Sample records for wet industrial wastes

  1. Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels 

    E-print Network

    Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

    1988-01-01

    an assessment of wet oxidation technologies, followed by bench-scale and pilot unit testing and by eventual demonstration of the pilot unit at an industrial host site. This paper discusses the assessment conducted under the first phase of this effort, which...

  2. Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Heat recovery from wet wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    Spurrell, R.M.

    1980-11-25

    Overall heat recovery from wet wood waste, particularly sawmill generated hog fuel, is improved by a process for predrying the fuel. A wet oversize fraction of the fuel is combusted in a fluid bed reactor providing heat for drying the remaining smaller sized fraction of the waste pile to about 10-30% moisture by weight. The gaseous products of the fluid bed burning are contacted with the fuel fraction in, preferably, a rotary dryer. The dried fuel is then screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction is fed onto a grate of a wood waste boiler. The fines fraction is injected into the boiler combustion in an air suspension. The amount of fuel fed to the fluid bed reactor is 10-25% of the total fuel flow, depending upon the moistu content of the fuel. The gases fed to the rotary dryer are less than about 1,200/sup 0/F., to minimize ''blue haze,'' by combining with minimum outside air.

  4. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis (eds.)

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  5. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  6. Catalytic wet gasification of municipal and animal wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there is worldwide interest in deriving energy from bio-based materials via gasification. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of wet gasification for treatment/energy conversion of both animal and municipal wastes. Wet wastes such as swine manure and raw sewage sludge could be pro...

  7. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  8. Industrial waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, Y.

    1986-12-01

    Systematic management for industrial waste in Japan has been carried out based on the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law which was enacted in 1970. The law and its ordinances designate 19 kinds of waste materials discharged from business activities as industrial waste and prescribe the generator's responsibility, requirements for treatment contractors, standards for consignment, specific personnel, etc. from the view of proper management. And they also prescribe disposal standards, structure, and maintenance standards for treatment facilities, including final disposal sites, from the view of proper treatment and disposal. The Standard for Verification provides criteria to categorize as hazardous or nonhazardous industrial waste which is subjected to treatment and disposal in conformity with each standard. The fundamental policies to cope with industrial waste focus on reduction of generation, promotion of recycling, establishment of a comprehensive information management system and participation of the public which can contribute well to prevent environmental pollution caused by inappropriate management of industrial waste.

  9. Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes. [Industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, R.A.; Schmidt, H.E. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    Waste processing methods utilized in the food-processing industry are reviewed. The industrial waste associated with fruits, vegetables, and grain are examined. The utilization of the waste products after processing is discussed.

  10. CENTURY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS FRP-100 WET SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field test evaluation of the performance of the Century Industrial Products FRP-100 wet scrubber installed on a lightweight aggregate kiln. Inlet/outlet tests for particle size distribution with cascade impactors and extractive sampling with an elect...

  11. POLLUTION PREVENTION STUDIES IN THE TEXTILE WET PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D. Boardman; Ilse Hendrickx

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate pollution prevention (P2) opportunities in the textile wet processing industry. This industry uses vast amounts,of water, energy and chemicals. P2 audits were conducted at four textile companies. The companies,were located in Virginia and included: a denim and soft wash laundry; a fiberglass yarn processing plant; a cotton fabric dyeing and printing

  12. Industrial Wastes as a Fuel 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, G.; Hendrix, W.

    1980-01-01

    available for coal since it was at one time a major industrial fuel and is still used extensively for electric power generation. However, combustion data for other fuels such as wood and solid materials typically generated as industrial wastes can only...

  13. Furnace for treating industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.D.

    1982-08-31

    A furnace for treating sewage sludge, ash from municipal incinerators or other industrial wastes by melting the waste with a high-temperature bed formed from a combustible carbonaceous material for the reuse of the resulting molten product, for example, as aggregate. A gas for combustion is supplied to the bed at an intermediate portion between its upper and lower portions while causing the resulting combustion gas to flow through the bed dividedly upward and downward.

  14. Comparison of dry and wet digestion for solid waste.

    PubMed

    Luning, L; van Zundert, E H M; Brinkmann, A J F

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the amount of MSW going to landfills a number of technologies have been developed. Two main types of anaerobic digestion processes are distinguished for MSW organic waste, which are generally referred to as "wet" (10-15% DM) and "dry" (24-40% DM) anaerobic digestion processes. The input is conditioned to the appropriate DM content by adding process water as required. This article compares a full-scale dry process, Valorga in La Coruña, Spain and a wet process, Vagron in Groningen, The Netherlands. A crucial difference is that the Vagron facility applies a washing step prior to the AD process to remove inert materials for re-use and to prevent damage of the installation. In the Valorga facility the organic fraction of the mechanical separation process is fed directly to the AD process. Both processes can be considered proven technology. Specific gas production is practically identical. Waste water production is higher in the wet process, as is to be expected, but this is compensated by a smaller amount of digestate to be disposed of and the separation of inert materials suitable for recycling. The organic loading rate for the Vagron process appears to be higher and the required reactor volume smaller in comparison to the dry Valorga process. The applicability of AD processes is strongly determined by the environmental standards set for the products from digestion. The German standards for digestate result in a lower potential for recycling of inert material separated from organic MSW. PMID:14531417

  15. Waste Management Trends in Texas Industrial Plants 

    E-print Network

    Smith, C. S.; Heffington, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    discussed. New environmental Class /J -- any individual solid waste or laws and modifications to current waste management combination of industrial solid waste and disposal laws and reporting systems are which cannol be described as hazardous, changing... combines energy and waste wastes identified or listed as a assessments for selected manufacturers. Through hazardous waste by the administrator of the energy and waste management and minimization tile United States Environmental surveys performed...

  16. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

    2013-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ? 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization. PMID:24073987

  17. Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

  18. Crime in the waste oil industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan A. Block; Thomas J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    In the late 1970s, a new pattern of criminality appeared: the illegal disposal of toxic wastes by previously legitimate waste oil dealers, especially by selling a mixture of liquid toxic wastes and waste oils as fuel oil. This pattern of crime was caused by changes in the social conditions determining economic self?interest in the petroleum industry, and by changes in

  19. Industrial Low Temperature Waste Heat Utilization 

    E-print Network

    Altin, M.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, some common and emerging techniques to better utilize energy in the chemical process industries are discussed. Temperature levels of waste heat available are pointed out. Emerging practices for further economical utilization of waste...

  20. Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kravarik; M. Stubna; A. Pekar; T. Krajc; M. Zatkulak; Z. Holicka; M. Slezak

    2006-01-01

    The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia

  2. Vermicomposting of AgroIndustrial Processing Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Garg; Renuka Gupta

    Agro-industrial wastes- wastes from agriculture, food processing or any cellulose based industries- remain largely unutilized\\u000a and often cause environmental problems like dispersing foul odors, occupying vast areas, ground and surface water pollution\\u000a etc. These wastes could be converted into potential renewable source of energy, if managed sustainably and scientifically.\\u000a In the last few decades, vermicomposting technology has been arising as

  3. Production of greases from industrial petroleum wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Ostrikov; E. V. Smolyakova

    2007-01-01

    Petroleum-containing industrial wastes and petroleum products lost during processes (losses) are quantitatively and qualitatively\\u000a basic environmental pollutants-of water, soil, and air. Some petroleum wastes from production and use of lubricants (greases,\\u000a motor and industrial oils, etc.) are collected and regenerated. Wastes which are not regenerated due to their physicochemical\\u000a properties are dangerous environmental pollutants.

  4. Management of waste from stone processing industry.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, K; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-10-01

    Characteristics of waste generated in stone processing industries, impact of its current disposal practices and waste recycling potential were assessed by field studies. The physical and chemical characteristics of waste are comparable to construction materials like sand and cement. The environmental issues due to the disposal of waste including that on ambient air quality were identified at respective disposal sites. It was found that the waste can be used to replace about 60% of sand and 10% of cement in concrete. Similarly the waste can replace 40% of clay in clay bricks with affecting its compressive strength. PMID:18476374

  5. Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teija Aarnio; Anne Hämäläinen

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste,

  6. Waste heat recovery potential in selected industries

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, S.R.; Menningmann, J.G.

    1981-02-01

    The research project was initiated with the overall objective of identifying the points, qualities, and quantities, of waste heat discharged to the environment by energy intensive industries and emerging technologies for energy development. These data may then be utilized to evaluate various heat management alternatives and to further define and identify potential beneficial uses of these discharges. The first task performed during the course of the study consisted of identifying industries and emerging technologies which offered the greatest potential for discharging substantial quantities of waste heat to the environment. For each of these industries, a study was conducted to document the points, qualities, and quantities of all waste heat discharges to the environment. The report also includes a discussion of the various waste heat recovery technologies currently available for the recovery of waste heat energy as well as a brief discussion of the various environmental impacts associated with the discharge of waste heat to the environment.

  7. Slag waste heat recovery and utilization in the elemental phosphorus industry. Final report, October 28, 1977April 30, 1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Ctvrtnicek; R. J. McCormick; R. W. Serth; A. Wojtowicz; D. L. Zanders

    1978-01-01

    Approximately 80 x 10¹² Btu\\/y of thermal energy are contained in molten slags produced by the elemental phosphorus industry, the iron and steel industry, the copper industry, and wet-bottom coal-fired boilers. This study evaluates the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of recovering this wasted energy; the impact of slag waste-heat recovery on the industries in question; and the steps necessary

  8. Wet oxidation of oil-bearing sulfide wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Hotz, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    Oil-bearing metal sulfide sludges produced in treatment of an industrial wastewater, which includes plating wastes, have yielded to treatment by electrooxidation and hydrogen peroxide processes. The oxidation can be controlled to be mild enough to avoid decomposition of the organic phase while oxidizing the sulfides to sulfates. The pH is controlled to near neutral conditions where iron, aluminum and chromium(III) precipitate as hydrous oxides. Other metals, such as lead and barium, may be present as sulfate precipitates with limited solubility, while metals such as nickel and cadmium would be present as complexed ions in a sulfate solution. The oxidations were found to proceed smoothly, without vigorous reaction; heat liberation was minimal. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  9. INFORMATION FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTE COMBUSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: Developed to support effluent guidelines for the commercial hazardous Waste Combustor Subcategory of the Waste Combustors Point Source category. Data were used o develop environmental impacts, regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation and to identify t...

  10. Accelerated carbonation treatment of industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, Peter J., E-mail: gunning_peter@hotmail.co [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom); Hills, Colin D.; Carey, Paula J. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The disposal of industrial waste presents major logistical, financial and environmental issues. Technologies that can reduce the hazardous properties of wastes are urgently required. In the present work, a number of industrial wastes arising from the cement, metallurgical, paper, waste disposal and energy industries were treated with accelerated carbonation. In this process carbonation was effected by exposing the waste to pure carbon dioxide gas. The paper and cement wastes chemically combined with up to 25% by weight of gas. The reactivity of the wastes to carbon dioxide was controlled by their constituent minerals, and not by their elemental composition, as previously postulated. Similarly, microstructural alteration upon carbonation was primarily influenced by mineralogy. Many of the thermal wastes tested were classified as hazardous, based upon regulated metal content and pH. Treatment by accelerated carbonation reduced the leaching of certain metals, aiding the disposal of many as stable non-reactive wastes. Significant volumes of carbon dioxide were sequestrated into the accelerated carbonated treated wastes.

  11. Recovery, recycle and reuse of industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Noll; C. N. Haas; C. Schmidt; P. Kodukula

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the elimination of industrial wastes through the application of recycle, recovery and reuse technology. An overview is provided of how various processes can recover potential contaminants for eventual reuse. Chapters include resource recovery from hazardous waste, sorption, molecular separation, phase transition, chemical modifications, physical dispersion and separation.

  12. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Shiun Wei; Kuo-Hei Huang

    2001-01-01

    Eighteen million metric tons of industrial wastes are produced every year in Taiwan. In order to properly handle the industrial wastes, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) has set up strategic programs that include establishment of storage, treatment, and final disposal systems, establishment of a management center for industrial wastes, and promotion of recycling and reuse of industrial wastes.

  13. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions.

    PubMed

    Tunsu, Cristian; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent's concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I2/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5M I2/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe4BTBP showed good removal of mercury, with an extraction efficiency of 97.5 ± 0.7% being achieved in a single stage. Better removal of mercury was achieved in a single stage using the extractants Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 923 in kerosene, respectively. PMID:25443097

  14. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  15. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  16. Development of a Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Method to Produce Feedstock Gases from Waste Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulis, Michael J.; Guerrero-Medina, Karen J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Given the high cost of space launch, the repurposing of biological and plastic wastes to reduce the need for logistical support during long distance and long duration space missions has long been recognized as a high priority. Described in this paper are the preliminary efforts to develop a wet air oxidation system in order to produce fuels from waste polymers. Preliminary results of partial oxidation in near supercritical water conditions are presented. Inherent corrosion and salt precipitation are discussed as system design issues for a thorough assessment of a second generation wet air oxidation system. This work is currently being supported by the In-Situ Resource Utilization Project.

  17. Co-firing of pulverized coal with combustible industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hara; N. Asahiro; T. Kamijyo

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, incineration of combustible industrial wastes is chiefly used to reduce their volume in waste disposal and has not been treated as an effective material compared with combustible non-industrial wastes, because cheap and stabilized electric power supply has not been expected from their incineration. In other words, it means that collecting and transporting of combustible industrial wastes are not

  18. Industrial wastes and sludges management by vermicomposting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anoop Yadav; V. K. Garg

    Vermicomposting has been arising as an innovative ecotechnology for the conversion of various types of wastes into vermicompost.\\u000a Vermicompost is humus like, finely granulated and stabilized material which can be used as a soil conditioner to reintegrate\\u000a the organic matter to the agricultural soils. Industrial wastes remain largely unutilized and often cause environmental problems\\u000a like ground and surface water pollution,

  19. THE ECONOMIST The waste industry

    E-print Network

    and the contribution emissions from rubbish make to climate change mean that disposing of the stuff is an increasingly. Environmental concerns have spurred dramatic improvements in the way waste is managed in many countries to stringent regulation, whereas ones filled with toxic sludge from power plants are less tightly controlled

  20. Studies in treatment of disperse dye waste: Membrane-wet oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V.

    2000-07-01

    An integrated process, membrane-wet oxidation (MEMWO) has been demonstrated to treat the disperse dye bath waste. The dye bath waste stream containing azo class disperse dye CL 79, was studied to demonstrate the process. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) showed > 99% color and 97% chemical oxygen demand (COD) rejection of dye compound. The concentrate was then treated by wet oxidation (WO) process. WO of dye was studied in the range of 160--225 C and oxygen partial pressure 0.69--1.38 MPa. A homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a suitable catalyst to effectively destroy the dye as well as the real waste. While non catalytic WO of dye achieved 75% reduction in COD during 120 min with 99% color destruction, the catalytic WO showed about 90% reduction in COD. The performance of WO of actual waste stream was comparable with that of pure dye molecule.

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvements and Cost Saving Opportunities in the Corn Wet Milling Industry

    E-print Network

    Galitsky, C.; Worrell, E.

    , Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ABSTRACT Com wet milling is the most energy intensive industry in the food and kindred products group (SIC 20). Plants typically spend approximately $15 to 25 million per year on energy, one of its largest operating costs... use, we examine energy-efficiency opportunities for com wet millers. Where available, we provide energy savings and typical payback periods for each measure based on case studies of plants that have implemented it. Given available resources...

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvements and Cost Saving Opportunities in the Corn Wet Milling Industry 

    E-print Network

    Galitsky, C.; Worrell, E.

    2003-01-01

    , Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ABSTRACT Com wet milling is the most energy intensive industry in the food and kindred products group (SIC 20). Plants typically spend approximately $15 to 25 million per year on energy, one of its largest operating costs... use, we examine energy-efficiency opportunities for com wet millers. Where available, we provide energy savings and typical payback periods for each measure based on case studies of plants that have implemented it. Given available resources...

  3. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY POTENTIAL IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research project was initiated with the overall objective of identifying the points, qualities, and quantities, of waste heat discharged to the environment by energy intensive industries and emerging technologies for energy development. These data may then be utilized to eval...

  4. Waste heat recovery potential in selected industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Latour; J. G. Menningmann

    1981-01-01

    The research project was initiated with the overall objective of identifying the points, qualities, and quantities, of waste heat discharged to the environment by energy intensive industries and emerging technologies for energy development. These data may then be utilized to evaluate various heat management alternatives and to further define and identify potential beneficial uses of these discharges. The first task

  5. Industrial wastes as catalyst precursors: VOC oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E Lebedeva; A. G Sarmurzina

    2000-01-01

    Industrial wastes are shown to be useful in the preparation of VOC catalysts by spark erosion. Preparation procedures are given along with some examples of their use as catalysts for the oxidation of ethanol and o-xylene. Chromium-containing catalysts were demonstrated to provide complete VOC abatement.

  6. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

  7. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

  8. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

  9. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

  10. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925-15 Section 35.925-15...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable...

  11. Fashioning a Greener Shade of Clean: Commercialization of Professional Wet Cleaning in the Garment Care Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Sinsheimer; Cyrus Grout; Angela Namkoong; Robert Gottlieb

    2004-01-01

    This report, “Fashioning a Greener Shade Clean: Commercialization of Professional Wet Cleaning in the Garment Care Industry”, is one in a series of reports by the Pollution Prevention Education and Research Center at Occidental College designed to address the significant environmental and health impacts associated with the use of perchloroethylene (PCE), the chemical cleaning solvent used by the vast majority

  12. Industrial Low Temperature Waste Heat Utilization

    E-print Network

    Altin, M.

    1981-01-01

    utilization of industrial waste heat. Making more products of the same or different kinds. 40 iDO -' C 1=:1 :5..r ~a: 0::1 ~~ zC Oa: 4GO ;::~ C:;; ~~ I=z ::10 ~~ wa: 3110 2::1 w~ ... C UnUlATlON a: cen a: ~O BYBDDSTING en...: 0 m... Ill" g[ :! WASTE HEAT 138 SOURCE 100M PROOUCT 100K SOURCE 25M BOIlEIl flU( GAS COMBUSTOR &11 2011 t...- POWER 2000 KW lOSSES I--- (711) 111 r-. 1M WASTE HEAT ENERGY SINK (AMBIENT) I 18 Figure 2. Cogeneration...

  13. Industrial solid waste flow analysis of eco-industrial parks: implications for sustainable waste management in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongpeng Lü; Kai Yang; Yue Che; Zhaoyi Shang; Jun Tai; Yun Jian

    Sustainable waste management in the industrial ecology perspective brings enormous challenges to the existing methodology\\u000a of waste analysis at the industrial park (IP) scale. In this study, a four-step method was proposed for industrial solid waste\\u000a (ISW) flow analysis of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) and applied to two IPs in eastern China. According to a park-wide census\\u000a of 619 industrial enterprises

  14. Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories. PMID:25154913

  15. Hydrothermal treatment of Hanford waste constituents. [Wet Oxidation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Orco, P C [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Environmenal and Water Resources Engineering] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Environmenal and Water Resources Engineering; Foy, B R; Robinson, J M; Buelow, S J [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides contained in underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy Hanford site in Washington state would significantly reduce the volume, hazard, and toxicity of the waste, while meeting pretreatment requirements for vitrification and grouting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of nitrates organics, and ferrocyanides. Laboratory studies were performed studying oxidation/reduction reactions of nitrate with a simple organic compound, methanol, and with ammonia. Additional studies examined the reaction of nitrate with ferrocyanide. When reacted with methanol above 500{degrees}C, greater than 99% of the nitrate was destroyed at the shortest residence times (< 6 seconds). At the same conditions, greater than 80% of the methanol was converted to bicarbonate and carbon dioxide. Studies involving the reaction of nitrate and nitrite with ammonia indicated that the reaction proceeds to completion in short residence times at temperatures above the critical point of water (374.2{degrees}C). Ferrocyanide to also reacted rapidly with nitrate above the critical point, to produce carbon dioxide and ammonia.

  16. Hazardous waste minimization. Part VI. Waste minimization in the foundry industry

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, D.E.

    1988-07-01

    The foundry industry is a major consumer of waste materials (scrap). Unfortunately, the recycling of these waste materials can result in the generation of hazardous wastes that must be properly managed at a significant cost. This article focuses on two waste streams in the foundry industry; calcium carbide desulfurization slag and melt emission control residuals. The author presents an overview of how foundries have evaluated different waste management options with the ultimate goal of minimizing the generation of hazardous waste.

  17. Optimal waste heat recovery and reuse in industrial zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirko Z. Stijepovic; Patrick Linke

    2011-01-01

    Significant energy efficiency gains in zones with concentrated activity from energy intensive industries can often be achieved by recovering and reusing waste heat between processing plants. We present a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and design optimal reuse options across plants in industrial zones. The approach first establishes available waste heat qualities and reuse feasibilities considering distances

  18. An integral approach to waste minimization in process industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Petek

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and procedures of pollution prevention which have been applied in process industries with a case study of waste minimization in the textile industry. The waste minimization procedure developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was first used and later extended by additional steps which were found appropriate for use in process industries

  19. Analysis and overview of industrial solid waste management in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasem M. Alhumoud; Fatima A. Al-Kandari

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine the amount of different kinds of solid wastes produced, segregated, collected, stored, transported and disposed off by the different industries\\/business in Kuwait. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Available industry information along with the use of monitoring data from a waste management system were used to analyze the generation, type and composition of industrial

  20. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.-C. [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: u9315915@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw; Lin, Jim Juimin [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

    2008-11-15

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  1. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  2. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    E-print Network

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber systems installed in the industrial workplace of a (i) fiberglass processing plant, where the highest exposure levels to volatile compounds are nowadays today monitored,and of a (ii) waste-to-energy plant, characterized by a very high particulate matter level. The adopted technology, to be used as complementing strategy,does not require special disposal procedures and the processed air is re-emitted in the same work environment for the benefit of the work operators. The operation of the scrubbers network during the working a...

  3. NOAA Climate Data Prepares Oahu Construction Industry for Wet Season Each year NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, a part of the

    E-print Network

    NOAA Climate Data Prepares Oahu Construction Industry for Wet Season Each year NOAA. This year, for example, climate data have been immensely valuable to the construction industry on Oahu and landfill. Without the headsup, not only PVT but Oahu's entire construction industry would have been

  4. Industrial waste in highway construction K. Aravind1

    E-print Network

    Das, Animesh

    mix, artificial aggregates [1] Blast furnace slag Steel industry Base/ Sub-base material, Binder in soil stabilization (ground slag) [1] Construction and demolition waste Construction industry Base/ Sub industry Glass-fibre reinforcement, bulk fill [3] Nonferrous slags Mineral processing industry Bulk

  5. Aluminum extraction from aluminum industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste from the Egyptian Aluminum Company (Egyptalum), was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum sulfate alum (Al2(SO4)3·12H2O) and ammonium aluminum alum {(NH4)2SO4AL2 (SO4)3·24H2O}. This was carried out in two processes. The first involves leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of aluminum sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purified aluminum dross tailings thus produced. This was carried out in an autoclave. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on pressure leaching and extraction processes were studied in order to specify the optimum conditions to be applied in the bench scale production as well as the kinetics of leaching process.

  6. Detrimental effects of pharmaceutical industrial waste on microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ajmal; A. Ahmad; M. Z. Hasan; Azhar A. Nomani

    1980-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industrial waste was collected from Ghaziabad (Cooper Pharma Ltd.) and analyzed for color, odor, specific gravity, turbidity, pH, total solids, suspended solids, dissolved solids, volatile solids, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), organic and inorganic nitrogen, sulfur, chlorides, sulfates and phosphates. The detrimental effects of industrial waste on microorganisms were studied in the system

  7. A theory of waste behaviour in the construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. M. Teo; M. Loosemore

    2001-01-01

    Levels of waste within the construction industry need to be reduced for environmental and economic reasons. Changing people's wasteful behaviour can make a significant contribution. This paper describes a research project that used Ajzen's 'theory of planned behaviour' to investigate the attitudinal forces that shape behaviour at the operative level. It concludes that operatives see waste as an inevitable by-product

  8. Recycled lightweight concrete made from footwear industry waste and CDW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Roberto Lopes Lima; Mônica Batista Leite; Ediela Quinteiro Ribeiro Santiago

    2010-01-01

    In this paper two types of recycled aggregate, originated from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) waste, were used in the production of concrete. The EVA waste results from cutting off the EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of shoes in the footwear industry. The goal of this study was to evaluate the

  9. Reuse of waste catalysts from petrochemical industries for cement substitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Su; Hung-Yuan Fang; Zong-Huei Chen; Fu-Shung Liu

    2000-01-01

    Zeolite catalysts have been widely used in oil refinery and petrochemical industries. Two types of waste catalysts, equilibrium catalyst (Ecat), and electrostatic precipitator catalyst (EPcat), can be obtained after fluid catalytic cracking. This study analyzes the properties of these waste catalysts and examines the feasibility of reusing them to substitute part of the cement required in mortar preparation. These waste

  10. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-Chuan Huang; Jim Juimin Lin

    2008-01-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the

  11. Lessons in waste minimization from nuclear industry experience

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.; Thuot, J.R.; Vrtis, J.

    1996-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has been very successful at reducing waste volumes and waste sources. The success has been driven by escalating cost, decreasing disposal ability, and a desire by the industry to achieve excellence. The result has been a cycle of continuing improvement resulting in reduced cost. Many of the examples of Dry Active Waste reduction are applicable to the Department of Energy in both operations and remedial activities. This paper discusses several successful examples of utility applications in this area.

  12. Development potential of e-waste recycling industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Yang, Jie; Liu, Lili

    2015-06-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) recycling industries in China have been through several phases from spontaneous informal family workshops to qualified enterprises with treatment fund. This study attempts to analyse the development potential of the e-waste recycling industry in China from the perspective of both time and scale potential. An estimation and forecast of e-waste quantities in China shows that, the total e-waste amount reached approximately 5.5 million tonnes in 2013, with 83% of air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, televisions sand computers. The total quantity is expected to reach ca. 11.7 million tonnes in 2020 and 20 million tonnes in 2040, which indicates a large increase potential. Moreover, the demand for recycling processing facilities, the optimal service radius of e-waste recycling enterprises and estimation of the profitability potential of the e-waste recycling industry were analysed. Results show that, based on the e-waste collection demand, e-waste recycling enterprises therefore have a huge development potential in terms of both quantity and processing capacity, with 144 and 167 e-waste recycling facilities needed, respectively, by 2020 and 2040. In the case that e-waste recycling enterprises set up their own collection points to reduce the collection cost, the optimal collection service radius is estimated to be in the range of 173?km to 239?km. With an e-waste treatment fund subsidy, the e-waste recycling industry has a small economic profit, for example ca. US$2.5/unit for television. The annual profit for the e-waste recycling industry overall was about 90 million dollars in 2013. PMID:25990983

  13. Meat, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Litchfield

    1982-01-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

  14. Meat-, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

  15. Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T; Cook, M B; Angus, A J

    2011-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the UK to offer reasons why it has not been more widely used. This paper presents a model that calculates the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) on a twenty year investment in a 30,000 tonnes per annum wet mesophilic AD plant in the UK for the treatment of source separated organic waste, which is judged to be a suitable technology for the UK climate. The model evaluates the financial significance of the different alternative energy outputs from this AD plant and the resulting economic subsidies paid for renewable energy. Results show that renewable electricity and renewable heat sales supported by renewable electricity and renewable heat tariffs generates the greatest IRR (31.26%). All other uses of biogas generate an IRR in excess of 15%, and are judged to be a financially viable investment. Sensitivity analysis highlights the financial significance of: economic incentive payments and a waste management gate fee; and demonstrates that the fate of the digestate by-product is a source of financial uncertainty for AD investors. PMID:21481437

  16. Management of soil systems for the disposal of industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J C

    1981-01-01

    Research continues to provide improved information about the toxicity of materials, their transport in soil, and the kinetics of detoxification that is most useful in evaluating alternative approaches for safely managing industrial wastes. The placement of industrial wastes into soil systems is a satisfactory management approach if the material is nontoxic, if the soil has the capability of detoxifying the material, or if the soil prevents the material from entering the biosphere. Examples from the literature of successful applications of industrial wastes to soil are discussed.

  17. Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z. [VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Slezak, M. [SE - VYZ, 919 31 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    2006-07-01

    The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a roller conveyor. After the drums cool, they are capped and removed from the conveyor and placed in a storage hall. Drums with bitumen product are loaded into Fiber Reinforced Concrete containers (FRC) and grouted with cement. Cement grout is prepared from mixture of cement, additive and radioactive concentrates. By formulating the cement grout with evaporator concentrates the maximum radioactivity is fixed in cement matrix and volume of final waste product is minimized. A batch mixer with rotating blades is used produce the cement grout. FRCs loaded with bitumen drums are placed on roller conveyor and moved along the cementation line. Grouted FRCs are stored in the expedition hall for 28 days of curing and then transported to final disposal. After placed in operation the FTC provides treatment for all liquid and wet LLW produced from the operation of the Mochovce NPP. The final product of the FTC is a FRC loaded with 7 drums of waste fixed in bitumen and the space between the drums is grouted with cement. This container meets all limits for final disposal in the National Radioactive Waste Repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  18. The Energy Impact of Industrial Recycling and Waste Exchange 

    E-print Network

    Phillips, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Recycling and waste exchange, particularly in the industrial sector, has a substantial positive energy impact and one that can often be accomplished at little or no expense. Recycling saves energy because the secondary materials being recycled...

