activity in agricultural and industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening of xylan-decomposing filamentous fungi were carried out in two agricultural and one industrial wastes (30 samples each) collected from Qena Governorate (South Valley) using xylan agar medium. Twenty-six species representing 13 genera were identified from rice straw, wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse on the medium used. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. corylophilum, P. funiculosum, P. oxalicum and

M. A Abdel-Sater; A. H. M El-Said

2001-01-01

299

A multiobjective optimization model for the waste management of the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiobjective optimization model based on the goal programming approach is proposed in this paper to assist in the proper management of hazardous waste generated by the petrochemical industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a decision-making approach, incorporating qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, is incorporated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals usually encountered when addressing the

Abdulaziz S. Alidi

1996-01-01

300

Defusing the Toxics Threat: Controlling Pesticides and Industrial Waste. Worldwatch Paper 79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of pesticides in agriculture and the discarding of industrial chemical waste into the air, soil, and water constitute two major pathways of human exposure to toxic substances. It is argued that these practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. Speculation continues into…

Postel, Sandra

301

Cellulase production by solid state fermentation on lignocellulosic waste from the xylose industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulase production was carried out by solid state fermentation using corncob residue, a lignocellulosic waste from the xylose industry, as the substrate of Trichoderma reesei ZU-02. The effects of water content, dosage of wheat bran and initial pH value in solid substrate on cellulase synthesis were studied in shallow tray fermentors. The solid substrate could be reused in at least

Liming Xia; Peilin Cen

1999-01-01

302

Solidification of Industrial Waste Sludge with Incineration Fly Ash and Ordinary Portland Cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solidification studies were conducted using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) incineration fly ash to solidify and stabilise three different types of industrial sludge. A total of eight mix proportions for each sludge type were prepared for compressive strength and leachate tests. The specimens were air-cured and tested for their 3-day and 7-day compressive strength. The results

Ong Chuon Yi; Chui Peng Cheong

303

Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47°C for

Nicholas M. Musyoka; Leslie F. Petrik; Gillian Balfour; Wilson M. Gitari; Eric Hums

2011-01-01

304

SFW-Funk Process for Gasification of Solid Urban and Industrial Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was the purpose of the R+D-project, to develop the SFW-Funk process for gasification of solid urban and industrial waste for commercial plants. On the base of a literature study and some experiments on a laboratory plant, a demonstration plant was desi...

H. Hummelsiep F. Heinrich

1982-01-01

305

A MARINE ALGAL BIOASSAY METHOD: RESULTS WITH PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple marine algal bioassay method is described for short- and long-term studies on pesticides and industrial wastes. It can be used for rapid screening of a variety of substances with single-species and multiple-species tests and gives relative toxicities of the pollutants te...

306

Incorporation of wastes from granite rock cutting and polishing industries to produce roof tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aimed at studying the incorporation of wastes from natural rock cutting and polishing to produce roof tiles. The sintered products incorporating the sludge were targeted to have similar or even enhanced properties in comparison to those made of a standard reference paste industrially used to fabricate concurrent products available in the market. Firstly, the raw materials, including

P. Torres; H. R. Fernandes; S. Olhero; J. M. F. Ferreira

2009-01-01

307

Sugars metabolism and ethanol production by different yeast strains from coffee industry wastes hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of wastes are generated by the coffee industry, among of which, coffee silverskin (CS) and spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundantly generated during the beans roasting and instant coffee preparation, respectively. This study evaluated the sugars metabolism and production of ethanol by three different yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis and Kluyveromyces fragilis) when cultivated in

Solange I. Mussatto

2012-01-01

308

CLASTOGENICITY EVALUATION OF SEVEN CHEMICALS COMMONLY FOUND AT UNCONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven chemicals commonly found at industrial waste sites were tested with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay to evaluate their clastogenic potential. They were: Aldrin, arsenic trioxide, l,2 benz(a,h)anthracene, dieldrin, heptachlor, lead tetraacetate, and tetrachloro...

309

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

310

Prediction of gas emissions in an internally circulating fluidized bed combustor for treatment of industrial solid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of an ICFB waste combustor are reported with a mathematical model that includes reaction kinetics related to carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur content of industrial waste. The model assumes formation of volatile and char during the thermal treatment of wastes, followed by a series of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions catalyzed by bed material such as char and ash+sand.

L. Mukadi; C. Guy; R. Legros

2000-01-01

311

Recovery of organic wastes in the Spanish wine industry. Technical, economic and environmental analyses of the composting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main organic wastes produced in modern wine industries include grape pomace (62%), lees (14%), stalk (12%) and dewatered sludge (12%). Some of these wastes are being used as by-products (grape pomace and lees) whereas the rest of organic wastes (stalk and wastewater sludge) has been traditionally incinerated or disposed in landfill. In this work, composting is proposed for the

Luz Ruggieri; Erasmo Cadena; Julia Martínez-Blanco; Carles M. Gasol; Joan Rieradevall; Xavier Gabarrell; Teresa Gea; Xavier Sort; Antoni Sánchez

2009-01-01

312

Survey: suitability of clay beds for storage of industrial solid wastes. Report to Texas Water Quality Board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfills are a practical and economic solution for the disposal of industrial wastes. Such landfills must be properly designed and operated to insure that undesirable substances do not leach from the wastes into the surrounding biosphere. A project undertaken to develop test procedures that could be used to design landfills or clay pits, as solid waste repositories is described. The

R. L. Sanks; J. M. LaPlante; E. F. Gloyna

1975-01-01

313

Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste heat recovery, and food industry wastes from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and processing of fruits and vegetables. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer, and uses in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste is also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

314

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

315

New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 5. Analysis of solid waste impacts  

SciTech Connect

This study provides an analysis of the impacts of emission controls on disposal of solid wastes from coal-fired industrial boilers. Examination is made of boiler systems, coal types, emission control alternatives, waste streams, waste disposal and utilization alternatives, and pertinent Federal regulations. Twenty-four representative model case scenarios are studied in detail. Expected disposal/utilization alternatives and disposal costs are developed. Comparison of the systems studied indicates that the most cost-effective SO/sub 2/ control technologies from the perspective of waste disposal cost per unit SO/sub 2/ control are, in decreasing order: physically cleaned coal/double alkali combination; double alkali; lime/limestone; spray drying; fluidized-bed combustion; and sodium throwaway.

Boldt, K.; Davis, H.; Delaney, B.; Grundahl, N.; Hyde, R.; Malloch, R.; Tusa, W.

1980-09-01

316

Low-energy treatment of colourant wastes using sponge biofilters for the personal care product industry.  

PubMed

Four trickling biofilter designs were assessed as low-energy alternatives to aerobic activated sludge (AS) for the treatment of personal care product industry wastes. The designs included partially submerged packed-media and sponge reactors with and without active aeration. Partial submergence was used to reduce active aeration needs. Simulated colourant wastes (up to COD=12,480 mg/L, TN=128 mg/L) were treated for 201 days, including wastes with elevated oxidant levels. COD and TN removal efficiencies were always >79% and >30% (even without aeration). However, aerated sponge reactors consistently had the highest removal efficiencies, especially for TN (?60%), and were most tolerant of elevated oxidants. This study shows sponge biofilters have great potential for treating colourant wastes because they achieve high treatment efficiencies and reduce energy use by >40% relative to AS systems. PMID:23294645

Ahammad, S Z; Zealand, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Armstrong, D V; Graham, D W

2013-02-01

317

Prediction of unconfined compressive strength of cement paste containing industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Neural network analysis was used to construct models of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) as a function of mix composition using existing data from literature studies of Portland cement containing real industrial wastes. The models were able to represent the known non-linear dependency of UCS on curing time and water content, and generalised from the literature data to find relationships between UCS and quantities of five waste types. Substantial decreases in UCS were caused by all wastes; except for EAF dust, the effect was nonlinear with the greatest decrease caused initially by approx. 12% plating sludge, 40% foundry dust, 58% other ash, and 72% MSWI fly ash by mass of dry product. It appears that the maximum waste additions used in modelling may approximate the practical limits of waste additions used in modelling may approximate the practical limits of waste addition to Portland cement, i.e., 50% plating sludge or EAF dust, 64% foundry dust, 92% other ash, and 85% MSWI fly ash by mass of dry product. The laboratory was found to be a key predictive variable and acted as a surrogate for laboratory-specific variables related to cement composition, strength and hardening class, product mixing and preparation details, laboratory conditions, and testing details. While the neural network modelling approach has been shown to be feasible, development of better models would require larger data sets with more complete information regarding laboratory-specific variables and waste composition. PMID:12781220

Stegemann, J A; Buenfeld, N R

2003-01-01

318

Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Waste Tanks: A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry, and Water Vapor Transport  

SciTech Connect

This study combines laboratory, field, and numerical experiments with the following objectives: to investigate the effect of elevated surface tension, density, and viscosity of highly saline fluids on soil water-retention properties, wetting front instability, the formation and persistence of fingers, and contaminant mobility to investigate the conditions under which osmotically driven vapor flux is operative and quantify its impact on plume transport to develop and incorporate a theory describing these processes into an existing DOE-developed, numerical simulator to allow prediction of contaminant migration at realistic spatial and temporal scales. The product will be a tool that DOE can use to perform more realistic analyses to predict fate and transport of high ionic-strength contaminants, evaluate different tank waste retrieval strategies and their impact on the vadose zone, and assess the associated health risks.

Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon; Selker, John; Tyler, Scott

2000-06-01

319

Bacterial amelioration of bauxite residue waste of industrial alumina plants.  

PubMed

The high alkali content of bauxite residue deposits from alumina production plants in industrial nations poses a challenge to reestablish flora and fauna at the deposit sites. The present study demonstrated that low levels of injured bacterial cells in the bauxite residue actively grew using various added nutrients and/or hay. The organisms grew from less than 10 to more than 10(9) cells g(-1) bauxite residue and formed organic acids that lowered the pH from 13 to about 7.0. A total of 150 cultures was isolated from treated bauxite residue and included species of Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Enterobacter. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrated that untreated particles (control) of the bauxite residue were clumped together, and in treated bauxite residue these particles were highly dispersed with microcolonial structures. Furthermore, the treated bauxite residue supported growth of several plants and earthworms that survived for over 300 days. In a test plot bioremediation on a residue deposit at Alcoa Point Comfort, TX, the Bermuda grass hay used was effective mulch material and encouraged water filtration, leading to establishment and growth of salt-tolerant vegetative species. PMID:11687935

Hamdy, M K; Williams, F S

2001-10-01

320

Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb >?Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system. PMID:22623168

Banerjee, U S; Gupta, S

2013-03-01

321

The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Commercial and industrial waste samples collected. > Samples analysed for calorific value, moisture, ash and elemental composition. > Values similar to those of municipal solid waste and refuse derived fuel. > Sampled waste could be used in current energy recovery systems with minimal retrofitting. > Sampled waste could account 6.5% towards the UK's 2020 renewable electricity target if all qualifying waste is used. - Abstract: With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C and IW). In this study, samples of C and IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C and IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47 MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C and IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9 GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000 tpa. This value rose to 27.0 GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C and IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6 TWh, 1.9% of the national demand thereby contributing 6.5% towards the UK's 2020 renewable electricity target.

