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1

Establishment of vegetation in constructed wetlands using biosolids and quarry fines  

SciTech Connect

A common problem with constructing wetlands on abandoned mine sties is the lack of adequate soil needed to establish vegetation. One component of a full-scale passive treatment system built at Jennings Environmental Education Center in Brady Township, Butler County, PA addressed this issue through the development of a field trial to find an inexpensive alternative substrate for wetland plants. A simple soil recipe was followed which called for the mixing of an inorganic material with a nutrient-rich organic material. The inorganic constituent used was silt-size pond cleanings from a sand and gravel operation. The organic material used was a composted product made from exceptional-quality biosolids. Both soil components were obtained from local sources (less than 16 kilometers (12 miles) from the site) and mixed on site with a Caterpillar 963 track loader. The soil was used to construct a channel wetland 3 meters (10 feet) wide by 61 meters (200 feet) long. A seed mixture which contained 24 different wetland plant species native to western Pennsylvania was added to the substrate prior to releasing the water from the vertical flow system into the wetland. After one year, the vegetation was studied to determine the percent cover and species composition in order to document the effectiveness of this method of wetland construction. The preliminary results of this study indicate that this is an effective means to establish and sustain wetland vegetation. The addition of a fabricated substrate consisting of composted biosolids and silt can be a very effective method to establish dense and diverse vegetation in a constructed wetland.

Danehy, T.P.; Zick, R.; Brenner, F.; Chmielewski, J.; Dunn, M.H.; Cooper, D.C.

1999-07-01

2

Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory`s (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program`s first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow ({le}12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled.

Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab.

1998-12-31

3

Seed bank and established vegetation in the last remnants of the Mexican Central Plateau wetlands: the Lerma marshes.  

PubMed

Seed banks play a central role in vegetation dynamics of many wetlands. Therefore, knowledge of seed reservoirs in the soils of aquatic communities should provide useful tools for conservation and restoration efforts. This study was conducted in the Lerma marshes, one of the last remnants of the vast wetlands that were once in the Mexican Central Plateau. The main objective was to determine the composition and abundance of seed bank and its relationship with established vegetation of the three Lerma marshes. In each marsh, we systematically selected 18 to 40 sampling sites. In each site, the composition of vascular plant vegetation was evaluated in two 10m lines perpendicular to the shore. Every 0.5m, we determined the coverage of species by measuring the intercepted length for each plant or group of plants. At each sampling site where we had evaluated the established vegetation, we collected a sample of the top 10cm of sediment; the soil cores were divided into an upper layer (0-5cm) and a lower layer (5-10cm). These samples were used to evaluate the seed bank by the seedling emergence method. All samples were placed in a greenhouse at 20-25 degrees C and remained flooded for 15 weeks. Forty-nine species were recorded in the vegetation. Chiconahuapan had the richest and most diverse flora and the greatest number of perennial species. A life-forms analysis showed that perennial herbs, especially rooted-emergent hydrophytes, dominated in the three wetlands. Sixty-one species were identified in the total seed bank; Chimaliapan had the most diverse total seed bank, whereas the mean seedling density was higher in Chignahuapan. Only two species of the total seed bank of each marsh had a density greater than 10% of the total, and more than half were uncommon. The upper layer of sediment (0-5cm) contained two times more seeds/m2 and species per sample than the lower layer (5-10cm), and there was a significant decrease of seed density with depth. The detrended correspondence analysis produced a clear separation between the composition of the seed banks and established vegetation. In general, in each marsh there was less species diversity in the established vegetation than in the seed bank. Dominance by a few species in the seed bank, the presence of opportunistic species, and the low representation of established species in the seed bank suggest wetland degradation and a low probability of regenerating the natural communities from the seed bank. To ensure the permanence of these marshes, their biodiversity, and therefore the environmental services they provide, up to date planning is a must, and efforts to control and monitor hydrology, water quality, and the influence of human activities are suggested. PMID:25102631

Zepeda, Carmen; Lot, Antonio; Nemiga, Xanat Antonio; Manjarrez, Javier

2014-06-01

4

Establishment of submergent vegetation and invertebrates in a wetland constructed on mine soil  

E-print Network

slow to develop. Southern naiad (Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus), coontail (Ceratophyllwn demerswn L.), and sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.) were planted and compared to borrowed-wetland soil during 1992 and 1993 growing seasons at three...

Thomas, James Alan

1994-01-01

5

Establishment and reproduction of Aeschynomene virginica (L.) (Fabaceae) a rare, annual, wetland species in relation to vegetation removal and water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeschynomene virginica is a rare annual plant found in freshwater tidal wetlands of the eastern United States. We hypothesized that standing vegetation and water inundation were two important environmental factors in its population dynamics. To test these hypotheses, we sowed seeds into plots with undisturbed vegetation or plots with all aboveground vegetation removed in 1998 and 1999. Presence\\/absence of seedlings

Alan B. Griffith; Irwin N. Forseth

2003-01-01

6

Placing a Fyke Net in Wetland Vegetation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Glen Black of GLSC and Angela Wahlquist of Northland College places fyke net in wetland vegetation in Fish Creek Slough of Lake Superior near Ashland, Wisconsin, as part of a study of bioindicators of wetland degradation in the Great Lakes. This study is funded by the U.S. EPA Environmental Research...

7

FLUVIAL DISTURBANCE AND WETLAND VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT, UPPER MAIN STEM, WILLAMETTE RIVER, OREGON, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrogeomorphic processes drive vegetation establishment, and promote development of diverse wetland and riparian types associated with lotic ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to estimate the rate and pattern of vegetation development on bars tracked since 1936, a...

8

Effects of Woody Vegetation on Prairie Wetland Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird surveys were conducted in wetlands (n = 1(00) throughout South Dakota during the summers of 1995 and 1996 to assess effects of woody vegetation encroachment on nongame wetland bird species. Wetland bird species richness decreased as the extent of woody vegetation encompassing wttland perimeters increa.o;ed. Logistic analyses indicated that four wetland bird species (Black Tern (Chlidonills niger). Wilson's Phalarope

DAVID E. NAUGLE; KENNETH F. HIGGlNs; SARAH M. NUSSER

9

Does Prescribed Fire Benefit Wetland Vegetation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fire on wetland vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States are poorly known, despite the historical\\u000a use of fire by federal, state, and private landowners in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Prescribed fire is widely used by land\\u000a managers to promote vegetation that is beneficial to migratory waterfowl, muskrats, and other native wildlife and to reduce

Dixie L. Bounds; Douglas E. Ruby

2011-01-01

10

Vegetative Nutrient Pools in a Constructed Wetland in Southeastern Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the vegetative pools of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in constructed wetlands receiving irrigation return flows in southeastern Idaho. Seven native wetland plant species were introduced into the wetlands in 1999. Carex nebrascensis, Eleocharis palustris, Juncus balticus, and Scheonoplectus maritimus were planted in replicate wetland meadows (primary filters), and Scheonoplectus acutus, Scheonoplectus pungens, and Typha latifolia

Andrew M. Ray; Richard S. Inouye

2006-01-01

11

Vegetation of Upper Coastal Plain depression wetlands: Environmental templates and wetland dynamics within a landscape framework.  

SciTech Connect

Reference wetlands play an important role in efforts to protect wetlands and assess wetland condition. Because wetland vegetation integrates the influence of many ecological factors, a useful reference system would identify natural vegetation types and include models relating vegetation to important regional geomorphic, hydrologic, and geochemical properties. Across the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain, depression wetlands are a major hydrogeomorphic class with diverse characteristics. For 57 functional depression wetlands in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, we characterized the principal vegetation types and used a landscape framework to assess how local (wetland-level) factors and regional landscape settings potentially influence vegetation composition and dynamics. Wetland sites were stratified across three Upper Coastal Plain landscape settings that differ in soils, surface geology, topography, and land use. We sampled plant composition, measured relevant local variables, and analyzed historical transitions in vegetative cover types. Cluster analysis identified six vegetation types, ranging from open-water ponds and emergent marshes to closed forests. Significant vegetation-environment relationships suggested environmental ''templates'' for plant community development. Of all local factors examined, wetland hydrologic regime was most strongly correlated with vegetation type, but depression size, soil textural type, and disturbance history were also significant. Because hydrogeologic settings influence wetland features, local factors important to vegetation were partly predictable from landscape setting, and thus wetland types were distributed non-randomly across landscape settings. Analysis of long-term vegetation change indicated relative stability in some wetlands and succession in others. We developed a landscape-contingent model for vegetation dynamics, with hydroperiod and fire as major driving variables. The wetland classification, environmental templates, and dynamics model provide a reference framework to guide conservation priorities and suggest possible outcomes of restoration or management.

De Steven, Diane; Toner, Maureen, M.

2004-03-01

12

Effects of dominant species on vegetation change in Carolina bay wetlands following a multi-year drought.  

SciTech Connect

Wetland vegetation is strongly dependent upon climate-influenced hydrologic conditions, and plant composition responds in generally consistent ways to droughts. However, the extent of species composition change during drought may be influenced by the pre-existing structure of wetland vegetation. We characterized the vegetation of ten herbaceous Carolina bay wetlands on the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain during a period of average rainfall and again near the end of a four-year drought. We hypothesized that, as a group, bays dominated by less robust plant species (characteristic of open-water pond and depression meadow vegetation types) would show greater compositional change than bays dominated by dense, robust-form clonal graminoids (characteristic of grass and sedge marsh vegetation types). Aquatic species decreased during the drought in all wetlands, regardless of vegetation group. Compared to grass/sedge marshes, pond/meadow wetlands acquired more species, particularly non-wetland species, during the drought. Pond/meadow wetlands also had greater increases in the abundances of species that require unflooded conditions to establish. Prior to the drought, all wetlands were ponded almost continuously, but during drought the pond/meadow wetlands had shorter and more variable hydroperiods than the grass/sedge marshes. Thus, vegetation change may be partly confounded with hydrologic conditions that provide greater opportunities for species recruitment in pond/meadow bays. The results suggest that Carolina bay vegetation dynamics may differ as a function of dominant vegetation and climate driven variation in wetland hydrologic condition.

Mulhouse, John, M.; De Steven, Diane; Lide, Robert, F.; Sharitz, Rebecca, R.

2005-05-01

13

Vegetation and environmental conditions in recently restored wetlands in the prairie pothole region of the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

How closely the vegetation of restored wetlands resembles that of comparable natural wetlands is a function of the probability of propagules of wetland species reaching reflooded wetlands and how similar environmental conditions in the restored wetland are those in the natural wetlands. Three years after reflooding, we examined the vegetation composition, water level fluctuations, soil organic carbon content, and soil

Susan M. Galatowitsch; Arnold G. van der Valk

1996-01-01

14

CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROTOPOGRAPHY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON VEGETATION PATTERNS IN CREATED WETLANDS  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROTOPOGRAPHY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON VEGETATION PATTERNS IN CREATED WETLANDS, Virginia, USA 20192 Abstract: Created wetlands are increasingly used to mitigate wetland loss. Thus, identifying wetland creation methods that enhance ecosystem development might increase the likelihood

15

Methyl parathion toxicity in vegetated and nonvegetated wetland mesocosms.  

PubMed

Methyl parathion (MeP) was introduced into constructed wetlands for the purpose of assessing the influence of emergent vegetation on transport and toxicity of the pesticide. Two vegetated (90% cover, mainly Juncus effusus) and two nonvegetated wetland cells (each with a water body of 50 x 5.5 x 0.2 m) were each dosed with 6.5 m3 of water containing active ingredient of MeP at 6.6 mg/L associated with suspended soil at 400 mg/L to simulate a storm runoff event. Acute toxicity was assessed by sampling benthic macroinvertebrates at 5, 10, 20, and 40 m from the inlet before and 96 h after contamination and by in situ exposure of Chironomus tentans (Diptera) up to 24 h after contamination. Methyl parathion was detected throughout the nonvegetated wetland cells (70 microg/L at 20 m, 8 microg/L at 40 m), whereas the pesticide was not transported through the vegetated wetland cells (20 microg/L at 20 m, < 0.1 microg/L at 40 m). A three-way analysis of variance using contamination (repeated measure variable), location, and vegetation indicated significant negative effects of contamination on various insect taxa, such as mayfly nymphs and caddisfly larvae. Seven out of the total of 15 species revealed a significant contamination x vegetation effect, with individuals in the vegetated wetlands being less affected. Four species showed a significant contamination x location effect, confirming a higher toxicity in the inlet area of the wetlands. A significant three-way interaction of contamination x vegetation x location was detected in Chironomus sp., which was most strongly affected at the inlet area of the nonvegetated wetland cells. The in situ bioassay employing C. tentans confirmed the positive effect of wetland vegetation on MeP toxicity. These results demonstrate the importance of vegetation for pesticide mitigation in constructed wetlands. PMID:12785582

Schulz, Ralf; Moore, Matt T; Bennett, Erin R; Farris, Jerry L; Smith, Sammie; Cooper, Charles M

2003-06-01

16

A spatial simulation model of hydrology and vegetation dynamics in semi-permanent prairie wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of this study was to construct a spatial simulation model of the vegetation dynamics in semi-permanent prairie wetlands. A hydrologic submodel estimated water levels based on precipitation, runoff, and potential evapotranspiration. A vegetation submodel calculated the amount and distribution of emergent cover and open water using a geographic information system. The response of vegetation to water-level changes was based on seed bank composition, seedling recruitment and establishment, and plant survivorship. The model was developed and tested using data from the Cottonwood Lake study site in North Dakota. Data from semi-permanent wetland P1 were used to calibrate the model. Data from a second wetland, P4, were used to evaluate model performance. Simulation results were compared with actual water data from 1797 through 1989. Test results showed that differences between calculated and observed water levels were within 10 cm 75% of the time. Open water over the past decade ranged from 0 to 7% in wetland P4 and from 0 to 8% in submodel simulations. Several model parameters including evapotranspiration and timing of seedling germination could be improved with more complex techniques or relatively minor adjustments. Despite these differences the model adequately represented vegetation dynamics of prairie wetlands and can be used to examine wetland response to natural or human-induced climate change.

Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

1993-01-01

17

[Estimating total nitrogen content in wetland vegetation based on measured reflectance spectra].  

PubMed

More and more urban wetlands have been supplied with reclaimed water. And monitoring the growth condition of large-area wetland vegetation is playing a very important role in wetland restoration and reconstruction. Recently, remote sensing technology has become an important tool for vegetation growth monitoring. The South Wetland in the Olympic Park, a typical wetland using reused water, was selected as the research area. The leaf reflectance spectra and were acquired for the main wetland plants reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha angustifolia) with an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer (350 2 500 nm). The total nitrogen (TN) content of leaf samples was determined by Kjeldahl method subsequently. The research established univariate models involving simple ratio spectral index (SR) model and normalized difference spectral index (ND) model, as well as multivariate models including stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Moreover, the accuracy of all the models was tested through cross-validated coefficient of determination (R2(CV)) and cross-validated root mean square error (RMSE(CV)). The results showed that (1) comparing different types of wetland plants, the accuracy of all established prediction models using Phragmites australis reflectance spectra was higher than that using Typha angustifolia reflectance spectra. (2) compared with univariate techniques, multivariate regressions improved the estimation of TN concentration in leaves. (3) among the various investigated models, the accuracy of PLSR model was the highest (R2(CV) = 0.80, RMSE(CV) = 0.24). PLSR provided the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance and TN consistence of leaves. The result would not only provide a scientific basis for remote sensing retrieval of biochemical variables of wetland vegetation, but also provide a strong scientific basis for the monitoring and management of urban wetlands using recycled water. PMID:22512191

Liu, Ke; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Wang, Yi-hong; Sun, Yong-hua; Miao, Qian

2012-02-01

18

Coevolution of hydraulic, soil and vegetation processes in estuarine wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine wetlands of south eastern Australia, typically display a vegetation zonation with a sequence mudflats - mangrove forest - saltmarsh plains from the seaward margin and up the topographic gradient. Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, providing unique habitats for fish and many terrestrial species. They also have a carbon sequestration capacity that surpasess terrestrial forest. Estuarine wetlands respond to sea-level rise by vertical accretion and horizontal landward migration, in order to maintain their position in the tidal frame. In situations in which buffer areas for landward migration are not available, saltmarsh can be lost due to mangrove encroachment. As a result of mangrove invasion associated in part with raising estuary water levels and urbanisation, coastal saltmarsh in parts of south-eastern Australia has been declared an endangered ecological community. Predicting estuarine wetlands response to sea-level rise requires modelling the coevolving dynamics of water flow, soil and vegetation. This paper presents preliminary results of our recently developed numerical model for wetland dynamics in wetlands of the Hunter estuary of NSW. The model simulates continuous tidal inflow into the wetland, and accounts for the effect of varying vegetation types on flow resistance. Coevolution effects appear as vegetation types are updated based on their preference to prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. The model also considers that accretion values vary with vegetation type. Simulations are driven using local information collected over several years, which includes estuary water levels, accretion rates, soil carbon content, flow resistance and vegetation preference to hydraulic conditions. Model results predict further saltmarsh loss under current conditions of moderate increase of estuary water levels.

Trivisonno, Franco; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia; Stenta, Hernan

2014-05-01

19

Mercury concentrations in oligohaline wetland vegetation and associated soil biogeochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of mercury were determined in above- and below-ground tissues of dominant plant species, as well as soils,\\u000a in the wetlands of Lake Maurepas, Louisiana. Indicators of wetland soil biogeochemical status, such as soil redox potential,\\u000a pore-water nutrient concentrations, and pore-water total sulfides, were also determined. Total mercury concentrations in plant\\u000a tissues were within the typical range for vegetation not

Jonathan M. Willis; Robert P. Gambrell; Mark W. Hester

20

Vegetation of wetlands of the prairie pothole region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five themes dominate the literature dealing with the vegetation of palustrine and lacustrine wetlands of the prairie pothole region: environmental conditions (water or moisture regime, salinity), agricultural disturbances (draining, grazing, burning, sedimentation, etc.), vegetation dynamics, zonation patterns, and classification of the wetlands.The flora of a prairie wetland is a function of its water regime, salinity, and disturbance by man. Within a pothole, water depth and duration determines distribution of species. In potholes deep enough to have standing water even during droughts, the central zone will be dominated by submersed species (open water). In wetlands that go dry during periods of drought or annually, the central zone will be dominated by either tall emergent species (deep marsh) or midheight emergents (shallow marsh), respectively. Potholes that are only flooded briefly in the spring are dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs (wet meadow). Within a pothole, the depth of standing water in the deepest, usually central, part of the basin determines how many zones will be present. Lists of species associated with different water regimes and salinity levels are presented.Disturbances due to agricultural activities have impacted wetlands throughout the region. Drainage has eliminated many potholes, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the region. Grazing, mowing, and burning have altered the composition of pothole vegetation. The composition of different vegetation types impacted by grazing, haying, and cultivation is presented in a series of tables. Indirect impacts of agriculture (increased sediment, nutrient, and pesticide inputs) are widespread over the region, but their impacts on the vegetation have never been studied.Because of the periodic droughts and wet periods, many palustrine and lacustrine wetlands undergo vegetation cycles associated with water-level changes produced by these wet-dry cycles. Periods of above normal precipitation can raise water levels high enough to drown out emergent vegetation or produce 'eat outs' due to increases in the size of muskrat populations that accompany periods of high water. The elimination of emergents creates a lake marsh dominated by submersed vegetation. During the next drought when the marsh bottom is exposed by receding water levels (a drawdown), seeds of emergents and mudflat annuals in the soil (the seed bank) germinate (the dry marsh stage). When the marsh refloods, ending the dry marsh stage, the emergents survive and spread vegetatively. This is the regenerating marsh. This stage continues until high water again eliminates the emergents, starting the next degenerating stage.Zonation patterns are conspicuous because each zone often is dominated by a single species that has a lifeform different from those in adjacent zones. The species composition of each zone is a function of its environment (water or moisture regime, salinity, and disturbance history). Within a zone it may take a year or more for species composition to adjust to a change of environmental conditions. These lags sometimes result in abnormal zonation patterns, particularly after a change in water level.Classification of prairie wetlands is more difficult than for most other wetland type, because of these vegetation cycles. Early attempts to classify prairie wetlands did not take the dynamic nature of their vegetation into account. Stewart and Kantrud (1971) developed a classification system for prairie potholes that recognized different phases of vegetation zones dominated by deep marsh species. It used the composition of the vegetation in the deepest part (zone) of a pothole as an indicator of its water-level regime and water chemistry. The application of the national wetland classification system of Cowardin et al. (1979) to potholes is also discussed, and lists of species that characterize the various dominance types associated with the subclasses in this system are presented.

Kantrud, H.A.; Millar, J.B.; Van Der Valk, A.G.

1989-01-01

21

Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

Williamson, F. S. L.

1975-01-01

22

Vegetation establishment in convectively accelerated streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the conditions for vegetation establishment within river reaches with converging boundaries. Common to many such rivers worldwide is the existence of a limiting front (e.g., Figure 1a) beyond which all the riverbed vegetation is uprooted by flooding events. There are however exceptions, which leads to an interesting ecomorphodynamic problem (existence and position of the front). We use a theoretical 1-D framework based on morphodynamic equations modified in order to account for the presence of vegetation (Perona et al., submitted), and obtain the link between the position of the vegetated front and river eco-hydraulic variables under steady and unsteady conditions. We apply our framework to a number of flume experiments (unsteady flow) where Avena sativa L. (common oat) seedlings grow subject to periodic flow disturbances within a convergent flume channel (Figure 1b). We find that depending on the outcome of the competition between hydrological and biological processes there is either a limiting spatial front within the convergent section beyond which vegetation cannot survive, or vegetation colonizes the entire riverbed. The existence and the position of the front depend on the ability for vegetation to take root efficiently and withstand uprooting by the flow of the convectively accelerated stream (Crouzy et al., in press). The active role of vegetation and of unit streampower in this particular ecomorphodynamic process are then discussed in relation to the conceptual model of Gurnell and Petts (2006), and under the light of our theoretical and experimental results. REFERENCES - Crouzy, B., K. Edmaier, N. Pasquale and P. Perona (in press). Impact of floods on the statistical distribution of riverbed vegetation. Geomorphology doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.09.013. - Gurnell A., Petts G. (2006). Trees as riparian engineers: The Tagliamento River, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31: 1558--1574. - Perona, P., B. Crouzy, S. Mc Lelland, P. Molnar and C. Camporeale. Ecomorphodynamics of rivers with converging boundaries. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, submitted.

Crouzy, B.; McLelland, S. J.; Molnar, P.; Camporeale, C.; Perona, P.

2013-12-01

23

Environmental dispersion in a tidal wetland with sorption by vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of the solute transport mechanism under the effect of sorption by vegetation in tidal wetland gains its significance for environmental and ecological management. Presented in this paper is a theoretical analysis of effective environmental dispersion in a depth-dominated tidal wetland. Based on the transport in porous media, a linear sorption isotherm model is adopted to account for the sorption by vegetation, and two models for momentum and concentration transport in wetlands are given, respectively. The velocity of flow forced by oscillating pressure is derived, and the effect of dimensionless parameters on velocity pulsation is analyzed. The velocity direction may reverse in the case of pulsation amplitude larger than the mean velocity. Using Aris's method of concentration moments, we investigate the effective environmental dispersivity and concentration distribution. The effective environmental dispersivity increases over time at the initial stage to attain a steady oscillating status, the growth rate of which depends on the distribution coefficient KD . The variations of concentration distribution with typical dimensionless parameters are determined, which turn out to be consistent with those of dispersivity. The sorption by vegetation leads to lowered concentration and delayed contaminant cloud, contributing to the dispersion.

Wang, Ping; Chen, G. Q.

2015-05-01

24

The Importance of Local and Regional Factors on the Vegetation of Created Wetlands in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the relative importance of regional and local processes to wetland plant diversity in created depressional wetlands\\u000a in Central Europe (Košské mokrade wetlands, central Slovakia). Twelve wetlands were sampled for vegetation, water chemistry,\\u000a morphological, and hydrological data in 2008. A total of 39 plant species were found in the wetlands, dominated by Typha latifolia L. The results support the

Marek Svitok; Richard Hrivnák; Helena O?ahe?ová; Daniela Dúbravková; Peter Pa?ove-Balang; Vladimír Slobodník

25

Carbon gas fluxes in re-established wetlands on organic soils differ relative to plant community and hydrology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes for 6 years following permanent flooding of an agriculturally managed organic soil at two water depths (~25 and ~55 cm standing water) in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, as part of research studying C dynamics in re-established wetlands. Flooding rapidly reduced gaseous C losses, and radiocarbon data showed that this, in part, was due to reduced oxidation of "old" C preserved in the organic soils. Both CO2 and CH4 emissions from the water surface increased during the first few growing seasons, concomitant with emergent marsh establishment, and thereafter appeared to stabilize according to plant communities. Areas of emergent marsh vegetation in the shallower wetland had greater net CO2 influx (-485 mg Cm-1 h-1), and lower CH4 emissions (11.5 mg Cm-2 h-1), than in the deeper wetland (-381 and 14.1 mg Cm-2 h-1, respectively). Areas with submerged and floating vegetation in the deeper wetland had CH4 emissions similar to emergent vegetation (11.9 and 12.6 mg Cm-2 h-1, respectively), despite lower net CO2 influx (-102 gC m-2 h-1). Measurements of plant moderated net CO2 influx and CH4 efflux indicated greatest potential reduction of greenhouse gases in the more shallowly flooded wetland.