  19. Investigation of briquetting of metal waste from the bearing industry.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Gabriel; Kuczmaszewski, Jozef

    2005-10-01

    An economical method to process the metal waste that comes from the ball-bearing industry is presented. The purpose of the study was to determine the physical-chemical properties of the material, to present the most suitable binders and identify the factors that can affect briquette strength. The mechanical strength and resistance to gravitational drop were defined for both fresh briquettes and those that had been seasoned. The briquette structure was also tested. On the basis of the results of experimental studies and laboratory trials two techniques for processing the waste from the ballbearing industry on an industrial technological scale were developed. The economic and ecological impacts of these industrial applications were examined. The results of the investigations suggest that the briquettes might be recycled in steel-making furnaces. The reported solution to the problem of management of this type of waste appears to be universal and could also be applied by other waste-related enterprises. PMID:16273956

  20. Analytical methods for waste minimisation in the convenience food industry.

    PubMed

    Darlington, R; Staikos, T; Rahimifard, S

    2009-04-01

    Waste creation in some sectors of the food industry is substantial, and while much of the used material is non-hazardous and biodegradable, it is often poorly dealt with and simply sent to landfill mixed with other types of waste. In this context, overproduction wastes were found in a number of cases to account for 20-40% of the material wastes generated by convenience food manufacturers (such as ready-meals and sandwiches), often simply just to meet the challenging demands placed on the manufacturer due to the short order reaction time provided by the supermarkets. Identifying specific classes of waste helps to minimise their creation, through consideration of what the materials constitute and why they were generated. This paper aims to provide means by which food industry wastes can be identified, and demonstrate these mechanisms through a practical example. The research reported in this paper investigated the various categories of waste and generated three analytical methods for the support of waste minimisation activities by food manufacturers. The waste classifications and analyses are intended to complement existing waste minimisation approaches and are described through consideration of a case study convenience food manufacturer that realised significant financial savings through waste measurement, analysis and reduction. PMID:19019669

  1. Separation technologies for metals recovery from industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Chmielewski; T. S. Urba?ski; W. Migda?

    1997-01-01

    Three hydrometallurgical processes for industrial wastes treatment are presented. The main separation techniques are: solvent extraction, leaching-precipitation, electro-oxidation, and ion exchange. Recovery of gold from solid wastes generated in the electronic and jewellery industries consists of thermal degradation, two-stage leaching with nitric acid solution to remove silver and other metals and then with aqua regia to dissolve gold, selective solvent

  2. Constructed wetland (CW) for industrial waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dani Vrhovšek; Vlasta Kukanja; Tjaša Bulc

    1996-01-01

    The constructed wetland (CW) in Gradiš?e (Slovenia) has been in operation since 1991 for the purification of waste waters from a food processing plant. It functions according to the method of horizontal subsurface flow. Waste waters are composed of industrial, faecal and meteor waters. The CW is composed of two beds, filled with substrate and planted with Carex gracilis and

  3. STUDY OF CODISPOSED MUNICIPAL AND TREATED/UNTREATED INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to determine the long-term effects of codisposal of industrial waste (IW) and municipal solid waste (MSW) under controlled, simulated landfill conditions. Three IW's (treated or untreated by solidification) were disposed with MSW in nine specially designed ...

  4. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

  5. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Smith; J. Means; E. Barth

    1995-01-01

    This handbook assists pollution prevention efforts by encouraging recycling and reuse of wastes found on Superfund or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action sites. It outlines specific technologies for recycling and reuse of materials that require remediation at contaminated sites. Case studies within the book document applications of these technologies to real world conditions. Site and waste type,

  6. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Smith; J. Means; E. Barth

    1995-01-01

    The handbook assists pollution prevention efforts by encouraging recycling and reuse of wastes found on Superfund or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action sites. It outlines specific technologies for recycling and reuse of materials that require remediation at contaminated sites. Case studies document applications of these technologies to real-world conditions. Site and waste type, technology application, recycling benefits,

  7. Waste-Heat thermoelectric power source for industrial wireless transmitters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teerawat Thepmanee; Prasit Julsereewong; N. Taratanaphol

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents Seebeck effect-based thermoelectric power source utilizing waste heat in manufacturing processes for industrial wireless transmitters. An industrial wireless transmitter can be supplied by its internal battery in combination with the proposed thermoelectric power source to conserve battery lifetime. Moreover, the proposed power source can operate as the backup power supply for new battery replacement without tuning the

  8. Industrial wastes: meat, fish and poultry processing wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Litchfield

    1980-01-01

    This article is a review of meat, fish and poultry processing wastes. Reviews on slaughterhouse and packinghouse wastewater treatment methods were mentioned together with processes for protein recovery from wastewater and wastewater treatment sludges.

  9. Industrial wastes: meat, fish and poultry processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    This article is a review of meat, fish and poultry processing wastes. Reviews on slaughterhouse and packinghouse wastewater treatment methods were mentioned together with processes for protein recovery from wastewater and wastewater treatment sludges.

  10. Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

  11. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  12. Thermal performance of cross flow cooling towers in variable wet bulb temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebrahim Hajidavalloo; Reza Shakeri; Mozaffar A. Mehrabian

    2010-01-01

    Cooling towers are widely used in most industrial units to reject waste heat to the atmosphere. Wet towers are usually designed to operate in hot and dry weather conditions with narrow range of wet bulb temperature, but many cooling towers are required to operate in weather condition with large variation of wet bulb temperature which strongly affects the thermal performance

  13. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  14. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries with a waste steam characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, mil, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the U.S. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  15. Maximum organic loading rate for the single-stage wet anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Minako; Niwa, Chiaki; Kurosawa, Norio; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted at high OLR from 3.7 to 12.9 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) for 225 days. Periods without organic loading were arranged between the each loading period. Stable operation at an OLR of 9.2 kg-VS (15.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was achieved with a high VS reduction (91.8%) and high methane yield (455 mL g-VS-1). The cell density increased in the periods without organic loading, and reached to 10.9×10(10) cells mL(-1) on day 187, which was around 15 times higher than that of the seed sludge. There was a significant correlation between OLR and saturated TSS in the sludge (y=17.3e(0.1679×), r(2)=0.996, P<0.05). A theoretical maximum OLR of 10.5 kg-VS (17.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was obtained for mesophilic single-stage wet anaerobic digestion that is able to maintain a stable operation with high methane yield and VS reduction. PMID:22705526

  16. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Roig, M.G.; Martin Rodriguez, M.J.M.; Cachaza, J.M. (Univ. de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica); Mendoza Sanchez, L. (C/Sol Oriente, Salamanca (Spain). Estudios y Proyectos); Kennedy, J.F. (Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Research Lab. for the Chemistry of Bioactive Carbohydrates and Proteins)

    1993-07-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents. It was foreseen in 1980 that biotechnology would foster the creation of new industries with low energy requirements. This is because the growth of microorganisms provides a renewable source of energy.

  17. MUTAGENISTIC TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES FROM REPRESENTATIVE ORGANIC CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general applicability of the Ames test for screening wastewater samples was investigated. Application of the Ames test to raw and treated wastewaters from representative organic chemical industries involved the investigation of several problems: (1) the feasibility of using t...

  18. Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial Park level: A case of Tianjin, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Geng; Qinghua Zhu; Murray Haight

    2007-01-01

    Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers.

  19. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes

    E-print Network

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  20. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Roig, M G; Martín Rodriguez, M J; Cachaza, J M; Mendoza Sánchez, L; Kennedy, J F

    1993-01-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents. PMID:8364976

  1. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes 

    E-print Network

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  2. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  3. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  4. Conversion of food industrial wastes into bioplastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Yu; H. Chua; A. L. Huang; W. Lo; G. Q. Chen

    1998-01-01

    The usage of plastics in packaging and disposable products, and the generation of plastic waste, have been increasing drastically.\\u000a Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would\\u000a heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. In\\u000a the authors’ laboratories, various carbohydrates in

  5. Utilization of a leather industry waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Simeonova; P. G. Dalev

    1996-01-01

    In the production of leather the main waste that remains after splitting of limed hides before tanning is the lowest layer of the skin together with the underlying fatty tissue (subcutis). It is characterized by a very high water content (up to 870 g kg?1) and a balanced content of protein (40–60 g kg?1 of the dry mass), fat (10–20

  6. Cermet-lined tubes from industrial wastes by centrifugal SHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Andreev; V. N. Sanin; N. V. Sachkova; V. I. Yukhvid

    2011-01-01

    Cermet-lined tubes were prepared by centrifugal SHS from industrial wastes (scale) and recycled aluminum. Process parameters\\u000a were optimized and some alloying agents were tested. The wear resistance of cermet-lined tubes was found to exceed that of\\u000a uncoated steel pipes by a factor of above 20. The results can be used as a basis for elaborating a technology for reprocessing\\u000a industrial

  7. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses.

    PubMed

    Peterson, B V; Hummerick, M; Roberts, M S; Krumins, V; Kish, A L; Garland, J L; Maxwell, S; Mills, A

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste subsystem analysis and atmospheric management within the ALS Project. PMID:15846874

  8. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste subsystem analysis and atmospheric management within the ALS Project. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  9. THE GENOTOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in this document. he importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the...

  10. Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

  11. SYNTHETIC RESIN ADSORBENTS IN TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of synthetic polymeric adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants from industrial waste streams is a viable alternative to more common treatment methods such as carbon adsorption. However, resin technology is not widely practiced due to the difficulty of selecting the a...

  12. Recovering Industrial Waste Heat by the Means of Thermoelectricity

    E-print Network

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Recovering Industrial Waste Heat by the Means of Thermoelectricity Spring 2010 Department as a heat pump) to the surroundings. This heat was interpreted as the lost work of the device. The aim estimated. We had to know the heat flow into the module in order to calculate the efficiency, and estimated

  13. A chemical substitution study for a wet processing textile mill in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ertan Ozturk; Ulku Yetis; Filiz B. Dilek; Goksel N. Demirer

    2009-01-01

    Wet processing textile industry has many different processing stages (dyeing, sizing, de-sizing, scouring, softening, etc.). Many chemicals currently used in the wet processing textile industry affect the amount and the type of waste produced and their influence on the aquatic life of the receiving stream. One of the critical steps in pollution prevention studies is auditing the use of chemicals

  14. Conversion of polyester/cotton industrial waste to higher value

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhardt, R.A.; Cowgill, W.P.; Walsh, W.K.; Cates, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The primary textile industry in 1981 produced 1.5 billion pounds of blended polyester/cotton (PET/Cotton) yarns that are chiefly polyester. The polyester component, which is almost entirely poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), is polymerized from petroleum products and furnished to the textile industry as staple fiber. About 3% of the PET/Cotton production is waste. Although substantial markets exist for the separate products, the problem of economically separating the components has not been solved. The alternative is to develop an application for the unseparated waste. This project was undertaken to study the feasibility of using the waste blends as feedstock for injection molded plastic. Thermal and mechanical properties were determined on the compacts.

  15. Microwave treatment of industrial waste water sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, J.E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Steel mills in the US generate approximately 1 million tons of sludge annually. This is mainly a residue of cooling water, lubricating oils, and metallic fines from hot strip rolling mills and other operations. At present the separation of sludge from the liquid requires large settling tanks, takes several hours of time, and produces a residue that must be disposed of at high cost. The EPRI Center for Materials Production, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has supported development of a microwave based treatment system. This new process, developed by Carnegie Mellon Research Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, and patented by EPRI is 30 times faster, requires 90% less space, and eliminates land-filling by producing materials of value. Electricity usage is only 0.5 kWh per gallon. A review by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Waste Recycle Technology Task Force of this and various other approaches, concluded that further work on the microwave technology was justified. Subsequently additional work was undertaken toward optimizing the process for treating metallic waste sludges containing lime and polymers. This effort cofunded by EPRI and the AISI was successfully concluded in late 1994. Next a two phase program is being developed to commercialize the process. Phase 1 will demonstrate the technology in a large scale batch mode. Phase 2 will be a commercial scale continuous installation at a steel mill site projected for 1996.

  16. Hazardous solid waste from metallurgical industries.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, R P

    1978-01-01

    Types of land disposed residuals from selected metal smelting and refining industries are described, as are the origin and disposition of land disposed residuals from the primary copper industry as an example. Quantities of land-disposed or stored residuals, including slags, sludges, and dusts, are given per unit of metal production for most primary and secondary metal smelting and refining industries. Assessments of the hazard potential of residuals are given. Present treatment and disposal of residuals are discussed and assessed for health and environmental protection. Possible technologies for protection of ground and surface water contamination are presented. These include lined lagoons, chemical fixation of sludge, and ground sealing. Possibilities of resource recovery from residuals are discussed. Data are presented showing attenuation of heavy metal ions and fluorides in selected soils. The leachability and mobility of smelting and refining residuals constituents, including heavy metals and fluorides, and other potential toxicants in specific soil, geologic, and hydrologic disposal environments must be carefully considered in setting disposal requirements. PMID:738242

  17. Recycled lightweight concrete made from footwear industry waste and CDW.

    PubMed

    Lima, Paulo Roberto Lopes; Leite, Mônica Batista; Santiago, Ediela Quinteiro Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    In this paper two types of recycled aggregate, originated from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) waste, were used in the production of concrete. The EVA waste results from cutting off the EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of shoes in the footwear industry. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of the use of these recycled aggregates as replacements of the natural coarse aggregate, upon density, compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and flexural behavior of recycled concrete. The experimental program was developed with three w/c ratios: 0.49, 0.63 and 0.82. Fifteen mixtures were produced with different aggregate substitution rates (0%, 50% EVA, 50% CDW, 25% CDW-25% EVA and 50% CDW-50% EVA), by volume. The results showed that it is possible to use the EVA waste and CDW to produce lightweight concrete having semi-structural properties. PMID:20189792

  18. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Foell; D. Lund; J. W. Mitchell; D. Ray; R. Stevenson; A. TenWolde

    1980-01-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial

  19. Health survey on workers and residents near the municipal waste and industrial waste incinerators in Korea.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Cul; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jang, Jae-Yeon

    2003-07-01

    Hazardous substances, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) also have been detected in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and industrial waste incinerators in Korea. In this study, we estimated the exposure status of these hazardous substances and their heath effects in workers and residents near the MSW incinerators and residents near the industrial waste incinerators. We interviewed 13 workers and 16 residents from the area around the two MSW incinerators, and further 10 residents from the area around one industrial waste incinerator, which is suspected to emit higher hazardous substances. During the interview we collected information including sociodemographic information, personal habits, work history, detailed gynecologic and other medical history. Blood samples from 45 subjects were also collected for analysis of PCDDs and PCDFs, which were analyzed by HRGC-HRMS (High Resolution Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometer). In addition to a questionnaire survey, urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as oxidative injury biomarkers. Urinary concentrations of 8-OH-dG were determined by in vitro ELISA (JAICA, Fukuroi, Japan). MDA were determined by HPLC using adduct with TBA (thiobarbituric acid). The PCDD/F concentrations in residents from the area around industrial waste incinerator were higher than those in workers and residents from the area around MSW incinerator. The average toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs in residents from the area around industrial waste incinerator were 53.4 pg I-TEQs/g lipid. The average TEQ concentrations of PCDD/Fs in workers and residents near MSW incinerator were 12.2 pg I-TEQs/g lipid. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of each person was calculated, and the EDI of all workers and residents near MSW incinerator were within the tolerable daily intake range. But for only 30% of 10 people near the industrial waste incinerator were the EDI within the tolerable daily intake range (1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg bw/day) suggested by WHO (1997). The oxidative stress of residents near the industrial waste incinerator was higher than that in workers and residents from the area around MSW incinerator. This oxidative stress may have been caused by hazardous substances, such as PCDD/Fs emitted by incinerators. The residents from the area around industrial waste incinerator were exposed to hazardous substances such as PCDD/ Fs. Proper protection strategies against these hazardous chemicals are needed. PMID:12916748

  20. PCDD/DF concentrations at the inlets and outlets of wet scrubbers in Korean waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-In; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2007-01-01

    To further understand the effects of wet scrubbers on PCDD/DF levels, it was measured the concentrations of PCDD/DF, dust, and other gaseous pollutants at both the inlets and the outlets of seven wet scrubbers. As a result, the concentrations of PCDD/DF at the inlets and outlets of the wet scrubbers ranged from 0.2 to 37.4, and 0.8 to 6.0 ng TEQ N m-3, respectively. With the exceptions of wet scrubbers F and G, the PCDD/DF levels decreased by and large in most wet scrubbers. It was thought that their relatively high removal efficiencies were more increased with heavier loads of dust and particle-bound PCDD/DF. On the other hand, it was also surveyed the increase of gaseous PCDD/DF in wet scrubber, where the total level of PCDD/DF was decreased. However, it was not sure whether it had been resulted from the thermal adsorption/desorption phenomenon between packing materials and emission gases or not. At the very least, however, although there still remains an unexplained aspect for the increase of gaseous PCDD/DF, it is clear that wet scrubbers can be sufficiently applied to remove PCDD/DF to a certain extent, if only removal efficiencies for the particle loads are high, and if a significant part of the PCDD/DF at the inlets is particle associated. PMID:16793115

  1. Waste-heat recovery potential in Turkish textile industry: Case study for city of Bursa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pulat; A. B. Etemoglu

    2009-01-01

    Textile sector of Turkey has a large production capacity and it is one of the important sectors. Many industrial heating processes generate waste energy in textile industry. Therefore, there is a tremendous waste-heat potential to utilize in textile applications. This study assesses the potential of waste-heat obtained from particularly dyeing process at textile industry in Bursa where textile center of

  2. Toxicity of Industrial Wastes and Waste Leaching Test Eluates Containing Organic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eija Schultz; Kati Vaajasaari; Anneli Joutti; Jukka Ahtiainen

    2002-01-01

    Leaching tests, CEN prEN 12457-2, CEN PrEN 12457-3, and NEN 7349, were conducted for varnish residue and urea resin waste, two industrial wastes containing organic chemicals. The leaching test eluates were analyzed for solvent concentrations and total organic carbon. Aqueous leaching tests were found to be suitable for both chemical and biological testing. Ecotoxicity was assessed by luminescent bacteria, plant

  3. Metal accumulation in poplar plant grown with industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, Giorgio; Sebastiani, Luca

    2006-06-01

    In this study the effects of different levels of industrial wastes on growth traits and metal accumulation in aerial portions were determined for Populusxeuramericana clone I-214. The experiment started in April 2003. Scions of Populusxeuramericana clone I-214, were grown outdoor near Pisa (Italy), in lisimeters filled with soil naturally present in the land around the experimental site, were daily drip irrigated, hand weeded, monthly fertilized, pruned for a unique shoot and cultivated with four increasing treatments: soil non-amended, soil amended with 4.8 kgm(-2), with 9.6 kgm(-2) and with 19.2 kgm(-2) of fresh tannery waste. The climatic parameters were daily recorded throughout the whole experiment. Growth relieves were performed during the growing season. After six months since the plantation of the scions, aerial portions of every plant were harvested for biomass and metal content analyses. Data demonstrated that the waste exerted beneficial effects on poplars mainly through a general increase of growth traits and that the nutrients relocation is the mechanisms involved in modulating growth rate. The concentration and the amount of the mineral elements analysed (N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr) changed determinately among treatments, organs and position. We concluded that phytoremediation strategies of tannery wastes might be possible and sustainable for polar plantations in soil amended with non-hazardous levels of industrial waste, which maintain total heavy metals concentration close to background values. PMID:16403550

  4. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  5. The prediction of PCDD/DF levels in wet scrubbers associated with waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-In; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Osako, Masahiro; Kim, Sam-Cwan

    2007-01-01

    Wet scrubber is one of the most conventional types of air pollutant control devices (APCDs), which is specially designed to treat dust and acidic gases in the flue gas simultaneously. In spite of its outstanding ability to control them, however, wet scrubbers have been considered as potential contaminant sources that may increase PCDD/DF concentrations in the flue gas. In this study, we investigated the change of PCDD/DF concentrations at the inlets and outlets of seven wet scrubbers, and compared them with other published data. With a multi-regression analysis of dust concentrations and temperature at the inlets and outlets of given wet scrubbers, we developed an empirical model to understand factors dominating the change of PCDD/DF concentrations. As a result, we confirmed that the changes of PCDD/DF concentrations in wet scrubbers are closely related to their concentrations at the inlets, which would usually be determined by the type of APCDs installed upstream of the wet scrubber. PMID:16860845

  6. Industrial orange waste as organic fertilizer in durum wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalena Tuttobene; Giovanni Avola; Fabio Gresta; Valerio Abbate

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays agro-industrial waste induces increasing problems due to the high economic cost and heavy environmental impact of\\u000a disposal. By contrast, its potential re-use as organic fertilizer could represent a sustainable approach to recycling nutrients\\u000a and reintegrating organic matter into soil. Such recycling should be particularly beneficial in Mediterranean areas because\\u000a there is a progressive loss of soil fertility. To assess

  7. Biological nitrate removal using sugar-industry wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuki Ueda; Yoshiyuki Shinogi; Masaru Yamaoka

    2006-01-01

    Biological denitrification experiment was conducted using sugar-industry wastes, namely final molasses as a carbon source and bagasse charcoal pellets as supporting media for denitrifying bacteria. We employed an upflow fixed-bed reactor filled with the pellets and biofilm attached onto them. This was fed with potassium-nitrate and dilute-molasses solutions. Total nitrogen removals of more than 85% were achieved at influent carbon–nitrogen

  8. Industrial waste recycling at an automotive component manufacturing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffurs, J.A.; Hubler, R.L.; Behaylo, D.P. [General Motors Corp., Flint, MI (United States). AC Rochester Div.

    1995-09-01

    The AC Rochester Division of General Motors Corporation (GM) develops and manufacturers automotive components for engine management systems at nine facilities in the US. Its largest facility is located in flint, Michigan, and is known as the Flint East site. The Flint East site covers nearly two square miles and consists of several plants housing manufacturing operations for spark plugs, glow plugs, oil filters, air filters, air cleaner assemblies, fuel pumps, fuel level sensors, cruise control systems, and other components. The volume and diversity of the scrap and wastes generated from these operations require skillful waste management to provide environmentally safe and cost-effective disposal options. Over time, a full-scale recycling and waste disposal operation evolved at Flint East. The operation has grown over the past thirty years to handle over 68,000 tons of material annually. Flint East`s program is regarded as a model industrial waste reduction and recycling operation. Elements of the program are presented here as a guide to establishing a successful industrial recycling program.

  9. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sen, R.K. [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  10. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Sen, R.K. (Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  11. Composting of agricultural and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning agricultural and industrial waste treatment by composting. Articles discuss techniques, source materials, end product uses, and cost effectiveness. Materials considered include sawdust, wood chips, straw, manures, produce wastes, and industrial waste sludges. Applications of end products include pressed containers, fertilizers and soil amendments, and topsoil replacement. Composting of municipal wastes and sewage wastes is referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 80 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Energy Efficiency in an Industrial Wet Cooling Tower Through Improved Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celso A. X. Marques; Cristiano H. Fontes; Marcelo Embiruçu; Ricardo A. Kalid

    2009-01-01

    Cooling towers are too much used in process plants in order to allow heat removal from the process to the atmosphere. These pieces of equipment are designed for achieve the maximum performance at design conditions. However, under other conditions such as lower heat load and lower wet bulb temperature, which frequently occur during plant operation, there is an excess of

  13. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The BIF (boiler/industrial furnace) specialty conference has become an annual forum for regulators, industry, scientists, equipment suppliers, consultants, and the public to discuss issues revolving around the combustion of hazardous waste. Coming from different perspectives, the common goals of all participants are the protection of human health and the reduction of environmental pollution. Papers were presented that illustrate real-world experiences and the occasional clash between theory and reality. The challenges to write effective regulations that can be achieved by industry and accepted by the public were debated. The papers serve as a starting point and stimulation for interactions between the various interested parties. This year sessions focused on: the proposed combustor MACT rule; developments with CEMs; CKD management; trial burns; permitting; laboratory issues; multipathway risk assessments; and communicating with the public. The 35 papers of the proceedings are arranged under the these topics and have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  15. Design, fabrication and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The wet oxidation of sewage sludge during space flight was studied for water and gas recovery, and the elimination of overboard venting. The components of the system are described. Slurry and oxygen supply modules were fabricated and tested. Recommendations for redesign of the equipment are included.

  16. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  17. 26 CFR 17.1 - Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules...Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules...the proceeds of which are used to provide solid waste disposal facilities. Section...

  18. 26 CFR 17.1 - Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules...Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules...the proceeds of which are used to provide solid waste disposal facilities. Section...

  19. Analysis of the sustainability of reusing industrial wastes as energy source in the industrial sector of Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of energy utilization from industrial waste in Taiwan, a densely populated island country with high dependence on imported energy. The discussion thus focused on the status of industrial waste generation and its management since the year 2002. This paper also presented the updated information about the new\\/revised regulations concerning

  20. Status Report of Projects in Waste Management in the Livestock Industry

    E-print Network

    #12;Status Report of Projects in Waste Management in the Livestock Industry in the Interior of the impact of livestock waste, improving or maintaining water quality, and restoration of riparian zones and monitoring projects in the area of pollution prevention and waste minimization in the livestock industry

  1. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere. PMID:19577916

  2. Characterization of dolochar wastes generated by the sponge iron industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwari, Ranjan Kumar; Rao, Danda Srinivas; Swar, Akhila Kumar; Reddy, Palli Sita Ram; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-11-01

    Solid wastes generated by the metallurgical industry contribute significantly towards the enhancement of environmental pollution. The handling, utilization, and safe disposal of these solid wastes are major concerns for the world. Dolochar is such a solid waste generated by the sponge iron industry. Investigations were carried out on the physical, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics for the efficient utilization of dolochar. The detailed studies on physico-chemical properties and petrography were carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characterization studies revealed that the dolochar consists of quartz (free as well as locked), free lime, Fe particles, and Ca or Mg and/or Ca+Mg+Fe oxide phases. The washability data of -300 ?m dolochar samples indicated that clean coal with 41wt% ash at 18% yield can be produced from dolochar with 78wt% ash. The studies further suggested that the liberation of the dolochar is hard to achieve for clear separation. The dolochar is observed to have high ash fusion temperature and the unburned carbon can be best utilized for power generation.

  3. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators will be shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented.

  4. Hybrid composites prepared from Industrial waste: Mechanical and swelling behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    In this assessment, hybrid composites were prepared from the combination of industrial waste, as marble waste powder (MWP) with conventional fillers, carbon black (CB) as well as silica as reinforcing material, incorporated with natural rubber (NR). The properties studied were curing, mechanical and swelling behavior. Assimilation of CB as well as silica into MWP containing NR compound responded in decreasing the scorch time and cure time besides increasing in the torque. Additionally, increasing the CB and silica in their respective NR hybrid composite increases the tensile, tear, modulus, hardness, and cross-link density, but decreases the elongation and swelling coefficient. The degradation property e.g., thermal aging of the hybrid composite was also estimated. The overall behavior at 70 °C aging temperature signified that the replacement of MS by CB and silica improved the aging performance. PMID:25750756

  5. A survey of present and future treatment of ultimate wastes in the primary aluminum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Teissier-duCros, A.R. [Gean Overseas/Bossard, Decatur, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation is to survey production of ultimate waste in the primary aluminum industry and to discuss in which directions will the industry go and which kind of opportunities these trends have created for the waste industry. When considering any waste generated by this industry, one can therefore be sure of one thing: production will increase, and so will waste generation unless some major technological changes take place which would either recycle waste, or find a use for ultimate waste, and prevent waste generation in the first place. Conventional scrubbing of industrial fumes is largely applied and converts polluting gases into sludges and ashes. Plasma processing has found some initial applications here.

  6. Making Green Building Units By Using Some Wastes of Ceramic Industry

    E-print Network

    Abd El-Ghafour, N.G.

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic tiles industry produces a lot of wastes such as ceramic sludge, broken under quality tiles and the ceramic dust. The accumulated wastes comprise a great pollution problem on the surrounded environment. The ceramic properties of Egyptian...

  7. Recycle of Wastes of Clay Brick Industry for Producing Eco-cement 

    E-print Network

    Amin, A. M

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at recycling of the solid wastes of clay brick industry (WCB) in the manufacture of blended cement. The various characteristics of collected samples of the waste were determined. WCB was ground to different surface areas. Different...

  8. CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

  9. [Problems of soils pollution with solid industrial waste in Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Grebeneva, O V; Sakiev, K Z; Otarbaeva, M B; Zhanbasinova, N M

    2014-01-01

    The problem of recycling and disposal of solid waste from metallurgical, energy and petrochemical industries is becoming more acute problem for Kazakhstan. Violations of hygiene requirements concerning the placement and operation of landfills increase the area of contaminated soil and can become a threat to environmental safety of the population in industrial centers. The research was aimed to evaluate soil contamination in the cities and towns of Kazakhstan Republic and to mark out health risk areas. Five localities with especially high levels of soil contamination were revealed. Visualization of ecological contamination on individual urban areas gives to ecologists a tool to analyze and solve medical ecology problems. The results of soil contamination mapping can contribute earmarking of funds by local authorities to carry out measures for optimizing the environment. PMID:25549452

  10. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafa? Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high Si content (~ 38.5 wt %). In bottom ash from thermal treatment of industrial wastes content of amorphous phases was higher and account for 70-75 wt % of the samples. It main form was also glass with high Si content (~ 32 wt %). Glass chemical composition in bottom ashes is influenced by presence of metallic components which result in elevated content of some metals like Fe (~ 4 wt %), Al (~ 4 wt %), Zn (~ 2.5 wt %) and Ti (~ 1.3 wt %) in municipal bottom ash and ~ 11 wt % Fe, 5.5 wt % Al, ~ 3 wt % Ti, Cu, ~ 2 wt % Cr, Zn in industrial bottom ash. Due to the fact that the glass is more susceptible for alteration processes than crystalline components it is important to estimate their content characteristics. In waste incineration bottom ashes it is especially important taking into consideration presence of metallic elements including potentially hazardous metals (Zn, Cr) which can be easily released to the environment during landfilling.

