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1

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

1991-04-01

2

Catalytic wet oxidation: an environmental solution for organic pollutant removal from paper and pulp industrial waste liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of organics from paper and pulp industrial waste was investigated employing wet oxidation (WO) and catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) techniques using a high-pressure reaction system. Different types of catalysts prepared from single metals (transition\\/noble) and mixed metals (transition–transition\\/transition\\/noble metal) were used in the CWO studies. The paper and pulp liquor treatments were conducted in selected different environments such

Deepak B Akolekar; Suresh K Bhargava; Irfan Shirgoankar; Jaidev Prasad

2002-01-01

3

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1993-07-01

4

Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

5

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1993--1994 interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process development research is continuing on a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system that has been demonstrated to convert organics in water (dilute or concentrated) to useful and environmentally safe gases. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEESO), treats a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from hazardous organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The

D. C. Elliott; T. R. Hart; G. G. Neuenschwander; G. S. Deverman; T. A. Werpy; M. R. Phelps; E. G. Baker; L. J. Jr. Sealock

2011-01-01

6

Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

1990-04-01

7

Assessment for development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low-grade fuels. Final report, October 18, 1989--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this program was to demonstrate safe, reliable, and effective operation of the supercritical water oxidation process (SCWO) at a pilot plant-level throughput. This program was a three phase program. Phase 1 of the program preceded MODEC`s participation in the program. MODEC did participate in Phases 2 and 3 of the program. In Phase 2, the target waste and industry were pulp mill sludges from the pulp and paper industry. In Phase 3, the target was modified to be DOE-generated mixed low level waste; wastes containing RCRA hazardous constituents and radionuclide surrogates were used as model wastes. The paper describes the research unit planning and design; bench-scale development of SCWO; research and development of wet oxidation of fuels; and the design of a super-critical water pilot plant.

Sundback, C.

1995-05-01

8

Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the De...

1994-01-01

9

Odour removal from industrial wastewaters by wet air oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater samples were studied by wet air oxidation. The aim was to remove the pungent odour and simultaneously to decrease the high organic load of industrial wastewaters. Further, the effect of enzyme (catalyst) on the oxidation efficiency was studied. Waste water samples were collected at two different plants (a rendering plant and a slaughterhouse) and oxidized with air for

Ulla Lassi; Satu Ojala; Pierre-Emmanuel Panouillot; Riitta Keiski

10

Wet Air Oxidation of Waste Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to solve ecological problems, research in laboratories and technical schools on the purification of chemically contaminated waste water by wet air oxidation was carried out and resulted in the construction of a prototype technical plant. The plan...

G. Friedhofen H. Kerres J. Rosenbaum R. Thiel

1980-01-01

11

Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

12

Sustainable Management of Wet Market Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main wet market in Selangor i.e. Selangor Wholesale Market has a daily generation of 15 tonnes of organic waste which was disposed off into a sanitary landfill, approximately 8 km away from the market. When the landfill ceased its operation, transportation and landfilling cost escalated to approximately USD20 (RM80) per tonne from USD10 (RM35). The aim of this study

P. Agamuthu; S. H. Fauziah

2007-01-01

13

Wet precipitator design for hazardous waste incineration  

SciTech Connect

Currently there are fluid plate precipitators operating on both liquid and solid hazardous waste incinerators with flue gas volumes ranging from 7,000 to 40,000 ACFM. The oldest unit has been in operation since 1976 with no replacement or major repair to either the FRP components or the Hastelloy C-276, emitting electrodes due to corrosion. The authors discuss how the high concentrations of chlorides, fluorides, and sulfur compounds encountered in conjunction with the successful control of acid mist and ash emissions has demonstrated the merit of the corrosion resistant wet precipitator for the control of hazardous waste incinerator emissions.

Sebille, A.J.; Swift, A.E. (Dresser Industries, Inc., Houston, TX (USA). Petroleum Services Div.)

1987-01-01

14

Steel Industry Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)|

Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

1978-01-01

15

Wet waste flue gas desulfurizing process using lime as absorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wet waste flue gas desulfurizing process using lime as absorbent is disclosed wherein a sulfur oxide-containing waste flue gas is washed with a liquid absorbent containing calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate for the purpose of removing the sulfur oxide from said waste flue gas, characterized in that an absorbing device is divided into two stages, i.e., a former stage

M. Atsukawa; K. Kamei; N. Shinoda; H. Ushio

1977-01-01

16

Industrial Solid Waste Classification Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A classification system for industrial processing wastes was developed based on waste stream characteristics, materials components, and chemical composition. An associated inventory form was devised for systematic reporting of a variety of waste descripto...

J. B. Berkowitz F. March R. Horne

1975-01-01

17

Characteristics of wet work in the cleaning industry.  

PubMed

Wet work is the main cause of occupational contact dermatitis in the cleaning industry. Dermatologists and occupational physicians need to base their primary and secondary prevention for workers in the cleaning industry on the characteristics of wet work exposures. We quantified the burden of wet work in professional office cleaning activities with a continuous standardized observation by trained observers of 41 office cleaners. Duration and frequency of wet work exposure and of different cleaning activities were assessed. Wet work made up 50% of such cleaning work. Within a typical 3-hr shift, a mean frequency of 68 episodes of wet work was observed, which classifies office cleaning as wet work. Skin exposure to irritants was markedly different among cleaners who did the same cleaning activities. Reduction in skin irritation can be achieved by training the workers. Because this group of workers, who have a low level of education, has a high risk of developing irritant hand dermatitis, a special effort on training and instruction should be made. A reduction of exposure can be achieved by: using gloves more often; using gloves for a shorter period of time; using gloves while doing activities that otherwise cause the skin to be in contact with water and cleaning substances and washing hands with water only, reserving soap for when the hands are visibly dirty. PMID:15479201

Jungbauer, F H W; Van Der Harst, J J; Schuttelaar, M L; Groothoff, J W; Coenraads, P J

2004-09-01

18

Industrial waste heat for district heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents 2 bounding evaluations of industrial waste heat availability. Surveys waste heat from 29 major industry groups at the 2-digit level in Standard Industrial Codes (SIC). Explains that waste heat availability in each industry was related to regional product sales, in order to estimate regional waste heat availability. Evaluates 4 selected industries at the 4-digit SIC level. Finds that industrial

K. L. Heitner; P. P. Brooks

1982-01-01

19

Industry Waste Study. The Hawaii Sugar Industry Waste Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the State of Hawaii, wastes generated by agricultural activities, particularly sugar mill operations, are creating significant water pollution problems which threaten to interfere with the continued growth of the tourist industry, a leading factor infl...

1971-01-01

20

Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes. [Industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Waste processing methods utilized in the food-processing industry are reviewed. The industrial waste associated with fruits, vegetables, and grain are examined. The utilization of the waste products after processing is discussed.

Morrell, R.A.; Schmidt, H.E. Jr.

1982-06-01

21

Guide for Industrial Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Guide is to provide facility managers, state and tribal regulators, and the interested public with recommendations and tools to better address the management of land-disposed, non-hazardous industrial wastes. The Guide can help facilit...

2004-01-01

22

Energy Conversion Potential of Industrial Waste Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the feasibility of using incineration with heat recovery as an alternate approach for managing hazardous wastes. Industrial wastes from the following eight major industries are discussed: organic chemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, p...

E. Berger E. Coxe J. Riggenbach

1977-01-01

23

Industrial waste reduction: The process problem  

SciTech Connect

Industrial waste problems, especially those involving hazardous waste, seem to be pervasive. The national media report newly discovered waste problems and sites with alarming regularity. Examples that immediately come to mind are Love Canal, New York; Times Beach, Missouri; and Seveso, Italy. Public perceptions of the industrial waste problem, reflecting the media's focus, appear to be that: large corporations are solely responsible for creating waste dumps, and the only role of government is to prevent illegal dumping and to regulate, fine, and require corporations to rectify the problem; all efforts should be directed toward preventing illegal dumping and treatment of the existing waste dumps; all industrial wastes can be classified as hazardous in nature. This general impression is both inaccurate and incomplete. All industrial waste is not hazardous (although most of it is not benign). All waste producers are not large corporations: nearly all industries produce some wastes. And, while existing waste sites must be effectively treated, additional efforts are needed at other points in the industrial waste cycle. Most people would agree both that waste dumping must be carefully regulated because of its negative impacts on the environment and that the less waste the better, even with carefully regulated disposal. Since nearly all industry now produces some waste and no one expects industry to shut down to resolve the waste problem, other strategies need to be available to deal with the problem at the front end. This paper discusses alternative strategies.

Valentino, F.W.; Walmet, G.E.

1986-09-01

24

Characterization of pressmud: A sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand of energy has been a prime source of motivation for the development of alternate fuels. The concept of biological degradation of organic wastes by anaerobic digestion for the generation of methane has been used by waste management industries for many years. Pressmud is an industrial waste available from the sugar mills. For every 100 tonnes of sugarcane

Neha Gupta; Sumit Tripathi; Chandrajit Balomajumder

2011-01-01

25

Industrial Waste Heat for Greenhouse Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economical conditions of utilizing industrial waste heat for greenhouse heating has been investigated. The investment cost and yearly operational costs of greenhouses and heating systems have been calculated as a function of the temperature of waste h...

S. E. Ransmark

1983-01-01

26

Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-01-01

27

Experimental Investigation of the Wet Oxidation Destruction of Shipboard Waste Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasingly stringent water qualtiy regulations anticipate the need for treating all shipboard waste streams containing combustible matter. Wet air oxidation or pressurized aqueous combustion conducted at 475 to 600F at operating pressures from 600 to 18...

P. Schatzberg D. F. Jackson C. M. Kelly

1974-01-01

28

Industrial and institutional waste heat recovery 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of the book discusses industrial waste heat recovery. Simplified examples are explored. Effective waste heat management including its measurement technology and economics are discussed, with emphasis on energy conservation to increase profits. Of great value are the descriptions of 14 successful installations in US industries. Design specifications for recovery devices, cost studies, and resultant energy savings combine

Stecher

1979-01-01

29

Biomass fuels dehydration with industrial waste heat  

SciTech Connect

The advantages and techniques for utilizing industrial waste heat for drying biomass fuels are discussed. In particular, the use of waste heat fuel dryers in the sugar industry to dry bagasse for cogeneration, is examined. The Hilo Coast Processing Company of Hawaii which operates a very efficient power generating plant with its raw sugar mill is given as an example.

Young, W.O.

1981-02-01

30

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and\\/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly

Larry D Claxton; Virginia S Houk; Thomas J Hughes

1998-01-01

31

Wet oxidation of oil-bearing sulfide wastes  

SciTech Connect

Oil-bearing metal sulfide sludges produced in treatment of an industrial wastewater, which includes plating wastes, have yielded to treatment by electrooxidation and hydrogen peroxide processes. The oxidation can be controlled to be mild enough to avoid decomposition of the organic phase while oxidizing the sulfides to sulfates. The pH is controlled to near neutral conditions where iron, aluminum and chromium(III) precipitate as hydrous oxides. Other metals, such as lead and barium, may be present as sulfate precipitates with limited solubility, while metals such as nickel and cadmium would be present as complexed ions in a sulfate solution. The oxidations were found to proceed smoothly, without vigorous reaction; heat liberation was minimal. 2 refs., 12 figs.

Miller, R.L.; Hotz, N.J.

1991-01-01

32

Vermicomposting of AgroIndustrial Processing Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agro-industrial wastes- wastes from agriculture, food processing or any cellulose based industries- remain largely unutilized\\u000a and often cause environmental problems like dispersing foul odors, occupying vast areas, ground and surface water pollution\\u000a etc. These wastes could be converted into potential renewable source of energy, if managed sustainably and scientifically.\\u000a In the last few decades, vermicomposting technology has been arising as

V. K. Garg; Renuka Gupta

33

Air pollution cleaning wastes: dry versus wet air pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes from dry air pollution control (APC) systems may not be less problematic to transport and landfill than wastes from wet APC Units, particularly the thixotropic flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge. FGD sludge can be converted to a soil-like, disposable material by forced oxidation, fly ash blending, or lime fixation. Dry APC wastes require dust-suppression. Dry APC wastes contain 15-23.7

1983-01-01

34

A NEW, SMALL DRYING FACILITY FOR WET RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect

Due to the reason, that in Germany every Waste, that is foreseen to be stored in a final disposal facility or in a long time interim storage facility, it is necessary to treat a lot of waste using different drying technologies. In Germany two different drying facilities are in operation. The GNS Company prefers a vacuum-drying-technology and has built and designed PETRA-Drying-Facilities. In a lot of smaller locations, it is not possible to install such a facility because inside the working areas of that location, the available space to install the PETRA-Drying-Facility is too small. For that reason, GNS decided to design a new, small Drying-Facility using industrial standard components, applying the vacuum-drying-technology. The new, small Drying-Facility for wet radioactive waste and liquids is presented in this paper. The results of some tests with a prototype facility are shown in chapter 4. The main components of that new facility are described in chapter 3.

Oldiges, Olaf; Blenski, Hans-Juergen

2003-02-27

35

Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste,

Teija Aarnio; Anne Hämäläinen

2008-01-01

36

Slag waste heat recovery and utilization in the elemental phosphorus industry. Final report, October 28, 1977April 30, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 80 x 10¹² Btu\\/y of thermal energy are contained in molten slags produced by the elemental phosphorus industry, the iron and steel industry, the copper industry, and wet-bottom coal-fired boilers. This study evaluates the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of recovering this wasted energy; the impact of slag waste-heat recovery on the industries in question; and the steps necessary

T. E. Ctvrtnicek; R. J. McCormick; R. W. Serth; A. Wojtowicz; D. L. Zanders

1978-01-01

37

INFORMATION FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTE COMBUSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Developed to support effluent guidelines for the commercial hazardous Waste Combustor Subcategory of the Waste Combustors Point Source category. Data were used o develop environmental impacts, regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation and to identify t...

38

Industrial waste minimization--experience from Lithuania.  

PubMed

Waste represents the loss of both material and energy resources. Because excessive waste generation is a symptom of inefficient production processes, low durability of goods and unsustainable consumption patterns, waste quantities can be considered as an indicator of how efficiently society uses raw materials. Therefore, good waste management begins with preventing waste from being generated. The objective of this paper is to present the work related to waste minimization in Lithuania by introducing successful examples from industry, to bring ideas and inspiration to authorities, companies, and others working in the field of waste minimization. The paper is supporting EU waste policy manifested in the EU waste strategy and the proposed Sixth Environmental Action Programme. Many enterprises are still unaware of the full costs of waste management. Therefore, by applying the methodology presented in the paper, companies could make substantial reductions in their waste, and therefore, disposal costs. Waste minimization (WM) often results in substantial savings through reduced purchasing costs and more efficient practices. It also has wide environmental benefits such as reduced energy consumption and less environmental pollution, conservation of natural resources and extension of valuable landfill capacity. Therefore, waste prevention should have the highest priority in waste strategies, as this is the only way to stop the growth of the amount of waste and reduce the loss of resources (EUC Bulletin 12, 1996). PMID:16200978

Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Stasiskiene, Zaneta

2005-08-01

39

Method of extracting heat from manure sewage mud and other wet waste by combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet waste is dried in a drier by a blowing through of the flue gas from the combustion of already dried waste and an appropriately amount of auxiliary air, and the heat from the combustion is generated by means of a scrubber also cleaning the air for fume and dust particles, as well as certain nitrogen and sulphur and unpleasantly

1982-01-01

40

The genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.  

PubMed

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in this document. The importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the sources of contamination so that efforts aimed at control and minimization can be implemented. Of even greater significance is the immediate concern for the welfare of human health and the environment. Subheadings of this document include a description of the genetic bioassays that have been used to test industrial wastes, a compendium of methods commonly used to prepare crude waste samples for bioassay, and a review of the genetic toxicity of wastes and effluents. Wastes and effluents have been grouped according to industrial source. Major categories include chemical and allied products, pulp and paper manufacturing, defense and munitions, petroleum refining, primary metal industries, and miscellaneous industrial manufacturers. Within each industrial category, a synopsis of individual genetic toxicity studies is presented, followed by an interpretation of results on a comprehensive, industry-wide basis. In this evaluation, a discussion of the types and extent of genotoxic damage caused by a particular set of wastes is presented, and potential sources of genotoxic activity are identified. Concluding the document is a commentary, which discloses potential shortcomings in the way in which current legislation protects human heath and the environment from the release of genotoxic substances via industrial wastes and effluents. It also provides an assessment of the genotoxic burden that industrial wastes place on the environment. PMID:1378533

Houk, V S

1992-08-01

41

Recovery Technology of DMF from Wet Type Polyurethane Synthetic Leather Waste Gas * * Supported by the Science and Technology Fund of Zhejiang Province, China (2006C13072)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new recovery technology is developed to recycle N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) in waste gas from wet type polyurethane synthetic leather industry. Given that the concentration of DMF in waste gas was as low as 325.6–688.3 mg·m?3, it was necessary to make sure two phases contact adequately and strengthen the mass transfer by increasing contact area and enhancing the turbulence.

Shunhua ZHAO; Xijin SONG; Ning PEI; Jingzhu ZHANG; Shuqing LIU

2008-01-01

42

Accelerated carbonation treatment of industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of industrial waste presents major logistical, financial and environmental issues. Technologies that can reduce the hazardous properties of wastes are urgently required. In the present work, a number of industrial wastes arising from the cement, metallurgical, paper, waste disposal and energy industries were treated with accelerated carbonation. In this process carbonation was effected by exposing the waste to pure carbon dioxide gas. The paper and cement wastes chemically combined with up to 25% by weight of gas. The reactivity of the wastes to carbon dioxide was controlled by their constituent minerals, and not by their elemental composition, as previously postulated. Similarly, microstructural alteration upon carbonation was primarily influenced by mineralogy. Many of the thermal wastes tested were classified as hazardous, based upon regulated metal content and pH. Treatment by accelerated carbonation reduced the leaching of certain metals, aiding the disposal of many as stable non-reactive wastes. Significant volumes of carbon dioxide were sequestrated into the accelerated carbonated treated wastes.

Gunning, Peter J., E-mail: gunning_peter@hotmail.co [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom); Hills, Colin D.; Carey, Paula J. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15

43

Pretreatment of industrial wastes with ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies showed that ozonation is an effective method of pretreating biorefractory and industrial wastes. Actual industrial waste waters from toluene diisocyanate, ethylene glycol, styrene monomer, and ethylene dichloride processes were oxidized to a biodegradable form and the effects of pH (1-12), temperature (15° and 25°C), ozone-mass transfer, and ferrous sulfate catalyst addition on the oxidation rates were determined. Batch

F. H. Yocum; J. H. Mayes; W. A. Myers

1978-01-01

44

Economic Census 2002: Manufacturing, Industry Series. Wet Corn Milling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2004-01-01

45

Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of

Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

2004-01-01

46

Spain's Leather Industry: Prospects for Blue Chrome (Wet-Blue) Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid expansion of the Spanish leather-goods industry has created a serious problem of pollution from tannery effluents. The use of chrome (wet-blue) leather in Spanish tanneries would reduce the pollution caused by cleaning and dehairing of conventional ...

A. D. V. Pintos H. H. Taylor

1977-01-01

47

Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains technical papers published as they were presented at a recent specialty conference sponsored by the Air & Waste Management Association, titled Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, held March 26-27, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Papers touch on compilance concerns for air pollution, air monitoring methodologies, risk assessment, and problems related to public anxiety. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database from this proceedings.

NONE

1996-12-31

48

Use of waste marble powder in brick industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usability of waste marble dust as an additive material in industrial brick were investigated. Marble wastes were collected from marble deposits which are located at Southwest of Turkey and industrial brick mortar was obtained from a brick company in Istanbul. Waste marble dust and brick mortar were prepared for various processes of industrial brick investigation. Waste material in different

N. Bilgin; H. A. Yeprem; S. Arslan; A. Bilgin; E. Günay; M. Mar?oglu

49

Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The over all objective of the effort described here is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of

Dhooge

1994-01-01

50

Waste Material Management: Energy and materials for industry  

SciTech Connect

This booklet describes DOE`s Waste Material Management (WMM) programs, which are designed to help tap the potential of waste materials. Four programs are described in general terms: Industrial Waste Reduction, Waste Utilization and Conversion, Energy from Municipal Waste, and Solar Industrial Applications.

Not Available

1993-05-01

51

Hazardous and industrial wastes: Proceedings of the twenty-seventh Mid-Atlantic industrial waste conference  

SciTech Connect

The Mid-Atlantic Industrial and Hazardous Waste Conference is an annual gathering of consultants, industrial environmental managers, regulators and academicians. The purpose is to exchange ideas and information and also to initiate healthy debates on environmental issues facing the industries and the society as a whole. The central theme of the 27th Conference is ``Enhancing Industrial Growth and Protecting Our Environment: A Partnership between Industries, Academia and the Government.`` Approximately ninety technical papers in areas as diverse as Waste Minimization and Reuse, Regulations, and Ethical Issues, Biological Treatment, Soil Treatment and Characterization, Heavy Metals Removal, etc., are presented. Individual paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Sengupta, A.K. [ed.] [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

52

Wet air oxidation of solid waste made of polymers  

SciTech Connect

Wet air oxidation was attempted on synthetic (mixture of plastics of various compositions) and natural (cellulose substances) solid polymers. The temperature was maintained at 270 C and the oxygen pressure varied from 0 to 2 MPa (from understoichiometric conditions to oxygen excess). No valorizable compounds were found, even in runs carried out under an oxygen deficit. Suitable conditions for the total destruction of the initial polymers were temperatures above 270 C, an excess of oxygen, and a residence time of less than 1 h. Only such degradable compounds as acetic and benzoic acids are found at low concentrations. Formation of chlorine and gaseous hydrochloric acid can be limited by adding CaCO{sub 3} as a neutralizing agent.

Krisner, E.; Ambrosio, M.; Massiani, C.

2000-03-01

53

RECOVERY, REUSE, AND RECYCLE OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The major goal of this work is to produce a document useful in planning efforts aimed at elimination of industrial wastes through the application of recycle, recovery, and reuse technology. The pollutants considered in this study are basically organic and inorganic by-products fr...

54

Biochemical treatment technologies for gas industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential chemical and biological amendments as well as sequential biological processes (e.g. anaerobic-aerobic) may have potential in reducing pollutants present in Gas Industry wastes. Several Town Gas soils have been characterized regarding Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) levels and soil particle distributions prior to and following biological treatment. Multivariate statistical analyses have revealed that the presence of biodegradable PAHs such as naphthalene

W. K. Gauger; R. L. Kelley; V. J. Srivastava

1991-01-01

55

Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.  

PubMed

Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

2010-07-01

56

40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include...

2013-07-01

57

Wet landfill decomposition rate determination using methane yield results for excavated waste samples.  

PubMed

An increasing number of landfills are operated to accelerate waste decomposition through liquids addition (e.g., leachate recirculation) as a wet landfill. Landfill design and regulation often depend on utilizing landfill gas production models that require an estimate of a first-order gas generation rate constant, k. Consequently, several studies have estimated k using collected gas volumes from operating wet landfills. Research was conducted to examine an alternative approach in which k is estimated not from collected landfill gas but from solid waste samples collected over time and analyzed for remaining gas yield. To achieve this goal, waste samples were collected from 1990 through 2007 at two full-scale landfills in Florida that practiced liquids addition. Methane yields were measured from waste samples collected over time, including periods before and after leachate recirculation, and the results were applied to a first-order decay model to estimate rate constants for each of the sites. An initial, intensive processing step was conducted to exclude non-biodegradable components from the methane yield testing procedure. The resulting rate constants for the two landfills examined were 0.47 yr(-1) and 0.21 yr(-1). These results expectedly exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency's rate constants for dry and conventional landfills (0.02-0.05 yr(-1)), but they are comparable to wet landfill rate constants derived using landfill gas data (0.1-0.3 yr(-1)). PMID:22516100

Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy G

2012-04-17

58

Waste-to-energy industry maturing  

SciTech Connect

The rapidly developing waste-to-energy industry is showing that it is offering some very real solutions to their waste-disposal problems. A recent survey showed that there were 196 resource recovery facilities, having a combined processing capacity of 156,000 tons per day (TPD), either operating, under construction, or in the advanced planning stages in the US at this time. There are growing indications, however, that the industry is already moving from the early gold rush days to the maturation stage. There is also increasing environmental opposition as the not-in-my-backyard syndrome spreads and as environmental groups increase their activities. There is every indication that politics will continue to play an important role in waste management decisions. Changing economics can also have their effect. While projects may be delayed or postponed indefinitely, there is no doubt that the waste-to-energy industry will continue to bring plants on-line. A review of 9 contract award announcements and new plant dedications is made.

Marier, D.

1987-09-01

59

Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long?term stability tests were conducted in trickle?bed reactors. The catalyst did

M. Besson; C. Descorme; M. Bernardi; P. Gallezot; F. di Gregorio; N. Grosjean; D. Pham Minh; A. Pintar

2010-01-01

60

Design for application of the DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation process to mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual engineering has been performed for application of the DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation process to treatment of specific mixed waste types. Chemical compositions, mass balances, energy balances, temperatures, pressures, and flows have been used to define design parameters for treatment units capable of destroying 5. Kg per hour of polychlorinated biphenyls and 25. Kg per hour of tributyl phosphate. Equipment for the units has been sized and materials of construction have been specified. Secondary waste streams have been defined. Environmental safety and health issues in design have been addressed. Capital and operating costs have been estimated based on the conceptual designs.

Bell, R.A.; Dhooge, P.M.

1994-04-01

61

Environmental impact of radioactive waste management in the nuclear industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive wastes from the nuclear industry are classified into low, intermediate and high activity levels, and problems of their storage and release examined in detail. Current means of storage are considered with reference to processing of low and intermediate level liquid waste, processing of high level waste, processing of airborne waste, and ground disposal and processing of solid waste. Release

Colin R. Phillips; H. Lin Pai

1977-01-01

62

Potential utilization of guar gum industrial waste in vermicompost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of guar gum industrial waste through vermitechnology was studied under laboratory conditions by using composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier). Three different combination of guar gum industrial waste namely guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 40:30:30 ratio (T1), guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 60:20:20 ratio (T2), and guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 75:15:10 ratio (T3)

Surendra Suthar

2006-01-01

63

Industrial solid waste flow analysis of eco-industrial parks: implications for sustainable waste management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable waste management in the industrial ecology perspective brings enormous challenges to the existing methodology\\u000a of waste analysis at the industrial park (IP) scale. In this study, a four-step method was proposed for industrial solid waste\\u000a (ISW) flow analysis of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) and applied to two IPs in eastern China. According to a park-wide census\\u000a of 619 industrial enterprises

Yongpeng Lü; Kai Yang; Yue Che; Zhaoyi Shang; Jun Tai; Yun Jian

64

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste.  

PubMed

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste (pulp and peel) with subsequent aerobic post-treatment of the digestate was evaluated. Methane production potential was first determined in batch assays and the effects of operational parameters such as hydraulic retention times (HRT) and organic loading rates (OLR) on process performance were studied through semi-continuous digestion. In batch assays, methane production potential of about 0.49 m(3) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added waste) was achieved. In semi-continuous digestion, loading at 2.8 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (2.9 kg total solids (TS) m(-3) d(-1)) and HRT of 26 d produced specific methane yields of 0.6 m(3) kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63 m(3) kg(-1) VS(added waste)). Operating at a higher OLR of 4.2 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (4.4 kg TS m(-3) d(-1)) and 40 d HRT produced 0.5 m(3) of methane kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63-0.52 m(3) kg(-1) TS (added waste). Up to 70% of TS of industrial orange waste (11.6% TS) was methanised. Further increase in OLR to 5.6 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) (5.9 kg TS m(-3) d(-1); HRT of 20 d) resulted in an unstable and non-functional digester process shown directly through complete cessation of methanogenesis, drop in methane content, reduced pH and increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, especially acetate and soluble chemical oxygen demand. A pH adjustment (from an initial 3.2 to ca. 8) for the low pH orange waste was necessary and was found to be a crucial factor for stable digester operation as the process showed a tendency to be inhibited due to accumulation of VFAs and decrease in digester pH. Aerobic post-treatment of digestate resulted in removal of ammonia and VFAs. PMID:16865918

Kaparaju, P L N; Rintala, J A

2006-06-01

65

Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building. PMID:18514765

Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

2008-06-02

66

Wet oxidation properties of process waste waters of fine chemical and pharmaceutical origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet oxidation was carried out for treating different industrial process wastewaters (PWW’s) of pharmaceutical production,\\u000a with oxygen in a stainless steel autoclave at 230 and 250 °C and total pressure of 50 bar. Beside non-catalytic, a catalytic\\u000a reaction was also carried out. The catalyst applied was Ti mesh covered with Ru and Ir oxide. PWW samples were analyzed with\\u000a respect to their

A. M. Hosseini; A. Tungler; V. Bakos

67

SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

2009-10-01

68

Conversion of food industrial wastes into bioplastics.  