Miller, Robin L.

2011-01-01

26

Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.  

SciTech Connect

Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.

Sharitz, Rebecca, A.; Mulhouse, John, M.

2004-05-01

27

Tissue culture and wetland establishment of the freshwater monocots Carex, Juncus, Scirpus , and Typha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cell cultures of freshwater wetland monocots were regenerated, plants were grown in the greenhouse, and then established and\\u000a evaluated in wetlands. Typha (cattail), Juncus (rushes), Scirpus (bulrushes), and Carex (sedges) were studied because they are common, dominant, high biomass wetland-adapted plants, tolerant of chemically diverse\\u000a ecosystems. The goal was to define micropropagation and wetland establishment protocols. Tissue culture systems defined

Suzanne M. D. Rogers

2003-01-01

28

Effects of vegetation management in constructed wetland treatment cells on water quality and mosquito production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three vegetation management strategies on wetland treatment function and mosquito production was assessed in eight free water surface wetland test cells in southern California during 1998–1999. The effectiveness of the strategies to limit bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus culm density within the cells was also investigated. Removing accumulated emergent biomass and physically limiting the area in which vegetation could

Joan S. Thullen; James J. Sartoris; William E. Walton

2002-01-01

29

[Succession character of salt marsh vegetations in Chongming Dongtan wetland].  

PubMed

This paper studied the ecological character, importance value, aboveground biomass and its N content of salt marsh vegetations in Chongming Dongtan wetland in the process of succession. The results indicated that with the increase of altitude, the importance value of Scirpus mariqueter, a representative species at early succession stage, decreased gradually, while those of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis increased. The biodiversity of the vegetations increased with succession. During growth period (from March to October), the aboveground biomass of the three species varied in single hump curve, with the peak in July and August. The N content had a decreasing trend, while the N capacity showed a single-peak curve. The estimated annual N accumulation in aboveground biomass was 383.4 t for P. australis, 50.5 t for S. mariqueter, and 39. 3 t for S. alterniflora. PMID:17650865

Yan, Qian; Lu, Jian-jian; He, Wen-shan

2007-05-01

30

Effectiveness of wetland-riparian vegetation in remediation of a disturbed seleniferous environment  

SciTech Connect

land disturbances can contribute dramatically to soil erosion processes. When seleniferous geologic materials are eroded, atmospheric oxidation and exposure to water have the potential to increase biological uptake of selenium (Se). Though Se is necessary in small amounts for adequate animal nutrition, at concentrations greater than established critical management levels (>5 mg/kg in plants, >0.5 mg/kg in soils, >5 {micro}g/L in waters) biological uptake can become an environmental concern. Terrestrial and wetland-riparian plants, soils, sediments and water samples from erosion control ponds were collected at the Fort Carson Military Installation in southeastern Colorado. Plant Se was determined using a perchloric nitric acid method followed with a hot-water digest using hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid. Soil Se was extracted using di-basic potassium phosphate followed by a hot-water digest with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid. Water samples were filtered using Gelman membrane filter papers (0.45 {micro}m), then digested using one treatment with the addition of hydrogen peroxide plus hydrochloric acid, and one treatment with no additions. Se concentration was analyzed using hydride generation/atomic absorption spectrometry. Results provide information for addressing three important aspects of Se distribution in the environment: (1) Comparisons between Se concentrations in terrestrial and wetland soils, sediments and plants; (2) Relationships between Se concentrations in wetland plants, sediments and waters; (3) Effectiveness of various wetland-riparian vegetation species in Se uptake compared to plants traditionally studied for this purpose.

Skinner, C.P.; Vance, G.F.

1999-07-01

31

Net primary productivity and spatial distribution of vegetation in an alpine wetland, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

To initially describe vegetation structure and spatial variation in plant biomass in a typical alpine wetland of the Qinghai-Tibetan\\u000a Plateau, net primary productivity and vegetation in relationship to environmental factors were investigated. In 2002, the\\u000a wetland remained flooded to an average water depth of 25 cm during the growing season, from July to mid-September. We mapped\\u000a the floodline and vegetation

Mitsuru Hirota; Kiyokazu Kawada; Qiwu Hu; Tomomichi Kato; Yanhong Tang; Wenhong Mo; Guangmin Cao; Shigeru Mariko

2007-01-01

32

Development of Vegetation Models to Predict the Potential Effect of Groundwater Withdrawals on Forested Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed vegetation models that, when linked to groundwater-hydrology models and landscape-level applications, can be\\u000a used to predict the potential effect of groundwater-level declines on the distribution of wetland-forest communities, individual\\u000a wetland species, and wetland-indicator groups. An upland-to-wetland vegetation gradient, comprising 201 forest plots located\\u000a in five different study basins and classified as either upland pine-oak, pitch pine lowland, pine-hardwood

Kim J. Laidig; Robert A. Zampella; Allison M. Brown; Nicholas A. Procopio

2010-01-01

33

Characterization of microtopography and its influence on vegetation patterns in created wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Created wetlands are increasingly used to mitigate wetland loss. Thus, identifying wetland creation methods that enhance ecosystem development might increase the likelihood of mitigation success. Noting that the microtopographic variation found in natural wetland settings may not commonly be found in created wetlands, this study explores relationships between induced microtopography, hydrology, and plant species richness/ diversity in non-tidal freshwater wetlands, comparing results from two created wetland complexes with those from a mature reference wetland complex in northern Virginia. Elevation, steel rod oxidation depth, and species cover were measured along replicate multiscale (0.5 m-, 1 m-, 2 m-, and 4 m-diameter) tangentially conjoined circular transects in each wetland. Microtopography was surveyed using a total station and results used to derive three roughness indices: tortuosity, limiting slope, and limiting elevation difference. Steel rod oxidation depth was used to estimate water table depth, with data collected four times during the growing season for each study site. Plant species cover was estimated visually in 0.2 m2 plots surveyed at peak growth and used to assess species richness, diversity, and wetland prevalence index. Differences in each attribute were examined among disked and non-disked created wetlands and compared to a natural wetland as a reference. Disked and non-disked created wetlands differed in microtopography, both in terms of limiting elevation difference and tortuosity. However, both were within the range of microtopography encompassed by natural wetlands. Disked wetlands supported higher plant diversity and species richness than either natural or non-disked wetlands, as well as greater within-site species assemblage variability than non-disked wetlands. Irrespective of creation method, plant diversity in created wetlands was correlated with tortuosity and limiting elevation difference, similar to correlations observed for natural wetlands. Vegetation was more hydrophytic at disked sites than at non-disked sites, and of equivalent wetland indicator status to natural sites, even though all sites appeared comparable in terms of hydrology. Results suggest that disking may enhance vegetation community development, thus better supporting the goals of wetland mitigation. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Moser, K.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.

2007-01-01

34

Establishing a tracer-based sediment budget to preserve wetlands in Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems (NE Spain).  

PubMed

Mountain wetlands in Mediterranean regions are particularly threatened in agricultural environments due to anthropogenic activity. An integrated study of source-to-sink sediment fluxes was carried out in an agricultural catchment that holds a small permanent lake included in the European NATURA 2000 Network. More than 1000 yrs of human intervention and the variety of land uses pose a substantial challenge when attempting to estimate sediment fluxes which is the first requirement to protect fragile wetlands. To date, there have been few similar studies and those that have been carried out have not addressed such complex terrain. Geostatistical interpolation and GIS tools were used to derive the soil spatial redistribution from point (137)Cs inventories, and to establish the sediment budget in a catchment located in the Southern Pyrenees. The soil redistribution was intense and soil erosion predominated over soil deposition. On the areas that maintained natural vegetation the median soil erosion and deposition rates were moderate, ranging from 2.6 to 6 Mg ha yr(-1) and 1.5 to 2.1 Mg ha yr(-1), respectively. However, in cultivated fields both erosion and deposition were significantly higher (ca. 20 Mg ha yr(-1)), and the maximum rates were always associated with tillage practices. Farming activities in the last part of the 20th century intensified soil erosion, as evidenced by the 1963 (137)Cs peaks in the lake cores and estimates from the sediment budget indicated a net deposition of 671 Mg yr(-1). Results confirm a siltation risk for the lake and provide a foundation for designing management plans to preserve this threatened wetland. This comprehensive approach provides information useful for understanding processes that influence the patterns and rates of soil transfer and deposition within fragile Mediterranean mountain wetlands subjected to climate and anthropogenic stresses. PMID:25064720

Navas, Ana; López-Vicente, Manuel; Gaspar, Leticia; Palazón, Leticia; Quijano, Laura

2014-10-15

35

Dual-season mapping of wetland inundation and vegetation for the central Amazon basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland extent was mapped for the central Amazon region, using mosaicked L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired by the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1. For the wetland portion of the 18×8° study area, dual-season radar mosaics were used to map inundation extent and vegetation under both low-water and high-water conditions at 100-m resolution, producing the first high-resolution wetlands map for

Laura L. Hess; John M. Melack; Evlyn M. l. m. Novo; Claudio C. f. Barbosa; Mary Gastil

2003-01-01

36

Using MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index to monitor seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of wetland vegetation in the Great Artesian Basin: a baseline for assessment of future changes in a unique ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Artesian Basin mound springs (Australia) are unique wetland ecosystems of great significance. However, these unique ecosystems are endangered by anthropogenic water extraction. Relationships have been established between the vegetated wetland area and the discharge associated with individual springs, providing a potential means of monitoring groundwater flow using measurements of wetland area. Previous studies using this relationship to monitor Great Artesian Basin springs have used aerial photography or high resolution satellite images, giving sporadic temporal information. These "snapshot " studies need to be placed within a longer and more regular context to better assess changes in response to aquifer draw-downs. In this study, the potential of medium resolution MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data for studying the long-term and high frequency temporal dynamics of wetland vegetation at the Dalhousie Spring Complex of the GAB is tested. Photosynthetic activity within Dalhousie wetlands could be differentiated from surrounding land responses. The study showed good correlation between wetland vegetated area and groundwater flow, but also the important influence of natural species phenologies, rainfall, and human activity on the observed seasonal and inter-annual vegetation dynamic. Declining trends in the extent of wetland areas were observed over the 2000- 2009 period followed by a return of wetland vegetation since 2010. This study underlined the need to continue long-term medium resolution satellite studies of the Great Artesian Basin as these data provide a good understanding of variability within the wetlands, give temporal context for less frequent studies and a strong baseline for assessment of future changes.

Petus, C.; Lewis, M.; White, D.

2012-07-01

37

DEVELOPING A WETLAND MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM; BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR VEGETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Montana Natural Heritage Program will sample and evaluate riverine and depressional wetlands in the Middle Milk watershed in the Great Plains ecoregion. We will sample wetlands across a human disturbance gradient and collect data on vegetation structure and composition and e...

38

Establishment, persistence, and management implications of experimental wetland plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We inoculated 120 wetland microcosms representing 24 different environmental treatments with seeds from a carefully chosen\\u000a pool of 20 wetland plant species. The treatments were chosen to represent a variety of riverine and lacustrine wetlands, including\\u000a those with slow-growing, rare species. In the first season, an annual (Bidens cernua) was most abundant in all the microcosms. Both flooding and high

Evan Weiher; Irene C. Wisheu; Paul A. Keddy; Dwayne R. J. Moore

1996-01-01

39

Denitrification Potential and Organic Matter as Affected by Vegetation Community, Wetland Age, and Plant Introduction in Created Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denitrification potential (DP) and organic matter (OM) in soils were compared in three different vegetation communities—emergent mac- rophyte, open water, and forested edge—in two 10-yr-old created river- ine wetlands. Organic matter, cold water-extractable organic matter (CWEOM), anaerobic mineralizable carbon (AnMC), and DP varied significantly (P , 0.05) among vegetation communities. The surface (0 to 9 cm) soils in the emergent

Maria E. Hernandez; William J. Mitsch

2007-01-01

40

Influence of hummocks and emergent vegetation on hydraulic performance in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of tracer experiments were conducted biannually at the start and end of the vegetation growing season in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland located near Phoenix, AZ. Tracer experiments were conducted prior to and following reconfiguration and replanting of a 1.2 ha treatment wetland from its original design of alternating shallow and deep zones to incorporate hummocks (shallow planting beds situated perpendicular to flow). Tracer test data were analyzed using analysis of moments and the one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage numerical model to evaluate the effects of the seasonal vegetation growth cycle and hummocks on solute transport. Following reconfiguration, vegetation coverage was relatively small, and minor changes in spatial distribution influenced wetland hydraulics. During start-up conditions, the wetland underwent an acclimation period characterized by small vegetation coverage and large transport cross-sectional areas. At the start of the growing season, new growth of emergent vegetation enhanced hydraulic performance. At the end of the growing season, senescing vegetation created short-circuiting. Wetland hydrodynamics were associated with high volumetric efficiencies and velocity heterogeneities. The hummock design resulted in breakthrough curves characterized by multiple secondary tracer peaks indicative of varied flow paths created by bottom topography.

Keefe, Steffanie H.; Daniels, Joan S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Wass, Roland D.; Stiles, Eric A.; Barber, Larry B.

2010-01-01

41

ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF AN INCREASE IN WATER LEVEL ON WETLAND VEGETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Three different approaches for assessing the impact of a permanent increase in water level on wetland vegetation were studied using a long-term, controlled, and replicated experiment. hese approaches were (1) digitized vegetation maps derived from aerial photographs; (2) vegetati...

42

Effects of vegetation management in constructed wetland treatment cells on water quality and mosquito production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impact of three vegetation management strategies on wetland treatment function and mosquito production was assessed in eight free water surface wetland test cells in southern California during 1998-1999. The effectiveness of the strategies to limit bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus culm density within the cells was also investigated. Removing accumulated emergent biomass and physically limiting the area in which vegetation could reestablish, significantly improved the ammonia - nitrogen removal efficiency of the wetland cells, which received an ammonia-dominated municipal wastewater effluent (average loading rate = 9.88 kg/ha per day NH4-N). We determined that interspersing open water with emergent vegetation is critical for maintaining the wetland's treatment capability, particularly for systems high in NH4-N. Burning aboveground plant parts and thinning rhizomes only temporarily curtailed vegetation proliferation in shallow zones, whereas creating hummocks surrounded by deeper water successfully restricted the emergent vegetation to the shallower hummock areas. Since the hummock configuration kept open water areas interspersed throughout the stands of emergent vegetation, the strategy was also effective in reducing mosquito production. Decreasing vegetation biomass reduced mosquito refuge areas while increasing mosquito predator habitat. Therefore, the combined goals of water quality improvement and mosquito management were achieved by managing the spatial pattern of emergent vegetation to mimic an early successional growth stage, i.e. actively growing plants interspersed with open water. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Thullen, J.S.; Sartoris, J.J.; Walton, W.E.

2002-01-01

43

Role of vegetation in a constructed wetland on nutrient-pesticide mixture toxicity of Hyalella azteca  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The toxicity of a nutrient-pesticide mixture in non-vegetated and vegetated sections of a constructed wetland (60 X 30 X 0.3 m) was assessed using Hyalella azteca 48 h aqueous whole effluent toxicity bioassays. Both sections were amended with a mixture of sodium nitrate, triple super phosphate, dia...

44

The characteristics of Calligonum and its consequences on vegetation establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful effectiveness to prevent the oasis from the desertification had been obtained by means of the method to establish the man-made vegetation in the south fringe of Takelamagan Desert since the middle of 80\\

Xi-ming Zhang; Fanjiang Zeng; Xiangyi Li; Li Li; Qiang Zhao; Shijun Zhang

2003-01-01

45

Aircraft MSS data registration and vegetation classification of wetland change detection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Portions of the Savannah River floodplain swamp were evaluated for vegetation change using high resolution (5a??6 m) aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Image distortion from aircraft movement prevented precise image-to-image registration in some areas. However, when small scenes were used (200-250 ha), a first-order linear transformation provided registration accuracies of less than or equal to one pixel. A larger area was registered using a piecewise linear method. Five major wetland classes were identified and evaluated for change. Phenological differences and the variable distribution of vegetation limited wetland type discrimination. Using unsupervised methods and ground-collected vegetation data, overall classification accuracies ranged from 84 per cent to 87 per cent for each scene. Results suggest that high-resolution aircraft MSS data can be precisely registered, if small areas are used, and that wetland vegetation change can be accurately detected and monitored.

Christensen, E.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Mackey, H.E., Jr.

1988-01-01

46

Vegetation development on extensive vegetated green roofs: Influence of substrate composition, establishment method and species mix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for establishment of vegetated roofs (green roofs) has developed rapidly over recent years but knowledge about how these systems will develop over time is still limited. This study investigates vegetation development on unfertilised thin extensive vegetated roofs during a 3-year period. The vegetation systems investigated were designed to be low maintenance and had a saturated weight of 50kg\\/m2, a

Tobias Emilsson

2008-01-01

47

Transfer of tracers and pesticides in lab scale wetland systems: the role of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface wetlands can collect contaminated runoff from urban or agricultural catchments and have intrinsic physical, chemical and biological retention and removal processes useful for mitigating contaminants, including pesticides, and thus limiting the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Yet little is known about the transfer of pesticides between wetlands collecting pesticides runoff and groundwater, and the subsequent threat of groundwater contamination. In particular, the influence of wetland vegetation and related processes during pesticide transfer is largely unknown. Here we evaluate the transfer of the widely used herbicide Isoproturon (IPU) and the fungicide Metalaxyl (MTX) with that of Uranine (UR) and Sulphorhodamine (SRB) in a vegetated and a non-vegetated lab-scale wetland. UR and SRB had successfully served as a reference for pesticides in surface wetlands. We filled two 65 cm long and 15 cm diameter borosilicate columns with sediment cores from a wetland, one without and one with vegetation (Phragmites australis, Cav.). When a constant flow-through rate of 0.33 ml min-1 was reached, tracers and pesticides were injected simultaneously and continuously. The hydrological mass balance and tracer concentrations were measured daily at the outlet of the lab-scale wetland. Samples for pesticides and hydrochemical analyses were collected biweekly. The lab-scale wetlands were covered to limit evaporation and light decay of injected compounds. The reactive transfer of compounds in the vegetated and non-vegetated lab-scale wetland was compared based on breakthrough curves (BTC's) and model parameters of the lumped parameter model CXTFIT. The hydrologic balance revealed that the intensity of transpiration and hence plant activity in the lab-scale wetlands progressively decreased and then apparently ceased after about eight days following continuous pesticide injection. In this first phase, no significant difference in the hydrologic balances could be observed between the vegetated and the non-vegetated column. In a second phase, vegetation transpiration progressively increased, as inferred from lower volumes of effluent water in the vegetated system. Overall, the behavior of pesticides and tracers, as inferred from the BTC's, were similar. This suggests that fluorescent tracers may be used as a reference for pesticides when studying the surface-groundwater interface. Both pesticides and tracers showed larger recovery rates (UR: 81.7 to 78.6%; SRB: 65.6 to 55.9%; IPU: 76.6 to 79.7%; MTX: 39.5 to 37.5%) and lower retention in the vegetated system. We attribute this finding to preferential flow paths along plant roots. Overall, our study suggests that wetland vegetation and rhizosheric processes may have a dual role in wetland pollutant transfer: while wetland vegetation may enhance retention and bio-degradation of contaminants in surface water, it may also generate preferential flow paths and hence facilitate pollutant transfer to groundwater. Acknowledgment: This study has been funded by the European Union (INTERREG) in the framework of the PhytoRet Project.

Durst, R.; Imfeld, G.; Lange, J.

2012-04-01

48

Development of vegetation in a constructed wetland receiving irrigation return flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fairview Constructed Wetland, a complex of replicated wet meadow (primary filter) and shallow marsh (shallow wetland) cells, was built in southeast Idaho in 1999 and planted with seven native plant species. The development of aboveground biomass and root mass and the accumulation of litter for each cell and for each species are described here. Establishment patterns varied among species

Andrew M. Ray; Richard S. Inouye

2007-01-01

49

The Effect of Manning's Roughness Calibration on Flow and Sediment transport in Wetlands: Vegetation Drag Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland hydrology is one of the most complex and important factors that dictate landscape patterning in wetlands. Understanding factors that affect wetland hydrology are very important. Subtropical wetlands with low gradient, such as The Everglades in South Florida, are generally covered by various type of vegetation with area of highly vegetated and area with almost no plant density. Ridge and slough are one of the several major habitat types in the Everglades that are characterized by highly vegetated ridge with higher elevation and channelized slough with less dense vegetation. They are originally consisted of a peat - based systems of dense sawgrass ridges (Cladium jamaicense) interspersed with adjacent and relatively open sloughs. Because of vegetation dynamics, the hydrology is highly depends on vegetation drag force. Kadlec (1990) and Shi et al., 1995 stated that additional drag exerted by plants reduces the mean flow velocity and depth within the vegetated regions. Vegetation flexibility (flexible grasslike vs. rigid or less flexible bushes or trees) may affect flow resistance. In addition, total or partially submerged vegetation may also change the flow velocity. Most of vegetation in wetlands are partially submerged and therefore, flow resistance can be related to bed shear stress (Yen, 2002; Wu et al., 1999). The new modified Manning's coefficient expression estimates roughness value based on vegetation type, length, density, and vegetation being submerged/unsubmerged (Wu et al., 1999). This modification was applied to flow simulation in the study area at Loxahatchee Impoundment Landscape Assessment (LILA). Loxahatchee Impoundment Landscape Assessment (LILA) is living laboratory of The Everglades and is located at Boynton Beach, Florida and consists of 80 acres land divided into four macrocosms of 200 m × 400 m. Each macrocosm includes one ridge one slough and two tree islands. Two of the cells are non flowing cells and the others are constant flowing cells in LILA. The constant flowing cell, M2, was selected as the study area. Flow was simulated using FLO2D, a FEMA approved program that simulates flow depth and velocity by using modified manning's roughness coefficient based on vegetation drag approach. The result of this simulation will provide an improved understanding of the effect of vegetation dynamics on hydrology and how different vegetation type and density may change flow velocity and therefore sediment transport over time.

Mahmoudi, M.; Nalesso, M.; Garcia, R. F.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.

2013-05-01

50

Long-term vegetation development of restored prairie pothole wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wetland restoration has been a key part of U.S. environmental policy for 20 years (i.e., “no net loss”), there is\\u000a little long-term data on restorations to guide planning and assessment. Understanding how restored wetland communities deviate\\u000a from natural conditions, and how long those deviations persist, can provide important insights into the mechanisms of recovery\\u000a and improve restoration practice. This

Myla F. J. Aronson; Susan Galatowitsch

2008-01-01

51

Efficiency of Constructed Wetland Vegetated with Cyperus alternifolius Applied for Municipal Wastewater Treatment  

PubMed Central

The treatment of municipal wastewater from Yazd city (center of Iran) by constructed wetland vegetated with Cyperus alternifolius was assessed. Two identical wetlands with a total working volume of 60?L and 10?cm sandy layer at the bottom were used. First wetland (W1) was control and had no Cyperus alternifolius plant. Second wetland (W2) had 100 Cyperus alternifolius shrubs with 40?cm height. Influent wastewater was provided from Yazd's septic tanks effluents and after a 4-day retention time in wetlands, reactors effluent was sampled for parameters analysis. Results show that chemical oxygen demand (COD), NO3?–N, NH4+–N, and PO4?3–P in W1 were reduced to 72%, 88%, 32%, and 0.8%, and in W2, these parameters were removed in values of 83%, 81%, 47%, and 10%, respectively. In both wetlands, the highest and lowest removal efficiencies were related to COD and phosphorus, respectively. Also, the removed phosphorus can be released to stream when the soil saturated or influent phosphorus decreased and when the plant died. After a 4-day-retention time, the W2 wetland showed a statistically significantly lower COD and NH4+–N in comparison with W2 wetland. PMID:24027589

Ebrahimi, Asghar; Taheri, Ensiyeh; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Nasiri, Sara; Jalali, Fatemeh; Soltani, Rahele; Fatehizadeh, Ali

2013-01-01

52

Efficiency of constructed wetland vegetated with Cyperus alternifolius applied for municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The treatment of municipal wastewater from Yazd city (center of Iran) by constructed wetland vegetated with Cyperus alternifolius was assessed. Two identical wetlands with a total working volume of 60 L and 10 cm sandy layer at the bottom were used. First wetland (W1) was control and had no Cyperus alternifolius plant. Second wetland (W2) had 100 Cyperus alternifolius shrubs with 40 cm height. Influent wastewater was provided from Yazd's septic tanks effluents and after a 4-day retention time in wetlands, reactors effluent was sampled for parameters analysis. Results show that chemical oxygen demand (COD), NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, and PO4 (-3)-P in W1 were reduced to 72%, 88%, 32%, and 0.8%, and in W2, these parameters were removed in values of 83%, 81%, 47%, and 10%, respectively. In both wetlands, the highest and lowest removal efficiencies were related to COD and phosphorus, respectively. Also, the removed phosphorus can be released to stream when the soil saturated or influent phosphorus decreased and when the plant died. After a 4-day-retention time, the W2 wetland showed a statistically significantly lower COD and NH4 (+)-N in comparison with W2 wetland. PMID:24027589

Ebrahimi, Asghar; Taheri, Ensiyeh; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Nasiri, Sara; Jalali, Fatemeh; Soltani, Rahele; Fatehizadeh, Ali

2013-01-01

53

Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) offers this collection of online resources on wetlands and their protection. The site is organized into sections, including Types of Wetlands (featuring four major wetland types), Benefits of Wetlands (to humans and to wildlife), Threats to Wetlands (and to streams, rivers, and coasts), Wetlands Media Archives (current and past press releases and feature stories related to wetlands), Wetland Protections (coming soon), and Wetlands Policy Archives (coming soon). In each section, text and photographs offer a concise overview of the topic. For further information, including actions to preserve specific wetlands, floodplain restoration, or educational materials, see NWF's main Wetlands page.