  11. Production of vermifertilizer from guar gum industrial wastes by using composting earthworm Perionyx sansibaricus (Perrier)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surendra Suthar

    2007-01-01

    Efforts have been made to convert the guar gum industrial waste into a value-added product, by employing a new earthworm species\\u000a for vermicomposting e.g. Perionyx sansibaricus (Perrier) (Megascolecidae), under laboratory conditions. Industrial lignocellulosic waste was amended with other organic\\u000a supplements (saw dust and cow dung); and three types of vermibeds were prepared: guar gum industrial waste + cow dung + saw\\u000a dust in 40:

  12. Phytotoxicity evaluation and response of wheat to agro-industrial waste composts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dev Raj; Rajinder Singh Antil

    2012-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted in loamy sand soil to compare the effects of agro-industrial waste composts on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat. The raw materials of agro-industrial wastes and chemical fertilizers were used as controls. The yields were significantly higher with agro-industrial waste composts compared with their raw materials. Compost-fertilized grain yields were increased by 118% with poultry

  13. Phytotoxicity evaluation and response of wheat to agro-industrial waste composts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dev Raj; Rajinder Singh Antil

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted in loamy sand soil to compare the effects of agro-industrial waste composts on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat. The raw materials of agro-industrial wastes and chemical fertilizers were used as controls. The yields were significantly higher with agro-industrial waste composts compared with their raw materials. Compost-fertilized grain yields were increased by 118% with poultry

  14. Engineering development and demonstration of DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.; Goldblatt, S.D.; Moslander, J.E.; Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Zigmond, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    DETOX{sup SM}, a catalyzed chemical oxidation process, is under development for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites. To support this effort, developmental engineering studies have been formed for aspects of the process to help ensure safe and effective operation. Subscale agitation studies have been preformed to identify a suitable mixing head and speed for the primary reaction vessel agitator. Mechanisms for feeding solid waste materials to the primary reaction vessel have been investigated. Filtration to remove solid field process residue, and the use of various filtration aids, has been studied. Extended compatibility studies on the materials of construction have been performed. Due to a change to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) for the mixed waste portion of the demonstration, types of wastes suitable and appropriate for treatment at RFETS had to be chosen. A Prototype unit has been fabricated and will be demonstrated on hazardous and mixed wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS) and RFETS during 1997 and 1998. The unit is in shakedown testing at present. Data validation and an engineering evaluation will be performed during the demonstration.

  15. Use of Thermal Energy Storage to Enhance the Recovery and Utilization of Industrial Waste Heat 

    E-print Network

    McChesney, H. R.; Bass, R. W.; Landerman, A. M.; Obee, T. N.; Sgamboti, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    evaluation involving process data from 12 industrial plants to determine if thermal energy storage (TES) systems can be used with commercially available energy management equipment to enhance the recovery and utilization of industrial waste heat. Results...

  16. Wet Chemical Oxidation and Stabilization of Mixed and Low Level Organic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Livingston, R.R.; Burge, D.A.; Ramsey, W.G. [CeraChem Technologies, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Mixed acid oxidation is a non-incineration process capable of destroying organic compounds, including papers, plastics, resins, and oils, at moderate temperatures and pressures. The technology, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a holding medium which allows appreciable amounts of the oxidant to be retained in solution at atmospheric pressure and at the temperatures needed for oxidation. The phosphoric acid also provides the raw materials for making a final waste which contains the metal contaminants from the waste stream. Savannah River has designed, built, and started up a 40-liter pilot reaction vessel to demonstrate the process and its sub-systems on a larger scale than earlier testing. The unit has been demonstrated and has provided important data on the operation of the oxidation and acid recovery systems. Specific results will be presented on oxidation conditions, acid recovery efficiency, chloride removal, metal retention, and process monitoring. Additional studies have been conducted with a smaller vessel in a radioactive hood. Testing with plutonium-bearing waste simulants was performed to make preliminary predictions about the behavior of plutonium in the process. Samples of the remaining phosphoric acid from these tests has been converted to two separate final forms for analysis. Results will be presented on plutonium fractionation during the oxidation process and waste form stability.

  17. Treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater by wet air oxidation--A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.H.; Ho, S.J. [Yuan Ze Inst. of Tech., Neili, Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yuan Ze Inst. of Tech., Neili, Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Treatment of high concentration chemical wastewater obtained from a petrochemical company by wet air oxidation (WAO) is studied. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the mixer speed, operating pressure, initial pH of wastewater and temperature on the pollutant (chemical oxygen demand or COD) removal. Both air and oxygen were tested to determine their respective effect on the COD removal. Results showed that over 50% of COD removal can be easily realized in an hour of WAO treatment. Also considered in the present study was the catalytic WAO treatment of the high concentration wastewater. Copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}), cobalt oxide (Co{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) were employed as the catalysts. The COD removal efficiency of the catalytic WAO process was found to vary significantly with the catalyst utilized with CuSO{sub 4} being the most effective.

  18. Using SPH one-way coupled to DEM to model wet industrial banana screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Fernandez; P. W. Cleary; M. D. Sinnott; R. D. Morrison

    2011-01-01

    Large banana screens with multiple decks are used extensively in the process separation of many valuable export commodities. They are high capacity vibrating screens with a curved profile. Discrete Element Method (DEM) modelling using non-spherical particles has previously provided significant insight into the operation of these dry industrial screens. Here we introduce the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to

  19. Cementitious binder from fly ash and other industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Garg, M. [Central Building Research Inst., Roorkee (India)] [Central Building Research Inst., Roorkee (India)

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, investigations were undertaken to formulate cementitious binder by judicious blending of fly ash with Portland cement as well as by admixing fly ash with calcined phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum, lime sludge, and chemical activators of different finenesses. The effect of addition of calcined clay in these types of binders was studied. Data showed that cementitious binders of high compressive strength and water retentivity can be produced. The strength of masonry mortars increased with the addition of chemical activators. The strength development of binders takes place through formation of ettringite. C-S-H, and C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}. The binders are eminently suitable for partial replacement (up to 25%) of the cement in concrete without any detrimental affect on the strength. The results showed that fly ash can be used in the range from 45% to 70% in formulating these binders along with other industrial wastes to help in mitigating environmental pollution.

  20. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Trebilcox; W. L. Lundberg

    1981-01-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water

  1. Solid wastes in the petrochemical industry. Technical report EHE-72-14

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Makela; J. F. Jr. Malina

    1972-01-01

    The conclusions presented in this section are based on extensive literature review and personal participation in a survey of solid waste management practices in the petrochemical industry conducted by the Texas Water Quality Board in 1970 to 1971. Quantitative data are not available. (1) Published information and data regarding solid waste production in the petrochemical industry is limited and somewhat

  2. Efficiency of Organic Compost from Agri-Industrial Wastes as Fertilizer for Corn and Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Anita Gonçalves Da Silva; Salete Aparecida Tondato Roque; Antonio Saraiva Muniz; Marlene Estevão Marchetti; José De Deus Viana Da Matta; Noemi Pelisson

    2010-01-01

    Favorable effects of organic wastes on soil characteristics are capable of permitting a sustainable agriculture. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic compost from two agri-industrial wastes on soil fertility and productivity of corn and wheat in Astorga County, northwestern Paraná, Brazil. The organic compost had components from the gelatin industry, which uses bovine chips and shavings

  3. Utilization of MSWI fly ash for stabilization\\/solidification of industrial waste sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangren Qian; Yali Cao; Pengcheong Chui; Joohwa Tay

    2006-01-01

    This work investigated the potential for utilization of MSWI incineration fly ash as solidification binder to treat heavy metals-bearing industrial waste sludge. In the study, Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash was used along with ordinary Portland cement to immobilize three different types of industrial sludge while MSWI incineration fly ash was stabilized at the same time. The results

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

  6. Useful Byproducts from Cellulosic Wastes of Agriculture and Food Industry—A Critical Appraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIMANISH DAS; SUDHIR KUMAR SINGH

    2004-01-01

    Cellulose, an important cell wall polysaccharide, which is replenished constantly in nature by photosynthesis, goes waste in a lion's share in the form of pre-harvest and post-harvest agricultural losses and wastes of food processing industry. These cellulose wastes have an immense potential to be utilized for the production and recovery of several products and ingredients in food application. In this

  7. Recovery of valuable agricultural materials from various industrial and municipal waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.B. [J.C. Steele and Sons, Inc., Statesville, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Many agriculturally beneficial materials can be recovered from industrial and municipal waste streams. Processes for conversion of waste by-products as diverse as treated Class A sewage sludge, waste wallboard, fly ash, and synthetic (FGD) gypsum into fertilizers, fillers and amendments are presented.

  8. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  12. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  13. A review of environmental and economic regulations for promoting industrial waste recycling in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, W T; Chou, Y H

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a compilation of recent Taiwan government laws/regulations to promote industrial waste recycling. The description is thus centered on legislation/regulations concerning general industrial wastes recycling in the policies of environmental protection, economic incentives and engineering technologies (3E) that have become effective since 2001. The regulatory system, including Waste Disposal Act, Resource Recycling/Reuse Act, Environmental Basis Law, and Statute for Upgrading Industries, not only gives financial incentives, but also provides technical assistance and information transfer on promoting industrial waste recycling. In order to further utilize the recyclable resources and upgrade the environmental technology, Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), in cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), has jointly ventured some promotion programs, which highlight an Industrial Waste Exchange Information Center and Environmental Technology Park Development Program, also described in the paper. PMID:15567671

  14. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  15. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester. PMID:21975301

  16. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  17. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Waste Heat Recovery Systems in the Sugar Industry: An Indian Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. MADNAIK; M. G. JADHAV

    1996-01-01

    This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country's processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in Table 1). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitalion

  19. Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

    1991-10-01

    The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs.

  20. Synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose from waste of cotton ginning industry.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Noor; Arshad, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2014-11-26

    The aim of present work was to isolate cellulose from cotton gin waste (CGW) and synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from it. Scoured and bleached CGW was used to investigate the effects of temperature, reaction time, acid-base concentration on the physiology of the resultant cellulose polymer. The isolated cellulose from CGW was converted to CMC by etherification using sodium monochloroacetic acid and different sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations (5-40 g/100mL) were tested to get high quality product. The optimum condition for carboxymethylation was found to be 20 g/100mL NaOH which provided the highest viscosity and degree of substitution (DS=0.874). Isolated cellulose and CMC were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FT-IR analysis revealed that the produced cellulose was of very good quality. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis spotlighted crystalline nature of cellulose. SEM images showed rough structure of cellulose while that of the CMC had a smooth surface. This optimized method will be tested at pilot scale in collaboration with local industry. PMID:25256482

  1. EMISSIONS TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste incinerators are regulated under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). On the other hand processes that produce energy and only incidently burn hazardous waste materials are currently exempt from the RCRA incinerator regulations. EPA has initiated a Regul...

  2. Hazardous waste management in the Texas construction industry 

    E-print Network

    Sprinkle, Donald Lee

    1991-01-01

    This pilot study reports the statewide, regulatory compliance of general construction contractors in Texas who generated regulated amounts of hazardous waste during 1990, defined by existing state and federal hazardous-waste-management regulations...

  3. Optimisation of industrial wastes reuse as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, C; Sorlini, S

    2001-12-01

    This study concerns the reuse of two inorganic wastes, foundry residues and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration, as "recycled aggregate" in concrete production. This kind of reuse was optimised by waste treatment with the following steps: waste washing with water; waste stabilisation-solidification treatment with inorganic reagents; final grinding of the stabilised waste after curing for about 10-20 days. Both the treated wastes were reused in concrete production with different mix-designs. Concrete specimens were characterised by means of conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, elasticity modulus, shrinkage) and different leaching tests. Experimental results showed that a good structural and environmental quality of "recycled concrete" is due both to a correct waste treatment and to a correct mix-design for concrete mixture. PMID:12201684

  4. DIOXINS. VOLUME II. ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop a unified analytical approach for use in quantifying ppt levels of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDD's) in various chemical wastes. Waste samples from plants manufacturing trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, and hexac...

  5. Integrated waste and water management in mining and metallurgical industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. C. CHAN; S. BOUZALAKOS; A. W. L. DUDENEY

    2008-01-01

    Extractive operations usually co-produce large quantities of unmarketable materials (mineral wastes), most of which are conventionally discarded to dumps (coarse material) and tailings ponds (fines). Escalating cost and regulation worldwide highlight an increasing need for reduction and re-use of such wastes. The present paper introduces a new integrated waste management scheme for solids and water. The scheme was exemplified by

  6. Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juntima Chungsiriporn; Charun Bunyakan

    Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC), is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous

  7. Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water\\/industrial effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tehseen Aman; Asrar Ahmad Kazi; Muhammad Usman Sabri; Qudsia Bano

    2008-01-01

    A new sorbent potato peels, which are normally discarded as solid waste for removing toxic metal ion Cu(II) from water\\/industrial waste water have been studied. Potato peels charcoal (PPC) was investigated as an adsorbent of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by studying the effects of various parameters such as temperature, pH and solid liquid

  8. Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

    1989-11-09

    The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

  9. Evaluation of Industrial Energy Options for Cogeneration, Waste Heat Recovery and Alternative Fuel Utilization

    E-print Network

    Hencey, S.; Hinkle, B.; Limaye, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the energy options available to Missouri industrial firms in the areas of cogeneration, waste heat recovery, and coal and alternative fuel utilization. The project, being performed by Synergic Resources Corporation...

  10. Evaluation of Industrial Energy Options for Cogeneration, Waste Heat Recovery and Alternative Fuel Utilization 

    E-print Network

    Hencey, S.; Hinkle, B.; Limaye, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the energy options available to Missouri industrial firms in the areas of cogeneration, waste heat recovery, and coal and alternative fuel utilization. The project, being performed by Synergic Resources Corporation...

  11. Waste Management Recommendations in the Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center Program 

    E-print Network

    Eggebrecht, J. A.; Heffington, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    The Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) was one of the four Energy Analysis & Diagnostic Centers (EADC) that began providing waste management, in addition to energy and demand conservation, assessments in January, 1994. Over 30...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions: source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

  14. Process Waste Heat Recovery in the Food Industry - A System Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Lundberg, W. L.; Mutone, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of an industrial waste heat recovery system concept is discussed. For example purposes, a food processing plant operating an ammonia refrigeration system for storage and blast freezing is considered. Heat is withdrawn from...

  15. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment. PMID:21711877

  16. Hazardous industrial waste management in Vietnam: current status and future direction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Thi Kim Thai

    2009-01-01

    This article concentrates on the existing situation of hazardous industrial waste management in Vietnam. To realize the importance\\u000a of the development of a Vietnam national strategy based on the reduce, reuse, recycle (3R) concept to the year 2020, the author\\u000a summarizes the practice of recycling activities of hazardous industrial waste and discusses the challenges arising from increases\\u000a in the quantity

  17. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hak-Joon Kim; Bangwoo Han; Yong-Jin Kim; Seok-Jun Yoa; Tetsuji Oda

    2012-01-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP. The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated

  18. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  19. ISO 14001 adoption and industrial waste generation: the case of Swedish manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Zobel, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) based on ISO 14001 has constituted one of the most important developments in sustainable industry management in recent years. Previous research on the impact of EMSs has relied heavily on corporate representatives' subjective perception of benefits. Moreover, studies tend to focus on the systems' impact on firms' overall environmental performance, not distinguishing between the differences in different environmental aspects. This study aims to contribute knowledge about the influence of certified EMSs on industrial waste generation based on objective industrial waste data derived from mandatory annual environmental reports. The study focuses on changes in waste generation over a period of 12 years and includes both ISO 14001-certified firms (66 firms) and non-certified firms (50 firms). Consideration is given to the improvement efforts in the firms before EMS adoption. Analysis has been carried out using statistical methods for three different industrial waste parameters: hazardous waste, waste to landfill and the total amounts of waste. The results indicate that the certified EMSs have no statistically significant effect on any of the three waste parameters. PMID:25649400

  20. Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Houk; D. M. DeMarini

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and

  1. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF COSTS AND CREDITS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides preliminary information on the costs and credits associated with hazardous waste co-firing in industrial boilers. The main objective is to identify and evaluate the costs/credits inherent in current hazardous waste co-firing practices, plus the additional cos...

  2. Exploitation of agro industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María C. Orzua; Solange I. Mussatto; Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel; Raul Rodriguez; Heliodoro de la Garza; José A. Teixeira; Cristóbal N. Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    Ten agro industrial wastes were assessed for their suitability as fungus immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation (SSF). The wastes included creosote bush leaves (Larrea tridentata), variegated Caribbean agave (Agave lechuguilla), lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), apple pomace (Malus domestica), pistachio shell (Pistacia vera), wheat bran (Triticum spp.), coconut husk (Cocos nucífera), pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis), and bean

  3. Potential applications of thermoelectric waste heat recovery in the automotive industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yang

    2005-01-01

    Several proposed applications of thermoelectric (TE) waste heat recovery devices in the automotive industry are reviewed. To assess the feasibility of these applications at a vehicle level, the effect of electrical load and weight on fuel economy for a series of cars and trucks was investigated. These results will help us to identify the appropriate vehicle platforms for TE waste

  4. The Diffusion of Biological Waste-Water Treatment Plants in the Dutch Food and Beverage Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Kemp

    1998-01-01

    This article develops an economic model of environmental technology adoption decisions. The model is applied econometrically to the diffusion of biological waste-water treatment plants in the Dutch food and beverage industry. It shows that it is possible to explain the overall diffusion pattern of biological waste-water treatment plants in terms of a rational choice model in which prospective adopters trade

  5. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE DYE AND PIGMENT INDUSTRY HAZARDOUS WASTE LISTING DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This risk assessment calculates the maximum loadings of constituents found in dyes and pigment industries waste streams which can be disposed in different types of waste management units without causing health benchmarks to be exceeded at plausible receptor locations. The assess...

  6. Government policies for encouraging industrial waste reuse and pollution prevention in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Tsai; Y. H. Chou

    2004-01-01

    In order to conservatively utilize natural resources, Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), in cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), has mandated the regulatory system and promotion programs for industrial waste reuse and pollution prevention. The newly-designated 43 items for reuse were promulgated by the MOEA under the authorization of the Waste Disposal Act (WDA) in January 2002. Also,

  7. Utilization and recycling of industrial magnesite refractory waste material for removal of certain radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, T.N.; Tadrous, N.A.; Borai, E.H. [Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Increased industrialization over the last years in Egypt has resulted in an increased and uncontrolled generation of industrial hazardous waste. The current lack of management of the solid waste in Egypt has created a situation where large parts of the land (especially industrial areas) are covered by un-planned dumps of industrial wastes. Consequently, in the present work, industrial magnesite waste produced in large quantities after production process of magnesium sulfate in Zinc Misr factory, Egypt, was tried to be recycled. Firstly, this material has been characterized applying different analytical techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (IR), surface analyzer (BET), particle size distribution (PSD), elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The magnesite material has been used as a source of producing aluminum, chromium, and magnesium oxides that has better chemical stability than conventional metal oxides. Secondly, utilization of magnesite material for removal of certain radionuclides was applied. Different factors affecting the removal capability such as pH, contacting time, metal concentration, particle size were systematically investigated. The overall objective was aimed at determining feasible and economic solution to the environmental problems related to re-use of the industrial solid waste for radioactive waste management. (authors)

  8. Iron and aluminium oxides containing industrial wastes as adsorbents of heavy metals: Application possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Jacukowicz-Sobala, Irena; Oci?ski, Daniel; Kocio?ek-Balawejder, El?bieta

    2015-07-01

    Industrial wastes with a high iron or aluminium oxide content are produced in huge quantities as by-products of water treatment (water treatment residuals), bauxite processing (red mud) and hard and brown coal burning in power plants (fly ash). Although they vary in their composition, the wastes have one thing in common - a high content of amorphous iron and/or aluminium oxides with a large specific surface area, whereby this group of wastes shows very good adsorbability towards heavy metals, arsenates, selenates, etc. But their physical form makes their utilisation quite difficult, since it is not easy to separate the spent sorbent from the solution and high bed hydraulic resistances occur in dynamic regime processes. Nevertheless, because of the potential benefits of utilising the wastes in industrial effluent treatment, this issue attracts much attention today. This study describes in detail the waste generation processes, the chemical structure of the wastes, their physicochemical properties, and the mechanisms of fixing heavy metals and semimetals on the surface of iron and aluminium oxides. Typical compositions of wastes generated in selected industrial plants are given. A detailed survey of the literature on the adsorption applications of the wastes, including methods of their thermal and chemical activation, as well as regeneration of the spent sorbents, is presented. The existing and potential ways of modifying the physical form of the discussed group of wastes, making it possible to overcome the basic limitation on their practical use, are discussed. PMID:26060197

  9. Hazardous waste management in the Texas construction industry

    E-print Network

    Sprinkle, Donald Lee

    1991-01-01

    with hazardous-waste management. This in effect precludes the enactment of any needed reforms until after harm has already manifested itself. Problem Statement Do general construction contractors who generate regulated amounts of hazardous waste in Texas... of restricted hazardous wastes). In relation to the over- all scheme of hazardous-waste management, this highly complex and lengthy regulatory text represents only one of many issues. 24 g 2O 0 04 12 ZWCA CWA NEP S I ERA TSCA HSWA RCRA SDWA OSHA...

  10. The hydrometallurgical extraction of rhenium from copper industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Ashraf

    2008-08-01

    An attempt has been made in this investigation to develop a wet chemical method for treating a rhenium-containing lead slime produced during copper manufacture. The effects of temperature, grain size, oxygen partial pressure, and leaching time as well as the kinetics of the leaching process were studied.

  11. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  12. Pollution-control equipment (Brazil). Industrial waste-treatment equipment, September 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Brazilian market for both solid and liquid industrial waste treatment equipment is promising in view of the expected growth in demand during the next 5 years. The estimated market demand in 1991 is US $243 million and is projected to grow 15% per year reaching US $370 million in 1994. The market for liquid waste equipment is about 85% of the total market for industrial waste equipment. Currently imports of pollution control equipment account for about 13% of the total market. Due to the recent import liberalization program implemented by the Government, local sources forecast the import share will increase to 20% by 1994.

  13. Construction waste management based on industrial management models: a Swedish case study.

    PubMed

    Stenis, Jan

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a methodology for estimating the true internal costs of construction waste, aimed at promoting environmentally friendly waste management. The study employs cost-benefit analysis, contribution margin analysis, the polluter-pays principle and a mathematical model: the model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE), which has been introduced previously by the author for assigning industrial costs to waste. The calculations are performed on construction waste created in a case study of a building project. Moreover, waste is regarded as, in a business sense, having the same basic status as any normal industrial product, namely the 'equality principle'. Application of the methodology is suggested to create incentives for environmental and profitability improvement in construction companies and other types of industrial sectors. The results of the case study show the generation of construction waste to substantially decrease the final operating income, due to the internal shadow price cost it creates. This paper is intended to reduce the gap between the choice of waste management procedures and their economic impact, the overall objective being to accomplish an improved industrial environmental situation. PMID:15751391

  14. Use of a mixed algal culture to characterize industrial waste waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A CLAESSON

    1984-01-01

    A mixture of five freshwater algae was cultivated with additions of waste water samples from chemical, mining, polyvinylchloride, textile, paper mill, and oil refinery industries. Two water samples from chemical industries and one from an oil refinery stimulated the algal growth in a nutrient-poor medium, while growth in other samples, including a nutrient-rich medium, was inhibited in several different ways.

  15. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Smith; M. L. Wilkey; R. D. Hames

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the

  16. Solid waste generation from oil and gas industries in United Arab Emirates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walid Elshorbagy; Abdulqader Alkamali

    2005-01-01

    Solid wastes generated from oil and gas industrial activities are very diverse in their characteristics, large in their amounts and many of which are hazardous in nature. Thus, quantifying and characterizing the generated amounts in association with their types, classes, sources, industrial activities, and their chemical and biological characteristics is an obvious mandate when evaluating the possible management practices. This

  17. Potential industrial applications for fluidized-bed waste heat recovery systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cox; M. Lytton; C. Rao

    1979-01-01

    Information was developed on potential applications of Fluidized-Bed Waste Heat Recovery Systems (FWHRS) in US industries that will assist the DOE in their decision to plan and participate in a demonstration project of the FWHRS. The study included a review of the literature and personal contacts (via telephone) with industry personnel with the objective to identify a limited number of

  18. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. MAIN REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

  19. Storage of thermal energy for effective use of waste heat from industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yagi; T. Akiyama

    1995-01-01

    Energy saving is one of the most effective strategies to protect the global environmental conditions. At present, considerable amount of waste heat is emitted from metallurgical and chemical industries, which can be used not only for municipal purposes but also for industries if recovered.In this paper, fundamental studies on heat transfer was conducted for developing a heat storage process by

  20. Progress toward pollution prevention and waste minimization in the North American gold mining industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin Hilson; Barbara Murck

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of pollution prevention and waste minimization in the North American gold mining industry. Specifically outlined are: 1) the environmental options available to North American goldmines for use in cyanidation setups and Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) control, generally recognized as the two most environmentally problematic areas in the industry; 2) the progress made towards pollution

  1. Towards sets of hazardous waste indicators. Essential tools for modern industrial management.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Peter J; Granados, Asa

    2002-01-01

    Decision-makers require useful tools, such as indicators, to help them make environmentally sound decisions leading to effective management of hazardous wastes. Four hazardous waste indicators are being tested for such a purpose by several countries within the Sustainable Development Indicator Programme of the United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development. However, these indicators only address the 'down-stream' end-of-pipe industrial situation. More creative thinking is clearly needed to develop a wider range of indicators that not only reflects all aspects of industrial production that generates hazardous waste but considers socio-economic implications of the waste as well. Sets of useful and innovative indicators are proposed that could be applied to the emerging paradigm shift away from conventional end-of-pipe management actions and towards preventive strategies that are being increasingly adopted by industry often in association with local and national governments. A methodological and conceptual framework for the development of a core-set of hazardous waste indicators has been developed. Some of the indicator sets outlined quantify preventive waste management strategies (including indicators for cleaner production, hazardous waste reduction/minimization and life cycle analysis), whilst other sets address proactive strategies (including changes in production and consumption patterns, eco-efficiency, eco-intensity and resource productivity). Indicators for quantifying transport of hazardous wastes are also described. It was concluded that a number of the indicators proposed could now be usefully implemented as management tools using existing industrial and economic data. As cleaner production technologies and waste minimization approaches are more widely deployed, and industry integrates environmental concerns at all levels of decision-making, it is expected that the necessary data for construction of the remaining indicators will soon become available. PMID:12094535

  2. National economic models of industrial water use and waste treatment. [technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Calloway, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air emission and solid waste restrictions on production costs and resource use by industry is investigated. A linear program is developed to analyze how resource use, production cost, and waste discharges in different types of production may be affected by resource limiting policies of the government. The method is applied to modeling ethylene and ammonia plants at the design stage. Results show that the effects of increasingly restrictive wastewater effluent standards on increased energy use were small in both plants. Plant models were developed for other industries and the program estimated effects of wastewater discharge policies on production costs of industry.

  3. Analysis of the stability of high-solids anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, E; Esteban-Gutiérrez, M; Sancho, L

    2013-09-01

    The pilot-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of agro-industrial wastes and sewage sludge was analysed in terms of stability by monitoring the most common parameters used to check the performance of anaerobic digesters, i.e. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen, pH, alkalinity and methane production. The results reflected similar evolution for the parameters analysed, except for an experiment that presented an unsuccessful start-up. The rest of the experiments ran successfully, although the threshold values proposed in the literature for the detection of an imbalance in wet processes were exceeded, proving the versatility of HS-AD to treat different wastes. The results evidence the need for understanding the dynamics of a high-solids system so as to detect periods of imbalance and to determine inhibitory levels for different compounds formed during anaerobic decomposition. Moreover, the findings presented here could be useful in developing an experimental basis to construct new control strategies for HS-AD. PMID:23859986

  4. Waste heat recovery systems in the sugar industry: An Indian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Madnaik, S.D.; Jadhav, M.G. [Walchand Inst. of Tech., Maharashtra (India)

    1996-04-01

    This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country`s processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in a table). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitation clarification process, is estimated at 5757.9 KJ/kg of sugar. Efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) systems could help arrest the trend of increasing production costs. This would help the sugar industry not only in India, but in many other countries as well. The innovative methods suggested and discussed briefly in this article include dehydration of prepared cane, bagasse drying, and juice heating using waste heat. These methods can reduce the cost of energy in sugar production by at least 10% and improve efficiency and productivity.

  5. Selected biological investigations on deep sea disposal of industrial wastes

    E-print Network

    Page, Sandra Lea

    1975-01-01

    carolinus), brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), a marine dinoflagellate (Glenodinium halli), and a marine d(t (~C1 11 ) d b(1g( 1 ' f j petrochemical wastes in a preliminary study designed to develop criteria for ocean disposal of the wastes. Standard acute... materials. The following marine organisms were used as test specimens for each of the four wastes: 1. Common pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) 2. 3 3* 3 (3 ~2 3. 3 2 (m( 2 l(l(l 4. Dinoflagellate (Glenodinium belli) Each species was chosen on the basis...