PubMed

The usage of plastics in packaging and disposable products, and the generation of plastic waste, have been increasing drastically. Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. In the authors' laboratories, various carbohydrates in the growth media, including sucrose, lactic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and various combinations of butyric and valeric acids, were utilized as the carbon (c) sources for the production of bioplastics by Alcaligenes eutrophus. As the first step in pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesize bioplastics, the authors investigated the usage of malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the C sources for the production of bioplastics by microorganisms. Specific polymer production yield by A. Latus DSM 1124 increased to 70% polymer/cell (g/g) and 32 g/L cell dry wt, using malt wastes as the C source. The results of these experiments indicated that, with the use of different types of food wastes as the C source, different polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers could be produced with distinct polymer properties. PMID:18576025

Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Lo, W; Chen, G Q

1998-01-01

69

Hazardous waste minimization. Part VI. Waste minimization in the foundry industry  

SciTech Connect

The foundry industry is a major consumer of waste materials (scrap). Unfortunately, the recycling of these waste materials can result in the generation of hazardous wastes that must be properly managed at a significant cost. This article focuses on two waste streams in the foundry industry; calcium carbide desulfurization slag and melt emission control residuals. The author presents an overview of how foundries have evaluated different waste management options with the ultimate goal of minimizing the generation of hazardous waste.

Oman, D.E.

1988-07-01

70

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to

Christina Galitsky; Ernst Worrell; Michael Ruth

2003-01-01

71

CAPITAL AND O AND M COST RELATIONSHIPS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION: ADDENDUM NO. 1 - IONIZING WET SCRUBBER COSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report addresses certain cost aspects of hazardous waste incineration; specifically capital and operating costs for ionizing wet scrubbers (IWS). It is an addendum to a more comprehensive report 'Capital and O&M Cost Relationships for Hazardous Waste Incineration,' which dev...

72

ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF BIOACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater (Selenastrum capricornutum) and estuarine (Skeketonema costatum) algae were exposed to liquid wastes from 10 industrial sites in laboratory bioassays. All wastes affected algal growth either by stimulation or by stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at high ...

73

Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

Huang, M.-C. [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: u9315915@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw; Lin, Jim Juimin [Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

2008-11-15

74

Safety Information Profile: Waste Disposal of Industrial Solvents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A safety information profile is presented for industrial solvents waste disposal (Standard Industrial Classification 28). Different types of incineration methods are described together with landfill and evaporation processes. Potential health and safety h...

A. V. Simonson

1979-01-01

75

A semi-wet technological process for flue gas desulfurization by corona discharges at an industrial scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industry-scale semi-wet technological process for flue gas desulfurization by corona discharges is recommended. Its characteristics are: (1) it uses an ac\\/dc power supply to generate uniformly distributed streamer plasmas; (2) it uses a partitioned wet reactor system in which SO2 in the flue gas is absorbed with ammonia water in its thermal chemical reaction stage and the generated solution

Keping Yan; Ruinian Li; Tianle Zhu; Hongdi Zhang; Xiaotu Hu; Xuedong Jiang; Hui Liang; Ruichang Qiu; Yi Wang

2006-01-01

76

Aluminum extraction from aluminum industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste from the Egyptian Aluminum Company (Egyptalum), was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum sulfate alum (Al2(SO4)3·12H2O) and ammonium aluminum alum {(NH4)2SO4AL2 (SO4)3·24H2O}. This was carried out in two processes. The first involves leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of aluminum sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purified aluminum dross tailings thus produced. This was carried out in an autoclave. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on pressure leaching and extraction processes were studied in order to specify the optimum conditions to be applied in the bench scale production as well as the kinetics of leaching process.

Amer, A. M.

2010-05-01

77

Industrial and sewage wastes in the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on marine waste disposal. Topics considered include modeling and field studies of physical oceanographic aspects of waste disposal, chemical effects, biological and toxic effects, the Mid-Atlantic and New York Bight dumpsites, stabilized coal waste, the physical and chemical properties of coal wastes in seawater, the diffusion of calcium and sulfate compounds in stabilized coal wastes, and

I. W. Duedall; B. H. Ketchum; P. K. Park; D. R. Kester

1983-01-01

78

Waste-to-energy application in an industrial district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial districts present some features that can be recognized and exploited in the plant engineering through the proposal of solutions which are not simple applications of models created for individual companies. This work illustrates a waste-to-energy plant to be used for the industrial waste of the district of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The project from the union between university and local

Antonella Meneghetti; Gioacchino Nardin; Patrizia Simeoni

2002-01-01

79

Energy conversion potential of industrial waste streams. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the feasibility of using incineration with heat recovery as an alternate approach for managing hazardous wastes. Industrial wastes from the following eight major industries are discussed: organic chemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, tires and inner tubes, fabricated rubber products, paints, and solvent reclaiming. The study addresses the theme of whether the value of recovered energy is sufficient

E. Coxe; E. Berger; J. Riggenbach

1977-01-01

80

Detrimental effects of pharmaceutical industrial waste on microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical industrial waste was collected from Ghaziabad (Cooper Pharma Ltd.) and analyzed for color, odor, specific gravity, turbidity, pH, total solids, suspended solids, dissolved solids, volatile solids, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), organic and inorganic nitrogen, sulfur, chlorides, sulfates and phosphates. The detrimental effects of industrial waste on microorganisms were studied in the system

M. Ajmal; A. Ahmad; M. Z. Hasan; Azhar A. Nomani

1980-01-01

81

Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of

Selvi Subramanian; M. Sivarajan; S. Saravanapriya

2010-01-01

82

Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the

Mei-Chuan Huang; Jim Juimin Lin

2008-01-01

83

How to dispose of toxic substances and industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

All recognized and allowed ultimate disposal methods for toxic materials and industrial wastes are discussed in detail, and a long list of specific recommendations for specific substances plus alternative disposal or recovery methods are presented. Ultimate waste disposal implies the final disposition of nondegradable, persistent, harmful, and cumulative wastes that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Workable solutions to ultimate

1976-01-01

84

Use of petrochemical waste in the glass industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that ferrochrome slags used for coloring container glass be replaced by waste materials of the petrochemical industry. The expediency of the use of the waste is shown. Recommendations are given on the use of petrochemical waste for coloring container glass.

V. P. Krokhin; O. V. Puchka

1996-01-01

85

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Oollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 211 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-03-01

86

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

87

Reuse of waste catalysts from petrochemical industries for cement substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolite catalysts have been widely used in oil refinery and petrochemical industries. Two types of waste catalysts, equilibrium catalyst (Ecat), and electrostatic precipitator catalyst (EPcat), can be obtained after fluid catalytic cracking. This study analyzes the properties of these waste catalysts and examines the feasibility of reusing them to substitute part of the cement required in mortar preparation. These waste

Nan Su; Hung-Yuan Fang; Zong-Huei Chen; Fu-Shung Liu

2000-01-01

88

A zero waste vision for industrial networks in Europe.  

PubMed

'ZeroWIN' (Towards Zero Waste in Industrial Networks--www.zerowin.eu) is a five year project running 2009-2014, funded by the EC under the 7th Framework Programme. Project ZeroWIN envisions industrial networks that have eliminated the wasteful consumption of resources. Zero waste is a unifying concept for a range of measures aimed at eliminating waste and challenging old ways of thinking. Aiming for zero waste will mean viewing waste as a potential resource with value to be realised, rather than as a problem to be dealt with. The ZeroWIN project will investigate and demonstrate how existing approaches and tools can be improved and combined to best effect in an industrial network, and how innovative technologies can contribute to achieving the zero waste vision. PMID:21899950

Curran, T; Williams, I D

2011-08-26

89

Lessons in waste minimization from nuclear industry experience  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has been very successful at reducing waste volumes and waste sources. The success has been driven by escalating cost, decreasing disposal ability, and a desire by the industry to achieve excellence. The result has been a cycle of continuing improvement resulting in reduced cost. Many of the examples of Dry Active Waste reduction are applicable to the Department of Energy in both operations and remedial activities. This paper discusses several successful examples of utility applications in this area.

Devgun, J.S.; Thuot, J.R.; Vrtis, J.

1996-07-01

90

Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the UK to offer reasons why it has not been more widely used. This paper presents a model that calculates the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) on a twenty year investment in a 30,000 tonnes per annum wet mesophilic AD plant in the UK for the treatment of source separated organic waste, which is judged to be a suitable technology for the UK climate. The model evaluates the financial significance of the different alternative energy outputs from this AD plant and the resulting economic subsidies paid for renewable energy. Results show that renewable electricity and renewable heat sales supported by renewable electricity and renewable heat tariffs generates the greatest IRR (31.26%). All other uses of biogas generate an IRR in excess of 15%, and are judged to be a financially viable investment. Sensitivity analysis highlights the financial significance of: economic incentive payments and a waste management gate fee; and demonstrates that the fate of the digestate by-product is a source of financial uncertainty for AD investors. PMID:21481437

Dolan, T; Cook, M B; Angus, A J

2011-04-09

91

Experience in the utilization of carbonization-industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbonization industry is the source of large amounts of liquid and solid wastes, totalling more than 460 thousand t\\/year. Recovery and processing of crude benzole yields 140 thousand t\\/year of wastes, i.e., 35% of the total wastes from the various chemical departments. Eleven different types of wastes are produced by the recovery and rectification departments of the Baglei C

R. R. Boyarskaya; E. A. Voitkovskaya; S. I. Mikhno

1977-01-01

92

Co-gasification of wet sewage sludge and forestry waste in situ steam agent.  

PubMed

The co-gasification of wet sewage sludge (80 wt.% moisture, WSS) and forestry waste (FW) blends was studied. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that weight loss and the maximum weight loss rate of the sample increased with the increase in FW content. The co-gasification process was performed in a lab-scale fixed bed gasifier to investigate the effects of WSS content and reactor temperature on product yields, gas composition and gasification performance. The results indicated that steam generated from the moisture content in WSS took part in the gasification with char. The gas yield decreased with the increasing WSS content. And the concentrations of H(2) and CO reached the maximum when the WSS content was 50%. The LHV of fuel gas ranged from 11.89 MJ/Nm(3) to 12.72 MJ/Nm(3) when the reactor temperature increased from 700 °C to 900 °C. PMID:22503423

Peng, Lixin; Wang, Yongxiu; Lei, Zhihong; Cheng, Gong

2012-03-30

93

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

SciTech Connect

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

Smith, K.P.

1992-01-01

94

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

SciTech Connect

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

Smith, K.P.

1992-09-01

95

Solid waste management in non-ferrous industries in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the production capacity, type and quantity of solid wastes generated, their chemical composition and treatment\\/disposal options for the Indian aluminium, copper lead and zinc industries. Red mud, spent pot lining (SPL), fly ash from aluminium industries; scrap, slag, dross, reverts, slime, flue dust, mill scales, sludge etc. from copper industries; zinc tailing, slag, leach residue, jarosite residue,

A Agrawal; K. K Sahu; B. D Pandey

2004-01-01

96

Meat-, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

Litchfield, J.H.

1982-06-01

97

Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

2003-11-21

98

Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

A variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes were evaluated. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity: These samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (either TA98 or TA100) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats would provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means.

DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

1989-01-01

99

Mobile encapsulation and volume reduction system for wet low-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the program entitled ''A Preconceptual Study for a Transportable Vitrification Process''. The objective of the study is to determine the feasibility of a Mobile Encapsulation and Volume Reduction System (MEVS). The report contains design criteria, a preconceptual design of the system, a comparison of disposal costs with other solidification technologies, and an assessment of utility interests in the transportable volume reduction service MEVS can provide. The MEVS design employs the use of a joule-heated glass melter to convert the wet low-level wastes into glass. The process is self-sufficient, requiring no direct facility services or reactor personnel. It is capable of servicing one waste type from a minimum of three reactors. The design was used to prepare capital and operating cost estimates. The capital cost for the MEVS is $4,680,000, which includes all labor necessary for design, engineering, inspection, and licensing. The operating cost of the system for servicing a minimum of three reactors is $1,530,000/y for resins or $2,280,000/y for concentrated liquids. The cost estimates compared favorably to the more common solidification process of cementation. Total MEVS operating costs which include processing, transportation and burial, are $191 to $218/ft/sup 3/ waste, whereas quoted costs for cementation and disposal from reactor operators range from $155 to $350/ft/sup 3/. The report concludes with the requirements for additional development, which can be accomplished for less than one sixth of the capital costs. The report also presents the results of an assessment conducted with utility representatives to obtain their expressions of interest in a service of this type.

Buelt, J.L.

1985-08-01

100

Synthetic Resin Adsorbents in Treatment of Industrial Waste Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of synthetic polymeric adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants from industrial waste streams is a viable alternative to more common treatment methods such as carbon adsorption. However, resin technology is not widely practiced due to the diff...

L. S. Benner

1983-01-01

101

WASTE MINIMIZATION IN THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD INDUSTRY: CASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents information on waste minimization practices currently employed in the printed circuit board (PCB) and semiconductor manufacturing industries. Case studies conducted at six facilities evaluated the technical, environmental and cost impacts associated with the i...

102

Review of Federal Prison Industries' Electronic-Waste Recycling Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Executive Summary describes the results of an investigation by the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) into the health, safety, and environmental compliance practices of Federal Prison Industries (FPI) electronic waste (ewaste) recycling program. F...

2010-01-01

103

Disposal of Industrial and Domestic Wastes: Land and Sea Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop should be organized into eight panels: public policy, economics, risk assessment, marine sciences, biological effects, land disposal, sewage sludge, and industrial wastes. In addition to organizing the workshop, the steering committee identif...

1984-01-01

104

SURVEY OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Stabilization/solidification or fixation is a process for treating industrial solid wastes (primarily sludges) that contain hazardous constituents to prevent dissolution and loss of toxic materials into the environment. Most of these treatment processes are designed to produce a ...

105

Mitigation of Metal Ion Pollution from Industrial Waste Water Using Waste Wool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the adsorption of copper (II) ions from the aqueous solution on waste wool had been carried out to analyze the adsorption capacity of waste wool, thereby aiming towards mitigation of metal ion pollution in industrial waste water. The effect of varying concentration of copper ions and varying time period, was studied on fixed weight of waste wool. The initial and final concentration of copper ions was measured by conductometric and spectrophotometric methods. Adsorption data were modeled with the langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherm and first order equation were found to be applicable. Removal of metal ions using industrial waste wool is found to be favourable. Thus the work can be extended to study various physico-chemical parameters for removal of copper (II) ions from industrial effluents using waste wool. A later work can be involved where the waste wool adsorption parameter can be further utilized for composite ceramic products.

Prajapat, Garima; Purohit, Praveen

106

Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges.  

PubMed

This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long-term stability tests were conducted in trickle-bed reactors. The catalyst did not leach upon treatment of Kraft bleaching plant and olive oil mill effluents, and could be either recycled or used for long periods of time in continuous reactors. Conversely, these catalysts were rapidly leached when used to treat effluents from the production of polymeric membranes containing N,N-dimethylformamide. The intermediate formation of amines, such as dimethylamine and methylamine with a high complexing capacity for the metal, was shown to be responsible for the metal leaching. These heterogeneous catalysts also deactivated upon CWAO of sewage sludges due to the adsorption of the solid organic matter. Pre-sonication of the sludge to disintegrate the flocs and improve solubility was inefficient. PMID:21214003

Besson, M; Descorme, C; Bernardi, M; Gallezot, P; di Gregorio, F; Grosjean, N; Minh, D Pham; Pintar, A

2010-12-01

107

Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

108

Industry and Trade Summary: Wood Pulp and Waste Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes trade and industry conditions for the wood pulp and waste paperindustry for the time period 1996-2000. Wood pulp and waste paper are both intermediateproducts and are used as raw materials in the manufacture of paper, paperboard, an...

2002-01-01

109

Management of industrial and municipal solid wastes in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altogether more than 4 billion tonnes of wastes are landfilled in Poland and every year this amount increases by 145 million tonnes (without taking into account the overburden produced in open-pit mines). This includes 133 million tonnes of industrial and 12 million tonnes of municipal solid wastes–MSW). Their amount (mainly MSW) is expected to rise constantly, similarly as in other

Ma?gorzata Grodzi?ska-Jurczak

2001-01-01

110

Biodegradability of meat industry wastes under anaerobic and aerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the biodegradation kinetics and the different biologically degradable fractions (readily, slowly and inert fractions) of the organic wastes generated in a meat industry have been estimated under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Three of these could be degraded under both conditions, whereas one (pig\\/cow waste slurries) could only be aerobically degraded since the high ammonia concentration caused

I. M. Buendía; F. J. Fernández; J. Villaseñor; L. Rodríguez

2008-01-01

111

STUDY OF CODISPOSED MUNICIPAL AND TREATED/UNTREATED INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to determine the long-term effects of codisposal of industrial waste (IW) and municipal solid waste (MSW) under controlled, simulated landfill conditions. Three IW's (treated or untreated by solidification) were disposed with MSW in nine specially designed ...

112

Solid industrial wastes and their management in Asegra (Granada, Spain)  

SciTech Connect

ASEGRA is an industrial area in Granada (Spain) with important waste management problems. In order to properly manage and control waste production in industry, one must know the quantity, type, and composition of industrial wastes, as well as the management practices of the companies involved. In our study, questionnaires were used to collect data regarding methods of waste management used in 170 of the 230 businesses in the area of study. The majority of these companies in ASEGRA are small or medium-size, and belong to the service sector, transport, and distribution. This was naturally a conditioning factor in both the type and management of the wastes generated. It was observed that paper and cardboard, plastic, wood, and metals were the most common types of waste, mainly generated from packaging (49% of the total volume), as well as material used in containers and for wrapping products. Serious problems were observed in the management of these wastes. In most cases they were disposed of by dumping, and very rarely did businesses resort to reuse, recycling or valorization. Smaller companies encountered greater difficulties when it came to effective waste management. The most frequent solution for the disposal of wastes in the area was dumping.

Casares, M.L. [Department of Civil Engineering, E.T.S. I.C.C.P., University of Granada (Spain), Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Ulierte, N. [Department of Civil Engineering, E.T.S. I.C.C.P., University of Granada (Spain), Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Mataran, A. [Area of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Granada (Spain), Laboratorio de Urbanistica y Ordenacion del Territorio, Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Ramos, A. [Department of Civil Engineering, E.T.S. I.C.C.P., University of Granada (Spain), Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Zamorano, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, E.T.S. I.C.C.P., University of Granada (Spain), Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es

2005-07-01

113

Assessment of Industrial Hazardous Waste Practices, Leather Tanning and Finishing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, which covers the leather tanning and finishing industry, is one of a series of studies which examine land-destined waste from selected industries. For purposes of this study, the tanning industry has been categorized by the types of process s...

D. H. Bauer E. T. Conrad G. L. Mitchell

1976-01-01

114

Industrial and institutional waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this book is to help the reader assess the value of waste heat (which depends on its form and location) and decide how that value can be used to earn dollars. The problem addressed is that of converting waste heat into useful heat in such a way as to increase profits. The essential quality of heat considered

Stecher

1979-01-01

115

Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near

F. T. Bolinsky; J. Ross; D. S. Dennis; J. S. Huston

1991-01-01

116

Wet-milling of wheat flour: industrial processes and small-scale test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial manufacture of wheat starch and vital wheat gluten involves physical separation of starch granules and gluten particles formed in a neutral aqueous system. The wet-separation of gluten proteins and starch from wheat flour is based on their water insolubility, density, and particle size. Upon wetting, gluten proteins in wheat endosperm aggregate and form particles that are larger in size

Abdulvahit Sayaslan

2004-01-01

117

A survey of waste minimization recommendations for three industrial sectors  

SciTech Connect

What changes can manufacturers make to reduce waste streams and save money? A recent modification to a successful Department of Energy energy audit program has included a focus on waste minimization for small and medium-sized manufacturers. The program change was incorporated over two years ago and approximately 2,000 assessments have been completed nationwide since the change. This article will examine the results of the combined energy/waste assessments. Most of the material contained is derived from a paper published at the ASEE 1997 Annual Meeting. The paper focuses on the typical waste recommendations made for three sectors of Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) 20-39. Recommendations vary from typical conservation measures such as recycling pallets and cardboard to direct process modifications that reduce water or chemical usage. While some recommendations are general and can be applied to any industry, others are industry-specific.

Dunning, S.; Martin, P.

1998-12-31

118

Vermicomposting of milk processing industry sludge spiked with plant wastes.  

PubMed

This work illustrates the vermistabilization of wastewater sludge from a milk processing industry (MPIS) unit spiked with cow dung (CD), sugarcane trash (ST) and wheat straw (WS) employing earthworms Eisenia fetida. A total of nine experimental vermibeds were established and changes in chemical parameters of waste material have been observed for 90 days. Vermistabilization caused significant reduction in pH, organic carbon and C:N ratio and substantial increase in total N, available P and exchangeable K. The waste mixture containing MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+ST (30%) and MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+WS (30%) had better waste mineralization rate among waste mixtures studied. The earthworm showed better biomass and cocoon numbers in all vermibeds during vermicomposting operation. Results, thus suggest the suitability of E. fetida for conversion of noxious industrial waste into value-added product for land restoration programme. PMID:22609678

Suthar, Surindra; Mutiyar, Pravin K; Singh, Sushma

2012-04-05

119

Improvement of Treatment of Food Industry Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the COD demand of cheese whey waste generated from dairy processing plants. Three primary processing variables were studied: Agitation, temperature, and current density. Results in...

S. B. Tuwiner

1974-01-01

120

Industrial wastes: meat, fish and poultry processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

This article is a review of meat, fish and poultry processing wastes. Reviews on slaughterhouse and packinghouse wastewater treatment methods were mentioned together with processes for protein recovery from wastewater and wastewater treatment sludges.

Litchfield, J.H.

1980-06-01

121

MUTAGENISTIC TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES FROM REPRESENTATIVE ORGANIC CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The general applicability of the Ames test for screening wastewater samples was investigated. Application of the Ames test to raw and treated wastewaters from representative organic chemical industries involved the investigation of several problems: (1) the feasibility of using t...

122

Industry initiative puts cap on waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 30 years, the environment has been enhanced and protected through ``command-and-control`` regulation imposed by federal, state and local authorities. Although initially effective in making industry aware of the need for greater environmental stewardship, this type of regulation is increasingly obsolete. It seldom reflects relative environmental priorities, carries an increasingly erroneous presumption of guilt regarding industry`s concern for

D. R. Sasseville; T. S. Burack; E. J. Hess; K. A. Colburn

1995-01-01

123

Treatment of Waste Water from Wet Lime (Stone) Flue Gas Desulfurization Plants with Aid of Crossflow Microfiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A treatment method has been developed to remove heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn very efficiently from waste water from wet lime(stone)-gypsum flue gas desulfurization plants (FGD).This method has been based on coprecipitation of heavy metal hydroxides and sulfides followed by crossflow microfiltration as a post-treatment. The experiments were carried out on

G. D. Enoch; W. Spiering; P. Tigchelaar; J. de Niet; J. B. Lefers

1990-01-01

124

Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes.  

PubMed

A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production. PMID:20359816

Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S

2010-03-09

125

Treatment and Recovery of Fluoride Industrial Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and successful demonstration of laboratory and pilot-scale fluoride treatment techniques for selected aerospace and metalworking industry chemical processing solutions and rinse waters are described. Included are laboratory-scale, lime tre...

C. J. Staebler

1974-01-01

126

Application of fluidized bed combustion to industrial waste treatment.  

PubMed

Landfill and sea-dumping appear to be on their way out as acceptable methods for the disposal of untreated industrial wastes in Taiwan. Recently, there has been interest in the application of fluidized bed technology to waste incineration for efficient energy utilization and environmental protection. A pilot fluidized bed combustion system was used to investigate the incineration performance and parametric test for the waste from an industrial park. According to the experimental results, the appropriate operating conditions, including temperatures of 800-840 degrees C, aeration rates of U(0)/Um(f)-2.0 or so, and on-bed feeding, were recommended to treat such waste. The emissions of SO(x), NO(x) and CO in flue gas meet the ROC-EPA regulation. PMID:15092126

Chang, Y M; Lo, Y F; Ho, C C

1991-01-01

127

Deep ocean disposal of toxic industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations can be used to predict the transport and fate of many materials disposed of in the ocean, if enough critical information is available on rates of transfers of the wastes in question. Continued ocean dumping must be accompanied by a program of research and monitoring to validate those speculative transfer functions in the original models that justify the

G. Rowe

1982-01-01

128

Radioactive and hazardous constituents screening plan for industrial waste landfill IV  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF IV) is permitted (Registration Number IDL 01 1030075) to accept nonhazardous, nonradioactive industrial waste as detailed in the {open_quotes}Design and Operating Procedures for the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV,{close_quotes} Y/TS-399 and by Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) special waste approval. Both are approved by the TDEC.

Lankford, L.L.; Bohrman, D.E.

1994-05-01

129

Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial Park level: A case of Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers.

Yong Geng; Qinghua Zhu; Murray Haight

2007-01-01

130

Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.  

PubMed

Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. PMID:22465397

Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

2012-03-31

131

Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

2003-02-24

132

Conversion of food industrial wastes into bioplastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of plastics in packaging and disposable products, and the generation of plastic waste, have been increasing drastically.\\u000a Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would\\u000a heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. In\\u000a the authors’ laboratories, various carbohydrates in

P. H. Yu; H. Chua; A. L. Huang; W. Lo; G. Q. Chen

1998-01-01

133

Biological treatment of alkaline industrial waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotechnological treatment of alkaline waste waters (AWW) resulting from the production of caprolactam by the SNIA-viscosa process has been studied. The pollutant in the AWW is 80–120 g litre?1 cyclohexanecarboxysulphonate (CECS) sodium salt with a COD up to 325?000 mg litre?1. Bacterial strains have been isolated which are able to grow on AWW and to degrade the largest possible

S Baccella; G Cerichelli; M Chiarini; C Ercole; E Fantauzzi; A Lepidi; L Toro; F Vegliò

2000-01-01

134

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

The paper as a preliminary country paper for the UNIDO's programe on Industrial waste water purification, which embraces eight countries from Africa, is prepared in such a way that it could serve as source materi al for the programs implementation in the country. The program's main objective being developing the most appropriate and effective means to deal with long term problems associated with generation and treatment of industrial waste water influence, every effort is made to present what ever relevant informations pertaining to the program's objective and goal. To this end, the first chapter delivers general background information about the countries natural resource and the prevailing industrial feature, while the second chapter deliberates on the results of the investigation and evaluation of the selected subsectors and factories from the industrial sector. Finally, an overview of other side factors which could possibly have effects on the project's activity is presented in the third chapter.

Mebratu, D.