Lupa, Christopher J., E-mail: c.lupa@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Ricketts, Lois J. [Stopford Energy and Environment, Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Sweetman, Andy [Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Herbert, Ben M.J. [Stopford Energy and Environment, Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

2011-08-15

322

The role of bioremediation in the treatment of gas industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation is a technology that integrates microbiology, ecology, chemistry, geology, and engineering in order to solve a major problem in today`s society, restoration of our environment This is not a collection of abstract disciplines, but a new and functional technology based on processes with a long, successful history, that is, biological waste treatment. Sewage and wastewater treatment, composting, and landfills are mature sources and starting points of this technology, but the complexity of manmade or man-released hazardous wastes in the heterogeneous matrices of contaminated water, soil, and sediment requires diligent research and development for successful application of bioremediation. The technology is being applied to various sites contaminated by organic and inorganic toxic compounds or elements, and these processes, techniques, and data can be tested and applied to the gas industry`s contaminated environments. An immediate opportunity for the application of this technology is manufactured town gas sites. Ongoing research into the remediation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cyanides - which are common gas industry associated wastes - is leading to an awareness of limitations of biodegradation of these compounds and to possible technical and engineering paradigms required to overcome or minimize them. Future research in microbiology, ecology, and engineering of bioremediation should lead to effective remediation technologies for present and future challenges facing this industry.

Paterek, J.R.

1993-12-31

323

[Use of basidiomycetes in industrial waste processing and utilization technologies: fundamental and applied aspects (review)].  

PubMed

This review provides an analysis of recent data on the mechanisms of degradation of lignocellulosic materials and xenobiotics by basidiomycetes. Special attention is given to the analysis of the current state of research of ligninolytic enzymes and their involvement in the degradation ofxenobiotics. Data on the practical use of basidiomycetes for bioconversion of industrial wastes are systematized. The most promising areas of bioconversion technologies are considered, such as contaminated water purification (including wastewater), cleanup of soils contaminated with heavy metals and xenobiotics, and degradation of difficult-to-degrade substrates (lignin and lignocellulose wastes, low-energy coal, and synthetic polymers). PMID:22288190

Kulikova, H A; Klia?n, O I; Stepanova, E V; Koroleva, O V

2011-01-01

324

Carbonization of Forestal Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Waste as Well as of Organic Municipal Waste and Practical Utilization of the Recovered Products (Char, Gas, Pyrolysis Oil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the project was to obtain detailed information on the energy utilization of organic waste from forest, agriculture, agro-industry and municipalities by carbonization. The goals of the research program were: to obtain precise figures about th...

H. Reger

1985-01-01

325

Metal oxides remove hydrogen sulfide from landfill gas produced from waste mixed with plaster board under wet conditions.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major odorant in landfills. We have studied H2S production from landfill residual waste with and without sulfur-containing plaster board, including the influence of the water content in the waste. The laboratory experiments were conducted in 30-L polyethylene containers with a controlled water level. We also studied how different materials removed H2S in reactive layers on top of the waste. The organic waste produced H2S in concentrations of up to 40 parts per million (ppm) over a period of 80 days. When plaster board was added, the H2S concentration increased to 800 ppm after a lag period of approximately 40 days with a high water level, and to approximately 100 ppm after 50 days with a low water level. The methane (CH4) concentration in the initial experiment was between 5 and 70% after 80 days. The CH4 concentration in the second experiment increased to nearly 70% in the container with a high water level, slowly declining to approximately 60% between days 20 and 60. The CH4 concentrations during the experiments resembled normal landfill concentrations. Metallic filter materials were very efficient in removing H2S, whereas organic filter materials showed poor H2S removal. PMID:18720651

Bergersen, Ove; Haarstad, Ketil

2008-08-01

326

Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.  

PubMed

Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. PMID:22739430

Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

2012-10-01

327

Spectroscopic and wet chemical characterization of solid waste organic matter of different age in landfill sites, southern Germany.  

PubMed

Landfill sites are potential sources of hazardous emissions by degradation and transformation processes of waste organic matter. Its chemical composition and microbial degradability are key factors for risk management, after-care, and estimation of potential emissions. The aim of the study is to provide information about composition and extent of transformation of waste organic matter in four landfill sites in Bavaria, Southern Germany by means of (13)C NMR spectroscopy, acid-hydrolyzable carbohydrates, chloroform-methanol extractable lipids, acid-hydrolyzable proteins, and lignin compounds after CuO oxidation. Ten samples of about 20 to 25 yr, 15 to 20 yr, and 5 to 10 yr of deposition each were taken at 2 m depth intervals by grab drilling till 10-m depth. Increasing temperatures from about 15 degrees C at 2-m depth to >40 degrees C at 10-m depth are found at some of the sites, representing optimum conditions for mesophile methane bacteria. Moisture contents of 160 to 310 g kg(-1) (oven dry), however, provide limiting conditions for anaerobic biodecay. Spectroscopic and chemical variables generally indicate a low extent of biodegradation and transformation at all sites despite a considerable heterogeneity of the samples. Independent of the time and depth of deposition more than 50% of the carbohydrate fraction of the waste organic matter provide a high potential for methane emissions and on-site energy production. There was no significant accumulation of long-chain organic and aromatic compounds, and of lignin degradation products even after more than 25 yr of rotting indicating higher extent of decomposition or stabilization of the waste organic matter. Installation of seepage water cleaning and recirculation systems are recommended to increase suboptimal moisture contents with respect to microbial methanogenesis, energy production, and long-term stabilization of municipal solid waste. PMID:18178887

Bäumler, Rupert; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2008-01-01

328

An alternative method for the treatment of waste produced at a dye and a metal-plating industry using natural and/or waste materials.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop cost-effective, appropriate solidification technologies for treating hazardous industrial wastes that are currently disposed of in ways that may threaten the quality of local groundwater. One major objective was to use materials other than cement, and preferably materials that are themselves wastes, as the solidification additives, namely using wastes to treat wastes or locally available natural material. This research examines the cement-based and lime-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) techniques applied for waste generated at a metal-plating industry and a dye industry. For the lime-based S/S process the following binder mixtures were used: cement kiln dust/ lime, bentonite/lime and gypsum/lime. For the cement-based S/S process three binder mixtures were used: cement kiln dust/cement, bentonite/cement and gypsum/cement. The leachability of the wastes was evaluated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. The applicability and optimum weight ratio of the binder mixtures were estimated using the unconfined compressive strength test. The optimum ratio mixtures were mixed with waste samples in different ratios and cured for 28 days in order to find the S/S products with the highest strength and lowest leachability at the same time. The results of this work showed that the cement-and lime-based S/S process, using cement kiln dust and bentonite as additives can be effectively used in order to treat industrial waste. PMID:15462330

Fatta, Despo; Papadopoulos, Achilleas; Stefanakis, Nikos; Loizidou, Maria; Savvides, Chrysanthos

2004-08-01

329

Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System  

EPA Science Inventory

This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

330

Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.  

PubMed

To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs. PMID:22916438

Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

2012-08-01

331

Waste-to-energy possibilities for industrial olive and grape by-products in Extremadura  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive and grape agro-industrial sectors have a major economic importance in Extremadura. Annual production of olive oil is more than 50×103t, and of wine is more than 3×106hectolitres. The large amounts of by-products are in most cases under-used, although they could be converted into a zero cost of the waste at the point of origin. In this context, the

A. R. Celma; S. Rojas; F. López-Rodríguez

2007-01-01

332

An indirect electrochemical process for the removal of NOx from industrial waste gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a new electrochemical process for the absorption of NOx from industrial waste gases is described. Conversion of NO was performed by an indirect outer cell process using dithionite as the redox mediator and Fe(II)EDTA as the complexing agent. The absorption process, involving complex formation with Fe(II)EDTA in the absence and presence of dithionite, was investigated using a

K.-H. KLEIFGES; G. KREYSA

1997-01-01

333

>Removal of Lead from Wastewater Using Bagasse Fly Ash—A Sugar Industry Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent and has been used for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions in the 4.80 à 10 to 4.83 à 10 M concentration range. Maximum removal takes place at pH 3.0 using lOg of the adsorbent of particle size 150–200 mesh.

Vinod K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan; Saurabh Sharma

1998-01-01

334

Preparation of low-cost mullite ceramics from natural bauxite and industrial waste fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost mullite ceramics were prepared from the mixtures of natural bauxite and industrial waste fly ash. The fired samples, including fly ash, bauxite and their mixture based on the composition of 3:2 mullite, were characterized respectively by XRD (X-ray diffraction). The results indicate that the secondary mullitization occurred by the solid-state reaction of cristobalite and corundum below 1300°C, followed by

Yingchao Dong; Xuyong Feng; Xuefei Feng; Yanwei Ding; Xingqin Liu; Guangyao Meng

2008-01-01

335

Evaluation of Thai agro-industrial wastes for bio-ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymomonas mobilis is one of several microorganisms whose role in bio-ethanol production has been increasing in importance. Complex nutritional source for Z. mobilis could be substituted by many Thai agro-industrial wastes which are readily and inexpensively available. Their potentials as a yeast extract replacement were evaluated through the growth kinetics information. At equivalent level of total nitrogen (TN) (1.09gTNl?1), ami-ami

Vasimon Ruanglek; Damrongdech Maneewatthana; Sudarut Tripetchkul

2006-01-01

336

Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater laden with heavy metals.  

PubMed

Industrial wastes, such as, fly ash, blast furnace slag and sludge, black liquor lignin, red mud, and waste slurry, etc. are currently being investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of the heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that modified industrial wastes showed higher adsorption capacity. The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from the industrial wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions etc. on the adsorption of heavy metals have also been discussed in this article. From the review, it is evident that certain industrial waste materials have demonstrated high removal capacities for the heavy metals laden with wastewater. However, it is to be mentioned that adsorption capacities of the adsorbents vary depending on the characteristics of the adsorbents, the extent of chemical modification and the concentration of adsorbates. There are also few issues and drawbacks on the utilization of industrial wastes as low-cost adsorbents that have been addressed. In order to find out the practical utilization of industrial waste as low-cost adsorbents on the commercial scale, more research should be conducted in this direction. PMID:21669401

Ahmaruzzaman, M

2011-08-10

337

Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water.  

PubMed

The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in "clean" water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions. PMID:24883258

Ellison, Michael B; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

2014-01-01

338

Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water  

PubMed Central

The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

Ellison, Michael B.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

339

Subacute inhalation toxicity assessment of fly ash from industrial waste incinerators.  

PubMed

Fly ash from industrial waste incinerators has been a significant concern because of their constituent toxic heavy metals and organic compounds. The objective of this study was to identify the subacute inhalation toxicity of fly ash from industrial waste incinerators, using whole body inhalation exposure chambers. Male and female groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to fly ash by inhalation of concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200?mg/m(3), for 6?h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight, and relative organ weight to body weight, between the exposure groups and the control group. Hematological examinations revealed a significant increase of monocyte counts in fly ash exposed rats and brown pigment laden macrophage was found in the lungs of rats exposed to high concentration of fly ash. A decrease of blood glucose levels and an increase in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase activity were observed in fly ash treated rats. There was also a significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase levels in rat blood exposed fly ash. A significant dose-dependent increase of DNA damage was found in lymphocytes, spleen, bronchoalveolar lavage, liver, lung, and thymus of rats exposed to fly ash. In addition, the level of lipid peroxidation was increased in the plasma of rats exposed to a high concentration of fly ash. These results suggest that inhalation of fly ash from industrial waste incinerators can induce histopathologic, hematological, and serum biochemical changes and oxidative damage. PMID:22954398

Shim, Ilseob; Oh, Eunha; Yang, Sangyoung; Ryu, Taekwon; Soh, Jaewon; Sul, Donggeun; Kim, Pilje

2012-09-01

340

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01

341

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

342

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

343

Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.  