  6. Biological industrial waste treatment. January 1980-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Feb 92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sluge proccesses, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 140 citations with title list and subject index.)

  7. Trends and Opportunities in Industrial Hazardous Waste Minimization 

    E-print Network

    Atlas, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes trends and opportunities in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste minimization. It uses U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data gathered since 1989 from over 20,000 facilities that account for almost all...

  8. Industrial waste exchange: a mechanism for saving energy and money

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    Although considerable savings of both energy and money are possible through waste exchange, several major impediments limit the number of actual exchanges that take place. These impediments include the lack of economical separation technology, the small quantities of material available at each site, restrictive or uncertain regulation, and lack of knowledge on the part of potential waste users. None of these barriers is insurmountable if appropriate action is taken.

  9. Mössbauer studies of materials used to immobilise industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forder, S. D.; Bingham, P. A.; McGann, O. J.; Stennett, M. C.; Hyatt, N. C.

    2013-04-01

    The necessity to immobilise waste safely requires the development of stable materials. Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used to help understand and obtain desirable properties in alkali borosilicate glasses, phosphate glasses and vitrified sewage sludge ash. Phosphate glasses suitable for waste immobilisation have been microwaved and conventionally melted and differences reported. The environment of Fe in promising ceramics has also been studied. Mössbauer studies of irradiated vitrified wasteforms show their resistance to radiation damage.

  10. Energy Conservation and Waste Reduction in the Metal Fabrication Industry 

    E-print Network

    Kirk, M. C. Jr.; Looby, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    . Other potential benefits could include improved workplace conditions, reduction in liability associated with the generation of hazardous waste, improved public image, and reduced environmental damage. Table 7: Summary - Plant Characteristics... of still bottoms from an on-site solvent recovery unit, hardened paint remaining from paint batches, and solvent - is shipped off-site as hazardous waste to be incinerated. Paint overspray from conventional spray guns collects and dries on paint booth...

  11. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    PubMed

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-05-13

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. PMID:24824168

  12. Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

    2014-06-24

    Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1). The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed. PMID:24963093

  13. TRANSPORT PLANNING MODEL FOR WIDE AREA RECYCLING SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE PLASTIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hisashi; Koizumi, Akira; Mogi, Satoshi

    To date, the majority of industrial waste plastic generated in an urban city has been processed into landfill. However, it is now necessary to actively utilize that plastic as a useful resource to create a recycling society with a low environment influence. In order to construct a reasonable recycling system, it is necessary to address the "transportation problem," which means determining how much industrial waste plastic is to be transported to what location. With the goal of eliminating landfill processing, this study considers a transport planning model for industrial waste plastic applying linear programming. The results of running optimized calculations under given scenarios clarified not only the possibilities for recycle processing in the Metropolitan area, but also the validity of wide area recycling system.

  14. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  15. Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Murto; L Björnsson; B Mattiasson

    2004-01-01

    The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

  16. Case studies of new waste conservation and recycle methods for the electroplating industry

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzberg, E.R.; Hunt, G.

    1995-08-01

    The paper presents case studies of new waste conservation and recycle methods for the electroplating industry. Electroplating shops can save water and substantially reduce hazardous waste generation by reducing plating solution drag-out; employing one or several still rinse tanks; and routing plating rinse tank solution to the acid dip rinse tank, and acid dip rinse tank solution to the alkaline cleaning rinse tank -- a technique termed `reactive rinsing`. See the Case Study Summaries Door for additional information.

  17. Mobility of chlorofluorocarbons in deposits of shredder wastes from plastic and metal utilizing industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Haderlein; Klaus Pecher

    1988-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used as propellants in spray cans, as refrigerants and as blowing agents for plastic foams, which are finally dumped together with solid wastes in landfills. We found shredder waste from plastic and metal utilizing industry to be highly contaminated with F12 (CF2Cl2) and less with F11 (CFCl3). By means of model calculations with one dimensional diffusion models,

  18. Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Results Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Conclusion Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems. PMID:24423020

  19. Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry 

    E-print Network

    Nailen, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    that would otherWise be wasted. So minor variations in how much is saved are seldom important. If they are, hOl-lever, generator efficiency can be trr~roved through the same design measures apnlir.ahle to motors. See Figure 3. 4. Can we add DCi>'J er...

  20. Management of solid wastes in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gohary, F.; El-khouly, M.S.

    1983-03-01

    Wastes from a local iron and steel factory operations are agglomeration of iron ore and sintering, pig iron manufacture, steel making, rolling mill operations, and pickling. Liquid slag, produced in the blast furnace, is granulated in water and used as a concrete additive. Other wastes are directed separately to sedimentation tanks. The settleable solids are reused, and the treated effluents are pumped to a cooling tower for recycling. As a result of the new manufacturing expansion, existing waste treatment facilities are not adequate, and it was found necessary to provide additional treatment techniques. Departmental, as well as composite wastes were treated using plain sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, or chemical coagulation, or a combination of these methods. The results obtained showed that the use of the hydrocyclone for solid-liquid separation is much more efficient than plain sedimentation. When this process was followed by coagulation, very promising results were obtained. The use of pickling liquor as a coagulant gave comparable results with alum and ferric chloride.

  1. HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the results of several studies relating to hazardous waste combustion in cement and lime kilns. The tests included in the study are four kilns tested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, four kilns tested by State agencies or the kiln operator, two C...

  2. Borax Production from Borax Slime, an Industrial Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recep Boncukcuo?lu; M. Muhtar Kocakkerim; Mahir Alkan

    1998-01-01

    Borax slime is formed during the production of borax from tincal, which is an important borate ore. It is a liquid containing the suspanded solid particles at high levels and is formed under the rich-in-borax solution in the reactor. This waste is discharged into the Marmara Sea and so causes environmental problems in Bandirma Golf. In this work, Borax production

  3. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INDUSTRIAL COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a' pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  4. Magnetic heat pump cycles for industrial waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, J.I.; Kirol, L.D.; Van Haaften, D.H.

    1984-08-01

    Magnetic heat pumps utilize entropy reductions which occur upon magnetization (magnetocaloric effect) in thermodynamic cycles. Magnetic equivalents of Brayton and Ericsson (or Stirling) cycles are possible. Magnetic heat pumps with gadolinium working material perform significantly better than conventional equipment. Working materials appropriate for industrial heat pump applications (400 to 500 K) have been identified, but performance is not as good as with gadolinium. When better performing hightemperature materials are identified, feasible industrial magnetic heat pumps should be possible.

  5. Application of reutilization technology to waste from liquid crystal display (LCD) industry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei T; Li, Kung C

    2010-01-01

    This investigation studies the recycling utility of two major waste products from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry, panel glass and calcium fluoride sludge, which remain after the treatment of waste water. Waste panel glass was mixed with calcium fluoride sludge in various ratios and then subject to conditioning and melting treatment in order to yield glass-ceramics. Heavy metal leaching tests indicated that reductive conditions lowered the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate to an order of magnitude below that in the waste glass and sludge. A 5:5 (wt%) mixture of glass and sludge melted at 1200 degrees C for 60 min achieves a specific gravity, water absorption, unit mass, porosity ratio, and soundness that meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for fine aggregates. Therefore, waste panel glass can indeed be efficiently recycled into a useful construction material. PMID:20390905

  6. Real-time supervision of industrial waste-water treatment plants applied to the surface treatment industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konrad Szafnicki; Jacques Bourgois; Didier Graillot; Dominique Di Benedetto; Philippe Breuil; Jean-Pierre Poyet

    1998-01-01

    The project described in this paper consists of two main stages: the development of a dedicated instrument enabling continuous simultaneous measures of industrial pollutants (e.g. metal ions: Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, …) and the design of a Real-time Expert System (RTES) which would provide better information and decision support so as to improve the supervision of waste-water treatment plants in real-time,

  7. Packaging waste recycling in Europe: Is the industry paying for it?

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira da Cruz, Nuno, E-mail: nunocruz@ist.utl.pt; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We study the recycling schemes of France, Germany, Portugal, Romania and the UK. • The costs and benefits of recycling are compared for France, Portugal and Romania. • The balance of costs and benefits depend on the perspective (strictly financial/economic). • Financial supports to local authorities ought to promote cost-efficiency. - Abstract: This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste management. In fact, if the savings attained by diverting packaging waste from other treatment (e.g. landfilling) and the public subsidies to the investment on the “recycling system” are not considered, it seems that the industry should increase the financial support to local authorities (by 125% in France, 50% in Portugal and 170% in Romania). However, in France and Portugal the industry is paying local authorities more than just the incremental costs of recycling (full costs of selective collection and sorting minus the avoided costs). To provide a more definitive judgment on the fairness of the systems it will be necessary to assess the cost efficiency of waste management operators (and judge whether operators are claiming costs or eliciting “prices”)

  8. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: current state of the field and primary challenges.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2010-05-15

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations. PMID:20015592

  9. Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Distribution of Industrial Waste/By-Products: A Joint Optimization of Operation and Environmental Costs

    E-print Network

    Dessouky, Maged

    1 Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Distribution of Industrial Waste/By-Products: A Joint, (213) 740 4891 Fax: (213) 740 1120 * corresponding author #12;2 Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Distribution of Industrial Waste/By-Products: A Joint Optimization of Operation and Environmental Costs

  10. Isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates producing bacteria from pulp, paper, and cardboard industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236?g/L and 4.042?g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production. PMID:24288534

  11. Grand Rounds: An Outbreak of Toxic Hepatitis among Industrial Waste Disposal Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun A; Choi, Jung-Keun; Choi, Sung-Bong; Suh, Jeong-Ill; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Jung Ran

    2007-01-01

    Context Industrial waste (which is composed of various toxic chemicals), changes to the disposal process, and addition of chemicals should all be monitored and controlled carefully in the industrial waste industry to reduce the health hazard to workers. Case presentation Five workers in an industrial waste plant developed acute toxic hepatitis, one of whom died after 3 months due to fulminant hepatitis. In the plant, we detected several chemicals with hepatotoxic potential, including pyridine, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, and methylenedianiline. The workers had been working in the high-vapor-generating area of the plant, and the findings of pathologic examination showed typical features of acute toxic hepatitis. Discussion Infectious hepatitis and drug-induced hepatitis were excluded by laboratory findings, as well as the clinical course of hepatitis. All cases of toxic hepatitis in this plant developed after the change of the disposal process to thermochemical reaction–type treatment using unslaked lime reacted with industrial wastes. During this chemical reaction, vapor containing several toxic materials was generated. Although we could not confirm the definitive causative chemical, we suspect that these cases of hepatitis were caused by one of the hepatotoxic agents or by a synergistic interaction among several of them. Relevance to clinical or professional practice In the industrial waste treatment process, the danger of developing toxic hepatitis should be kept in mind, because any subtle change of the treatment process can generate various toxic materials and threaten the workers’ health. A mixture of hepatotoxic chemicals can induce clinical manifestations that are quite different from those predicted by the toxic property of a single agent. PMID:17366828

  12. Assessment of the optimum operation conditions of a plate heat exchanger for waste heat recovery in textile industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canan Kandilli; Aytac Koclu

    2011-01-01

    Textile industry plays an important role economically in Turkey. A great amount of hot waste liquids and gases are let out in many textile processes. These waste liquids and gases have crucial energy saving potential, especially for dyeing process. It could be possible to provide energy saving by employing a waste heat recovery system (WHRS). The optimum operation conditions were

  13. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

  14. Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste heat recovery, and food industry wastes from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and processing of fruits and vegetables. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer, and uses in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste is also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Technical and economic assessments of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5-5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value p...

  16. Magnetic heat pump cycles for industrial waste heat recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Mills; L. D. Kirol; D. H. Van Haaften

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic heat pumps utilize entropy reductions which occur upon magnetization (magnetocaloric effect) in thermodynamic cycles. Magnetic equivalents of Brayton and Ericson (or Stirling) cycles are possible. Magnetic heat pumps with gadolinium working material perform significantly better than conventional equipment. Working materials appropriate for industrial heat pump applications (400 to 500 K) have been identified, but performance is not as good

  17. Magnetic heat pump cycles for industrial waste heat recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Mills; L. D. Kirol; D. H. Van Haaften

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic heat pumps utilize entropy reductions which occur upon magnetization (magnetocaloric effect) in thermodynamic cycles. Magnetic equivalents of Brayton and Ericsson (or Stirling) cycles are possible. Magnetic heat pumps with gadolinium working material perform significantly better than conventional equipment. Working materials appropriate for industrial heat pump applications (400 to 500 K) have been identified, but performance is not as good

  18. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL STABILIZATION AND SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSES FOR ARSENIC CONTAINING INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is in many industrial raw materials, products, and wastes, and is a contaminant of concern in soil and groundwater at many remediation sites. Because arsenic readily changes valence state and reacts to form species with varying toxicity and mobility, effective treatment o...

  19. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Industrial waste water treatment: large scale development of a light-enhanced Fenton reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Oliveros; Omar Legrini; Mathias Hohl; Thomas Müller; André M. Braun

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of a large scale application of the light-enhanced Fenton reaction has been investigated for the treatment of a highly contaminated industrial waste water containing toxic aromatic amines (dimethyl anilines or xylidines) as the main pollutants. The Fenton reagent, a combination of hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt, is a potent oxidizing agent of organic compounds in acidic aqueous

  1. CLASTOGENICITY EVALUATION OF SEVEN CHEMICALS COMMONLY FOUND AT UNCONTROLLED INDUSTRIAL WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven chemicals commonly found at industrial waste sites were tested with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay to evaluate their clastogenic potential. They were: Aldrin, arsenic trioxide, l,2 benz(a,h)anthracene, dieldrin, heptachlor, lead tetraacetate, and tetrachloro...

  2. A MARINE ALGAL BIOASSAY METHOD: RESULTS WITH PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple marine algal bioassay method is described for short- and long-term studies on pesticides and industrial wastes. It can be used for rapid screening of a variety of substances with single-species and multiple-species tests and gives relative toxicities of the pollutants te...

  3. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas M. Musyoka; Leslie F. Petrik; Gillian Balfour; Wilson M. Gitari; Eric Hums

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47°C for

  4. Thermodynamics -2 An industrial plant produces a waste stream of hot compressed air

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Thermodynamics - 2 An industrial plant produces a waste stream of hot compressed air: Pressure P is maximum work that can be produced if the air is discharged to the atmosphere at atmospheric pressure be produced if the air is discharged to the atmosphere at atmospheric pressure and temperature, using any

  5. A multiobjective optimization model for the waste management of the petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulaziz S. Alidi

    1996-01-01

    A multiobjective optimization model based on the goal programming approach is proposed in this paper to assist in the proper management of hazardous waste generated by the petrochemical industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a decision-making approach, incorporating qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, is incorporated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals usually encountered when addressing the

  6. Pharmaceutical contamination in residential, industrial, and agricultural waste streams: Risk to aqueous environments in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Yu-Chen Lin; Tsung-Hsien Yu; Cheng-Fang Lin

    2008-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the occurrence of antibiotics, hormones and other pharmaceuticals in water sites that have major potential for downstream environmental contamination. These include residential (hospitals, sewage treatment plants, and regional discharges), industrial (pharmaceutical production facilities), and agricultural (animal husbandries and aquacultures) waste streams. We assayed 23 Taiwanese water sites for 97 targeted compounds, of which a

  7. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Defusing the Toxics Threat: Controlling Pesticides and Industrial Waste. Worldwatch Paper 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra

    The use of pesticides in agriculture and the discarding of industrial chemical waste into the air, soil, and water constitute two major pathways of human exposure to toxic substances. It is argued that these practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. Speculation continues into…

  9. Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Single cell oil production by Gordonia sp. DG using agro-industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona K. Gouda; Sanaa H. Omar; Linda M. Aouad

    2008-01-01

    Lipid accumulation by Gordonia sp. DG using sodium gluconate as carbon source in comparison with Rhodococcus opacus PD630 was studied. Maximum lipid content 80% was observed at the beginning of the stationary phase for R. opacus and 72% at the end of stationary phase for Gordonia sp. Different agro-industrial wastes were used as carbon source. The cells of the two

  11. POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

  12. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas industry equipment and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly issues relating to the contamination of oil and gas industry equipment and wastes with accumulations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The report describes the present state of knowledge regarding NORM in the oil and gas industry, including information on known geographic distributions of NORM and observations on concentration levels from various types of equipment and wastes. Environmental fate and effects of NORM radionuclides and potential human impacts are discussed. A review of existing, proposed, and planned state and federal regulations, standards, and guidelines for NORM is provided, along with a brief distribution of the potential economic and technological constraints that regulations and standards governing the disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes could have on domestic oil and gas production. Research and technology transfer needs relating to issues associated with NORM are also summarized.

  13. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas industry equipment and wastes. A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly issues relating to the contamination of oil and gas industry equipment and wastes with accumulations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The report describes the present state of knowledge regarding NORM in the oil and gas industry, including information on known geographic distributions of NORM and observations on concentration levels from various types of equipment and wastes. Environmental fate and effects of NORM radionuclides and potential human impacts are discussed. A review of existing, proposed, and planned state and federal regulations, standards, and guidelines for NORM is provided, along with a brief distribution of the potential economic and technological constraints that regulations and standards governing the disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes could have on domestic oil and gas production. Research and technology transfer needs relating to issues associated with NORM are also summarized.

  14. Mining industry waste remediated for recycle by vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-14

    Characteristically hazardous waste water treatment sludges from a U.S. mining company were considered a long term liability since stabilization via a cement wasteform would not provide the stringent leachant concentrations for an EPA acceptable recycle product. Vitrification of the sludges into three different types of glass at elevated temperatures provided recyclable products. The use of treated materials containing hazardous metals has been previously considered by the EPA for residues remaining from High Temperature Metal Recovery (HTMR) operations. These treated materials could be used for recycling as (1) covered sub-base materials (e.g., in construction of paved roads, parking lots, and driveways), (2) additive ingredients in cement or concrete/asphalt mixtures, (3) top grade or surfacing materials, e.g., in construction of roads, parking lots, and driveways (glassphalt or glasscrete), and as anti-skid/de-icing materials. The glass waste forms provide a 87-93 percent volume reduction compared to alternative stabilization in cement and provide for recycle.

  15. Use prospect of a full-scale installation of ``wet`` oxidation of organic wastes for CLSS closure increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, D.. Yurii A.

    Previously in the works carried out at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS a fundamental use feasibility of organic wastes mineralization in H _{2}O _{2} aqueous solution under effect of alternating current was shown. It was proved that the reactor products (mineralized solution and gas) could be involved into an intrasystem mass exchange in the capacity of plants mineral nutrition without their productivity decrease. Here the working volume of the experimental installation was 1L that was not enough for one-time utilization of the crew wastes. At the next stage the research was aimed at the process scaling up to investigate the efficiency the wastes mineralization process in the installation with a working volume equal to 6L corresponding to a daily norm of the 2-members’ crew. Besides the mineralization parameters of human exometabolites and plant wastes were considered to develop an automatic control of the reactor. The process scale magnification was determined to increase its efficiency by temporal and energy characteristics at the same time maintaining a sufficient level of wastes mineralization. An experimental system of the reactor automatic control was created capable to independently operate wastes mineralization according to the regime set up to the reaction termination and completing the reactor work.

  16. Conversion of industrial food wastes by Alcaligenes latus into polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Yu; Hong Chua; Ai-Ling Huang; Kwok-Ping Ho

    1999-01-01

    Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would\\u000a heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. As\\u000a the first step in our pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesise\\u000a environmental-friendly bioplastics, we investigated the usage

  17. Bacterial amelioration of bauxite residue waste of industrial alumina plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M K Hamdy; F S Williams

    2001-01-01

      The high alkali content of bauxite residue deposits from alumina production plants in industrial nations poses a challenge\\u000a to reestablish flora and fauna at the deposit sites. The present study demonstrated that low levels of injured bacterial cells\\u000a in the bauxite residue actively grew using various added nutrients and\\/or hay. The organisms grew from less than 10 to more\\u000a than

  18. An Overview of Opportunities for Waste Heat Recovery and Thermal Integration in the Primary Aluminum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, Cassandre; Gosselin, Louis

    2012-08-01

    Efficient smelters currently consume roughly 13 MWh of electricity per ton of aluminum, while roughly half of that energy is lost as thermal waste. Although waste heat is abundant, current thermal integration in primary aluminum facilities remains limited. This is due to both the low quality of waste heat available and the shortage of potential uses within reasonable distance of identified waste heat sources. In this article, we present a mapping of both heat dissipation processes and heat demands around a sample facility (Alcoa Deschambault Quebec smelter). Our primary aim is to report opportunities for heat recovery and integration in the primary aluminum industry. We consider potential heat-to-sink pairings individually and assess their thermodynamic potential for producing energy savings.

  19. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

  20. The value of resource efficiency in the food industry: a waste minimisation project in East Anglia, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Henningsson; Katherine Hyde; Ann Smith; Miranda Campbell

    2004-01-01

    Waste minimisation can be as successful in the food and drink industry as in other industries often seen as more polluting. £1.1m was realised in annual savings by 13 companies in the East Anglian Waste Minimisation in the Food and Drink Industry Project, which exceeded the Project investment of £412,000 plus the £335,000 invested by companies in cleaner technologies. The

  1. Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water/industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Aman, Tehseen; Kazi, Asrar Ahmad; Sabri, Muhammad Usman; Bano, Qudsia

    2008-05-01

    A new sorbent potato peels, which are normally discarded as solid waste for removing toxic metal ion Cu(II) from water/industrial waste water have been studied. Potato peels charcoal (PPC) was investigated as an adsorbent of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by studying the effects of various parameters such as temperature, pH and solid liquid ratios. The optimum pH value for Cu(II) adsorption onto potato peels charcoal (PPC) was found to be 6.0. The thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibb's free energy (Delta G degrees ), standard enthalpy (Delta H degrees ) and standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ) were evaluated by applying the Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamics of Cu(II) adsorption onto PPC indicates its spontaneous and exothermic nature. The equilibrium data at different temperatures were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. PMID:18215510

  2. Exploring the life cycle management of industrial solid waste in the case of copper slag.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Li, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Industrial solid waste has potential impacts on soil, water and air quality, as well as human health, during its whole life stages. A framework for the life cycle management of industrial solid waste, which integrates the source reduction process, is presented and applied to copper slag management. Three management scenarios of copper slag are developed: (i) production of cement after electric furnace treatment, (ii) production of cement after flotation, and (iii) source reduction before the recycling process. A life cycle assessment is carried out to estimate the environmental burdens of these three scenarios. Life cycle assessment results showed that the environmental burdens of the three scenarios are 2710.09, 2061.19 and 2145.02 Pt respectively. In consideration of the closed-loop recycling process, the environmental performance of the flotation approach excelled that of the electric furnace approach. Additionally, although flash smelting promotes the source reduction of copper slag compared with bath smelting, it did not reduce the overall environmental burdens resulting from the complete copper slag management process. Moreover, it led to the shifting of environmental burdens from ecosystem quality damage and resources depletion to human health damage. The case study shows that it is necessary to integrate the generation process into the whole life cycle of industrial solid waste, and to make an integrated assessment for quantifying the contribution of source reduction, rather than to simply follow the priority of source reduction and the hierarchy of waste management. PMID:23512953

  3. Trends in the waste-to-energy incineration industry: Results of a pan-European survey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwager, F.J. [Juniper Consultancy Services Ltd., Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The European Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) industry is going through a period of major change. The practical implications of these changes vary markedly from country to country within Europe. The paper reports certain results from a pan-European survey conducted among industry professionals on a wide range of subjects including technology trends; the impact of regulations upon cost and operating practice; research and development needs; and forecast cost evolution. This paper presents specific data on the industry`s own view of the impact of the EU directives upon operating practice and upon incineration cost based upon an analysis of the replies to the questionnaire. Contrasts are drawn between the responses from different national groups. Respondents were asked to identify the technology areas that most needed further development. The paper reviews and analyzes the responses--and discusses the implications for equipment suppliers. Current operating costs in several European countries are contrasted. In addition the paper presents the industry`s own consensus on the likely evolution of operating costs through to the end of the century and discusses the implications for waste management policy.

  4. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here. PMID:23729848

  5. The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Lupa, Christopher J., E-mail: c.lupa@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Ricketts, Lois J. [Stopford Energy and Environment, Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Sweetman, Andy [Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Herbert, Ben M.J. [Stopford Energy and Environment, Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Commercial and industrial waste samples collected. > Samples analysed for calorific value, moisture, ash and elemental composition. > Values similar to those of municipal solid waste and refuse derived fuel. > Sampled waste could be used in current energy recovery systems with minimal retrofitting. > Sampled waste could account 6.5% towards the UK's 2020 renewable electricity target if all qualifying waste is used. - Abstract: With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C and IW). In this study, samples of C and IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C and IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47 MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C and IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9 GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000 tpa. This value rose to 27.0 GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C and IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6 TWh, 1.9% of the national demand thereby contributing 6.5% towards the UK's 2020 renewable electricity target.

  6. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    PubMed

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  7. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances. PMID:22426843

  8. An assessment of the chemical composition of precipitation and throughfall in rural-industrial gradient in wet subtropics (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Casartelli, M R; Mirlean, N; Peralba, M C; Barrionuevo, S; Gómez-Rey, M X; Madeira, M

    2008-09-01

    The chemical composition of bulk precipitation and throughfall were analyzed, during a 1-year period (2002), in rural-urban-industry gradients with similar forest cover (Eucalyptus spp.) in southern Brazil (Rio Grande and Porto Alegre cities). Values of pH varied from 5.0-5.1 in rural to 5.4-6.1 in industrial sites, and were intermediate in urban sites. The major ions in bulk precipitation were Na+, Cl-, NH+(4), NO-(3), and PO(3-)(4), and concentrations increased in urban and industrial sites. Principal component analysis identified the local main anthropogenic sources. Estimated annual amounts of dry deposition were generally greater in both industrial and urban sites than in rural sites. Areas close to industrial activity showed greater S and N total deposition (10.4-10.9 and 20.2-30.6 kg/ha, respectively) than in urban (3.4-7.3 and 14.6-24.1 kg/ha) and in rural (1.7-2.6 and 8.9-12.1 kg/ha) sites. Annual deposition of Ca and P varied from 0.6 and 3.0 kg/ha in rural to 45.4 and 32.4 kg/ha in industrial sites, maximum values being observed closed to the phosphate fertilizer plant of Rio Grande. Deposition in urban and industrial sites may be balanced by the alkaline cations, as bulk precipitation pH varied from 5.4 to 6.1, and was greater than in rural sites (5.0-5.1). PMID:17891507

  9. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

  10. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  11. Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater laden with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2011-08-10

    Industrial wastes, such as, fly ash, blast furnace slag and sludge, black liquor lignin, red mud, and waste slurry, etc. are currently being investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of the heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that modified industrial wastes showed higher adsorption capacity. The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from the industrial wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions etc. on the adsorption of heavy metals have also been discussed in this article. From the review, it is evident that certain industrial waste materials have demonstrated high removal capacities for the heavy metals laden with wastewater. However, it is to be mentioned that adsorption capacities of the adsorbents vary depending on the characteristics of the adsorbents, the extent of chemical modification and the concentration of adsorbates. There are also few issues and drawbacks on the utilization of industrial wastes as low-cost adsorbents that have been addressed. In order to find out the practical utilization of industrial waste as low-cost adsorbents on the commercial scale, more research should be conducted in this direction. PMID:21669401

  12. Waste heat - use or watch it - during the electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    The waste heat issue in energy management has not changed. The ability to convert energy to useful work and minimizing heat losses continues to be the goal of energy efficiency. The electric utility restructuring at least in California has given business and industry another reason to keep a close focus on current utility and secondary energy resource costs. The secondary energy resources include: steam, compressed air and cooling water. This paper will outline some of the waste heat management techniques such as: unit energy cost, facility energy balance and monthly energy management reporting. These techniques have been applied in industrial and commercial settings. The focus will be on how to integrate these technical topics into your particular electric deregulated environment.

  13. Medium-Pressure Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion Turbine Systems for Utilization of Industrial Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, Hirohide; Uzunow, Nikolaj

    Recovery of waste heat is an effective means of achieving energy conservation, and the total amount of industrial waste heat is still notable. However, the value of waste heat as an energy source is low (low exergy). Its utilization therefore requires larger recovery systems with increased costs. The concept of introducing a second, high-quality heat source in the form of H2-O2 combustion in order to improve the system's performance is presented here. System analysis of the combination effect (higher output from combined than from separate sources) was conducted. The investigation results show that the systems under consideration have the potential for significant merits under moderate conditions. The proposed combination of low- and high-quality heat sources also permits reductions in the system size and cost.

  14. Emerging organic contaminants in leachates from industrial waste landfills and industrial effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Levsen

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the main results obtained within the European Commission (EC)-funded project PERICLES. The main objective was the development and the evaluation of a protocol for an integrated ecotoxicological\\/chemical assessment of industrial liquid effluents, using ecotoxicological assays and analytical methods. Biotest results have been compared with chemical analysis.