1990-09-10

135

Use of waste materials in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Symposium by Correspondence has been organised on behalf of RILEM on the use of waste materials and industrial by-products\\u000a in the construction industry. 18 countries (excluding the UK for which the authors are providing information) submitted contributions\\u000a and in this paper these contributions are summarised and analysed. Information about individual materials has been extracted\\u000a from the national contributions and

W. Gutt; P. J. Nixon

1979-01-01

136

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

137

Simulation of the operation of an industrial wet flue gas desulfurization system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the simulation of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit with spray tower of a power plant is presented, aiming at an efficient follow-up and the optimization of the FGD system operation. The dynamic model developed to simulate the performance of the system has been validated with operation data collected over a long period of time. All

L. E. Kallinikos; E. I. Farsari; D. N. Spartinos; N. G. Papayannakos

2010-01-01

138

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

2003-07-01

139

Production of specific copolymers of polyhydroxyalkanoates from industrial waste.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable plastics with the desired physical and chemical properties of conventional synthetic plastics, are extensively investigated. In this study, specific bacterial strains produced specific copolymers from food waste. Copolymers of HB and HV (poly[3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate]) were obtained using various ratios of butyric acid (C4) and valeric acid (C5) as carbon sources. The C4 to C5 ratio affected the melting points of the copolymers. Melting and glass transition temperatures and many other thermal properties are important parameters relative to in-service polymer applications. Higher ratios of butyrate to valerate gave higher melting points. When a mixed culture of activated sludge was employed to produce copolymers using food wastes as nutrients, the obtained copolymers showed various monomer compositions. Copolymers with a higher portion of HV were obtained using soy waste; copolymers with less HV were obtained using malt wastes. Pure strains, (i.e., Alcaligenes latus DSM 1122, and DSM 1124, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp.) produced specific copolymers from food waste. Only Klebsiella spp. produced different copolymers; the ratios of HB:HV were 93:7 and 79:21 from malt waste and soy waste, respectively. The other strains produced polymers of 100% HB. Selecting industrial food wastes as carbon sources can further reduce the cost of producing copolymers. PMID:12018290

Wong, Phoeby A L; Chua, Hong; Lo, Waihung; Lawford, Hugh G; Yu, Peter H

2002-01-01

140

Review of hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc from industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc containing wastes\\/secondaries viz. zinc ash, dross, flue dusts, sludge, residue etc. are generated in various chemical and metallurgical industries. The materials contain different level of impurities depending on the source. The hydrometallurgical processing is effective and flexible for treating such materials as it can control the different level of impurities. Depending on the nature and composition of the secondaries,

M. K Jha; V Kumar; R. J Singh

2001-01-01

141

THE GENOTOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in this document. he importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the...

142

Kalina cycles for power generation from industrial waste heat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities to produce power from industrial waste heat, using cycles with non-azeotropic ammonia-water mixtures. In this study, some simple Kalina cycle designs have been calculated for applications of indust...

E. Olsson E. Thorin G. Svedberg

1993-01-01

143

Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in the document. The importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the sources of contamination so that efforts aimed at control and minimization can be implemented. Of even

V HOUK

1992-01-01

144

Dialysis for Concentration and Removal of Industrial Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project evaluates dialysis for its potential for treatment/recovery of a number of organics and inorganics found in industrial wastes along the Lower Mississippi River. The feasibility of three membrane techniques was developed. (1) The use of acid a...

J. K. Smith S. V. Desai R. E. C. Weaver E. Klein

1976-01-01

145

Liquid membrane Technology for precious metals recovery from industrial waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic principle of the liquid membrane technology is reviewed by highlighting some interesting features of the system over other processes especially for metal separation and recovery from industrial wastes. Some of commercial liquid membrane extraction processes of precious metals are presented as examples of potential applications of the system. The advantages and drawbacks of the liquid membrane technology and

Norasikin Othman; Masahiro Goto; Hanapi Mat

146

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL WASTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

We evaluated a variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes. en samples were studied for hepatotoxicity: hese samples and an additional five were studied ...

147

Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza

Dasgupta

1983-01-01

148

Effects of additives on zinc electrowinning from industrial waste products  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the effects of some additives on zinc electrowinning from a weak acidic sulphate electrolyte prepared from an industrial waste product has been carried out. Experiments were done in the presence of additives such as aluminium sulphate, animal glue and an extract of horse-chestnut nuts (HCE), used alone or in different mixtures.Using a rotating disc electrode (RDE) and

Liana Mure?an; G. Maurin; L. Oniciu; Silvia Avram

1996-01-01

149

Preserving sludge from meat industry waste waters through lactic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of research on preserving sludge from meat industry waste waters. The sludge precipitated by chemical purification of effluents contains considerable amounts of proteins and fats which under certain conditions can be used for feeding to animals. The preservation of sludge was based on lactic fermentation conducted with the use of Lactobacillus delbrückii. Molasses, as the

Maciej Urbaniak; Gra?yna Sakson

1999-01-01

150

Use of some industrial wastes as energy storage media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is stored using different solid storage materials, both chemical and metallic industrial wastes. The materials tested in the present study are paraffin wax, copper slag, aluminium slag, iron slag, cast iron slag and copper chips. Solar energy is stored in these materials, and the energy is then recovered with a water stream at different flow rates, and the

Aghareed M. Tayeb

1996-01-01

151

DIALYSIS FOR CONCENTRATION AND REMOVAL OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This project evaluates dialysis for its potential for treatment/recovery of a number of organics and inorganics found in industrial wastes along the Lower Mississippi River. The feasibility of three membrane techniques was developed. (1) The use of acid and base conjugation on th...

152

Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

Not Available

1994-01-01

153

Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

Mueller, Julia R., E-mail: mueller.143@osu.edu [Ohio State University, William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, OH (United States) and University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia) and Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States); Boehm, Michael W. [University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia); Drummond, Charles [Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States)

2012-08-15

154

Electrostatic separation of brass from industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have demonstrated that electrostatic separation can be successfully employed for the recycling of nonferrous metals from chopped electric wire and cable scrap. The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of using the electric field forces for the selective sorting of other granular mixtures, such as brass dross. Laboratory tests of electrostatic separation were carried out on three samples: 0.08--1 mm, 0.08--0.2 mm, and 0.2--1 mm, containing more than 66% of brass. Sample 1 was separated in a corona-electrostatic field, generated by a standard electrode arrangement: a grounded rotating roll electrode (diameter 150 mm) and two high-voltage electrodes (wire-type dual corona electrode + tubular electrode). Processing of the other two samples was carried out in a custom-designed separator comprising an extended corona field generated between a matrix-type multineedle corona electrode and a roll electrode of large diameter (250 mm). Chemical analysis of the products showed that more than 90% of the brass can be recovered with a purity higher than 95%. The extended corona field electrode arrangement proposed in this paper seems to be a promising solution for the effective recycling of other granular wastes containing copper, aluminum, and their alloys.

Iuga, A.; Morar, R.; Samuila, A.; Mihailescu, M. [Technical Univ. of Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cuglesan, I. [Mining R and D Inst., Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dascalescu, L. [IUT d`Angouleme (France). Lab. Universitaire de Technologies Electriques et Electroniques Avancees

1999-05-01

155

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

156

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

157

Lagring av avfallsbraenslen. Industri- och hushaallsavfall. (Storage of waste fuels. Industrial- and household wastes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to study the existing methods of storage of waste and to develop these methods in order that the energy loss of waste-fuel and its negative environmental effects be minimized in a short and long period storage perspective....

W. Hogland I. Persson P. Pettersson T. Bramryd

1994-01-01

158

Conversion of industrial food wastes by Alcaligenes latus into polyhydroxyalkanoates.  

PubMed

Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. As the first step in our pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesise environmental-friendly bioplastics, we investigated the usage of soya wastes from a soya milk dairy, and malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the carbon sources for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by selected strain of microorganism. Bench experiments showed that Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 used the nutrients from malt and soya wastes to biosynthesise PHAs. The final dried cell mass and specific polymer production of A. latus DSM 1124 were 32g/L and 70% polymer/cells (g/g), 18.42 g/L and 32.57% polymer/cell (g/g), and 28 g/L and 36% polymer/cells (g/g), from malt waste, soya waste, and from sucrose, respectively. These results suggest that many types of food wastes might be used as the carbon source for the production of PHA. PMID:15304714

Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Ho, K P

1999-01-01

159

Process and apparatus for purification of industrial waste water  

SciTech Connect

A process and apparatus for the purification of industrial waste water containing solid particles. The apparatus contains at least two treatment sections. The first treatment section is a settling tank containing an agitation means, preferably an inclined deflector plate against which the waste water is directed to form a rolling wave and causing solid particles to coagulate and settle. The partially cleaned waste water overflow from the first stage is conveyed to the lower portions of the second stage into spaces between inclined plates which form an inclined plate pack clarifier. The solid particles are taken off from the bottom of the second treatment section, and clarified water is taken off from the top.

Salzer, R.; Schwering, H.

1982-09-28

160

Management of food industry waste employing vermicomposting technology.  

PubMed

This paper reports the vermicomposting of food industry sludges (FIS) mixed with different organic wastes employing Eisenia fetida. A total of 10 vermicomposting units containing different wastes combinations were established. After 15 weeks significant increase in total nitrogen (N(total)) (60-214%), total available phosphorous (P(avail)) (35.8-69.6%), total sodium (Na(total)) (39-95%), and total potassium (K(total)) (43.7-74.1%), while decrease in pH (8.45-19.7%), total organic carbon (OC(total)) (28.4-36.1%) and C:N ratio (61.2-77.8%) was recorded. The results indicated that FIS may be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if spiked with other organic wastes in appropriate quantities. PMID:22197330

Garg, V K; Suthar, S; Yadav, Anoop

2011-12-03

161

UTILIZING INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND ALTERATIVE REAGENTS TO TREAT ACIDIC DRAINAGE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste by-products from various industries can be successfully applied to treat acidic drainage. The advantages of utilizing waste material for treatment of other wastes include cost savings, greenhouse gas reduction (from lime) and reduced waste management requirements. Several waste products and their treatment effectiveness were evaluated. The performance of papermill sludge, cement kiln dust (CKD), lime kiln dust (LKD), and

Janice Zinck; Wesley Griffith

162

Industrial orange waste as organic fertilizer in durum wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays agro-industrial waste induces increasing problems due to the high economic cost and heavy environmental impact of\\u000a disposal. By contrast, its potential re-use as organic fertilizer could represent a sustainable approach to recycling nutrients\\u000a and reintegrating organic matter into soil. Such recycling should be particularly beneficial in Mediterranean areas because\\u000a there is a progressive loss of soil fertility. To assess

Rosalena Tuttobene; Giovanni Avola; Fabio Gresta; Valerio Abbate

2009-01-01

163

Microbial treatment of sulfur-contaminated industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the microbial removal of sulfur from a solid industrial waste in liquid culture under laboratory conditions. The study involved the use of two bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 isolated from a Mexican soil. Experimentation for industrial waste biotreatment was done in liquid culture using 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL Starkey modified culture medium and incubated at 30°C during 7 days. The industrial waste was added at different pulp densities (8.25-100% w/v) corresponding to different sulfur contents from 0.7 to 8.63% (w/w). Sulfur-oxidizing activity of the strain AZCT-M125-5 produced 281 and 262 mg/g of sulfate and a sulfur removal of 60% and 45.7% when the pulp density was set at 8.25 and 16.5% (w/v), respectively. In comparison, the strain A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 showed a lower sulfur-oxidizing activity with a sulfate production of 25.6 and 12.7 mg/g and a sulfur removal of 6% and 2.5% at the same pulp densities, respectively. Microbial growth was limited by pulp densities higher than 25% (w/v) of industrial waste with minimal sulfur-oxidizing activity and sulfur removal. The rate of sulfur removal for Acidithiobacillus thioxidans AZCT-M125-5 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 was 0.185 and 0.0159 mg S g(-1) h(-1) with a pulp density of 16.5% (w/v), respectively. This study demonstrated that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 possesses a high sulfur-oxidizing activity, even at high sulfur concentration, which allows the treatment of hazardous materials. PMID:24171423

Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Zarco-Tovar, Karina; Aburto, Jorge; de León, Roberto García; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

2014-01-01

164

Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sen, R.K. [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01

165

Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Sen, R.K. (Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-02-01

166

Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The BIF (boiler/industrial furnace) specialty conference has become an annual forum for regulators, industry, scientists, equipment suppliers, consultants, and the public to discuss issues revolving around the combustion of hazardous waste. Coming from different perspectives, the common goals of all participants are the protection of human health and the reduction of environmental pollution. Papers were presented that illustrate real-world experiences and the occasional clash between theory and reality. The challenges to write effective regulations that can be achieved by industry and accepted by the public were debated. The papers serve as a starting point and stimulation for interactions between the various interested parties. This year sessions focused on: the proposed combustor MACT rule; developments with CEMs; CKD management; trial burns; permitting; laboratory issues; multipathway risk assessments; and communicating with the public. The 35 papers of the proceedings are arranged under the these topics and have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1998-12-31

167

Characterization of wet and dry deposition in the downwind of industrial sources in a dry tropical area.  

PubMed

An atmospheric deposition study was conducted in the downwind of Shaktinagar Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Renusagar Thermal Power Plant (RTPP), and Anpara Thermal Power Plant (ATPP), at Singrauli region, Uttar Pradesh (UP), India to characterize dry and wet deposition in relation to different pollution loading. During the study period, dry and wet depositions and levels of gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) were estimated across the sites. Dry deposition was collected on a monthly basis and wet deposition on an event basis. Depositions were analyzed for pH, nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulphate (SO4(2-)) contents. Dry deposition rate both collected as clearfall and throughfall varied between 0.15 to 2.28 and 0.33 to 3.48 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively, at control and maximally polluted sites. The pH of dry deposition varied from 5.81 to 6.89 during winter and 6.09 to 7.02 during summer across the sites. During the rainy season, the mean pH of clear wet deposition varied from 6.56 to 7.04 and throughfall varied from 6.81 to 7.22. The concentrations of NO2 and SO2 pollutants were highest during the winter season. Mean SO2 concentrations varied from 18 to 75 g m(-3) at control and differently polluted sites during the winter season. The variation in NO2 concentrations did not show a pattern similar to that of SO2. The highest NO2 concentration during the winter season was 50 g m(-3), observed near RTPP. NO2 concentration did not show much variation among different sites, suggesting that the sources of NO2 emission are evenly distributed along the sites. The concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, and SO4(2-) ions in dry deposition were found to be higher in summer as compared to the winter season. In dry deposition (clearfall) the concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, and SO4(2-) varied from 0.13 to 1.0, 0.81 to 1.95, and 0.82 to 3.27 mg l(-1), respectively, during winter. In wet deposition (clearfall), the above varied from 0.14 to 0.74, 0.81 to 1.82, and 0.67 to 2.70 mg l(-1), respectively. The study clearly showed that both dry and wet depositions varied between the sites and season, suggesting significant impact of industrial activities in modifying the atmospheric input. The nonacidic deposition suggests that there is no threat of acidification of the receiving ecosystem at present. PMID:12805745

Singh, R K; Agrawal, M

2001-12-19

169

Wet Chemical Oxidation of Organic Waste Using Nitric-Phosphoric Acid Technology  

SciTech Connect

Experimental progress has been made in a wide range of areas which support the continued development of the nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation process for combustible, solid organic wastes. An improved understanding of the overall process operation has been obtained, acid recovery and recycle systems have been studied, safety issues have been addressed, two potential final waste forms have been tested, preliminary mass flow diagrams have been prepared, and process flowsheets have been developed. The flowsheet developed is essentially a closed-loop system which addresses all of the internally generated waste streams. The combined activities aim to provide the basis for building and testing a 250-400 liter pilot-scale unit. Variations of the process now must be evaluated in order to address the needs of the primary customer, SRS Solid Waste Management. The customer is interested in treating job control waste contaminated with Pu-238 for shipment to WIPP. As a result, variations for feed preparation, acid recycle, and final form manufacturing must be considered to provide for simpler processing to accommodate operations in high radiation and contamination environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a nitric-phosphoric acid destruction technology which can treat a heterogeneous waste by oxidizing the solid and liquid organic compounds while decontaminating noncombustible items.

Pierce, R.A.

1998-10-06

170

Energy efficient membrane separation processes for the corn wet milling industry. Phase I, final report  

SciTech Connect

High solubles water, the principal recycle stream in corn wet milling, is about 3.5% in total solids. Suspended solids 10 to 50 microns in diameter constitute an appreciable fraction of the total solids. Also present are dissolved solids of molecular weight above 1000, carbohydrate and denatured protein, plus a micellar complex of Mg with phytic and lactic acid. Ultrafiltration at a high rate of crossflow with a M-AL-500 membrane effectively removed all of these materials. The feed channel contained 1/16 inch conventional netted plastic separator material. The average flux at 30 psig at 40/sup 0/C was 24 gfd. The UF permeate was treated by RO at 40/sup 0/C and 900 psig using FilmTec FT-30 membranes to produce a high quality permeate water for re-use and a combined UF-RO concentrate to be fed to the evaporator. A design and economic study based on these results suggests that energy requirements for a typical milling plant can be reduced by 47% or the equivalent of 60,000 barrels of oil yearly.

Gregor, H.P.

1985-07-01

171

Characterization of dolochar wastes generated by the sponge iron industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid wastes generated by the metallurgical industry contribute significantly towards the enhancement of environmental pollution. The handling, utilization, and safe disposal of these solid wastes are major concerns for the world. Dolochar is such a solid waste generated by the sponge iron industry. Investigations were carried out on the physical, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics for the efficient utilization of dolochar. The detailed studies on physico-chemical properties and petrography were carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characterization studies revealed that the dolochar consists of quartz (free as well as locked), free lime, Fe particles, and Ca or Mg and/or Ca+Mg+Fe oxide phases. The washability data of -300 ?m dolochar samples indicated that clean coal with 41wt% ash at 18% yield can be produced from dolochar with 78wt% ash. The studies further suggested that the liberation of the dolochar is hard to achieve for clear separation. The dolochar is observed to have high ash fusion temperature and the unburned carbon can be best utilized for power generation.

Dwari, Ranjan Kumar; Rao, Danda Srinivas; Swar, Akhila Kumar; Reddy, Palli Sita Ram; Mishra, Barada Kanta

2012-11-01

172

Alternatives for hazardous waste management in the organic chemical, pesticides and explosives industries. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential alternative treatment methods are evaluated for a total of 24 waste streams selected from the report 'Assessment of Industrial Hazardous Waste Practices of the Organic Chemicals, Pesticides and Explosives Industries'. Potential alternatives are physical, chemical and biological processes identified in the report 'Analysis of Potential Application of Physical, Chemical and Biological Treatment Techniques to Hazardous Waste Management'. The primary

J. M. Genser; A. H. Zipperstein; S. P. Klosky; P. S. Farber

1977-01-01

173

Critical review of industrial and medical waste practices in Dar es Salaam City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial and medical wastes constitute a larger part on what is known as ‘hazardous wastes’. The production of these wastes is and will continue to be an on going phenomenon as long as human civilization persists. The health impacts of direct and indirect exposure to hazardous wastes include carcinogenic effects, reproductive system damage, respiratory effects, central nervous system effects, and

R. R. A. M Mato; M. E Kaseva

1999-01-01

174

Recycle\\/reuse of boiler chemical cleaning wastes in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boiler chemical cleaning wastes (BCCW) are generated by the periodic waterside cleaning of utility boilers to remove metallic deposits from boiler tube surfaces. Depending on boiler metallurgy, BCCW generally contain high concentrations of iron and copper or both, as well as other heavy metals such as chromium, lead, nickel, and zinc. BCCW treatment and disposal methods include precipitation, coponding in

M. Stohs; D. R. Owens; W. Micheletti

1988-01-01

175

Wet Chemical Oxidation and Stabilization of Mixed and Low Level Organic Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Mixed acid oxidation is a non-incineration process capable of destroying organic compounds, including papers, plastics, resins, and oils, at moderate temperatures and pressures. The technology, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a holding medium which allows appreciable amounts of the oxidant to be retained in solution at atmospheric pressure and at the temperatures needed for oxidation. The phosphoric acid also provides the raw materials for making a final waste which contains the metal contaminants from the waste stream. Savannah River has designed, built, and started up a 40-liter pilot reaction vessel to demonstrate the process and its sub-systems on a larger scale than earlier testing. The unit has been demonstrated and has provided important data on the operation of the oxidation and acid recovery systems. Specific results will be presented on oxidation conditions, acid recovery efficiency, chloride removal, metal retention, and process monitoring. Additional studies have been conducted with a smaller vessel in a radioactive hood. Testing with plutonium-bearing waste simulants was performed to make preliminary predictions about the behavior of plutonium in the process. Samples of the remaining phosphoric acid from these tests has been converted to two separate final forms for analysis. Results will be presented on plutonium fractionation during the oxidation process and waste form stability.

Pierce, R.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Livingston, R.R.; Burge, D.A.; Ramsey, W.G. [CeraChem Technologies, Aiken, SC (United States)

1998-03-01

176

Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the

T. Dolan; M. B. Cook; A. J. Angus

2011-01-01

177

Lagring av braennbart sorterat bygg- och rivningsavfall. (Storage of combustible household and industrial waste).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After completion of the first study on the storage of household and industrial waste, the effect of storage on construction and demolition waste was examined. During the storage time, temperature and gas monitoring were carried out daily at different leve...

I. Persson F. Tamaddon P. Pettersson W. Hogland F. Kalantari

1995-01-01

178

Evaluation of a fan shredder for use with general industrial wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates fan shredders for use in energy from industrial waste systems. Performance tests were carried out on two types of machine, NEU's chopper fan and Henley Burrowes fan shredder. The NEU machine operates principally as a waste conveyo...

I. Dunne

1993-01-01

179

Object-oriented industrial solid waste identification using HJ satellite imagery: a case study of phosphogypsum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing volume of industrial solid wastes presents a critical problem for the global environment. In the detection and monitoring of these industrial solid wastes, the traditional field methods are generally expensive and time consuming. With the advantages of quick observations taken at a large area, remote sensing provides an effective means for detecting and monitoring the industrial solid wastes in a large scale. In this paper, we employ an object-oriented method for detecting the industrial solid waste from HJ satellite imagery. We select phosphogypsum which is a typical industrial solid waste as our target. Our study area is located in Fuquan in Guizhou province of China. The object oriented method we adopted consists of the following steps: 1) Multiresolution segmentation method is adopted to segment the remote sensing images for obtaining the object-based images. 2) Build the feature knowledge set of the object types. 3) Detect the industrial solid wastes based on the object-oriented decision tree rule set. We analyze the heterogeneity in features of different objects. According to the feature heterogeneity, an object-oriented decision tree rule set is then built for aiding the identification of industrial solid waste. Then, based on this decision tree rule set, the industrial solid waste can be identified automatically from remote sensing images. Finally, the identified results are validated using ground survey data. Experiments and results indicate that the object-oriented method provides an effective method for detecting industrial solid wastes.

Fu, Zhuo; Shen, Wenming; Xiao, Rulin; Xiong, Wencheng; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Baisong

2012-10-01

180

Radon effective dose from TENORM waste associated with petroleum industries.  

PubMed

Technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) associated with petroleum industries can be accumulated with elevated quantities and therefore can threat the workers through external and internal exposure. Measurements of radon-related parameters give information about the radioactivity levels in the TENORM waste using the well-established correlation. Also, it is useful to calculate the internal exposure due to radon inhalation in terms of effective radon dose. Among radon-related parameters, areal exhalation rate is the most suitable for characterising land and objects with only upper surface contamination in the case of petroleum waste. The TENORM in this study is collected from waste storage areas located near oilfields at south Sinai governorate, Egypt. The average values of exhalation rates as measured by Lucas cell based on delay count method are 273 +/- 144 and 38 +/- 8 Bq m(-2) h(-1) for scale and sludge, respectively. Whereas, two count method gives results with 18 and 20 % lower values for scale and sludge, respectively with good correlation coefficient of 0.999 and 0.852, respectively. Sealed cup fitted with CR-39 gives results compatible with Lucas cell with minor deviation in case of scale due to its thoron content. The results of CR-39 are qualified by taking into consideration the correction for back diffusion effect. The effective radon dose was calculated for different simulated radioactive waste storage areas with different contaminated areas and air ventilation rate. Minimising the contaminated areas and building up efficient ventilation systems can reduce the internal exposure even in the case of RWSA-containing TENORM with elevated radioactivity. PMID:19706722

Abo-Elmagd, M; Soliman, H A; Daif, Manal M

2009-08-25

181

Acoustic monitoring of industrial chemical waste released at deep water dump site 106  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some industrial chemical wastes form flocs or particles upon being introduced into seawater. High frequency acoustic backscattering systems have been used to study the dispersion of the particulate phase of industrial chemical waste in a water column (depths of >1500 m) with a sharp seasonal thermocline. The particles have been found to remain trapped for extended periods (at least 74

Marshall H. Orr; Frederick R. Hess

1978-01-01

182

Industrial waste management information for 1990 and record-to-date  

SciTech Connect

This product provides detailed data and graphics on airborne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil consumption, and water usage for the calendar year 1990. It summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Industrial Waste Management Information System (IWMIS).

Litteer, D.L.; Peterson, C.N.; Sims, A.M.

1991-08-01

183

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3-4 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practices, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability could be greatly improved if this amount of peel can be used to produce high...

184

Environmental and resource conservation considerations of steel industry solid waste. Final report May 1978February 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report examines the solid wastes generated by the iron and steel industry relative to the impact of Section 4004 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The quantities, properties, and origin of wastes which pose a potential problem are identified using flow diagrams, material balances, and generation factors. Of the estimated 140 million metric tons of solid waste (including

V. H. Baldwin; M. R. Branscome; C. C. Allen; D. B. Marsland; B. H. Carpenter

1979-01-01

185

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

186

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

187

NORM waste management in the oil and gas industry: The Syrian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Syrian experience with respect to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) waste produced by the Syrian oil industry. Three main categories of NORM waste were identified. First, hard scales from decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubings which are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra); this type of waste being currently stored

M. S. Al-Masri; H. Suman

2003-01-01

188

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

189

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL WATERTUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous m...

190

Useful Byproducts from Cellulosic Wastes of Agriculture and Food Industry—A Critical Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose, an important cell wall polysaccharide, which is replenished constantly in nature by photosynthesis, goes waste in a lion's share in the form of pre-harvest and post-harvest agricultural losses and wastes of food processing industry. These cellulose wastes have an immense potential to be utilized for the production and recovery of several products and ingredients in food application. In this

HIMANISH DAS; SUDHIR KUMAR SINGH

2004-01-01

191

Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

Wooding, N. Henry

192

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at

D. C. Elliott; G. G. Neuenschwander; T. R. Hart; M. R. Phelps; L. J. Jr. Sealock

1993-01-01

193

Ocean Dumping of Municipal and Industrial Wastes in the United States: An Analysis of Environmental Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume of ocean dumped municipal wastes (sewage sludge) has increased 32%, while that of industrial wastes has declined 43% in the United States since the enactment of P.L. 92-532, the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (for the period of 1973 to 1980). In 1980, the total tonnage of industrial and municipal wastes ocean-dumped was over 10

M. Champ; T. O'Connor

1981-01-01

194

RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED INDUSTRIAL WASTES ON MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE STABILIZATION IN SIMULATED LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a retrospective evaluation of ten years of leachate and gas data collected from 19 simulated landfills (landfill cells) containing municipal solid waste codisposed with sewage sludge or industrial wastes. Physical and chemical parameters from each landfill cell are ...

195

Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

Levin, V.

1996-04-01

196

Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.  

PubMed

The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2. PMID:16784172

Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

2006-06-01

197

Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP. The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated

Hak-Joon Kim; Bangwoo Han; Yong-Jin Kim; Seok-Jun Yoa; Tetsuji Oda

2012-01-01

198

Solidification as low cost technology prior to land filling of industrial hazardous waste sludge.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to stabilize and solidify two different treated industrial hazardous waste sludges, which were selected from factories situated close to Alexandria. They were selected to ensure their safe transportation and landfill disposal by reducing their potential leaching of hazardous elements, which represent significant threat to the environment, especially the quality of underground water. The selected waste sludges have been characterized. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) from Alexandria Portland Cement Company, and Calcium Sulphate as a by-product from the dye industry were used as potential solidification additives to treat the selected treated waste sludges from tanning and dyes industry. Waste sludges as well as the solidified wastes have been leach-tested, using the General Acid Neutralization Capacity (GANC) procedure. Concentration of concerning metals in the leachates was determined to assess changes in the mobility of major contaminants. The treated tannery waste sludge has an acid neutralization capacity much higher than that of the treated dyes waste sludge. Experiment results demonstrated the industrial waste sludge solidification mix designs, and presented the reduction of contaminant leaching from two types of waste sludges. The main advantages of solidification are that it is simple and low cost processing which includes readily available low cost solidification additives that will convert industrial hazardous waste sludges into inert materials. PMID:17219849

El-Sebaie, O; Ahmed, M; Ramadan, M

2000-01-01

199

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01

200

Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. PMID:21550223

Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

2011-05-06

201

Karakterisering og behandling af spildevand fra roeggasafsvovling ved vaadabsorptionsprocessen med efterfoelgende oxidation. (Characterization and management of waste water from desulphurization of flue gas by the wet absorption process with following oxidation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of the wet absorption process for the desulphurization of flue gas from coal fired power plants produces calcium sulphate, and waste water containing nitrate, neutral salts and a certain amount of heavy metals. The conditions which influen...