PubMed

Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes. PMID:18833660

Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

2008-01-01

344

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE INDICATOR FOR MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF INCINERATORS, INDUSTRIAL FURNACES, AND BOILERS BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of a simple indicator-- Unsatisfied Oxygen Demand (UOD)--for measuring the performance of incinerators, industrial furnaces, and boilers burning hazardous waste. urrent RCRA regulations use destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of the princi...

345

Characterization of a WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) cesium chloride capsule after fifteen months service in a dry operation/wet storage commercial irradiator  

SciTech Connect

After 15 months of service, a Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) /sup 137/Cs gamma source capsule was removed for examination from a commercial irradiator at Radiation Sterilizers Incorporated (RSI), Westerville, Ohio. The examination was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and was the first study of a /sup 137/Cs source capsule after use in a commercial dry operation/wet storage (dry/wet) irradiator. The capsule was cycled 3327 times during the 15-month period with steady-state temperature differences ranging from 70 to 82/degree/C during the air-to-water cycle. The capsule was examined to determine the amount of corrosion that had occurred during this period and to determine if any degradation of the container was evident as the result of thermal cycling. Metallographic examinations were performed on sections that were removed from the inner capsule wall and bottom end cap and the outer capsule bottom end cap weld. The three regions of the inner capsule that were examined for corrosion were the salt/void interface, midwall, and bottom (including the end cap weld). The amount of corrosion measured (0.0002 to 0.0007 in.) is comparable to the corrosion produced (about 0.001 in.) during the melt-cast filling of a capsule. No observable effects of irradiator operation were found during this examination. Consequently, based on this examination, no degradation of WESF /sup 137/Cs capsules is expected when they are used in irradiators similar to the RSI irradiator. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Kjarmo, H.E.; Tingey, G.L.

1988-08-01

346

Mineralogical characterization of steel industry hazardous waste and refractory sulfide ores for zinc and gold recovery processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steel industry generates dust as a waste product from high temperature electric arc furnaces (EAF), which is a major step in processing scrap metal into steel. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified EAF dust as KO61 hazardous waste, due to its lead, cadmium, and chromium content. The dust also contains valuable zinc, averaging 19%. Detailed mineralogical characterization show

A. M. Hagni; R. D. Hagni

1994-01-01

347

Utilization of Temple waste flower -Tagetus erecta for Dyeing of Cotton, Wool and Silk on Industrial scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huge amounts of Tagetus erecta (marigold) flowers are offered in temples in India, creating a very large waste. These waste flowers were collected and used for industrial dyeing. Tagetus belongs to the family Asteraceae. It produces natural dye from its flowers (petals) consisting mainly of carotenoid-lutein and flavonoid- patuletin, these colorants have been isolated and identified. The crude extract has

Padma S. Vankar; Rakhi Shanker

2009-01-01

348

Nuclear microprobe applications to radioactive waste management basic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management is one of the major technical and scientific challenge to be solved by industrialized countries near the beginning of the 21st century. Relevant questions arise about the extrapolation of the long term-behavior of materials from waste package, engineered barriers and near field repository. Whatever the strategical option might be, wet atmosphere or water intrusion through the different

P. Trocellier; V Badillo; N Barré; L Bois; C Cachoir; J. P Gallien; S Guilbert; F Mercier; C Tiffreau

1999-01-01

349

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

350

Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48?h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30?min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method.

Flohr, Leticia; de Castilhos Junior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

2012-01-01

351

Distribution of 14 C and 3 H in low level radioactive wastes generated by wet waste streams from pressurized water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  It is impossible to detect 14C and 3H by direct methods such as ?-spectroscopy because they are pure b-emitters and thus they are classified as hard to measure\\u000a nuclides (HTM). In this paper the analysis results of 14C and 3H in the low level radioactive wastes (LLWs), including spent ion exchange resin, evaporated bottom and sludge are presented.\\u000a The LLWs

S. D. Park; H. N. Lee; H. J. Ahn; J. S. Kim; S. H. Han; K. Y. Jee

2006-01-01

352

Use of sepiolite as an adsorbent for the removal of copper (II) from industrial waste leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land filling is the most common method of disposal of solid waste all over the world. As well as municipal solid waste, industrial wastes, which may contain hazardous substances, are also received by landfills in many countries. Leachate is one of the problems arising from landfills. When water percolates through solid wastes, contaminants are leached into solution. The major concern with the movement of leachate into the subsurface aquifer is the fate of the constituents found in leachate. The fate of heavy metals is the greatest interest in leachate. Several treatment technologies have been developed for eliminating heavy metals recently. Adsorption is one of the most interesting methods that it has been successfully applied for the heavy metal removal. Activated carbons were widely used as adsorbent materials because of their extended surface area, microporous structure, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. However, it is restricted due to its relatively high price, high operation costs, and problems with generation for the industrial scale applications. Recently, more research efforts have been focused on effective sorbents material in order to minimize the processing cost and solve their disposal problems in an environmentally sustainable way. Adsorption of metal ions onto clay minerals has been studied extensively because both metal ions and clays are common components in nature. The cost of clays is relatively low as compared to other alternative adsorbents. Furthermore, the high specific surface area, chemical and mechanical stability, variety of structural and surface properties and higher values of cation exchange capacities make the clays an excellent group of adsorbents. Sepiolite (Si12O30Mg8(OH)4(H2O)4•8H2O) is a natural, fibrous clay mineral with fine microporous channels running parallel to the length of the fibers. The structure of sepiolite, in some aspects, is similar to those of other 2:1 trioctahedral silicates, such as talc, but it has discontinuities and inversion of the silica sheets, which give rise to structural tunnels and blocks. In the inner blocks, all corners of the silica tetrahedral are connected to adjacent blocks, but in the outer blocks, some of the corners are Si atoms bound to hydroxyls (Si-OH). This unique structure allows the penetration of organic and inorganic species into the structure and assigns sepiolite an industrial importance in adsorption. The objective of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of using sepiolite for the adsorptive removal of Cu (II) from the industrial waste leachate. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies are determined. The pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order, Elovich and the intra particle diffusion kinetic models are used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The adsorption of Cu (II) from the aqueous leachate of industrial wastes onto sepiolite was performed using a batch equilibrium technique. At first stage, one-factor-at-a-time experiments were performed to see the individual effects of initial pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The adsorption of Cu (II) was favorably influenced by an increase in the adsorbent dosage. The maximum percent removal of Cu (II) were observed at pH>6, and significantly decreased at lower pH value. The optimum contact time is found as 10 min. for the removal of Cu (II). The increment in contact time from 10 min. to 120 min. did not show a significant effect on efficiency. The maximum Cu (II) adsorption efficiencies were obtained at 94.45%. The pseudo second order kinetic model agrees very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous leachate of industrial waste onto sepiolite. The results indicate that the use of sepiolite that is locally available and almost free of cost as an adsorbent could be a viable alternative to activated carbon for the removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

Gamze Turan, N.; Ardali, Yüksel

2013-04-01

353

Quantitative assessment of solid waste treatment systems in the industrial ecology perspective by exergy analysis.  

PubMed

Solid waste treatment options (recycling, incineration, and landfilling; the two latter processes both with co-generation of heat and electricity) have been studied for cardboard, newspaper, polyethylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), polypropylene, polystyrene, and poly(vinyl chloride) waste. The conversion processes have been analyzed in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The analysis allows calculating the exergy (useful energy) embodied in conversion products that can be obtained from the required inputs for the treatment processes. Taking into account the waste materials and the resources to convert them, it proved that recycling is the most efficient option for polyethylene with an efficiency of 62.5% versus 43.6% for incineration and 0.9% for landfilling. Next, waste treatment has been put into the broader perspective of industrial ecology. Exergetic efficiencies of industrial metabolic options have been calculated. Here resources for manufacturing and converting solid products have been considered. Furthermore, selection of one type of conversion excludes the generation of other potential conversion products. Therefore, it has to be taken into account that these latter products still have to be produced starting from virgin resources. Recycling proved to be the most efficient strategy: the ratio eta between exergy embodied in all delivered products on one hand, and all exergy withdrawn from the ecosphere or from waste materials on the other hand, is the highest. For polyethylene, eta proved to be 0.568, whereas eta is 0.503 and 0.329 for incineration and landfilling, respectively. On the other hand, if R the ratio between exergy of delivered products on one hand and exergy of virgin materials on the other hand is calculated, the differences between the industrial metabolic options are larger. Recycling polyethylene showed a ratio R of 0.936, whereas ratios of 0.772 and 0.531 were found for incineration and landfilling, respectively. It has been shown that the exergy concept allows a quantitative comparison of different industrial metabolic options, contributing to a better assessment of sustainability of technology with respect to resource management. PMID:11918001

Dewulf, Jo P; Van Langenhove, Herman R

2002-03-01

354

Aerobic treatability of waste effluent from the leather finishing industry. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The Seton Company supplies finished leather products exclusively for the automotive industry. In the process of finishing leather, two types of wastewaters are generated. The majority of the wastewater is composed of water-based paint residuals while the remainder is composed of solvent-based coating residuals. Aerobic treatability studies were conducted using water-based and solvent-based waste recirculatory waters from the Seton Company's Saxton, Pennsylvania processing plant. The specific objective was to determine the potential for using aerobic biological processes to biodegrade the industry's wastes and determine the potential for joint treatment at the local publicly owned treatment works (POTW). This study was accomplished in two phases. Phase I was conducted during the Spring Semester 1993 and consisted of aerobic respirometer tests of the raw wastes and mass balance analysis. The results of Phase I were published in a report to the Seton Company as Environmental Resources Research Institute project number 92C.II40R-1. Phase II was conducted during the Summer Semester 1993 and consisted of bench-scale reactor tests and additional aerobic respirometer tests. The aerobic respirometer batch tests and bench-scale reactor tests were used to assess the treatability of solvent-based and water-based wastewaters and determine the degree of biodegradability of the wastewaters. Mass balance calculations were made using measured characteristics.

Vinger, J.A.

1993-12-01

355

Petroleum industry effluents and other oxygen-demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation-reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid-base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl-, SO(2-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and PO4(3-), and other ions and compounds. PMID:17193303

Osuji, Leo C; Uwakwe, Augustine A

2006-07-01

356

Recent developments and perspectives on the treatment of industrial wastes by mineral carbonation — a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides producing a substantial portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the industrial sector also generates significant quantities of solid residues. Mineral carbonation of alkaline wastes enables the combination of these two by-products, increasing the sustainability of industrial activities. On top of sequestering CO2 in geochemically stable form, mineral carbonation of waste materials also brings benefits such as stabilization of leaching, basicity and structural integrity, enabling further valorization of the residues, either via reduced waste treatment or landfilling costs, or via the production of marketable products. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of this technology and the latest developments in this field. Focus is given to the beneficial effects of mineral carbonation when applied to metallurgical slags, incineration ashes, mining tailings, asbestos containing materials, red mud, and oil shale processing residues. Efforts to intensify the carbonation reaction rate and improve the mineral conversion via process intensification routes, such as the application of ultrasound, hot-stage processing and integrated reactor technologies, are described. Valorization opportunities closest to making the transition from laboratory research to commercial reality, particularly in the form of shaped construction materials and precipitated calcium carbonate, are highlighted. Lastly, the context of mineral carbonation among the range of CCS options is discussed.