  15. Removal of bromophenols from water using industrial wastes as low cost adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Amit

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the adsorbents prepared from several industrial wastes for the removal of 2-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol and 2,4-dibromophenol has been carried out. The results show that maximum adsorption on carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from fertilizer industry waste has been found to be 40.7, 170.4 and 190.2 mg g(-1) for 4-bromophenol 2-bromophenol and 2,4-dibromophenol, respectively. As compared to carbonaceous adsorbent, the other three adsorbents (viz., blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag) adsorb bromophenols to a much smaller extent. This has been attributed to the carbonaceous adsorbent having a larger porosity and consequently higher surface area. The adsorption of bromophenols on this adsorbent has been studied as a function of contact time, concentration and temperature. The adsorption has been found to be endothermic, and the data conform to the Langmuir equation. The further analysis of data indicates that adsorption is a first order process. A comparative study of adsorption results with those obtained on standard activated charcoal sample shows that prepared carbonaceous adsorbent is about 45% as efficient as standard activated charcoal in removing bromophenols. To test the practical utility of this adsorbent, column operations were also carried out. The results were found satisfactory in removing bromophenols by column operations. Therefore, the present investigations recommend the use of carbon slurry waste as inexpensive adsorbent for small scale industries of developing/poor countries where disposal of solid waste of various industries and proper treatment of polluted wastewater is a serious problem. PMID:16938394

  16. Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vaidyanathan Vinoth Kumar; M. Shanmugaprakash; J. Aravind; S. Karthick Raja Namasivayam

    2012-01-01

    Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates

  17. Recycling of industrial solid waste for the removal of mercury (II) by adsorption process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Namasivayam; S. Senthilkumar

    1997-01-01

    Fe(III)\\/Cr(III) hydroxide, a waste byproduct obtained from the treatment of Cr(VI) containing wastewaters in a fertilizer industry, has been used for the adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solution. The influence of various parameters such as metal ion concentration ( 10–40 mg\\/L), agitation time (1–160 min), adsorbent dosage (5–250 mg per 50 ml), temperature (24 – 44°C) and pH value (4

  18. In Situ Avoidance Response Of Adult Atlantic Salmon To Waste From The Wood Pulp Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva B. Thorstad; Torbjørn Forseth; Ingar Aasestad; Finn ØKland; Bjørn Ove Johnsen

    2005-01-01

    An accidental release of non-toxic waste from decommissioned wood pulp industry in the River Numedalslågen, Southern Norway, occurred in the upper part of the accessible stretches for anadromous fish during a study of migration behaviour of radio tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, n=32, body length 51–99 cm). The fish had completed the migration phase and initiated the resident phase characterised

  19. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Michael B; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in "clean" water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions. PMID:24883258

  20. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Michael B.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions. PMID:24883258

  1. Silica materials recovered from photonic industrial waste powder: its extraction, modification, characterization and application.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Yi; Kuo, Jien-Ting; Bai, Hsunling

    2011-08-15

    This study explored the possibility of recovering waste powder from photonic industry into two useful resources, sodium fluoride (NaF) and the silica precursor solution. An alkali fusion process was utilized to effectively separate silicate supernatant and the sediment. The obtained sediment contains purified NaF (>90%), which provides further reuse possibility since NaF is widely applied in chemical industry. The supernatant is a valuable silicate source for synthesizing mesoporous silica material such as MCM-41. The MCM-41 produced from the photonic waste powder (PWP), namely MCM-41(PWP), possessed high specific surface areas (1082 m(2)/g), narrow pore size distributions (2.95 nm) and large pore volumes (0.99 cm(3)/g). The amine-modified MCM-41(PWP) was further applied as an adsorbent for the capture of CO(2) greenhouse gas. Breakthrough experiments demonstrated that the tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) functionalized MCM-41(PWP) exhibited an adsorption capacity (82 mg CO(2)/g adsorbent) of only slightly less than that of the TEPA/MCM-41 manufactured from pure chemical (97 mg CO(2)/g adsorbent), and its capacity is higher than that of TEPA/ZSM-5 zeolite (43 mg CO(2)/g adsorbent). The results revealed both the high potential of resource recovery from the photonic solid waste and the cost-effective application of waste-derived mesoporous adsorbent for environmental protection. PMID:21641110

  2. Treatment and resource recovery from inorganic fluoride-containing waste produced by the pesticide industry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Zhiqi; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2015-05-01

    The rapid development of the fluorinated pesticide industry has produced a large amount of fluorine-containing hazardous waste, especially inorganic fluoride-containing waste (IFCW). A two-step process, including extraction and recovery, was developed to recover fluorine as synthetic cryolite from IFCW produced by the pesticide industry. The optimum conditions for extraction were found to be a temperature of 75°C, an initial pH (pHi) of 12, a 4-hr incubation time and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 40mL/g; these conditions resulted in a fluorine extraction ratio of 99.0%. The effects of pH and the F/Al molar ratio on fluorine recovery and the compositional, mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the cryolite products were investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy of recovered precipitates showed changes in morphology with the F/Al molar ratio. Coupling Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction indicated that the formation of AlF6(3-) was restricted as increasing pH. Both the amount of fluorine recovered and the quality of the cryolite were optimized at initial pH=3 and a F/Al molar ratio 5.75. This study proposed a reliable and environmentally friendly method for the treatment of fluoride-containing wastes, which could be suitable for industrial applications. PMID:25968254

  3. Screening tests for assessing treatability of inorganic industrial wastes by stabilisation/solidification with cement.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, J A; Zhou, Q

    2009-01-15

    Stabilisation/solidification with cementitious or pozzolanic binders (S/S) is an option for reducing leachability of contaminants from residual, predominantly inorganic, industrial wastes and contaminated soils before disposal or reuse. Treatment by S/S is complicated by the fact that the presence of impurities, such as the contaminants and bulk matrix components present in industrial wastes, can have deleterious effects on cements. Therefore, careful laboratory development and testing of S/S formulations are required prior to full-scale application, to avoid technology failures, including problems with handling and contaminant retention. An understanding of cement chemistry and contaminant immobilisation mechanisms has been used to propose a series of test methods and performance thresholds for use in efficient evaluation of the treatability of industrial wastes by S/S, and optimising S/S formulations: measurement of stabilised/solidified product workability, bleeding and setting time (for flowable mixtures) or Proctor compaction (for compactable mixtures), together with unconfined compressive strength, leachability in a batch extraction with distilled water, and hydraulic conductivity. PMID:18456403

  4. Zipping Wetting

    E-print Network

    Sbragaglia, Mauro; Pirat, Christophe; Borkent, Bram M; Lammertink, Rob G H; Wessling, Matthias; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Water droplets can completely wet micro-structured superhydrophobic surfaces. The {\\it dynamics} of this rapid process is analyzed by ultra-high-speed imaging. Depending on the scales of the micro-structure, the wetting fronts propagate smoothly and circularly or -- more interestingly -- in a {\\it stepwise} manner, leading to a growing {\\it square-shaped} wetted area: entering a new row perpendicular to the direction of front propagation takes milliseconds, whereas once this has happened, the row itself fills in microseconds ({\\it ``zipping''}). Numerical simulations confirm this view and are in quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE INDICATOR FOR MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF INCINERATORS, INDUSTRIAL FURNACES, AND BOILERS BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a simple indicator-- Unsatisfied Oxygen Demand (UOD)--for measuring the performance of incinerators, industrial furnaces, and boilers burning hazardous waste. urrent RCRA regulations use destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of the princi...

  6. Utilization of food industry wastes for the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Machado, S; Grosso, J P; Nouws, H P A; Albergaria, J T; Delerue-Matos, C

    2014-10-15

    The proper disposal of the several types of wastes produced in industrial activities increases production costs. As a consequence, it is common to develop strategies to reuse these wastes in the same process and in different processes or to transform them for use in other processes. This work combines the needs for new synthesis methods of nanomaterials and the reduction of production cost using wastes from citrine juice (orange, lime, lemon and mandarin) to produce a new added value product, green zero-valent iron nanoparticles that can be used in several applications, including environmental remediation. The results indicate that extracts of the tested fruit wastes (peel, albedo and pulp fractions) can be used to produce zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs). This shows that these wastes can be an added value product. The resulting nZVIs had sizes ranging from 3 up to 300 nm and distinct reactivities (pulp>peel>albedo extracts). All the studied nanoparticles did not present a significant agglomeration/settling tendency when compared to similar nanoparticles, which indicates that they remain in suspension and retain their reactivity. PMID:25089685

  7. Preparation of sustainable photocatalytic materials through the valorization of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    A new value-added material was developed from wastes to aim for appropriate waste management and sustainable development. This paper reports the valorization of industrial sandblasting operation wastes (SOWs) as new photocatalytic materials. This waste is composed of Fe2 O3 (60.7?%), SiO2 (29.1?%), and Al2 O3 (3.9?%) as the main components. The high presence of iron oxides was used to develop photocatalytic properties through their thermal transformation into ?-Fe2 O3 . The new product, SOW-T, exhibited a good behavior towards the photochemical degradation of organic dyes. The preparation of advanced photocatalytic materials that exhibit self-cleaning and depolluting properties was possible by the inclusion of SOW-T and TiO2 in a cement-based mortar. The synergy observed between both materials enhanced their photocatalytic action. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the use of transformed wastes based on iron oxide for the photochemical oxidation of NOx gases. PMID:24106243

  8. Evaluation of Wet Chemical ICP-AES Elemental Analysis Methods usingSimulated Hanford Waste Samples-Phase I Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Charles J.; Edwards, Thomas B.

    2005-04-30

    The wet chemistry digestion method development for providing process control elemental analyses of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Melter Feed Preparation Vessel (MFPV) samples is divided into two phases: Phase I consists of: (1) optimizing digestion methods as a precursor to elemental analyses by ICP-AES techniques; (2) selecting methods with the desired analytical reliability and speed to support the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement of the WTP; and (3) providing baseline comparison to the laser ablation (LA) sample introduction technique for ICP-AES elemental analyses that is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Phase II consists of: (1) Time-and-Motion study of the selected methods from Phase I with actual Hanford waste or waste simulants in shielded cell facilities to ensure that the methods can be performed remotely and maintain the desired characteristics; and (2) digestion of glass samples prepared from actual Hanford Waste tank sludge for providing comparative results to the LA Phase II study. Based on the Phase I testing discussed in this report, a tandem digestion approach consisting of sodium peroxide fusion digestions carried out in nickel crucibles and warm mixed-acid digestions carried out in plastic bottles has been selected for Time-and-Motion study in Phase II. SRNL experience with performing this analytical approach in laboratory hoods indicates that well-trained cell operator teams will be able to perform the tandem digestions in five hours or less. The selected approach will produce two sets of solutions for analysis by ICP-AES techniques. Four hours would then be allocated for performing the ICP-AES analyses and reporting results to meet the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement. The tandem digestion approach will need to be performed in two separate shielded analytical cells by two separate cell operator teams in order to achieve the nine-hour or less turnaround time. Because of the simplicity of the warm mixed-acid method, a well-trained cell operator team may in time be able to perform both sets of digestions. However, having separate shielded cells for each of the methods is prudent to avoid overcrowding problems that would impede a minimal turnaround time.

  9. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48?h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30?min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

  10. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs. PMID:22916438

  11. Pemanfaatan Limbah Tandan Kosong dari Industri Pengolahan Kelapa Sawit untuk Papan Partikel dengan Perekat Penol Formaldehida Utilization of Empty Fruit Bunch Waste from Oil Palm Industry for Particleboard Using Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bambang Subiyanto; Mohamad Gopar; Sasa Sofyan Munawar

    Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) is waste from oil palm industry that has potential to be used as particleboard material. Production of particleboard might be useful to decrease the waste from oil palm industry. The problem in using waste from oil palm is the high extractive content that can decrease adhesive properties in panel production using thermoplastic adhesive, cement or thermosetting

  12. Quantitative assessment of solid waste treatment systems in the industrial ecology perspective by exergy analysis.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Jo P; Van Langenhove, Herman R

    2002-03-01

    Solid waste treatment options (recycling, incineration, and landfilling; the two latter processes both with co-generation of heat and electricity) have been studied for cardboard, newspaper, polyethylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), polypropylene, polystyrene, and poly(vinyl chloride) waste. The conversion processes have been analyzed in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The analysis allows calculating the exergy (useful energy) embodied in conversion products that can be obtained from the required inputs for the treatment processes. Taking into account the waste materials and the resources to convert them, it proved that recycling is the most efficient option for polyethylene with an efficiency of 62.5% versus 43.6% for incineration and 0.9% for landfilling. Next, waste treatment has been put into the broader perspective of industrial ecology. Exergetic efficiencies of industrial metabolic options have been calculated. Here resources for manufacturing and converting solid products have been considered. Furthermore, selection of one type of conversion excludes the generation of other potential conversion products. Therefore, it has to be taken into account that these latter products still have to be produced starting from virgin resources. Recycling proved to be the most efficient strategy: the ratio eta between exergy embodied in all delivered products on one hand, and all exergy withdrawn from the ecosphere or from waste materials on the other hand, is the highest. For polyethylene, eta proved to be 0.568, whereas eta is 0.503 and 0.329 for incineration and landfilling, respectively. On the other hand, if R the ratio between exergy of delivered products on one hand and exergy of virgin materials on the other hand is calculated, the differences between the industrial metabolic options are larger. Recycling polyethylene showed a ratio R of 0.936, whereas ratios of 0.772 and 0.531 were found for incineration and landfilling, respectively. It has been shown that the exergy concept allows a quantitative comparison of different industrial metabolic options, contributing to a better assessment of sustainability of technology with respect to resource management. PMID:11918001

  13. Petroleum industry effluents and other oxygen-demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Uwakwe, Augustine A

    2006-07-01

    In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation-reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid-base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl-, SO(2-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and PO4(3-), and other ions and compounds. PMID:17193303

  14. A comparative adsorption study with different industrial wastes as adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes from water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Bhatnagar; A. K. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Four adsorbents have been prepared from industrial wastes obtained from the steel and fertilizer industries and investigated for their utility to remove cationic dyes. Studies have shown that the adsorbents prepared from blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag have poor porosity and low surface area, resulting in very low efficiency for the adsorption of dyes. On the other hand, carbonaceous

  15. Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2013-07-01

    Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (?10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (?70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

  16. Efficient method for recycling silica materials from waste powder of the photonic industry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Yi; Bai, Hsunling

    2013-05-01

    An efficient and economic approach is proposed for the fast and direct recovery of silica materials from photonic waste powder. Unlike the conventional alkaline fusion method for the extraction of silica from waste materials, this method possesses advantages of a rapid and low-energy-consumed process with total recovery yield. The obtained mesoporous silica material, denoted as MCM-41(DU)-F, was recovered directly from photonic waste powder at room temperature with the assistance of cationic surfactant, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia hydroxide. The recycled MCM-41(DU)-F with a high specific surface area (788 m(2)/g), ordered mesoporous structure (4.5 nm), and large pore volume (1.1 cm(3)/g) was used as support of tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) for the capture of CO2 from a flue gas stream. The results demonstrated that TEPA-impregnated MCM-41(DU)-F had an adsorption capacity of 120 mg of CO2/g of adsorbent. This is higher than the amount adsorbed by TEPA-MCM-41(NaSi) made from pure chemicals (113 mg of CO2/g of adsorbent) and TEPA-MCM-41(AF) made from alkaline fusion (112 mg of CO2/g of adsorbent) under the same testing conditions. This novel recycling process, which can improve cost effectiveness for the mass production of valuable mesoporous silica materials from cheap and abundant resources through convenient preparation steps, is surely beneficial from the viewpoint of economical use of photonic industrial waste powder. PMID:23521136

  17. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2012-October 31, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  18. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: May 1, 2010-October 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (#LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  19. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mike lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  20. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  1. Fundamentals of gas flow in shale; What the unconventional reservoir industry can learn from the radioactive waste industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuss, Robert; Harrington, Jon; Graham, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Tight formations, such as shale, have a wide range of potential usage; this includes shale gas exploitation, hydrocarbon sealing, carbon capture & storage and radioactive waste disposal. Considerable research effort has been conducted over the last 20 years on the fundamental controls on gas flow in a range of clay-rich materials at the British Geological Survey (BGS) mainly focused on radioactive waste disposal; including French Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, Belgian Boom Clay, Swiss Opalinus Clay, British Oxford Clay, as well as engineered barrier material such as bentonite and concrete. Recent work has concentrated on the underlying physics governing fluid flow, with evidence of dilatancy controlled advective flow demonstrated in Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. This has resulted in a review of how advective gas flow is dealt with in Performance Assessment and the applicability of numerical codes. Dilatancy flow has been shown in Boom clay using nano-particles and is seen in bentonite by the strong hydro-mechanical coupling displayed at the onset of gas flow. As well as observations made at BGS, dilatancy flow has been shown by other workers on shale (Cuss et al., 2012; Angeli et al. 2009). As well as experimental studies using cores of intact material, fractured material has been investigated in bespoke shear apparatus. Experimental results have shown that the transmission of gas by fractures is highly localised, dependent on normal stress, varies with shear, is strongly linked with stress history, is highly temporal in nature, and shows a clear correlation with fracture angle. Several orders of magnitude variation in fracture transmissivity is seen during individual tests. Flow experiments have been conducted using gas and water, showing remarkably different behaviour. The radioactive waste industry has also noted a number of important features related to sample preservation. Differences in gas entry pressure have been shown across many laboratories and these may be attributed to different core preparation techniques. Careful re-stressing of core barrels and sealing techniques also ensure that experiments are conducted on near in situ condition. The construction of tunnels within shale clearly aids our understanding of the interaction of engineered operations (borehole drilling or tunnelling) on the behaviour of the rock. References: Angeli, M., Soldal, M., Skurtveit, E. and Aker, E., (2009) Experimental percolation of supercritical CO2 through a caprock. Energy Procedia 1, 3351-3358 Cuss, R.J., Harrington, J.F., Giot, R., and Auvray, C. (2012) Experimental observations of mechanical dilation at the onset of gas flow in Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone. Poster Presentation 5th International Meeting Clays in Natural and Engineered Barriers for Radioactive Waste Confinement, Montpellier, France October 22nd - 25th 2012.

  2. Technology for industrial waste heat recovery by organic Rankine cycle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, W. G.; Drake, R. L.; Prisco, C. J.

    1984-10-01

    The recovery of industrial waste heat and the conversion thereof to useful electric power by use of Rankine cycle systems is studied. Four different aspects of ORC technology were studied: possible destructive chemical reaction between an aluminum turbine wheel and R-113 working fluid under wheel-to-rotor rub conditions; possible chemical reaction between stainless steel or carbon steel and any of five different ORC working fluids under rotor-stator rub conditions; effects on electric generator properties of extended exposure to an environment of saturated R-113 vapor/fluid; and operational proof tests under laboratory conditions of two 1070 kW, ORC, R-113 hermetic turbogenerator power module systems.

  3. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    PubMed

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product. PMID:22175873

  4. Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreasen, J.K.; Stroud, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

  5. Removal of DDD and DDE from wastewater using bagasse fly ash, a sugar industry waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali

    2001-01-01

    Bagasse fly ash, a waste from the sugar industry, was converted into an effective adsorbent and was used for the removal of DDD [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] and DDE [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] pesticides from wastewater. The DDD and DDE are removed by the developed adsorbent up to 93% at pH 7.0, with the adsorbent dose of 5 g\\/l of particle size 200–250 ?m at 30°C. The removal of

  6. Recovery of waste heat from industrial slags via modified float glass process

    SciTech Connect

    Serth, R.W.; Ctvrtnicek, T.E.; McCormick, R.J.; Zanders, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A novel process for recovering waste heat from molten slags produced as by-products in the steel, copper, and elemental phosphorus industries is investigated. The process is based on technology developed in the glass industry for the commercial production of flat glass. In this process, energy is recovered from molten slag as it cools and solidifies on the surface of a pool of molten tin. In order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the process, an energy recovery facility designed to handle the slag from a large elemental phosphorus plant is studied. Results indicate that the process is marginally economical at current energy price levels. A number of technical uncertainties in the process design are also identified. 9 refs.

  7. Use of a mixed algal culture to characterize industrial waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Claesson, A.

    1984-02-01

    A mixture of five freshwater algae was cultivated with additions of waste water samples from chemical, mining, polyvinylchloride, textile, paper mill, and oil refinery industries. Two water samples from chemical industries and one from an oil refinery stimulated the algal growth in a nutrient-poor medium, while growth in other samples, including a nutrient-rich medium, was inhibited in several different ways. For eight of the water samples a delayed growth of 2-4 days was noted. Decreased growth rate and lowered maximal biomass occurred in seven of the samples. The photosynthetic capacity of the algal cells was measured by using in vivo fluorescence of chlorophyll a. These quick measurements mostly agreed with those of the growth rates. When the species composition of the mixed algal culture was investigated, large differences in sensitivities between the different species were found. Stimulation or inhibition were observed in the same sample for different species but also for the same species at different concentrations.

  8. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Fiore, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), which is part of the Gruppo Minerali S.p.A. (Novara, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The pre-mixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages. PMID:12870643

  9. The role of different methanogen groups evaluated by Real-Time qPCR as high-efficiency bioindicators of wet anaerobic co-digestion of organic waste.

    PubMed

    Traversi, Deborah; Villa, Silvia; Acri, Marco; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; Degan, Raffaella; Gilli, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Methanogen populations and their domains are poorly understood; however, in recent years, research on this topic has emerged. The relevance of this field has also been enhanced by the growing economic interest in methanogen skills, particularly the production of methane from organic substrates. Management attention turned to anaerobic wastes digestion because the volume and environmental impact reductions. Methanogenesis is the biochemically limiting step of the process and the industrially interesting phase because it connects to the amount of biogas production. For this reason, several studies have evaluated the structure of methanogen communities during this process. Currently, it is clear that the methanogen load and diversity depend on the feeding characteristics and the process conditions, but not much data is available. In this study, we apply a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method based on mcrA target to evaluate, by specific probes, some subgroups of methanogens during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process fed wastewater sludge and organic fraction of the municipal solid waste with two different pre-treatments. The obtained data showed the prevalence of Methanomicrobiales and significantly positive correlation between Methanosarcina and Methanosaetae and the biogas production rate (0.744 p < 0.01 and 0.641 p < 0.05). Methanosarcina detected levels are different during the process after the two pre-treatment of the input materials (T-test p < 0.05). Moreover, a role as diagnostic tool could be suggested in digestion optimisation. PMID:21982396

  10. The role of different methanogen groups evaluated by Real-Time qPCR as high-efficiency bioindicators of wet anaerobic co-digestion of organic waste

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Methanogen populations and their domains are poorly understood; however, in recent years, research on this topic has emerged. The relevance of this field has also been enhanced by the growing economic interest in methanogen skills, particularly the production of methane from organic substrates. Management attention turned to anaerobic wastes digestion because the volume and environmental impact reductions. Methanogenesis is the biochemically limiting step of the process and the industrially interesting phase because it connects to the amount of biogas production. For this reason, several studies have evaluated the structure of methanogen communities during this process. Currently, it is clear that the methanogen load and diversity depend on the feeding characteristics and the process conditions, but not much data is available. In this study, we apply a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method based on mcrA target to evaluate, by specific probes, some subgroups of methanogens during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process fed wastewater sludge and organic fraction of the municipal solid waste with two different pre-treatments. The obtained data showed the prevalence of Methanomicrobiales and significantly positive correlation between Methanosarcina and Methanosaetae and the biogas production rate (0.744 p < 0.01 and 0.641 p < 0.05). Methanosarcina detected levels are different during the process after the two pre-treatment of the input materials (T-test p < 0.05). Moreover, a role as diagnostic tool could be suggested in digestion optimisation. PMID:21982396

  11. System evaluation and microbial analysis of a sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process for Co-treatment of simple wet flue gas desulfurization wastes with freshwater sewage.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Liu, Rulong; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process, namely the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process (SANI(®) process) has been recently developed for organics and nitrogen removal with 90% sludge minimization and 35% energy reduction in the biological treatment of saline sewage from seawater toilet flushing practice in Hong Kong. In this study, sulfate- and sulfite-rich wastes from simple wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) were considered as a potential low-cost sulfur source to achieve beneficial co-treatment with non-saline (freshwater) sewage in continental areas, through a Mixed Denitrification (MD)-SANI process trialed with synthetic mixture of simple WFGD wastes and freshwater sewage. The system showed 80% COD removal efficiency (specific COD removal rate of 0.26 kg COD/kg VSS/d) at an optimal pH of 7.5 and complete denitrification through MD (specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.33 kg N/kg VSS/d). Among the electron donors in MD, organics and thiosulfate could induce a much higher denitrifying activity than sulfide in terms of both NO3(-) reduction and NO2(-) reduction, suggesting a much higher nitrogen removal rate in organics-, thiosulfate- and sulfide-based MD in MD-SANI compared to sulfide alone-based autotrophic denitrification in conventional SANI(®). Diverse sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera dominated in the bacterial community of sulfate/sulfite-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) sludge without methane producing bacteria detected. Desulfomicrobium-like species possibly for sulfite reduction and Desulfobulbus-like species possibly for sulfate reduction are the two dominant groups with respective abundance of 24.03 and 14.91% in the SRB genera. Diverse denitrifying genera were identified in the bacterial community of anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) sludge and the Thauera- and Thiobacillus-like species were the major taxa. These results well explained the successful operation of the lab-scale MD-SANI process. PMID:26001823

  12. Adsorption of 2,4-D and carbofuran pesticides using fertilizer and steel industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod K; Ali, Imran; Suhas; Saini, Vipin K

    2006-07-15

    The removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and carbofuran from aqueous solution was studied by using fertilizer industry waste (carbon slurry) and steel industry wastes (blast furnace slag, dust, and sludge) as adsorbents in batch. Adsorption was found to be in decreasing order: carbon slurry, blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag, respectively. Carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry exhibited the uptake capacity of 212 and 208 mg g(-1) for 2,4-D and carbofuran, respectively at 25 degrees C and pH 7.5. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics were investigated as a function of initial pH, temperature, and pesticide concentrations. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir equilibrium model in the studied concentration range of 2,4-D and carbofuran at all the temperatures studied. Two simplified models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, were used to test the adsorption kinetics. Adsorption of 2,4-D and carbofuran on carbon slurry at 25, 35, and 45 degrees C could be best fitted in the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Pore diffusion was confirmed as the essential rate-controlling step with the help of Bangham's equation. PMID:16527294

  13. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of a dilute biosolid industrial waste product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental measurements were made of upwelled spectral signatures of various concentrations of industrial waste products mixed with water in a large water tank. Radiance and reflectance spectra for a biosolid waste product (sludge) mixed with conditioned tap water and natural river water are reported. Results of these experiments indicate that reflectance increases with increasing concentration of the sludge at practically all wavelengths for concentration of total suspended solids up to 117 ppm in conditioned tap water and 171 ppm in natural river water. Significant variations in the spectra were observed and may be useful in defining spectral characteristics for this waste product. No significant spectral differences were apparent in the reflectance spectra of the two experiments, especially for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance values, however, were generally greater in natural river water for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance may be considered to increase linearly with concentration of total suspended solids from 5 to 171 ppm at all wavelengths without introducing errors larger than 10 percent.

  14. Heavy equipment maintenance wastes and environmental management in the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2002-10-01

    Maintenance wastes, if not managed properly, represent significant environmental issues for mining operations. Petroleum hydrocarbon liquid wastes were studied at an Australian site and a review of the literature and technology vendors was carried out to identify oil/water separation technologies. Treatment technologies and practices for managing oily wastewater, used across the broader mining industry in the Asia-Pacific region, were also identified. Key findings from the study were: (1) primary treatment is required to remove grease oil contamination and to protect secondary oily wastewater treatment systems from being overloaded; (2) selection of an effective secondary treatment system is dependent on influent oil droplet size and concentration, suspended solids concentration, flow rates (and their variability), environmental conditions, maintenance schedules and effectiveness, treatment targets and costs; and (3) oily wastewater treatment systems, based on mechanical separation, are favoured over those that are chemically based, as they simplify operational requirements. Source reduction, through housekeeping, equipment and reagent modifications, and segregation and/or consolidation of hydrocarbon waste streams, minimizes treatment costs, safety and environmental impact. PMID:12418163

  15. Establishing and Implementing a Waste Minimization Program in the Chemical and Oil Industries

    E-print Network

    Hollod, G. J.; Marton, R. J.

    chemicals and chemical processes, and are the best equipped to manage and reduce waste. It is the responsibility of all companies that manufacture a product or generate a waste to understand the meaning of proper waste management hierarchy, waste...

  16. The Importance of Building and Enhancing Worldwide Industry Cooperation in the Areas of Radiological Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Pierre, S. [World Nuclear Association (WNA), 22a St. James's Square, London SWIY 4JH (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of vital importance. This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry ' s involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG. (authors)

  17. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  18. Techno-economic feasibility of high-temperature high-lift chemical heat pumps for upgrading industrial waste heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Spoelstra; W. G. Haije; J. W. Dijkstra

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a techno-economic feasibility study on two high-temperature high-lift chemical heat pumps for upgrading industrial waste heat. The study was set up in order to select the most promising heat pump concept for further development. First, a market study is performed to assess the amount of waste heat and the temperature dependence thereof. Based on

  19. Case-Control Assessment of the Short-Term Health Effects of an Industrial Toxic Waste Landfill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Deloraine; D. Zmirou; C. Tillier; A. Boucharlat; H. Bouti

    1995-01-01

    An industrial waste landfill located within a residential area received 400,000 tons of toxic wastes between 1980 and mid 1988, in Montchanin, France. Triggered by odor nuisances caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), an intense local community concern led to the decision to close the site. A physicians? practice-based case-control study was conducted in order to evaluate the

  20. Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Renu; Kapoor, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4 (0.1), (NH4)2SO4 (0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4 (0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio. PMID:24031986

  1. CID-based ICP-AES instrumentation for continuous on-line analysis of aqueous industrial waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Federici, C.; Doorn, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Villanueva, D.; Arrington, T. [Furman Univ., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A CID detection based ICP-AES instrument has been incorporated into an on-line continuous process monitoring system for analysis of aqueous industrial waste streams. Total wavelength coverage afforded by the CID detection allows increased confidence in the analytical results through use of multiple wavelengths for analysis of each element. Total wavelength coverage also allows quick detection of interferences present in the varying waste stream that may cause false positives. Several internal standards have been evaluated to correct for expected variations in the waste stream matrix, and results have been incorporated in the analytical method. The system has been tested on a surrogate waste stream and results are compared to those obtained through conventional ICP-AES analysis of waste stream grab samples.