54

Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River wetland in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of

Tongqian ZHAO; Huashan XU; Yuxiao HE; Chao TAI; Hongqi MENG; Fanfu ZENG; Menglin XING

2009-01-01

55

Comparison between microwave coherent and incoherent scattering models for wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reveal more deeply the scattering characteristics of wetland vegetation and determine the microwave scattering model suitable for the inversion of wetland vegetation parameters, the comparison and analysis between microwave coherent and incoherent scattering models for wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake area were performed in this paper. In the research, we proposed a coherent scattering model exclusive for wetland vegetation, in which, Generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) approach and infinite-length dielectric cylinder were used to calculate single-scattering matrices of wetland vegetation leaves and stalks. In addition, coherent components produced from interaction among the scattering mechanisms and different scatterers were also considered and this coherent model was compared with Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS) model. The measured data collected in 2011 in Poyang Lake wetland were used as the input parameters of the coherent and incoherent models. We simulated backscattering coefficients of VV, VH and HH polarization at C band and made a comparison between the simulation results and C-band data from the Radarsat-2 satellite. For both coherent and incoherent scattering model, simulation results for HH and VV polarization were better than the simulation results for HV polarization. In addition, comparisons between coherent and incoherent scattering models proved that the coherence triggered by the scattering mechanism and different scatterers can't be ignored. In the research, we analyzed differences between coherent and incoherent scattering models with change of incident angle. In most instances, the difference between coherent and incoherent scattering models is of the order of several dB.

Xu, Tao; Liao, Jingjuan

2014-11-01

56

Analysis on vegetation changes of Maqu alpine wetlands in the Yellow River source region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maqu alpine wetlands have irreplaceable function in maintaining ecological balance and conserving biodiversity to the upriver regions of the Yellow River. In last 30 years, Global warming causes significant changes in vegetation. However, the Maqu alpine wetland is undergoing a degradation caused by warming and drying climate. Aim of this study is to investigate the vegetation changes for a better understanding the consequence of climate variations to the wetland degradation. Based on the Landsat TM images of 2000 and 2010, the landscape pattern changes were analyzed by classification statistics, dynamic transfer matrix and landscape pattern indices. Based on the MOD11A2 and MOD13A2 data from 2000 to 2010, NDVI and land surface temperature (LST) dataset were extracted. NDVI time-series data processed with S-G filtering method was used to find temporal and spatial variation characteristics, and linear trend was analyzed by ordinary least squares regression method. NDVI and LST were used to construct Ts-NDVI feature space, and then TVDI was obtained to explore changes of soil moisture. Relationship between climate variations and wetland degradation were found by ordinary least squares regression method. Results indicated that both wetland area and landscape heterogeneity decreased. Annual NDVI presented fluctuated decreasing trend and there was strong spatial heterogeneity in patterns of NDVI change. Annual TVDI proved to have an increasing trend which showed the drought gradually intensified. "Warming and drought" climate appear to be critical factors contributing to wetland degradation. Precipitation has a stronger correlation rather than temperature.

Chu, Lin; Huang, Chong; Liu, Gaohuan; Liu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Jun

2014-11-01

57

Promoting Species Establishment in a Phragmites-dominated Great Lakes Coastal Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined efforts to promote species establishment and maintain diversity in a Phragmites-dominated wetland where primary control measures were underway. A treatment experiment was performed at Crane Creek, a drowned-river-mouth wetland in Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge along the shore of western Lake Erie. Following initial aerial spraying of Phragmites with glyphosate, this study tested combinations of cutting, raking, and

Martha L. Carlson; Kurt P. Kowalski; Douglas A. Wilcox

2009-01-01

58

Establishment of Carex stricta Lam. seedlings in experimental wetlands with implications for restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of Carex dominated meadows due to agricultural drainage in the previously glaciated midcontinent of North America has been extensive.\\u000a The lack of natural Carex recruitment in wetland restorations and the failures of revegetation attempts underscore the need for information on the\\u000a establishment requirements of wetland sedges. In this study, seedlings of Carex stricta Lam. were planted in three

Rachel A. Budelsky; Susan M. Galatowitsch

2004-01-01

59

Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands  

SciTech Connect

This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal wetlands.

Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

2010-01-15

60

Effects of landscape gradients on wetland vegetation communities: Information for large-scale restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projects of the scope of the restoration of the Florida Everglades require substantial information regarding ecological mechanisms,\\u000a and these are often poorly understood. We provide critical base knowledge for Everglades restoration by characterizing the\\u000a existing vegetation communities of an Everglades remnant, describing how present and historic hydrology affect wetland vegetation\\u000a community composition, and documenting change from communities described in previous

Christa L. Zweig; Wiley M. Kitchens

2008-01-01

61

Bathymetry and vegetation in isolated marsh and cypress wetlands in the northern Tampa Bay Area, 2000-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wetland bathymetry and vegetation mapping are two commonly used lines of evidence for assessing the hydrologic and ecologic status of expansive coastal and riverine wetlands. For small isolated freshwater wetlands, however, bathymetric data coupled with vegetation assessments are generally scarce, despite the prevalence of isolated wetlands in many regions of the United States and the recognized importance of topography as a control on inundation patterns and vegetation distribution. In the northern Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida, bathymetry was mapped and vegetation was assessed in five marsh and five cypress wetlands. These 10 isolated wetlands were grouped into three categories based on the effects of ground-water withdrawals from regional municipal well fields: natural (no effect), impaired (drier than natural), and augmented (wetlands with artificially augmented water levels). Delineation of the wetland perimeter was a critical component for estimating wetland-surface area and stored water volume. The wetland perimeter was delineated by the presence of Serenoa repens (the 'palmetto fringe') at 9 of the 10 sites. At the 10th site, where the palmetto fringe was absent, hydric-soils indicators were used to delineate the perimeter. Bathymetric data were collected using one or more techniques, depending on the physical characteristics of each wetland. Wetland stage was measured hourly using continuous stage recorders. Wetland vegetation was assessed semiannually for 2 1/2 years in fixed plots located at three distinct elevations. Vegetation assessments were used to determine the community composition and the relative abundance of obligate, facultative wet, and facultative species at each elevation. Bathymetry maps were generated, and stage-area and stage-volume relations were developed for all 10 wetlands. Bathymetric data sets containing a high density of data points collected at frequent and regular spatial intervals provided the most useful stage-area and stage-volume relations. Bathymetric maps of several wetlands also were generated using a low density of data points collected along transect lines or contour lines. In a comparative analysis of the three mapping approaches, stage-area and stage-volume relations based on transect data alone underestimated (by 50-100 percent over certain ranges of stage) the wetland area and volume compared to results using a high density of data points. Adding data points collected along one elevation contour below the wetland perimeter to the transect data set greatly improved the agreement of the resulting stage-area and stage-volume relations to the high-density mapping approach. Stage-area relations and routinely monitored stage data were used to compare and contrast the average flooded area in a natural marsh and an impaired marsh over a 2-year period. Vegetation assessments used together with flooded-area information provided the potential for extrapolating vegetation results from points or transects to wetlands as a whole. A comparison of the frequency of flooding of different areas of the wetland and the species composition in vegetation plots at different elevations indicated the dependence of vegetation on inundation frequency. Because of the broad tolerances of many wetlands plants to a range of inundation conditions, however, vegetation assessments alone provided less definitive evidence of the hydrologic differences between the two sites, and hydrologic changes occurring during the 2 years, than the flooded-area frequencies. Combining flooded-area frequencies with vegetation assessments could provide a more versatile and insightful approach for determining the ecological status of wetlands than using vegetation and stage data alone. Flooded-area frequencies may further provide a useful approach for assessing the ecological status of wetlands where historical vegetation surveys and stage data are lacking. Comparing the contemporary flooded-area frequencies a

Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Herndon, Donald C.

2005-01-01

62

The characteristics of Calligonum and its consequences on vegetation establishment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A successful effectiveness to prevent the oasis from the desertification had been obtained by means of the method to establish the man-made vegetation in the south fringe of Takelamagan Desert since the middle of 80"s last century. This paper generalizes the characteristics of Calligonum and summarizes the ways to establish it (seedling, cutting and sowing) and main technical points of every ways. In the meantime, it also clarifies the strategy to select the different ways.

Zhang, Xi-ming; Zeng, Fanjiang; Li, Xiangyi; Li, Li; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Shijun

2003-07-01

63

The Virginia General Assembly established the Commonwealth's tidal wetlands management program in 1972. They acted on information  

E-print Network

wetlands with man-made systems; and the need to manage wetlands as part of the larger system. We look and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources Management, under the Coastal ZoneThe Virginia General Assembly established the Commonwealth's tidal wetlands management program

64

Temperature sensitivity of greenhouse gas production in wetland soils of different vegetation  

E-print Network

decomposition regulates rates of carbon loss (CO2 and CH4) in wetlands and has implications for carbon on vegetation (source of carbon substrate to soil). Under anaerobic incubations, the proportion of gaseous C (CO production as compared with anaerobic CO2 (1.3­2.5) or aerobic CO2 (1.4­2.1) production. The increasing

Florida, University of

65

Vegetation change in created emergent wetlands (1988–1996) in Connecticut (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in hydrology, water quality and vegetation were evaluated in four palustrine emergent wetland pairs, each including created and reference sites. Located along interstate highways, they were initially sampled in 1988 (Confer and Niering, 1992) and again in 1996. Overall, created sites showed significant decreases in open water and water depth between 1989 and 1996 compared to more stable conditions

H. H. Moore; W. A. Niering; L. J. Marsicano; M. Dowdell

1999-01-01

66

The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations compared to inflow water, and calculated denitrification was statistically higher in the floating vegetation treatments compared to the other treatments. Greenhouse gas production, measured in CO2 equivalents for N2O and CH4, was highly variable and not statistically different between the treatments. Denitrification in the tarp covered mesocosms was similar to the no-cover treatment, indicating that biotic effects in the floating vegetation treatment may be important in lowering water column oxygen levels and increasing denitrification. Understanding how floating vegetation affects total nitrogen loss, denitrification, and greenhouse gas production can be used to weigh ecological costs and benefits of different vegetation types, especially in constructed and managed wetlands.

Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

2012-12-01

67

Role of vegetation in a constructed wetland on nutrient-pesticide mixture toxicity to Hyalella azteca.  

PubMed

The toxicity of a nutrient-pesticide mixture in nonvegetated and vegetated sections of a constructed wetland (882 m² each) was assessed using Hyalella azteca 48-h aqueous whole-effluent toxicity bioassays. Both sections were amended with a mixture of sodium nitrate, triple superphosphate, diazinon, and permethrin simulating storm-event agricultural runoff. Aqueous samples were collected at inflow, middle, and outflow points within each section 5 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days postamendment. Nutrients and pesticides were detected throughout both wetland sections with concentrations longitudinally decreasing more in vegetated than nonvegetated section within 24 h. Survival effluent dilution point estimates-NOECs, LOECs, and LC??s-indicated greatest differences in toxicity between nonvegetated and vegetated sections at 5 h. Associations of nutrient and pesticide concentrations with NOECs indicated that earlier toxicity (5-72 h) was from permethrin and diazinon, whereas later toxicity (7-21 days) was primarily from diazinon. Nutrient-pesticide mixture concentration-response assessment using toxic unit models indicated that H. azteca toxicity was due primarily to the pesticides diazinon and permethrin. Results show that the effects of vegetation versus no vegetation on nutrient-pesticide mixture toxicity are not evident after 5 h and a 21-day retention time is necessary to improve H. azteca survival to ?90% in constructed wetlands of this size. PMID:20814671

Lizotte, Richard E; Moore, Matthew T; Locke, Martin A; Kröger, Robert

2011-02-01

68

Effects of vegetation manipulation on breeding waterfowl in prairie wetlands--a literature review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Literature on the effects of fire and grazing on the wetlands used by breeding prairie waterfowl is reviewed. Both dabbling and diving ducks and their broods prefer wetlands with openings in the marsh canopy. Decreased use is commonly associated with decreased habitat heterogeneity caused by tall, robust hydrophytes such as Typha spp. and other species adapted to form monotypes in the absence of disturbance. Nearly all previous studies indicate that reductions in height and density of tall, emergent hydrophytes by fire and grazing (unless very intensive) generally benefit breeding waterfowl. Such benefits are an increase in pair density, probably related to increased interspersion of cover and open water which decreases visibility among conspecific pairs, and improvements in their invertebrate food resources that result from increased habitat heterogeneity. Research needs are great because of the drastic changes that have accrued to prairie wetlands through fire suppression, cultivation, and other factors. The physical and biological environments preferred by species of breeding waterfowl during their seasonal and daily activities should be ascertained from future studies in wetland complexes that exist in the highest state of natural preservation. Long-term burning and grazing experiments should follow on specific vegetatively-degraded wetlands judged to be potentially important breeding areas. Seasonality, frequency, and intensity of treatments should be varied and combined and, in addition to measuring the response of the biotic community, the changes in the physical and chemical environment of the wetlands should be monitored to increase our knowledge of causative factors and possible predictive values.

Kantrud, H.A.

1986-01-01

69

Mapping changes in tidal wetland vegetation composition and pattern across a salinity gradient using high spatial resolution imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed vegetation mapping of wetlands, both natural and restored, can offer valuable information about vegetation diversity\\u000a and community structure and provides the means for examining vegetation change over time. We mapped vegetation at six tidal\\u000a marshes (two natural, four restored) in the San Francisco Estuary, CA, USA, between 2003 and 2004 using detailed vegetation\\u000a field surveys and high spatial-resolution color-infrared

Karin Tuxen; Lisa Schile; Diana Stralberg; Stuart Siegel; Tom Parker; Michael Vasey; John Callaway; Maggi Kelly

2011-01-01

70

Interactions between vegetation and hydrology: 1) Forest structure and throughfall 2) Spruce expansion following wetland drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chapter 1: We developed a non-linear regression model from first principals to predict the percent of precipitation interception from forest canopies using lidar as a measure of forest structure. To find the best parameters for the model, we measured thoroughfall of rain (n = 21), fresh snow (n = 21), and old snow (n = 26) on plots in the boreal forest of the upper Eklutna Valley, Alaska. We calculated a set of twelve lidar metrics for each plot, and found the combined metric of mean height * cover to be the lidar metric most highly correlated to ln(throughfall) for rain (r = -0.81), fresh snow (r = -0.79), and old snow (r = -0.73). Using mean height * cover in the interception model, we predicted mean interception for rainfall (20% +/- 3%), fresh snow (29% +/- 4%), and old snow (20% +/- 3%) across the vegetated portion of the upper Eklutna Valley. Chapter 2: Climate changes and subsequent landscape-level responses have been documented throughout Alaska. We investigated the expansion of black (Picea mariana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) into open, herbaceous palustrine wetlands on Joint Base Elemendorf-Richardson (JBER) in south-central Alaska. We classified random points in wetlands across JBER using imagery from 1950, 1981, and 2012 to identify the extent and rate of spruce expansion. Additionally, we sampled 75 field plots in wetlands to age spruce trees and survey understory vegetation. We found tree cover in wetlands to have increased substantially from 1950-2012 (44% to 87%) with expansion over time fitting a logistic growth model well. Aged tree cores showed a recruitment pulse beginning the in 1930's and had a cumulative age distribution matching the logistic growth model of tree cover over time. The logistic growth model suggest spruce expansion began slowly in the early 1800's, coincident with the start of the current warming trend in Alaska. Using one representative wetland, we classified points on a 10 m spaced regular grid in 1950, 1981, and 2012 to show spruce expansion moving down the elevational gradient within the wetland -- a pattern observed throughout closed basin wetlands on JBER. Additionally, we found spruce expansion related to understory vegetation and wetland drainage shape (open basin, closed basin, or mixed). Finally, we propose a mechanism for the expansion of spruce into palustrine wetlands based on the timing and extent of vernal pooling.

Stehle, Richard Craig

71

Hydrologic, soil, and vegetation gradients in remnant and constructed riparian wetlands in west-central Missouri, 2001-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation at the Four Rivers Conservation Area (west-central Missouri), between January 2001 and March 2004, to examine the relations between environmental factors (hydrology, soils, elevation, and landform type) and the spatial distribution of vegetation in remnant and constructed riparian wetlands. Vegetation characterization included species composition of ground, understory, and overstory layers in selected landforms of a remnant bottomland hardwood ecosystem, monitoring survival and growth of reforestation plots in leveed and partially leveed constructed wetlands, and determining gradients in colonization of herbaceous vegetation in a constructed wetland. Similar environmental factors accounted for variation in the distribution of ground, understory, and overstory vegetation in the remnant bottomland forest plots. The primary measured determining factors in the distribution of vegetation in the ground layer were elevation, soil texture (clay and silt content), flooding inundation duration, and ponding duration, while the distribution of vegetation in the understory layer was described by elevation, soil texture (clay, silt, and sand content), total flooding and ponding inundation duration, and distance from the Marmaton or Little Osage River. The primary measured determining factors in the distribution of overstory vegetation in Unit 1 were elevation, soil texture (clay, silt, and sand content), total flooding and ponding inundation duration, ponding duration, and to some extent, flooding inundation duration. Overall, the composition and structure of the remnant bottomland forest is indicative of a healthy, relatively undisturbed flood plain forest. Dominant species have a distribution of individuals that shows regeneration of these species with significant recruitment in the smaller size classes. The bottomland forest is an area whose overall hydrology has not been significantly altered; however, portions of the area have suffered from hydrologic alteration by a drainage ditch that is resulting in the displacement of swamp and marsh species by colonizing shrub and tree species. This area likely will continue to develop into an immature flood plain forest under the current (2004) hydrologic regime. Reforestation plots in constructed wetlands consisted of sampling survival and growth of multiple tree species (Quercus palustris, pin oak; Carya illinoiensis, pecan) established under several production methods and planted at multiple elevations. Comparison of survival between tree species and production types showed no significant differences for all comparisons. Survival was high for both species and all production types, with the highest mortality seen in the mounded root production method (RPM?) Quercus palustris (pin oak, 6.9 percent), while direct seeded Quercus palustris at middle elevation and bare root Quercus palustris seedlings at the low elevation plots had 100 percent survival. Measures of growth (diameter and height) were assessed among species, production types, and elevation by analyzing relative growth. The greatest rate of tree diameter (72.3 percent) and height (65.3 percent) growth was observed for direct seeded Quercus palustris trees planted at a middle elevation site. Natural colonized vegetation data were collected at multiple elevations within an abandoned cropland area of a constructed wetland. The primary measured determining factors in the distribution of herbaceous vegetation in this area were elevation, ponding duration, and soil texture. Richness, evenness, and diversity were all significantly greater in the highest elevation plots as a result of more recent disturbance in this area. While flood frequency and duration define the delivery mechanism for inundation on the flood plain, it is the duration of ponding and amount of 'topographic capture' of these floodwaters in fluvial lan

Heimann, David C.; Mettler-Cherry, Paige A.

2004-01-01

72

Aquatic invertebrate responses to fish presence and vegetation complexity in Western Boreal wetlands, with implications for Waterbird productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic invertebrates are essential to wetland function, serving as the key trophic link between primary producers, fish,\\u000a and waterfowl in boreal wetlands. We studied how both aquatic vegetation complexity and prevalence, and fish presence, could\\u000a be used to predict the distribution of invertebrate biomass in 24 wetlands of the Western Boreal Forest (WBF). The percent\\u000a volume occupied by aquatic plants

Jonathan P. Hornung; A. Lee Foote

2006-01-01

73

Multitemporal classification of TerraSAR-X data for wetland vegetation mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with wetland vegetation mapping using multitemporal synthetic aperture radar imagery. Although wetlands play a key role in controlling flooding and nonpoint source pollution, sequestering carbon and providing an abundance of ecological services, knowledge of the flora and fauna of these environments is patchy, and understanding of their ecological functioning is still insufficient for a reliable functional assessment on areas larger than a few hectares. The aim of this paper is to evaluate multitemporal TerraSAR-X imagery to precisely map the distribution of vegetation formations considering flood duration. A series of six dual-polarization TerraSAR-X images (HH-VV) was acquired in 2012 during dry and wet seasons. One polarimetric parameter, the Shannon entropy (SE), and two intensity parameters (?° HH and ?° VV), which vary with wetland flooding status and vegetation roughness, were first extracted. These parameters were then classified using support vector machine techniques based on a specific kernel adapted to the comparison of time-series data, K-nearest neighbors, and decision tree (DT) algorithms. The results show that the vegetation formations can be identified very accurately (kappa index=0.85) from the classification of SE temporal profiles derived from the TerraSAR-X images. They also reveal the importance of the use of polarimetric parameters instead of backscattering coefficients alone (HH or VV) or combined (HH and VV).

Betbeder, Julie; Rapinel, Sébastien; Corpetti, Thomas; Pottier, Eric; Corgne, Samuel; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

2014-01-01

74

Drivers and feedbacks in spatial and temporal patterning of hydrology and vegetation in the Everglades wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hosting a large variety of vegetal and animal species, many of which rare or endangered, wetlands are among the most rich and vulnerable ecosystems in the world. Throughout the past century, the growing climatic impact and the increasing anthropogenic pressure have seriously threatened their natural equilibrium and substantially deteriorated their ecosystems. For fragility, biodiversity and extension, the Everglades is probably one of the most iconic wetlands in the world. After decades of land seizing and exploitation following the southward march of development in Florida, awareness of the importance of the Everglades wetlands has recently risen, bringing it to the center of one of the largest and most ambitious restoration projects ever attempted. Wetlands equilibrium and biodiversity are crucially linked to the hydrologic regime. In the Everglades, hydroperiods (i.e. percent of time a site is inundated) exert a critical control in the creation of habitat niches for different plant species. However, the feedbacks between the hydrologic signature and the plant dynamics that ultimately yield the observed spatial vegetation patterns are unknown. We identify both the main hydrologic and local drivers of the vegetation species spatial configuration and use them within a robust modeling framework able to reproduce the vegetation structures currently observed in the Everglades. By including both exogenous (i.e. hydrologic) and endogenous (i.e. local interactions) forcings, we are able to describe the mechanisms yielding to the observed power law behavior of the cluster size distribution of vegetation species. Since power law clustering is often associated with self-organization and systems near critical transitions, these findings can be successfully used to quantitatively assess the impact of potential climatic shifts and the effect of habitat loss or deterioration due to human activity, and can assist policy makers in identifying case-specific ecosystems restoration and preservation measures.

Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Foti, R.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Del Jesus, M.

2013-05-01

75

Surface elevation change and vegetation distribution dynamics in a subtropical coastal wetland: Implications for coastal wetland response to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise is receiving global attention and observed changes in the distribution of mangrove and salt marsh are increasingly associated with global climate change, particularly sea-level and temperature rise, and potentially elevated carbon dioxide. Processes operating over smaller-spatial scales, such as rainfall variability and nutrient enrichment are also proposed as possible short-term drivers of changes in the distribution of mangrove and salt marsh. We consider the response of mangrove and salt marsh in a subtropical estuary to changes in environmental variables over a 12 year period by comparing rates of surface elevation change and vegetation distribution dynamics to hydrological and climatic variables, specifically water level and rainfall. This period of analysis captured inter-annual variability in sea level and rainfall associated with different phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We found that the mangrove and salt marsh trend of increasing elevation was primarily controlled by position within the tidal prism, in this case defined by inundation depth and distance to the tidal channel. Rainfall was not a primary driver of elevation trends in mangrove and salt marsh, but rainfall and water level variability did influence variability in elevation over the study period, though cross-correlation of these factors confounds identification of a single process driving this variability. These results highlight the scale-dependence of coastal wetland vegetation distribution dynamics; the longer-term trend of surface elevation increase and mangrove encroachment of salt marsh correlated with global sea-level trends, while short-term variability in surface elevation was related to local variability in water level and rainfall. Rates of surface elevation increase were found to lag behind rates of water level change within the Tweed River, which may facilitate further expansion of mangrove into salt marsh. This study advocates integration of ecological and geomorphic techniques to understand the response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise and climatic perturbations.

Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Woodroffe, Colin D.

2014-08-01

76

Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed  

SciTech Connect

Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

Mackun, I.R.

1993-01-01

77

Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners create a model of a wetland to observe how it absorbs and filters water from the environment. In part 1, learners make it "rain" on their wetland model and compare their predictions of where the water will go to where it actually goes. In part 2, learners consider and discuss the characteristics of wetland plants and animals and match pictures of different organisms to different types of wetlands. An addendum to the lesson provides extensive information, including photos, about wetland plants and animals, plus a section on "Types of Wetlands Found in New Jersey."

2013-12-18

78

Effects of Different Vegetation Zones on CH4 and N2O Emissions in Coastal Wetlands: A Model Case Study  

PubMed Central

The coastal wetland ecosystems are important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle and global climate change. For higher fragility of coastal wetlands induced by human activities, the roles of coastal wetland ecosystems in CH4 and N2O emissions are becoming more important. This study used a DNDC model to simulate current and future CH4 and N2O emissions of coastal wetlands in four sites along the latitude in China. The simulation results showed that different vegetation zones, including bare beach, Spartina beach, and Phragmites beach, produced different emissions of CH4 and N2O in the same latitude region. Correlation analysis indicated that vegetation types, water level, temperature, and soil organic carbon content are the main factors affecting emissions of CH4 and N2O in coastal wetlands. PMID:24892044

Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Lixin; Bao, Shumei; Liu, Huamin; Yu, Junbao; Wang, Yu; Shao, Hongbo; Ouyang, Yan; An, Shuqing

2014-01-01

79

Effects of different vegetation zones on CH4 and N2O emissions in coastal wetlands: a model case study.  

PubMed

The coastal wetland ecosystems are important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle and global climate change. For higher fragility of coastal wetlands induced by human activities, the roles of coastal wetland ecosystems in CH4 and N2O emissions are becoming more important. This study used a DNDC model to simulate current and future CH4 and N2O emissions of coastal wetlands in four sites along the latitude in China. The simulation results showed that different vegetation zones, including bare beach, Spartina beach, and Phragmites beach, produced different emissions of CH4 and N2O in the same latitude region. Correlation analysis indicated that vegetation types, water level, temperature, and soil organic carbon content are the main factors affecting emissions of CH4 and N2O in coastal wetlands. PMID:24892044

Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Lixin; Bao, Shumei; Liu, Huamin; Yu, Junbao; Wang, Yu; Shao, Hongbo; Ouyang, Yan; An, Shuqing

2014-01-01

80

TTC Dyeing for Evaluation of Wetland Vegetation Activity in Sarobetsu Mire, Northern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced groundwater levels cause drying and shrinkage of mires, resulting in rapid changes in wetland vegetation. To conserve pre-existing wetland vegetation, it is important to clarify its behavior in relation to groundwater level fluctuations. Sarobetsu Mire, the biggest high moor in Japan, is experiencing a transition of its wetland vegetation due to increased invasion by dwarf bamboo (Sasa (Eusasa)). Previous studies have been limited to qualitative assessment concluding that the reduction of wetland vegetation areas is taking place. The invasion of dwarf bamboo was found to be inhibited in areas with high groundwater levels, but few studies have sought to quantitatively assess the responses of individual plants to groundwater variations. Growth activity has often been measured using the triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride (TTC) method, which is a simple approach. The purpose of this study is to develop a quantitative method to assess the response (in terms of activity) of wetland vegetation to groundwater levels. To examine the relationship between the two (i.e., whether plants are dead or alive), a pair of laboratory experiments was conducted using the TTC method and absorptimetry with dwarf bamboo collected from Sarobetsu Mire. The first experiment was to investigate the activity of wetland vegetation in an inundated environment, and the second was to investigate annual fluctuations in such activity. The results showed that the activity (in terms of absorbance) of dwarf bamboo continued to decrease immediately after collection, and that the absorbance peak at a wavelength of 480 nm was also smaller. However, after the submersion period exceeded 30 days, there were no significant changes in absorbance as the submersion period went on. This indicates that dwarf bamboo underwent activity loss and died when the submersion period exceeded 30 days. Dwarf bamboo was considered dead when absorbance (480 nm) was 0.2 or lower and the peak became unclear. Since the change in absorbance was the largest for dwarf bamboo at 480 nm, comparison at this wavelength was considered effective for activity judgment. This result indicated the feasibility of quantitative assessment for the activity of underground rhizomes of dwarf bamboo using TTC dyeing. The activity of dwarf bamboo is at its lowest in July, rises from July to December, is flat or shows a falling tendency from December to May, and falls sharply from June to July. The activity of rhizomes was low from June to August because their processes (in terms of nutrition) moved to the aerial parts of plants to supply nutrients to shoots. The growth of the aerial parts then subsided, suggesting that nutrients were stored in rhizomes from September onward. In the future, groundwater levels are expected to increase due to the restoration of river meanders as part of nature restoration projects, as well as in response to changes in hydrological environments caused by influences such as climate change. It will be necessary to verify the response of plant activity to groundwater levels using the TTC assessment method for various types of wetland vegetation and to promote verification in field tests.

Hayashida, K.; Murakami, Y.; Mizugaki, S.; Yano, M.

2011-12-01

81

Wind driven vertical transport in a vegetated, wetland water column with air-water gas exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow around arrays of cylinders at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers has been studied numerically, analytically and experimentally. Early results demonstrated that at flow around randomly oriented cylinders exhibits reduced turbulent length scales and reduced diffusivity when compared to similarly forced, unimpeded flows (Nepf 1999). While horizontal dispersion in flows through cylinder arrays has received considerable research attention, the case of vertical dispersion of reactive constituents has not. This case is relevant to the vertical transfer of dissolved gases in wetlands with emergent vegetation. We present results showing that the presence of vegetation can significantly enhance vertical transport, including gas transfer across the air-water interface. Specifically, we study a wind-sheared air-water interface in which randomly arrayed cylinders represent emergent vegetation. Wind is one of several processes that may govern physical dispersion of dissolved gases in wetlands. Wind represents the dominant force for gas transfer across the air-water interface in the ocean. Empirical relationships between wind and the gas transfer coefficient, k, have been used to estimate spatial variability of CO2 exchange across the worlds’ oceans. Because wetlands with emergent vegetation are different from oceans, different model of wind effects is needed. We investigated the vertical transport of dissolved oxygen in a scaled wetland model built inside a laboratory tank equipped with an open-ended wind tunnel. Plastic tubing immersed in water to a depth of approximately 40 cm represented emergent vegetation of cylindrical form such as hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). After partially removing the oxygen from the tank water via reaction with sodium sulfite, we used an optical probe to measure dissolved oxygen at mid-depth as the tank water re-equilibrated with the air above. We used dissolved oxygen time-series for a range of mean wind speeds to estimate the gas transfer coefficient, k, for both a vegetated condition and a control condition (no cylinders). The presence of cylinders in the tank substantially increased the rate of the gas transfer. For the highest wind speed, the gas transfer coefficient was several times higher when cylinders were present compared to when they were not. The gas transfer coefficient for the vegetated condition also proved sensitive to wind speed, increasing markedly with increasing mean wind speeds. Profiles of dissolved oxygen revealed well-mixed conditions in the bulk water column following prolonged air-flow above the water surface, suggesting application of the thin-film model is appropriate. The enhanced gas exchange observed might be explained by increased turbulent kinetic energy within the water column and the anisotropy of the cylinder array, which constrains horizontal motions more than vertical motions. Improved understanding of gas exchange in vegetated water columns may be of particularly use to investigations of carbon fluxes and soil accretion in wetlands. Reference: Nepf, H. (1999), Drag, turbulence, and diffusion in flow through emergent vegetation, Water Resour. Res., 35(2), 479-489.

Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

2010-12-01

82

Development of vegetation in created wetlands in western Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Myrkdalen lake, western Norway was subjected to a permanent 1.4 m drawdown in June 1987. After the drawdown, channels and artificial islands were constructed within the exposed floodplain system. Two permanent transects were established within this man-made environment, and these have been analyzed annually until 1995. The quadrats lie all on the same type of substrate, are at different

Arvid Odland

1997-01-01

83

Establishment of vegetation on mined sites by management of mycorrhizae  

SciTech Connect

Plant ecosystems, including those in the tropical, temperate, boreal, and desert zones, began evolving more than 400 million years ago. Trees and other land plants in these environments were faced with many natural stresses including extreme temperature changes, fluctuating levels of available water, soil infertility, catastrophic fires and storms, poor soil physical conditions and competition. Basically, these plants evolved by genetic selection and developed many physical, chemical, and biological requirements necessary to survive these periodically stressed environments. Survivors were those that could form extensive lateral root systems to occupy soil volumes sufficiently large for them to obtain enough essential mineral elements and water to support their above and below ground growth needs. The most competitive plants in these stressed ecosystems were those with the largest root systems. One major biological requirement that evolved was the association of plants with mycorrhizal fungi. This is still true today for land that has been disturbed by mining, construction, and other activities. Successful vegetation establishment on these lands has been achieved by using the biological tools; native tree seedlings, shrubs, forbs, and grasses inoculated with specific, beneficial mycorrhizal fungi. Trees and shrubs are custom grown in nurseries with selected mycorrhizal fungi, such as Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) and other fungi, provide significant benefits to the plants through increased water and mineral adsorption, decreased toxin absorption and overall reduction of plant stress. This has resulted in significant increases in plant growth and survival rates, density and sustainable vegetation.

Marrs, L.F.; Marx, D.H.; Cordell, C.E.

1999-07-01

84

7 CFR 1410.11 - Farmable Wetlands Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the maximum extent possible, as determined by CCC, in accordance with NRCS FOTG including, as appropriate, restoring the hydrology of the wetland and establishing vegetative cover (which may include emerging vegetation in water and bottomland...

2011-01-01

85

7 CFR 1410.11 - Farmable Wetlands Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the maximum extent possible, as determined by CCC, in accordance with NRCS FOTG including, as appropriate, restoring the hydrology of the wetland and establishing vegetative cover (which may include emerging vegetation in water and bottomland...

2012-01-01

86

7 CFR 1410.11 - Farmable Wetlands Program.  

...the maximum extent possible, as determined by CCC, in accordance with NRCS FOTG including, as appropriate, restoring the hydrology of the wetland and establishing vegetative cover (which may include emerging vegetation in water and bottomland...

2014-01-01

87

7 CFR 1410.11 - Farmable Wetlands Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the maximum extent possible, as determined by CCC, in accordance with NRCS FOTG including, as appropriate, restoring the hydrology of the wetland and establishing vegetative cover (which may include emerging vegetation in water and bottomland...

2013-01-01

88

7 CFR 1410.11 - Farmable Wetlands Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum extent possible, as determined by CCC, in accordance with NRCS FOTG including, as appropriate, restoring the hydrology of the wetland and establishing vegetative cover (which may include emerging vegetation in water and bottomland...

2010-01-01

89

Short-term responses of wetland vegetation after liming of an Adirondack watershed  

SciTech Connect

Watershed liming has been suggested as a long-term mitigation strategy for lake acidity, particularly in areas subject to high levels of acidic deposition. However, virtually no information has been available on the impacts of liming on wetland vegetation. In 1989, 1100 Mg of limestone (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) were aerially applied to 48% (100 ha) of the Woods Lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack region of New York as part of the first comprehensive watershed liming study in North America. We inventoried wetland vegetation in 1.0-m[sup 2] plots before liming and during the subsequent 2 yr. Within this period liming influenced the cover, frequency, or importance values of only 6 of 64 wetland taxa. The cover of Sphagnum spp. and of the cespitose sedge Carex interior decreased in control relative to limed plots, and cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides increased nearly threefold in limed areas. These two sedges, which are relatively tall, are characteristic of more calcareous habitats. Cover of the grass Muhlenbergia uniflora, cover and importance were adversely affected or inhibited by lime. It is unclear whether liming directly inhibited the growth of these three small-statured species, or whether the adverse effects of lime were mediated through shifts in competitive interactions with other species. The limited responses that we observed to liming, along with changes that occurred in control plots over the study period, may indicate that in the short term watershed liming was no more of a perturbation than the environmental factors responsible for natural annual variation in wetland communities.

Mackun, I.R.; Leopold, D.J.; Raynal, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States))

1994-08-01

90

Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment explains why Native people regard wetlands not only for their important ecological function, but for their spiritual value as well. For many tribes, wetlands represent life. They consider wetlands to be sacred places that must be protected from external sources of pollution, such as runoff from landscaping businesses and municipal discharges. Included is a background essay that gives a history of wetlands and the destruction they are now facing from human development. The many benefits of wetlands, like their ability to protect property from flooding. There are four discussion questions about the importance of wetlands and their functions. There is a helpful section that shows you the standards for your state ranging from grades K-12, as well as links to related resources.

2010-01-01

91

Vegetation influences on groundwater salinity and chemical heterogeneity in a freshwater, recharge floodplain wetland, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryKnowledge of wetland systems from sub-humid and semi-arid regions remains poor, particularly with regards to surface water-groundwater interactions. As a result of variable inflow and high evapotranspiration rates, such systems are often associated with the development of groundwater salinity. By focusing on the riparian species, Acacia xanthophloea, this study investigates the interaction between vegetation, groundwater, and occurrence of salinity on the Mkuze River floodplain, a seasonally dry, freshwater wetland. The relationship between groundwater chemistry and water table elevation suggests that these deep-rooted trees act as evapotranspirational pumps, selectively removing water and causing the subsurface concentration of solutes. Extensive root systems that reach the water table, coupled with high transpiration rates, result in local groundwater reaching electrical conductivities in excess of 20 mS/cm, approximately 15-20 times higher than those commonly found elsewhere on the floodplain. In this environment, these trees appear tolerant of salinities that would be toxic to most other plants. Plant tissue ion concentrations indicate that solute exclusion is the dominant means for avoidance of salt toxicity, with root turnover a possible regulatory mechanism. Data presented support our hypothesis that these trees exert feedback interactions on groundwater and sediment chemistry. Transpiration results not only in the development of saline groundwater, which is likely to influence vegetation distribution, but also initiates the precipitation of less soluble minerals, such as CaCO 3 and SiO 2, which have the potential to modify sediment pH, hydraulic conductivity, and landscape topography. Spatial variation in chemical processing is thus likely to play a role in creating and maintaining habitat diversity on the floodplain. Wetlands in semi-arid and sub-humid regions are often susceptible to shallow groundwater chemical transformations due to seasonal or episodic inflows and higher evapotranspiration demand. The documentation of solute concentration and retention in wetland systems from a variety of semi-arid and sub-humid areas suggests that evapotranspiration-driven processes may be more widespread than is currently understood. In environments where evapotranspiration plays an important role in the overall water budget of a wetland, similar vegetation-groundwater interactions and chemical processes are likely to occur. Recognition of broad differences between such systems and those of their better studied counterparts in tropical and temperate regions makes it necessary to develop a greater understanding of these processes.

Humphries, Marc S.; Kindness, Andrew; Ellery, William N.; Hughes, Jeffrey C.; Bond, Jonathan K.; Barnes, Kirsten B.

2011-12-01

92

Vegetation succession and carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida: Evidence from carbon isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of stable carbon isotopic ratios as well as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents in soils and plants were made along a chronovegetation sequence stretching from high marsh to low marsh in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida. The wetland is dominated by Juncus roemerianus , which is a C3 plant and has an average ?13C of -27‰. Lesser amounts of other species, including C4 plants, are also present in the area. The ?13C values of soil organic matter from low and middle marshes range from -24 to -27 ‰, which are consistent with the current plant community. However, the ?13C values of soil organic matter from high marsh show significant variations, from -23‰ in the surface soil to -17‰ at depth. This large C isotopic variation within soil profiles indicates a shift in local vegetation, from a C4-dominated community to the current C3 plant-dominated marsh, as a result of landward expansion of the wetland due to sea level rise. Radiocarbon dates on soil organic matter indicate that this ecological change occurred in the past hundred years or so as a result of sea level rise presumably due to global warming. Soil organic carbon inventory was ˜29 ± 3.6 kg m-2 in low marsh (the oldest part of the wetland), 15 ± 3.6 kg m-2 in middle marsh, and 13 ± 6.0 kg m-2 in high marsh (the youngest and most inland part of the wetland). N and P inventories are also higher in low marsh than in high marsh and seem to correlate directly with aboveground productivity in the marshes. The much higher C storage in low marsh than in high marsh indicates that carbon sequestration increased significantly as coastal wetland evolves from high marsh (initial stage) to low marsh (steady state). This has important implications to the global C cycle. As sea level rises owing to global warming, coastal wetlands are expected to expand landward in many areas where topography is gentle, which would provide a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Choi, Yonghoon; Wang, Yang; Hsieh, Yuch-Ping; Robinson, Larry

2001-06-01

93

Effects of hydraulic resistance by vegetation on stage dynamics of a stormwater treatment wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis work examined the potential effects of large-scale thinning of emergent vegetation on the stage dynamics in a very large (33.3 km2) constructed treatment wetland in South Florida. Dense vegetative biomass in treatment wetlands may restrict water flow and increase water levels, which may in turn have adverse effects on vegetative community structure. Here, we developed a physically-based, spatially-distributed hydrodynamic model of Stormwater Treatment Area 2, Cell 2 (STA2C2) to investigate the spatio-temporal variability of water level (stage) in response to management for thinning of emergent macrophytes (e.g., burning and/or herbicide treatments). The model was calibrated against stage measured at six monitoring stations for 1 year, and subsequently validated against 2 years of stage data from eight stations. Finally, the validated model was extended to simulate various vegetation management scenarios. The model provided an excellent fit to observed stage data in both calibration and validation periods (median model efficiency indices of 0.82 and 0.83, respectively). Higher stages in the treatment cell were dominantly associated with peak inflow magnitude and the timing of event intervals. Prolonged periods of sustained deep water conditions were observed when one flow peak was followed by consecutive peaks. A gradual stage gradient from the inlet to outlet was observed during peak flow periods, with a shift to a sharp gradient at approximately two-thirds distance from the inlet. Stages in the wetland were found to be controlled less by the hydraulic resistance, as indicated by a low sensitivity of simulated water levels for a ±50% perturbation in flow resistance parameter. Water depths were reduced by a maximum of 12 cm at the inlet region by thoroughly thinning the remaining emergent vegetation in STA2C2. Similarly, a maximum of only 2% of the total STA2C2 area was prevented from exceeding a water depth believed to be detrimental to Typha sp. (1.22 m) after the highest peak inflow. Collectively, our findings suggested that vegetation thinning may not be effective for minimizing deep water conditions in STA2C2.

Paudel, Rajendra; Grace, Kevin A.; Galloway, Stacey; Zamorano, Manuel; Jawitz, James W.

2013-03-01

94

Plant community, primary productivity, and environmental conditions following wetland re-establishment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland restoration can mitigate aerobic decomposition of subsided organic soils, as well as re-establish conditions favorable\\u000a for carbon storage. Rates of carbon storage result from the balance of inputs and losses, both of which are affected by wetland\\u000a hydrology. We followed the effect of water depth (25 and 55 cm) on the plant community, primary production, and changes in\\u000a two re-established

Robin L. Miller; Roger Fujii

2010-01-01

95

Hydrologic and Vegetative Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate Microspheres in Coastal Wetlands  

PubMed Central

Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type (“pure” versus “environmental”) on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality. PMID:23315738

Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.

2013-01-01

96

Wetland soil and vegetation bismuth content following experimental deposition of bismuth pellets.  

PubMed

Bismuth pellets have been approved as a non-toxic alternative to lead pellets in Canada since 1997 but, to our knowledge, there is little literature for soil and vegetation bismuth content in areas of bismuth pellet deposition. The present study addresses this shortcoming by measuring wetland soil and vegetation bismuth content following experimental deposition of bismuth pellets under ambient and experimentally increased acidic deposition conditions. We manipulated 24 plots in a fully factorial design (bismuth shot x soil acidification) in a south-eastern Ontario freshwater wetland during 1999-2003. Soil pH (range 6.5-7.3) increased significantly (p = 0.001) during the experimental period but there were no significant differences amongst treatments (p = 0.79). Significantly (p < 0.05) greater bismuth concentrations were measured in soil receiving bismuth pellets (mean +/- SE, n = 6; with acidification = 2.55 +/- 1.02 microg Bi g(-1) dry mass [DM]; without acidification = 6.40 +/- 2.23 microg Bi g(-1) DM) compared to plots that were not seeded with bismuth pellets (without acidification = 0.42 +/- 0.09 microg Bi g(-1) DM; with acidification = 0.39 +/- 0.10 microg Bi g(-1) DM). Nevertheless, bismuth levels in 20 of 24 aboveground tissue samples from the Carex lacustris-Agrostis scabra community were below detection levels (0.057 microg Bi g(-1) DM); the other samples ranged from 0.065 to 0.095 microg Bi g(-1) DM, similar to global background levels. Primary productivity in plots receiving bismuth pellets and soil acidification was not significantly (p = 0.15) different to vegetation in plots that were not manipulated. The results suggest bismuth mobilization from bismuth pellets into soil but not to aboveground vegetation. PMID:18688464

Fahey, Nathan S C; Karagatzides, Jim D; Jayasinghe, Ruwan; Tsuji, Leonard J S

2008-08-01

97

Stand establishment: Researching operational vegetation management scenarios designed to  

E-print Network

growth benefits Eric Dinger Dr. Robin Rose VMRC Mission Statement Conduct applied reforestation research vegetation management. Promote reforestation success such that survival, wood-crop biomass and growth

98

Evaluating the effect of rainfall variability on vegetation establishment in a semidesert grassland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Of the operations required for reclamation in arid and semi-arid regions, establishing vegetation entails the most uncertainty due to reliance on unpredictable rainfall for seed germination and seedling establishment. The frequency of successful vegetation establishment was estimated based on a land...

99

Recent Trends in Satellite Vegetation Index Observations Indicate Decreasing Vegetation Biomass in the Southeastern Saline Everglades Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed trends in time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from multitemporal satellite imagery for 2001-2010 over the southeastern Everglades where major changes in vegetation structure and type have been associated with sea-level rise and reduced freshwater flow since the 1940s. Non-parametric trend analysis using the Theil-Sen slope revealed that 84.4% of statistically significant trends in NDVI were negative, mainly concentrated in scrub mangrove, sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and spike rush (Eleocharis cellulosa) communities within 5 km of the shoreline. Observed trends were consistent with trends in sawgrass biomass measurements made from 1999-2010 in three Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) sites within our study area. A map of significant trends overlaid on a RapidEye high-resolution satellite image showed large patches of negative trends parallel to the shoreline in and around the 'white zone,' which corresponds to a low-productivity band that has moved inland over the past 70 years. Significantly positive trends were observed mainly in the halophytic prairie community where highly salt tolerant species are typically found. Taken as a whole, the results suggest that increased saline intrusion associated with sea-level rise continues to reduce the photosynthetic biomass within freshwater and oligohaline marsh communities of the southeastern Everglades. Trends in 2001-2010 NDVI in southern saline Everglades wetlands of South Florida. a) slope values; b) areas of significant slope; c) location of the study area.

Fuller, D. O.

2013-12-01

100

Accounting for non-photosynthetic vegetation in remote-sensing-based estimates of carbon flux in wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring productivity in coastal wetlands is important due to their high carbon sequestration rates and potential role in climate change mitigation. We tested agricultural- and forest-based methods for estimating the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (f APAR), a key parameter for modelling gross primary productivity (GPP), in a restored, managed wetland with a dense litter layer of non-photosynthetic vegetation, and we compared the difference in canopy light transmission between a tidally influenced wetland and the managed wetland. The presence of litter reduced correlations between spectral vegetation indices and f APAR. In the managed wetland, a two-band vegetation index incorporating simulated World View-2 or Hyperion green and near-infrared bands, collected with a field spectroradiometer, significantly correlated with f APAR only when measured above the litter layer, not at the ground where measurements typically occur. Measures of GPP in these systems are difficult to capture via remote sensing, and require an investment of sampling effort, practical methods for measuring green leaf area and accounting for background effects of litter and water.

Schile, Lisa M.; Byrd, Kristin B.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Kelly, Maggi

2013-01-01

101

Chemical evolution and vegetation response in an altered wetland ecosystem, Hula Valley, Israel (1988-2004).  