Bodor, Marius; Santos, Rafael M.; Van Gerven, Tom; Vlad, Maria

2013-12-01

357

Towards industrially feasible treatment of potato starch processing waste by mixed cultures.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at reducing the pollution of the waste generated by the potato starch industry to the environment and transform the potato pulp and wastewater into single-cell protein (SCP) to be used as animal feed. The chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater was reduced from 26,700 to 9,100 mg/L by batch fermentation with mixed cultures in an aerated 10-L fermenter. The SCP products, with a crude protein content of 46.09 % (higher than soybean meal), were found palatable and safe for mice. During the treatment process, the microbial community was analyzed using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results of the analysis suggested that Curacaobacter/Pseudoalteromonas and Paenibacillus/Bacillus were the main microorganisms in treating potato starch processing wastes. The 150-m(3)-scale fermentation demonstrated a potential for treatment in industrial applications. Fermentation of potato pulp and wastewater without adding an extra nitrogen source was a novel approach in treating the potato starch processing waste. PMID:23921431

Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Li, Ying; Niu, Jia; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Qian

2013-10-01

358

Fundamentals of gas flow in shale; What the unconventional reservoir industry can learn from the radioactive waste industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tight formations, such as shale, have a wide range of potential usage; this includes shale gas exploitation, hydrocarbon sealing, carbon capture & storage and radioactive waste disposal. Considerable research effort has been conducted over the last 20 years on the fundamental controls on gas flow in a range of clay-rich materials at the British Geological Survey (BGS) mainly focused on radioactive waste disposal; including French Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, Belgian Boom Clay, Swiss Opalinus Clay, British Oxford Clay, as well as engineered barrier material such as bentonite and concrete. Recent work has concentrated on the underlying physics governing fluid flow, with evidence of dilatancy controlled advective flow demonstrated in Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. This has resulted in a review of how advective gas flow is dealt with in Performance Assessment and the applicability of numerical codes. Dilatancy flow has been shown in Boom clay using nano-particles and is seen in bentonite by the strong hydro-mechanical coupling displayed at the onset of gas flow. As well as observations made at BGS, dilatancy flow has been shown by other workers on shale (Cuss et al., 2012; Angeli et al. 2009). As well as experimental studies using cores of intact material, fractured material has been investigated in bespoke shear apparatus. Experimental results have shown that the transmission of gas by fractures is highly localised, dependent on normal stress, varies with shear, is strongly linked with stress history, is highly temporal in nature, and shows a clear correlation with fracture angle. Several orders of magnitude variation in fracture transmissivity is seen during individual tests. Flow experiments have been conducted using gas and water, showing remarkably different behaviour. The radioactive waste industry has also noted a number of important features related to sample preservation. Differences in gas entry pressure have been shown across many laboratories and these may be attributed to different core preparation techniques. Careful re-stressing of core barrels and sealing techniques also ensure that experiments are conducted on near in situ condition. The construction of tunnels within shale clearly aids our understanding of the interaction of engineered operations (borehole drilling or tunnelling) on the behaviour of the rock. References: Angeli, M., Soldal, M., Skurtveit, E. and Aker, E., (2009) Experimental percolation of supercritical CO2 through a caprock. Energy Procedia 1, 3351-3358 Cuss, R.J., Harrington, J.F., Giot, R., and Auvray, C. (2012) Experimental observations of mechanical dilation at the onset of gas flow in Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone. Poster Presentation 5th International Meeting Clays in Natural and Engineered Barriers for Radioactive Waste Confinement, Montpellier, France October 22nd - 25th 2012.

Cuss, Robert; Harrington, Jon; Graham, Caroline

2013-04-01

359

Utilization of MSWI fly ash for stabilization/solidification of industrial waste sludge.  

PubMed

This work investigated the potential for utilization of MSWI incineration fly ash as solidification binder to treat heavy metals-bearing industrial waste sludge. In the study, Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash was used along with ordinary Portland cement to immobilize three different types of industrial sludge while MSWI incineration fly ash was stabilized at the same time. The results showed that the matrixes with heavy metals-bearing sludge and MSWI fly ash have a strong fixing capacity for heavy metals: Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni and Mn. Specimens with only 5-15% cement content was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 0.3 MPa required for landfill disposal. An optimum mix comprising 45% fly ash, 5% cement and 50% of the industrial sludge could provide the required solidification and stabilization. Addition of MSWI can improve the strength of matrix. Meanwhile, the main hydration products of new S/S matrix are ettringite AFt, Friedel's salt and C-S-H. These hydration products play an important role in the fixing of heavy metals. The co-disposal of MSWI fly ash with heavy metals-bearing sludge can minimize the enlargement of the landfill volume and stabilize the heavy metals effectively. PMID:16242842

Qian, Guangren; Cao, Yali; Chui, Pengcheong; Tay, Joohwa

2006-02-28

360

Efficient method for recycling silica materials from waste powder of the photonic industry.  

PubMed

An efficient and economic approach is proposed for the fast and direct recovery of silica materials from photonic waste powder. Unlike the conventional alkaline fusion method for the extraction of silica from waste materials, this method possesses advantages of a rapid and low-energy-consumed process with total recovery yield. The obtained mesoporous silica material, denoted as MCM-41(DU)-F, was recovered directly from photonic waste powder at room temperature with the assistance of cationic surfactant, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia hydroxide. The recycled MCM-41(DU)-F with a high specific surface area (788 m(2)/g), ordered mesoporous structure (4.5 nm), and large pore volume (1.1 cm(3)/g) was used as support of tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) for the capture of CO2 from a flue gas stream. The results demonstrated that TEPA-impregnated MCM-41(DU)-F had an adsorption capacity of 120 mg of CO2/g of adsorbent. This is higher than the amount adsorbed by TEPA-MCM-41(NaSi) made from pure chemicals (113 mg of CO2/g of adsorbent) and TEPA-MCM-41(AF) made from alkaline fusion (112 mg of CO2/g of adsorbent) under the same testing conditions. This novel recycling process, which can improve cost effectiveness for the mass production of valuable mesoporous silica materials from cheap and abundant resources through convenient preparation steps, is surely beneficial from the viewpoint of economical use of photonic industrial waste powder. PMID:23521136

Lin, Liang-Yi; Bai, Hsunling

2013-05-01

361

The role of near-shore industrial waste releases in the dispersion of radionuclides in the NE Irish Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 27years, through the use of autoradiographic methods combined with field observations and laboratory studies, I have concluded that the behaviour and distribution of the ?-active actinide radionuclides in the estuarine and marine sediments of the NE Irish Sea are significantly influenced by the releases of other non-radioactive industrial wastes. Since the 1700s, the various industrial activities in

E. I. Hamilton

1999-01-01

362

Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

363

Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

Mike lewis

2013-02-01

364

Improving the mechanical characteristics and restraining heavy metal evaporation from sintered municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by wet milling.  

PubMed

The milling process has a verified stabilizing effect on the leaching of heavy metals into the environment from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash. The aim of this current study is to further improve and confirm the effectiveness of the process by exploring its effects on the evaporation of heavy metals and on the mechanical characteristics of the sintered MSWI fly ash. The chemical composition of the MSWI fly ash is first altered by the addition of water treatment plant sludge (WTS) and cullet, and then processed to produce sintered specimens suitable for reuse as an aggregate. In the experiments, fly ash, WTS and cullet (40%: 30%: 30%, respectively) were mixed and milled for 1h. Samples were sintered for 60 min at temperatures of 850, 900, 950 and 1000°C. Test results confirm that milling increased the compressive strength of the sintered specimens. The compressive strength of unmilled specimens sintered at 900°C was only 90 kg/cm(2), but that of milled specimens was 298 kg/cm(2) when sintered at only 850°C. There was also an improvement in the soundness ranging from 11.04% to 0.02% and a reduction in the evaporation rates of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn from 54-64%, 43-49%, 38-43%, 30-40% and 14-35% (900-1000°C) to 19-21%, 19-21%, 14-19%, 12-19% and 14-17% (850-1000°C), respectively. The improvement in compressive strength was attained by the combination in the liquid sintering stage of powdered ash with the amorphous material. The amorphousness of the material also helped to seal the surface of the fly ash, thereby reducing the evaporation of heavy metals during the heating process. PMID:21917374

Sun, Chang-Jung; Li, Ming-Guo; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wang, Ya-Hui; Jan, Yi-Lin

2011-11-15

365

Technology for industrial waste heat recovery by organic Rankine cycle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of industrial waste heat and the conversion thereof to useful electric power by use of Rankine cycle systems is studied. Four different aspects of ORC technology were studied: possible destructive chemical reaction between an aluminum turbine wheel and R-113 working fluid under wheel-to-rotor rub conditions; possible chemical reaction between stainless steel or carbon steel and any of five different ORC working fluids under rotor-stator rub conditions; effects on electric generator properties of extended exposure to an environment of saturated R-113 vapor/fluid; and operational proof tests under laboratory conditions of two 1070 kW, ORC, R-113 hermetic turbogenerator power module systems.

Cain, W. G.; Drake, R. L.; Prisco, C. J.

1984-10-01

366

Removal of DDD and DDE from wastewater using bagasse fly ash, a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste from the sugar industry, was converted into an effective adsorbent and was used for the removal of DDD [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] and DDE [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] pesticides from wastewater. The DDD and DDE are removed by the developed adsorbent up to 93% at pH 7.0, with the adsorbent dose of 5 g\\/l of particle size 200–250 ?m at 30°C. The removal of

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2001-01-01

367

Selection of Waste Water Equalization Systems for Multi Product Batch Production Facility: An Industrial Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation rates of waste water from a batch plant causes significant variations in the flow rate as well as concentrations in the influent to effluent treatment plant. Flow equalization systems are used to reduce the shock loads. The present study deals with the suitability of two flow equalization schemes practiced in the industry with an objective of increasing production flexibility. The simulation study has conclusively established suitability of combined segregation tanks over distributed segregation tanks for a given production capacity. It is also shown that the production flexibility is more for combined scheme in comparison with the distributed scheme.

Bhatt, Vaidehi; Srinivasarao, Meka.; Dhanwani, Anand

2010-10-01

368

Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.  

PubMed

The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product. PMID:22175873

Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

2011-01-01

369

Life Cycle Inventory for Use of Waste Solvent as Fuel Substitute in the Cement Industry - A Multi-Input Allocation Model (11 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The Swiss chemical industry produces large amounts of organic waste solvents. Some of these solvents cannot be recovered. A common option for the treatment of such organic waste solvents is the incineration in hazardous waste incinerators. Alternatively, the waste solvents can be used as fuel in cement production. On the one hand, solvent incineration in cement kilns saves fossil

Christina Seyler; Stefanie Hellweg; Michel Monteil; Konrad Hungerbühler

2005-01-01

370

Complex wetting phenomena in liquid mixtures: frustrated-complete wetting and competing intermolecular forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a phenomenological overview of recently discovered complex wetting states in simple liquid mixtures relevant to both fundamental research and industrial applications such as oil recovery. Alkanes on water show a sequence of two wetting transitions, from partial wetting to `frustrated-complete wetting', and finally to complete wetting: a first-order thin-thick transition between a microscopic and a mesoscopic adsorbed alkane film is followed by a long-range critical wetting transition to a macroscopic wetting layer. The existence of the new `frustrated-complete wetting' state follows from a competition between short-range and long-range components of the intermolecular forces, the latter opposing wetting. The effective long-range forces between interfaces consist of Debye dipolar and London dispersion contributions, which can also be in mutual competition. The London component is ultimately responsible for the frustration preventing complete wetting at ambient temperatures and pressures.

Bonn, D.; Bertrand, E.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Ragil, K.; Dobbs, H. T.; Posazhennikova, A. I.; Broseta, D.; Meunier, J.; Indekeu, J. O.