B. Mose Pedersen G. Holm Kristensen

1990-01-01

202

Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs.

Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

1991-10-01

203

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

204

Process for Producing Catalysts for Cleaning Industrial-Waste Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention concerns catalysts which are effective for removing nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/), carbon monoxide (CO) and hyrocarbons (HC) from automobile exhaust gases, waste gases from fixed combustion systems and waste gases from chemical plants. The pr...

I. Shimizu K. Abe

1983-01-01

205

Proceedings of the 42nd industrial waste conference  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 94 papers. Some of the topics are: pretreatment programs; landfill site remediation; chemical stabilization; aerobic fixed-film processes; sorption processes; pulp and paper mill wastes; oil and grease wastes; and groundwater treatment methods.

Not Available

1988-01-01

206

DIOXINS. VOLUME II. ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this research project was to develop a unified analytical approach for use in quantifying ppt levels of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDD's) in various chemical wastes. Waste samples from plants manufacturing trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, and hexac...

207

Sustainable waste management in the food and drink industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In moving towards sustainable wastes management, the UK Government has adopted a wastes hierarchy. This hierarchy sets out clearly the priorities for sustainable resource use and wastes management: it ought to be the guiding principle of private and public policy, with the emphasis placed strongly on reducing the amount of raw material used. The House of Commons Environment, Transport &

Margaret P. Bates; Paul S. Phillips

1999-01-01

208

Management of old landfills by utilizing forest and energy industry waste flows.  

PubMed

The lack of landfill capacity, forthcoming EU waste disposal and landfill management legislation and the use of non-renewable and energy intensive natural resources for the end-treatment of old landfills increase pressures to develop new landfill management methods. This paper considers a method for the end-management of old landfills in Finland, which is based on the utilization of forest and paper industry waste flows, wastes from paper recycling (de-inking) and wastes from forest industry energy production. Fibre clay wastes from paper mills, de-inking sludges from de-inking of recovered waste paper and incineration ash from forest industry power plants serve to substitute the use of natural clay for the building of landfill structures for closed landfills. Arguably, this method is preferable to existing practices of natural clay use for landfill building, because it (1) substitutes non-renewable natural clay, (2) consumes less energy and generates less CO2 emissions than the use of natural clay, and (3) eliminates considerable amounts of wastes from paper production, paper consumption and from forest industry energy production. Some difficulties in the application of the method are considered and the waste flow utilization is incorporated into a local forest industry recycling network. PMID:12173421

Niutanen, Ville; Korhonen, Jouni

2002-05-01

209

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce.

Anwar F. Al Yaqout; Anwar F

2003-01-01

210

Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial park level: a case of Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers. Such an approach requires industrial park managers to assess the overall use of resources, and to seek waste reduction, reuse and recycling opportunities both at the individual company level and among different tenant companies. The adoption of this method can bring both economic and environmental benefits. This paper introduces the planning efforts of a real case in China. It first presents the basic information on Tianjin Economic Development Area (TEDA), and then introduces its current practices on solid waste management. The main focus of this paper is to describe how to plan an integrated solid waste management system at TEDA. Benefits and challenges are all identified and analyzed. The experiences and methods from this case study should be applied in other industrial parks so as to improve the overall eco-efficiency of the whole industrial park. PMID:17055715

Geng, Yong; Zhu, Qinghua; Haight, Murray

2006-10-19

211

Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects  

SciTech Connect

The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

1989-11-09

212

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions: source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

213

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WOOD-WASTE-FIRED INDUSTRIAL FIRETUBE BOILER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives emission results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial firetube boiler. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis ...

214

Determination of Cyanide in Aluminum Industrial Waste Water by Ion Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ion chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, was applied in determining cyanide concentrations in the waste waters generated by the processing of calthode electrodes in the aluminum industry. Ion chromatography data were compared with the r...

D. L. Wilson H. B. Durham R. C. Thurnau

1986-01-01

215

The Effects of Industrial Wastes of Memphis and Shelby County on Primary Planktonic Producers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Diversity and total numbers of plankton, particularly diatoms, were analyzed and correlated with physical factors of water. Diversity index values appear to provide an indication of pollution of water by industrial and domestic wastes. (AL)|

Staub, R.; And Others

1970-01-01

216

The hydrometallurgical extraction of rhenium from copper industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made in this investigation to develop a wet chemical method for treating a rhenium-containing lead slime produced during copper manufacture. The effects of temperature, grain size, oxygen partial pressure, and leaching time as well as the kinetics of the leaching process were studied.

Amer, Ashraf

2008-08-01

217

Adsorption of 2,4-D and carbofuran pesticides using fertilizer and steel industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and carbofuran from aqueous solution was studied by using fertilizer industry waste (carbon slurry) and steel industry wastes (blast furnace slag, dust, and sludge) as adsorbents in batch. Adsorption was found to be in decreasing order: carbon slurry, blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag, respectively. Carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry exhibited the uptake

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali; Suhas; Vipin K. Saini

2006-01-01

218

Strength, Durability And Hydraulic Properties Of Clayey Soil Stabilized With Lime And Industrial Waste Lime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to study the effect of utilization of industrial waste\\/lime (by-product of sugar factory) on some engineering properties of clayey soil selected from Mosul city. These characteristics are unconfined compressive strength, permeability, soil-water characteristic curve and Durability. The tests were performed at different percentages of lime (2, 4 and 6) % and industrial waste\\/lime (2, 4, 6 and

Suhail A. A. Khattab; Khawla A. K. Al-Juari; Ibrahaim M. A. Al-Kiki

2007-01-01

219

Hazardous industrial waste management in Vietnam: current status and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concentrates on the existing situation of hazardous industrial waste management in Vietnam. To realize the importance\\u000a of the development of a Vietnam national strategy based on the reduce, reuse, recycle (3R) concept to the year 2020, the author\\u000a summarizes the practice of recycling activities of hazardous industrial waste and discusses the challenges arising from increases\\u000a in the quantity

Nguyen Thi Kim Thai

2009-01-01

220

Environmental impact of uncontrolled waste disposal in mining and industrial areas in Central Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present-day landscape in Central Germany, in particular the region of Leipzig, Halle and Bitterfeld, is characterized\\u000a by the scars of former industrial activities. Vast districts have been devastated by lignite strip mining. Industrial and\\u000a domestic waste, residues from ore smelting, and highly toxic waste products from petrochemical plants and pesticide production\\u000a were deposited in abandoned pits near population centers.

P. Schreck

1998-01-01

221

[Experince accumulated by RADON Industrial Research Association in treating radioactive waste].  

PubMed

To reduce volume of radioactive waste for long storage, specialists in "RADON" Industrial Research Association according to qualitative contents of the waste use methods of filtration and selective sorption of radionuclides, electrolysis, monoselective purification, burning, plasmic burning and pressing. Overall volume of the waste processed by various plants exceeds 50 thousand cubic meters. The mentioned technologies could be widely used in radiochemical works and other nuclear energy plants. PMID:16568841

Dmitriev, S A; Lifanov, F A; Kobelev, A P; Savkin, A E

2006-01-01

222

Pullulan content of the ethanol precipitate from fermented agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol-precipitated substances after fermentation of various agro-industrial wastes by Aureobasidium pullulans were examined for their pullulan content. Grape skin pulp extract, starch waste, olive oil waste effluents and molasses served\\u000a as substrates for the fermentation. A glucose-based defined medium was used for comparison purposes. Samples were analysed\\u000a by an enzyme-coupled assay method and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric

C. J. Israilides; A. Smith; J. E. Harthill; C. Barnett; G. Bambalov; B. Scanlon

1998-01-01

223

Investigation of industrial tea-leaf-fibre waste material for its sound absorption properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sound absorption of an industrial waste, developed during the processing of tea leaves has been investigated. Three different layers of tea-leaf-fibre waste materials with and without backing provided by a single layer of woven textile cloth were tested for their sound absorption properties. The experimental data indicate that a 1cm thick tea-leaf-fibre waste material with backing, provides sound absorption

Sezgin Ersoy; Haluk Küçük

2009-01-01

224

Exploitation of agro industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten agro industrial wastes were assessed for their suitability as fungus immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation (SSF). The wastes included creosote bush leaves (Larrea tridentata), variegated Caribbean agave (Agave lechuguilla), lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), apple pomace (Malus domestica), pistachio shell (Pistacia vera), wheat bran (Triticum spp.), coconut husk (Cocos nucífera), pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis), and bean

María C. Orzua; Solange I. Mussatto; Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel; Raul Rodriguez; Heliodoro de la Garza; José A. Teixeira; Cristóbal N. Aguilar

2009-01-01

225

Perception on benefits of construction waste management in the Singapore construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Increased disposal costs and reduction in number of landfills have created a need for implementing effective waste management in the construction industry. As every construction project is unique in its way of development, benefits from the waste management may also differ from project to project and thus project characteristics should be taken into consideration when implementing the strategy.

Bon-Gang Hwang; Zong Bao Yeo

2011-01-01

226

Recovery of valuable metals from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes by leaching and electrowinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, a study on laboratory scale to perform a treatment for valuable metals recovery from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes, is reported. The characterisation of the waste, performed by XRD, SEM, EDX and chemical analysis, showed a high metals content in the sludge, such as Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sn, W. A leaching process, coupled by electrowinning,

F. Veglio; R. Quaresima; P. Fornari; S Ubaldini

2003-01-01

227

TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF DISPOSING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of industrial boilers for the destruction of hazardous wastes is increasing at a rapid rate. This is partly due to the fact that the practice changes a 'negative value' waste material into a 'positive value' fuel and partly to the fact that current RCRA regulations specif...

228

Paper executive opposes solid-waste-disposal charge: favors inter-industry resource recovery effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr. Laun, president of the American Paper Institute, states that the paper industry is opposed to the Committee plan for a solid-waste disposal tax on the grounds that its efforts to reduce packaging could be counterproductive. Modern food packaging, for example, means that agricultural wastes can remain in rural areas and be recycled rather than shipped to urban areas and

Laun

2009-01-01

229

Bioleaching of zinc and aluminium from industrial waste sludges by means of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological solubilisation of heavy metals contained in two different kinds of industrial wastes was performed in batches employing a strain of Thiobacillus ferroxidans. The wastes tested were: a dust coming from the iron-manganese alloy production in an electric furnace (sludge 1) and a sludge coming from a process treatment plant of aluminium anodic oxidation (sludge 2). The experimental results pointed

C Solisio; A Lodi; F Veglio’

2002-01-01

230

Treatment of industrial liquid wastes by electrocoagulation: Experimental investigations and an overall interpretation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of treatment of concentrated wastes by electrocoagulation using sacrificial aluminium (Al) anodes. Tests were carried out batchwise in an electrochemical cell with recirculation for various wastes of industrial significance: the technique was shown to allow efficient abatement of the suspensions with concentrations of dissolved Al ranging from 150 to 500mgl-1. Hydrogen evolution

Mohamed Khemis; Jean-Pierre Leclerc; Gaëlle Tanguy; Gérard Valentin; François Lapicque

2006-01-01

231

Glutaraldehyde Treated Tendu Waste from Bidi Industry as an Efficient Sorbent for Chromium from Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tendu leaf biomass, a waste from local bidi industry was chemically treated to obtain an activated carbon and tested for its ability to remove hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. The new activated carbon was prepared by treating tendu waste with glutaraldehyde. It was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, porosimetry and BET surface analyses and other physico-chemical methods. Its ability to

Gautam K. Nagda; Vikram S. Ghole

2009-01-01

232

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF COSTS AND CREDITS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides preliminary information on the costs and credits associated with hazardous waste co-firing in industrial boilers. The main objective is to identify and evaluate the costs/credits inherent in current hazardous waste co-firing practices, plus the additional cos...

233

Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG)

M. T. Rashid; R. P. Voroney; M. Khalid

2010-01-01

234

Treatment Of Waste Water From Food Industry Using Snail Shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water from a food- factory was characterized and treated using snail shell. The aim was to find out the effectiveness of snail shell as a coagulant in waste water treatment. The result of the parameter studied before and after treatment, shows a change in color from dark brown before treatment to light brown after treatment, there was reduction in

E. O Jatto; I. O Asia; E. E Egbon; J. O Otutu; M. E Chukwuedo; C. J Ewansiha

2010-01-01

235

Air emissions from industrial boilers burning hazardous waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste incinerators are tightly regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On the other hand, processes for which the primary purpose is production of energy but, incidentially, burning hazardous wastes are exempt from the RCRA incineration regulations. EPA is concerned about the impact of this 'Energy Exemption' and has initiated a test program to determine if and

Olexsey

1984-01-01

236

Emissions testing of industrial processes burning hazardous-waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous-waste incinerators are regulated under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). On the other hand processes that produce energy and only incidently burn hazardous-waste materials are currently exempt from the RCRA incinerator regulations. EPA has initiated a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) to determine if and to what degree regulation of such processes may be required. As part of the RIA

R. A. Olexsey; R. E. Mournighan

1984-01-01

237

Emissions from the incineration of electronics industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strategy for dealing with electronics waste is to incinerate the combustible fraction of the waste, either to reduce its volume prior to landfilling or to concentrate valuable metals in the residual ash so they can be reclaimed in a subsequent operation. Since no emissions data are available, experiments were performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator over a range

E. S. Stewart; P. M. Lemieux

2003-01-01

238

Sustainable waste management in the Indian mining industry.  

PubMed

One of the important sectors that contribute to the national economy is the mining sector. During the mining of minerals and ores, waste materials in the form of overburden are generated. As these are not useful to the mine owners, they may be inappropriately disposed of into the environment, posing serious threat to the environment in the form of land degradation, water and air pollution. The present paper discusses the existing status of waste generation, its characteristics and the disposal methods being adopted in India. Impacts associated with waste disposal practices together with preventive measures for waste disposal are also discussed. Finally, strategies for improvements in existing waste management and for incorporating the same in the overall development plan for the mines are suggested. PMID:16200985

Deshpande, V P; Shekdar, A V

2005-08-01

239

Siting of a metals industry landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds  

SciTech Connect

A recent application by a steel-manufacturing plant to obtain a permit for an industrial landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds near the city of Syracuse, New York, resulted in an extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical investigation. This investigation was initiated because of (1) previous disposal of waste by the metal manufacturer at this site and (2) the unique location of the landfill on top of preexisting waste beds on the shores of Onondaga Lake. The results of groundwater monitoring over a one-year period indicate no detectable chromium from the metal-waste leachate escaping through the soda ash wastes. Retention ofhexavalent chromium within the underlying highly alkaline soda ash wastes by adsorption, reduction, and precipitation suggests a viable means for in situ treatment of several metals-manufacturing waste products.

Rinaldo-Lee, M.B.; Diffendorf, A.F.; Hagarman, J.A.

1983-03-01

240

Day wetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 1% of healthy children over the age of 5 years have troublesome daytime wetting. Two-thirds of those who wet by day are reliably dry at night. The problem is more common in girls and is usually the result of urge incontinence. Although the wetting may be exacerbated by giggling and\\/or stress, pure giggle micturition and isolated stress incontinence are

S. R. Meadow

1990-01-01

241

On the dry and wet sliding performance of potentially new frictional brake pad materials for automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, dry and wet continuous sliding performances of newly developed four different non-commercial frictional brake pad materials (NF1, NF2, NF4, and NF5) were evaluated and compared with other two chosen commercial brake pad materials (CMA and CMB) using a small-scale tribo-tester of pad-on-disc type.Results showed that under dry continuous braking, friction coefficients for all non-commercial brake pad materials

N. S. M. EL-Tayeb; K. W. Liew

2009-01-01

242

POLLUTION CHARACTERIZATION OF WASTE WATER OF AN INDUSTRIAL ZONE EXAMPLE OF A DAIRY WATER CLARIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD\\/BOD ratio

Sabir Hazourli; Mounir Ziati; Louiza Boudiba; Dalila Fedaoui

2009-01-01

243

Modifications of the structural characteristics of new soil forming on industrial waste colonized by woody plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large industrial area on the dry land facing the Venice lagoon, in North East Italy, is currently being reclaimed. This paper focuses on the modifications of the structural characteristics occurring on the surface and along the profile of some industrial waste in an area that has been colonized by woody plants.Qualitative micromorphological observations of thin sections of undisturbed soil

R. Pini; F. Pedron; G. Petruzzelli; M. Scatena; G. Vigna Guidi

2009-01-01

244

Impact of solid- and hazardous-waste regulation on the metal mining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is part of an ongoing study of the economic impact of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) on selected segments of the metals mining industry. It focuses on the RCRA, waste management problems and practices in the mining industry, and characteristics of the economic-impact assessment of the RCRA. The Environmental Protection Agency is considering three regulatory options

W. R. Holman; P. G. McCann; J. T. Durkin

1980-01-01

245

Progress toward pollution prevention and waste minimization in the North American gold mining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of pollution prevention and waste minimization in the North American gold mining industry. Specifically outlined are: 1) the environmental options available to North American goldmines for use in cyanidation setups and Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) control, generally recognized as the two most environmentally problematic areas in the industry; 2) the progress made towards pollution

Gavin Hilson; Barbara Murck

2001-01-01

246

Substituting energy crops with organic wastes and agro-industrial residues for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, industrial and agro-industrial by-products and residues (BRs), animal manures (AMs), and various types of organic wastes (OWs) were analyzed to evaluate their suitability as substitutes for energy crops (ECs) in biogas production. A comparison between the costs of the volume of biogas that can be produced from each substrate was presented with respect to the prices of

Andrea Schievano; Giuliana D'Imporzano; Fabrizio Adani

2009-01-01

247

Recovery of waste heat from industrial slags via modified float glass process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process for recovering waste heat from molten slags produced as by-products in the steel, copper, and elemental phosphorus industries is investigated. The process is based on technology developed in the glass industry for the commercial production of flat glass. In this process, energy is recovered from molten slag as it cools and solidifies on the surface of a

R. W. Serth; T. E. Ctvrtnicek; R. J. McCormick; D. L. Zanders

1981-01-01

248

Biopolymers production with carbon source from the wastes of a beer brewery industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential and feasibility of malt wastes, and other food wastes, such as soy wastes, ice-cream wastes, confectionery wastes, vinegar wastes, milk waste and sesame oil, in the induction of biosynthesis of PHA, in the cellular assembly of novel PHA with improved physical and chemical properties, and in the reduction of the cost of PHA production. In the first part of the experiments, a specific culture of Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 was selected to ferment several types of food wastes as carbon sources into biopolymers. In addition, the biopolymer production, by way of using malt waste, of microorganisms from municipal activated sludge was also investigated. In the second part, the experiments focused on the synthesis of biopolymer with a higher molecular mass via the bacterial strain, which was selected and isolated from sesame oil, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PHB were studied by GPC. Molecular weight of PHB produced from various types of food wastes by Alcaligenes latus was higher than using synthetic sucrose medium as nutrient, however, it resulted in the reverse by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thermal properties of biopolymers were studied by DSC and TG. Using malt wastes as nutrients by Alcaligenes latus gave a higher melting temperature. Using sucrose, confectionery and sesame oil as nutrients by Staphylococcus epidermidis gave higher melting temperature. Optimization was carried out for the recovery of microbial PHB from Alcaligenes latus. Results showed that molecular weight can be controlled by changing the hypochlorite concentration, the ratio of chloroform to hypochlorite solution and the extraction time. In addition, the determination of PHB content by thermogravimetric analysis method with wet cell was the first report in our study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Wong, Phoeby Ai Ling

249

Transesterification reaction of the fat originated from solid waste of the leather industry.  

PubMed

The leather industry is an industry which generates a large amount of solid and liquid wastes. Most of the solid wastes originate from the pre-tanning processes while half of it comes from the fleshing step. Raw fleshing wastes which mainly consist of protein and fat have almost no recovery option and the disposal is costly. This study outlines the possibility of using the fleshing waste as an oil source for transesterification reaction. The effect of oil/alcohol molar ratio, the amount of catalyst and temperature on ester production was individually investigated and optimum reaction conditions were determined. The fuel properties of the ester product were also studied according to the EN 14214 standard. Cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability have to be improved in order to use the ester product as an alternative fuel candidate. Besides, this product can be used as a feedstock in lubricant production or cosmetic industry. PMID:20620039

I?ler, Asli; Sundu, Serap; Tüter, Melek; Karaosmano?lu, Filiz

2010-12-01

250

Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations of ammonia or long chain fatty acids is in most cases expected to be the cause of microbial inhibitions/imbalances while foaming in the prestorage tanks and digesters is the most important practical process problem at the plants. A correlation between increased residual biogas production (suboptimal process conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate process surveillance, especially with regard to volatile fatty acids, and 4) insufficient pre-storage capacity causing inexpedient mixing and hindering exact dosing of the different waste products. PMID:18957768

Nielsen, H B; Angelidaki, I

2008-01-01

251

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

252

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

253

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

254

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

255

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

256

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

257

Vulnerability assessment using hazard potency for regions generating industrial hazardous waste.  

PubMed

This study proposes a methodology that would measure the hazardous characteristics of industrial waste based on its physical and chemical properties. A composite hazardous waste index (HWI) is framed using a new aggregation operator proposed in this study. However, HWI alone cannot be used to compare the hazardous characteristics of different wastes. The concept of hazard potency (HP) is introduced in this study in order to address this problem. HP can be calculated not only for a single waste stream but also for multiple industrial processes in an industry. Thus the hazardous wastes generated from two industries can be directly compared using this methodology. The vulnerability arising out of an industrial unit has been evaluated using HP values of the unit and the population residing within its impact area. The industries in a region are prioritized based on the vulnerability of the adjoining population using the non-dominated sorting algorithm. Solutions are ordered into various levels of domination depending on their HP and population values. A case study of Kolkata Metropolitan Area is provided to substantiate the methodology. PMID:22285918

Das, Arup; Gupta, A K; Mazumder, T N

2012-01-16

258

Analysis of the stability of high-solids anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The pilot-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of agro-industrial wastes and sewage sludge was analysed in terms of stability by monitoring the most common parameters used to check the performance of anaerobic digesters, i.e. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen, pH, alkalinity and methane production. The results reflected similar evolution for the parameters analysed, except for an experiment that presented an unsuccessful start-up. The rest of the experiments ran successfully, although the threshold values proposed in the literature for the detection of an imbalance in wet processes were exceeded, proving the versatility of HS-AD to treat different wastes. The results evidence the need for understanding the dynamics of a high-solids system so as to detect periods of imbalance and to determine inhibitory levels for different compounds formed during anaerobic decomposition. Moreover, the findings presented here could be useful in developing an experimental basis to construct new control strategies for HS-AD. PMID:23859986

Aymerich, E; Esteban-Gutiérrez, M; Sancho, L

2013-06-28

259

Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

Nges, Ivo Achu, E-mail: Nges.Ivo_Achu@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2012-01-15

260

Computer model for optimizing the operation of a waste-water treatment system dealing with wet weather flows  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using the Box-Jenkins Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Models as a tool to control discharges of untreated overflows of combined sewage (CSO's) was investigated. The models can describe the input/output relationships of a sewage system and the components of this system. Operations data were obtained from Kenosha, Wisconsin to test the ARIMA Models. The data included both dry weather and wet-weather operations. The ARIMA Models were examined using an IBM-PC computer. From the preliminary examination, it is highly probable that the ARIMA Models will be of practical use in managing wet weather flows in sewage systems to minimize pollution.

Katz, W.J.; Novotny, V.; Lee, D.

1985-09-01

261

Waste heat recovery systems in the sugar industry: An Indian perspective  

SciTech Connect

This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country`s processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in a table). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitation clarification process, is estimated at 5757.9 KJ/kg of sugar. Efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) systems could help arrest the trend of increasing production costs. This would help the sugar industry not only in India, but in many other countries as well. The innovative methods suggested and discussed briefly in this article include dehydration of prepared cane, bagasse drying, and juice heating using waste heat. These methods can reduce the cost of energy in sugar production by at least 10% and improve efficiency and productivity.

Madnaik, S.D.; Jadhav, M.G. [Walchand Inst. of Tech., Maharashtra (India)

1996-04-01

262

Solid Waste Management and Reduction in the Restaurant Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The restaurant's recycling and waste reduction program began by separating out recyclable materials from the dumpster. This included cardboard, glass, and aluminum tin cans. A cardboard baler and containers for the glass and cans were placed next to the d...

1991-01-01

263

Mössbauer studies of materials used to immobilise industrial wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity to immobilise waste safely requires the development of stable materials. Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used to help understand and obtain desirable properties in alkali borosilicate glasses, phosphate glasses and vitrified sewage sludge ash. Phosphate glasses suitable for waste immobilisation have been microwaved and conventionally melted and differences reported. The environment of Fe in promising ceramics has also been studied. Mössbauer studies of irradiated vitrified wasteforms show their resistance to radiation damage.

Forder, S. D.; Bingham, P. A.; McGann, O. J.; Stennett, M. C.; Hyatt, N. C.

2013-04-01

264

Basic engineering characteristics of construction materials utilizing industrial waste byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the problems of disposal of waste by-products and depletion of natural construction materials, this research intends to show a promising solution to solve these problems by utilizing waste by-products as viable construction materials. Three different kinds of materials, dihydrate phosphogypsum, by-product aggregate, and incinerator residue, were investigated. The core studies are to evaluate the basic engineering characteristics including

Cheng-I Lai

1990-01-01

265

Northwest hazardous waste site characteristics under industrial and climatic settings  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has an effort under way to identify both appropriate existing technology and the need to develop new technology to assess and remediate hazardous waste management problems. This effort has been performed in support of several activities within PNL, including programmatic planning for the Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center. Among other interests, we wanted to know if common problems existed across the Northwest region.

Steelman, B.L.; Hartz, K.E.; Woodruff, D.L.; Triplett, M.B.

1988-05-01

266

Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.  

PubMed

Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO?-intensive. But most CO? is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other. PMID:22573713

Thomanetz, Erwin

2012-04-01

267

Developments in ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5~5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value pr...

268

Nasreya: a treatment and disposal facility for industrial hazardous waste in Alexandria, Egypt: phase I.  