PubMed

The Hula Nature Reserve (HNR) (0.3 km(2)) in northern Israel is a semiarid wetland ecosystem within the greater Hula Valley. In the 1950s, approximately 60 km(2) of wetlands were drained and converted to farmland. The HNR was established during this time to preserve some of the native flora and fauna. Agricultural runoff and a reflooding of the area with peat water in 1999 resulted in high sulfate (SO(4) (2-)) concentrations of 66.67 ± 4.00 mg/L. We identified the existence of SO(4) (2-), nitrate (NO(3) (-)), and ammonium (NH(4) (+)) nutrient gradients as well as related mechanisms affecting the growth and dieback of Cyperus papyrus. The observed changes in the C. papyrus populations were caused primarily by fluctuations in SO(4) (2-). After two key events that affected levels of SO(4) (2-) in the HNR, C. papyrus coverage was altered by more than 80%. PMID:22506702

Avisar, Dror; Fox, Adam S

2012-01-01

102

Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: a case study in the Yellow River wetland in China.  

PubMed

Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Linn, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Linn, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K(15)NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. communis Trin, 68.75% for T. angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. communis Trin, 72.22% for S. triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. communis Trin (9.731 mg/g) > old P. communis Trin (4.939 mg/g) > S. triqueter (0.620 mg/g) > T. angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution. PMID:19862959

Zhao, Tongqian; Xu, Huashan; He, Yuxiao; Tai, Chao; Meng, Hongqi; Zeng, Fanfu; Xing, Menglin

2009-01-01

103

A test of vegetation-related indicators of wetland quality in the prairie pothole region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was part of an effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantitatively assess the environmental quality or 'health' of wetland resources on regional and national scales. During a two-year pilot study, we tested selected indicators of wetland quality in the U.S. portion of the prairie pothole region (PPR). We assumed that the amount of cropland versus non-cropland (mostly grassland) in the plots containing these basins was a proxy for their quality. We then tested indicators by their ability to discriminate between wetlands at the extremes of that proxy. Amounts of standing dead vegetation were greater in zones of greater water permanence. Depth of litter was greater in zones of greater water permanence and in zones of basins in poor-quality watersheds. Amounts of unvegetated bottom were greater in basins in poor-quality watersheds; lesser amounts occurred in all wetlands during a wetter year. Greater amounts of open water occurred during a wetter year and in zones of greater water permanence. When unadjusted for areas (ha) of communities, plant taxon richness was higher in wet-meadow and shallow-marsh zones in good-quality watersheds than in similar zones in poor-quality watersheds. Wet-meadow zones in good-quality watersheds had greater numbers of native perennials than those in poor-quality watersheds. This relation held when we eliminated all communities in good-quality watersheds larger than the largest communities in poor-quality watersheds from the data set. We conclude that although amounts of unvegetated bottom and plant taxon richness in wet-meadow zones were useful indicators of wetland quality during our study, the search for additional such indicators should continue. The value of these indicators may change with the notoriously unstable hydrological conditions in the PPR. Most valuable would be indicators that could be photographed or otherwise remotely sensed and would remain relatively stable under various hydrological conditions. An ideal set of indicators could detect the absence of stressors, as well as the presence of structures or functions, of known value to major groups of organisms.

Kantrud, H.A.; Newton, W.E.

1996-01-01

104

Flora and ecological profile of native and exotic estuarine wetland vegetation by hydrogeomorphic setting at Rush Ranch, Suisun Marsh  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The manuscript includes a profile of the ecology and distribution of estuarine wetland vegetation at the Rush Ranch reserve site in the brackish Suisun Marsh reach of San Francisco Estuary The data and analyses will serve as a baseline for future scientific research and conservation management. A ...

105

Vegetation, substrate and hydrology in floating marshes in the Mississippi river delta plain wetlands, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the 1940s extensive floating marshes (locally called 'flotant') were reported and mapped in coastal wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta Plain. These floating marshes included large areas of Panicum hemitomon-dominated freshwater marshes, and Spartina patens/Scirpus olneyi brackish marshes. Today these marshes appear to be quite different in extent and type. We describe five floating habitats and one non-floating, quaking habitat based on differences in buoyancy dynamics (timing and degree of floating), substrate characteristics, and dominant vegetation. All floating marshes have low bulk density, organic substrates. Nearly all are fresh marshes. Panicum hemitomon floating marshes presently occur within the general regions that were reported in the 1940's by O'Neil, but are reduced in extent. Some of the former Panicum hemitomon marshes have been replaced by seasonally or variably floating marshes dominated, or co-dominated by Sagittaria lancifolia or Eleocharis baldwinii. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Sasser, C.E.; Gosselink, J.G.; Swenson, E.M.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Leibowitz, N.C.

1996-01-01

106

Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh-dominated coasts. Such datasets can be instrumental in effective coastal-resource management.

Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

2008-01-01

107

Regeneration of vegetation on wetland crossings for gas pipeline rights-of-way one year after construction  

SciTech Connect

Four wetland crossings of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs), located in Florida, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York, were surveyed for generation of vegetation roughly one year after pipeline construction was completed. Conventional trench-and-fill construction techniques were employed for all four sites. Estimated areal coverage of each species by vegetative strata within transect plots was recorded for plots on the ROW and in immediately adjacent wetlands undisturbed by construction activities. Relative success of regeneration was measured by percent exposed soil, species diversity, presence of native and introduced species, and hydric characteristics of the vegetation. Variable site factors included separation and replacement of topsoil, final grading of the soil, application of seed and fertilizer, and human disturbance unrelated to construction. Successful regeneration exhibited greater dependency on the first three factors listed.

Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1993-10-01

108

A High Density Storm Surge Monitoring Network: Evaluating the Ability of Wetland Vegetation to Reduce Storm Surge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent tropical storm activity in the Chesapeake Bay and a potential increase in the predicted frequency and magnitude of weather systems have drawn increased attention to the need for improved tools for monitoring, modeling and predicting the magnitude of storm surge, coastal flooding and the respective damage to infrastructure and wetland ecosystems. Among other forms of flood protection, it is believed that coastal wetlands and vegetation can act as a natural barrier that slows hurricane flooding, helping to reduce the impact of storm surge. However, quantifying the relationship between the physical process of storm surge and its attenuation by wetland vegetation is an active area of research and the deployment of in-situ measuring devices is crucial to data collection efforts in this field. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) mobile storm-surge network has already successfully provided a framework for evaluating hurricane induced storm surge water levels on a regional scale through the use of in-situ devices installed in areas affected by storm surge during extreme events. Based on the success of the USGS efforts, in this study we adapted the monitoring network to cover relatively small areas of wetlands and coastal vegetation with an increased density of sensors. Groups of 6 to 10 water level sensors were installed in sites strategically selected in three locations on the Virginia coast of the lower Chesapeake Bay area to monitor different types of vegetation and the resulting hydrodynamic patterns (open coast and inland waters). Each group of sensors recorded time series data of water levels for both astronomical tide circulation and meteorological induced surge. Field campaigns were carried out to survey characteristics of vegetation contributing to flow resistance (i.e. height, diameter and stem density) and mapped using high precision GPS. A geodatabase containing data from field campaigns will support the development and calibration of computational models to simulate storm surge flow over wetlands specifically designed to represent Virginia's aquatic vegetation and to improve our fundamental knowledge of tide and storm surge hydrodynamics in estuarine wetlands. This poster will present the results of the field measurements for events during the 2013 Hurricane Season, tidal flows within the study areas, and surge attenuation rates according to vegetation characteristics.

Lawler, S.; Denton, M.; Ferreira, C.

2013-12-01

109

Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

110

A numerical study of vegetation impact on reducing storm surge by wetlands in a semi-enclosed estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal wetlands play a unique role in extreme hurricane events. The impact of wetlands on storm surge depends on multiple factors including vegetation, landscape, and storm characteristics. The Delft3D model, in which vegetation effects on flow and turbulence are explicitly incorporated, was applied to the semi-enclosed Breton Sound (BS) estuary in coastal Louisiana to investigate the wetland impact. Guided by extensive field observations, a series of numerical experiments were conducted based on variations of actual vegetation properties and storm parameters from Hurricane Isaac in 2012. Both the vegetation-induced maximum surge reduction (MSR) and maximum surge reduction rate (MSRR) increased with stem height and stem density, and were more sensitive to stem height. The MSR and MSRR decreased significantly with increasing wind intensity. The MSRR was the highest with a fast-moving weak storm. It was also found that the MSRR varied proportionally to the expression involving the maximum bulk velocity and surge over the area of interest, and was more dependent on the maximum bulk surge. Both MSR and MSRR appeared to increase when the area of interest decreased from the whole BS estuary to the upper estuary. Within the range of the numerical experiments, the maximum simulated MSR and MSRR over the upper estuary were 0.7 m and 37%, respectively.

Kelin, Hu; Qin, Chen; Wang, Hongqing

2014-01-01

111

wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aro wetlands are a poorly-known, hydrologically extreme inland habitat type outside permanent waterbodies, often occurring in weekly paludified parts of peatlands. They are characterized by alternating flood and drought periods. We studied these habitats in the mid-boreal zone in the coastal part of Northern Ostrobothnia (65°N). We made classification (Cluster analysis) and ordination analyses (NMDS) with small-sized relevés and measured

Jarmo Laitinen; Teemu Tahvanainen; Sakari Rehell; Jari Oksanen

112

Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds.  

PubMed

Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) consist of emergent macrophytes that are placed on a floating mat in a pond for water treatment and aesthetic purposes. FTWs may have unique advantages with respect to treating urban runoff within existing retention ponds for excess nutrients. However, research is lacking in providing guidance on performance of specific species for treating urban runoff, and on timing of harvest. Harvesting is needed to remove nutrients permanently from the retention pond. We investigated vegetation effects on FTWs on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal performance and storage in above-ground FTW macrophyte tissues. The study evaluated pickerelweed (PW, Pontederia cordata L.) and softstem bulrush (SB, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) over time in microcosms flushed with water obtained from a nearby urban retention pond in northern Virginia near Washington, DC. While the literature exhibits a wide range of experimental sizes, using the term mesocosm, we have chosen the term microcosm to reflect the small size of our vessel; and do not include effects of sediment. The experiment demonstrated PW outperformed SB for P and N removal. Based upon analysis of the accumulated nutrient removal over time, a harvest of the whole PW and SB plants in September or October is recommended. However, when harvesting only the aerial parts, we recommend harvesting above-ground PW tissues in July or August to maximize nutrient removal. This is because PW translocates most of its nutrients to below-ground storage organs in the fall, resulting in less nutrient mass in the above-ground tissue compared to the case in the summer (vegetative stage). Further research is suggested to investigate whether vegetation can be overly damaged from multiple harvests on an annual basis in temperate regions. PMID:25214393

Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J; Bell, Cameron

2014-11-15

113

Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.  

PubMed

This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth. PMID:24743957

Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

2015-02-01

114

Spectral discrimination of papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus L.) in swamp wetlands using field spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques for mapping and monitoring wetland species are critical for their sustainable management. Papyrus ( Cyperus papyrus L.) is one of the most important species-rich habitats that characterize the Greater St. Lucia Wetlands Park (GSWP) in South Africa. This paper investigates whether papyrus could be discriminated from its co-existing species using ASD field spectrometer data ranging from 300 nm to 2500 nm, yielding a total of 2151 bands. Canopy spectral measurements from papyrus and three other species were collected in situ in the Greater St. Lucia Wetlands Park, South Africa. A new hierarchical method based on three integrated analysis levels was proposed and implemented to spectrally discriminate papyrus from other species as well as to reduce and subsequently select optimal bands for the potential discrimination of papyrus. In the first level of the analysis using ANOVA, we found that there were statistically significant differences in spectral reflectance between papyrus and other species on 412 wavelengths located in different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Using the selected 412 bands, we further investigated the use of classification and regression trees (CART) in the second level of analysis to identify the most sensitive bands for spectral discrimination. This analysis yielded eight bands which are considered to be practical for upscaling to airborne or space borne sensors for mapping papyrus vegetation. The final sensitivity analysis level involved the application of Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance to assess the relative importance of the selected eight bands in discriminating papyrus from other species. The results indicate that the best discrimination of papyrus from its co-existing species is possible with six bands located in the red-edge and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Overall, the study concluded that spectral reflectance of papyrus and its co-existing species is statistically different, a promising result for the use of airborne and satellite sensors for mapping papyrus. The three-step hierarchical approach employed in this study could systematically reduce the dimensionality of bands to manageable levels, a move towards operational implementation with band specific sensors.

Adam, Elhadi; Mutanga, Onisimo

115

Responses of wetland invertebrates and plants important in waterfowl diets to burning and mowing of emergent vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the responses of invertebrates and plants important in waterfowl diets to two management methods (prescribed burning\\u000a and mowing) commonly used in seasonal wetlands. Experimental plots were constructed in summer 1992 in stands of saltgrass\\u000a (Distichlis spicata); 50% of the vegetation was removed in treatment areas (10 m × 10 m) by either burning or mowing. After the plots

Ferenc A. de Szalay; Vincent H. Resh

1997-01-01

116

Vegetation types alter soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at the field scale in an estuary wetland.  

PubMed

Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil) in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively). During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)), followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)). The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland. PMID:24608636

Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Luo, Yiqi; Rafique, Rashad; Yu, Junbao; Mikle, Nate

2014-01-01

117

Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado-Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS-VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units. Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units. For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado. Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands. The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, which is useful for identifying and designing areas for conservation.

Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.

2013-10-01

118

Cienega de Santa Clara, a remnant wetland in the Rio Colorado delta (Mexico): vegetation distribution and the effects of water flow reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cienega de Santa Clara is the largest remaining wetland in the Rio Colorado delta; it supports endangered bird and fish species. The Cienega is maintained by agricultural drainage water discharge from the USA which in the future may be diverted to the Yuma Desalting Plant. We examined the existing vegetation patterns and effects of flow disruption on vegetation using

Scott A. Zengel; Vicky J. Meretsky; Edward P. Glenn; Richard S. Felger; David Ortiz

1995-01-01

119

Demonstration Wetland at Henderson, Nevada  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Demonstration wetland at Henderson, Nevada, where vegetated hummocks were built into the wastewater treatment wetland to improve its effectiveness and sustainability, as well as provide quality wildlife habitat....

120

The influence of wetland vegetation on tidal stream channel migration and morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average relative stream channel migration rates of .21 meters per year (.72 feet per year) for saline tidal wetland stream\\u000a channels, and .32 meters per year (1.04 feet per year) for freshwater tidal wetland channels were calculated for a 32 year\\u000a period (1940 to 1972) using photogrammetric techniques. Saline wetland stream channels averaged higher indices of sinuosity,\\u000a i.e., the ratio

Donald Garofalo

1980-01-01

121

-Establishment of Norway spruce seedlings -681 Journal of Vegetation Science 7: 681-684, 1996  

E-print Network

- Establishment of Norway spruce seedlings - 681 Journal of Vegetation Science 7: 681-684, 1996 abandoned for half a century and are sur- rounded by Picea abies (Norway spruce) forests. The causes of inhibition of establishment of Norway spruce seedlings in the meadows were tested experimentally

Leps, Jan "Suspa"

122

Re-establishing a sustainable wetland at former Lake Karla, Greece, using Ramsar restoration guidelines.  

PubMed

Lake Karla, Greece, was almost completely drained in 1962 both to protect surrounding farmlands from flooding and to increase agricultural area. Loss of wetland functions and values resulted in environmental, social, and economic problems. A number of restoration plans were proposed to address these problems. The plan approved by the government in the early 1990s proposed construction of a 4200-ha reservoir solely to improve water storage and flood attenuation functions. However, the Ramsar Scientific and Technical Review Panel states that the primary goal of any restoration project is to create resilient and sustainable ecosystems, as measured on a human timescale, in order to improve the ecological character and enhance the socioeconomic role that the wetland plays in the watershed. This study utilizes Ramsar guidelines for sustainable restoration of Lake Karla. Eight additional restoration measures are proposed based on functional analysis of the wetland to enhance additional wetland functions and support multiple values for humans and nature. PMID:15633042

Zalidis, George C; Takavakoglou, Vasilios; Panoras, Athanasios; Bilas, George; Katsavouni, Sotiria

2004-12-01

123

Physical and Vegetative Characteristics of a Newly Constructed Wetland and Modified Stream Reach, Tredyffrin Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 2000-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To compensate for authorized disturbance of naturally occurring wetlands and streams during roadway improvements to U.S. Highway 202 in Chester and Montgomery Counties, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) constructed 0.42 acre of emergent wetland and 0.94 acre of scrub-shrub/forested wetland and modified sections of a 1,600-foot reach of Valley Creek with woody riparian plantings and streambank-stabilization structures (including rock deflectors). In accordance with project permits and additional guidance issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PennDOT, collected data from 2000 through 2006 to quantify changes in 1) the vegetation, soils, and extent of emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland, 2) the profile, dimension, and substrate in the vicinity of rock deflectors placed at two locations within the modified stream reach, and 3) the woody vegetation within the planted riparian buffer. The data for this investigation were collected using an approach adapted from previous investigations so that technology and findings may be more easily transferred among projects with similar objectives. Areal cover by planted and non-planted vegetation growing within the emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland exceeded 85 percent at the end of each growing season, a criterion in special condition 25c in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers project permit. Areal cover of vegetation in emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland exceeded 100 percent in all but one growing season. Frequent and long-lasting soil saturation favored obligate-wetland species like Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) and Scirpus validus (great bulrush), both of which maintained dominance in the emergent wetland throughout the study (percent cover was 20 and 78 percent, respectively, in 2006). Echinocloa crusgalli (barnyard grass), an annual invasive from Eurasia, initially established in the newly disturbed soils of the scrub-shrub/forested wetland (areal cover was 56 percent in 2000), but by 2002, E. crusgalli was not growing in any sample plots and other species including Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bent grass), Festuca rubra (red fescue), Cornus spp. (dogwood species), and Salix nigra (black willow) were becoming more common. Sal. nigra contributed 30-percent cover in the scrub-shrub/forested wetland part by fall 2003. Rapid colonization of this species in subsequent years increased annual cover through 2006, when 15- to 25-foot tall Sal. nigra trees dominated the tree/shrub stratum (48 percent of the areal cover in 2006). The understory of the scrub-shrub/forested wetland was mostly shaded because of the canopy of Sal. nigra trees. Herbaceous species growing under and near the margins of the canopy included Ag. stolonifera and Ty. latifolia (29- and 23-percent areal cover, respectively). Flows in Valley Creek are responsible for transporting sediment and shaping the channel. Annual mean streamflow during the period the modified stream reach was monitored ranged from 15.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in the 2002 water year to 53.0 ft3/s in the 2004 water year. This is a range of about 55 percent lower to 58 percent higher than the annual mean streamflow for the period of record. Despite the variability in streamflow, longitudinal profiles surveyed near rock deflectors in two short (100-foot) reaches within the modified stream reach maintained a constant slope throughout the monitoring period, most likely because of the presence of bedrock control. Cross-section geometry in the upstream reach was virtually unchanged during the monitoring period but 10 feet of bank migration was measured downstream, leaving the rock deflectors in mid-stream. As indicated by the change in channel morphology at the downstream reach, it is apparent that the rock deflectors were ineffective at adequately protecting the bank

Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; White, Kirk E.; Olson, Leif E.

2009-01-01

124

Carbon Gas Fluxes in Re-Established Wetlands on Organic Soils Differ Relative to Plant Community and Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes for 6 years following permanent flooding of an agriculturally managed organic soil at two water depths (~25 and ~55 cm\\u000a standing water) in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, as part of research studying C dynamics in re-established\\u000a wetlands. Flooding rapidly reduced gaseous C losses, and radiocarbon data showed that this, in part, was due to reduced

Robin L. Miller

125

Spectral discrimination of papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus L.) in swamp wetlands using field spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for mapping and monitoring wetland species are critical for their sustainable management. Papyrus (Cyperus papyrus L.) is one of the most important species-rich habitats that characterize the Greater St. Lucia Wetlands Park (GSWP) in South Africa. This paper investigates whether papyrus could be discriminated from its co-existing species using ASD field spectrometer data ranging from 300 nm to 2500

Elhadi Adam; Onisimo Mutanga

2009-01-01

126

Wetland chronosequence as a model of peatland development: Vegetation succession, peat and carbon accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands form currently a major terrestrial pool of organic matter (OM) and carbon (C). Dynamics of peat accumulation processes can be approached via models, which, however, need to be evaluated against real data. Land uplift coast with ongoing primary peatland formation is a unique setting to study the patterns and controls of peatland vegetation succession, development from fen to bog, and consequent changes in peat, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) accumulation. Here we compared a chronosequence of peatlands with a vertical peat sequence and ran Holocene Peatland Model (HPM) simulations, and evaluated the simulation against the field observations. The modern vegetation from the emergent sea shore to a bog with age of about 3000 years formed a continuum from minerotrophic to ombrotrophic plant communities. Similar sequence of plant communities was found in historical vegetation data. Along the chronosequence the fen-bog transition stage was most diverse regarding to plant community types, but also to spatial variability in peat height and water table depth (WTD). The transition from meadow to fen communities was associated with the establishment of Sphagnum moss patches. Palaeobotanical evidence from the bog site showed a rapid and quite recent fen-bog transition indicated by coinciding decrease in minerotrophic plant functional types (sedge) and increase in ombrotrophic plant functional types (lawn or hummock Sphagna). Concurrent vegetation transition also in the cores from younger, a 700 year old, fen site suggests different pace of succession in these age cohorts, possibly due to external forcing. Evaluation of the HPM simulations indicated that the model is adjustable and it produced reasonable predictions despite temperature not being included directly in the model.

Juutinen, S.; Tuittila, E.; Frolking, S.; Väliranta, M.; Laine, A. M.; Miettinen, A.; Seväkivi, M.; Quillet, A.; Merilä, P.

2011-12-01

127

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of sulfolane in wetland vegetation exposed to sour gas-contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

Described is a GC-MS method for the determination of the levels of sulfolane (tetrahydrothiophene 1,1-dioxide, C4H8O2S; a water miscible chemical used in the sweetening of sour gas) in wetland vegetation (roots, shoots, berries, seeds, grasses, and leaves). The technique was developed to provide positive detection of sulfolane in a variety of wetland vegetation and to determine the extent to which sulfolane may translocate within the plants. Vegetation samples collected at a sour gas processing facility were extracted using a two-stage process which utilized a back extraction of a water extract with toluene. The main advantages of this procedure were: good extraction efficiency (recovery of 80+/-12%), exclusion of most of the highly polar co-extractives during the toluene back extraction step, and a final extract well suited to routine GC-MS selected ion monitoring of sulfolane with a detection limit of 90 ng g(-1) (wet mass). In general, the method was rugged, based on a study period of 18 months in which over 175 runs were conducted. PMID:10563417

Headley, J V; Peru, K M; Dickson, L C

1999-10-22

128

Physical and vegetative characteristics of a relocated stream reach, constructed wetland, and riparian buffer, Upper Saucon Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, 2000-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Engineering District 5-0, investigated physical and vegetative changes within a relocated stream reach, constructed wetland, and riparian buffer from September 2000 to October 2004. This report presents an evaluation of data collected using methods from multiple sources that have been adapted into a consistent approach. This approach is intended to satisfy a need for consistent collection of different types of data with the goal of transferring technology and findings to similar projects. Survey data indicate that adjustment of the upstream part of the relocated stream reach slowed over the monitoring period, but the downstream channel remains unstable as evidenced by excessive deposition. Upstream migration of a nick point has slowed or stopped altogether as of the 2003 assessment when this feature came in contact with the upstream-most part of the channel that is lined with riprap. Documented streambed erosion in the upstream cross sections, along with deposition downstream, has resulted in an overall decrease in slope of the stream channel over the monitoring period. Most streambed erosion took place prior to the 2002 assessment when annual mean streamflows were less than those in the final 2 years of monitoring. An abundance of fine sediment dominates the substrate of the relocated channel. Annual fluctuations of large particles within each cross section demonstrates the capacity of the relocated channel to transport the entire range of sediment. The substrate within the 0.28-acre constructed wetland (a mixture of soil from an off-site naturally occurring wetland and woodchips) supported a hydrophytic-vegetation community throughout the investigation. Eleocharis obtusa (spike rush), an obligate-wetland herb, was the most prevalent species, having a maximum areal cover of 90 percent in fall 2001 and a minimum of 23 percent in fall 2004. Drought-like conditions in water year 2002 (cumulative precipitation was 28.11 inches) allowed species like Panicum dichotomiflorum (witch grass), Salix sp. (willow), Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass), and Echinocloa crusgalli (barnyard grass) to become established by fall 2002. Above-average precipitation in water years 2003 and 2004 (58.55 and 53.17 inches, respectively) coincided with increased areal cover by E. obtusa in fall 2003 (56 percent) and decreased areal cover in fall 2004 (23 percent). Pond-like conditions that probably persisted throughout the 2004 growing season favored aquatic species like Alisma subcordatum (water plantain) to the detriment of many emergent species, including E. obtusa. Despite the pond-like conditions, L. oryzoides, an obligate-wetland grass, increased in areal cover (from 12 to 34 percent) between the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons because it was established in the higher elevations and the peripheral areas of the constructed wetland that were less prone to persistent inundation. Canopy development by trees and shrubs in the riparian buffer was initially (fall 2000) poor (39.7 percent), resulting in more available sunlight for the herbaceous understory than in any other growing season. As a result, areal cover of herbaceous species and trees and shrubs less than 1-meter tall was 108 percent in fall 2000 with Lolium perenne (perennial rye), Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb), and Setaria faberi (foxtail) collectively contributing nearly half the cover (59.2 percent). Because of increases in canopy cover by trees and shrubs (39.7 percent in fall 2000 to 127 percent in fall 2004), herbaceous cover decreased to 76 percent by the fall of 2001 and varied between 72 and 77 percent for the rest of the study period. Tree density in the riparian buffer ranged from 3,078 and 4,130 plants per acre (fall 2000 and 2003, respectively) over the study period but essentially remained constant after fall 2001; computations reported each fall between fall 2001 and fall

Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; White, Kirk E.; Loper, Connie A.