2001-05-01

371

Influence of sulfur concentration on bioleaching of heavy metals from industrial waste sludge.  

PubMed

The bioleaching process, including acidification and solubilization of heavy metals, is a promising method for removing heavy metals from industrial waste sludge. Solubilization of heavy metals in industrial waste sludge is governed by adding elemental sulfur. A sulfur concentration exceeding 0.5% (w/v) inhibits sulfate production and the activity of acidophilic bacteria. Sulfate production was described well by a substrate inhibition expression in Haldane's kinetics. After 15 days of bioleaching, 79 to 81% copper, 50 to 69% lead, and 49 to 69% nickel were solubilized from sludge with a sulfur concentration of 0.5 to 1.0% (w/v). Experimental results indicated that the optimal sulfur concentration for the maximum solubilization rate of copper and nickel was 0.5% (w/v) and 1.0% (w/v) for lead. The profiles of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis confirmed that indigenous acidophilic Acidithiobacilli (A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans) existed and were the dominant species in the bioleaching process. PMID:21141383

Lin, Yen-Hui; Juan, Mu-Ling; Huang, Hau-Liang; Tsai, Hui-Ying; Lin, Pearl Hsui-ping

2010-11-01

372

Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.  

PubMed

Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin. PMID:17303316

Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

2008-02-01

373

Screening and characterization of pollution potential from solid industrial waste dumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid industrial waste dumps, being an anthropogenic part of the vadose zone, are potential non-point sources of ground water contamination. The early warning provided from qualitative and quantitative information on contaminant migration within a dump is an essential element in monitoring and screening sites for hazardous waste deposition that prevents degradation of recoverable ground water resources and permits to avoid either false positive or false negative errors in evaluation and prediction of the extent of environmental hazard. Multilevel sampling of dump and vadose zone cross-sections in the defined points of known waste age and dump construction delivers direct information on vertical distribution of contaminants as a function of time, that is a resultant of a dump and vadose zone hydrogeology, as well as of the mechanism and dynamics of constituent release, interaction and biogeochemical transformation in pore solution. The current presentation describes a procedure for multilevel sampling, pore solution extraction and examination and provides data (vertical profiles of contaminants distribution from a selected landfill site) that exemplify necessity of dump/vadose zone multilevel sampling for correct assessment of contaminants migration rate, understanding processes and conditions affecting contaminant transport, and enhancement of remedial response measures.

Twardowska, Irena; Szczepanska, Jadwiga

1993-03-01

374

Biological denitrification of high-nitrates wastes generated in the nuclear industry  

SciTech Connect

Biological denitrification appears to be one of the most effective methods to remove nitrates from wastewater streams (Christenson and Harremoes, 1975). However, most of the research and development work has been centered on removal of nitrates from sewage or agricultural drainage waters, nitrate nitrogen concentration usually less than 50 g/m/sup 3/. Work was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1974 to test the use of biological nitrification in the removal of high concentrations of nitrate (in excess of 1.0 kg NO/sub 3/-N/m/sup 3/) from uranium purification waste streams. Since then, a full-scale treatment facility, a stirred reactor, has been installed at the Y-12 plant; and a pilot-plant, using a fluidized bed, has been proposed at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The objective of this manuscript is to present some applied microbiological research relating to possible constraints in biologically denitrifying certain waste streams in the nuclear industry and comparing the effectiveness of denitrification of these waste streams in three bench scale reactors, (1) a continuous flow-stirred reactor, (2) stirred bed rector, and (3) a fluidized bed reactor.

Francis, C.W.

1980-01-01

375

Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of a dilute biosolid industrial waste product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements were made of upwelled spectral signatures of various concentrations of industrial waste products mixed with water in a large water tank. Radiance and reflectance spectra for a biosolid waste product (sludge) mixed with conditioned tap water and natural river water are reported. Results of these experiments indicate that reflectance increases with increasing concentration of the sludge at practically all wavelengths for concentration of total suspended solids up to 117 ppm in conditioned tap water and 171 ppm in natural river water. Significant variations in the spectra were observed and may be useful in defining spectral characteristics for this waste product. No significant spectral differences were apparent in the reflectance spectra of the two experiments, especially for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance values, however, were generally greater in natural river water for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance may be considered to increase linearly with concentration of total suspended solids from 5 to 171 ppm at all wavelengths without introducing errors larger than 10 percent.

Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

1979-01-01

376

Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.  

PubMed

The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment. PMID:11387023

Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

2001-01-01

377

The Importance of Building and Enhancing Worldwide Industry Cooperation in the Areas of Radiological Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of vital importance. This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry ' s involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG. (authors)

Saint-Pierre, S. [World Nuclear Association (WNA), 22a St. James's Square, London SWIY 4JH (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

378

Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. March 1985-October 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for March 1985-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food-processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste-heat recovery, meat processing, seafood processing, dairy wastes, beverage industry, fruits and vegetables, and other food-industry wastes. Waste utilization includes animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, conversion to fertilizer, composting, and recovery and recycling of usable chemicals. Food-packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 169 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-11-01

379

Selection of Bottom Liner for Land Disposal of Industrial Waste Containing Lead-Case Study: Tabriz Petrochemical Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial wastes generated at Tabriz Petrochemical Complex (TPC) were shown to contain significant concentration of lead. Environmentally sound landfilling of these waste streams was studied in terms of potential risk of associated groundwater contamination. The waste was to be disposed of in a landfill overlying an aquifer of fine sand texture and a water table depth of about 9 m. A modeling approach was employed for estimating the concentration of lead in groundwater downstream of the landfill site. The Industrial Waste Evaluation Model (IWEM) developed by US Environmental Protection Agency was used which estimates the receptor dose of lead, calculates the associated human health risk and recommends protective measures (i.e., liner type). Accordingly the appropriate liner being of composite type was selected as the required protective measure to minimize the transport of lead to the underlying aquifer which is a major source of drinking water for the downstream residential communities.

Soltani, Mohsen; Safari, Edwin; Baghvand, Akbar; Abduli, Mohammad Ali

380

Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to choose the heat source first and then design the most appropriate structure for the source by applying analytical methods. This report describes how to design a prototype of a thermoelectric power generator using the analytical approach and the results of performance evaluation tests carried out in the field.

Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

2014-05-01

381

LAND CULTIVATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES. STATE-OF-THE-ART STUDY. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL SUMMARY AND LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the available literature on land cultivation of industrial wastewater and sludge, and municipal solid waste was conducted. This review was supplemented by field investigations at 10 operating sites, including soil and vegetation analyses. Soil is a natural environment...

382

Case-Control Assessment of the Short-Term Health Effects of an Industrial Toxic Waste Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial waste landfill located within a residential area received 400,000 tons of toxic wastes between 1980 and mid 1988, in Montchanin, France. Triggered by odor nuisances caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), an intense local community concern led to the decision to close the site. A physicians? practice-based case-control study was conducted in order to evaluate the

A. Deloraine; D. Zmirou; C. Tillier; A. Boucharlat; H. Bouti

1995-01-01

383

Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4 (0.1), (NH4)2SO4 (0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4 (0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio.

Singh, Renu; Kapoor, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay

2012-01-01

384

Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.  

PubMed

The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications. PMID:24424298

Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

2014-04-21

385

Comprehensive planning for classification and disposal of solid waste at the industrial parks regarding health and environmental impacts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it. PMID:24688552

Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

2014-01-01

386

Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50°C and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermostable at 70°C for about 2 h without any salt. It showed stability at pH range 5-7. The metal ions as Na(+), Ca(++), Mg(++) and Co(++) enhanced the enzyme activity. PMID:24031761

Saxena, Rajshree; Singh, Rajni

2011-10-01

387

Removal of lead from wastewater using bagasse fly ash -- a sugar industry waste material  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent and has been used for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions in the 4.80 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 4.83 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M concentration range. Maximum removal takes place at pH 3.0 using 10 g/L of the adsorbent of particle size 150--200 mesh. The effect of the presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time has also been studied. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The adsorbent has been satisfactorily used for the removal of Pb{sup 2+} from the effluent of a metal-finishing plant.

Gupta, V.K.; Mohan, D.; Sharma, S. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-06-01

388

Research on heavy metals in Ruditapes philippinarum and soda industry wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals pollution in Jiaozhou Bay was studied in Ruditapes. philippinarum, a bioindicator of seawater pollution. Heavy metals in soda industry wastes “white mud” were also studied. Comparison of microwave digestion method with general digestion method revealed that microwave digestion is superior to general digestion in precision, recovery, digestion speed and efficiency, etc. Cd concentration in Hongdao R. philippinarum samples exceeded the national standard by 0.046 mg/kg, that of Yinghai sample by 0.02 mg/kg, and that of Hongshiya sample by 0.22 mg/kg. Sample Pb concentration in Hongshiya was found to exceed the national standard by 0.02 mg/kg. However the heavy metals concentration in R. philippinarum near the Qingdao Alkaline Factory was complied with the standard. This was proved by Penaeus chinensis culture experiment. Therefore, the possible contamination source may come from other land areas.

Zhu, Xiaobin; Xu, Weihai; Wang, Xinting; Huang, Xinping; Deng, Liping; Kang, Xinglun; Jiang, Zhigang; Ma, Xuli

2005-03-01

389

Enhancement of methane gas production using an industrial waste in anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

One method of recycling that may aid in the solution of the current energy problems is anaerobic digestion. Chromium shavings are a solid waste produced by the leather tanning industry. Chromium can block enzymatic systems or interfere with essential cellular metabolites of most oxidizing bacteria. In general, heavy metals coagulate and precipitate proteins, many of which are denatured by this action. This study examines the effects on anaerobic digestion of chromium shavings from leather tanning. Leather chrome shavings contain proteins, nitrogen, and fats. These shavings were added to two of three digesters at various rates. The methane gas production of the experimental units improved significantly compared to the control. In addition, the presence of a toxic loading or change of feed had no harmful effect on the digester performance.

Fradkin, L.; Kremer, F.

1980-12-01

390

Enhancement of methane gas production using an industrial waste in anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

One method of recycling that may aid in the solution of the current energy problems is anaerobic digestion. Chromium shavings are a solid waste produced by the leather tanning industry. Chromium can block enzymatic systems or interfere with essential cellular metabolites of most oxidizing bacteria. In general, heavy metals coagulate and precipitate proteins, many of which are denatured by this action. This study examines the effects on anaerobic digestion of chromium shavings from leather tanning. Leather chrome shavings contain proteins, nitrogen, and fats. These shavings were added to two of three digesters at various rates. The methane gas production of the experimental units improved significantly compared to the control. In addition, the presence of a toxic loading or change of feed had no harmful effect on the digester performance.

Fradkin, L.; Kremer, F.

1980-01-01

391

Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.  

PubMed Central

Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50°C and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermostable at 70°C for about 2 h without any salt. It showed stability at pH range 5–7. The metal ions as Na+, Ca++, Mg++ and Co++ enhanced the enzyme activity.