  2. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications. PMID:24424298

  3. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    DOEpatents

    Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  4. Comprehensive Planning for Classification and Disposal of Solid Waste at the Industrial Parks regarding Health and Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it. PMID:24688552

  5. Iron Cycling in Low pH Environments - Potential Application for the Recovery of Precious Metals from Industrial Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehe, E. M.; Helle, T.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    The use of many different precious metals (gold, platinum…) and Rare Earth Elements (lanthanum, neodymium…) in the production of electronic products is drastically increasing. To meet this demand, not only mining activities but recently also the recovery of these elements from industrial waste is in the focus of research. It has been shown that the application of extracting solutions with pH values lower than 4 lead to an economically feasible recovery of industrially precious metals. This abiotic extraction efficiency can potentially be increased by using microorganisms capable of dissolving more stable minerals at low pH. In collaboration with industry, a waste incineration plant, and governmental authorities, we investigate the extraction and recovery of strategically important metals and Rare Earth Elements from industrial waste. We optimize the (bio)-geochemical conditions for the extraction of these elements. To this end, a variety of microorganisms are evaluated for efficient metal extraction. We focus on known laboratory cultures capable of oxidizing and reducing Fe minerals and S compounds. Additionally, unknown microbial communities able to increase the efficiency of precious metal extraction from the industrial waste are enriched from environments with comparable geochemical conditions found in the extraction solutions.

  6. Waste minimization for equipment cleaning in the coated and laminated substrate manufacturing industry. Report for November 1992-November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kosusko, M.; McMinn, B.W.; Vitas, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) efforts to identify and demonstrate waste minimization opportunities for equipment cleaning in the coated and laminated substrate manufacturing industry. The presented information includes the pollution prevention opportunities identified and a brief summary of data collected during industry observation and demonstration visits. Demonstrations took place at a small batch facility and a small dedicated line facility.

  7. OpenWetWare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OpenWetWare is a research oriented site that promotes the â??sharing of information, know-how, and wisdom among researchers and groups who are working in biology and biological engineering.â? The site contains help forums, course information, protocols, links to career resources, strains/vectors information and safety info. These resources are contributed by scientists all over the world â??ranging from Boston University to U.C. Berkeleyâ? to foreign institutions such as Imperial College and the Indian Institute of Sciences. OpenWetWare is attempting to do for biotechnology information what the open source movement has done for the software industry. This site is particularly useful for biological engineers and biological manufacturers.

  8. Burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces--EPA. Final rule: corrections; technical amendments.

    PubMed

    1991-07-17

    On February 21, 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final rule to regulate air emissions from the burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces (56 FR 7134). Today's notice corrects typographical and editorial errors that appeared in the regulatory text, including corrections to appendices II and III, and adds two appendices, appendix IX and appendix X, to part 266. Appendices IX and X were not ready at the time of publication; therefore, a note was placed in the appropriate location in the rule to inform readers that these appendices were to be published at a later date. Copies of these appendices were, however, made available to the public through the RCRA Docket maintained at EPA and through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). PMID:10112734

  9. Research on heavy metals in Ruditapes philippinarum and soda industry wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaobin; Xu, Weihai; Wang, Xinting; Huang, Xinping; Deng, Liping; Kang, Xinglun; Jiang, Zhigang; Ma, Xuli

    2005-03-01

    Heavy metals pollution in Jiaozhou Bay was studied in Ruditapes. philippinarum, a bioindicator of seawater pollution. Heavy metals in soda industry wastes “white mud” were also studied. Comparison of microwave digestion method with general digestion method revealed that microwave digestion is superior to general digestion in precision, recovery, digestion speed and efficiency, etc. Cd concentration in Hongdao R. philippinarum samples exceeded the national standard by 0.046 mg/kg, that of Yinghai sample by 0.02 mg/kg, and that of Hongshiya sample by 0.22 mg/kg. Sample Pb concentration in Hongshiya was found to exceed the national standard by 0.02 mg/kg. However the heavy metals concentration in R. philippinarum near the Qingdao Alkaline Factory was complied with the standard. This was proved by Penaeus chinensis culture experiment. Therefore, the possible contamination source may come from other land areas.

  10. Chloride extraction for quality improvement of municipal solid waste incinerator ash for the concrete industry.

    PubMed

    Boghetich, Giancarlo; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Palma, Maria; Petruzzelli, Domenico

    2005-02-01

    Coal ash from power stations has long been used successfully in the cement industry as binders in several Portland formulations. This is not the case for municipal solid waste (MSW) ash as chloride concentrations, ranging from 10 to 200 g kg(-1) dry weight in the bottom and fly ash, respectively, exceed the maximum allowable concentration in most cement mixtures. To reduce chloride content in MSW bottom ash, a laboratory investigation was carried out based on the exhaustive washing in tap water. The influence of operative parameters such as temperature, granulometric properties and solid/liquid ratio of extraction was evaluated. In addition to optimization of the mentioned operative parameters for full-scale application, the paper gives preliminary indications on mechanistic aspects of the washing operation. PMID:15751396

  11. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J. [University of Laval, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  12. Removal of lead from wastewater using bagasse fly ash -- a sugar industry waste material

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V.K.; Mohan, D.; Sharma, S. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-06-01

    Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent and has been used for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions in the 4.80 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 4.83 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M concentration range. Maximum removal takes place at pH 3.0 using 10 g/L of the adsorbent of particle size 150--200 mesh. The effect of the presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time has also been studied. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The adsorbent has been satisfactorily used for the removal of Pb{sup 2+} from the effluent of a metal-finishing plant.

  13. WORKSHOP ON IN-PLANT WASTE REDUCTION IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY, HELD AT UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON, DECEMBER 13-14, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented are the proceedings of a workshop on in-plant waste reduction in the meat industry. Forty-five participants from industry, government, and private firms exchanged ideas and experiences on waste reduction during the two-day session. Topics covered were: pens, blood conse...

  14. Substance-specific detection and pursuit of non-eliminable compounds during biological treatment of waste water from the pharmaceutical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fr Schröder

    1999-01-01

    Up to now comprehensive examination and assessment of the elimination behaviour of many different pollutants in biological waste water treatment failed above all because of limited possibilities to pursue polar organic compounds of anthropogenic and biogenic origin. In this case the behaviour of waste water constituents during the treatment of waste water from the pharmaceutical industry was studied with the

  15. Cuantificación de fitoesteroles en residuos industriales derivados de la molienda húmeda de maízQuantification of phytosterols in byproducts of the corn wet milling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hernández-Soto; G. Sandoval-Fabian; M. Estarrón-Espinoza; A. Cardador-Martínez

    2011-01-01

    In the corn wet milling process, great amounts of many low-valued corn wastes are generated and destined for livestock feed. These residues may contain significant amounts of phytosterols, and they have different properties like antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and hypocholesterolemic effects. Using chloroform as solvent, the phytosterols from several industrial wastes of corn were extracted and quantified. The results indicated that

  16. Polyphenolic content and in vitro antioxidant characteristics of wine industry and other agri-food solid waste extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitris P. Makris; George Boskou; Nikolaos K. Andrikopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Solid by-products from white and red wine industry were subjected to evaluation as potential sources of antioxidant phytochemicals on the basis of their content in phenolics and in vitro antioxidant activity. Furthermore, several other common plant solid wastes, including apple, potato and onion peels, as well as carob pods and olive tree leaves were also considered, in order to carry

  17. Activated carbon: Utilization in sewage and industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of activated carbon in treating sewage and industrial wastes. The citations include engineering studies, site evaluations, and regeneration techniques. References to air pollution are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Exploring the continental shelf for low geological risk nuclear waste repository sites using petroleum industry databases: a UK case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Site selection for deep disposal of intermediate and high level radioactive waste in the UK to date has not taken full advantage of oil industry databases that cover offshore areas. The shallow water area of the UK continental shelf is twice that of the onshore area and due to variations in regional geology, many geological settings occur that are not

  19. Effect of industrial wastes of the oil palm on growth and reproduction phases of earthworm, Eisenia Andre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Hernández; C. Contreras; R. Palma; A. Faria; S. Pietrosemoli

    Eleven mixtures of oil palms industrial wastes were prepared: peels (C) and fiber (F), with cattle manure (EB) in proportions of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%. 100% EB was used as a control. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of these substrates on the growth and the reproduction of the earthworm. Ten earthworms were

  20. EVALUATION OF THE RCRA (RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT) EXTRACTION PROCEDURE - LYSIMETER STUDIES WITH MUNICIPAL/INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was initiated to determine the accuracy with which the Extraction Procedures (EP), employed in the regulations promulgated under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (40 CFR 26.124), simulates the leaching an industrial waste would undergo when codis...

  1. Cultivation of filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in agro-industrial wastes and wastewaters: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgos Markou; Dimitris Georgakakis

    2011-01-01

    Recently research interest has focused on the production of biofuel from microalgae. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that grow utilizing solar energy, nevertheless, the quantities of fertilizers that should be used for their production are enormous. One alternative to the use of synthetic fertilizers is to employ wastes and wastewaters (W&WWs), especially from the agro-industrial sector which are rich in inorganic

  2. Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Performance test results of an absorption heat pump which is designed to utilize low-temperature (60°C (140°F)) industrial waste heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huntley

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design of an absorption heat pump for upgrading industrial waste heat was developed and successfully tested. The basic lithium bromide-water closed cycle of the heat pump boosts the waste heat temperature up to process steam temperatures, thereby making it useful for industrial applications. The heat pump is designed to operate with waste heat temperatures ranging from 60°C (140°F)

  4. Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766?571?metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, ‘filter’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘butts’). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959–2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. Results The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20?years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Conclusions Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste. PMID:21504919

  5. FT-IR characterization of articulated ceramic bricks with wastes from ceramic industries.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, G; Viruthagiri, G

    2014-05-21

    The 30 ceramic test samples with the kaolinitic clay and ceramic rejects (in the as-received state and sintered at temperatures 900-1200°C) were investigated through spectral studies in order to elucidate the possibility of recycling the wastes from the government ceramic industry of Vriddhachalam, Tamilnadu state, South India. A detailed attribution of all the spectroscopic frequencies in the spectra recorded in the 4000-400cm(-1) region was attempted and their assignment to different minerals was accomplished. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to demonstrate the reliability of IR attributions. The indication of well-ordered kaolinite is by the band at 1115cm(-1) in the raw samples which tends to shift towards 1095cm(-1) in all the fired samples. The peaks at 563cm(-1) and 795cm(-1) can be assigned to anorthite and dickite respectively. The presence of quartz and anorthite is confirmed both by XRD and FTIR. The microstructural observations were done through the SEM images which visualized the vitrification of the fired bricks at higher temperatures. The refractory properties of the samples found through the XRF analysis are also appreciable. The present work suggests that the incorporation of the rejects into the clay mixture will be a valid route for the ceramic industries to reduce the costs of the ceramic process. PMID:24594884

  6. FT-IR characterization of articulated ceramic bricks with wastes from ceramic industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, G.; Viruthagiri, G.

    The 30 ceramic test samples with the kaolinitic clay and ceramic rejects (in the as-received state and sintered at temperatures 900-1200 °C) were investigated through spectral studies in order to elucidate the possibility of recycling the wastes from the government ceramic industry of Vriddhachalam, Tamilnadu state, South India. A detailed attribution of all the spectroscopic frequencies in the spectra recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 region was attempted and their assignment to different minerals was accomplished. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to demonstrate the reliability of IR attributions. The indication of well-ordered kaolinite is by the band at 1115 cm-1 in the raw samples which tends to shift towards 1095 cm-1 in all the fired samples. The peaks at 563 cm-1 and 795 cm-1 can be assigned to anorthite and dickite respectively. The presence of quartz and anorthite is confirmed both by XRD and FTIR. The microstructural observations were done through the SEM images which visualized the vitrification of the fired bricks at higher temperatures. The refractory properties of the samples found through the XRF analysis are also appreciable. The present work suggests that the incorporation of the rejects into the clay mixture will be a valid route for the ceramic industries to reduce the costs of the ceramic process.

  7. Building glass made from wastes from ferrosilicon production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Klyuchnik; R. S. Zolotareva; V. G. Gomozova; S. V. Tkachenko; T. A. Sheikina; L. F. Klochko

    1987-01-01

    The production of ferrosilicon is accompanied by the formation of considerable amounts of dusts and sludges resulting, respectively, from the dry and wet scrubbing of gaseous wastes from the production process. In this paper the authors seek to establish the scope for utilizing these dusts and sludges as base materials for the production of industrial-grade glass. The glass formation ranges

  8. Wet Scrubbing Experience for Steel Mill Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Steiner; R. J. Thompson

    1977-01-01

    Wet scrubbing experiences at a variety of steel mill applications including sinter plant, blast furnace, open hearth, and industrial boiler installations are discussed. A number of case studies are examined. For each, the process, emission characteristics, and wet scrubber system design are described. Actual performance is compared with design values, and particular emphasis is placed on water chemistry control and

  9. Energy and materials savings from gases and solid waste recovery in the iron and steel industry in Brazil: An industrial ecology approach

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-07-01

    This paper attempts to investigate, from an entropic point of view, the role of selected technologies in the production, transformation, consumption and release of energy and materials in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. In a quantitative analysis, the potential for energy and materials savings with recovery of heat, gases and tar are evaluated for the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. The technologies for heat recovery of gases include Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ), applied only in one of the five Brazilian coke integrated steel plants, Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbines (TPRT), recovery of Coke Oven Gas (COG), recovery of Blast Furnace Gas (BFG), recovery of BOF gas, recovery of tar, and thermal plant. Results indicate that, in a technical scenario, some 5.1 TWh of electricity can be generated if these technologies are applied to recover these remaining secondary fuels in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil, which is equivalent to some 45% of current total electricity consumption in the integrated plants in the country. Finally, solid waste control technologies, including options available for collection and treatment, are discussed. Estimates using the best practice methodology show that solid waste generation in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil reached approximately 18 million metric tons in 1994, of which 28% can be recirculated if the best practice available in the country is applied thoroughly.

  10. Waste audit study of commercial and industrial mechanical equipment repair shops

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    This waste audit study investigated hazardous waste reduction methods for mechanical equipment repair shops in California classified as SIC Code 7699. The voluntary audit studies, including 35 telephone audits and 12 site audits, focused on repair shops` processes and operations, wastes generated, the treatment and disposal methods used, and potential waste minimization techniques. The study identified spent solvents, used oil, contaminated rags and sump waste as the main waste type generated by the repair shops. Waste minimization through source reduction can be achieved by good housekeeping, chemical substitution, and mechanical paint removal. Recovery of scrap metal and recycling of oil are also practiced. Illegal practices used by shops to manage waste, waste management costs, and state regulatory issues were also discussed.

  11. Waste biomass adsorbents for copper removal from industrial wastewater--a review.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Shah, Jehanzeb Ali; Ashfaq, Tayyab; Gardazi, Syed Mubashar Hussain; Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Pervez, Arshid; Haroon, Hajira; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2013-12-15

    Copper (Cu(2+)) containing wastewaters are extensively released from different industries and its excessive entry into food chains results in serious health impairments, carcinogenicity and mutagenesis in various living systems. An array of technologies is in use to remediate Cu(2+) from wastewaters. Adsorption is the most attractive option due to the availability of cost effective, sustainable and eco-friendly bioadsorbents. The current review is dedicated to presenting state of the art knowledge on various bioadsorbents and physico-chemical conditions used to remediate Cu(2+) from waste streams. The advantages and constraints of various adsorbents were also discussed. The literature revealed the maximum Cu adsorption capacities of various bioadsorbents in the order of algae>agricultural and forest>fungal>bacterial>activated carbon>yeast. However, based on the average Cu adsorption capacity, the arrangement can be: activated carbon>algal>bacterial>agriculture and forest-derived>fungal>yeast biomass. The data of Cu removal using these bioadsorbents were found best fit both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Agriculture and forest derived bioadsorbents have greater potential for Cu removal because of higher uptake, cheaper nature, bulk availability and mono to multilayer adsorption behavior. Higher costs at the biomass transformation stage and decreasing efficiency with desorption cycles are the major constraints to implement this technology. PMID:23972667

  12. Carotene production from agro-industrial wastes by Arthrobacter globiformis in shake-flask culture.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-Gui; Han, Mei; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Qian, He

    2014-01-01

    Industrial waste substrates, sugarcane molasses, and corn steep liquor were used for production of carotenes by Arthrobacter globiformis in this study. At the first stage, a one-factor-at-a-time approach was used for optimization of different media components such as carbon, nitrogen, MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, and KH(2)PO(4), as well as pH, temperature, liquid medium volume, and inoculums level. The response surface method was further applied to determination of optimum values of process variables for maximum carotenes concentration. Results showed that the optimum combination for carotenes formation was as follows (g/L): sugarcane molasses, 40.00; corn steep liquor, 50.00; MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, 0.75; KH(2)PO(4), 1.00. The maximum carotene concentration of 1.19 ± 0.02 mg/g dry biomass, about 113% of 1.05 ± 0.02 mg/g dry biomass growing in basal medium, was demonstrated by confirmatory experiments to be the optimum in liquid medium at 100 rpm, 30°C, initial pH of 7.5, and cultivation for 60 hr. In a second stage, detailed studies showed about 1.64-fold and 1.43-fold increase in carotene concentration (mg/g dry biomass) in the presence of addition of ethanol (4%, v/v) and addition of hydrogen peroxide (4%, v/v) at 40 hr, and 32 hr in liquid medium, separately. PMID:24320236

  13. Evaluating industrial toxic waste reduction: Using publicly reported data to assess changes in metal finishing and circuit board printing, California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, L.D.; Masek, B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    1997-12-31

    Waste reduction actions reported by facilities of two industrial sectors in one geographic region are evaluated using hazardous waste generator reports filed under the Biennial Reporting System (BRS) for activities in 1991 and 1993. The goal is to attempt to identify changes in industrial toxic waste generation attributable to pollution prevention activities. Aggregate statistics for industrial hazardous wastes show cumulative reduction in volume and weight of waste regulated under the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and analogous state-level rules. However, it is not clear to what extent the mass of toxic materials in waste streams is reduced, or to what degree waste reduction is produced by source reduction and pollution prevention rather than shifting some pollutants to other discharge routes not subject to RCRA. Quantitative estimates of reduction in mass of toxic materials are not supported by currently available publicly reported information. This paper instead evaluates the kinds of waste reduction reported by industrial facilities, assesses the degree to which pollution prevention is widely practiced, and identifies types of source reduction or other waste management measures most widely implemented. BRS reports by samples of facilities of the metal plating industry and the printed circuit board industry, drawn from the San Francisco Bay Area, California, show a large number of facilities reporting implementing waste reduction measures, with one or more actions implemented by about 45% to 65% of metal plating facilities and about 55% of circuit board printing facilities. The most widely-implemented measures were within the Housekeeping/Maintenance category, suggesting that all simple, low-cost potential measures had not been exhausted as recently as 1993. The Materials Substitution category was important in the circuit board printing industry, implemented by 37% of sample facilities in 1993.

  14. Hazardous waste reduction checklist and assessment manual for the metal finishing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, D.Q.

    1995-08-01

    This publication is a checklist and assessment manual to assist metal finishing shops in evaluating waste reduction opportunities. The first section of the report provides a checklist along with tables to summarize the potential of waste reduction options. Section 2 provides the methods for evaluating the implementations potential of the options and Section 3 contains an economics worksheet for estimating costs, savings and payback periods. A waste reduction opportunities table is contained in the Appendix to prioritize waste reduction options.

  15. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

    2015-04-20

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC. PMID:25662694

  19. How to Put the Dollar Value on Waste Heat Recovery in the Process Industry 

    E-print Network

    Campagne, W. V. L.

    1982-01-01

    Waste heat recovery projects should be evaluated on their actual fuel savings and not on Btu recovery. By equating waste heat recovery with potential steam savings, the fuel (or dollar) values of the waste heat as function of its temperature can...

  20. Solar and geothermal Rankine cycle engines can convert petroleum industry waste heat into electrical power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Barber

    1980-01-01

    Development work presently being carried on for solar and geothermal applications is applicable to utilize the waste heat from petroleum processes in the less than 700 F range. Much waste heat is presently being recovered by process modifications. This paper shows the efficiency expected and the estimated equipment cost of Rankine engines as a function of waste heat temperature and

  1. An overview for the utilization of wastes from stainless steel industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Huaiwei; Hong Xin

    2011-01-01

    Significant quantities of wastes are generated as the waste materials or byproducts every day from stainless steel processes. According to the origins and characteristics, the stainless steel wastes can be mainly classified into two categories, slags and dusts. They usually contained considerable quantities of valuable metals and materials. This paper summarized and analyzed the generation, composition, characteristics and the leaching

  2. Prevention of water pollution by waste waters of the petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Gyunter; I. F. Shatalaev

    1987-01-01

    The authors examine the problems of reception of waste waters of petrochemistry for biological treatment, improvement and introduction of new methods of toxicological control permitting active intervention, and management of the process of arrival of waste waters for biological treatment. In the investigations, they used activated sludge of the first stage of biological treatment of waste waters of a petrochemical

  3. Utilization of industrial waste products as pozzolanic material in cemented paste backfill of high sulphide mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

    2009-09-15

    In this study, the potential use of the industrial waste products including waste glass (WG), fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and silica fume (SF) as pozzolanic additive for the partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in cemented paste backfill (CPB) of sulphide-rich mill tailings was investigated. The influence of these industrial waste products on the short- and long-term mechanical performance of CPB was demonstrated. The rate of development of strength of CPB samples tended to slow down when the pozzolanic wastes were incorporated or increased in dosage in the binder phase. Severe losses (by 26%) in the strength of CPB samples produced from exclusively OPC occurred after an initial curing period of 56 days. The addition of WG (10-30 wt%) as a partial replacement of OPC was observed to aggravate further the strength losses of CPB samples. GBFS, FA and SF appeared to improve the long-term performance of CPB samples; albeit, only GBFS and SF could be incorporated into the binder phase only at certain levels i.e. up to 20 wt% GBFS and 15wt% SF in order to maintain a threshold strength level of 0.7MPa over 360 days. SEM studies have provided further insight into the microstucture of CPB and confirmed the formation of deleterious gypsum as the expansive phase. These findings have demonstrated that the industrial waste products including GBFS and SF can be suitably used as mineral additives to improve the long-term mechanical performance of CPB produced from sulphide-rich tailings as well as to reduce the binder costs in a CPB plant. PMID:19299080

  4. Recovery of high surface area mesoporous silica from waste hexafluorosilicic acid (H 2SiF 6) of fertilizer industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradip B. Sarawade; Jong-Kil Kim; Askwar Hilonga; Hee Taik Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article we report recovery of mesoporous silica from the waste material (hexafluorosilicic acid) of phosphate fertilizer industry. The process involves the reaction of hexafluorosilicic acid (50ml, 24wt% H2SiF6) and 100ml, 0.297M Na2CO3 to generate the alkaline aqueous slurry. Silica was separated from the slurry by filtration and the sodium fluoride was extracted from the aqueous solution by evaporation

  5. Treatment of low-contaminated waste water from the food industry to produce water of drinking quality for reuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Mavrov; A. Fähnrich; H. Chmiel

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of low-contaminated waste water from the meat processing industry was studied with the objective of producing water of drinking quality for reuse. A demonstration plant with a capacity of up to 2 m3\\/h was built based on our experiments to compare different treatment processes for the removal of suspended particles, dissolved inorganics, undissolved and dissolved organics and micro-organisms

  6. Wet gas metering with a horizontally mounted Venturi meter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Steven

    2002-01-01

    Wet gas metering is becoming an increasingly important problem to the Oil and Gas Industry. The Venturi meter is a favoured device for the metering of the unprocessed wet natural gas production flows. Wet gas is defined here as a two-phase flow with up to 50% of the mass flowing being in the liquid phase. Metering the gas flowrate in

  7. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  8. Microwave waste processing technology overview

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    Applications using microwave energy in the chemical processing industry have increased within the last ten years. Recently, interest in waste treatment applications process development, especially solidification, has grown. Microwave waste processing offers many advantages over conventional waste treatment technologies. These advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form, volume and toxicity reduction, favorable economics, in-container treatment, good public acceptance, isolated equipment, and instantaneous energy control. The results from the {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} demonstration scale testing at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility are described. Preliminary results for a transuranic (TRU) precipitation sludge indicate that volume reductions of over 80% are achievable over the current immobilization process. An economic evaluation performed demonstrated cost savings of $11.68 per pound compared to the immobilization process currently in use on wet sludge.

  9. Functional and environmental assessment of the urboecosystems designed in the biologically reclamated landfill with industrial wastes (in Ryazan city)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyakin, Alexey; Vasenev, Ivan; Karyakina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Regional environmental bodies' ability to understand, model and predict their soil cover environmental functions are especially important in case of landfill reclamation. The special attention has to be done to landfills with industrial wastes created earlier in frame of big city - comparatively closed to their residential areas. Dominated in Ryazan region sandy loam gray forest soils with not so high soil organic matter content and soil exchange capacity determine additional problems with landfill biological reclamation and continuous sustainable vegetation cover development. The modern environmental monitoring system has been developed in the big landfill with tanning industrial wastes from the biggest in Europe tannery to develop recommendation on the environmentally friendly reclamation technologies adapted to concrete landscape conditions and functional features of 2 m fresh soil-ground coating the landfill surface. More detailed monitoring system has to be developed to assess the regulatory environmental functions of the regenerated soil cover to minimize the reclamated landfill' negative impacts on the urban ecosystem air, surface and ground water quality. Obtained result will be useful for similar landfills with tanning industrial wastes environmental impact assessment and smart design.

  10. Determination of Thermal-Degradation Rates of Some Candidate Rankine-Cycle Organic Working Fluids for Conversion of Industrial Waste Heat Into Power

    E-print Network

    Jain, M. L.; Demirgian, J.; Krazinski, J. L.; Bushby, H.; Mattes, H.; Purcell, J.

    1984-01-01

    (ORCPSs) for conversion of industrial waste heat into power. Prototype systems built using thermal stability information derived from static capsule tests have often operated less than satisfactorily. This investigation is an attempt by the U.S. Department...

  11. Physiologo-biochemical characteristics of citrate-producing yeast Yarrowia lipolytica grown on glycerol-containing waste of biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V

    2015-08-01

    In this study, physiologo-biochemical characteristics of citrate-producing yeast Yarrowia lipolytica grown on glycerol-containing waste of biodiesel industry were studied by an investigation of growth dynamics, the consumption of glycerol, and the fatty acid fractions from waste as well as by measuring the activities of enzymes involved in the metabolism of waste. It was shown that Y. lipolytica realizes concurrent uptake of glycerol and the fatty acid fractions during conversion of glycerol-containing waste, although glycerol was utilized at a higher rate than fatty acids. Under optimal feeding of glycerol-containing waste by portions of 20 g l(-1), the citric acid production and the ratio between citric acid and isocitric acid depended on the strain used. It was revealed that wild strain Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 produced citrate and isocitrate with a ratio of 1.7:1, while the mutant strain Y. lipolytica NG40/UV7 synthesized presumably citric acid (122.2 g l(-1)) with a citrate-to-isocitrate ratio of 53:1 and the yield of 0.95 g g(-1). PMID:25846335

  12. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  13. Waste treatment: Beverage industry. January 1972-December 1983 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1972-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of effluents from beverage-industry processes. Particular emphasis is on brewery and winery effluent treatment. Characteristics of the waste products and pre-treatment and treatment methods are discussed. Regulations governing waste disposal are also considered along with the economics of waste disposal. Both alcoholic and soft drink beverages are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 312 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Waste treatment: Beverage industry. January 1984-October 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1984-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of effluents from beverage-industry processes. Particular emphasis is on brewery and winery effluent treatment. Characteristics of the waste products and pre-treatment and treatment methods are discussed. Regulations governing waste disposal are also considered along with the economics of waste disposal. Both alcoholic and soft drink beverages are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 223 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. Sewage and industrial waste treatment: Wetlands. January 1977-December 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning developments, operations, and evaluations of natural and artificial wetlands treatment of waste water and sludge. Aquaculture treatments of industrial, municipal, and domestic waste water are examined. Topics include nutrient removal, heavy-metal recovery, and case studies of wetlands being used for waste water treatment. (This updated bibliography contains 135 citations, 23 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  16. Microbial solubilization of rock phosphate on media containing agro-industrial wastes and effect of the resulting products on plant growth and P uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Vassilev; A. Medina; R. Azcon; M. Vassileva

    2006-01-01

    Four agro-industrial wastes were assayed as substrates for microbial solubilization of rock phosphate (RP). Sugar beet wastes (SB), olive cake (OC) and olive mill wastewaters (OMWW) were treated by Aspergillus niger, and dry olive cake (DOC) was treated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In conditions of solid-state fermentation 46% of SB and 21% of OC were mineralized by A. niger while 16%

  17. Sewage and industrial waste treatment: wetlands. January 1977-July 1988 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning developments, operations, and evaluations of natural and artificial wetlands treatment of waste water and sludge. Aquaculture treatments of industrial, municipal, and domestic waste water are examined. Topics include nutrient removal, heavy-metal recovery, and case studies of wetlands being used for wastewater treatment. (Contains 93 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  18. Methane from fruit and vegetable wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    A pilot-scale digester of 25-cubic metres capacity was constructed at an Australian fruit and vegetable processing factory to extend trials with the anaerobic digestion process to an industrial use. The plant is operated on a day-to-day basis by the cannery staff. The digester has a design loading of 100 kg (dry weight)\\/day supplied as 0.5-1 ton of wet waste, and

  19. Study on the strategies of waste solvent minimization in automobile production industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.T.; Lin, K.L.; Wu, Y.P.; Lan, W.L.; Jeng, F.T. [National I-Lan Inst. of Agriculture and Technology (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    1998-12-31

    There are six automobile manufacturers who produce several kinds of vehicles in Taiwan. To meet the consumer`s needs, the automobile coating processes are necessary for the basic functions of anti-rust protection, weatherproofing and appearance. Some kinds of solvents are added as thinners and additives to avoid excessive viscosity of the coating materials and to increase facility productivity. The total consumption of volatile organic solvents is about 407,000 ton/year of which about 100,700 ton/year is used in surface coating. It is worthy of attention that solvents used in automobile industries account for 7,200 ton/year in major coating processes, including electrodeposition coating, primer coating, top coating, and bar coating, according to statistics of VOCs emission rate calculated from the data of consumption provided by each automobile plant. The amount of solvents used for washing spray gun and base coating are about 3,350 ton/year; and about 1,700 ton/year for primer coat and clear coat. The species of organic solvents include toluene, xylene, ethylacetate, n-butyl acetate, ketone, etc. VOCs emission factor from each plant lies between 500 to 650 g-VOCs/L coating. To reduce the amount of coating and waste liquor, the suggested methods include increasing gun spray efficiency, lengthening same colors painting period, reducing the solvent content in paint, and adding treatment equipment. The high solid content painting, waterborne coat, and powder coat should be used for traditional painting. Additionally, a carbon adsorption bed and zeolite rotator recovery system can replace scrubbers since they can be used as solvent recovery equipment.