PubMed

A facility for the treatment and disposal of industrial hazardous waste has been established in Alexandria, Egypt. Phase I of the facility encompassing a secure landfill and solar evaporation ponds is ready to receive waste, and Phase II encompassing physico-chemical treatment, solidification, and interim storage is underway. The facility, the Nasreya Centre, is the first of its kind in Egypt, and represents the nucleus for the integration, improvement and further expansion of different hazardous waste management practices and services in Alexandria. It has been developed within the overall legal framework of the Egyptian Law for the Environment, and is expected to improve prospects for enforcement of the regulatory requirements specified in this law. It has been developed with the overall aim of promoting the establishment of an integrated industrial hazardous waste management system in Alexandria, serving as a demonstration to be replicated elsewhere in Egypt. For Phase I, the Centre only accepts inorganic industrial wastes. In this respect, a waste acceptance policy has been developed, which is expected to be reviewed during Phase II, with an expansion of the waste types accepted. PMID:15864958

Ramadan, Adham R; Kock, Per; Nadim, Amani

2005-04-01

269

Useful byproducts from cellulosic wastes of agriculture and food industry--a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

Cellulose, an important cell wall polysaccharide, which is replenished constantly in nature by photosynthesis, goes waste in a lion's share in the form of pre-harvest and post-harvest agricultural losses and wastes of food processing industry. These cellulose wastes have an immense potential to be utilized for the production and recovery of several products and ingredients in food application. In this present study, a wide spectrum of researches in the arena of properties of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; their degradation; sources and composition of cellulosic and lignocellulosic wastes of agriculture and food industry; present status of converting them into value-added products of food applications; constraints in their conversions and future prospects therein has been reviewed in details. The study has encompassed production of biomass for various utilization and production and recovery of protein and amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, organic acids, foods & feeds and other miscellaneous products. PMID:15116755

Das, Himanish; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2004-01-01

270

Use of industrial waste and local raw materials for preparing low-temperature glazes  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present work was to obtain low-temperature, unfritted glaze coatings for facade finishing materials. The synthesis of the glazes was based on the use of waste from the production of colored TV sets in the form of mixtures of cone glass and screens, window and container glass; white burning, aluminum-oxide containing wastes formed during the etching of aluminum alloys, and tripoli from the Nizhnedevitsk locations. The chemical compositions of the raw components are shown. The presence of large reserves of natural raw materials and industrial waste products, the simplicity of preparation, the excellent physical and mechanical and chemical properties, and also the economic effectiveness prove that the authors can recommend the new glazes for industrial use. On the basis of glass cullet, alumina-containing waste, and tripoli, it is possible to obtain low-temperature brilliant glazes of beige color for ceramic articles without incorporating, additionally, pigments and opacifiers.

Fedin, A.A.; Korneeva, V.N.; Suslov, A.A.

1985-07-01

271

Heat Pump Concepts for Industrial Use of Waste Heat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heat pump systems for recovering waste heat are considered. To compare different cycles on a consistent basis, a definition of performance based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics is presented. A high-grade heat-actuated cycle that uses a steam ejector i...

H. P. Blanco

1981-01-01

272

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INDUSTRIAL COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a' pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

273

Combustion modelling of an industrial municipal waste combustor in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Malaysia by open incineration is increasingly becoming a problem. There is public concern about any pollutant emissions. Design requirements of high?performance incinerators are sometimes summarized as the achievement of 3Ts (time, temperature, and turbulence). An adequate retention time in a hot environment is crucial to destroy the products of incomplete combustion and organic

Ahmad Hussain; Farid Nasir Ani; Norzalia Sulaiman; Mohammed Fadzil Adnan

2006-01-01

274

Management of solid wastes in the iron and steel industry  

SciTech Connect

Wastes from a local iron and steel factory operations are agglomeration of iron ore and sintering, pig iron manufacture, steel making, rolling mill operations, and pickling. Liquid slag, produced in the blast furnace, is granulated in water and used as a concrete additive. Other wastes are directed separately to sedimentation tanks. The settleable solids are reused, and the treated effluents are pumped to a cooling tower for recycling. As a result of the new manufacturing expansion, existing waste treatment facilities are not adequate, and it was found necessary to provide additional treatment techniques. Departmental, as well as composite wastes were treated using plain sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, or chemical coagulation, or a combination of these methods. The results obtained showed that the use of the hydrocyclone for solid-liquid separation is much more efficient than plain sedimentation. When this process was followed by coagulation, very promising results were obtained. The use of pickling liquor as a coagulant gave comparable results with alum and ferric chloride.

El-Gohary, F.; El-khouly, M.S.

1983-03-01

275

Chemical and allied products. [Water pollution control of industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the literature with 152 references deals with methods of pollution control and wastewater treatment of chemicals and allied products.Wastewater treatment is reviewed for various product types such as PCB's, pesticides, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and detergents. In addition, biological and physical\\/chemical methods of waste treatment are outlined in separate sections.

Siegrist

1982-01-01

276

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

2009-01-06

277

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Botswana  

SciTech Connect

Botswana is a landlocked country which straddles the Tropic of Capricorn in the center of the Southern African plateau. The total land area of the country is 582,000 sq km and the population is about 1.3 million inhabitants. The climate is mainly arid or semi-arid. Most rivers are ephemeral and the water supply comes mainly from several thousand boreholes. A few dams have also been constructed to satisfy the ever increasing need for water in the urban areas, industrial as well as irrigation uses. Water is a very scarce commodity in Botswana and it has to be very well protected from any kind of pollution. This need is emphasized by the fact that a lot of wastewater is being generated due to rapid rate of industrialization because of favorable economic situation for the past few years. The main industries are at present mining and livestock industries. Besides tanning, metal plating, dairy and chemical industries, breweries are also causing pollution problems as well as oils and chemicals used in industries, garages and agriculture.

Magibisela, F.

1990-09-11

278

Potentialities of Biotechnology for the Reduction and Utilization for Energy Purposes of Wastes Generated by Food Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study dealt with the present trends in biotechnology related to the methods for the reduction and utilization, for energy purposes, of wastes generated by food industry and to the methods for controlling the emission of pollutants from industrial plan...

1982-01-01

279

Testing various food-industry wastes for electricity production in microbial fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three food-industry wastes: fermented apple juice (FAJ), wine lees and yogurt waste (YW) were evaluated in combination with two sources of inoculum, anaerobic sludge and garden compost, to produce electricity in microbial fuel cells. Preliminary potentiostatic studies suggested that YW was the best candidate, able to provide up to 250mA\\/m2 at poised potential +0.3V\\/SCE. Experiments conducted with two-chamber MFCs confirmed

Bibiana Cercado-Quezada; Marie-Line Delia; Alain Bergel

2010-01-01

280

Waste heat recovery: Textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning descriptions and evaluations of waste heat recovery operations used in the textile industry. Heat recovery and utilization from wastewater streams, flue gas, finishing processes, dyeing operations, and air jet systems are presented. The use of waste heat for space heating and process preheating is considered. (Contains a minimum of 162 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01

281

Biodegradation of agro-industrial orange waste under solid state fermentation and natural environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the possibility of the re-use of agro-industrial orange peel and pulp wastes under solid state fermentation and natural environmental condition as a source of enzymes production (? & ? amylase, cellulase, pectinase(s), lipase(s), esterase(s) and peroxidase(s)) the physiological enzymes of lysis and total protein. Different microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and yeast which were charged of waste analyse

Shahera H. Attyia; Sanaa M. Ashour

282

Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

M Murto; L Björnsson; B Mattiasson

2004-01-01

283

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14+/-1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85+/-0.19 million t representing 37.22+/-6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait. PMID:14583244

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-01-01

284

Binational management of hazardous waste: The maquiladora industry at the US-Mexico border  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreign-owned industry in the form of assembly plants, termed maquiladora, has become very important in Mexico to the extent that it represents the second largest source of foreign exchange and is a valuable source for employment and regional development. The economic prosperity gained from the rapid growth of the maquiladora industry has been accompanied by increased environmental and human health risks associated with generation of hazardous waste. Diversification of industry has resulted in the predomination of those sectors that likely use hazardous substances. The Mexicali-Calexico border region was selected to demonstrate the potential for environmental and health risks associated with the generation of hazardous waste. Estimates for the generation of hazardous waste were obtained from 34 maquiladora plants in Mexicali, represented by the electronic and electrical equipment and parts, mechanical and transportation equipment, and toys and sporting equipment sectors. Repeated detection of volatile organic compounds in the New River at the US-Mexico border suggests that hazardous waste from the printed circuit board industry in Mexicali is not being disposed of in a proper manner. Potential adverse health effects, such as carcinogenic and mutagenic responses associated with the detected volatiles, are discussed. US and Mexico national legislation and the Binational Environmental Agreement were examined for their adequacy to ensure proper management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry. Environmental policy options are presented that focus on: (1) increased environmental accountability of US parent companies for their maquiladora assembly plants in Mexico; and (2) more integration between US Customs and border states with the US Environmental Protection Agency to improve the binational management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry.

Perry, Diane M.; Sanchez, Roberto; Glaze, William H.; Mazari, Marisa

1990-07-01

285

An assessment of the chemical composition of precipitation and throughfall in rural-industrial gradient in wet subtropics (southern Brazil).  

PubMed

The chemical composition of bulk precipitation and throughfall were analyzed, during a 1-year period (2002), in rural-urban-industry gradients with similar forest cover (Eucalyptus spp.) in southern Brazil (Rio Grande and Porto Alegre cities). Values of pH varied from 5.0-5.1 in rural to 5.4-6.1 in industrial sites, and were intermediate in urban sites. The major ions in bulk precipitation were Na+, Cl-, NH+(4), NO-(3), and PO(3-)(4), and concentrations increased in urban and industrial sites. Principal component analysis identified the local main anthropogenic sources. Estimated annual amounts of dry deposition were generally greater in both industrial and urban sites than in rural sites. Areas close to industrial activity showed greater S and N total deposition (10.4-10.9 and 20.2-30.6 kg/ha, respectively) than in urban (3.4-7.3 and 14.6-24.1 kg/ha) and in rural (1.7-2.6 and 8.9-12.1 kg/ha) sites. Annual deposition of Ca and P varied from 0.6 and 3.0 kg/ha in rural to 45.4 and 32.4 kg/ha in industrial sites, maximum values being observed closed to the phosphate fertilizer plant of Rio Grande. Deposition in urban and industrial sites may be balanced by the alkaline cations, as bulk precipitation pH varied from 5.4 to 6.1, and was greater than in rural sites (5.0-5.1). PMID:17891507

Casartelli, M R; Mirlean, N; Peralba, M C; Barrionuevo, S; Gómez-Rey, M X; Madeira, M

2007-09-23

286

Coalescence of emulsified wastes by fibrous bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using a fibrous bed coalescer to separate emulsified oil from industrial waste streams was studied using a coalescer unit with an inside dimension of six inches. Coalescing media used included polyester, polypropylene, glass mats, sand and glass wool. Significance of wetting property was studied. Four types of oily wastes were tested under similar conditions to determine the

J. N. Chieu; R. S. Schechter; M. J. Humenick; E. F. Gloyna

1975-01-01

287

Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

1997-07-01

288

Application of reutilization technology to waste from liquid crystal display (LCD) industry.  

PubMed

This investigation studies the recycling utility of two major waste products from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry, panel glass and calcium fluoride sludge, which remain after the treatment of waste water. Waste panel glass was mixed with calcium fluoride sludge in various ratios and then subject to conditioning and melting treatment in order to yield glass-ceramics. Heavy metal leaching tests indicated that reductive conditions lowered the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate to an order of magnitude below that in the waste glass and sludge. A 5:5 (wt%) mixture of glass and sludge melted at 1200 degrees C for 60 min achieves a specific gravity, water absorption, unit mass, porosity ratio, and soundness that meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for fine aggregates. Therefore, waste panel glass can indeed be efficiently recycled into a useful construction material. PMID:20390905

Liu, Wei T; Li, Kung C

2010-01-01

289

Bioconversion of herbal industry waste into vermicompost using an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bioconversion of industrial herbal waste to vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermibeds were made using a mixture of herbal waste and cowdung (1?:?1) in comparison with the use of cowdung alone as substrate, resulting in vermicomposts 1 and 2, respectively. Different parameters were studied and it was observed that the nutrient profile of vermicompost 1 strongly influenced the growth of pea (Pisum sativum) and marigold plant (Tagetus erectus). The dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots, number of flowers, total yield in terms of fruit showed significant increase with vermicompost 1. Furthermore, vermicompost 1 (herbal waste and cow dung as substrate) resulted in a significant reduction in TOC by 58% in comparison with vermicompost 2 (cowdung as substrate). The C?:?N ratio was less than 20 in vermicompost 1 as well as in vermicompost 2, which indicated an advanced degree of stabilization and mineralization. The ability of earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermibed fed with the herbal waste indicates the sustainability and efficiency of a heterogeneous kind of organic waste. The results of the study suggested that bulk industrial herbal waste can be utilized as a substrate for vermicomposting and this can be proposed as an alternative for waste disposal in a clean green manner, promoting the concept of organic farming. PMID:20952444

Kumari, Mamta; Kumar, Sudhir; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Ravikanth, K

2010-10-15

290

Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: current state of the field and primary challenges.  

PubMed

A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations. PMID:20015592

Salihoglu, Güray

2009-11-24

291

REMOVAL OF SO2 FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses technology for sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution control by flue gas cleaning (called 'scrubbing') in the utility industry, a technology that has advanced significantly during the past 5 years. Federal Regulations are resulting in increasingly large-scale applica...

292

Enzyme Activities and Chemical Changes in Wet Olive Cake after Treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus or Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the enzyme activities and chemical changes recorded in a recalcitrant phenolic-rich\\u000a waste after treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus or Eisenia fetida. The waste used was wet olive cake (alperujo in Spanish), a waste produced in huge amounts by the olive oil industry. Both P. ostreatus and E. fetida were very effective in removing phenolic

M. Saavedra; E. Benitez; C. Cifuentes; R. Nogales

2006-01-01

293

Grand Rounds: An Outbreak of Toxic Hepatitis among Industrial Waste Disposal Workers  

PubMed Central

Context Industrial waste (which is composed of various toxic chemicals), changes to the disposal process, and addition of chemicals should all be monitored and controlled carefully in the industrial waste industry to reduce the health hazard to workers. Case presentation Five workers in an industrial waste plant developed acute toxic hepatitis, one of whom died after 3 months due to fulminant hepatitis. In the plant, we detected several chemicals with hepatotoxic potential, including pyridine, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, and methylenedianiline. The workers had been working in the high-vapor-generating area of the plant, and the findings of pathologic examination showed typical features of acute toxic hepatitis. Discussion Infectious hepatitis and drug-induced hepatitis were excluded by laboratory findings, as well as the clinical course of hepatitis. All cases of toxic hepatitis in this plant developed after the change of the disposal process to thermochemical reaction–type treatment using unslaked lime reacted with industrial wastes. During this chemical reaction, vapor containing several toxic materials was generated. Although we could not confirm the definitive causative chemical, we suspect that these cases of hepatitis were caused by one of the hepatotoxic agents or by a synergistic interaction among several of them. Relevance to clinical or professional practice In the industrial waste treatment process, the danger of developing toxic hepatitis should be kept in mind, because any subtle change of the treatment process can generate various toxic materials and threaten the workers’ health. A mixture of hepatotoxic chemicals can induce clinical manifestations that are quite different from those predicted by the toxic property of a single agent.

Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun A; Choi, Jung-Keun; Choi, Sung-Bong; Suh, Jeong-Ill; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Jung Ran

2007-01-01

294

DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

2009-03-31

295

Ceramic transactions: Environmental issues and waste management technologies in the ceramic and nuclear industries II. Volume 72  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth in a series of symposia related to environmental and waste management issues in the ceramic industry. This symposium is an expansion of the established series on nuclear waste management. This issue expands the scope to include presentations on environmental issues in the ceramic and nuclear industry. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for articles from this symposium.

Jain, V.; Peller, D. [eds.

1996-12-31

296

A methodology for optimising feed composition for anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

An optimisation protocol for maximising methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of several wastes was carried out. A linear programming method was utilised to set up different blends aimed at maximising the total substrate biodegradation potential (L CH(4)/kg substrate) or the biokinetic potential (L CH(4)/kg substrate d). In order to validate the process, three agro-industrial wastes were considered: pig manure, tuna fish waste and biodiesel waste, and the results obtained were validated by experimental studies in discontinuous assays. The highest biodegradation potential (321 L CH(4)/kg COD) was reached with a mixture composed of 84% pig manure, 5% fish waste and 11% biodiesel waste, while the highest methane production rate (16.4 L CH(4)/kg COD d) was obtained by a mixture containing 88% pig manure, 4% fish waste and 8% biodiesel waste. Linear programming was proved to be a powerful, useful and easy-to-use tool to estimate methane production in co-digestion units where different substrates can be fed. PMID:19833510

Alvarez, J A; Otero, L; Lema, J M

2009-10-14

297

Conversion of industrial food wastes by Alcaligenes latus into polyhydroxyalkanoates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would\\u000a heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. As\\u000a the first step in our pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesise\\u000a environmental-friendly bioplastics, we investigated the usage

Peter H. Yu; Hong Chua; Ai-Ling Huang; Kwok-Ping Ho

1999-01-01

298

Industrial waste water treatment: large scale development of a light-enhanced Fenton reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of a large scale application of the light-enhanced Fenton reaction has been investigated for the treatment of a highly contaminated industrial waste water containing toxic aromatic amines (dimethyl anilines or xylidines) as the main pollutants. The Fenton reagent, a combination of hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt, is a potent oxidizing agent of organic compounds in acidic aqueous

Esther Oliveros; Omar Legrini; Mathias Hohl; Thomas Müller; André M. Braun

1997-01-01

299

A MARINE ALGAL BIOASSAY METHOD: RESULTS WITH PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple marine algal bioassay method is described for short- and long-term studies on pesticides and industrial wastes. It can be used for rapid screening of a variety of substances with single-species and multiple-species tests and gives relative toxicities of the pollutants te...

300

Recycling of industrial waste materials: Recovery of aluminum from leftover bottle capliner materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inside liners of most bottle caps from drinks are made of aluminum leaf attached by pressure to PE (polyethylene) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate). The punching machine producing the cap liners discharges a large amount of aluminum remains, of which 47.6% is aluminum. So far, these remains have been used in land reclamation as industrial waste. Recently, procurement of reclaimed

S. Sano; M. Nikaidoh; K. Yanagawa; Y. Kanda

2000-01-01

301

Application of Action Dependent Heuristic Dynamic Programming to Control an Industrial Waste Incineration Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our application of a neurocontrol ler based on Action Dependent Heuristic Dynamic Programming (ADHDP) to optimize the comb ustion-process for an industrial hazardous waste incineration plant. This ADHDP -controller originally was designed for online learning. That implies, that this contr oller starts with a randomly initialized policy and improves its performance while inte racting with

V. Stephan; F. Wintrich

2004-01-01

302

Pharmaceutical contamination in residential, industrial, and agricultural waste streams: Risk to aqueous environments in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a comprehensive study of the occurrence of antibiotics, hormones and other pharmaceuticals in water sites that have major potential for downstream environmental contamination. These include residential (hospitals, sewage treatment plants, and regional discharges), industrial (pharmaceutical production facilities), and agricultural (animal husbandries and aquacultures) waste streams. We assayed 23 Taiwanese water sites for 97 targeted compounds, of which a

Angela Yu-Chen Lin; Tsung-Hsien Yu; Cheng-Fang Lin

2008-01-01

303

Removal of Cd and Zn from inorganic industrial waste leachate by ion exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the removal of Cd and Zn present in the leachate from an inorganic industrial waste landfill using cationic exchange resins (Amberlite 200, 252-C, IR-120, Duolite C-464), a chelating resin, Amberlite IRC 718, and an adsorbent resin, XAD-2. The chelating resin Amberlite IRC 718 presented the higher removal in batch experiments for both metals (93%

Y. Fernández; E. Marañón; L. Castrillón; I. Vázquez

2005-01-01

304

EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL STABILIZATION AND SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSES FOR ARSENIC CONTAINING INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is in many industrial raw materials, products, and wastes, and is a contaminant of concern in soil and groundwater at many remediation sites. Because arsenic readily changes valence state and reacts to form species with varying toxicity and mobility, effective treatment o...

305

Evaluation of maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared from agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in physical, chemical and biological parameters to assess the maturity and stability of composts prepared from mixture of different farm and agro-industrial wastes over a period of 150days. All the composts appeared granular, dark grey in color without foul odor and attained an ambient temperature at 120days of composting indicating the

Dev Raj; R. S. Antil

2011-01-01

306

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

307

Insurer as surrogate regulator of the hazardous waste industry: solution or perversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the commercial insurer is an appropriate tool to assist the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in regulating the hazardous waste industry, the author first reviews the liability and financial responsibility aspects of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the development of pollution liability insurance (PLI), and the

Kunzman

2009-01-01

308

Evaluation of coupling agents to manufacture hybrid hardboard made from industrial waste fiberglass and wood fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every day, tons of fibrous material are landfilled that could otherwise be used for structural panel products. In this study, we looked at combining fibers from industrial fiberglass insulation trim waste with commercial hardboard fibers and with recycled cor- rugated container fibers to improve the properties of a structural hardboard-like panel. This study also investigated the effectiveness of two coupling

John F. Hunt; Charles B. Vick

309

Anorganische en Organische Microverontreingingen in Industrieel Afvalwater (Inorganic and Organic Micro Pollutants in Industrial Waste Water),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1983 and 1984 research was conducted on the presence of a number of environment polluting substances in industrial waste water. The study was set up as a result of an Order in Council draft concerning the inventory of substances. This draft stipulated ...

W. van Starkenburg A. B. van Luin

1985-01-01

310

Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

311

Plant and Industry Experience. MAS-122. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to use plant and industry experience to improve plant safety and reliability. The following topics are covered in the module's individual…

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

312

POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

313

Incorporation of wastes from granite rock cutting and polishing industries to produce roof tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aimed at studying the incorporation of wastes from natural rock cutting and polishing to produce roof tiles. The sintered products incorporating the sludge were targeted to have similar or even enhanced properties in comparison to those made of a standard reference paste industrially used to fabricate concurrent products available in the market. Firstly, the raw materials, including

P. Torres; H. R. Fernandes; S. Olhero; J. M. F. Ferreira

2009-01-01

314

Combustible gas production (methane) and biodegradation of solid and liquid mixtures of meat industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is devoted to determine the optimal operational conditions on the methane production as well as on the biodegradation obtained from the anaerobic codigestión of solid (fat, intestines, rumen, bowels, whiskers, etc.) and liquid (blood, washing water, manure, etc.) wastes of meat industry, particularly the ones rising from the municipal slaughterhouse of Badajoz (Spain).The experiments were performed using a

A. Marcos; A. Al-Kassir; A. A. Mohamad; F. Cuadros; F. López-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

315

The Beet Sugar Industry--The Water Pollution Problem and Status of Waste Abatement and Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary attention is focused upon the beet sugar industry in the South Platte River Basin. Beet sugar wastes are the largest source of pollution within the area. Ten sugar factories are dispersed throughout the region and affect water quality over 300 mil...

1967-01-01

316

Characteristics and kinetic study of chitosan prepared from seafood industry waste for oil spills cleanup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan being a biodegradable material would be an eco-friendly and effective alternative in the cleaning up of oil spills. In the present study, adsorbent (Chitosan) was prepared from the seafood industry waste, prawn shells for removal of oil from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the kinetics for the removal of oil from oil–water solutions using chitosan.

Amita Ummadisingu; Suresh Gupta

2012-01-01

317

Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

318

FORMATION OF CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS IN A HAZARDOUS-WASTE-FIRING INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

This research examined the potential for emissions of polychlorinated diebnzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from industrial boilers that cofire hazardous waste. PCDD/F emissions were sampled from a 732 kW (2.5 x 106 Btu/h), 3-pass, firetube boiler using #2 fuel oil cofired wit...

319

Evaluation of simple random, systematic and composite sampling methods for industrial waste analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leather debris, textile and electroplating sludge were selected as the representative industrial waste to perform the sampling and TCLP tests in this investigation. Three typical sampling methods i.e., simple random sampling (SRS), systematic sampling (SYS) and composite sampling (CPS) were introduced to evaluate how they can effectively obtain the representative sample to meet the analytical precision and EPA regulation

2001-01-01

320

ASSESSMENT OF HAZARD POTENTIAL FROM COMBUSTION OF WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the extent of the present onsite use of waste fuel in industrial boilers and related process equipment, the nature and quantities of the materials so disposed of, and current regulations concerning such use. The study responds to a...

321

A multiobjective optimization model for the waste management of the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiobjective optimization model based on the goal programming approach is proposed in this paper to assist in the proper management of hazardous waste generated by the petrochemical industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a decision-making approach, incorporating qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, is incorporated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals usually encountered when addressing the

Abdulaziz S. Alidi

1996-01-01

322

An integrated mathematical model for co-composting of agricultural solid wastes with industrial wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated model for the composting process was developed. The structure of the model is such that it can be implemented in any mixture of different substrates, even in the case of co-composting of a solid waste with industrial wastewater. This paper presents a mathematical formulation of the physicochemical and biological principles that govern the composting process. The model of

A. Vlyssides; S. Mai; E. M. Barampouti

2009-01-01

323

OPTIMIZATION OF SORPTION PURIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS, WASTE WATERS AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FROM POLYVALENT METAL IONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper critically reviews the existing methods which are applied for the sorption purification of industrial effluents, waste waters and technological solutions from polyvalent metal ions (such as mercury, cadmium, calcium, copper, nickel and zinc), and also describes the novel purification processes developed recently by the authors. Particular attention is paid to the optimization of purification processes through the use

Tatyana Mitchenko; Paul Stender; Natalya Makarova

1998-01-01

324

Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste heat recovery, and food industry wastes from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and processing of fruits and vegetables. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer, and uses in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste is also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

325

Spectroscopic and wet chemical characterization of solid waste organic matter of different age in landfill sites, southern Germany.  

PubMed

Landfill sites are potential sources of hazardous emissions by degradation and transformation processes of waste organic matter. Its chemical composition and microbial degradability are key factors for risk management, after-care, and estimation of potential emissions. The aim of the study is to provide information about composition and extent of transformation of waste organic matter in four landfill sites in Bavaria, Southern Germany by means of (13)C NMR spectroscopy, acid-hydrolyzable carbohydrates, chloroform-methanol extractable lipids, acid-hydrolyzable proteins, and lignin compounds after CuO oxidation. Ten samples of about 20 to 25 yr, 15 to 20 yr, and 5 to 10 yr of deposition each were taken at 2 m depth intervals by grab drilling till 10-m depth. Increasing temperatures from about 15 degrees C at 2-m depth to >40 degrees C at 10-m depth are found at some of the sites, representing optimum conditions for mesophile methane bacteria. Moisture contents of 160 to 310 g kg(-1) (oven dry), however, provide limiting conditions for anaerobic biodecay. Spectroscopic and chemical variables generally indicate a low extent of biodegradation and transformation at all sites despite a considerable heterogeneity of the samples. Independent of the time and depth of deposition more than 50% of the carbohydrate fraction of the waste organic matter provide a high potential for methane emissions and on-site energy production. There was no significant accumulation of long-chain organic and aromatic compounds, and of lignin degradation products even after more than 25 yr of rotting indicating higher extent of decomposition or stabilization of the waste organic matter. Installation of seepage water cleaning and recirculation systems are recommended to increase suboptimal moisture contents with respect to microbial methanogenesis, energy production, and long-term stabilization of municipal solid waste. PMID:18178887

Bäumler, Rupert; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2008-01-04

326

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

327

Low-energy treatment of colourant wastes using sponge biofilters for the personal care product industry.  

PubMed

Four trickling biofilter designs were assessed as low-energy alternatives to aerobic activated sludge (AS) for the treatment of personal care product industry wastes. The designs included partially submerged packed-media and sponge reactors with and without active aeration. Partial submergence was used to reduce active aeration needs. Simulated colourant wastes (up to COD=12,480 mg/L, TN=128 mg/L) were treated for 201 days, including wastes with elevated oxidant levels. COD and TN removal efficiencies were always >79% and >30% (even without aeration). However, aerated sponge reactors consistently had the highest removal efficiencies, especially for TN (?60%), and were most tolerant of elevated oxidants. This study shows sponge biofilters have great potential for treating colourant wastes because they achieve high treatment efficiencies and reduce energy use by >40% relative to AS systems. PMID:23294645

Ahammad, S Z; Zealand, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Armstrong, D V; Graham, D W

2012-12-20

328

The value of resource efficiency in the food industry: a waste minimisation project in East Anglia, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste minimisation can be as successful in the food and drink industry as in other industries often seen as more polluting. £1.1m was realised in annual savings by 13 companies in the East Anglian Waste Minimisation in the Food and Drink Industry Project, which exceeded the Project investment of £412,000 plus the £335,000 invested by companies in cleaner technologies. The

Stefan Henningsson; Katherine Hyde; Ann Smith; Miranda Campbell

2004-01-01

329

Distribution and Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Solid Waste from Selected Sites in the Industrial Belt of Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste samples were collected from five small-scale industrial sites inthe National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. These industrial sitesrepresent the regional spread of the industrial belt in the NCT of Delhi.Solid waste samples were digested using aqua-regia and HF in air tightteflon bombs for the quantitative analysis of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn,Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn) by

M. C. Z. Moturi; M. Rawat; V. Subramanian

2004-01-01

330

Solid recovered fuel production from biodegradable waste in grain processing industry.  