Saxena, Rajshree; Singh, Rajni

2011-01-01

392

Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

Doye, I.; Duchesne, J. [University of Laval, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

2005-08-01

393

Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent  

DOEpatents

A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

2001-01-01

394

Reduction of chemical oxygen demand of industrial wastes using subcritical water oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

If wastes have strong toxicity, high organic content, and a deep hue, they are difficult to handle in the waste disposal. It is very practical that waste of this kind is treated by Subcritical Water Oxidation (SWO). In our work, caprolactum (CPL) waste, purged from a petrochemical plant, and dyeing waste, purged from a textile plant, were individually treated by

Chiehming J. Chang

1992-01-01

395

Testing various food-industry wastes for electricity production in microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Three food-industry wastes: fermented apple juice (FAJ), wine lees and yogurt waste (YW) were evaluated in combination with two sources of inoculum, anaerobic sludge and garden compost, to produce electricity in microbial fuel cells. Preliminary potentiostatic studies suggested that YW was the best candidate, able to provide up to 250 mA/m(2) at poised potential +0.3V/SCE. Experiments conducted with two-chamber MFCs confirmed that wine lees were definitely not suitable. FAJ was not able to start an MFC by means of its endogenous microflora, while YW was. Both FAJ and YW were suitable fuels when anaerobic sludge or compost leachate was used as inoculum source. Sludge-MFCs had better performance using YW (54 mW/m(2) at 232 mA/m(2)). In contrast, compost-leachate MFCs showed higher power density with FAJ (78 mW/m(2) at 209 mA/m(2)) than with YW (37 mW/m(2) at 144 mA/m(2)) but YW gave more stable production. Under optimized operating conditions, compost-leachate MFCs fueled with YW gave up to 92 mW/m(2) at 404 mA/m(2) and 44 mW/m(2) in stable conditions. PMID:20034785

Cercado-Quezada, Bibiana; Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain

2010-04-01

396

Separation of heavy metals from industrial waste streams by membrane separation technology  

SciTech Connect

Industrial membrane technology is becoming increasingly attractive as a low-cost generic separation technique for volume reduction, recovery, and/or purification of the liquid phase and concentration and/or recovery of the contaminant or solute. It offers outstanding future potential in the reduction and/or recycling of hazardous pollutants from waste streams. Membrane separation technology may include: (1) commercial processes such as electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and ultrafiltration and (2) the development of hybrid processes such as liquid membranes, Donnan dialysis, and membrane bioreactor technology. Membrane separation technology as applied to waste treatment/reduction and environmental engineering problems has several advantages over conventional treatment processes. In contrast to distillation and solvent extraction membrane separation is achieved without a phase change and use of expensive solvents. The advantages of this technology are (1) low energy requirements; (2) small volumes of retentate that need to be handled; (3) selective removal of pollutants with the use of complexing agents and biocatalysts or by membrane surface modification; (4) the possibility for achieving zero discharge'' with reuse of product water, binding media and target, compounds; (5) continuous operation; (6) modular design without significant size limitations; (7) discrete membrane barrier to ensure physical separation of contaminants; and (8) minimal labor requirement.

Yichu Huang; Koseoglu, S.S. (Texas A and M Univ. System, College Station, TX (United States). Engineering Biosciences Research Center)

1993-01-01

397

Improved combustion of wood waste in industrial boilers. Technology applications manual; technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

To provide information on optimum design and operation of existing wood residue fired spreader-stoker boilers, research was conducted on a pilot-scale spreader-stoker boiler. Wood waste combustion was investigated as a function of fuel size, moisture content, species, air:fuel ratios, and type of equipment used. Data collected from the test facility show that distribution of combustion air to the combustion chamber is critical to efficient operation of boilers. The results indicate that more complete combustion of wood residue is possible when excess air is reduced significantly below commonly used levels, the underfire air supply is reduced, and overfire air is distributed uniformly over the grate surface. Proper air distribution can increase the combustion by 3 to 8 percent and reduce particulate emissions by 20 to 30% below levels that occur at typical boiler operating conditions. Improved equipment and procedures for burning wood waste in industrial boilers were developed as a result of the tests. These improvements can be used in both existing and new boilers. An economic analysis showed that the improvements can be economically desirable both for retrofit of existing wood fired boilers and for incorporation in new boilers. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-01-01

398

On the thermal stability of vitrified industrial wastes using microscale synchrotron radiation based techniques  

SciTech Connect

The effect of annealing on the local coordination of Fe in a series of vitrified industrial wastes is studied by means of x-ray fluorescence mapping, and micro- and conventional x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopies. It is demonstrated that annealing causes the formation of Fe- and Pb-rich microcrystallites which are embedded in the glass matrix. The local coordination of the Fe ion depends on the local variations of its concentration, i.e., Fe occupies octahedral sites in the Fe-rich crystalline regions and tetrahedral sites into the vitreous network. The percentage of the Fe atoms that belong to the crystalline inclusions depends on the waste content and the annealing temperature, and the stability of the vitrified product is discussed in relation to the nature of the formed microcrystallites. More specifically, when the microcrystallites are mixed Pb and Fe oxides, the material is safe since Pb is trapped both in the crystalline and vitreous regions. Finally, the effect of the different types of crystalline phases and crystalline ratio on the characteristics of the preedge peak in the near edge XAFS spectra is also discussed.

Pinakidou, F.; Katsikini, M.; Paloura, E. C. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2007-12-01

399

Industrial Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abstracts of worldwide information on all aspects of industrial efficiency, including alternate advanced industrial cogeneration, biocatalysis, ceramics, combustion, industrial energy efficiency, industrial waste, materials, materials processing, municipa...

1992-01-01

400

Evaluation of myelotoxicity in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) exposed to environmental contaminants. II. Myelotoxicity associated with petroleum industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Various chemical mixtures exist in soil contaminated with petrochemical wastes, yet no comprehensive assessment of their impact on terrestrial ecosystems has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hematotoxicity risks to wild populations of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) residing in habitats previously contaminated by petroleum industrial wastes. Resident cotton rats were monitored on nine contaminated sites and nine ecologically matched reference sites in Oklahoma. The possible toxicological interactions of petrochemical wastes on bone marrow was investigated by using the assay of colony formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells. There was a consistent significant 21 to 39% decrease in the number of colony-forming units of granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) in cotton rats from petrochemical-contaminated sites compared to matched reference sites, with no marked changes in hematological or histopathological parameters. These results suggest that bone-marrow progenitor cell culture is a sensitive indicator for the assessment of ecotoxicity risks associated with petrochemical wastes that are generated by the oil refining industry. Long-term exposure to hazardous wastes associated with the petroleum industry may represent a subtle risk to the hematopoietic system in humans. PMID:11209824

Kim, S; Stair, E L; Lish, J W; Lochmiller, R L; Rafferty, D P; Qualls, C W

2001-01-26

401

Workshop on In-Plant Waste Reduction in the Meat Industry, Held at University of Wisconsin, Madison, December 13-14, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are the proceedings of a workshop on in-plant waste reduction in the meat industry. Forty-five participants from industry, government, and private firms exchanged ideas and experiences on waste reduction during the two-day session. Topics covere...

J. L. Witherow J. F. Scaief

1976-01-01

402

WORKSHOP ON IN-PLANT WASTE REDUCTION IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY, HELD AT UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON, DECEMBER 13-14, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Presented are the proceedings of a workshop on in-plant waste reduction in the meat industry. Forty-five participants from industry, government, and private firms exchanged ideas and experiences on waste reduction during the two-day session. Topics covered were: pens, blood conse...

403

Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766?571?metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, ‘filter’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘butts’). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959–2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. Results The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20?years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Conclusions Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste.

Novotny, Thomas E

2011-01-01

404

Activated carbon: Utilization in sewage and industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of activated carbon in treating sewage and industrial wastes. The citations include engineering studies, site evaluations, and regeneration techniques. References to air pollution are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-12-01

405

Development of industrial waste heat recovery system using chemical heat pump with NH3-salt(I).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research is to develop industrial waste heat recovery system using chemical heat pump with adopt NH(sub 3)-salt as a medium. Generally, the chemical heat pump is more efficient than compression type heat pump. Furthermore, it is one ...

I. S. Choi Y. I. Kim C. H. Kim B. M. Min W. K. Choi

1994-01-01

406

Assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling.  

PubMed

Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study. PMID:12785508

Smith, Karen P; Arnish, John J; Williams, Gustavious P; Blunt, Deborah L

2003-05-15

407

An assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

Smith, K. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Williams, G. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Environmental Assessment

2003-05-15

408

Utilisation of bagasse fly ash (a sugar industry waste) for the removal of copper and zinc from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste produced in sugar industries, has been converted into an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. The product was characterised by different chemical and physical methods and has been used for the removal of copper and zinc from wastewater. Various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal ions concentrations, temperature, particle size, etc. were optimised. Copper and

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2000-01-01

409

Effect of sugar industry wastes on K status and nutrient availability of a newly reclaimed loamy sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sugar cane industry wastes on K status and its availability in a newly reclaimed loamy sand soil, as well as their influence on some chemical soil properties and soil macro- (N and P) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu) availability to wheat plants. The applied treatments were mineral K

Adel Rabie Ahmed Usman; Mohsen Abdo-Elmenem Gameh

2008-01-01

410

EVALUATION OF THE RCRA (RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT) EXTRACTION PROCEDURE - LYSIMETER STUDIES WITH MUNICIPAL/INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was initiated to determine the accuracy with which the Extraction Procedures (EP), employed in the regulations promulgated under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (40 CFR 26.124), simulates the leaching an industrial waste would undergo when codis...

411

Vugraph presentations of the fourth DOE Industry/University/Lab Forum on Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management  

SciTech Connect

This document is a compilation of various presentations from the Fourth DOE Industry/University/Lab Forum on Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management held in Albuquerque, New Mexico July 19--21, 1993. Separate abstracts were prepared for each presentation of this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

412

Sludge dewatering: sewage and industrial wastes. January 1978-January 1988 (citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-January 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in sewage, and industrial, mining, petroleum and municipal waste-sludge dewatering. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 233 citations, 51 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-02-01

413

The influence of topography on dynamic wetting.  

PubMed

The paramount importance of wetting applications and the significant economic value of controlling wetting-based industrial processes has stimulated a deep interest in wetting science. In many industrial applications the motion of a complex liquid front over nano-textured surfaces controls the fate of the processes. However our knowledge of the impact of nano-heterogeneities on static and dynamic wetting is very limited. In this article, the fundamentals of wetting are briefly reviewed, with a particular focus on hysteresis and roughness issues. Present knowledge and models of dynamic wetting on smooth and rough surfaces are then examined, with particular attention devoted to the case of nano-topographical heterogeneities and solid-fluid-fluid systems. PMID:23726301

Ramiasa, Melanie; Ralston, John; Fetzer, Renate; Sedev, Rossen

2014-04-01

414

Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

415

Waste audit study of commercial and industrial mechanical equipment repair shops  

SciTech Connect

This waste audit study investigated hazardous waste reduction methods for mechanical equipment repair shops in California classified as SIC Code 7699. The voluntary audit studies, including 35 telephone audits and 12 site audits, focused on repair shops` processes and operations, wastes generated, the treatment and disposal methods used, and potential waste minimization techniques. The study identified spent solvents, used oil, contaminated rags and sump waste as the main waste type generated by the repair shops. Waste minimization through source reduction can be achieved by good housekeeping, chemical substitution, and mechanical paint removal. Recovery of scrap metal and recycling of oil are also practiced. Illegal practices used by shops to manage waste, waste management costs, and state regulatory issues were also discussed.

NONE

1990-05-01

416

View graph presentations of the sixth DOE industry/university/lab forum on robotics for environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Robotics Technology Development Program involves the following: develop robotic systems where justified by safety, cost, and/or efficiency arguments; integrate the best talent from National Labs, industry, and universities in focused teams addressing complex-wide problems; and involve customers in the identification and development of needs driven technologies. This presentation focuses on five areas. They are: radioactive tank waste remediation (Richland); mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal (Idaho Falls); decontamination and decommissioning (Morgantown); landfill stabilization (Savannah River); and contaminant plumes containment and remediation (Savannah River).