  20. Diversified forest ecosystems can grow on industrial waste residues: evidence from a multiproxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortet, Jerome; Schwartz, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Nahmani, Johanne; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Sirguey, Catherine; Watteau, Francoise; Morel, Jean Louis

    2010-05-01

    Smelter activities in the Lorraine region (North-East France) have lead to the creation of flotation ponds that were used to eliminate wastes, mainly slag. After industrial decline, some of these flotation ponds were colonized by vegetation and evolved to forest ecosystems. One of these old flotation ponds, situated in Pompey, close to Nancy (North-East France), was studied by collecting information on several physico-chemical and biological indicators. The main objective was to understand the biological functioning of this system, whose soil can be classified as a pure Technosol, characterised by a very complex stratified profile created by successive slag deposits. Soil is characterized by its apparent heterogeneity, but also its high agronomic fertility and particularly high metal contents. Holorganic horizons can vary from one to several centimetres. Macrofauna is characterized by a very low abundance of earthworms and a dominance of millipedes. Furthermore, whereas earthworms do accumulate metals, this is not the case for millipedes. Mesofauna is typical of a temperate forest system, dominated by Collembola. Soil organo-mineral associations showed a high proportion of faecal pellets from Oribatid mites, Isopods and Diplopods. Furthermore, Mn, which is highly associated to metals (especially Zn and Pb) seems to play an important role in organo-mineral associations, including bacteria. An organic fraction is also directly associated to Calcium, Pb and Cu. Vegetation presents a high diversity, with more than 70 species, with very low metal transfer to plants. Results from soil respirometry are typical from temperate forest ecosystems. All this information has been combined to propose a model for the biochemical functioning of a such Technosol.

  1. Industrial symbiosis: High purity recovery of metals from Waelz sintering waste by aqueous SO 2 solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Çopur; Turgay Pekdemir; Sabri Çolak; Asim Künkül

    2007-01-01

    Sintering operation in the production of Zn, Cd, and Pb by Waelz process produces a powdery waste containing mainly (about 70%) ZnO, CdO, and PbO. The waste may be referred to as Waelz sintering waste (WSW). The aim of this study is to develop a process for the separation and recovery of the metals from WSW with high purities. The

  2. Thermal Energy Storage/Waste Heat Recovery Applications in the Cement Industry

    E-print Network

    Beshore, D. G.; Jaeger, F. A.; Gartner, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    --wet and dry--as illustrated in Figure 1. When rock is the principal raw material, the first step in both processes is primary crushing. Pieces of rock, approximately the size of an oil drum, are fed through crushers that reduce the rock to about 5-in. size...

  3. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

  4. INNOVATIVE DESTRUCTION OF COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL WASTES - AUTO OXIDATION OF TANNERY BEAMHOUSE WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a study of the effectiveness of an auto-oxidation technique for treating potentially toxic pollutants from a manufacturing source. The particular waste used for evaluation was a tannery unhairing effluent. Tannery unhairing waste was treated in a pilot plant...

  5. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 2. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 1-01-001-01 TO 1-02-007-03

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

  6. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 6. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-02-014-01 TO 3-04-002-03

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

  7. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 9. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-06-011-01 TO 3-90-005-33

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

  8. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 5. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-01-025-10 TO 3-02-013-01

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

  9. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 4. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 2-04-001-01 TO 3-01-025-05

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

  10. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 7. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-04-002-04 TO 3-05-010-03

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

  11. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 8. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-05-010-99 TO 3-06-010-01

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. industri...

  12. Governor`s award of excellence for outstanding achievement in waste management. Cape Industries, Wilmington, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    Cape Industries produces Dimethyl Terephthalate (DMT) and Terephthalic Acid (TA) which are used as raw materials in the production of polyester fibers and films. In this process para-cymene is used as a heat transfer fluid for the process equipment. As the para-cymene is circulated through the process and repeatedly reheated to operating temperatures, some thermal degradation of the cymene and minor contamination due to infiltration of the process material occurs. Prior to August 1988 this spent material was purged from the system and shipped off site for reclamation. The spent material was classified as a hazardous waste due to the characteristic of ignitability. In early 1988 existing equipment was retrofitted allowing for on site distillation of the spent para-cymene in a closed-loop system. Reclaimed para-cymene is returned to the system for reuse while the still bottoms are used as a feedstock in the production of DMT. No waste material is generated.

  13. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data for three phosphate industry waste-disposal sites in central Florida, 1979-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ronald L.; Sutcliffe, Horace, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a complilation of geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at thee AMAX Phosphate, Inc., chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS AgriChemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximmmtely 5,400 field and laboratory water-quality determinations on water samples were collected from about 78 test holes and 31 surface-water, rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste-disposal operations. Maps show locations of sampling sites. (USGS)

  14. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value. PMID:24617063

  15. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-11-13

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies.

  16. 1 INTRODUCTION Industry has become an essentialpart of modem society,and waste production is

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    , surface waters, groundwater resources, and the food chain. Such detrimental effects are inevitable Contamination Problems Aerospace Organic Chemicals Automobile Paints and Coatings Batteries (storage and primary. Pesticide and herbicide wastes Anion complexes containing cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, etc. Paint

  17. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE INCINERATION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes experiments performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator to investigate the emissions and operational behavior during the incineration of consumer electronics waste. These experiments were targeted at destroying the organic components of printed circuit ...

  18. Establishing and Implementing a Waste Minimization Program in the Chemical and Oil Industries 

    E-print Network

    Hollod, G. J.; Marton, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The incentives for establishing and the expertise for implementing successful waste minimization programs can be found in every company. The “in-house” expertise that discovers, designs, builds and manages manufacturing processes understand...

  19. Aerobic composting of tobacco industry solid waste—simulation of the process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felicita Briški; Nina Horgas; Marija Vukovi?; Zoran Gomzi

    2003-01-01

    Solid waste accumulated during the processing of tobacco for cigarette manufacture mostly contains tobacco particles and flavoring agents. Its main characteristics are a high content of nicotine (2,000 mg per kg of total solids), which is a toxic compound, and high value of total organic carbon of the aqueous extract (12,620.0 mg l -1). Because of this fact tobacco waste cannot be disposed

  20. Versatile peroxidase degradation of humic substances: use of isothermal titration calorimetry to assess kinetics, and applications to industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail; Ertan, Haluk; Charlton, Timothy; Poljak, Anne; Daud Khaled, A K; Yang, Xuexia; Marshall, Gavin; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-05-20

    The kinetic constants of a hybrid versatile-peroxidase (VP) which oxidizes complex polymeric humic substances (HS) derived from lignin (humic and fulvic acids) and industrial wastes were determined for the first time using isothermal titration calorimetry (iTC). The reaction conditions were manipulated to enable manganese-peroxidase (MnP) and/or lignin-peroxidase (LiP) activities to be evaluated. The peroxidase reactions exhibited varying degrees of product inhibition or activation; properties which have not previously been reported for VP enzymes. In contrast to previous work (Ertan et al., 2012) on small non-polymeric substrates (MnSO4, veratryl alcohol and dyes), all kinetic plots for polymeric HS were sigmoidal, lacked Michaelis-Menten characteristics, and were indicative of positive cooperativity. Under conditions when both LiP and MnP were active, the kinetic data fitted to a novel biphasic Hill Equation, and the rate of enzymatic reaction was significantly greater than the sum of individual LiP plus MnP activities implying synergistic activation. By employing size-exclusion chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, the characteristics of the oxidative degradation products of the HS were also monitored. Our study showed that the allosteric behaviour of the VP enzyme promotes a high level of regulation of activity during the breakdown of model and industrial ligninolytic substrates. The work was extended to examine the kinetics of breakdown of industrial wastes (effluent from a pulp and paper plant, and fouled membrane solids extracted from a ground water treatment membrane) revealing unique, VP-mediated, kinetic responses. This work demonstrates that iTC can be successfully employed to study the kinetic properties of VP enzymes in order to devise reaction conditions optimized for oxidative degradation of HS present in materials used in a wide range of industries. PMID:24631722

  1. Hydrodynamics of a Multistage Wet Scrubber Incineration Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, M. M.; Manyele, S. V.; Raphael, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the hydrodynamics of the two stage counter-current cascade wet scrubbers used during incineration of medical waste. The dependence of the hydrodynamics on two main variables was studied: Inlet air flow rate and inlet liquid flow rate. This study introduces a new wet scrubber operating features, which are…

  2. Silver Management for Wet Chemistry Photo Processing

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Silver Management for Wet Chemistry Photo Processing Procedure: 8.44 Created: 9/25/2013 Version: 1 silver recovery units in processing the wastewater effluent generated in the processing of films and use "scrap film" collection containers for capturing silver-containing solid waste. All dark rooms and image

  3. Removing antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake and their benevolent role in waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel: conjoining the valorization of two disparate industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Das, Subrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Dhanapati; Mandal, Manabendra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-11-13

    Valorization of oilseed processing wastes is thwarted due to the presence of several antinutritional factors such as phenolics, tannins, glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and phytates; moreover, literature reporting on their simultaneous extraction and subsequent practical application is scanty. Different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with water or an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of these antinutritive compounds from rapeseed press-cake. Acidified extraction mixtures (nonaqueous) were found to be superior to the nonacidified ones. The characteristic differences in the efficacy of these wide varieties of solvents were studied by principal component analysis, on the basis of which the mixture 0.2% perchloric acid in methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) was deemed as "the best" for detoxification of rapeseed meal. Despite its high reductive potential, hemolytic activity of the extract from this solvent mixture clearly indicated the toxicity of the above-mentioned compounds on mammalian erythrocytes. Because of the presence of a high amount of antinutritive antioxidants, the study was further extended to examine the influence of this solvent extract on the stability of waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Treatment with the extract harbored significant improvement (p < 0.05) in the induction periods and pronounced reduction in microbial load of stored biodiesel investigated herein. Thus, a suitable solvent system was devised for removing the major antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake, and the solvent extract can, thereafter, be used as an effective exogenous antioxidant for biodiesel. In other words, integrated valorization of two different industrial wastes was successfully achieved. PMID:24134775

  4. Supercritical water oxidation of dioxins and furans in waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and industrial soil.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Safari; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2014-08-01

    Three environmental samples containing dioxins and furans have been oxidized in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under supercritical water oxidation conditions. The samples consisted of a waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and contaminated industrial soil. The reactor system was a batch, autoclave reactor operated at temperatures between 350 degrees C and 450degrees C, corresponding to pressures of approximately 20-33.5 MPa and with hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.0 to 11.25 vol%. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and temperature/pressure had a strong positive effect on the oxidation of dioxins and furans. At the highest temperatures and pressure of supercritical water oxidation of 4500C and 33.5 MPa and with 11.25 vol% of hydrogen peroxide, the destruction efficiencies of the individual polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) isomers were between 90% and 99%. There did not appear to be any significant differences in the PCDD/PCDF destruction efficiencies in relation to the different sample matrices of the waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and contaminated industrial soil. PMID:24956775

  5. The mutagenic potential of soil and runoff water from land treatment of three hazardous industrial wastes 

    E-print Network

    Davol, Phebe

    1987-01-01

    . (August 1987) Phebe Davol, B. S. , Texas A & M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Kirk W. Brown In 1983, the Environmental Protection Agency estimated 150 million metric tons of hazardous waste are generated annually in the United States... potential, as measured with S. typhimurium TA98, 'th t (-S9), d 'th (~S9 t b 1'c activation, for the extracts of the runoff water collected from the storm-water runoff impoundment (SWRI) waste amended Bastrop soil. 39 The mean and standard deviation...

  6. Preparation and properties of glass-ceramic materials obtained by recycling goethite industrial waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. PELINO; C. CANTALINI; J. M A. RINCON

    1997-01-01

    The recycling of toxic goethite waste, originated in the hydrometallurgy of zinc ores, in glass-ceramic matrices has been\\u000a studied. Oxide compositions suitable to form glasses were prepared by mixing the goethite waste with granite scraps and glass\\u000a cullet, yielding the following oxide composition (wt%): SiO2, 44.6; Al2O3, 3.3; Fe2O3, 25.5; MgO, 1.6; CaO, 4.5; Na2O, 5.9; PbO, 3.1; ZnO, 6.5;

  7. Study of composition change and agglomeration of flue gas cleaning residue from a fluidized bed waste incinerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lievens; B. Verbinnen; P. Bollaert; N. Alderweireldt; G. Mertens; J. Elsen; C. Vandecasteele

    2011-01-01

    Blocking of the collection hoppers of the baghouse filters in a fluidized bed incinerator for co?incineration of high calorific industrial solid waste and sludge was observed. The composition of the flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR), both from a blocked hopper and from a normal hopper, was investigated by (differential) thermogravimetric analysis, quantitative X?ray powder diffraction and wet chemical analysis. The

  8. Characterization of industrial waste from a natural gas distribution company and management strategies: a case study of the East Azerbaijan Gas Company (Iran).

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Aslhashemi, Ahmad; Assadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Firoz; Mardangahi, Baharak; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Roshani, Babak

    2012-10-01

    Although a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate data, there are few available studies regarding the characterization and management of gas distribution company waste (GDCW). This study aimed to characterize the industrial waste generated by the East Azerbaijan Gas Distribution Company (EAGDC) and to present environmental management strategies. The EAGDC serves 57 cities and 821 villages with a total population of more than 2.5 million as well as numerous industrial units. The methodology of this study was based on a checklist of data collected from each zone of the company, site visits (observation), and quantity and quality analysis according to the formal data available from different zones. The results indicate that more than 35 different kinds of industrial solid waste are generated in different industrial installations. The most important types of generated waste include empty barrels (including mercaptans, diesel fuel, deionized waters and oil), faulty gas meters and regulators, a variety of industrial oils, sleeves, filter elements and faulty pipes, valves and fittings. The results indicated that, currently, GDCW is generally handled and disposed of with domestic waste, deposited in companies' installation yards and stores or, sometimes, recycled through non-scientific approaches that can create health risks to the public and the environment, even though most of the GDCW was determined to be recyclable or reusable materials. This study concludes that gas distribution companies must pay more attention to source reduction, recycling and reusing of waste to preserve natural resources, landfill space and the environment. PMID:22683949

  9. Performance test results of an absorption heat pump that uses low-temperature (60°C (140°F)) industrial waste heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huntley

    1983-01-01

    An absorption heat pump for upgrading industrial waste heat to process steam temperatures has been developed and successfully tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The heat pump is designed to operate with waste heat temperatures ranging from 60 to 90°C (140 to 194°F). Performance data from the 42-kW (12-ton) prototype heat pump have shown good agreement with theoretical predictions. Advantageously,

  10. Microbial solubilization of rock phosphate on media containing agro-industrial wastes and effect of the resulting products on plant growth and P uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Vassilev; A. Medina; R. Azcon; M. Vassileva

    Four agro-industrial wastes were assayed as substrates for microbial solubilization of rock phosphate (RP). Sugar beet wastes\\u000a (SB), olive cake (OC) and olive mill wastewaters (OMWW) were treated by Aspergillus niger, and dry olive cake (DOC) was treated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In conditions of solid-state fermentation 46% of SB and 21% of OC were mineralized by A. niger while 16%

  11. Cellulase Production by Trichoderma koningii AS3.4262 in Solid-State Fermentation Using Lignocellulosic Waste from the Vinegar Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Liu; Jichu Yang

    2007-01-01

    Summary Cellulase production was carried out in solid-state fermentation using the waste from the vinegar industry as the substrate for Trichoderma koningii AS3.4262. This waste is po- rous and easy to degrade by cellulolytic fungi. The effects of water content, initial pH value in solid substrate and culture temperature on cellulase synthesis were observed for optimal production in flask fermentors.

  12. Basidiomycetes laccase and manganese peroxidase activity in submerged fermentation of food industry wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgi Songulashvili; Vladimir Elisashvili; Solomon P. Wasser; Eviatar Nevo; Yitzhak Hadar

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of eighteen strains of basidiomycetes laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity in submerged fermentation of mandarin peelings and ethanol production waste showed that the expression of enzyme activity is species- and strain-dependent. While all species of the genus Trametes expressed comparatively high laccase activity, the activity of this enzyme among species of the genus Ganoderma varied from 192

  13. Thermal Energy Storage/Waste Heat Recovery Applications in the Cement Industry 

    E-print Network

    Beshore, D. G.; Jaeger, F. A.; Gartner, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    been performed on these systems and will be presented. Through use of thermal energy storage in conjunction with waste heat electric power generation units, an estimated 2.4 x 1013 BTU per year, or an equivalent of 4.0 x 10 barrels of oil per year, can...

  14. Examination of Babcock and Wilcox tubes after exposure in an industrial waste incinerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Keiser; M. K. Ferber; H. F. Longmire; L. R. Walker; D. L. Hindman

    1996-01-01

    Seven ceramic tubes provided by, and in most cases manufactured by, Babcock and Wilcox were exposed in E. I. DuPont`s Wilmington, Delaware, hazardous waste incinerator. These tubes were subsequently examined at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the effect of exposure on the strength and microstructural integrity of the tube materials. An unexposed tube section of one of the materials

  15. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  16. Recovery of ammonia nitrogen in livestock and industrial wastes using gas permeable membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New waste management methods are needed that can protect the environment and allow manure management to switch back to a recycling view of manure handling. We investigated the use of gas-permeable membranes as components of new processes to capture and recover the ammonia in the liquid manures or in...

  17. Extractive membrane bioreactors for detoxification of chemical industry wastes: process development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G Livingston; Jean-Pierre Arcangeli; Andrew T Boam; Shengfu Zhang; Manuel Marangon; Luisa M Freitas dos Santos

    1998-01-01

    Pilot scale trials of an emerging membrane technology, the extractive membrane bioreactor (EMB) are described. An EMB unit was installed at a chemical production facility to treat a spent caustic scrubber liquor containing monochlorobenzene (MCB). In its first configuration with 60m2 of membrane area the pilot unit worked well, destroying 98–99% of the organics in the MCB waste stream at

  18. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E. [SUE MosSIA 'Radon', 7th Rostovsky lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  19. The removal of tributylphosphate from waste water solutions of radiological industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kulemin, V.V.; Kareta, V.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    This work is devoted to purification of radioactive waste water obtained by recycling of nuclear materials from tributylphosphate (TBP). The authors investigated the purification of water solutions from TBP using styrol-divinyl-benzene copolymers (polysorb-1 and styrosorb). The data obtained for model solutions were confirmed for technological solution.

  20. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF INCINERATORS AND HIGH TEMPERATURE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES DISPOSING HAZARDOUS WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1982, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting performance assessments of hazardous waste thermal destruction facilities in the United States. The principal objective of these tests has been to characterize emissions and determine if these faciliti...

  1. Selenium Waste

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides general information about selenium including its occurrence, industrial applications, toxicology, and regulations and practices regarding industrial waste disposal. The site also features links to more detailed information about each of these topics.

  2. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu, Yijian

    2012-03-01

    Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment. PMID:22100716

  3. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vish V. Viswanathan; Richard W. Davies; Jim D. Holbery

    2006-01-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of

  4. Stop Wasting Time: On Predicting the Success or Failure of Learning for Industrial Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim E. Smith; Muhammad Atif Tahir

    2007-01-01

    The successful application of machine learning techniques to industrial problems places various demands on the collaborators.\\u000a The system designers must possess appropriate analytical skills and technical expertise, and the management of the industrial\\u000a or commercial partner must be sufficiently convinced of the potential benefits that they are prepared to invest in money and\\u000a equipment. Vitally, the collaboration also requires a

  5. Cross Sectional Variation In Toxic Waste Releases From The U.S. Chemical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary L. Streitwieser

    1994-01-01

    This paper measures and examines the 1987 cross sectional variation in toxic releases from the U.S. chemical industry. The analysis is based on a unique plant level data set of over 2,100 plants, combining EPA toxic release data with Census Bureau data on economic activity. The main results are that intra-industry variation in toxic releases are as great as, or

  6. Studies on the purification of wastewater from the nitrogen fertilizer industry by intensive algal cultures. I. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris in wastes.

    PubMed

    Matusiak, K

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of growth of intensive cultures of Chlorella vulgaris on industrial wastewater from nitrogen fertizer plant containing ammonia, urea and nitrate was investigated. Good growth of algae was obtained when the waste was enriched with phosphorus and inoculum contained a high number of cells. The optimal pH for the culture was 7.0--8.0. The main factor limiting growth of algae on wastes on the concentration of ammonia nitrogen. Chlorella vulgaris grows quite well in wastes containing 600 mg NH4-N/l but is inhibited at concentration about 100 mg NH4-N/l. PMID:62500

  7. Processing of leather waste: pilot scale studies on chrome shavings. Isolation of potentially valuable protein products and chromium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Cabeza; M. M. Taylor; G. L. DiMaio; E. M. Brown; W. N. Marmer; R. Carrió; P. J. Celma; J. Cot

    1998-01-01

    Hides come to the tanner as a by-product of the meat industry. The tanning process, in turn, generates much greater quantities of by-products and wastes than leather. One ton of wet salted hides yields only 200kg of leather but over 600kg of solid waste, or by-product if a market can be found. In the United States, nearly 60,000 metric tons

  8. Role of sawdust in the removal of copper(II) from industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Ajmal; Akhtar Hussain Khan; Shamim Ahmad; Anees Ahmad

    1998-01-01

    Sawdust, an inexpensive material has been utilised as an adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from waste water for their safe disposal. The effects of contact time, pH, concentration, temperature, dose, particle size of the adsorbent and salinity on the removal of Cu(II) have been studied. The equilibrium nature of copper(II) adsorption at different temperature (30–50°C) has been described by

  9. Electroflotation of emulsified oil in industrial wastes evaluated with a full factorial design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. N. B. Nahui; M. R. Nascimento; E. B. Cavalcanti; E. O. Vilar

    2008-01-01

    The use of electroflotation in emulsified oil wastes was studied. A rectangular electroflotation cell was designed and constructed in acrylic with stainless steel cathode and DSA® anode with a nominal composition of Ti\\/Ru0.34Ti0.66O2. The variables studied in the present work were current density and oil, flocculant and electrolyte (NaCl) concentrations. The experiments were carried out in accordance with 24 full

  10. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  11. Economic analysis and design of industrial heat pumps for low-temperature waste-heat utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaudoir

    1981-01-01

    Work performed on heat pump optimization and a pilot plant design is documented. A general thermodynamic review of the conventional Rankine Cycle Heat Pump and its comparison to the alternative cycles, i.e., the Open-Open\\/sup TM\\/ and Open Cycle Heat Pumps are presented. These alternate cycles utilize the waste heat stream as the process fluid in the case of the Open-Open\\/sup

  12. Repeated removal of cadmium and zinc from an industrial effluent by waste biomass Sargassum sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. P. Esteves; E. Valdman; S. G. F. Leite

    2000-01-01

    Waste biomass Sargassum sp. biosorbed 100% of Cd2+ and 99.4% of Zn2+ from a 3 and 98 mg l-1 solution (pH 4.5), respectively, at the end of four serial experiments. Of the five desorbents studied in consecutive adsorption\\/desorption cycles, CaCl2 0.05 M eluted nearly 40% of both metals and decreased the biosorption in only 8% and 17% of Cd2+ and

  13. IFAT `96 mirrors solid waste management`s growth into an industry

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kane, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    Billed as the largest event of its kind anywhere in the world, the 1996 International Trade Fair for Waste Water and Waste Disposal: Sewage, Refuse, Recycling, Public Cleansing, and Winter Road Services (IFAT `96) was held in Munich, Germany, May 7-11, 1996, and attracted about 110,000 visitors. Approximately 1,800 companies from 36 countries exhibited, and there was a complementary range of conferences and seminars hosted by municipal, trade, and government associations. IFAT is held every three years, and the 1996 event was the 11th IFAT exhibition. It is interesting to note the origins of the event over 30 years ago, when a relatively modest regional fair showcased technology designed primarily for municipal solid waste collection and snow-clearing vehicles. IFAT has indeed snowballed, reflecting the dramatically increased levels of investment in products and services in response to the formulation of both national and European Union environmental legislation, often to the point where trade associations have complained of legislative overkill.

  14. Discovery and Biogeochemical Investigation of Chlorinated Industrial Waste in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemkau, K. L.; Kivenson, V. B.; Carmichael, C. A.; Aeppli, C.; Bagby, S. C.; Wentz, K.; Baxter, A.; Paul, B. G.; Pizarro, O.; Yoerger, D.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the 1972 US ban on DDT use, dumping of solid waste from DDT manufacturing was permitted at two locations off the coast of Southern California. Between 1947 and 1961, 37-53 million liters of DDT waste (containing an estimated 350-700 metric tons of DDT) were disposed of at these deep-ocean dumpsites. In 2011 and 2013 we explored these sites with ROV Jason and AUV Sentry, discovering the remains of ~60 barrels scattered across dumpsite 2. Strikingly, many of these barrels were surrounded by distinctive white rings suggestive of microbial activity. We describe our identification and exploration of these sites and present results from chemical analysis of sediment cores collected around waste barrels. DDT and its degradation products (DDE, DDD and DDMU) were detectable at ng to ?g per gram concentrations and showed spatial trends with both distance and depth around barrels. Analysis of microbial community DNA provides a first look at the role of microbiological processes in shaping these trends.

  15. Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar-Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production.