2006-01-01

129

Control of reed canarygrass promotes wetland herb and tree seedling establishment in an upper Mississippi River Floodplain forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) is recognized as a problematic invader of North American marshes, decreasing biodiversity and persisting in the face of control efforts. Less is known about its ecology or management in forested wetlands, providing an opportunity to apply information about factors critical to an invader's control in one wetland type to another. In a potted plant experiment and in the field, we documented strong competitive effects of reed canarygrass on the establishment and early growth of tree seedlings. In the field, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel restoration strategy, combining site scarification with late fall applications of pre-emergent herbicides. Treatments delayed reed canarygrass emergence the following spring, creating a window of opportunity for the early growth of native plants in the absence of competition from the grass. They also allowed for follow-up herbicide treatments during the growing season. We documented greater establishment of wetland herbs and tree seedlings in treated areas. Data from small exclosures suggest, however, that deer browsing can limit tree seedling height growth in floodplain restorations. Slower tree growth will delay canopy closure, potentially allowing reed canarygrass re-invasion. Thus, it may be necessary to protect tree seedlings from herbivory to assure forest regeneration.

Thomsen, Meredith; Brownell, Kurt; Groshek, Matthew; Kirsch, Eileen

2012-01-01

130

The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: answering recent challenges to the paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a century, coastal wetlands have been recognized for their ability to stabilize shorelines and protect coastal\\u000a communities. However, this paradigm has recently been called into question by small-scale experimental evidence. Here, we\\u000a conduct a literature review and a small meta-analysis of wave attenuation data, and we find overwhelming evidence in support\\u000a of established theory. Our review suggests

Keryn B. Gedan; Matthew L. Kirwan; Eric Wolanski; Edward B. Barbier; Brian R. Silliman

2011-01-01

131

Re-Establishing a Sustainable Wetland at Former Lake Karla, Greece, Using Ramsar Restoration Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Karla, Greece, was almost completely drained in 1962 both to protect surrounding farmlands from flooding and to increase agricultural area. Loss of wetland functions and values resulted in environmental, social, and economic problems. A number of restoration plans were proposed to address these problems. The plan approved by the government in the early 1990s proposed construction of a 4200-ha

George C. Zalidis; Vasilios Takavakoglou; Athanasios Panoras; George Bilas; Sotiria Katsavouni

2004-01-01

132

Landscape object-based analysis of wetland plant functional types: the effects of spatial scale, vegetation classes and classifier methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because individual classes differed in scales at which they were best discriminated from others. Main classification challenges included a) presence of C3 grasses in C4-grass areas, particularly following harvesting of C4 reeds and b) mixtures of emergent, floating and submerged aquatic plants at sub-object and sub-pixel scales. We conclude that OBIA with advanced statistical classifiers offers useful instruments for landscape vegetation analyses, and that spatial scale considerations are critical in mapping PFTs, while multi-scale comparisons can be used to guide class selection. Future work will further apply fuzzy classification and field-collected spectral data for PFT analysis and compare results with MODIS PFT products.

Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.

2011-12-01

133

Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the global average, and the Arctic ecosystems are as a result undergoing considerable changes. Continued monitoring of ecosystem productivity and phenology across temporal and spatial scales is a central part of assessing the magnitude of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R2 = 0.62, p < 0.001) with a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid functions for each plant community. GPP at light saturation modeled from eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements were found to correlate significantly with vegetation greenness for all plant communities in the studied year (i.e., 2010), and the highest correlation was found between modeled fen greenness and GPP (R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001). Finally, greenness computed within modeled EC footprints were used to evaluate the influence of individual plant communities on the flux measurements. The study concludes that digital cameras may be used as a cost-effective proxy for potential GPP in remote Arctic regions.

Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger Ulf; Tamstorf, Mikkel Peter

2013-12-01

134

Indicators of nitrate in wetland surface and soil-waters: interactions of vegetation and environmental factors Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(4), 663672 (2004) EGU  

E-print Network

Indicators of nitrate in wetland surface and soil-waters: interactions of vegetation and environmental factors 663 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(4), 663672 (2004) © EGU Indicators of nitrate, and hence the sampling period, was MayAugust during both years. Seasonal mean concentrations of nitrate (NO3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Effects of Agricultural Runoff on Vegetation Composition of a Priority Conservation Wetland, Vermont, USA  

E-print Network

's distinctive native flora is being replaced The open mat of Sphagnum covers approximately 40 hect- by widespread, vigorous species enhanced by agricultural nonpoint ares and is located in the central portion of the basin. In pollution in the watershed of Franklin Bog. Protection of wetlands addition to Sphagnum, many

Vermont, University of

136

Vegetation effects on fecal bacteria, BOD, and suspended solid removal in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands have emerged as a viable alternative for secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in areas with landscape limitations, poor soil conditions, and high water tables, which limit installation of full-scale adsorption fields. Existing information on the effects of macrophytes on treatment performance is contradictory and mostly derived from greenhouse mesocosm experiments. This study investigated the removal efficiency of fecal

A. D. Karathanasis; C. L. Potter; M. S. Coyne

2003-01-01

137

Multisite comparison of drivers of methane emissions from wetlands in the European Arctic: influence of vegetation community and water table.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic and sub arctic wetlands are a major source of atmospheric CH4 and therefore have the potential to be important in controlling global radiative forcing. Furthermore, the strong links between wetland CH4 emissions and vegetation community, hydrology and temperature suggest potentially large feedbacks between climate change and future emissions. Quantifying current emissions over large spatial scales and predicting future climatic feedbacks requires a fundamental understanding of the ground based drivers of plot scale emissions. The MAMM project (Methane in the Arctic: Measurements and Modelling) aims to understand and quantify current CH4 emissions and future climatic impacts by combining both ground and aircraft measurements across the European Arctic with regional computer modelling. Here we present results from the ground-based MAMM measurement campaigns, analysing chamber-measured CH4 emissions from two sites in the European Arctic/Sub-Arctic region (Sodankylä, Finland; Stordalen Mire, Sweden) from growing seasons in 2012 and 2013. A total of 85 wetland static chambers were deployed across the two field sites; 39 at Sodankylä (67° 22'01' N, 26° 3'06' E) in 2012 and 46 at Stordalen Mire (68° 21'20' N, 19° 02'56' E) in 2013. Chamber design, protocol and deployment were the same across both sites. Chambers were located at sites chosen strategically to cover the local range of water table depths and vegetation communities. A total of 18 and 15 repeated measurements were made at each chamber in Sodankylä and Stordalen Mire, respectively, over the snow-free season. Preliminary results show a large range of CH4 fluxes across both sites ranging from a CH4 uptake of up to 0.07 and 0.06 mg CH4-C m-2 hr-1 to emissions of 17.3 and 44.2 mg CH4-C m-2 hr-1 in Sodankylä and Stordalen Mire, respectively. Empirical models based on vegetation community, water table depth, temperature and soil nutrient availability (Plant Root Simulator Probes, PRSTM) have been constructed with the aim of understanding the drivers of chamber scale fluxes. By combining measurements made at two different sites, >300km apart, using the same experimental setup, we are uniquely able to investigate whether CH4 emissions are driven by common parameters. Furthermore we are able to determine if plot scale empirical models and parameterisations can be used effectively to upscale emissions to landscape and whole Arctic scale.

Dinsmore, Kerry; Drewer, Julia; Leeson, Sarah; Skiba, Ute; Levy, Pete; George, Charles

2014-05-01

138

[The establishment of Holocene vegetation belts: quite near to a complete model of a solid mass].  

PubMed

Pollen and macro-remains were analysed in a sixth site (La Gouille 1,800 m) of the Chaîne des Hurtières (northern French Alps). Nine A.M.S. dates support the chronology. Thus, the establishment of the vegetation belt of a massif can be modelled in the northern French Alps. Betula invaded sub-Alpine grasslands as early as 10,000 14C BP. Around 9,600 14C BP shrublands with Corylus, Alnus and Sorbus were established before the spread of Abies at the site approximately 8,200 14C BP. A decrease in Abies prior to 8,100 14C BP occurred during the Venediger climatic oscillation. At around 2,940 14C BP, a strong regression of Abies due to human action is noted with the expansion of Alnus viridis. Recently, a second Abies retraction led to the present sparce P. cembra and Alnus viridis vegetation cover. PMID:11291314

David, F

2001-03-01

139

Evaluating the influence of wetland vegetation on chemical residence time in Mississippi Delta drainage ditches  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of emergent vegetation within channelized aquatic environments has the capacity to provide a number of biological functions as well as alter the hydrology of the system. Vegetation within the channel exerts roughness, drag and friction on flowing water, reducing flow rates, increasing w...

140

Impacts of land use on nutrient distribution and vegetation composition of freshwater wetlands in northern Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal plain of northern Belize consists of relatively undisturbed freshwater marshes that are strongly phosphorus-limited\\u000a and characterized by monodominant stands or mixtures of emergent macrophytes. In order to assess the impact of agricultural\\u000a activities on the nutrient dynamics and plant species composition in adjacent wetlands, we sampled along transects in 40 marshes—20\\u000a located downslope from agricultural fields and 20

Sarah Johnson; Eliška Rejmánková

2005-01-01

141

Macrophyte colonization in a freshwater tidal wetland (Lyme, CT, USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed bank sampling and creation of plots cleared of standing vegetation showed that aboveground vegetative propagules were more important than seeds in colonization of a freshwater tidal wetland but that the relative importance of sexual reproduction varied among species. Nine submerged species established in colonization plots. Of these colonization events, 60% were achieved by plant fragments, either in the sediment

Robert S. Capers

2003-01-01

142

Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration  

SciTech Connect

This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

1997-10-01

143

The influence of topography and vegetation self-organization over resource fluxes in wetland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it is recognized that topography and vegetation self-organization (SO) are both first order controls over ecosystem dynamics, the discrete contributions that these two controls have over ecosystem functioning have not been studied in any rigorous way. This work is focused on systematically isolating the separate and combined impacts of topography and SO over vegetation dynamics. We simulate the steady state and transient dynamics of nitrogen-limited patterned peat vegetation observed in the bogs of northern Siberia. We do so across a realistic range of land slopes, nutrient limitation values, and rainfall amounts. Simulation results show that on relatively shallow slopes, vegetation SO is a primary control over the spatial arrangement of vegetation, and that such self-organized arrangements yield the most efficient capture of ecosystem resources. However, as slope increases, and or resource limitation is low, topography begins to exert its control over the temporal and spatial dynamics. As will be discussed, these results suggest a simple continuum framework, valid across biomes, for understanding the interplay between these two first order controls. Specifically, as resources (e.g., water, nutrients) increase, ecosystem dynamics shift towards topographic control, while when resources are reduced, ecosystem dynamics shift towards vegetation SO control.

Stieglitz, Marc; Cheng, Yiwei; Truk, Greg; Engel, Victor; Ross, Joshua

2014-05-01

144

Plant and soil responses to salvaged marsh surface and organic matter amendments at a created wetland in central Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficiency of different methods of wetland plant establishment and different soil amendments, 16 experimental\\u000a plots in 4 treatment groups were established at a 6-ha created palustrine wetland in Tipton, PA. Response of vegetation, soil,\\u000a and hydrology were evaluated. The first objective of the study was to determine if salvaged marsh surface (SMS) from a donor\\u000a wetland can

Aura L. Stauffer; Robert P. Brooks

1997-01-01

145

The influence of light availability on competition between Phalaris arundinacea and a native wetland sedge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions by Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) preclude establishment of sedge meadow vegetation in restored wetlands in the midwest USA. To evaluate cover crops as a potential method of P. arundinacea control, we examined the effects of lowering light availability (from 600 to 200 and 10 µmol m-2 s-1) on competition between P. arundinacea and a common wetland sedge, Carex hystericina

Laura G. Perry; Susan M. Galatowitsch

2004-01-01

146

Effects of river hydrology and fluvial processes on riparian vegetation establishment, growth, and survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream hydrology, sediment, and geology interact to determine the spatial and temporal availability of river bottomland substrates on which plants establish and grow. Collectively, these surfaces comprise a mosaic of landscape patches with associated plant communities that fall along key gradients of physical disturbance and water availability. Aspects of flow such as magnitude, frequency, timing, and rate of change of floods and magnitude and duration of low flows, interact with sediment flux and plant traits to determine plant distribution and fitness in different parts of the bottomland. Flow and sediment dynamics can influence different aspects of the plant life cycle such as germination, establishment, growth, and survival. Feedbacks between plants and fluvial processes, such as increased surface roughness and associated reductions in flow velocity and potential for aggradation, can determine differential survival of plant species depending on their tolerance of high velocity flow and associated shear stress, dislodgement, or burial by sediment. We present an overview of some key relationships between flow, sediment, plant traits, and riparian vegetation responses, and provide specific examples from our research on rivers in the semi-arid western U.S., including unaltered systems, dam-altered systems, and in the context of development of environmental flows to restore native riparian vegetation communities. Further, we describe the riparian response guilds framework and demonstrate how it can facilitate both an understanding of vegetation response to changing flow, sediment, and disturbance regimes and the development of priorities for flow management. Through understanding how guilds of species respond to variations in flow and sediment regimes, we are be better able to anticipate and predict biotic change in response to human-caused and climate-driven flow alteration.

Shafroth, P. B.; Merritt, D. M.; Wilcox, A. C.

2012-12-01

147

Ground-cover vegetation in wetland forests of the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, and potential impacts of flow reductions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-cover vegetation was surveyed in wetland forests in the lower Suwannee River floodplain, Florida, in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 1999. Increased water use in the basin, supplied primarily from ground water, could reduce ground-water discharge to the river and flows in the lower Suwannee River. Many of the 282 ground-cover species found in wetland forests of the floodplain have distributions that are related to flow-dependent hydrologic characteristics of forest types, and their distributions would change if flows were reduced. Overall species diversity in the floodplain might decrease, and the composition of ground-cover vegetation in all forest types might change with flow reductions. The study area included forests within the 10-year floodplain of the lower Suwannee River from its confluence with the Santa Fe River to the lower limit of forests near the Gulf of Mexico. The floodplain is divided into three reaches (riverine, upper tidal, and lower tidal) due to variations in hydrology, vegetation, and soils with proximity to the coast. The riverine (non-tidal) reach had the greatest number of total species (203) and species unique to that reach (81). Mitchella repens, Toxicodendron radicans, and Axonopus furcatus were the most frequently dominant species in riverine bottomland hardwoods. Free-floating aquatic species, such as Spirodela punctata and Lemna valdiviana, were the dominant species in the wettest riverine swamps. The upper tidal reach had the lowest number of total species (116), only two species unique to that reach, and the lowest density of ground cover (26 percent). Panicum commutatum and Crinum americanum were frequent dominant species in upper tidal forests. The lower tidal reach had the highest ground-cover density (43 percent) and the second highest number of total species (183) and number of species unique to that reach (55). Saururus cernuus and species of Carex were frequently dominant in lower tidal swamps. Lower tidal hammocks, the most elevated lower tidal forests, were dominated by Osmunda cinnamomea and Chasmanthium laxum. Flow reductions in the lower Suwannee River could change the flow-dependent hydrologic characteristics of wetland forests. Decreases in inundation and saturation in riverine forests could result in a decrease in the number and extent of semi-permanently inundated ponds. As a result, several species of free-floating, aquatic plants that grow only in riverine floodplain ponds might decrease in abundance or disappear if flows were reduced. Decreases in inundation and saturation could also result in a shift to more upland species in all riverine forests and upper tidal bottomland hardwoods. Upland species and some exotic species might increase in abundance in the floodplain, invading forests where hydrologic conditions have been altered by flow reductions. Depth and duration of inundation due to river flooding could decrease in all riverine and upper tidal forests, probably resulting in a shift of species to those that are typically found in forests with shallower, shorter-duration floods. Salinity in the lower tidal reach and adjacent areas of the upper tidal reach might increase with flow reductions, and the distribution of species might change due to varying tolerances of salinity among species. Species with low salt-tolerance unique to the lower tidal reach might disappear from the floodplain, and species with high salinity tolerance could increase in abundance, replacing less salt-tolerant species.

Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.; Lewis, Lori J.

2002-01-01

148

Mapping Floating and Emergent Aquatic Vegetation in Coastal Wetlands of Eastern Georgian Bay, Lake Huron, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion and contraction of floating and emergent vegetation due to fluctuating water levels has a direct impact on the amount\\u000a of critical fish habitat in the coastal marshes of Georgian Bay, Lake Huron (Canada). Traditional mapping approaches developed\\u000a for site-specific studies are too expensive to quantify such changes at the scale of Georgian Bay. Here, we use IKONOS images\\u000a to

Jonathan D. Midwood; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2010-01-01

149

Wetlands International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established as a non-governmental organization, Wetlands International is concerned with promoting the conservation and wise use of wetlands on the global, regional, and national levels. Much of the information on the site is contained within a dozen or so sections along the left-hand side of the homepage. First-time visitors may want to read through the "About Us" area before proceeding to the "Introduction to Wetlands" area. Scholars and policy analysts will want to also look through the "Publications" area. Here they will find information sheets on peatland loss, user handbooks on various wetland regions, and related fact sheets for general use. Visitors may also want to peruse the "Biodiversity Programmes" area to learn more about the species and habitats that Wetlands International works to preserve through their advocacy work. The site is rounded out by a collection of recent news stories and press releases.

150

Effects of vegetative propagule pressure on the establishment of an introduced clonal plant, Hydrocotyle vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Some introduced clonal plants spread mainly by vegetative (clonal) propagules due to the absence of sexual reproduction in the introduced range. Propagule pressure (i.e. total number of propagules) may affect the establishment and thus invasion success of introduced clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. A greenhouse experiment with an introduced plant, Hydrocotyle vulgaris was conducted to investigate the role of propagule pressure on its invasion process. High (five ramets) or low (one ramet) propagule pressure was established either in bare soil or in an experimental plant community consisting of four grassland species. H. vulgaris produced more total biomass under high than under low propagule pressure in both habitat conditions. Interestingly, the size of the H. vulgaris individuals was smaller under high than under low propagule pressure in bare soil, whereas it did not differ between the two propagule pressure treatments in the grassland community. The results indicated that high propagule pressure can ensure the successful invasion in either the grass community or bare soil, and the shift in the intraspecific interaction of H. vulgaris from competition in the bare soil to facilitation in the grassland community may be a potential mechanism. PMID:24981102

Liu, Ruihua; Chen, Qiuwen; Dong, Bicheng; Yu, Feihai

2014-01-01

151

Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that planting selected species could supplement passive restoration by promoting a vegetative structure closer to that of natural wetlands.

De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

2007-12-01

152

A Wetland Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field projects at this site give students an opportunity to investigate a number of wetland characteristics firsthand: surveying wetland vegetation, soils, water quality and wildlife; documenting the wetland from an artist's perspective; investigating land uses along its periphery; and refining a base map upon which all collected information can be recorded. This resource explains how to organize the field study, thereby securing the interest of the students. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. For educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

153

Development of an automated micrometeorological method for measuring the emission of mercury vapor from wetland vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of green plants to act as conduits to enhance the transport ofHg from soils to the atmosphere is now established, but the data base isseverely limited. The potential role of this process in mobilizing Hg inglobal and regional cycles makes it imperative that automated methods bedeveloped to increase our capability to measure and understand the processin a variety

S. E. Lindberg; T. P. Meyers

2001-01-01

154

Mile High Wetland Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site listed here is provided by an environmental consulting firm that works with commercial and private landowners to establish Wetland Banks. An innovative concept (and growing reality) that has received mixed reviews from scientists, Wetland Banking attempts to combine the goals of developers (i.e., to develop a certain area) and wetland conservationists (i.e., to maintain/ restore areas of intact wetlands). If misused, this approach could work against wetland conservation; if properly instated, however, Wetland Banking might offer an alternative to the currently poor success rate of wetland mitigation projects. This resource by Mile High Wetlands Group, LLC, offers background information on Wetland banking, with an emphasis on the Group's local area (Colorado).

155

White Ranch Wetlands Biological Survey  

E-print Network

White Ranch Wetlands Biological Survey and Permanent Vegetation Monitoring Plots Prepared for: U Services Building Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 March 1998 #12;WHITE RANCH WETLANDS assessment of the White Ranch wetlands. In addition we set up permanent plots along transects to collect

156

The Role of Vegetation in Phosphorus Removal by Cold Climate Constructed Wetland: The Effects of Aeration and Growing Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and contribution of Schoenoplectus fluviatilis (Torr.) (river bulrush) to phosphorus (P) removal from dairy-farm effluent in a cold climate constructed wetland. After 3\\u000a years of operation (1,073 days), both nonaerated wetland cell 3 (C3) and aerated cell 4 (C4) exhibited a sharp decline in\\u000a dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) storage, indicating

Aleksandra Drizo; Eric Seitz; Eamon Twohig; David Weber; Simon Bird; Donald Ross

157

Isolated Spring Wetlands in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts, USA: Potential Response of Vegetation to Groundwater Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desert springs, often the sole sources of water for wildlife and cattle, support wetland and wetland\\/upland transition ecosystems\\u000a including rare and endemic species. In the basin and range province in Nevada, USA, springs in the Great Basin and Mojave\\u000a deserts are sustained by interconnected deep carbonate and shallow basin-fill aquifers which are threatened by proposed groundwater\\u000a withdrawal to sustain rapidly

Duncan T. Patten; Leigh Rouse; Juliet C. Stromberg

2008-01-01

158

Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy substrates amended with compost produced from locally available sewage sludge and saw dust can be improved. The metal content of grass grown in the various treatments was considered to be elevated compared to normal contents. However, metal uptake in compost treatments was lower than in untreated plots. A preliminary cost assessment, comparing the remediation technology tested on site Divkovici with a standard soil covering technique revealed financial benefits for the compost method due to significant lower application rates.

Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

2009-04-01

159

DIVERSIDAD DE LA FAUNA DE ARTROPODOS TERRESTRES EN EL HUMEDAL JABOQUE, BOGOTÁ-COLOMBIA1 Diversity of terrestrial fauna of arthropoda at Jaboque wetland, Bogotá-Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Jaboque wetland, located within Bogotá´s urban perimeter, we studied the taxonomic and trophic composition, the richness and the diversity of arthropod fauna associated with five plant communities dominated by: Juncus effusus, Juncus effusus-Polygonum punctatum, Schoenoplectus californicus, Typha latifolia and Bidens laevis. These vegetation communities are important because their great coverage within the wetland and their successful establishment under

DAVID SÁNCHEZ-N; GERMÁN D. AMAT-GARCÍA

160

Effects of a Long-Term Disturbance on Arthropods and Vegetation in Subalpine Wetlands: Manifestations of Pack Stock Grazing in Early versus Mid-Season  

PubMed Central

Conclusions regarding disturbance effects in high elevation or high latitude ecosystems based solely on infrequent, long-term sampling may be misleading, because the long winters may erase severe, short-term impacts at the height of the abbreviated growing season. We separated a) long-term effects of pack stock grazing, manifested in early season prior to stock arrival, from b) additional pack stock grazing effects that might become apparent during annual stock grazing, by use of paired grazed and control wet meadows that we sampled at the beginning and end of subalpine growing seasons. Control meadows had been closed to grazing for at least two decades, and meadow pairs were distributed across Sequoia National Park, California, USA. The study was thus effectively a landscape-scale, long-term manipulation of wetland grazing. We sampled arthropods at these remote sites and collected data on associated vegetation structure. Litter cover and depth, percent bare ground, and soil strength had negative responses to grazing. In contrast, fauna showed little response to grazing, and there were overall negative effects for only three arthropod families. Mid-season and long-term results were generally congruent, and the only indications of lower faunal diversity on mid-season grazed wetlands were trends of lower abundance across morphospecies and lower diversity for canopy fauna across assemblage metrics. Treatment x Season interactions almost absent. Thus impacts on vegetation structure only minimally cascaded into the arthropod assemblage and were not greatly intensified during the annual growing season. Differences between years, which were likely a response to divergent snowfall patterns, were more important than differences between early and mid-season. Reliance on either vegetation or faunal metrics exclusively would have yielded different conclusions; using both flora and fauna served to provide a more integrative view of ecosystem response. PMID:23308297

Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A.