NONE

1995-10-01

417

Waste biomass adsorbents for copper removal from industrial wastewater--a review.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu(2+)) containing wastewaters are extensively released from different industries and its excessive entry into food chains results in serious health impairments, carcinogenicity and mutagenesis in various living systems. An array of technologies is in use to remediate Cu(2+) from wastewaters. Adsorption is the most attractive option due to the availability of cost effective, sustainable and eco-friendly bioadsorbents. The current review is dedicated to presenting state of the art knowledge on various bioadsorbents and physico-chemical conditions used to remediate Cu(2+) from waste streams. The advantages and constraints of various adsorbents were also discussed. The literature revealed the maximum Cu adsorption capacities of various bioadsorbents in the order of algae>agricultural and forest>fungal>bacterial>activated carbon>yeast. However, based on the average Cu adsorption capacity, the arrangement can be: activated carbon>algal>bacterial>agriculture and forest-derived>fungal>yeast biomass. The data of Cu removal using these bioadsorbents were found best fit both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Agriculture and forest derived bioadsorbents have greater potential for Cu removal because of higher uptake, cheaper nature, bulk availability and mono to multilayer adsorption behavior. Higher costs at the biomass transformation stage and decreasing efficiency with desorption cycles are the major constraints to implement this technology. PMID:23972667

Bilal, Muhammad; Shah, Jehanzeb Ali; Ashfaq, Tayyab; Gardazi, Syed Mubashar Hussain; Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Pervez, Arshid; Haroon, Hajira; Mahmood, Qaisar

2013-12-15

418

Process for purifying the off-gases from industrial furnaces, especially from waste incineration plants  

SciTech Connect

A process for purifying the off-gases from industrial furnaces and especially from waste incineration plants is described in which process the off-gases which contain acid, neutral and/or basic pollutants in the gaseous or solid form or in the form of a mist, are treated in an evaporative cooler and then in a dry purifier, in which they are freed from at least a substantial portion of the solid pollutants, and finally in a scrubber by means of a wash liquid. The temperature of the off-gases in the evaporative cooler is kept above the dew point, and the wash liquid in the scrubber is cycled through a slurry separator, from which suspension or solution of pollutants is withdrawn from the sludge separator and fed into the evaporative cooler and mixed in a mixing space in the latter with the hot off-gases. Those walls of the evaporative cooler which come into contact with the mixture of off-gases and recycled suspension or solution of pollutants and which consist of a material that can be corroded by the said mixture at room temperature are heated from the outside to a temperature above the dew point. As a rule the ph value of the liquid phase in the sludge separator and in each of the gas wash stages of the scrubber directly upstream of the said separator is kept below 4.

Fattinger, V.; Schneider, J.

1981-02-17

419

Chemical and microbiological stability of waste sludge from paper industry intended for brick production.  

PubMed

Due to its chemical composition, waste sludge generated in the paper industry may be used as a raw material for brick production. Brick manufacture is limited to the warmer months of the year whereas sludge is produced continuously by different effluent treatment devices. Therefore, it has to be stored until further processing. For this reason, it is essential that it is not subject to significant chemical and microbiological decomposition during storage. In the experiment, sludge from a tissue paper mill was tested for its stability. It was stored for several weeks during winter and summer periods in a pile, 2 m in height, in an open but covered store. Different leachable organic and inorganic compounds indicating possible ongoing deterioration processes, as well as pH value, redox potential, temperature, humidity and dry matter content were evaluated weekly in water extracts of homogenized sludge samples. According to the test results, the material may be considered to be chemically and microbiologically stable as there was practically no emission of odorous and toxic compounds such as H2S, NH3 and butyric acid despite prolonged storage times and elevated environmental temperatures. All the microbial species identified in the sludge during storage belong to the typical microflora of the environment. PMID:15864952

Cernec, Franc; Zule, Janja; Moze, Adolf; Ivanus, Alenka

2005-04-01

420

Review of the engineering foundation conference on fireside problems while incinerating municipal and industrial waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives a review of the Engineering Foundation Conference on Fireside problems in Waste Incineration. The overall message was that almost all units that burn Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fuel, whether prepared or unprepared, tend to suffer from c...

A. Anjum

1990-01-01

421

Management of Radioactive Waste Arising from the Medical, Industrial, and Research Use of Radionuclides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The management of radioactive wastes in Australia is reviewed. Technical criteria for regulated user-disposal, shallow ground disposal and long-term storage are examined. Options for ensuring adequate regional and national access to waste repositories are...

1985-01-01

422

Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.  

PubMed

From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10?gm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32?gm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois. PMID:23199452

Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

2013-03-15

423

Prevention of water pollution by waste waters of the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the problems of reception of waste waters of petrochemistry for biological treatment, improvement and introduction of new methods of toxicological control permitting active intervention, and management of the process of arrival of waste waters for biological treatment. In the investigations, they used activated sludge of the first stage of biological treatment of waste waters of a petrochemical

L. I. Gyunter; I. F. Shatalaev

1987-01-01

424

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

425

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

426

Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique. PMID:19700268

Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Deepak, Venkatraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Rameshkumar, Neelamegam; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2009-11-01

427

Influence of Fe 3+ \\/Fe 2+ Ratio on the Crystallization of Iron-Rich Glasses Made with Industrial Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the Fe31\\/Fe21 ratio on the crystallization of iron-rich glasses was investigated in this study. The glass batches were made from two hazardous industrial wastes: mud (goethite and jarosite) originating from the zinc hydro- metallurgical process and electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Glass compositions were prepared by adding different per- centages of carbon powder. The crystallization process was

Alexander Karamanov; Paola Pisciella; Carlo Cantalini; Mario Pelino

2000-01-01

428

Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

1990-01-01

429

In-line measurements of chlorine containing polymers in an industrial waste sorting plant by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of chlorine containing waste polymers in-line of an industrial materials sorting plant. Material from municipal waste plastic collection containing different types of plastic pieces and impurities is measured without pre-treatment directly on the conveyor belt (conveyor speed 2 m/s). The encapsulated LIBS system mounted to the conveyor comprises a fast Nd:YAG laser and spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector, a distance sensor, and a software for quasi real-time evaluation of measured LIBS spectra. Approximately 800,000 spectra are collected during the in-line measurement series using one laser pulse per spectrum. The optical plasma emission of Cl I at 837.6 nm is detected to identify waste polymers with high Cl content such as polyvinylchloride (PVC). The LIBS spectra are evaluated employing a fast linear correlation algorithm. The correlation histogram for more than 20,000 spectra shows three distinct peaks that are associated to different materials containing high amount of Chlorine (>20 wt %), Titanium, and low amount of Cl (<20 wt%). Signals of the LIBS sensor and a commercial near-infrared (NIR) optical reflection sensor were found to deviate for some samples. Such deviations might be caused by dark PVC samples that are detected by LIBS but missed by NIR reflection. Our results show that fast in-line identification of Cl containing waste polymer by LIBS is feasible under industrial conditions.

Huber, N.; Eschlböck-Fuchs, S.; Scherndl, H.; Freimund, A.; Heitz, J.; Pedarnig, J. D.

2014-05-01

430

Ionic liquids for extraction of metals and metal containing compounds from communal and industrial waste water.  

PubMed

In a fundamental study the potential of ionic liquids based on quaternary ammonium- and phosphonium cations and thiol-, thioether-, hydroxyl-, carboxylate- and thiocyanate-functionalized anions has been assessed for future application in advanced sewage treatment. The elimination of the metal(oid)s Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Pt, Sn, Zn and the cancerostatic platinum compounds cisplatin and carboplatin was screened using a liquid phase micro-extraction set-up. The analytical tool-set consisted of ICP-SFMS and LC-ICP-MS for quantification of metal(oid)s and cancerostatic platinum compounds, respectively. The purity of the ILs was assessed for the investigated metal(oid)s on the base of present EU environmental quality standards and was found to be sufficient for the intended use. In model solutions at environmental relevant concentrations extraction efficiencies?95% could be obtained for Ag, Cu, Hg and Pt with both phosphonium- and ammonium-based ILs bearing sulphur functionality in the form of thiosalicylate and 2-(methylthiobenzoate) anions, as well as with tricaprylmethylammonium thiocyanate within an extraction time of 120 min. All other metals were extracted to a lower extent (7-79%). In the case of cancerostatic platinum compounds a phosphonium-based IL bearing thiosalicylate functionality showed high extraction efficiency for monoaquacisplatin. For the first time, liquid phase micro extraction with ionic liquids was applied to industrial and communal waste water samples. The concentration of all investigated metal(oid)s could be significantly reduced. The degree of elimination varied with the initial concentration of metals, pH and the amount of suspended particulate matter. PMID:21742365

Fischer, Lisa; Falta, Thomas; Koellensperger, Gunda; Stojanovic, Anja; Kogelnig, Daniel; Galanski, Markus; Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hann, Stephan

2011-10-01

431

Diversified forest ecosystems can grow on industrial waste residues: evidence from a multiproxy approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smelter activities in the Lorraine region (North-East France) have lead to the creation of flotation ponds that were used to eliminate wastes, mainly slag. After industrial decline, some of these flotation ponds were colonized by vegetation and evolved to forest ecosystems. One of these old flotation ponds, situated in Pompey, close to Nancy (North-East France), was studied by collecting information on several physico-chemical and biological indicators. The main objective was to understand the biological functioning of this system, whose soil can be classified as a pure Technosol, characterised by a very complex stratified profile created by successive slag deposits. Soil is characterized by its apparent heterogeneity, but also its high agronomic fertility and particularly high metal contents. Holorganic horizons can vary from one to several centimetres. Macrofauna is characterized by a very low abundance of earthworms and a dominance of millipedes. Furthermore, whereas earthworms do accumulate metals, this is not the case for millipedes. Mesofauna is typical of a temperate forest system, dominated by Collembola. Soil organo-mineral associations showed a high proportion of faecal pellets from Oribatid mites, Isopods and Diplopods. Furthermore, Mn, which is highly associated to metals (especially Zn and Pb) seems to play an important role in organo-mineral associations, including bacteria. An organic fraction is also directly associated to Calcium, Pb and Cu. Vegetation presents a high diversity, with more than 70 species, with very low metal transfer to plants. Results from soil respirometry are typical from temperate forest ecosystems. All this information has been combined to propose a model for the biochemical functioning of a such Technosol.

Cortet, Jerome; Schwartz, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Nahmani, Johanne; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Sirguey, Catherine; Watteau, Francoise; Morel, Jean Louis

2010-05-01

432

Utilization of shrimp industry waste in the formulation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) feed.  

PubMed

A rapid expansion of fisheries is demanding an adequate supply of efficient, nutritious and inexpensive fish feed, because feed contributes highly to the cost of fish production. Shrimp head, a waste product from the shrimp export industry qualifies as an economical, abundant and good quality protein source for fish feeds. In the present work, shrimp head silage powder, which contained approximately 40% protein, was used as a substitute for fish flour. Four feeds, in the form of pellets, were prepared by substituting shrimp head silage for fish flour at 0%, 33.3%, 66.6% and 100% dietary levels. Other ingredients such as corn, soy, bovine blood, cassava and corn cob flours, soy oil, vitamin premix, salt, and other components also were used in the formulation. A commercial fish feed was used as the control. The proximate composition of these feeds did not differ significantly at p>0.05, except for the protein content of the control feed, which was about 30.6% versus 35.4-36.9% protein in the other diets. No significant differences (p>0.05 level) in weight and length of juveniles fed with the different feeds during a period of 60 days were observed. In all cases, an excellent correlation (0.9950-0.9996) between weight and length of juveniles was observed. No significant difference in growth of juveniles fed on R1, R2, R3, or R4, or the control feed, was observed. Similarly, the proximate analyses of the flesh of juveniles did not present significant differences (p>0.05). The result of the study indicates that the shrimp head silage could replace fish flour as an ingredient in tilapia feed with economic advantages and without sacrificing the quality of the feed. PMID:16624557

Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino; Oliveira de Souza, Erivelto; Bora, Pushkar Singh

2007-02-01

433

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2012-02-01

434

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

435

Investigation into the artificial ageing effects on the microstructure of an industrial solid waste treated with cement.  