    PubMed

    Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Bermúdez, J M; Suárez-Ruiz, I; Ruiz, B

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the pyrolysis of a macroalgae industrial solid waste (algae meal) in an electrical conventional furnace and in a microwave furnace has been carried out. It was found that the chars obtained from both pyrolyses are similar and show good properties for performing as a solid bio-fuel and as a precursor of activated carbon. Bio-oils from conventional pyrolysis have a greater number of phenolic, pyrrole and alkane compounds whereas benzene and pyridine compounds are more predominant in microwave pyrolysis with a major presence of light compounds. The bio-gas fraction from microwave pyrolysis presents a much higher syngas content (H2+CO), and a lower CO2 and CH4 proportion than that obtained by conventional pyrolysis. Yields are similar for both treatments with a slightly higher gas yield in the case of microwave pyrolysis due to the fact that microwave heating favors heterogeneous reactions between the gases and the char. PMID:24240147

  16. A Viable Approach for Utilization of the AgroIndustrial Waste in Biodiesel Industry: Using Deoiled Jatropha curcas Seed Meal to Produce Protease by Aspergillus niger under Solid-State Fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuangen Wu; Shuyi Qiu; Yi Yue; Shenshan Zhan; Jie Wu; Yafei Du; Yunlan Guo; Chao Wang

    2010-01-01

    Deoiled Jatropha curcas seed meal (DJSM), a chief waste material of oil extraction industry, will be generated on a large scale due to the growing interest in using Jatropha curcas seed oil as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Up to now, there is very little work on viable approach for the use of DJSM to the best of

  17. The Effect of CO2 on Algal Growth in Industrial Waste Water for Bioenergy and Bioremediation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, David A.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    The energy, mining and mineral processing industries are point sources of metal-contaminated waste water and carbon dioxide (CO2). Freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium can be grown in metal-contaminated waste water to generate biomass for bioenergy applications and concomitantly bioremediate metals. However, interactions between CO2 addition and algal growth, which can affect bioremediation, remain untested. The addition of CO2 to algal cultures in the Ash Dam Water (ADW) from a coal-fired power station increased the biomass productivity of Oedogonium sp. from 6.8 g dry weight (DW) m-2 d-1 to a maximum of 22.5 g DW m-2 d-1. The greater productivity increased the rate of bioremediation of most elements. However, over time carbon-amended cultures experienced a decline in productivity. Possible explanations include metal toxicity at low pH or essential trace element limitation as a result of competition between toxic and essential trace elements for uptake into algae. Higher productivity increased bioremediation rate and yielded more biomass for bioenergy applications, making maintenance of maximum productivity the central aim of the integrated culture model. To do so it will be necessary to resolve the mechanisms responsible for declining yields over time in carbon-amended cultures. Regardless, our data demonstrate that freshwater macroalgae are ideal candidates for bioremediation of metal-contaminated waste streams. Algal culture delivered significant improvement in ADW quality, reducing 5 elements that were initially in excess of water quality criteria (Al, As, Cd, Ni and Zn) to meet guidelines within two to four weeks. PMID:24278451

  18. The effect of CO2 on algal growth in industrial waste water for bioenergy and bioremediation applications.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    The energy, mining and mineral processing industries are point sources of metal-contaminated waste water and carbon dioxide (CO2). Freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium can be grown in metal-contaminated waste water to generate biomass for bioenergy applications and concomitantly bioremediate metals. However, interactions between CO2 addition and algal growth, which can affect bioremediation, remain untested. The addition of CO2 to algal cultures in the Ash Dam Water (ADW) from a coal-fired power station increased the biomass productivity of Oedogonium sp. from 6.8 g dry weight (DW) m(-2) d(-1) to a maximum of 22.5 g DW m(-2) d(-1). The greater productivity increased the rate of bioremediation of most elements. However, over time carbon-amended cultures experienced a decline in productivity. Possible explanations include metal toxicity at low pH or essential trace element limitation as a result of competition between toxic and essential trace elements for uptake into algae. Higher productivity increased bioremediation rate and yielded more biomass for bioenergy applications, making maintenance of maximum productivity the central aim of the integrated culture model. To do so it will be necessary to resolve the mechanisms responsible for declining yields over time in carbon-amended cultures. Regardless, our data demonstrate that freshwater macroalgae are ideal candidates for bioremediation of metal-contaminated waste streams. Algal culture delivered significant improvement in ADW quality, reducing 5 elements that were initially in excess of water quality criteria (Al, As, Cd, Ni and Zn) to meet guidelines within two to four weeks. PMID:24278451

  19. Kinetics and equilibrium modelling of lead uptake by algae Gelidium and algal waste from agar extraction industry.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-05-01

    Pb(II) biosorption onto algae Gelidium, algal waste from agar extraction industry and a composite material was studied. Discrete and continuous site distribution models were used to describe the biosorption equilibrium at different pH (5.3, 4 and 3), considering competition among Pb(II) ions and protons. The affinity distribution function of Pb(II) on the active sites was calculated by the Sips distribution. The Langmuir equilibrium constant was compared with the apparent affinity calculated by the discrete model, showing higher affinity for lead ions at higher pH values. Kinetic experiments were conducted at initial Pb(II) concentrations of 29-104 mgl(-1) and data fitted to pseudo-first Lagergren and second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Pb(II) concentration profiles at different initial lead concentration and pH, and provides significant insights on the biosorbents performance. Average values of homogeneous diffusivity, D(h), are 3.6 x 10(-8); 6.1 x 10(-8) and 2.4 x 10(-8)cm(2)s(-1), respectively, for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The concentration of lead inside biosorbent particles follows a parabolic profile that becomes linear near equilibrium. PMID:17049738

  20. Mining, processing and reclamation of waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Carris, D.M. [John T. Boyd Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, an exploration program was commissioned to identify reserve tonnage and quality of anthracite waste banks located in Carbon, Lackawanna, Luzerne, and Schuylkill Counties, Pennsylvania, as a suitable fuel supply for an independent power project in Eastern Pennsylvania. Fuel specifications for the circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) required a plus 7,000 Btu/lb fuel which could not be achieved by dry processing of the bank material, thus requiring a wet cleaning circuit to remove the impurities and upgrade heating value. BOYD designed and managed the exploration program for 17 anthracite waste banks. All of the waste banks were formed from wet breaker plant rejects, mine spoil material and discarded anthracite fines. These waste piles are commonly referred to as {open_quotes}rock banks{close_quotes} by the anthracite industry. Culm banks, not so common, were formed in the earlier years of the anthracite industry by dry breaker facilities. These culm banks contained as much as 50% to 80% anthracite versus the rock banks of 5% to 10%. Most culm banks have been reclaimed and many of the rock banks have been reprocessed multiple times.

  1. An alternative energy source from palm wastes industry for Malaysia and Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. I Mahlia; M. Z Abdulmuin; T. M. I Alamsyah; D Mukhlishien

    2001-01-01

    Malaysia and Indonesia are the largest producers of palm oil product. The palm oil industry has contributed the biggest income to the countries for many years. Moreover, palm oils has emerged as one of the most important oils in the world’s oils and the market of fats. About 90% of palm oil is used as food related products worldwide, and

  2. Using CaO and MgO-rich industrial waste streams for carbon sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshuah K. Stolaroff; Gregory V. Lowry; David W. Keith

    2005-01-01

    To prevent rapid climate change, it will be necessary to reduce net anthropogenic CO2 emissions drastically. This likely will require imposition of a tax or tradable permit scheme that creates a subsidy for negative emissions. Here, we examine possible niche markets in the cement and steel industries where it is possible to generate a limited supply of negative emissions (carbon

  3. The development and implementation of industrial hydrometallurgical gallium recovery of the Clarksville Refinery waste residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayram, Todd S.

    Todd Fayram, the Gordonsville Operation of Pasminco US Inc., and the Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP) at Montana Tech studied, developed and implemented a pilot scale hydrometallurgical facility for the industrial recovery of gallium. This thesis describes the testing and engineering program that culminated in this successful recovery of gallium through process described herein.

  4. FINDING SOLVENT REPLACEMENTS TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...

  5. Industrial waste-water volatile organic compound emissions. Background information for BACT\\/LAER determinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Elliott; S. Watkins

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Control Technology Center (CTC) is to provide technical information to States on estimating and controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from the collection and treatment of industrial wastewaters for Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) determinations. Technical guidance projects, focus on topics of national or regional interest that are identified through

  6. Industrial waste-water management practices in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    The selection of a model plant was based upon criteria established by a review of current literature. The criteria were permit compliance, plant performance, and the adoption of pollution prevention as a corporate environmental philosophy. In this study, private sector firms were examined to identify the best industrial wastewater management practices using a Total Quality Management (TQM) tool called benchmarking.

  7. Raw agro-industrial orange peel waste as a low cost effective inducer for alkaline polygalacturonase production from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10.

    PubMed

    Embaby, Amira M; Masoud, Aliaa A; Marey, Heba S; Shaban, Nadia Z; Ghonaim, Tayssir M

    2014-01-01

    The current study underlines biotechnological valorization of the accumulated and the non-efficiently utilized agro-industrial orange peel waste to produce polygalacturonase (PGase), an industrially important enzyme with augmented demands in enzymes markets, from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10. Sequential statistical optimization of PGase production was performed through one variable at a time (OVAT) approach, Plackett-Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of introduction of six raw agro-industrial wastes (orange, lemon, banana, pomegranate, artichoke peel wastes and wheat bran) and other synthetic carbon sources separately into the fermentation broth on PGase productivity was studied through OVAT approach. Orange peel waste as sole raw carbon source in basal medium proved to be the best PGase inducer. It promoted PGase productivity with relative specific activity of 166% comparable with the effect imposed by synthetic citrus pectin as a reference inducer. Three key determinants (orange peel waste, pH of the production medium and incubation temperature) had RSM optimal levels of 1.76% (w/v), 8.0 and 37.8°C, respectively along with maximal PGase level (2.69 ?g galacturonic acid. min(-1). mg(-1)) within 48 hrs. Moreover, SHG10 PGase exhibited activity over a wide range of pH (3-11) and an optimal activity at 50°C. Data greatly encourage pilot scale PGase production from B. licheniformis SHG10. PMID:25077057

  8. Adsorption and wetting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. M. Schlangen

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption and wetting are related phenomena. In order to improve knowledge of both and their relations, experiments, thermodynamics and a theoretical interpretation have been connected, starring n-alkanes.Starting from the Gibbs adsorption equation thermodynamic relations between vapour adsorption and wetting are derived. The surface pressure of a film, formed by vapour adsorption on a solid surface, is calculated by integrating the

  9. MODELED WET NITRATE DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface water bodies. See below regarding decriptions on how original data was produced. These data will be part of futur...

  10. Impact of Iron and Steel Industry and Waste Incinerators on Human Exposure to Dioxins, PCBs, and Heavy Metals: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien Fierens; Hélène Mairesse; Jean-François Heilier; Jean-François Focant; Gauthier Eppe; Edwin De Pauw; Alfred Bernard

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of two iron and steel plants and two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) in Wallonia (Belgium) on the exposure of residents to dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals. In total, 142 volunteers living around these facilities were recruited and compared with 63 referents from a rural area with no industrial source of pollution. Information about

  11. Behaviour of Main Microbiological Parameters And of Enteric Microorganisms During the Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes and Sewage Sludge in A Semi-Industrial Composting Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olfa Fourti; Naceur Jedidi; Abdenaceur Hassen

    2008-01-01

    This study was focused on the microbiological aspects of composting and on the behaviour of main prevalent microbial communities (non-pathogenic and selected pathogenic bacteria) during the composting process of municipal solid wastes and sewage sludge in a semi-industrial composting plant. Results showed that the dehydrogenase activity and Biomass C \\/ Biomass N ratio showed a noticeable increase in the two

  12. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. January 1978-December 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in sewage, as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal-waste sludge dewatering. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 266 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  13. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 3. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 1-02-007-04 TO 2-03-999-98

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as a means of air pollution control. Predictions of the amount of waste heat available from U. S. industr...

  14. INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVERY AND THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION. VOLUME 10. STANDARD CLASSIFICATION CODES 3-90-005-99 TO 3-90-008-99

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the applicability of conservation equipment to various industrial sectors, determines the net costs involved, and assesses the potential for conservation as an means of air pollution control. Predicitions of the amount of waste heat available from U.S. indust...

  15. Development and demonstration of an electric heat pump for waste-heat recovery in industry. Topical report No. 2. Design and analysis report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Moreland; J. S. Eder; R. W. Wolfe

    1981-01-01

    Development of a high temperature heat pump for demonstration of waste heat recovery in industry is described. This report outlines the design of a prototypical unit to be used to recover heat from the vapor effluent of a thermomechanical pulping unit in a paper mill. The output capacity of the unit is 30 x 10⁶ Btu\\/h in the form of

  16. Open-cycle heat pumps for industrial waste-heat utilization. Project technical report, May 12, 1980-October 10, 1980. Phase I. Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Open-Cycle Industrial Process Heat Pumps (IPHP) are potentially a cost-effective method of utilizing an industrial plant's waste heat. The objective of Phase I of the work was to determine the feasibility of an open-cycle industrial process heat pump. This was accomplished by the evaluation of four potential sites for the installation of open-cycle industrial process heat pump equipment. While it was the original plan to evaluate only three sites, the need for a fourth site became apparent upon completion of studies of the Amstar applications. On the basis of initial screening, it was decided to concentrate on the large waste stream at General Electric's NORYL facility (Selkirk, NY) and a smaller waste stream at the Schoeller Paper Company (Pulaski, NY). These two sites provided opportunities to exploit the features of the open-cyle IPHP without major site constraints. Site studies were conducted to obtain process information such as flow rates, process temperatures, dynamic behavior of the process streams, process control functions, and capacity/time schedules. Information relating to structure and utilities, floor loadings, physical space constraints, electric service, piping runs between equipment location, and waste water tapping points was gathered. These data were analyzed and resulted in the selection of two applications with acceptable thermodynamic performance.

  17. Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Katherine M.

    We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

  18. ENZYMATIC CORN WET MILLING: RESULTS FROM A COMMERCIAL PLANT TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is converted into valuable food, fuel and industrial products by the corn wet milling process. Conventional corn wet milling requires a considerable amount of sulfur dioxide addition to disrupt the protein matrix surrounding the starch particles and to aid the separation of starch and protein ...

  19. Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.

    PubMed

    Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

    2011-01-01

    A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s?¹), particle size (varying 24.3 ?m in 88.05 ?m with regard to 110 ?m the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth. PMID:21442538

  20. Methane generation from high-strength industrial wastes with the anaerobic biological fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.F.; Owens, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The anaerobic biological fluidized-bed process has been shown to be effective for the simultaneous generation of methane gas and stabilization of high-strength wastewaters. Presented is a compendium of pilot-scale testing on a variety of wastes including dairy, chemical, food processing, soft drink bottling, and heat treatment liquors. Results demonstrate that, in most cases, greater than 80% biological oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/) reduction can be attained at organic loading rates of 16 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m/sup 3//day or higher. The effect of organic loading for each class of waste is presented. The excellent compatibility of the biological fluidized-bed reactor concept with anaerobic treatment is due to many factors, the foremost being that fluidization of small-grained media results in extremely large surface areas for biological colonization (on the order of 300 m/sup 2//m/sup 3/) and consequently high biomass concentrations (8000 to 40,000 mg volatile suspended solids (VSS)/L). Because of this, long sludge retention times may be maintained at relatively short hydraulic residence times. The system is a net energy producer in most cases and normally shows a payback on the initial capital expenditure in less than five years.

  1. Blending mining and nuclear industries at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) traditional procedures for underground mining activities have been significantly altered in order to assure underground safety and project adherence to numerous regulatory requirements. Innovative techniques have been developed for WIPP underground procedures, mining equipment, and operating environments. The mining emphasis at WIPP is upon the quality of the excavation, not (as in conventional mines) on the production of ore. The WIPP is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) project that is located 30 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico, where the nation's first underground engineered nuclear repository is being constructed. The WIPP site was selected because of its location amidst a 607 meter thick salt bed, which provides a remarkably stable rock formation for the permanent storage of nuclear waste. The underground facility is located 655 meters below the earth's surface, in the Salado formation, which comprises two-hundred million year old halites with minor amounts of clay and anhydrites. When completed, the WIPP underground facility will consist of two components: approximately 81 square kilometers of experimental areas, and approximately 405 square kilometers of repository. 3 figs.

  2. Biodegradation of agro-industrial wastes by a edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.).

    PubMed

    Kuforiji, O O; Fasidi, I O

    2009-05-01

    When Pleurotus tuber-regium was cultivated on cotton waste, rice straw, cocoyam peels and sawdusts of Mansonia altissima, Boscia angustifolia and Khaya ivorensis, the highest crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrate contents in sporophores were 29.4 (M. altissima) , 1.4 (rice straw) and 61.3% (cocoyam peels), respectively. Sporophores produced on rice straw had the greatest energy value and those on B. angustifolia the least i.e. 3147.6 and 709.1 kcal g(-1) substrates, respectively. The greatest degradation of the components of the substrates as a result of the cultivation was 62.4 and 71.5% for cellulose and hemicellulose in cotton wastes and 60.2% for lignin in K. ivorensis, with the greatest reduction in energy value of the substrate being 2667.9 kcal g(-1) substrate in K. ivorensis. There was no correlation between the extent of the degradation of these components and the yield of of sporophores, while the energy recovery of substrate in the mushroom was highest for cocoyam peels and least for sawdust of B. angustifolia, 3.7 and 0.5%, respectively. PMID:20120458

  3. Multi-element including rare earth content of lichens, bark, soils, and waste following industrial closure.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Ana-Maria; Chimonides, P D James; Jones, Gary C; Garcia-Sanchez, Raquel; Purvis, O William

    2006-08-01

    The fate of rare earth and other rare elements entering the environment is largely unknown. The lichen Hypogymnia physodes was transplanted over a 40 km long transect centered on a major metallurgical waste dump close to the Zlatna town center two weeks after smelter closure. Lichens, bark, soil, and waste dump materials were analyzed for 56 elements (including REE). Lichen and bark multi-element compositions were alike, reflecting fixation of elements of environmental concern and the ability for tree canopies to concentrate substances leading to enhanced deposition to both lichens and bark. Higher REE enrichment in lichens than in soil confirm efficient fixation in lichens. The negative europium anomaly in lichens and soil, similar to that in upper crust, confirm a strong crustal influence on lichen signatures across the transect area. Multi-element analysis supports the view that epiphytic lichens, unlike trees, are not influenced by lower groundwater, and they are excellent indicators for REE and other rare elements entering the surface environment, difficult to detect by conventional means. PMID:16913112

  4. Recent experience with air pollution control on sewage sludge, municipal solid waste and industrial incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Felsvang, K.; Jacobsen, N. [NIRO A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Christiansen, O.B. [NIRO Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Morvan, G. [ABB, Paris (France); Klinke, G. [GEA-Wiegand, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    During the last two decades, incineration of sewage sludge, municipal solid waste (MSW) and hazardous waste as a means of volume reduction have grown in importance. Although Europe has been leading the development in the use of incineration, North America today also has a substantial amount of incinerators. As the application of incinerators has increased, concerns have been raised over potential air pollution impacts associated with their use. This has led to the promulgation of emission limits and control requirements for a wide range of pollutants. This paper describes the trends in the emission requirements both in Europe and North America as well as the development of air pollution control technology to cope with the more stringent requirements. The paper describes development of a new process, the High-Performance Spray Dryer Absorber System, which is designed to meet all the new and future emission requirements. Finally the paper deals with mercury removal and results of a 5-year study of mercury revolatilization from dry end product.

  5. Steel slag: a waste industrial by-product as an alternative sustainable green building material in construction applications--an attempt for solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Pofale, Arun D; Nadeem, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This investigation explores the possibility of utilizing granular slag as an alternative to fine aggregate (natural sand) in construction applications like masonry and plastering. Construction industry utilizes large volume of fine aggregate in all the applications which has resulted into shortage of good quality naturally available fine aggregate. Use of granular slag serves two fold purposes, i.e. waste utilisation as well as alternative eco-friendly green building material for construction. The investigation highlights comparative study of properties with partial and full replacement of fine aggregate (natural sand) by granular slag in cement mortar applications (masonry and plastering). For this purpose, cement mortar mix proportions from 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 & 1:6 by volume were selected for 0, 25, 50, 75 & 100% replacement levels with w/c ratios of 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 & 0.72 respectively. Based on the study results, it could be inferred that replacement of natural sand with granular slag from 25 to 75% increased the packing density of mortar which resulted into reduced w/c ratio, increased strength properties of all mortar mixes. Hence, it could be recommended that the granular slag could be effectively utilized as fine aggregate in masonry and plastering applications in place of conventional cement mortar mixes using natural sand. PMID:23741870

  6. Recovery of high surface area mesoporous silica from waste hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) of fertilizer industry.

    PubMed

    Sarawade, Pradip B; Kim, Jong-Kil; Hilonga, Askwar; Kim, Hee Taik

    2010-01-15

    In this article we report recovery of mesoporous silica from the waste material (hexafluorosilicic acid) of phosphate fertilizer industry. The process involves the reaction of hexafluorosilicic acid (50 ml, 24 wt% H(2)SiF(6)) and 100ml, 0.297 M Na(2)CO(3) to generate the alkaline aqueous slurry. Silica was separated from the slurry by filtration and the sodium fluoride was extracted from the aqueous solution by evaporation method. The obtained mesoporous silica was characterized by N(2) absorption/desorption (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and EDS. The results confirm that the separation of silica and NaF was successful and the final products have high purity. The silica product was found to have an average pore diameter of 4.14 nm and a high surface area (up to 800 m(2)/g). The process reported in this study may significantly reduce the release of hazardous materials into the environment and it might confer economic benefits to the responsible industries. PMID:19758754

  7. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jayathilakan; Khudsia Sultana; K. Radhakrishna; A. S. Bawa

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock\\u000a industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural\\u000a sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently

  8. An industrial approach in the search of natural antioxidants from vegetable and fruit wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wieland Peschel; Ferran Sánchez-Rabaneda; Wilfried Diekmann; Andreas Plescher; Irene Gartzía; Diego Jiménez; Rosa Lamuela-Raventós; Susana Buxaderas; Carles Codina

    2006-01-01

    Eleven fruit and vegetable byproducts and two minor crops were screened for industrial polyphenol exploitation potential by determination of their extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC, Folin–Ciocalteu), and antioxidant activity (NTZ\\/hypoxanthine superoxide assay, ferric thiocyanate method). Extracts with the highest activity, economic justification and phenolic content were obtained from apple (TPC maximum 48.6±0.9mg Gallic acid equivalents g?1 dry extract), pear

  9. Treatability study of industrial waste using sanitary sewage to supply nutrients 

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, James Ritchie

    1978-01-01

    treatment by biological treatment methods. The most effective biological process is the activated sludge process. To treat most petrochemical industrial wastewaters by the activated sludge process requires the addition of the nutrients nitrogen... Wastewater An Empirical Formula and Its Relation to Biological Oxidation in the Activated Sludge Process . Evaluation to Determine Cell Y1eld Coefficient (Y) and Endogenous Degradation Coefficient (k ) Oxygen Requirements Bench-Scale Study...

  10. Clean production in fish canning industries: recovery and reuse of selected wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Garcia-Sanda; Francisco Omil; Juan M. Lema

    2003-01-01

    Fish canning industries generate a large number of different wastewaters that usually are treated together in a complex plant.\\u000a However, some of these streams can be treated to recover additional subproducts as well as reducing the final volume of wastewaters.\\u000a As a first example, oil and fat contained in cannery wastewaters are usually removed in conventional treatment plants with\\u000a flotation

  11. Projected ocean dumping rates for municipal and industrial wastes in the year 2000. Report for 26 March 1984-26 August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cura, J.; Menzie, C.; Borchardt, J.

    1985-08-01

    The amounts of coal ash, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, sewage sludge, industrial waste, and seafood-processing wastes currently ocean dumped were determined, and ocean dumping of these wastes was projected for the year 2000. The projected rates were made using three different scenarios: Scenario I assumed continued ocean dumping only by current permittees, Scenario II assumed some relaxation of ocean dumping regulation, and Scenario III, to provide a maximum estimate, assumed that future ocean-dumping would be based solely on economic considerations. Coal ash and FGD sludge are projected to be the most voluminous waste dumped under Scenarios II and III, and the East coast of the U.S. would produce the greatest amounts to be dumped.

  12. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  13. Kinetics of Reactive Wetting

    SciTech Connect

    YOST, FREDERICK G.

    1999-09-09

    The importance of interfacial processes in materials joining has a long history. A significant amount of work has suggested that processes collateral to wetting can affect the extent of wetting and moderate or retard wetting rate. Even very small additions of a constituent, known to react with the substrate, cause pronounced improvement in wetting and are exploited in braze alloys, especially those used for joining to ceramics. The wide diversity of processes, such as diffusion, chemical reaction, and fluxing, and their possible combinations suggest that various rate laws should be expected for wetting kinetics depending on the controlling processes. These rate laws are expected to differ crucially from the standard fluid controlled wetting models found in the literature. Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. have shown data that suggests diffusion control for some systems and reaction control for others. They also presented a model of wetting kinetics controlled by the diffusion of a constituent contained by the wetting fluid. In the following a model will be constructed for the wetting kinetics of a small droplet of metal containing a constituent that diffuses to the wetting line and chemically reacts with a flat, smooth substrate. The model is similar to that of Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. but incorporates chemical reaction kinetics such that the result contains both diffusion and reaction kinetics. The model is constructed in the circular cylinder coordinate system, satisfies the diffusion equation under conditions of slow flow, and considers diffusion and reaction at the wetting line to be processes in series. This is done by solving the diffusion equation with proper initial and boundary conditions, computing the diffusive flux at the wetting line and equating this to both the convective flux and reaction flux. This procedure is similar to equating the current flowing in components of a series circuit. The wetting rate will be computed versus time for a variety of diffusion and reaction conditions. A transition is observed from nonlinear (diffusive) to linear (reactive) behavior as the control parameters (such as the diffusion coefficient) are modified. This is in agreement with experimental observations. The adequacy of the slow flow condition, used in this type of analysis, is discussed and an amended procedure is suggested.

  14. Removal of atrazine from water by low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural and industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Anoop; Joseph, P E

    2008-05-01

    In the present study six adsorbents viz. wood charcoal, fly ash, coconut charcoal, saw dust, coconut fiber and baggasse charcoal were studied for their capacity to remove atrazine from water. The removal efficiency of different adsorbents varied from 76.5% to 97.7% at 0.05 ppm concentration and 78.5% to 95.5% at 0.1 ppm concentration of atrazine solution, which was less than removal efficiency of activated charcoal reported as 98% for atrazine (Adams and Watson, J Environ Eng ASCE 39:327-330, 1996). Wood charcoal was a cheap (Rs 15 kg(-1)) and easily available material in house holds. Since wood charcoal was granular in nature, it could be used for the removal of atrazine from water to the extent of 95.5%-97.7%. Fly ash is a waste product of thermal plant containing 40%-50% silica, 20%-35% alumina, 12%-30% carbon and unburnt minerals having a high pH of 9-10. It is very cheap and abundant material and has comparatively good adsorption capacity. It was found that fly ash effectively removed about 84.1%-88.5% atrazine from water at 0.05 and 0.1 ppm levels. Coconut shell is also waste product. Therefore, both are inexpensive. The removal efficiency of atrazine from water was 92.4%-95.2% by coconut shell charcoal and 85.9%-86.3% by coconut fiber. Sawdust is generally used as domestic fuel and found everywhere. It is also very cheap (Re. 1 kg(-1)). Baggasse charcoal is a waste product of sugar mill and abundant material. Its cost is due to transport expense, which depends upon distance from the sugar mill. The removal efficiency of sawdust and baggasse charcoal was found 78.5-80.5 and 76.5-84.6, respectively. The efficacy of chemically treated adsorbents for the removal of atrazine from water is in the order: wood charcoal > coconut shell charcoal > fly ash > coconut fiber charcoal > baggasse charcoal > sawdust. PMID:18357400

  15. HAZARDOUS WASTE DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper profiles the current status of hazardous waste thermal destruction in the United States, including facilities and wastes typically handled. The results of extensive EPA-sponsored performance tests are presented for incinerators, industrial boilers, and industrial proces...

  16. Waste-to-energy plant for paper industry sludges disposal: technical-economic study.

    PubMed

    Caputo, A C; Pelagagge, P M

    2001-02-16

    In this work, a detailed technical-economic analysis of a fluidized bed based waste-to-energy system for disposal of paper manufacturing sludges has been carried out. Specific reference is made to a case study represented by the largest plant in Italy producing recycled paper, with a daily sludge output of about 52t. The adopted plant has been sized for a nominal capacity of 140t per day also allowing the progressive elimination of sludges accumulated in a previously utilized landfill, giving a nominal electrical power output of 3.5MW. The main plant sections have been described and the adopted technical solutions have been outlined. A detailed process and equipment characterization has been carried out leading to a thorough evaluation of capital investment, operating costs and revenues. A differential analysis has been performed with respect to the alternative solution represented by the disposal of untreated sludges in an external landfill in order to highlight the savings obtainable. The economic profitability of the investment has been evaluated regarding several performance indices. The economic evaluation has been completed by a sensitivity and risk analysis in order to assess the effects of uncertainties in the economically significant parameters. Adopting most probable values, the savings obtained with the considered waste-to-energy system are evaluated in the 15--20 million Euro range during the estimated plant life of 15 years with a foreseen pay back time of 4 years. Moreover, many environmental benefits result such as the remediation of existing landfill, the avoidance of new landfills opening and very low air pollutants emissions. PMID:11163691

  17. Wetting Transition and Line Tension of Oil on Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, H.; Aratono, M.

    Wetting has attracted wide attention in the field of applied chemistry because of its crucial importance in industrial operations such as coating, painting, and lubrication. Here, we summarize our fundamental understandings of surfactant-assisted wetting transitions which we have found and studied for the last ten years. The difference between the surfactant-assisted wetting transitions and existing ones is discussed. Moreover, the relation between wetting transitions and the stability of the three-phase contact line is examined in terms of the line tension of oil lenses.

  18. Investigation of environmental radioactivity of wine cellars, watercourse and industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Gyorfi, Tamás; Raics, Péter

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the investigations was to determine activity concentration of radioactive isotopes in soil samples collected from different provinces of Hungary. Earlier studies have proved that the (222)Rn activity concentration is higher than permitted in some wine cellars. To investigate the reason for this phenomenon, the activity concentration of soil samples was measured. Analyzing (137)Cs isotope activity in samples collected from the area of a watercourse it was possible to determine the silting-up rate. Activity concentrations were measured for red mud originating from an industrial disaster. PMID:21507670

  19. Industrial waste-water management practices in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.

    1991-09-01

    The selection of a model plant was based upon criteria established by a review of current literature. The criteria were permit compliance, plant performance, and the adoption of pollution prevention as a corporate environmental philosophy. In this study, private sector firms were examined to identify the best industrial wastewater management practices using a Total Quality Management (TQM) tool called benchmarking. The data gathering process consisted of a survey of water pollution control organizations, and a survey of benchmark candidates. The purpose of surveying water pollution control organizations was to objectively identify possible benchmark candidates. A questionnaire was then used to gather technical data on each benchmark candidate's performance.

  20. The Big Wet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on a particular climate found in Northern Australia, known as the tropical wet and dry. This lesson goes over the 12 categories of climates, and looks at the specifics of the 'big wet', or tropical wet and dry climate. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.