PubMed

Management of biodegradable waste is one of the most important environmental problems in the grain-processing industry since this waste cannot be dumped anymore due to legal requirements. Biodegradable waste is generated in each stage of grain processing, including the waste-water and air emissions treatment processes. Their management causes some environmental and financial problems. The majority of Lithuanian grain-processing enterprises own and operate composting sites, but in Lithuania the demand for compost is not given. This study focused on the analysis of the possibility of using biodegradable waste for the production of solid recovered fuel, as a local renewable fuel with the purpose of increasing environmental performance and decreasing the direct costs of grain processing. Experimental research with regard to a pilot grain-processing plant has proven that alternative fuel production will lead to minimizing of the volume of biodegradable waste by 75% and the volume of natural gas for heat energy production by 62%. Environmental indicators of grain processing, laboratory analysis of the chemical and physical characteristics of biodegradable waste, mass and energy balances of the solid recovered fuel production, environmental and economical benefits of the project are presented and discussed herein. PMID:23179508

Kliopova, Irina; Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Petraskiene, Violeta

2012-11-23

331

Wet air oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet air oxidation (WAO), involving oxidation at high temperature (125--320 C) and pressure (0.5--20 MPa) conditions, is useful for the treatment of hazardous, toxic, and nonbiodegradable waste streams. The process becomes self-sustaining when the feed chemical oxygen demand (COD) is about 20,000 mg\\/l and can be a net energy producer at sufficient higher feed COD's. All the published information on

Vedprakash S. Mishra; Vijaykumar V. Mahajani; Jyeshtharaj B. Joshi

1995-01-01

332

Exploring the life cycle management of industrial solid waste in the case of copper slag.  

PubMed

Industrial solid waste has potential impacts on soil, water and air quality, as well as human health, during its whole life stages. A framework for the life cycle management of industrial solid waste, which integrates the source reduction process, is presented and applied to copper slag management. Three management scenarios of copper slag are developed: (i) production of cement after electric furnace treatment, (ii) production of cement after flotation, and (iii) source reduction before the recycling process. A life cycle assessment is carried out to estimate the environmental burdens of these three scenarios. Life cycle assessment results showed that the environmental burdens of the three scenarios are 2710.09, 2061.19 and 2145.02 Pt respectively. In consideration of the closed-loop recycling process, the environmental performance of the flotation approach excelled that of the electric furnace approach. Additionally, although flash smelting promotes the source reduction of copper slag compared with bath smelting, it did not reduce the overall environmental burdens resulting from the complete copper slag management process. Moreover, it led to the shifting of environmental burdens from ecosystem quality damage and resources depletion to human health damage. The case study shows that it is necessary to integrate the generation process into the whole life cycle of industrial solid waste, and to make an integrated assessment for quantifying the contribution of source reduction, rather than to simply follow the priority of source reduction and the hierarchy of waste management. PMID:23512953

Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Li, Bo

2013-03-19

333

Poly ?-Hydroxybutyrate Production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 Using Sugar Industry Waste Water  

PubMed Central

The production of poly ?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14?g?h?1?L?1, using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297?g/L of poly ?-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management.

Singh, Gulab; Kumari, Anish; Mittal, Arpana; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K.

2013-01-01

334

Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.  

PubMed

India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here. PMID:23729848

Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

2011-02-20

335

The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Commercial and industrial waste samples collected. > Samples analysed for calorific value, moisture, ash and elemental composition. > Values similar to those of municipal solid waste and refuse derived fuel. > Sampled waste could be used in current energy recovery systems with minimal retrofitting. > Sampled waste could account 6.5% towards the UK's 2020 renewable electricity target if all qualifying waste is used. - Abstract: With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C and IW). In this study, samples of C and IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C and IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47 MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C and IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9 GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000 tpa. This value rose to 27.0 GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C and IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6 TWh, 1.9% of the national demand thereby contributing 6.5% towards the UK's 2020 renewable electricity target.

Lupa, Christopher J., E-mail: c.lupa@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Ricketts, Lois J. [Stopford Energy and Environment, Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Sweetman, Andy [Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Herbert, Ben M.J. [Stopford Energy and Environment, Lancaster Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

2011-08-15

336

The role of bioremediation in the treatment of gas industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation is a technology that integrates microbiology, ecology, chemistry, geology, and engineering in order to solve a major problem in today`s society, restoration of our environment This is not a collection of abstract disciplines, but a new and functional technology based on processes with a long, successful history, that is, biological waste treatment. Sewage and wastewater treatment, composting, and landfills are mature sources and starting points of this technology, but the complexity of manmade or man-released hazardous wastes in the heterogeneous matrices of contaminated water, soil, and sediment requires diligent research and development for successful application of bioremediation. The technology is being applied to various sites contaminated by organic and inorganic toxic compounds or elements, and these processes, techniques, and data can be tested and applied to the gas industry`s contaminated environments. An immediate opportunity for the application of this technology is manufactured town gas sites. Ongoing research into the remediation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cyanides - which are common gas industry associated wastes - is leading to an awareness of limitations of biodegradation of these compounds and to possible technical and engineering paradigms required to overcome or minimize them. Future research in microbiology, ecology, and engineering of bioremediation should lead to effective remediation technologies for present and future challenges facing this industry.

Paterek, J.R.

1993-12-31

337

Identification of chemical substances in industrial wastes and their pyrolytic decomposition products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to quantify the sources of chemical pollutants in the leachate from reclaimed wastes, chemical substances in 11 different types of industrial wastes were identified. Their elution behaviors were also investigated. Alkanes (5.3–890ngg?1), benzenes (8.1–110ngg?1), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (3.2–560ngg?1), alcohols, steroids, phenol (7.1ngg?1), ketones, furans (190–210ngg?1), phthalates (8.9–560ngg?1), benzoquinones, dibenzothiophene (190ngg?1), benthiocarb (4.2ngg?1), sulfur, nitrile compounds, amino compounds, amido

Seiichi Ishikawa; Yoshio Sakazaki; Yoshio Eguchi; Ryoji Suetomi; Etsuko Nakamura

2005-01-01

338

Food processing industry wastes: Waste utilization. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment (physical, chemical, and biological), disposal, and economic considerations of the use of food product wastes. Applications in irrigation, food supplements for humans and animals, and fuel sources are presented. (Contains a minimum of 241 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

339

Micrococcus lactis sp. nov., isolated from dairy industry waste.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, yellow-pigmented, actinobacterial strain, DW152(T), was isolated from a dairy industry effluent treatment plant. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain DW152(T) exhibited low similarity with many species with validly published names belonging to the genera Micrococcus and Arthrobacter. However, phenotypic properties including chemotaxonomic markers affiliated strain DW152(T) to the genus Micrococcus. Strain DW152(T) had ai-C(15:0) and i-C(15:0) as major cellular fatty acids, and MK-8(H(2)) as the major menaquinone. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain DW152(T) had l-lysine as the diagnostic amino acid and the type was A4?. The DNA G+C content of strain DW152(T) was 68.0 mol%. In 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain DW152(T) exhibited significant similarity with Micrococcus terreus NBRC 104258(T), but the mean value of DNA-DNA relatedness between these strains was only 42.3%. Moreover, strain DW152(T) differed in biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics from M. terreus and other species of the genus Micrococcus. Based on the above differences, we conclude that strain DW152(T) should be treated as a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, for which the name Micrococcus lactis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Micrococcus lactis sp. nov. is DW152(T) (=MTCC10523(T) =DSM 23694(T)). PMID:21239567

Chittpurna; Singh, Pradip K; Verma, Dipti; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Korpole, Suresh

2011-01-14

340

Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb >?Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system. PMID:22623168

Banerjee, U S; Gupta, S

2012-05-25

341

Characterization of a WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) cesium chloride capsule after fifteen months service in a dry operation/wet storage commercial irradiator  

SciTech Connect

After 15 months of service, a Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) /sup 137/Cs gamma source capsule was removed for examination from a commercial irradiator at Radiation Sterilizers Incorporated (RSI), Westerville, Ohio. The examination was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and was the first study of a /sup 137/Cs source capsule after use in a commercial dry operation/wet storage (dry/wet) irradiator. The capsule was cycled 3327 times during the 15-month period with steady-state temperature differences ranging from 70 to 82/degree/C during the air-to-water cycle. The capsule was examined to determine the amount of corrosion that had occurred during this period and to determine if any degradation of the container was evident as the result of thermal cycling. Metallographic examinations were performed on sections that were removed from the inner capsule wall and bottom end cap and the outer capsule bottom end cap weld. The three regions of the inner capsule that were examined for corrosion were the salt/void interface, midwall, and bottom (including the end cap weld). The amount of corrosion measured (0.0002 to 0.0007 in.) is comparable to the corrosion produced (about 0.001 in.) during the melt-cast filling of a capsule. No observable effects of irradiator operation were found during this examination. Consequently, based on this examination, no degradation of WESF /sup 137/Cs capsules is expected when they are used in irradiators similar to the RSI irradiator. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Kjarmo, H.E.; Tingey, G.L.

1988-08-01

342

Analysis of potential RDF resources from solid waste and their energy values in the largest industrial city of Korea.  

PubMed

The production potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in the largest industrial city of Korea is discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy potential of the RDF obtained from utilizing combustible solid waste as a fuel resource. The total amount of generated solid waste in the industrial city was more than 3.3 million tonnes, which is equivalent to 3.0tonnes per capita in a single year. The highest amount of solid waste was generated in the city district with the largest population and the biggest petrochemical industrial complex (IC) in Korea. Industrial waste accounted for 89% of the total amount of the solid waste in the city. Potential RDF resources based on combustible solid wastes including wastepaper, wood, rubber, plastic, synthetic resins and industrial sludge were identified. The amount of combustible solid waste that can be used to produce RDF was 635,552tonnes/yr, consisting of three types of RDF: 116,083tonnes/yr of RDF-MS (RDF from municipal solid waste); 146,621tonnes/yr of RDF-IMC (RDF from industrial, municipal and construction wastes); and 372,848tonnes/yr of RDF-IS (RDF from industrial sludge). The total obtainable energy value from the RDF resources in the industrial city was more than 2,240,000x10(6)kcal/yr, with the following proportions: RDF-MS of 25.6%, RDF-IMC of 43.5%, and RDF-IS of 30.9%. If 50% or 100% of the RDF resources are utilized as fuel resources, the industrial city can save approximately 17.6% and 35.2%, respectively, of the current total disposal costs. PMID:19136242

Dong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

2009-01-10

343

Destroying chemical wastes in commercial-scale incinerators. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted at Zimpro, Inc., Rothschild, Wisconsin, to determine the effectiveness of wet air oxidation for destruction of two selected aqueous industrial wastes: coke plant waste and Amiben (herbicide) manufacturing waste. A pilot scale facility was tested for the coke plant waste with less than 6g\\/1 total solids and 5.5 g\\/1 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), chemical compounds such as

J. W. Adams; N. J. Cunningham; J. C. Harris; P. L. Levins; J. L. Stauffer

1976-01-01

344

An exploratory waste audit study of the Oregon automobile dealership industry to develop a model toxics use and hazardous waste reduction plan  

SciTech Connect

The move from hazardous waste management to pollution prevention is viewed as a paradigm shift in American industry. Pollution prevention involves source reduction to reduce the amount of hazardous waste that is generated, and recycling of those wastes that cannot be prevented within the production process. The first piece of federal pollution prevention legislation was enacted in 1990. Subsequently, six states have passed similar laws that require industries producing hazardous waste to shift to less polluting practices. The Oregon Toxics Use Reduction and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act of 1989 requires businesses to develop and implement a hazardous waste reduction plan that reduces not only the amount of hazardous waste generated, but also the type and amount of materials classified as [open quotes]toxic.[close quotes] Within the geographical region of Oregon, California, Washington, Alaska, and Idaho, only four studies exist that have researched waste reduction opportunities in the automobile industry. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine the number of Small Quantity Hazardous Waste Generators within the Oregon automobile dealership industry, (2) to determine the amount of used radiator coolant and used crankcase oil that is generated by Oregon dealerships (two waste streams that are not being tracked by the regulatory community), (3) to compare the waste disposal practices of urban and rural facilities, and (4) to develop a [open quotes]Model[close quotes] Toxics Use Reduction and Hazardous Waste Reduction Plan to be used in regional training sessions. Based on a 74% rate of return (160 out of 215 dealerships), the results indicated that the gross quantities of the materials investigated (solvents, used oil, and used antifreeze) were greater in Urban dealerships. These differences were not significant when quantities of material were standardized to the number of repair orders written.

Wang, M.K.

1993-01-01

345

An alternative method for the treatment of waste produced at a dye and a metal-plating industry using natural and/or waste materials.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop cost-effective, appropriate solidification technologies for treating hazardous industrial wastes that are currently disposed of in ways that may threaten the quality of local groundwater. One major objective was to use materials other than cement, and preferably materials that are themselves wastes, as the solidification additives, namely using wastes to treat wastes or locally available natural material. This research examines the cement-based and lime-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) techniques applied for waste generated at a metal-plating industry and a dye industry. For the lime-based S/S process the following binder mixtures were used: cement kiln dust/ lime, bentonite/lime and gypsum/lime. For the cement-based S/S process three binder mixtures were used: cement kiln dust/cement, bentonite/cement and gypsum/cement. The leachability of the wastes was evaluated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. The applicability and optimum weight ratio of the binder mixtures were estimated using the unconfined compressive strength test. The optimum ratio mixtures were mixed with waste samples in different ratios and cured for 28 days in order to find the S/S products with the highest strength and lowest leachability at the same time. The results of this work showed that the cement-and lime-based S/S process, using cement kiln dust and bentonite as additives can be effectively used in order to treat industrial waste. PMID:15462330

Fatta, Despo; Papadopoulos, Achilleas; Stefanakis, Nikos; Loizidou, Maria; Savvides, Chrysanthos

2004-08-01

346

Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (sanpainado RDF riyo) jigyoka FS chosa. (Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using industrial RDF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an investigation of feasibility of power generation business using high calorific industrial RDF including municipal RDF as an effective utilization of wastes. Utilized wastes were industrial plastic wastes, agricultural plastic waste...

1996-01-01

347

Use of industrial waste for the manufacturing of sustainable building materials.  

PubMed

Presently, appropriate waste management is one of the main requisites for sustainable development; this task is tackled by the material construction industry. The work described herein is focused on the valorization of granite waste through incorporation, as a filler-functional admixture, into cement-based mortar formulations. The main components of the waste are SiO(2) (62.1 %), Al(2)O(3) (13.2 %), Fe(2)O(3) (10.1 %), and CaO (4.6 %). The presence of iron oxides is used to develop the photocatalytic properties of the waste. Following heating at 700 °C, ?-Fe(2)O(3) forms in the waste. The inclusion of the heated sample as a filler admixture in a cement-based mortar is possible. Moreover, this sample exhibits a moderate ability in the photodegradation of organic dye solutions. Also, the plastering mortars, in which the heated samples have been used, show self-cleaning properties. The preparation of sustainable building materials is demonstrated through the adequate reuse of the granite waste. PMID:22344750

Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Martín, Francisco; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

2012-02-17

348

Evaluation of Wet Chemical ICP-AES Elemental Analysis Methods usingSimulated Hanford Waste Samples-Phase I Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

The wet chemistry digestion method development for providing process control elemental analyses of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Melter Feed Preparation Vessel (MFPV) samples is divided into two phases: Phase I consists of: (1) optimizing digestion methods as a precursor to elemental analyses by ICP-AES techniques; (2) selecting methods with the desired analytical reliability and speed to support the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement of the WTP; and (3) providing baseline comparison to the laser ablation (LA) sample introduction technique for ICP-AES elemental analyses that is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Phase II consists of: (1) Time-and-Motion study of the selected methods from Phase I with actual Hanford waste or waste simulants in shielded cell facilities to ensure that the methods can be performed remotely and maintain the desired characteristics; and (2) digestion of glass samples prepared from actual Hanford Waste tank sludge for providing comparative results to the LA Phase II study. Based on the Phase I testing discussed in this report, a tandem digestion approach consisting of sodium peroxide fusion digestions carried out in nickel crucibles and warm mixed-acid digestions carried out in plastic bottles has been selected for Time-and-Motion study in Phase II. SRNL experience with performing this analytical approach in laboratory hoods indicates that well-trained cell operator teams will be able to perform the tandem digestions in five hours or less. The selected approach will produce two sets of solutions for analysis by ICP-AES techniques. Four hours would then be allocated for performing the ICP-AES analyses and reporting results to meet the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement. The tandem digestion approach will need to be performed in two separate shielded analytical cells by two separate cell operator teams in order to achieve the nine-hour or less turnaround time. Because of the simplicity of the warm mixed-acid method, a well-trained cell operator team may in time be able to perform both sets of digestions. However, having separate shielded cells for each of the methods is prudent to avoid overcrowding problems that would impede a minimal turnaround time.

Coleman, Charles J.; Edwards, Thomas B.

2005-04-30

349

Economic analysis of effluent limitation guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treatment industry  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates the economic and financial effects and the benefits of compliance with the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the Centralized Waste Treatment (CWT) industry. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has measured these impacts in terms of changes in the profitability of waste treatment operations at CWT facilities, changes in market prices to CWT services, and changes in the quantities of waste management at CWT facilities in six geographic regions. EPA has also examined the impacts on companies owning CWT facilities (including impacts on small entities), on communities in which CWT facilities are located, and on environmental justice. EPA examined the benefits to society of the CWT effluent limitations guidelines and standards by examining cancer and non-cancer health effects of the regulation, recreational benefits, and cost savings to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) to which indirect-discharging CWT facilities send their wastewater.

Wheeler, W.

1998-12-01

350

Project WET  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is an international, broad-based water science and education program for formal and informal educators of students in grades K-12. It is part of a larger water resource education program called The Watercourse, l

Deyonge, Sandra C.

2000-01-01

351

Liquid waste treatment in the vegetable oil processing industry—European practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste treatment methods that are currently used in the vegetable oil processing industry are reviewed with special attention\\u000a to three points: a very careful study of the local conditions is necessary before selecting any treatment process; in any\\u000a case, it will mean an expensive investment, and the running costs will be high; and, in the near future, new laws

G. Choffel

1976-01-01

352

Separation of heavy metals from industrial waste streams by membrane separation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial membrane technology is becoming increasingly attractive as a low-cost generic separation technique for volume reduction, recovery, and\\/or purification of the liquid phase and concentration and\\/or recovery of the contaminant or solute. It offers outstanding future potential in the reduction and\\/or recycling of hazardous pollutants from waste streams. Membrane separation technology may include: (1) commercial processes such as electrodialysis, reverse

Yichu Huang; S. S. Koseoglu

1993-01-01

353

Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates

Vaidyanathan Vinoth Kumar; M. Shanmugaprakash; J. Aravind; S. Karthick Raja Namasivayam

2012-01-01

354

Removal of bromophenols from water using industrial wastes as low cost adsorbents.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the adsorbents prepared from several industrial wastes for the removal of 2-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol and 2,4-dibromophenol has been carried out. The results show that maximum adsorption on carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from fertilizer industry waste has been found to be 40.7, 170.4 and 190.2 mg g(-1) for 4-bromophenol 2-bromophenol and 2,4-dibromophenol, respectively. As compared to carbonaceous adsorbent, the other three adsorbents (viz., blast furnace sludge, dust, and slag) adsorb bromophenols to a much smaller extent. This has been attributed to the carbonaceous adsorbent having a larger porosity and consequently higher surface area. The adsorption of bromophenols on this adsorbent has been studied as a function of contact time, concentration and temperature. The adsorption has been found to be endothermic, and the data conform to the Langmuir equation. The further analysis of data indicates that adsorption is a first order process. A comparative study of adsorption results with those obtained on standard activated charcoal sample shows that prepared carbonaceous adsorbent is about 45% as efficient as standard activated charcoal in removing bromophenols. To test the practical utility of this adsorbent, column operations were also carried out. The results were found satisfactory in removing bromophenols by column operations. Therefore, the present investigations recommend the use of carbon slurry waste as inexpensive adsorbent for small scale industries of developing/poor countries where disposal of solid waste of various industries and proper treatment of polluted wastewater is a serious problem. PMID:16938394

Bhatnagar, Amit

2006-07-25

355

A case study of dioxin monitoring in and around an industrial waste incinerator in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been conducted that monitor and trace the sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin\\/furans (PCDD\\/Fs) by comparing congener patterns of environmental samples with those of possible sources. In this study, we measured PCDD\\/F concentrations and compared congener patterns of samples of various media found in and around an industrial waste incinerator in Korea, including stack gas, fly ash, bottom ash,

Byung-Hoon Kim; Se-Jin Lee; Su-Jung Mun; Yoon-Seok Chang

2005-01-01

356

Use of bomb calorimetry to assess recovery of waste industrial mineral oils through regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows an application of bomb calorimetry used in the procedure of regeneration of waste industrial mineral oils.\\u000a Using the treatment here reported a recovery of nearly 50% of the used oils was achieved. Furthermore, the oils so recovered\\u000a contain concentrations of potentially contaminant elements far below the requirements of the European Union (EU). Generally\\u000a speaking, it can be

L. Núñez-Regueira; J. Rodríguez-Añón; J. Proupín-Castiñeiras; C. Labarta-Carreño

2002-01-01

357

Performance appraisal of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as controlled low-strength material.  

PubMed

Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is slurry made by mixing sand, cement, ash, and water. It is primarily used as a replacement for soil and structural fillings. This paper presents the findings of a preliminary investigation carried out on the performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as CLSM. CLSM mixes were designed using industrial waste incineration bottom ash, and cement. Tests for density, setting time, bleed, and compressive strength on cubes under various curing conditions, corrosivity, and leaching of heavy metals and salts were carried out on the CLSM mixtures, and the results discussed. Compressive strength for the designed CLSM mixtures ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 MPa. It is shown that the variations in curing conditions have less influence on the compressive strength of CLSM at high values of water to cement ratio (w/c), but low values of w/c influences the strength of CLSM. The CLSM produced does not exhibit corrosive characters as evidenced by pH. Leaching of heavy metals and salts is higher in bleed than in leachate collected from hardened CLSM. Cement reduces the leaching of Boron in bleed. It is concluded that there is good potential for the use of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in CLSM. PMID:19665294

Razak, Hashim Abdul; Naganathan, Sivakumar; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

2009-07-25

358

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

359

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01

360

Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

361

Determinant impact of waste collection and composition on anaerobic digestion performance: industrial results.  

PubMed

The performance of the anaerobic digestion process depends deeply on the quality of the waste to be treated. This has been already demonstrated at the lab-scale. The objective of this study is to confirm this result at the industrial scale, with very long representative period and with the same process, the Valorga process. According to the waste quality and the collection type and even with the same conditions of fermentation, the biogas yield can vary by a factor of 1.5 when it is expressed (under normal conditions of pressure and temperature) in m3 biogas/t fresh waste, and by a factor of 2 when it is expressed in m3 CH4/t volatile solids. So, the biogas performance does not characterise a process since it is deeply governed by waste composition. This biogas productivity becomes a pertinent parameter only with consistent and relevant hypothesis and/or analytical results on the waste composition which depends on the collection procedure, the site characteristics and the season. PMID:11382004

Saint-Joly, C; Desbois, S; Lotti, J P

2000-01-01

362

Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.  

PubMed

Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes. PMID:18833660

Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

2008-01-01

363

Composting and bioremediation process evaluation of wood waste materials generated from the construction and demolition industry.  

PubMed

The suitability of using bioremediation and composting techniques for diverting construction and demolition (C&D) waste from landfill has been validated in this study. Different timber products from C&D waste have been composted using various composting approaches. The present work demonstrates the quality of compost produced as a result of composting of mixed board product wood waste, which is frequently obtained from the construction and demolition industry. Three compost mixes were prepared by mixing shredded chip board, medium density fibre, hardboard and melamine. Poultry manure, Eco-Bio mixture and green waste were used as nutrient supplements. The results revealed that compost produced from mixtures of poultry manure and green waste used as nutrient supplements improved the performance in plant growth trials (phytotoxicity tests). Results obtained from the experimental study clearly indicate that the composts produced comply with the criterion suggested in BSI PAS 100 (A specification for compost materials) for use in different applications. Composting can also be demonstrated to be a very practical approach to material management including transport reduction to and from the site. The economic suitability of the process will be improved with the increase in landfill tax. In the current regulatory scenario, it is recommended that these materials should be composted at a centralised facility. PMID:18325565

McMahon, V; Garg, A; Aldred, D; Hobbs, G; Smith, R; Tothill, I E

2008-03-05

364

"Smoking Wet"  

PubMed Central

Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as “wet” or “fry,” has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are dipped into or laced with other substances, typically formaldehyde, phencyclidine, or both. Inhaling smoke from these cigarettes can cause lung injuries. We report the cases of 2 young adults who presented at our hospital with respiratory failure soon after they had smoked “wet” marijuana cigarettes. In both patients, progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure necessitated rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After lengthy hospitalizations, both patients recovered with only mild pulmonary function abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first 2-patient report of severe respiratory failure and rescue therapy with extracorporeal oxygenation after the smoking of marijuana cigarettes thus tainted. We believe that, in young adults with an unexplained presentation of severe respiratory failure, the possibility of exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes should be considered.

Gilbert, Christopher R.; Baram, Michael; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C.

2013-01-01

365

Industrial ecosystem indicators—direct and indirect effects of integrated waste- and by-product management and energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an idealised industrial ecosystem (IE), firms and organisations utilise each other's material and energy flows including wastes and by-products to reduce the system's virgin material and energy input as well as the waste and emission output from the system as a whole, and contribute to sustainable development (SD). IE complements the more conventional individual flow, product, process, organisation, individual

Jouni Korhonen; Lasse Okkonen; Ville Niutanen

2004-01-01

366

Use of farming and agro-industrial wastes as versatile barriers in reducing pesticide leaching through soil columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest has been recently focused on assessing the influence of the addition of organic wastes related to movement of pesticides in soils of low organic matter (OM) content. This study reports the effect of two different amendments, animal manure (composted sheep manure) and agro-industrial waste (spent coffee grounds) on the mobility of 10 pesticides commonly used for pepper protection

J. Fenoll; E. Ruiz; P. Flores; N. Vela; P. Hellín; S. Navarro

2011-01-01

367

Nutzung Industrieller Abwaerme durch ORC (Organic Ranking Cycle)-Systeme (Use of Industrial Waste Heat by ORC-Systems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the project the feasibility of the Organic Rankine Cycle Principle for waste heat recovery was investigated with an - in general - positive result. First of all the potential of waste heat in industry usable by ORCS was evaluated and the typical proper...

G. Huppmann J. Weichselgartner G. Schmidt G. Dure W. Oechslein

1984-01-01

368

Use of reverse osmosis as a preconcentration system of waste leaching liquid from the citric juice production industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastes generated in the production of juice from citric fruits can become a great environmental problem if they are not managed correctly. Over the last years the European laws have become more restrictive about the pollution levels from industries. The environmental problem is directly related to the high organic matter content present in the leachates from solid wastes, which

E. García; J. M. Gozálvez; J. Lora

2002-01-01

369

Project WET  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a nonprofit water education program and publisher for educators and young people ages 5-18. Site features information on its renowned training workshops, where participants receive a collection of over 90 K-12 broad-based water resource activities. Site also includes a catalog of other classroom resources available for purchase. Site also available in Spanish and French.