2013-01-01

161

Effects of irrigation on seed production and vegetative characteristics of four moist-soil plants on impounded wetlands in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of irrigation on 4 moist-soil plants commonly managed for waterfowl in the Sacramento Valley, California. Irrigation resulted in taller and heavier swamp timothy (Heleochloa schoenoides), pricklegrass (Crypsis niliaca), and sprangletop (Leptochloa fasicularis). Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) grew taller in irrigated wetlands, but no significant difference in weight was detected. Only sprangletop yielded larger seed masses in response to irrigation. Without irrigation, swamp timothy and pricklegrass assumed a typical prostrate growth form, but with irrigation, they assumed a vertical growth form. Irrigation did not significantly affect plant density. Because of rising water costs, wetland managers should consider wildlife management objectives and plant responses before implementing irrigation practices.

Mushet, D.M.; Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Harris, S.W.

1992-01-01

162

The Carolina Bay Restoration Project: Implementation and Management of a Wetland Mitigation Bank.  

SciTech Connect

A wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses associated with future authorized construction and environmental restoration projects in SRS wetlands. The Bank was intended not only to hasten mitigation efforts with respect to regulatory requirements and implementation, but also to provide onsite and fully functional compensation of impacted wetland acreage prior to any impact. Restoration and enhancement of small isolated wetlands, as well as major bottomland wetland systems scattered throughout the nonindustrialized area of SRS were designated for inclusion in the Bank. Based on information and techniques gained from previous research efforts involving Carolina bay wetlands (DOE 1997), a project to restore degraded Carolina bays on SRS has been undertaken to serve as the initial ''deposit'' in The Bank. There are over 300 Carolina bays or bay-like depression wetlands on the SRS, of which an estimated two-thirds were ditched or disturbed prior to federal occupation of the Site (Kirkman et al., 1996). These isolated wetlands range from small ephemeral depressions to large permanent ponds of 10-50 hectares in size. They provide habitat to support a wide range of rare plant species, and many vertebrates (birds, amphibians, bats). Historical impacts to the Carolina bays at SRS were primarily associated with agricultural activities. Bays were often drained tilled and planted to crops. The consequence was a loss in the wetland hydrologic cycle, the native wetland vegetation, and associated wildlife. The purpose of this mitigation and research project is to restore the functions and vegetation typical of intact depression wetlands and, in doing so, to enhance habitat for wetland dependent wildlife on SRS.

Barton, Christopher; DeSteven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca; Kilgo, John; Imm, Donald; Kolka, Randy; Blake, John, I.

2003-01-01

163

Re-establishing a saltmarsh vegetation structure in a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major management decision in an ecological restoration or rehabilitation project is whether supplementary planting or natural vegetation regeneration is the better alternative or if a combination can be applied. Management decisions are further complicated when the project involves saltmarsh as tidal cycles, the effects of salinity and sea level rise add to the complexity of decisions. The ecological values

Joanne Green; Mandy Reichelt-Brushett; Surrey W. L. Jacobs

2009-01-01

164

Submerged macrophyte seed bank in a Mediterranean temporary marsh: abundance and relationship with established vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and composition of the submerged macrophyte seed bank in the Doñana marsh (southwestern Spain) was evaluated to assess its relationship with the overlying vegetation. The results obtained demonstrate the existence of a dense seed-bank, both in terms of the number of seeds and their biomass, which represented about 10% (5% for angiosperms and >20% for Charophyta) of the

P. Grillas; P. Garcia-Murillo; O. Geertz-Hansen; N. Marbfi; C. Montes; C. M. Duarte; L. Tan Ham; A. Grossmann

1993-01-01

165

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

1992-01-01

166

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

1992-12-01

167

An integrated approach to assess broad-scale condition of coastal wetlands - The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Wetlands pilot survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a two-year regional pilot survey in 2007 to develop, test, and validate tools and approaches to assess the condition of northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal wetlands. Sampling sites were selected from estuarine and palustrine wetland areas with herbaceous, forested, and shrub/scrub habitats delineated by the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Status and Trends (NWI S&T) program and contained within northern GOM coastal watersheds. A multi-level, stepwise, iterative survey approach is being applied to multiple wetland classes at 100 probabilistically-selected coastal wetlands sites. Tier 1 provides information at the landscape scale about habitat inventory, land use, and environmental stressors associated with the watershed in which each wetland site is located. Tier 2, a rapid assessment conducted through a combination of office and field work, is based on best professional judgment and on-site evidence. Tier 3, an intensive site assessment, involves on-site collection of vegetation, water, and sediment samples to establish an integrated understanding of current wetland condition and validate methods and findings from Tiers 1 and 2. The results from this survey, along with other similar regional pilots from the Mid-Atlantic, West Coast, and Great Lakes Regions will contribute to a design and implementation approach for the National Wetlands Condition Assessment to be conducted by EPA's Office of Water in 2011. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Nestlerode, J.A.; Engle, V.D.; Bourgeois, P.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Allen, Y.C.

2009-01-01

168

Patterns in the secondary succession of a Carex vesicaria L. wetland following a permanent drawdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Myrkdalen Lake, western Norway, was subjected to a ca. 1.4m permanent drawdown in June 1987. This left the original wetland vegetation belts “hanging” over the new water level. One year after the drawdown, a permanent transect with contiguous 1.0m×0.5m quadrats was established through a Carex vesicaria wetland belt, and was analysed annually through 2001. The transect was 17m long

Arvid Odland

2002-01-01

169

Vegetation patches improve the establishment of Salvia mexicana seedlings by modifying microclimatic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human disturbance has disrupted the dynamics of plant communities. To restore these dynamics, we could take advantage of the microclimatic conditions generated by remaining patches of vegetation and plastic mulch. These microclimatic conditions might have great importance in restoring disturbed lava fields located south of Mexico City, where the rock is exposed and the soil is shallow. We evaluated the effects of both the shade projected by vegetation patches and plastic mulch on the mean monthly soil surface temperature ( T ss) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and on the survival and growth of Salvia mexicana throughout the year. This species was used as a phytometer of microsite quality. Shade reduced the T ss to a greater extent than mulch did. Both survival and growth were enhanced by shade and mulch, and the PPFD was related with seedling growth. During the dry season, plant biomass was lost, and there was a negative effect of PPFD on plant growth. At micro-meteorological scales, the use of shade projected by patches of vegetation and mulch significantly reduced the mortality of S. mexicana and enhanced its growth. Survival and growth of this plant depended on the environmental quality of microsites on a small scale, which was determined by the environmental heterogeneity of the patches and the landscape. For plant restoration, microsite quality must be evaluated on small scales, but on a large scale it may be enough to take advantage of landscape shade dynamics and the use of mulch to increase plant survival and growth.

Mendoza-Hernández, Pedro E.; Rosete-Rodríguez, Alejandra; Sánchez-Coronado, María E.; Orozco, Susana; Pedrero-López, Luis; Méndez, Ignacio; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

2014-07-01

170

Vegetation patches improve the establishment of Salvia mexicana seedlings by modifying microclimatic conditions.  

PubMed

Human disturbance has disrupted the dynamics of plant communities. To restore these dynamics, we could take advantage of the microclimatic conditions generated by remaining patches of vegetation and plastic mulch. These microclimatic conditions might have great importance in restoring disturbed lava fields located south of Mexico City, where the rock is exposed and the soil is shallow. We evaluated the effects of both the shade projected by vegetation patches and plastic mulch on the mean monthly soil surface temperature (Tss) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and on the survival and growth of Salvia mexicana throughout the year. This species was used as a phytometer of microsite quality. Shade reduced the T ss to a greater extent than mulch did. Both survival and growth were enhanced by shade and mulch, and the PPFD was related with seedling growth. During the dry season, plant biomass was lost, and there was a negative effect of PPFD on plant growth. At micro-meteorological scales, the use of shade projected by patches of vegetation and mulch significantly reduced the mortality of S. mexicana and enhanced its growth. Survival and growth of this plant depended on the environmental quality of microsites on a small scale, which was determined by the environmental heterogeneity of the patches and the landscape. For plant restoration, microsite quality must be evaluated on small scales, but on a large scale it may be enough to take advantage of landscape shade dynamics and the use of mulch to increase plant survival and growth. PMID:23605562

Mendoza-Hernández, Pedro E; Rosete-Rodríguez, Alejandra; Sánchez-Coronado, María E; Orozco, Susana; Pedrero-López, Luis; Méndez, Ignacio; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

2014-07-01

171

Differences in flooding tolerance between species from two wetland habitats with contrasting hydrology: implications for vegetation development in future floodwater retention areas  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants need different survival strategies in habitats differing in hydrological regimes. This probably has consequences for vegetation development when former floodplain areas that are currently confronted with soil flooding only, will be reconnected to the highly dynamical river bed. Such changes in river management are increasingly important, especially at locations where increased water retention can prevent flooding events in developed areas. It is therefore crucial to determine the responses of plant species from relatively low-dynamic wetlands to complete submergence, and to compare these with those of species from river forelands, in order to find out what the effects of such landscape-scale changes on vegetation would be. Methods To compare the species' tolerance to complete submergence and their acclimation patterns, a greenhouse experiment was designed with a selection of 19 species from two contrasting sites: permanently wet meadows in a former river foreland, and frequently submerged grasslands in a current river foreland. The plants were treated with short (3 weeks) and long (6 weeks) periods of complete submergence, to evaluate if survival, morphological responses, and changes in biomass differed between species of the two habitats. Key Results All tested species inhabiting river forelands were classified as tolerant to complete submergence, whereas species from wet meadows showed either relatively intolerant, intermediate or tolerant responses. Species from floodplains showed in all treatments stronger shoot elongation, as well as higher production of biomass of leaves, stems, fine roots and taproots, compared with meadow species. Conclusions There is a strong need for the creation of temporary water retention basins during high levels of river discharge. However, based on the data presented, it is concluded that such reconnection of former wetlands (currently serving as meadows) to the main river bed will strongly influence plant species composition and abundance. PMID:18836190

Banach, Katarzyna; Banach, Artur M.; Lamers, Leon P. M.; De Kroon, Hans; Bennicelli, Riccardo P.; Smits, Antoine J. M.; Visser, Eric J. W.

2009-01-01

172

Influence of wetland size on aquatic communities within wetland reservoir subirrigation systems in northwestern Ohio.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Establishment of a water management system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Specifically, each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to ...

173

Design and implementation of functional wetland mitigation: Case studies in Ohio and South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland development offers the opportunity to replace and enhance ecological functions lost through permitted wetland impacts. Components necessary for the restoration and creation of wetlands are presented and examples of wetland construction are described to illustrate the application of wetland design. Land contours, top soil, hydrology and vegetation were manipulated to develop wooded wetlands at sites in Ohio and South

Sue Ann McCuskey; Allen W. Conger; Hilburn O. Hillestad

1994-01-01

174

Establishment of woody riparian vegetation in relation to annual patterns of streamflow, Bill Williams River, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have revealed the close coupling of components of annual streamflow hydrographs and the germination and establishment\\u000a ofPopulus species. Key hydrograph components include the timing and magnitude of flood peaks, the rate of decline of the recession\\u000a limb, and the magnitude of base flows. In this paper, we retrospectively examine establishment of four woody riparian species\\u000a along the Bill

Patrick B. Shafroth; Gregor T. Auble; Juliet C. Stromberg; Duncan T. Patten

1998-01-01

175

Variability in the phenolic content of invasive and non-invasive emergent wetland plants.  

E-print Network

?? The colonization of wetlands by invasive plant species negatively impacts vegetation structure, nutrient and organic matter cycling, and ultimately alters native wetland ecosystem functions… (more)

Maurer, Melissa M

2014-01-01

176

Wetland Macroinvertebrates: Do They Respond to Human-Induced Changes in the Environment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands provide many functions, both ecological (e.g., fish and wildlife habitat) and economical (e.g., flood prevention and recreation); however, they are continuously threatened by numerous human activities. These activities (e.g., agriculture, development) subsequently generate environmental stressors (e.g., nutrients, road salt) that can impact the physical, chemical and biological integrity of wetland ecosystems. The objective of this study was to identify relationships between human activities, stressors, and macroinvertebrate communities in wetland ecosystems, in order to identify macroinvertebrate response metrics to human-induced landscape changes. We predicted that macroinvertebrate taxa would show differentiated patterns along a human disturbance gradient. During the summer of 2002, macroinvertebrates were collected from multiple habitats (e.g., emergent vegetation, submergent vegetation) within 16 depression wetlands of the Muskegon River watershed (Michigan, USA). Preliminary data suggest that there are distinct shifts in macroinvertebrate taxa that represent biological responses along a human disturbance gradient. These shifts in taxa appear to vary between different wetland habitats. Knowledge of these relationships, between macroinvertebrates and human activity, could be utilized in assessments of wetland quality, predicting change in wetland structure, and in the establishment of biocriteria for the regulation and protection of wetland ecosystems.

McIntosh, M. D.; Merritt, R. W.; Lougheed, V. L.; Parker, C. A.; Stevenson, R. J.

2005-05-01

177

FGD liner experiments with wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

1999-07-01

178

Wetland 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course provides an introduction to wetland ecology, types of wetlands, wetland functions and values, and wetlands management. Topics include how a wetland is defined, wetland hydrology, seasonal and other fluctuations in water levels, and wetland soils and plants. The course consists of a series of slide presentations with self-quizzes and an online final quiz. Registration and log-in are required.

179

Your Stake in WETLANDS Whaf Wetlands Are  

E-print Network

is repayable from duck stamp sales and the primary goal is preservation of waterfowl habitat, the maintenance have a stake. WHAT ARE WETLANDS? Lowlands covered even tenipoi-arily by water not more tlian 6 feet;The Duck Factory Water, vegetation, and sky are only part of the autumn marsh. It is the birds tliat

180

Carbon sequestration capacity of shifting sand dune after establishing new vegetation in the Tengger Desert, northern China.  

PubMed

Reconstructing vegetation in arid and semiarid areas has become an increasingly important management strategy to realize habitat recovery, mitigate desertification and global climate change. To assess the carbon sequestration potential in areas where sand-binding vegetation has been established on shifting sand dunes by planting xeric shrubs located near the southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert in northern China, we conducted a field investigation of restored dune regions that were established at different times (20, 30, 47, and 55 years ago) in the same area. We quantified the total organic carbon (TOC) in each ecosystem by summing the individual carbon contributions from the soil (soil organic carbon; SOC), shrubs, and grasses in each system. We found that the TOC, as well as the amount of organic carbon in the soil, shrubs, and grasses, significantly increased over time in the restored areas. The average annual rate of carbon sequestration was highest in the first 20 years after restoration (3.26 × 10(-2)kg·m(-2) ·year(-1)), and reached a stable rate (2.14 × 10(-2) kg·m(-2) ·year(-1)) after 47 years. Organic carbon storage in soil represented the largest carbon pool for both restored systems and a system containing native vegetation, accounting for 67.6%-85.0% of the TOC. Carbon in grass root biomass, aboveground grass biomass, litter, aboveground shrub biomass, and shrub root biomass account for 10.0%-21.0%, 0.2%-0.6%, 0.1%-0.2%, 1.7%-12.1% and 0.9%-6.2% of the TOC, respectively. Furthermore, we found that the 55-year-old restored system has the capacity to accumulate more TOC (1.02 kg·m(-2) more) to reach the TOC level found in the natural vegetation system. These results suggest that restoring desert ecosystems may be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere and mitigate the effects of global climate change. PMID:24530579

Yang, Haotian; Li, Xinrong; Wang, Zengru; Jia, Rongliang; Liu, Lichao; Chen, Yongle; Wei, Yongping; Gao, Yanhong; Li, Gang

2014-04-15

181

USE OF WETLANDS BY UPLAND WILDUFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal use of wetlands by upland wildlife is common; when uplands are dis­ turbed. wildlife may use we I lands year·round. The structure and form of vegetation in wetlands is more important than species composition 10 upland wildlife. Wetlands may provide upland wildlife with food. escape cover. protection from inclement weather. and reproductive habitat. There has been little documentation of

Frank Schiloskey. Jr

182

The biogeochemistry of nitrogen in freshwater wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of N in freshwater wetlands is complicated by vegetation characteristics that range from annual herbs to perennial woodlands; by hydrologic characteristics that range from closed, precipitation-driven to tidal, riverine wetlands; and by the diversity of the nitrogen cycle itself. It is clear that sediments are the single largest pool of nitrogen in wetland ecosystems (100's to 1000's g

William B. Bowden

1987-01-01

183

NUTRIENT AND HABITAT INDICATORS FOR CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division is testing indicators and establishing stressor - response relationships to support development of nutrient and habitat criteria for Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Our focus is on water quality changes, food web shifts, and vegetation loss as ...

184

Assessment of vegetation establishment on tailings dam at an iron ore mining site of suburban Beijing, China, 7 years after reclamation with contrasting site treatment methods.  

PubMed

Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas. PMID:23811774

Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

2013-09-01

185

Assessment of Vegetation Establishment on Tailings Dam at an Iron Ore Mining Site of Suburban Beijing, China, 7 Years After Reclamation with Contrasting Site Treatment Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

2013-09-01

186

Classification of vegetable oils according to their botanical origin using n-alkane profiles established by GC-MS.  

PubMed

n-Alkane profiles established by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to classify vegetable oils according to their botanical origin. The n-alkanes present in corn, grapeseed, hazelnut, olive, peanut and sunflower oils were isolated by means of alkaline hydrolysis followed by silica gel column chromatography of the unsaponifiable fractions. The n-alkane fraction was constituted mainly of n-alkanes in the range C8-C35, although only those most abundant (15 n-alkanes, from 21 to 35 carbon No.) were used as original variables to construct linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models. Ratios of the peak areas selected by pairs were used as predictors. All the oils were correctly classified according to their botanical origin, with assignment probabilities higher than 95%, using an LDA model. PMID:25148956

Troya, F; Lerma-García, M J; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

2015-01-15

187

Wetland Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Suzanne Savanick at SERC. Find wetland images and visualizations that illustrate wetland loss or wetland function. Browse the complete set of Visualization Collections. National Estuary Program Habitat ...

188

Plant-water regime management in a wetland: consequences for a floating vegetation-nesting bird, whiskered tern Chlidonias hybridus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the interplay between water level management, floating macrophytic vegetation and nesting whiskered\\u000a tern (Chlidonias hybridus) during 8 years (1995–2002) at a shallow macrophyte-dominated lake in western France. The specific question was to see if\\u000a slight increases in the water regime of the lake (three scenarios), as part of a restoration programme, affect the timing\\u000a of

Jean-Marc Paillisson; Sebastien Reeber; Alexandre Carpentier; Loic Marion

2006-01-01

189

Plant-water regime management in a wetland: consequences for a floating vegetation-nesting bird, whiskered tern Chlidonias hybridus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the interplay between water level management, floating macrophytic vegetation and nesting whiskered\\u000a tern (Chlidonias hybridus) during 8 years (1995–2002) at a shallow macrophyte-dominated lake in western France. The specific question was to see if\\u000a slight increases in the water regime of the lake (three scenarios), as part of a restoration programme, affect the timing\\u000a of

Jean-Marc Paillisson; Sebastien Reeber; Alexandre Carpentier; Loic Marion

190

Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina).  

SciTech Connect

Barton, Christopher, D., Diane DeSteven and John C. Kilgo. 2004. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina). Ecol. Rest. 22(4):291-292. Abstract: Carolina bays and smaller depression wetlands support diverse plant communities and provide critical habitat for semi-aquatic fauna throughout the Coastal Plain region of the southeastern United States. Historically, many depression wetlands were altered or destroyed by surface ditching, drainage, and agricultural or silviculture uses. These important habitats are now at further risk of alteration and loss following a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2001 restricting federal regulation of isolated wetlands. Thus, there is increased attention towards protecting intact sites and developing methods to restore others. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 312-mi2 (800-km2) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina includes about 350 Carolina bays and bay-like wetland depressions, of which about two-thirds were degraded or destroyed prior to federal acquisition of the land. Although some of the altered wetlands have recovered naturally, others still have active active drainage ditches and contain successional forests typical of drained sites. In 1997, DOE established a wetland mitigation bank to compensate for unavoidable wetland impacts on the SRS. This effort provided an opportunity fir a systematic research program to investigate wetland restoration techniques and ecological responses. Consequently, research and management staffs from the USDA Forest Service, Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, the Savannah River Technology Center, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) and several universities developed a collaborative project to restore degraded depression wetlands on the SRS. The mitigation project seeks cost-effective methods to restore the hydrology and vegetation typical of natural depression wetlands, and so enhance habitats for wetland-dependent wildlife. We present a brief summary of this project and the research studies now underway.

Barton, Christopher D.; DeSteven, Diane; Kilgo, John C.

2004-12-31

191

Assessing coastal plain wetland composition using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Establishing wetland gains and losses, delineating wetland boundaries, and determining their vegetative composition are major challenges that can be improved through remote sensing studies. We used the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to separate wetlands from uplands in a study of 870 locations on the Virginia Coastal Plain. We used the first five bands from each of two ASTER scenes (6 March 2005 and 16 October 2005), covering the visible to the short-wave infrared region (0.52-2.185mum). We included GIS data layers for soil survey, topography, and presence or absence of water in a logistic regression model that predicted the location of over 78% of the wetlands. While this was slightly less accurate (78% vs. 86%) than current National Wetland Inventory (NWI) aerial photo interpretation procedures of locating wetlands, satellite imagery analysis holds great promise for speeding wetland mapping, lowering costs, and improving update frequency. To estimate wetland vegetation composition classes, we generated a classification and regression tree (CART) model and a multinomial logistic regression (logit) model, and compared their accuracy in separating woody wetlands, emergent wetlands and open water. The overall accuracy of the CART model was 73.3%, while for the logit model was 76.7%. The CART producer's accuracy of the emergent wetlands was higher than the accuracy from the multinomial logit (57.1% vs. 40.7%). However, we obtained the opposite result for the woody wetland category (68.7% vs. 52.6%). A McNemar test between the two models and NWI maps showed that their accuracies were not statistically different. We conducted a subpixel analysis of the ASTER images to estimate canopy cover of forested wetlands. We used top-of-atmosphere reflectance from the visible and near infrared bands, Delta Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and a tasseled cap brightness, greenness, and wetness in linear regression model with canopy cover as the dependent variable. The model achieved an adjusted-R 2 of 0.69 (RMSE = 2.7%) for canopy cover less than 16%, and an adjusted-R 2 of 0.04 (RMSE = 19.8%) for higher canopy cover values. Taken together, these findings suggest that satellite remote sensing, in concert with other spatial data, has strong potential for mapping both wetland presence and type.

Pantaleoni, Eva

192

Spatio-Temporal Variation in Contrasting Effects of Resident Vegetation on Establishment, Growth and Reproduction of Dry Grassland Plants: Implications for Seed Addition Experiments  

PubMed Central

Successful establishment of plants is limited by both biotic and abiotic conditions and their interactions. Seedling establishment is also used as a direct measure of habitat suitability, but transient changes in vegetation might provide windows of opportunity allowing plant species to colonize sites which otherwise appear unsuitable. We aimed to study spatio-temporal variability in the effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland species in abandoned arable fields representing potentially suitable habitats. Seeds were sown in disturbed (bare of vegetation and roots) and undisturbed plots in three fields abandoned in the last 20 years. To assess the effects of temporal variation on plant establishment, we initiated our experiments in two years (2007 and 2008). Seventeen out of the 35 sown species flowered within two years after sowing, while three species completely failed to become established. The vegetation in the undisturbed plots facilitated seedling establishment only in the year with low spring precipitation, and the effect did not hold for all species. In contrast, growth and flowering rate were consistently much greater in the disturbed plots, but the effect size differed between the fields and years of sowing. We show that colonization is more successful when site opening by disturbance coincide with other suitable conditions such as weather or soil characteristics. Seasonal variability involved in our study emphasizes the necessity of temporal replication of sowing experiments. Studies assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing should either involve both vegetation removal treatments and untreated plots or follow the gradient of vegetation cover. We strongly recommend following the numbers of established individuals, their sizes and reproductive success when assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing since one can gain completely different results in different phases of plant life cycle. PMID:23755288

Knappová, Jana; Knapp, Michal; Münzbergová, Zuzana

2013-01-01

193

Colonization of Restored Wetlands by Amphibians in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve wetlands (7 recently restored; 5 reference) in central and southern Minnesota were monitored during the 1998 breeding season to assess colonization of recently restored wetlands by amphibians, compare the amphibian fauna to that of reference wetlands and identify important factors influencing the probability of colonization. Eight amphibian species rapidly colonized recently restored wetlands and established breeding populations. Reference wetlands

RICHARD M. LEHTINEN; SUSAN M. GALATOWITSCH

2001-01-01

194

Vegetation patterns in a calcareous sloping fen of southwestern Massachusetts, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcareous sloping fens are minerotrophic wetland systems that are well known for their high species richness, but little\\u000a is known about the local processes that govern the spatial patterns of species distribution within these communities. This\\u000a study was undertaken to document vegetative patterns and to quantify community differences within one such calcareous wetland.\\u000a A 250-m transect was established along a

Deborah J. Picking; Peter L. M. Veneman

2004-01-01

195

Testing a passive revegetation approach for restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Restoration of coastal plain depressions, a biologically significant and threatened wetland type of the southeastern United States, has received little systematic research. Within the context of an experimental project designed to evaluate several restoration approaches, we tested whether successful revegetation can be achieved by passive methods (recruitment from seed banks or seed dispersal) that allow for wetland ‘‘self-design’’ in response to hydrologic recovery. For 16 forested depressions that historically had been drained and altered, drainage ditches were plugged to reestablish natural ponding regimes, and the successional forest was harvested to open the sites and promote establishment of emergent wetland vegetation. We sampled seed bank and vegetation composition 1 year before restoration and monitored vegetation response for 3 years after. Following forest removal and ditch plugging, the restored wetlands quickly developed a dense cover of herbaceous plant species, of which roughly half were wetland species. Seed banks were a major source of wetland species for early revegetation. However, hydrologic recovery was slowed by a prolonged drought, which allowed nonwetland plant species to establish from seed banks and dispersal or to regrow after site harvest. Some nonwetland species were later suppressed by ponded conditions in the third year, but resprouting woody plants persisted and could alter the future trajectory of revegetation. Some characteristic wetland species were largely absent in the restored sites, indicating that passive methods may not fully replicate the composition of reference systems. Passive revegetation was partially successful, but regional droughts present inherent challenges to restoring depressional wetlands whose hydrologic regimes are strongly controlled by rainfall variability.