PubMed

Metal hydroxide sludges are classified as hazardous wastes in the European Hazardous Waste Catalogue (EHWC) because of their high heavy metal contents (Zn, Cr, Fe, Cu, etc.) and the release of these pollutants to the environment. Thereby, the disposal of this waste without any treatment is a substantial environmental problem. Stabilization/solidification technologies are widely used for the treatment of wastes and residues in order to obtain inert materials. This work aims to assess the effectiveness of the chemical fixation and solidification of a metal hydroxide sludge generated by the electrotyping surface treatment industry, using Portland Artificial Cement. In order to predict the medium- and long-term behaviour of the solidified waste, an artificial ageing by means of thermal shocks and humidity variation cycles was applied. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction studies revealed a considerable increase in calcite within the solid matrix after the artificial ageing, which can be attributed to the phenomenon of carbonation. It was also found that the mechanical properties of the solidified material, after ageing, were improved by up to 30%. PMID:21877543

Choura, M; Keskes, M; Tayibi, H; Rouis, J

2011-04-01

436

Industrial Waste Heat Recovery and the Potential for Emissions Reduction. Volume 10. Standard Classification Codes 3-90-005-99 to 3-90-008-99.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as an means of air pollution control. Predicitions of the amount of waste heat a...

1984-01-01

437

Instruments for the promotion of a sustainability oriented management of waste by inter-industrial coordination within an industrial region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The raise of material efficiency is of special importance in the provision of solutions for a more sustainable path of development. One of the main approaches in this direction is the resource saving closure of material circulations among industrial actors. This means at least: maximum rate of recycling combined with a minimum in downgrading processes and spatially close output-input relations

Thomas Sterr; Thomas Ott

2002-01-01

438

Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.  

PubMed

Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24652574

Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

2014-07-01

439

Wetting in Color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown that combinatorial measurements from an array of indicators add a degree of chemical specificity to the platform, which can be further improved by monitoring the drying of the inverse-opal films. While colorimetry is the central focus of this thesis, applications of this platform in encryption, fluidics and nanofabrication are also briefly explored.

Burgess, Ian Bruce

440

Sewage and industrial waste treatment: Wetlands. January 1977-December 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-December 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning developments, operations, and evaluations of natural and artificial wetlands treatment of waste water and sludge. Aquaculture treatments of industrial, municipal, and domestic waste water are examined. Topics include nutrient removal, heavy-metal recovery, and case studies of wetlands being used for waste water treatment. (This updated bibliography contains 135 citations, 23 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

441

Waste treatment: Beverage industry. January 1984-October 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1984-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of effluents from beverage-industry processes. Particular emphasis is on brewery and winery effluent treatment. Characteristics of the waste products and pre-treatment and treatment methods are discussed. Regulations governing waste disposal are also considered along with the economics of waste disposal. Both alcoholic and soft drink beverages are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 223 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-11-01

442

Waste treatment: Beverage industry. January 1972-December 1983 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1972-December 1983  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of effluents from beverage-industry processes. Particular emphasis is on brewery and winery effluent treatment. Characteristics of the waste products and pre-treatment and treatment methods are discussed. Regulations governing waste disposal are also considered along with the economics of waste disposal. Both alcoholic and soft drink beverages are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 312 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-11-01

443

Sewage and industrial-waste treatment: Wetlands. January 1977-July 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-July 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning developments, operations, and evaluations of natural and artificial wetlands treatment of wastewater and sludge. Aquaculture treatments of industrial, municipal, and domestic waste water are examined. Topics include nutrient removal, heavy metal recovery, and case studies of wetlands being used for waste water treatment. (This updated bibliography contains 112 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-07-01

444

Report on the project for spread/promotion of technology for the industrial waste optimized treatment in the Asian region (International Symposium '98).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Japan and Asian countries, the optimized treatment of industrial waste is the problem with the economic growth. Border-crossing movement of the waste for promotion of the renewable use is also a problem. Therefore, the International Symposium '98 on th...

1998-01-01

445

Sewage and industrial waste treatment: wetlands. January 1977-July 1988 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning developments, operations, and evaluations of natural and artificial wetlands treatment of waste water and sludge. Aquaculture treatments of industrial, municipal, and domestic waste water are examined. Topics include nutrient removal, heavy-metal recovery, and case studies of wetlands being used for wastewater treatment. (Contains 93 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1988-08-01

446

Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi; Yukitoshi Tanaka

2004-01-01

447

EVALUATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF INCINERATING HAZARDOUS WASTE IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

In the search for disposal alternatives, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating the potential use of high-temperature processes for the incineration of hazardous wastes. Many kinds of waste have already been disposed of in boilers and cement kilns; this report con...

448

Reduction of chemical oxygen demand of industrial wastes using subcritical water oxidation  

SciTech Connect

If wastes have strong toxicity, high organic content, and a deep hue, they are difficult to handle in the waste disposal. It is very practical that waste of this kind is treated by Subcritical Water Oxidation (SWO). In our work, caprolactum (CPL) waste, purged from a petrochemical plant, and dyeing waste, purged from a textile plant, were individually treated by a semi-batch SWO process. Within a one-hour treatment, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction reached 89% for CPL waste (6.90 MPa, 260[degree]C) and 95% for dyeing waste (6.90 MPa, 240[degree]C). There is also a great improvement in hue, especially for the dyeing waste. When CPL wastewater was treated by the SWO process using a chromium metal powder as a catalyst, COD reduction improved further under the same operating conditions. A kinetic model was used to illustrate the oxidation mechanism and the effectiveness of the catalyst. The oxygen concentration in the effluent showed that oxygen consumption corresponded to COD reduction. With the monitoring of concentrations of total soluble chromium in the effluent, a suitable reaction period could be found in order to meet the standard of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Lin, J.C.; Chang, C.J. (Yuan-Ze Inst. of Technology, Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China))

1992-10-01

449

RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL CHALLENGES THAT FACE THE SOUTH AFRICAN NUCLEAR ENERGY INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consideration of a comprehensive solution to the problem of future final disposal of radioactive waste in South Africa is inextricably tied to the question of formulation of government policy on the management of high level waste, the development and design of an appropriate repository, and the setting aside of adequate funds in order to carry out the above objectives.

GORDON SIBIYA

2000-01-01

450

An industry perspective on commercial radioactive waste disposal conditions and trends.  

PubMed

The United States is presently served by Class-A, -B and -C low-level radioactive waste and naturally-occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material disposal sites in Washington and South Carolina; a Class-A and mixed waste disposal site in Utah that also accepts naturally-occurring radioactive material; and hazardous and solid waste facilities and uranium mill tailings sites that accept certain radioactive materials on a site-specific basis. The Washington site only accepts low-level radioactive waste from 11 western states due to interstate Compact restrictions on waste importation. The South Carolina site will be subject to geographic service area restrictions beginning 1 July 2008, after which only three states will have continued access. The Utah site dominates the commercial Class-A and mixed waste disposal market due to generally lower state fees than apply in South Carolina. To expand existing commercial services, an existing hazardous waste site in western Texas is seeking a Class-A, -B and -C and mixed waste disposal license. With that exception, no new Compact facilities are proposed. This fluid, uncertain situation has inspired national level rulemaking initiatives and policy studies, as well as alternative disposal practices for certain low-activity materials. PMID:17033459

Romano, Stephen A

2006-11-01

451

A Thiol-functionalized Nanoporous Silica Sorbent for Removal of Mercury from Actual Industrial Waste  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted using a novel sorbent, thiol-functionalized nanoporous silica material for its effectiveness in removing mercury from two waste streams. These waste streams originated from pilot-scale tests being conducted to refine the process of vitrifying radioactive sludges that result from chemical separation of targeted actinide species. Two waste streams resulting from this process (High Efficiency Mist Eliminator, HEME and melter condensate) contain mercury concentrations that ranged from ~700 to ~5 ppm respectively. The data showed that thiol functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica (thiol-SAMMS) was effective in reducing mercury concentrations in these two waste streams to meet a treatment limit of ?0.2 ppm. These tests demonstrated that the thiol-SAMMS can very selectively (Kd: 5 x 104 and 1 x 105 ml/g) and effectively scavenge strongly complexed mercury from dilute to relatively concentrated waste matrices to meet the UTS limits for effluents.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Parker, Kent E.

2007-07-02

452

Global Supply Chains in Chinese Industrialization: Impact on Waste Scavenging in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has undergone remarkable economic growth spearheaded by industrialization. Chinese industry demands a wide variety of raw materials in increasing amounts in order to manufacture all kinds of products. Industrial demand exceeds domestic supply for several materials. Thus, China needs to import raw materials. In order to satisfy its needs, China has developed global supply chains, which link two apparently

Martin Medina

2011-01-01

453

Bioconversion of wastes from olive oil industries by vermicomposting process using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the possible bioconversion of wet olive cake by low-cost biostabilization (vermicomposting process). Wet olive cake fresh (WOC), precomposted (WOCP), or mixed with biosolids (WOCB), were vermicomposted for 6 months to obtain organic amendments for agricultural and remediation purposes. The results showed initial differences depending on previous treatment. WOCP was initially more stable, presented a low C:N ratio, and showed more dehydrogenase and urease activity. By contrast, there was no dehydrogenase activity initially in WOC and WOCB, due to the presence of some different types of polyphenols. Finally, the end product showed relatively higher amounts of total nitrogen and humic acid and met the standard of quality for composts and vermicomposts for use both in conventional and organic agriculture and soil-restoration programs. PMID:20183054

Melgar, Raquel; Benitez, Emilio; Nogales, Rogelio

2009-06-01

454

The utilization of uranium industry technology and relevant chemistry to leach uranium from mixed-waste solids  

SciTech Connect

Methods for the chemical extraction of uranium from a number of refractory uranium-containing minerals found in nature have been in place and employed by the uranium mining and milling industry for nearly half a century. These same methods, in conjunction with the principles of relevant uranium chemistry, have been employed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to chemically leach depleted uranium from mixed-waste sludge and soil. The removal of uranium from what is now classified as mixed waste may result in the reclassification of the waste as hazardous, which may then be delisted. The delisted waste might eventually be disposed of in commercial landfill sites. This paper generally discusses the application of chemical extractive methods to remove depleted uranium from a biodenitrification sludge and a storm sewer soil sediment from the Y-12 weapons plant in Oak Ridge. Some select data obtained from scoping leach tests on these materials are presented along with associated limitations and observations which might be useful to others performing such test work. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.

1991-01-01

455

Wet Weather Exposure Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accident surveillance programs require a measure of wet-pavement exposure to determine whether the wet-pavement accident rates of particular highway sections are higher or lower than expected. The research program used the results of laboratory and field ...

D. W. Harwood R. R. Blackburn B. T. Kulakowski D. F. Kibler

1988-01-01

456

Wetting Film Dynamics.  

PubMed

The spreading of a tiny macroscopic