370

High-solids anaerobic digestion of mixed municipal and industrial waste  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory studies on dry anaerobic digestion of mixture of paper, kitchen food waste, and sewage sludge have demonstrated the optimum performance at total solids (TS) at the range of 30--35% TS. The thermophilic process (at 55 C) was found to be superior to a mesophilic (35 C) one, both in terms of volatile solid (VS) reduction and specific gas production, but was somewhat less stable at short mass retention times (MRT). The efficiency of total volatile solids destruction and the decrease in the oxygen demand were found to be proportional to the product of the mass retention time and temperature (d {center_dot} C). Pilot studies, conducted on a mixture of sewage sludge, mixed paper, food waste, and solids from a potato processing conducted on site in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, Canada, have demonstrated the feasibility of running the process at loads exceeding 9 kg TS/m{sup 3} {center_dot} d and producing biogas at 140 m{sup 3} of wet solids fed to the composter. The residual oxygen demand per unit mass of the dry compost was 20 mg O{sub 2}/g {center_dot} h, which indicated a need for aerobic postcuring of the anaerobically produced compost.

Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Poggi-Varaldo, H.M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-11-01

371

Acute and chronic toxicity of soluble fractions of industrial solid wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE(50,48?h) = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE(50,30?min) = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

2012-04-22

372

Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48?h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30?min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method.

Flohr, Leticia; de Castilhos Junior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

2012-01-01

373

Enzyme activities and chemical changes in wet olive cake after treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus or Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the enzyme activities and chemical changes recorded in a recalcitrant phenolic-rich waste after treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus or Eisenia fetida. The waste used was wet olive cake (alperujo in Spanish), a waste produced in huge amounts by the olive oil industry. Both P. ostreatus and E. fetida were very effective in removing phenolic compounds, the initial concentration in the wet olive cake being reduced in both cases by around 90%. Laccase and manganese peroxidase activities were measured in the growth medium of P. ostreatus, and catechol 2,3 dioxygenase activity was only detected in the waste treated with Eisenia; these could be the main factors responsible for the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Increases of dehydrogenase and beta-glucosidase activities were detected in the degraded wet olive cake by fungi or earthworms. In comparison with the natural wet olive cake, the degraded products had lower total organic carbon and humic acid contents but were rich in nitrogen and other nutrients, having lower C:N ratios. In addition, the toxicity of the wet olive cake against the seeds of Lepidium sativum significantly decreased after degradation. The low toxicity as well as moderate stability and maturity recorded in the wet olive cake treated with P. ostreatus or E. fetida imply that these products could be used as soil amendments. PMID:16453175

Saavedra, M; Benitez, E; Cifuentes, C; Nogales, R

2006-02-01

374

Use of sepiolite as an adsorbent for the removal of copper (II) from industrial waste leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land filling is the most common method of disposal of solid waste all over the world. As well as municipal solid waste, industrial wastes, which may contain hazardous substances, are also received by landfills in many countries. Leachate is one of the problems arising from landfills. When water percolates through solid wastes, contaminants are leached into solution. The major concern with the movement of leachate into the subsurface aquifer is the fate of the constituents found in leachate. The fate of heavy metals is the greatest interest in leachate. Several treatment technologies have been developed for eliminating heavy metals recently. Adsorption is one of the most interesting methods that it has been successfully applied for the heavy metal removal. Activated carbons were widely used as adsorbent materials because of their extended surface area, microporous structure, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. However, it is restricted due to its relatively high price, high operation costs, and problems with generation for the industrial scale applications. Recently, more research efforts have been focused on effective sorbents material in order to minimize the processing cost and solve their disposal problems in an environmentally sustainable way. Adsorption of metal ions onto clay minerals has been studied extensively because both metal ions and clays are common components in nature. The cost of clays is relatively low as compared to other alternative adsorbents. Furthermore, the high specific surface area, chemical and mechanical stability, variety of structural and surface properties and higher values of cation exchange capacities make the clays an excellent group of adsorbents. Sepiolite (Si12O30Mg8(OH)4(H2O)4•8H2O) is a natural, fibrous clay mineral with fine microporous channels running parallel to the length of the fibers. The structure of sepiolite, in some aspects, is similar to those of other 2:1 trioctahedral silicates, such as talc, but it has discontinuities and inversion of the silica sheets, which give rise to structural tunnels and blocks. In the inner blocks, all corners of the silica tetrahedral are connected to adjacent blocks, but in the outer blocks, some of the corners are Si atoms bound to hydroxyls (Si-OH). This unique structure allows the penetration of organic and inorganic species into the structure and assigns sepiolite an industrial importance in adsorption. The objective of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of using sepiolite for the adsorptive removal of Cu (II) from the industrial waste leachate. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies are determined. The pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order, Elovich and the intra particle diffusion kinetic models are used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The adsorption of Cu (II) from the aqueous leachate of industrial wastes onto sepiolite was performed using a batch equilibrium technique. At first stage, one-factor-at-a-time experiments were performed to see the individual effects of initial pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The adsorption of Cu (II) was favorably influenced by an increase in the adsorbent dosage. The maximum percent removal of Cu (II) were observed at pH>6, and significantly decreased at lower pH value. The optimum contact time is found as 10 min. for the removal of Cu (II). The increment in contact time from 10 min. to 120 min. did not show a significant effect on efficiency. The maximum Cu (II) adsorption efficiencies were obtained at 94.45%. The pseudo second order kinetic model agrees very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous leachate of industrial waste onto sepiolite. The results indicate that the use of sepiolite that is locally available and almost free of cost as an adsorbent could be a viable alternative to activated carbon for the removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

Gamze Turan, N.; Ardali, Yüksel

2013-04-01

375

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

376

Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

Lindberg, M.

2002-02-26

377

Petroleum industry effluents and other oxygen-demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation-reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid-base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl-, SO(2-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and PO4(3-), and other ions and compounds. PMID:17193303

Osuji, Leo C; Uwakwe, Augustine A

2006-07-01

378

Towards industrially feasible treatment of potato starch processing waste by mixed cultures.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at reducing the pollution of the waste generated by the potato starch industry to the environment and transform the potato pulp and wastewater into single-cell protein (SCP) to be used as animal feed. The chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater was reduced from 26,700 to 9,100 mg/L by batch fermentation with mixed cultures in an aerated 10-L fermenter. The SCP products, with a crude protein content of 46.09 % (higher than soybean meal), were found palatable and safe for mice. During the treatment process, the microbial community was analyzed using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results of the analysis suggested that Curacaobacter/Pseudoalteromonas and Paenibacillus/Bacillus were the main microorganisms in treating potato starch processing wastes. The 150-m(3)-scale fermentation demonstrated a potential for treatment in industrial applications. Fermentation of potato pulp and wastewater without adding an extra nitrogen source was a novel approach in treating the potato starch processing waste. PMID:23921431

Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Li, Ying; Niu, Jia; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Qian

2013-08-07

379

A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

Reaven, S.J.

1994-08-01

380

Use of the Microscreen phage-induction assay to assess the genotoxicity of 14 hazardous industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage lambda in Escherichia coli WP2s lambda, was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial-waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Eleven of the 14 wastes induced prophage, and induction was observed at concentrations as low as 0.4 picograms per ml. Comparisons between the mutagenicity of these waste samples in Salmonella and their ability to induce prophage lambda indicate that the Microscreen phage-induction assay detected genotoxic activity in all but one of the wastes that were mutagenic in Salmonella. Moreover, the Microscreen assay detected as genotoxic 5 additional wastes that were not detected in the Salmonella assay. The applicability of the Microscreen phage-induction assay for screening hazardous wastes for genotoxic activity is discussed along with some of the problems associated with screening highly toxic wastes containing toxic volatile compounds.

Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

1988-01-01

381

Use of the microscreen phage-induction assay to assess the genotoxicity of 14 hazardous industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage lambda in Escherichia coli WP2s(lambda), was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Eleven of the 14 wastes induced prophage, and induction was observed at concentrations as low as 0.4 pg per ml. Comparisons between the ability of these waste samples to induce prophage and their mutagenicity in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay indicate that the phage-induction assay detected genotoxic activity in all but one of the wastes that were mutagenic in Salmonella. Moreover, the Microscreen assay detected as genotoxic five additional wastes that were not detected in the Salmonella assay. The applicability of the Microscreen phage-induction assay for screening hazardous wastes for genotoxic activity is discussed, as are some of the problems associated with screening highly toxic wastes containing toxic volatile compounds.

Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

1988-01-01

382

Efficient method for recycling silica materials from waste powder of the photonic industry.  

PubMed

An efficient and economic approach is proposed for the fast and direct recovery of silica materials from photonic waste powder. Unlike the conventional alkaline fusion method for the extraction of silica from waste materials, this method possesses advantages of a rapid and low-energy-consumed process with total recovery yield. The obtained mesoporous silica material, denoted as MCM-41(DU)-F, was recovered directly from photonic waste powder at room temperature with the assistance of cationic surfactant, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia hydroxide. The recycled MCM-41(DU)-F with a high specific surface area (788 m(2)/g), ordered mesoporous structure (4.5 nm), and large pore volume (1.1 cm(3)/g) was used as support of tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) for the capture of CO2 from a flue gas stream. The results demonstrated that TEPA-impregnated MCM-41(DU)-F had an adsorption capacity of 120 mg of CO2/g of adsorbent. This is higher than the amount adsorbed by TEPA-MCM-41(NaSi) made from pure chemicals (113 mg of CO2/g of adsorbent) and TEPA-MCM-41(AF) made from alkaline fusion (112 mg of CO2/g of adsorbent) under the same testing conditions. This novel recycling process, which can improve cost effectiveness for the mass production of valuable mesoporous silica materials from cheap and abundant resources through convenient preparation steps, is surely beneficial from the viewpoint of economical use of photonic industrial waste powder. PMID:23521136

Lin, Liang-Yi; Bai, Hsunling

2013-04-05

383

Bioleaching of zinc and aluminium from industrial waste sludges by means of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed

Biological solubilisation of heavy metals contained in two different kinds of industrial wastes was performed in batches employing a strain of Thiobacillus ferroxidans. The wastes tested were: a dust coming from the iron-manganese alloy production in an electric furnace (sludge 1) and a sludge coming from a process treatment plant of aluminium anodic oxidation (sludge 2). The experimental results pointed out the ability of the used strain to maintain the environment, that initially has a pH about 8, at strongly acid conditions (pH 2.5-3.5), producing sulphuric acid that is the chemical agent responsible for the metals solubilisation. At wastes initial concentration of 1%, the percentage of solubilised metals was 76 and 78% for the wastes 1 and 2, respectively, but the lag phase was considerably longer for sludge 2 than for sludge 1, indicating a different affinity of microorganisms for the solid phase. Increasing the initial slurry concentration, the percentage of removed metal reached 72-73% for the sludge 1, while in case of sludge 2, the total amount of solubilized metal progressively decreased. Two kinetic models are proposed to describe the trends of metals solubilization curves. PMID:12214978

Solisio, C; Lodi, A; Veglio, F

2002-01-01

384

Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.  

PubMed

Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (?10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (?70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

2013-04-06

385

Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: May 1, 2010-October 31, 2010  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (#LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

386

Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

387

Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typ...

S. J. Reaven

1994-01-01

388

Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

2009-12-01

389

Potential of thermal treatment for decontamination of mercury containing wastes from chlor-alkali industry.  

PubMed

Old dumps of mercury waste sludges from chlor-alkaline industry are an environmental threat if not properly secured. Thermal retortion can be used to remove mercury from such wastes. This treatment reduces the total mercury content, and also may reduce the leachability of the residual mercury. The effects of treatment temperature and treatment time on both residual mercury levels and mercury leachability according to the US EPA TCLP leaching procedure, were investigated. Treatment for 1h at 800°C allowed to quantitatively remove the mercury. Treatment at 400°C and above allowed to decrease the leachable Hg contents to below the US EPA regulations. The ultimate choice of treatment conditions will depend on requirements of further handling options and cost considerations. PMID:21093149

Busto, Y; Cabrera, X; Tack, F M G; Verloo, M G

2010-11-02

390

Apparatus for obtaining hydrocarbons from rubber tires and from industrial and residential waste  

SciTech Connect

An elongated tube is maintained at a temperature of about 1100/sup 0/F. Throughout its length. Organic waste material such as shredded rubber automobile tires or industrial plastic waste or residential trash which preferably has metal and inorganic matter removed therefrom, is moved through the tube at a uniform rate of speed in the absence of air and/or oxygen, with the material being churned or tumbled as by means of a screw conveyor. The vapors and gases which are produced and/or liberated within the tube are quickly removed therefrom by means of a vacuum of from about four inches to about six inches of mercury, with the vapors being condensed and the gases separated therefrom. The char or residue which is a black, powdery, carbon-type material is also recovered.

Chambers, R.

1980-11-25

391

Installation for treatment of sediments coming from stations for purification of industrial waste water  

SciTech Connect

An installation is disclosed for the treatment of sediment coming from a purification station for industrial waste water. The installation consists of a static furnace incinerator into which sediment is transferred by means of an injector. The injector is made up of an elbow tube connected between the furnace and the sediment, a blast pipe injecting air into the furnace and drawing sediment with it due to the vacuum created by the blasted air flow, and an additional air inlet in the furnace wall, the additional air inlet surrounding the elbow.

Petiot, M.

1980-04-22

392

A Computational Method for Groundwater Flow through Industrial Waste by Use of Digital Color Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this article we propose a computational method coupled with the digital color image and discuss its application to the\\u000a numerical simulation of the groundwater flow through industrial wastes. The solution method combines finite difference approximations\\u000a based on fictitious domain method (also called domain embedding method) and pixels which are arranged in two dimensional grid\\u000a in the color image.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The

Takako Yoshii; Hideyuki Koshigoe

2010-01-01

393

Selection of Waste Water Equalization Systems for Multi Product Batch Production Facility: An Industrial Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation rates of waste water from a batch plant causes significant variations in the flow rate as well as concentrations in the influent to effluent treatment plant. Flow equalization systems are used to reduce the shock loads. The present study deals with the suitability of two flow equalization schemes practiced in the industry with an objective of increasing production flexibility. The simulation study has conclusively established suitability of combined segregation tanks over distributed segregation tanks for a given production capacity. It is also shown that the production flexibility is more for combined scheme in comparison with the distributed scheme.

Bhatt, Vaidehi; Srinivasarao, Meka.; Dhanwani, Anand

2010-10-01

394

Life Cycle Inventory for Use of Waste Solvent as Fuel Substitute in the Cement Industry - A Multi-Input Allocation Model (11 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The Swiss chemical industry produces large amounts of organic waste solvents. Some of these solvents cannot be recovered. A common option for the treatment of such organic waste solvents is the incineration in hazardous waste incinerators. Alternatively, the waste solvents can be used as fuel in cement production. On the one hand, solvent incineration in cement kilns saves fossil

Christina Seyler; Stefanie Hellweg; Michel Monteil; Konrad Hungerbühler

2005-01-01

395

Kinetics of Wet Oxidation of Biological Sludges from Coal-Conversion Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustible organics in aqueous solutions or suspensions, which are characteristic of waste treatment effluent from coal liquefaction, may be treatable by wet oxidation. The wet oxidation of model compounds (phenol in water or phenol in municipal waste sl...

R. K. Helling M. K. Strobel R. J. Torres

1981-01-01

396

Adsorption removal of phosphate in industrial wastewater by using metal-loaded skin split waste.  

PubMed

Leather industry inevitably generates a large amount of skin split waste (SSW) due to the necessary operation of splitting in leather making process. In this study, two adsorbents, SSW-Fe and SSW-Al, were prepared by loading Fe(III) and Al(III) onto SSW, and their adsorption behaviors to phosphate in industrial wastewater were investigated through batch and column adsorption experiments. The macro-adsorption kinetics data obtained from batch experiments were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate model and the adsorption isotherms can be well described by the Langmuir equation. The adsorption behaviors of the columns can be well described by Yoon and Nelson model and the time at breakthrough point can be accurately predicted by this model. It was found that the metal-loaded adsorbents prepared by using SSW as supporting matrix can effectively remove phosphate from industrial wastewater. The leakage of metal ions during adsorption process is neglectable. These results indicate that the metal-loaded SSW adsorbents have a good future in practical application for the removal of phosphate from industrial wastewater. PMID:19136202

Huang, Xin; Liao, Xuepin; Shi, Bi

2008-12-11

397

Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent  

DOEpatents

A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

2001-01-01

398

Risk of boron and heavy metal pollution from agro-industrial wastes applied for plant nutrition.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of various agro-industrial wastes were investigated when applied to soil alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers, regarding the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution of soils and plants. Nine combinations of production residues from various agro-industries, urban wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes in a field experiment. The content of available boron in the soil differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the applications. Generally, B values were found to be slightly higher when soapstock, prina, and blood were used alone or in combination. Although total Co, Cd, and Pb contents of soils showed no significant differences between the applications, Cr content differed significantly (p < 0.05). No pollution risk was observed in soil in respect to total Co, Cd, Pb, and Cr contents. The amount of boron and heavy metals in leaves showed no significant differences among the applications. Cobalt, Cd, and Pb in leaves were at normal levels whereas Cr was slightly above normal but well under the critical level. Boron was low in tubers and varied significantly between applications such as Co and Cd. The Co content of tubers was high, Cd and Cr contents were below average, and Pb content was between the given values. Some significant correlations were found between soil characteristics and the boron and heavy metal content of soil, leaves, and tubers. PMID:19680756

Seçer, Müzeyyen; Ceylan, Safak; Elmaci, Omer Lütfü; Akdemir, Hüseyin

2009-08-13

399

Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.  

PubMed

Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1). PMID:19765979

Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

2009-09-17

400

Clastogenicity evaluation of seven chemicals commonly found at hazardous industrial-waste sites  

SciTech Connect

Seven chemicals commonly found at industrial waste sites were tested with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay to evaluate their clastogenic potential. They were: Aldrin, arsenic trioxide, 1,2-benz(a,h)anthracene, dieldrin, heptachlor, lead tetraacetate, and tetrachloroethylene. Results of repeated tests for clastogenicity yielded the minimum effective dose (MED) of 0.44 ppm for lead tetraacetate, 3.81 ppm for dieldrin, and 1.88 ppm for heptachlor. Arsenic trioxide and 1,2-benz(a,h)anthracene yielded positive responses at the MED of 3.96 ppm and 2.28 ppm, respectively. Aldrin and tetrachloroethylene were considered to be immiscible with water, and the test yielded negative responses. Results of tetrachloroethylene fume treatment yielded a positive response at the MED of 30 ppm/min in 2-hr exposures. Five chemicals determined to be clastogens by the test were ranked according to their MED in the descending order of potency as follows: Lead tetraacetate, heptachlor, 1,2-benz(a,h)anthracene, dieldrin, and arsenic trioxide. Results of the study indicate that Trad-MCN bioassay could be effectively utilized for assessing the genetic hazard from the leachates and volatile compounds emanating from uncontrolled industrial waste sites.

Sandhu, S.S.; Ma, T.H.; Peng, Y.; Zhou, X.

1989-01-01

401

Recovery of valuable metals from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes by leaching and electrowinning  

SciTech Connect

In the present paper, a study on laboratory scale to perform a treatment for valuable metals recovery from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes, is reported. The characterisation of the waste, performed by XRD, SEM, EDX and chemical analysis, showed a high metals content in the sludge, such as Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sn, W. A leaching process, coupled by electrowinning, is then proposed in order to reduce the volume of the waste material and to recover selectively valuable metals, such as Cu and Ni. During the leaching step, carried out by using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, several factors were investigated (acid concentration, temperature and time of treatment). The leached liquor has been successfully treated with an electrowinning process, to recover copper and nickel. The copper and nickel depositions, were performed in acid and alkaline conditions, respectively. The Faraday yield was of about 95%. The energy consumption was 2.13 and 4.43 kWh per kg of copper and nickel recovered, respectively. At the end of the process, about 94-99% of the initial content of Cu and Ni was recovered at the cathode. The experimental results obtained, showed the technical feasibility of the process.

Veglio, F.; Quaresima, R.; Fornari, P.; Ubaldini, S

2003-07-01

402

Heavy equipment maintenance wastes and environmental management in the mining industry.  

PubMed

Maintenance wastes, if not managed properly, represent significant environmental issues for mining operations. Petroleum hydrocarbon liquid wastes were studied at an Australian site and a review of the literature and technology vendors was carried out to identify oil/water separation technologies. Treatment technologies and practices for managing oily wastewater, used across the broader mining industry in the Asia-Pacific region, were also identified. Key findings from the study were: (1) primary treatment is required to remove grease oil contamination and to protect secondary oily wastewater treatment systems from being overloaded; (2) selection of an effective secondary treatment system is dependent on influent oil droplet size and concentration, suspended solids concentration, flow rates (and their variability), environmental conditions, maintenance schedules and effectiveness, treatment targets and costs; and (3) oily wastewater treatment systems, based on mechanical separation, are favoured over those that are chemically based, as they simplify operational requirements. Source reduction, through housekeeping, equipment and reagent modifications, and segregation and/or consolidation of hydrocarbon waste streams, minimizes treatment costs, safety and environmental impact. PMID:12418163

Guerin, Turlough F

2002-10-01

403

Recovery of valuable metals from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes by leaching and electrowinning.  

PubMed

In the present paper, a study on laboratory scale to perform a treatment for valuable metals recovery from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes, is reported. The characterisation of the waste, performed by XRD, SEM, EDX and chemical analysis, showed a high metals content in the sludge, such as Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sn, W. A leaching process, coupled by electrowinning, is then proposed in order to reduce the volume of the waste material and to recover selectively valuable metals, such as Cu and Ni. During the leaching step, carried out by using H(2)SO(4), several factors were investigated (acid concentration, temperature and time of treatment). The leached liquor has been successfully treated with an electrowinning process, to recover copper and nickel. The copper and nickel depositions, were performed in acid and alkaline conditions, respectively. The Faraday yield was of about 95%. The energy consumption was 2.13 and 4.43 kWh per kg of copper and nickel recovered, respectively. At the end of the process, about 94-99% of the initial content of Cu and Ni was recovered at the cathode. The experimental results obtained, showed the technical feasibility of the process. PMID:12737966

Vegliò, F; Quaresima, R; Fornari, P; Ubaldini, S

2003-01-01

404

Biological re-cultivation of industrial technological waste banks after steel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of re-cultivation of disturbed lands, after the creation of waste banks, is very important and of great scientific interest. The studies on the effectiveness of biological re-cultivation are focused mainly on activities and techniques for the acceleration of soil formation processes as. The relationship between substrate and plants is also studied, in order to create modern biotechnologies and contributes to the remediation of the re-cultivated lands within the territorial system. In this work we have studied three parts of an industrial waste bank named "The 7th of September" located in the green system of Sofia - Pernik agglomeration in Bulgaria. It consists of technological wastes produced by the steel industry. Its area of 20 dca is of special local importance. The aim of this study was to propose an appropriate technology for the biological re-cultivation, which could take place after all production activities had ceased. To achieve this aim a detailed study on the characteristics of climatic elements was carried out focusing on precipitation - limiting factor for future afforestation of waste banks. Analyses on hydro-physical and chemical parameters of substrates were undertaken in order to elaborate recommendations for their improvement and utility in biological re-cultivation. Here we present the characteristics of the vegetation which existed before the production activities and the approaches for choice of tree species in afforestation with different schemes and methods applied. On the basis of this study we were able to establish that the hydrological properties of substrates are quite similar to those of natural soils in the region. The variations obtained for some soil substrate layers were not significant. In relation to this we also outlined the quantity of organic matter and nutrient elements in waste banks as determining parameters for further biological re-cultivation. The studied site is located in the lower forest zone of the country, where the main limiting factor for plants is water content. Consequently, the nutrient elements are available for the tree species only in combination with an optimal water regime.

Sokolovska, Maria; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Bech, Jaume

2010-05-01

405

Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. March 1985-October 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for March 1985-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food-processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste-heat recovery, meat processing, seafood processing, dairy wastes, beverage industry, fruits and vegetables, and other food-industry wastes. Waste utilization includes animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, conversion to fertilizer, composting, and recovery and recycling of usable chemicals. Food-packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 169 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-11-01

406

Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.  

PubMed

The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment. PMID:11387023

Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

407

Microbiology of Sewage Lagoons - Effects of Industrial Wastes on Lagoon Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents some of the ecologic changes occurring in sewage lagoons receiving domestic wastes plus potato processing wastes (Grafton), cheese manufacturing wastes (Lakota), and domestic wastes (Harvey). Since each lagoon presents unique operating...

J. W. Vennes H. W. Holm M. W. Wentz K. L. Hanson J. M. Granum

1969-01-01

408

On implementation of waste management systems in the Hong Kong construction industry using spectral methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hong Kong government has implemented various measures for reducing waste generation, including a waste disposal ordinance, a green manager scheme, a waste reduction framework plan, a pilot concrete recycling plant, waste management plans and a landfill charging scheme. However, a large amount of construction and demolition waste is still generated everyday. This paper examines the existing implementation of waste

Vivian W. Y. Tam; Khoa N. Le

2009-01-01

409

Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The

Reaven

1994-01-01

410

Degradation of industrial waste waters on Fe\\/C-fabrics. Optimization of the solution parameters during reactor operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the pre-treatment of toxic and recalcitrant compounds found in the waste waters arriving at a treating station for industrial effluents containing chlorinated aromatics and non-aromatic compounds, anilines, phenols, methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). By reducing the total organic carbon (TOC) of these waste waters the hydraulic load for the further bacterial processing in the secondary biological treatment is decreased. The

A. Bozzi; T. Yuranova; P. Lais; J. Kiwi

2005-01-01

411

Influence of waste water from the paper industry and UV-B radiation on the photosynthetic efficiency of Euglena gracilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green flagellate Euglena gracilis has been used as a model organism to elucidate the possible large-scale and short-term\\u000a effects of waste substances from the pulp and paper industry on photosynthetic efficiency (PE). Different concentrations of\\u000a waste substances before and after treatment in a cleaning system were studied. The uncleaned sample at concentrations up to\\u000a 1:10 and the cleaned sample

Roman Danilov; Nils G. A. Ekelund

1999-01-01

412

Recycled porous glass from municipal\\/industrial solid wastes sorting operations as a lead ion sorbent from wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled waste porous glass (RWPG), from municipal solid wastes (MSW) sorting operations, may be used as a sorbent for lead ion removal from industrial wastewaters. To the purpose, dynamic (laboratory columns) operations were carried-out by the use of differently sized glass beads in the range 0.35–1.25mm which were eluted with lead ion containing synthetic solutions (2–9.5mg\\/L). Temperature was kept constant

A. Petrella; V. Petruzzelli; T. Basile; M. Petrella; G. Boghetich; D. Petruzzelli

2010-01-01

413

Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4 (0.1), (NH4)2SO4 (0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4 (0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio. PMID:24031986

Singh, Renu; Kapoor, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay

2012-06-01

414

Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker's yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker's yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

El-Tayeb, T S; Abdelhafez, A A; Ali, S H; Ramadan, E M

2012-06-01

415

Economic impact analysis of anticipated hazardous waste management regulations on the batteries, electronics, and special machinery industries. Final report 8 September 1977--10 February 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project consists of an analysis of the economic impacts of alternative regulatory levels for hazardous waste management in the batteries, electronics and special machinery industries. The analysis consists of three segments: Industry profile, cost of compliance, and economic impact analysis. The Industry Profile delineates the products, producers, and plant characteristics in the industries. The Cost of Compliance reviews the

J. Levin; C. Saunders

1978-01-01

416

Spreading and Wetting Behaviour of Trisiloxanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetting and spreading processes which involve surfactant solutions are widely used in numerous industrial and practical applications nowadays. The performance of different non-ionic surfactants may vary significantly and so far superspreader solutions show the most promising spreading ability. The addition of trisiloxane surfactants to water was proven to enhance wetting, even on hydrophobic surfaces, on which conventional surfactants seem to

Jovana Radulovic; Khellil Sefiane; Martin E. R. Shanahan

2009-01-01

417

Estimation of the atmospheric corrosion on metal containers in industrial waste disposal.  

PubMed

Solid industrial waste are often stored in metal containers filled with concrete, and placed in well-aerated warehouses. Depending on meteorological conditions, atmospheric corrosion can induce severe material damages to the metal casing, and this damage has to be predicted to achieve safe storage. This work provides a first estimation of the corrosivity of the local atmosphere adjacent to the walls of the container through a realistic modeling of heat transfer phenomena which was developed for this purpose. Subsequent simulations of condensation/evaporation of the water vapor in the atmosphere were carried out. Atmospheric corrosion rates and material losses are easily deduced. For handling realistic data and comparison, two different meteorological contexts were chosen: (1) an oceanic and damp atmosphere and (2) a drier storage location. Some conclusions were also made for the storage configuration in order to reduce the extent of corrosion phenomena. PMID:11489528

Baklouti, M; Midoux, N; Mazaudier, F; Feron, D

2001-08-17

418

Cost effectiveness analysis of effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treament industry  

SciTech Connect

EPA has proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treatment (CWT) industry. This report investigates the cost-effectiveness of all possible combinations of proposed control options for the three subcategories of CWT operations. EPA considered three control options for metals, two for oils and two for organics, with 12 possible combinations of these options. The report measures cost-effectiveness through a comparison of compliance costs to the quantity of pollutants removed under each combination of control options. The effectiveness of the regulations is measured in terms of reductions in the pounds of pollutants discharged to surface waters, weighted to account for the pollutants` toxicity. Some pollutants removed are specifically addressed by the regulation, while others and not directly regulated but are removed incidentally as a result of controlling for other pollutants.

Wheeler, W.

1998-12-01

419

Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.  

PubMed Central

Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50°C and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermostable at 70°C for about 2 h without any salt. It showed stability at pH range 5–7. The metal ions as Na+, Ca++, Mg++ and Co++ enhanced the enzyme activity.

Saxena, Rajshree; Singh, Rajni

2011-01-01

420

Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

Doye, I.; Duchesne, J. [University of Laval, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

2005-08-01

421

Enhancement of methane gas production using an industrial waste in anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

One method of recycling that may aid in the solution of the current energy problems is anaerobic digestion. Chromium shavings are a solid waste produced by the leather tanning industry. Chromium can block enzymatic systems or interfere with essential cellular metabolites of most oxidizing bacteria. In general, heavy metals coagulate and precipitate proteins, many of which are denatured by this action. This study examines the effects on anaerobic digestion of chromium shavings from leather tanning. Leather chrome shavings contain proteins, nitrogen, and fats. These shavings were added to two of three digesters at various rates. The methane gas production of the experimental units improved significantly compared to the control. In addition, the presence of a toxic loading or change of feed had no harmful effect on the digester performance.

Fradkin, L.; Kremer, F.

1980-12-01

422

Enhancement of methane gas production using an industrial waste in anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

One method of recycling that may aid in the solution of the current energy problems is anaerobic digestion. Chromium shavings are a solid waste produced by the leather tanning industry. Chromium can block enzymatic systems or interfere with essential cellular metabolites of most oxidizing bacteria. In general, heavy metals coagulate and precipitate proteins, many of which are denatured by this action. This study examines the effects on anaerobic digestion of chromium shavings from leather tanning. Leather chrome shavings contain proteins, nitrogen, and fats. These shavings were added to two of three digesters at various rates. The methane gas production of the experimental units improved significantly compared to the control. In addition, the presence of a toxic loading or change of feed had no harmful effect on the digester performance.

Fradkin, L.; Kremer, F.

1980-01-01

423

Research on heavy metals in Ruditapes philippinarum and soda industry wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals pollution in Jiaozhou Bay was studied in Ruditapes. philippinarum, a bioindicator of seawater pollution. Heavy metals in soda industry wastes “white mud” were also studied. Comparison of microwave digestion method with general digestion method revealed that microwave digestion is superior to general digestion in precision, recovery, digestion speed and efficiency, etc. Cd concentration in Hongdao R. philippinarum samples exceeded the national standard by 0.046 mg/kg, that of Yinghai sample by 0.02 mg/kg, and that of Hongshiya sample by 0.22 mg/kg. Sample Pb concentration in Hongshiya was found to exceed the national standard by 0.02 mg/kg. However the heavy metals concentration in R. philippinarum near the Qingdao Alkaline Factory was complied with the standard. This was proved by Penaeus chinensis culture experiment. Therefore, the possible contamination source may come from other land areas.

Zhu, Xiaobin; Xu, Weihai; Wang, Xinting; Huang, Xinping; Deng, Liping; Kang, Xinglun; Jiang, Zhigang; Ma, Xuli

2005-03-01

424

Ionometric determination of copper in electroplating baths and waste water from the electroplating industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the development of an ionometric procedure for the determination of copper (II) in electroplating baths and waste waters from electroplating plants that accounts for the components that they contain. The authors used a solid-phase electrode based on Cu/sub 2/S.Ag/sub 2/S manufactured by the ''Kvant'' Scientific-Production Association. The reference electrode was an ESL-1M3 silver chloride electrode. The emf was measured with a pH-673 pH-meter and a Shch-1413 digital voltmeter while the solution was stirred with a magnetic stirrer. The ionometric procedure was developed for two electrolytes as examples, the first containing potassium sodium tartrate and the second containing a copper fluoroborate complex. The reliability of the procedure that has been developed is satisfactory for the requirements of industry.

Nikolenko, I.P.; Makulov, N.A.; Tsingarelli, R.D.

1985-12-01

425

Burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces--EPA. Final rule: corrections; technical amendments.  

PubMed

On February 21, 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final rule to regulate air emissions from the burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces (56 FR 7134). Today's notice corrects typographical and editorial errors that appeared in the regulatory text, including corrections to appendices II and III, and adds two appendices, appendix IX and appendix X, to part 266. Appendices IX and X were not ready at the time of publication; therefore, a note was placed in the appropriate location in the rule to inform readers that these appendices were to be published at a later date. Copies of these appendices were, however, made available to the public through the RCRA Docket maintained at EPA and through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). PMID:10112734

1991-07-17

426

Evaluation of maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared from agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in physical, chemical and biological parameters to assess the maturity and stability of composts prepared from mixture of different farm and agro-industrial wastes over a period of 150 days. All the composts appeared granular, dark grey in color without foul odor and attained an ambient temperature at 120 days of composting indicating the stable nature of composts. Correlation analysis showed that the optimal values of the selected parameters for our experimental conditions are as follows: organic matter loss >42%, C:N ratio <15, water soluble organic carbon (C(w)):organic N (N(org)) ratio <0.55, humic acid (HA):fulvic acid (FA) ratio >1.9, humification index (HI) >30%, cation exchange capacity (CEC):total organic carbon (TOC) ratio >1.7 and germination index (GI) >70%. Compost enriched with sewage sludge, pressmud and poultry waste matured earlier compared to composts either enriched with distillery effluent or un-enriched. PMID:21075622

Raj, Dev; Antil, R S

2010-10-23

427

Testing various food-industry wastes for electricity production in microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Three food-industry wastes: fermented apple juice (FAJ), wine lees and yogurt waste (YW) were evaluated in combination with two sources of inoculum, anaerobic sludge and garden compost, to produce electricity in microbial fuel cells. Preliminary potentiostatic studies suggested that YW was the best candidate, able to provide up to 250 mA/m(2) at poised potential +0.3V/SCE. Experiments conducted with two-chamber MFCs confirmed that wine lees were definitely not suitable. FAJ was not able to start an MFC by means of its endogenous microflora, while YW was. Both FAJ and YW were suitable fuels when anaerobic sludge or compost leachate was used as inoculum source. Sludge-MFCs had better performance using YW (54 mW/m(2) at 232 mA/m(2)). In contrast, compost-leachate MFCs showed higher power density with FAJ (78 mW/m(2) at 209 mA/m(2)) than with YW (37 mW/m(2) at 144 mA/m(2)) but YW gave more stable production. Under optimized operating conditions, compost-leachate MFCs fueled with YW gave up to 92 mW/m(2) at 404 mA/m(2) and 44 mW/m(2) in stable conditions. PMID:20034785

Cercado-Quezada, Bibiana; Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain

2010-04-01

428

Use of grape stalk, a waste of the viticulture industry, to obtain activated carbon.  

PubMed

Grape stalk is an organic waste produced in great amounts in the industrialization processes of grape. This work presents the results of studies carried out to use this waste as raw material to prepare activated carbon through the physical and chemical route. The physicochemical characterization of this material suggests the presence of unusually high levels of ashes. Metal content was determined and high levels of potassium, sodium, iron, calcium and magnesium in carbonized and raw grape stalk were exhibited. This characteristic made difficult physical activation at high temperatures. A leaching step was included before the activation with steam, and adsorbents with surface areas between 700 and 900 m(2)/g were obtained. Physical activation was also performed at lower temperatures using carbonized grape stalk without leaching, leading to the development of some grade of porosity, with an area of 412 m(2)/g. These results would indicate the catalytic effect of the minerals present in this raw material. Chemical activation using phosphoric acid as activating agent seemed to be a very efficient method as final products with BET areas between 1000 and 1500 m(2)/g were obtained. PMID:19643534

Deiana, A C; Sardella, M F; Silva, H; Amaya, A; Tancredi, N

2009-06-25

429

Industrial Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abstracts of worldwide information on all aspects of industrial efficiency, including alternate advanced industrial cogeneration, biocatalysis, ceramics, combustion, industrial energy efficiency, industrial waste, materials, materials processing, municipa...

1992-01-01

430

Bioconversion of wastes from olive oil industries by vermicomposting process using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work evaluates the possible bioconversion of wet olive cake by low-cost biostabilization (vermicomposting process). Wet olive cake fresh (WOC), precomposted (WOCP), or mixed with biosolids (WOCB), were vermicomposted for 6 months to obtain organic amendments for agricultural and remediation purposes. The results showed initial differences depending on previous treatment. WOCP was initially more stable, presented a low C:N

Raquel Melgar; Emilio Benitez; Rogelio Nogales

2009-01-01

431

WORKSHOP ON IN-PLANT WASTE REDUCTION IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY, HELD AT UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON, DECEMBER 13-14, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Presented are the proceedings of a workshop on in-plant waste reduction in the meat industry. Forty-five participants from industry, government, and private firms exchanged ideas and experiences on waste reduction during the two-day session. Topics covered were: pens, blood conse...

432

Workshop on In-Plant Waste Reduction in the Meat Industry, Held at University of Wisconsin, Madison, December 13-14, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are the proceedings of a workshop on in-plant waste reduction in the meat industry. Forty-five participants from industry, government, and private firms exchanged ideas and experiences on waste reduction during the two-day session. Topics covere...

J. L. Witherow J. F. Scaief

1976-01-01

433

Polyphenolic content and in vitro antioxidant characteristics of wine industry and other agri-food solid waste extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid by-products from white and red wine industry were subjected to evaluation as potential sources of antioxidant phytochemicals on the basis of their content in phenolics and in vitro antioxidant activity. Furthermore, several other common plant solid wastes, including apple, potato and onion peels, as well as carob pods and olive tree leaves were also considered, in order to carry

Dimitris P. Makris; George Boskou; Nikolaos K. Andrikopoulos

2007-01-01

434

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent

mike lewis

2011-01-01

435

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent

Mike Lewis

2012-01-01

436

Effect of sugar industry wastes on K status and nutrient availability of a newly reclaimed loamy sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sugar cane industry wastes on K status and its availability in a newly reclaimed loamy sand soil, as well as their influence on some chemical soil properties and soil macro- (N and P) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu) availability to wheat plants. The applied treatments were mineral K

Adel Rabie Ahmed Usman; Mohsen Abdo-Elmenem Gameh

2008-01-01

437

USE OF THE MICROSCREEN PHAGE-INDUCTION ASSAY TO ASSESS THE GENOTOXICITY OF 14 HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage lambda in Escherichia coli WP2s lambda, was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic act...

438

Process development for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions using red mud—an aluminium industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mud, an aluminium industry waste, has been converted into an inexpensive and efficient adsorbent and used for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions. Effect of various factors on the removal of these metal ions from water ( e.g. pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature, particle size, etc.) has been studied and discussed. The effect of presence

Vinod K Gupta; Monika Gupta; Saurabh Sharma

2001-01-01

439

The Snail as a Target Organism for the Evaluation of Industrial Waste Dump Contamination and the Efficiency of Its Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of contamination and the efficiency of remediation of an industrial waste dump (IWD) were done before and after remediation. For this study, two species of snails were used for passive and active biomonitoring: a nonnative species, Helix pomatia and young garden snails (Helix aspersa aspersa) of standardized rearing (age, 2 months). Bioaccumulation analysis of pollutants (cadmium, nickel, iron,

F. Pihan; A. de Vaufleury

2000-01-01

440

Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

441

An assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

Smith, K. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Williams, G. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Environmental Assessment

2003-05-15

442

Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766?571?metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, ‘filter’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘butts’). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959–2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. Results The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20?years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Conclusions Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste.

Novotny, Thomas E

2011-01-01

443

In vitro production of entomopathogenic fungi paecilomyces farinosus (hotmskiold) and paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson using byproducts of sugar industry and other agro-industrial byproducts and wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass production of entomopathogenic fungi,Paecilomyces farinosus (Hotmskiold) andPaecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson on sugarcane molasses, spent wash and other agro-industrial wastes was evaluated. The suitability of the medium\\u000a was assessed based on specific parameters like radial growth, biomass production and spore production. Among the concentrations\\u000a of molasses tested,P. farinosus recorded significantly greater diameter of growth circle (5.03 cm) on 4% molasses

M. Daisy Leena; S. Easwaramoorthy; R. Nirmala

2003-01-01

444

Development of pervaporation to recover and reuse volatile organic compounds from industrial waste streams. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to demonstrate use of pervaporation, a new membrane technology, as an efficient, low-cost method of recovering dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water and to commercialize this technology. MTR`s industrial commercialization partner, Hoechst Celanese, allowed the project to move rapidly with both demonstration work and precommercial business planning. However, in Dec. 1996 the technology was returned to MT. To date, two systems were sold: one for a wastewater application, the other for removing off flavors from soup stock. Two other customers did extensive field tests and are expected to purchase systems in 1997. This report describes the development of pervaporation membranes and modules at MT. A study was performed with these membrane modules to determine the parameters governing membrane performance. Laboratory data were integrated into the design of several pervaporation demonstration systems, which were operated in the laboratory and at field sites. Results of two of these field trials (benzene/toluene/ethylbenzene/xylenes removal from evaporator condensate water produced by a natural gas glycol dehydration unit at a PG&E gas processing plant, and chlorinated solvent removal from contaminated groundwater at Pinellas) are reported. Economic analysis shows that pervaporation is cheaper than steam stripping for treating water containing highly VOCs such as toluene or TCE up to flow rates of 100-200 gpm. For moderately VOCs such as acetone or methylene chloride, pervaporation is cheaper for streams < 10-20 gpm. Market studies suggest that by 2010 pervaporation will realize energy savings of 81x10{sup 12} Btu and waste reduction of 0.54x10{sup 6} tons VOCs; benefits include lower CO{sub 2} emissions because of less destruction of VOCs by incineration. Also, raw material costs for the chemical industry will be reduced with the recovered VOCs. Industries will be less likely to move overseas due to increased wastewater regulation in US.

Baker, R.W.; Athayde, A.L.; Daniels, R.; Le, M.; Pinnau, I.; Ly, J.H.; Wijmans, J.G.; Kaschemekat, J.H.; Helm, V.D.

1997-03-01

445

[Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial solid waste: a preliminary evaluation of the potential risk of environmental and human contamination in waste disposal areas].  

PubMed

Proper solid waste disposal is important to avoid human and environmental contamination. The NBR 10,004 Waste Classification lists several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and indicates that the presence of at least one PAH in a waste sample is enough to classify it as hazardous. The aim of this study was a preliminary evaluation of PAHs in solid waste samples from selected industries to obtain a preliminary overview of their potential for contamination in case of improper disposal. One or more PAHs listed in NBR 10,004 (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, chrysene, or fluoranthene) were found in all samples, thus leading to their classification as hazardous waste. Our results showed that toxicologically relevant PAHs were found in all the samples, indicating that their final disposal must be performed in appropriate areas in order to minimize human health risks and environmental contamination from waste disposal areas. PMID:12764484

Sisinno, Cristina L S; Pereira Netto, Annibal D; Rego, Eliane Cristina P do; Lima, Guilherme dos Santos

2003-05-15

446

Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

447

Recycling of Industrial Wastes, Illustrated by the Example of the Industrialized Economic Area of North Baden/North Wuerttemberg.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After investigating the technical and organizational problems associated with the re-use of a number of waste products, which have not been considered suitable for utilization so far, economically promising proposals were elaborated and partly put into pr...

G. Gieseler K. Purps U. Rathmann H. Rauschenberger R. Schiller

1977-01-01

448

A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology.  

PubMed

In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m(2) degrees C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 degrees C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 degrees C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 degrees C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were aluminum, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium. Most importantly, if the dried sludge is used as a solid fuel, these heavy metals can be collected from the dust collector after combustion. PMID:19272710

Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-Kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

2009-02-20

449

Wetting in Color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown that combinatorial measurements from an array of indicators add a degree of chemical specificity to the platform, which can be further improved by monitoring the drying of the inverse-opal films. While colorimetry is the central focus of this thesis, applications of this platform in encryption, fluidics and nanofabrication are also briefly explored.

Burgess, Ian Bruce

450

View graph presentations of the sixth DOE industry/university/lab forum on robotics for environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Robotics Technology Development Program involves the following: develop robotic systems where justified by safety, cost, and/or efficiency arguments; integrate the best talent from National Labs, industry, and universities in focused teams addressing complex-wide problems; and involve customers in the identification and development of needs driven technologies. This presentation focuses on five areas. They are: radioactive tank waste remediation (Richland); mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal (Idaho Falls); decontamination and decommissioning (Morgantown); landfill stabilization (Savannah River); and contaminant plumes containment and remediation (Savannah River).

NONE

1995-10-01

451

Open-Cycle Heat Pumps for Industrial Waste-Heat Utilization. Project Technical Report, May 12, 1980-October 10, 1980. Phase I. Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Open-Cycle Industrial Process Heat Pumps (IPHP) are potentially a cost-effective method of utilizing an industrial plant's waste heat. The objective of Phase I of the work was to determine the feasibility of an open-cycle industrial process heat pump. Thi...

1980-01-01

452

The detection of water-wetting in salt-rock by impedance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical impedance measurement is shown to detect water-wetting in salt at elevated temperature and pressure. The critical wetting temperature (and pressure) is detected by a characteristic fall of in-phase resistivity. Wetting temperatures and pressures obtained by this method are (i) in close agreement with static capsule wetting studies and (ii) sufficiently low to be of concern if nuclear waste is

Alasdair D. L. Skelton; Stephen C. Elphick

1999-01-01

453

Waste management industry survey, government sector, 1994. Econnections, linking the environment and the economy  

SciTech Connect

This document presents results from a 1994 survey that gathered information on waste management services provided by Canadian governments. These services included the collection and transportation of waste and of materials destined for recycling, the operation of non-hazardous waste disposal facilities, and the operation of transfer stations. Data are provided on such matters as operating and capital expenditures on waste management, government employment in waste management services, and amounts of non-hazardous waste disposed in both government- and privately-operated facilities. Survey design and methodology are also described. A copy of the survey questionnaire is appended.

Not Available

1998-01-01

454

Integration of a non-metallic ESP and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) for the semiconductor manufacturing industry have economic drawbacks. For example, ESPs with metal components require the use of expensive anti-corrosive metallic materials to protect against the corrosive gases produced in the semiconductor industry. This paper evaluates a non-metallic, two-stage ESP that uses a carbon brush charger, carbon forced resin plate ground channels, and polyvinyl chloride collection

Hak-Joon Kim; Bangwoo Han; Yong-Jin Kim; Seok-Jun Yoa; Tetsuji Oda

2012-01-01

455

Use of a Nylon Manufacturing Waste as an Industrial Fermentation Substrate  

PubMed Central

Nonvolatile residue (NVR), a waste stream from the manufacture of nylon 6?6?, contains mainly small carboxylic acids and alcohols, making it a potential fermentation substrate. Above a concentration of 1.3% (wt/vol), NVR inhibited the growth of all microorganisms tested. The most inhibitory of the major NVR components were the monocarboxylic acids (C4 to C6) and ?-caprolactone. The inhibitory effects of NVR could be avoided by using a carbon-limited chemostat. Microorganisms were found that could use all of the major NVR components as carbon and energy sources. One such organism, Pseudomonas cepacia, was grown in a carbon-limited chemostat with a medium feed concentration of 20.5 g of NVR liter?1. At a dilution rate of 0.14 h?1 the yield of biomass (Yx/s, where x is biomass produced and s is substrate used) from NVR was 18% (neglecting the water content of NVR). It was concluded that NVR would be a suitable carbon source for certain industrial fermentation processes such as the production of poly-?-hydroxybutyric acid.

Ramsay, Bruce A.; Znoj, George M.; Cooper, David G.

1986-01-01

456

Investigation of the effect of culture type on biological hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

The bio-hydrogen generation potential of sugar industry wastes was investigated. In the first part of the study, acidogenic anaerobic culture was enriched from the mixed anaerobic culture (MAC) through acidification of glucose. In the second part of the study, glucose acclimated acidogenic seed was used, along with the indigenous microorganisms, MAC, 2-bromoethanesulfonate treated MAC and heat treated MAC. Two different COD levels (4.5 and 30 g/L COD) were investigated for each culture type. Reactors with initial COD concentration of 4.5 g/L had higher H{sub 2} yields (20.3-87.7 mL H{sub 2}/g COD) than the reactors with initial COD concentration of 30 g/L (0.9-16.6 mL H{sub 2}/g COD). The 2-bromoethanesulfonate and heat treatment of MAC inhibited the methanogenic activity, but did not increase the H{sub 2} production yield. The maximum H{sub 2} production (87.7 mL H{sub 2}/g COD) and minimum methanogenic activity were observed in the unseeded reactor with 4.5 g/L of initial COD.

Ozkan, Leyla; Erguder, Tuba H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Demirer, Goksel N., E-mail: goksel@metu.edu.t [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

2010-05-15

457

Utilization of pulp and paper industrial wastes to remove heavy metals from metal finishing wastewater.  

PubMed

Two pulp and paper industrial wastes, lime mud (LM) and recovery boiler ash (RB), have low moisture contents, low heavy metal contaminations and contain various carbonate compounds which contribute to a high pH. Metal finishing wastewater (MF-WW) has a low pH, high levels of TDS and high contaminations from Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The heavy metals from MF-WW were removed by sorption and precipitation mechanisms. LM gave better results in removing heavy metals from MF-WW than RB. At a reaction time of 45min, the maximum removal efficiencies for Cr (93%) and Cu (99%) were obtained at 110gL(-1) of LM, but at 80gL(-1) for Pb (96%) and Zn (99%). Treatment with LM gives a higher sludge volume than with RB. However, the leachability of heavy metals from LM is lower. Leachability of heavy metals in the sediment for all selected treatment conditions is within government standards. PMID:19501952

Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Sreesai, Siranee

2009-06-06

458

Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH (11.4-14.8%), organic carbon (4.2-30.5%) and an increase in total nitrogen (6-29%), AP (5-29%), exchangeable potash (6-21%) and turnover rate (52-66%). Maximum mortality (18.10%) of worms was recorded in T5 treatment. A high manurial value and a matured product was achieved in T3 treatment. The data reveal that pressmud mixed with spent wash can be decomposed through vermicomposting and can help to enhance the quality of vermicompost. PMID:22720423

Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Shanmugaprakash, M; Aravind, J; Namasivayam, S Karthick Raja

459

Behavior of cement mortars containing an industrial waste from aluminium refining: Stability in Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical interaction between a solid industrial waste from aluminium refining and saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution, as well as the effects of substituting siliceous sand for the waste on the physical and mechanical properties of mortars were studied. The waste is a solid that contains reactive alumina capable of combining with the calcium hydroxide. These reactions result in stable and insoluble compounds. This alumina, together with the halite (also present in the waste composition), chemically react with a saturated solution of Ca(OH){sub 2}, giving as a main reaction product the so-called Friedel's salt (Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}O{sub 6} {center{underscore}dot} 10 H{sub 2}O). Straetlingite and Si-hydrogarnets were among other products detected. The waste has a high specific surface area. The cement/waste mixtures therefore require a higher quantity of mixing water than cement/sand mixtures. The result is a decrease of the mechanical strengths and an increase of the total porosity. However, a decrease of the average size of the pores occurs, which can have a positive effect on the durability of the final material.

Puertas, F.; Blanco-Varela, M.T.; Vazquez, T.

1999-10-01

460

E-CYLING E-WASTE: THE WAY FORWARD FOR NIGERIA IT AND ELECTROMECHANICAL INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An average of 500,000 tons of obsolete Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipments (WEEE) are dumped into Nigeria monthly with its associated health and environmental hazards. E-waste includes computers, entertainment electronics, mobile phones and other items that have been discarded by their original users. While there is no generally accepted definition of e-waste, in most cases e-waste consists of expensive and

Oliver E. Osuagwu; Charles Ikerionwu

2010-01-01

461

Material reclamation industries in regional economies (input-output analysis of solid waste)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an approach to the construction of a regional input-output model for the analysis of solid waste problems is outlined. Building upon an available conventional regional input-output model, three models are presented, each nested inside the other, and leading to the proposed model. They are: (a) Simple model of production and waste generation, (b) Production and waste disposition

E. Romanoff

1972-01-01

462

Major obstacles to improving the performance of waste management in China's construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The generation of construction and demolition waste in China is a pressing need to be minimized in order to alleviate the environmental burden. The effectiveness of implementing construction and demolition waste management in this economy, however, is very limited due to various barriers. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the major obstacles to managing construction and demolition waste

Hongping Yuan; Liyin Shen; Jiayuan Wang

2011-01-01

463

Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and

R. A. Pierce; J. R. Smith

1995-01-01

464

Genotoxicity studies in semiconductor industry. 1. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of waste samples resulting from plasma etching  

SciTech Connect

Solid waste samples taken from the etching reactor, the turbo pump, and the waste air system of a plasma etching technology line in semiconductor production were studied as to their genotoxic properties in a bacterial repair test, in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay, in the SOS chromotest, in primary mouse hepatocytes, and in Chinese hamster V79 cell cultures. All three waste samples were found to be active by inducing of unscheduled DNA-synthesis in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In the bacterial rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis, waste samples taken from the turbo pump and the vacuum pipe system were not genotoxic. The waste sample taken from the chlorine-mediated plasma reactor was clearly positive in the bacterial repair assay and in the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli. Mutagenic activity was demonstrated for all samples in the presence and absence of S9 mix made from mouse liver homogenate. Again, highest mutagenic activity was recorded for the waste sample taken from the plasma reactor, while samples collected from the turbo pump and from the waste air system before dilution and liberation of the air were less mutagenic. For all samples chromosomal damage in V79 cells was not detected, indicating absence of clastogenic activity in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate generation of genotoxic and mutagenic products as a consequence of chlorine-mediated plasma etching in the microelectronics industry and the presence of genotoxins even in places distant from the plasma reactor. Occupational exposure can be expected both from the precipitated wastes and from chemicals reaching the environment with the air stream.

Braun, R.; Huettner, E.M.; Merten, H.; Raabe, F. (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany))

1993-07-01

465

Distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in solid waste from selected sites in the industrial belt of Delhi, India.  

PubMed

Solid waste samples were collected from five small-scale industrial sites in the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. These industrial sites represent the regional spread of the industrial belt in the NCT of Delhi. Solid waste samples were digested using aqua-regia and HF in air tight teflon bombs for the quantitative analysis of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn) by GBC model 902 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Hg was analysed using hydrid generator attachment. Beside this sequential extraction was used to fractionate five heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn) into six operationally defined phases, viz. water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate-bound, Fe-Mn oxides, organic-bound and residual fractions to ascertain the relative mobility of these metals. The result obtained showed metal concentration to be in the range of Hg 0.42-2.3; Pb 23-530; Cd 014-224; Mn 494-19 964; Fe 35 684-233 119; Ni 192-1534; Cu 3065-10 144 and Zn 116-23 321 (all units in mg kg(-1)) in all the industrial areas studied. The fractionated toxic metals like Pb, Ni and Cd were observed to be in the range of 25-35, 15-50 and 40-50%, respectively, in mobile or bio-available fractions of solid waste. As this waste is often disposed-off by the