De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Singer, Julian H.; Barton, Christopher D.

2006-09-01

196

Wetland Types  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource will help students to distinguish between wetland types. They will discover that coastal wetlands include salt marshes and tidal brackish marshes while inland wetlands consist of freshwater marshes, wet meadows, forested swamps, shrub swamps, bogs, fens, and vernal pools. A Guide to Wetland Wildlife in New England Regional Wetland "Celebrities" is included. This site is part of a guide that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. Even though the site is about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland. An associated set of activities is also available.

197

HYDROMORPHIC DETERMINANTS OF AQUATIC HABITAT VARIABILITY IN LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript evaluates patterns in water quality, water movement, substrate, and vegetation in 10 Lake Superior coastal wetlands in light of wetland hydrology and morphology. Water quality, substrate, and vegetation structure are important aspects of habitat for fishes that u...

198

Wetland Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first section of a module about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students. Although designed for students in New England, it applies to and gives examples of wetlands across the country. It suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland. This guide aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. This first section explains what wetlands are and explains that the water cycle is the connection between wetlands and watersheds. In addition, it explains in detail the characteristics of wetland water, soil and plants. An associated set of activities is also available.

199

A Study of Natural and Restored Wetland Hydrology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are jointly studying the hydrology of a long-existing natural wetland and a recently restored wetland in the Kankakee River Valley in northwestern Indiana. In characterizing the two wetlands, project investigators are testing innovative methods to identify the analytical tools best suited for evaluating the success of wetland restoration. Investigators also are examining and comparing the relations between hydrology and restored wetland vegetation.

Bayless, E. Randall; Arihood, Leslie D.; Sidle, William C.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

1999-01-01

200

[Disturbance assessment of urban wetland ecosystem services: a case study in Pingshan watershed of Shenzhen City].  

PubMed

To understand the wetland ecosystem services in urbanizing area is much needed in wetland assessment. Currently, the dominant approach in assessing wetland value is the assessment model using environmental economic analysis. However, this approach can not reflect the impact of human disturbance. This paper introduced the connotation of wetland ecosystem services and the patterns of human disturbance, established an evaluation index system which could characterize the disturbance impact, and determined the weight of each index by using analytic hierarchy process. Moreover, a dual-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was applied to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of human disturbance. Our case study in Pingshan River Basin, a typical urbanizing area of Shenzhen, showed that geographic condition was the primary factor in determining the intensity of human disturbance on wetland ecosystem services. The main disturbance pattern in the south hilly area was vegetation degeneration, but the disturbance intensity was low. Even so, the vegetation protection and management in this area shouldn't be ignored though. The disturbance pattern in north valley area was diverse, and the disturbance intensity was much higher than that south hilly area. From the upper reach to the lower reach of the main stream, the impact of human disturbance increased first and decreased then, being accorded with the characteristics of land use pattern, but the disturbance pattern didn't have a continuous distribution. Our study showed that fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model had good performance in the disturbance assessment of wetland ecosystem services. PMID:20707092

Zhang, Wen-juan; Li, Gui-cai; Zeng, Hui

2010-05-01

201

Wetland InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are transition zones where the flow of water, the nutrient cycling, and the sun energy meet to produce a unique and very productive ecosystem. They provide critical habitat for a wide variety of plant and animal species, including the larval stages of many ocean fish. Wetlands also have a valuable economical importance, as they filter nutrients and pollutants from fresh water used by human and provide aquatic habitats for outdoor recreation, tourism, and fishing. Globally, many such regions are under severe environmental stress, mainly from urban development, pollution, and rising sea level. However, there is increasing recognition of the importance of these habitats, and mitigation and restoration activities have begun in a few regions. A key element in wetlands conservation, management, and restoration involves monitoring its hydrologic system, as the entire ecosystem depends on its water supply. Heretofore, hydrologic monitoring of wetlands are conducted by stage (water level) stations, which provide good temporal resolution, but suffer from poor spatial resolution, as stage station are typically distributed several, or even tens of kilometers, from one another. Wetland application of InSAR provides the needed high spatial resolution hydrological observations, complementing the high temporal resolution terrestrial observations. Although conventional wisdom suggests that interferometry does not work in vegetated areas, several studies have shown that both L- and C-band interferograms with short acquisition intervals (1-105 days) can maintain excellent coherence over wetlands. In this study we explore the usage of InSAR for detecting water level changes in various wetland environments around the world, including the Everglades (south Florida), Louisiana Coast (southern US), Chesapeake Bay (eastern US), Pantanal (Brazil), Okavango Delta (Botswana), and Lena Delta (Siberia). Our main study area is the Everglades wetland (south Florida), which is covered by probably the densest stage network in the world (more than 200 stations), located 5-10 km from one another. The stage data is very important in evaluating the uncertainty of the InSAR observations. Stage data also allow us to tie the relative InSAR observations (water level changes) to absolute reference frame and to produce high spatial-resolution (10-100 m resolution) maps of absolute water levels. High resolution wetland interferograms also provide direct observations of flow patterns and flow discontinuities and serve as excellent constraints for high resolution flow models. Because many wetlands are located in coastal zones, the high spatial resolution InSAR observations provide an opportunity to study dynamic interaction of tides and freshwater inflow, and the role of vegetation resistance to surface water flow.

Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.

2006-12-01

202

Detached Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video depicts a detached wetland, a small pool that forms beside a shallow meandering stream when it overflows its banks. These wetlands are important breeding grounds for the invertebrates that live in and beside streams

KET

2011-01-11

203

Wetland Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains a number of critical functions performed by wetlands. Students will discover that wetlands moderate impacts from flooding, control erosion, purify water, and provide habitat for fish and wildlife. They also provide a unique natural environment for people to enjoy outdoor recreation activities. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. Although it is about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

204

Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States)] [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)] [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Wulker, Brian [Intern, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)] [Intern, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

2013-07-01

205

Tidal Wetlands Impacts Data Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cooperative effort between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this site was designed "to assist resource managers, academicians, students, politicians, and the general public in the areas of research, education, environmental management, and policy ... about human impacts on tidal wetlands in Virginia." Non-interactive sections include the Overview of the VIMS Program, describing data collection methods; Overview of Management, describing the history and current status of tidal wetlands management; Nontidal wetlands impacts information, summarizing impacts to nontidal wetlands; and General Data Summaries, offering display tables and graphs. Two searchable sections provide for select examination of the data: Design a query for 1993-1997 and Design a query for 1988-1992 enable viewers to examine data by year, activity category, and watershed. Results are presented in tabular form and "display impacts to vegetated and nonvegetated wetlands by square footage." Photographs accompany the summary data.

206

Ecohydraulics and Estuarine Wetland Rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulics or water flow in wetlands is known to be a key factor influencing ecosystem development in estuarine wetland environments. The relationship is indirect, with the hydraulics of wetlands influencing a host of factors including soil salinity, waterlogging, sediment transport, sediment chemistry, vegetation dispersal and growth and nutrient availability and cycling. The relationship is also not one way, with the hydraulics of wetlands being influenced by plant and animal activity. Understanding these complex interactions is fundamental for the adequate management of estuarine wetlands. Listed as a Wetland of International Importance under the 1971 Ramsar Convention, the Hunter River estuary is regarded as the most significant site for migratory shorebirds in New South Wales, Australia. Over the past 20 years, the number of migratory shorebirds in the estuary has sharply declined from 8,000 to 4,000 approx. Alteration of bird habitat is believed to be one of the reasons for this alarming trend. In 2004 we started a three-year program to investigate the links between hydraulics, sediment, benthic invertebrates, vegetation and migratory shorebird habitat in the estuary. During the first year we have focused on a highly disturbed part of the Hunter estuary wetlands located on Ash Island. The area is one of the major roosting sites in the estuary and is characterized by a complex hydraulic regime due to a restricted tidal interchange with the Hunter River and the presence of infrastructure for the maintenance of power lines (i.e., roads, bridges, culverts). Salt marshes, mudflat and mangroves are the dominant vegetation types. The monitoring program includes measurements of water levels, salinity, discharge, velocity, turbulence, sediment transport and deposition, plant species and density, soil composition and benthic invertebrates coordinated with observations of bird habitat utilization on a number of locations throughout the wetland and for different flow conditions. We present a preliminary analysis of the data aimed at the hydrodynamic and geomorphologic characterization of the different vegetation zones and the resulting habitat properties.

Rodriguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saintilan, N.; Spencer, J.

2004-12-01

207

What Are Wetlands are Where Are They?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first empirical models of methane emission from natural wetlands were developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s following the first field measurements of wetland methane fluxes. Since the mid-1990s, a suite of empirical, ecosystem, and process-based models of increasing complexity have been developed to simulate methane emissions from wetlands. Inputs to these models typically include climate variables, and vegetation and soil characteristics; they simulate soil temperature/thaw, water-table position, carbon supply and processes of production, transport, oxidation and emission of methane. A standard approach has been to apply the CH4 models to an externally-defined wetland data set due to the difficulty of modeling the distribution of wetlands themselves. More recently, researchers have begun characterizing methane-producing environments based on, inter alia, modeled soil hydrological dynamics and satellite-derived surface inundation. However, modeling the distribution and dynamics of methane-producing wetlands remains a fundamental challenge in understanding the role of wetlands in the global methane cycle under past, current and future climates. The wide spectrum of vegetation, hydrological regime, chemistry, soils, and seasonality means that defining wetlands is not straightforward and, although multiple systems describing local and regional wetland environments exist, none encompasses their global diversity particularly with regard to methane-relevant characteristics. Recent work by Petrescu et al. (Glob. Biogeochem. Cycl., 24/4, 2010) highlights the sensitivity of modeled emissions to uncertainties in wetland distributions. We hypothesize that differences among wetland distributions can be explained primarily by the methods, purposes and instruments used to produce the distributions. The lack of a comprehensive definition of wetlands for methane studies, together with approaches with different strengths and weaknesses for identifying the spectrum of wetland variability, constitutes a major uncertainty in modeling wetlands and their methane emissions. We illustrate the problem with examples of tropical and boreal wetlands.

Matthews, E.

2011-12-01

208

Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands  

PubMed Central

Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

2013-01-01

209

Fate of viruses in artificial wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the ability of wetlands to remove disease-causing viruses from municipal wastewater. In this study the authors examined the survival of several indicators of viral pollution applied in primary municipal wastewater to artificial wetland ecosystems. Only about 1% of the indigenous F-specific RNA bacteriophages survived flow through the vegetated wetland beds at a 5-cm-day⁻¹ hydraulic application rate

R. M. Gersberg; S. R. Lyon; R. Brenner; B. V. Elkins

1987-01-01

210

H-02 CONSTRUCTED WETLAND STUDIES AMPHIBIANS AND PLANTS  

E-print Network

H-02 CONSTRUCTED WETLAND STUDIES AMPHIBIANS AND PLANTS FY-2009 ANNUAL REPORT Savannah River Ecology ................................................................................................. 4 Chapter II Amphibian and Reptile Use of the H-02 Wetland .................................... 5 ............................................................................................... 27 Chapter III Vegetation Community of the H-02 Wetlands: Importance to Amphibians

Georgia, University of

211

H-02 CONSTRUCTED WETLAND STUDIES AMPHIBIANS AND PLANTS  

E-print Network

H-02 CONSTRUCTED WETLAND STUDIES AMPHIBIANS AND PLANTS FY-2008 ANNUAL REPORT Savannah River Ecology ................................................................................................. 4 CHAPTER II -- AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE USE OF THE H-02 WETLAND .................................... 5 ............................................................................................... 17 CHAPTER III: VEGETATION COMMUNITY OF THE H-02 WETLANDS -- IMPORTANCE TO AMPHIBIANS

Georgia, University of

212

TECHNICAL ARTICLES PLANTS USED IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND THEIR  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL ARTICLES #12;2 PLANTS USED IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS Hans Brix Risskov, Denmark ABSTRACT Vegetation plays an important role in wastewater treatment wetlands. Plants treatment systems aesthetically pleasing. Wetland species of all growth forms have been used in treatment

Brix, Hans

213

Evaluating the progress of engineered tidal wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

New terminology is needed for the assessment of wetland restoration projects, focusing on progress towards ecological goals rather than the yes\\/no alternative of success versus failure. Mitigation projects should be evaluated based on ‘compliance’ of specific mitigation criteria. Peer-reviewed assessments of wetland restoration projects have focused on appropriate parameters (topographic, hydrologic, soil, vegetation, and animal components); however, for the most

Joy B. Zedler; John C. Callaway

2000-01-01

214

National Wetlands Inventory Wetlands of the  

E-print Network

National Wetlands Inventory MARCH 1984 Wetlands of the United States: Current Status and Recent, Childers, Tiner, USFWS #12;WETLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES : CURRENT STATUS AND RECENT TRENDS by Ralph W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Is A Wetland

215

Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify GHG emissions from subtropical wetlands while demonstrating the differences in these fluxes based on the surrounding ecosystem.

DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

2013-12-01

216

Mapping an inland wetland complex using hyperspectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal is to determine the extent to which heterogeneous inland wetland vegetation communities and their dominant species, as well as adjacent upland vegetation types, can be mapped using 4?m hyperspectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data. Two classification algorithms, the maximum?likelihood classifier (MLC) and the spectral angle mapper (SAM), are applied to CASI data acquired over an inland wetland

M. Y. Jollineau; P. J. Howarth

2008-01-01

217

Uptake of /sup 226/Ra by established vegetation and black cutworm larvae, Agrotis ipsilon (class Insecta: order Lepidoptera), on U mill tailings at Elliot Lake, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Radium-226 levels in samples from an inactive U tailings site at Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, were: 9140 +/- 500 mBq g-1 dry weight in the substrate; 62 +/- 1 mBq g-1 dry weight in rye, Secale cereale, and less than 3.7 mBq g-1 dry weight in oats, Avena sativa, the dominant species established by revegetation of the tailings; and 117 +/- 7 mBq g-1 dry weight in washed and unwashed black cutworm larvae. Concentration ratios were: vegetation to tailings 0.001-0.007; black cutworms to vegetation 3.6 and black cutworms to tailings 0.01. The values are considered too low to be considered a hazard to herring gulls, Larus argentatus, which occasionally feed on cutworms.

Clulow, F.V.; Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.; Cloutier, N.R.

1988-07-01

218

Wetland change detection in Nile swamps of southern Sudan using multitemporal satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the maximum likelihood supervised classification and the post-classification comparison change detection are applied in order to monitor the wetlands by assessing and quantifying the wetland cover changes in the Nile swamps of southern Sudan, called the Sudd, by using the ERDAS IMAGINE software. Three multispectral satellite imageries, acquired in the wet season from 1986 to 2006 by Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images, are classified into five main land cover classes namely water, vegetation, urban, wetland-vegetation, and wetland-no vegetation, by using the maximum likelihood supervised classification. A pixel-by-pixel comparison was then performed over the classified thematic map images. The post-classification change detection results show a 3.69% decrease in the wetland-vegetation areas and a 2.68% decrease in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1986 to 1999. In addition, a noticeable increase is observed in the wetland-vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006 in the Sudd area as 14.95% of the land cover classes' areas, excluding the wetland-vegetation areas are changed into wetland-vegetation areas while there was a decrease of 5.18% in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006. The objective of this paper is to introduce precedence in studying the wetland cover changes over the Sudd area which can help the output planners develop water resources management projects leading to enhance the life conditions in the Sudd region.

Soliman, Ghada; Soussa, Hoda

2011-01-01

219

Integration of biosynthesis and long-distance transport establish organ-specific glucosinolate profiles in vegetative Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although it is essential for plant survival to synthesize and transport defense compounds, little is known about the coordination of these processes. Here, we investigate the above- and belowground source-sink relationship of the defense compounds glucosinolates in vegetative Arabidopsis thaliana. In vivo feeding experiments demonstrate that the glucosinolate transporters1 and 2 (GTR1 and GTR2), which are essential for accumulation of glucosinolates in seeds, are likely to also be involved in bidirectional distribution of glucosinolates between the roots and rosettes, indicating phloem and xylem as their transport pathways. Grafting of wild-type, biosynthetic, and transport mutants show that both the rosette and roots are able to synthesize aliphatic and indole glucosinolates. While rosettes constitute the major source and storage site for short-chained aliphatic glucosinolates, long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates are synthesized both in roots and rosettes with roots as the major storage site. Our grafting experiments thus indicate that in vegetative Arabidopsis, GTR1 and GTR2 are involved in bidirectional long-distance transport of aliphatic but not indole glucosinolates. Our data further suggest that the distinct rosette and root glucosinolate profiles in Arabidopsis are shaped by long-distance transport and spatially separated biosynthesis, suggesting that integration of these processes is critical for plant fitness in complex natural environments. PMID:23995084

Andersen, Tonni Grube; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Fuller, Victoria Louise; Olsen, Carl Erik; Burow, Meike; Halkier, Barbara Ann

2013-08-01

220

Interaction between neighboring vegetation patches: Impact on flow and deposition  

E-print Network

Flow and sedimentation around patches of vegetation are important to landscape evolution, and a better understanding of these processes would facilitate more effective river restoration and wetlands engineering. In wetlands ...

Meire, Dieter W. S. A.

221

Remote sensing of coastal wetlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map coastal vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.

Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.

1986-01-01

222

Exploring Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a wetlands education model for secondary education students. Students monitor a wetland, participate in decision-making, and take actions to protect it. In a series of six steps, the model guides students through the process of defining a problem; envisioning solutions; evaluating appropriate solutions based on environmental, economic and…

Kerr, Elizabeth; Harrison, Gordon

1996-01-01

223

Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

224

Results of preliminary reconnaissance trip to determine the presence of wetlands in wet forest habitats on the Island of Hawaii as part of the Hawaii Geothermal Project, October 1993  

SciTech Connect

In October 1993, the authors sampled soils, vegetation, and hydrology at eight sites representing a range of substrates, elevations, soil types, and plant community types within rainforest habitats on the Island of Hawaii. Their purpose was to determine whether any of these habitats were wetlands according to the 1987 Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. None of the rainforest habitats they sampled was wetland in its entirety. However, communities established on pahoehoe lava flows contained scattered wetlands in depressions and folds in the lava, where water could accumulate. Therefore, large construction projects, such as that associated with proposed geothermal energy development in the area, have the potential to impact a significant number and/or area of wetlands. To estimate those impacts more accurately, they present a supplementary scope of work and cost estimate for additional sampling in the proposed geothermal project area.

Wakeley, J.S.; Sprecher, S.W.; Lichvar, R.

1994-02-25

225

WETLANDS INVENTORY, ASSESSMENT, AND MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The duration of the work described in this proposal will be approximately 24 months. There will essentially be two cycles. During the first year the wildlife and vegetation inventories and the wetland assessments will be done for the area of the Warwick and Tokio Aquifers. The...

226

Organic carbon oxidation and suppression of methane production by microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction in vegetated and unvegetated freshwater wetland sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations (20-75 pmol cm-3) of amorphous Fe(III) oxide were observed in unvegetated surface and Juncus eflusus rhizosphere sediments of a freshwater wetland in the southeastern United States. Incu- bation experiments demonstrated that microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction suppressed sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in surface scdimcnts and mediated 240% of depth-integrated (O-10 cm) unvegetated sedi- ment carbon metabolism, compared to I

Eric E. Roden; Robert G. Wetzel

1996-01-01

227

High and Mid-Latitude Wetlands, Climate Change, and Carbon Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pollen and macrofossil stratigraphy from wetlands associated with AMS chronology provides a vegetational and climatic history over thousands of years. From these records we establish a record of climate change which can be compared with independent records of carbon accumulation rates in these same wetlands. In this way, inferences can be made concerning carbon storage during different climatic regimes. One focus of our research has been high-latitude regions such as Alaskan and Siberian tundra, from which we have paleorecords which span the last 10,000 years. We will present records from the Malaspina Glacier region, Alaska and the Pur-Taz region of Western Siberia. A second focus of our research is in mid-latitude eastern North America. We will present paleorecords from wetlands in Vermont, New York, and Virginia showing the relationship between carbon accumulation rates and climatic changes since the late Pleistocene.

Peteet, Dorothy

2000-01-01

228

Predicting friction factor in herbaceous emergent wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 53% of all wetlands in the US have been lost since the mid-1780s; to counteract wetland losses, wetland land area is being replaced through wetland restoration and mitigation. Development of the target wetland hydroperiod is critical to restoration success. For wetlands in which outflow is a component of the water budget, such as in riparian wetlands, surface water stage is controlled all or in part by the hydraulic resistance within the wetland, requiring accurate simulation of hydraulic resistance due to vegetation. Hydraulic models that consider vegetation rely on an accurate determination of a resistance parameter such as a friction factor or drag coefficient. At low Reynolds numbers typical of flows in wetlands, hydraulic resistance is orders of magnitude higher than fully turbulent flows and resistance parameters are functions of the flow regime as well as the vegetation density and structure. The exact relationship between hydraulic resistance, flow regime, and vegetation properties at the low-Reynolds number flows remains unclear. Prior research has typically involved laboratory studies of flow through idealized, individual stems. However, emergent wetland vegetation frequently grows as clumps. The goals of this research were to investigate the effect of clumping vegetation on flow resistance and to develop a prediction equation for use in wetland design. A 6-m by 1-m by 0.4-m recirculating flume was planted with mature common rush, Juncus effusus, a common emergent wetland plant. Three different flow rates (3, 4, and 5 L/s) and three different tailgate heights (0, 2.5, and 5 cm) were used to simulate a range of flow conditions. Plant spacing and clump diameter were varied (20 and 25 cm, 8 and 12 cm, respectively). Friction factors ranged from 9 to 40 and decreased with increasing plant density. Non-dimensional parameters determined through Buckingham Pi analysis were used in a regression analysis to develop a prediction model. Results of the regression analysis showed that the fraction of vegetated occupied area was most significant factor in determining friction factor.

Wynn-Thompson, T.; Hall, K.

2012-12-01

229

Plant diversity, composition, and invasion of restored and natural prairie pothole wetlands: Implications for restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of wetlands comprising thousands of hectares have been restored in the Midwestern United States. In nearly all cases,\\u000a restoration consisted of simply restoring wetland hydrology. For this reason, the success of these restorations relies on\\u000a natural colonization. We compared the structure and composition of the vegetation in two types of wetlands: 10 natural wetlands\\u000a and 17 five-to-seven-year-old restored wetlands.

Eric W. Seabloom; Arnold G. van der Valk

2003-01-01

230

Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (?2 m?2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m?2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m?2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

Smith, Thomas J.; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

2007-01-01

231

Competitive effect versus competitive response of invasive and native wetland plant species.  

PubMed

Non-native plants can have adverse effects on ecosystem structure and processes by invading and out-competing native plants. I examined the hypothesis that mature plants of non-native and native species exert differential effects on the growth of conspecific and heterospecific seedlings by testing predictions that (1) invasive vegetation has a stronger suppressive effect on seedlings than does native vegetation, (2) seedlings of invasive species are better able to grow in established vegetation than are native seedlings, and (3) invasive species facilitate conspecific and inhibit heterospecific seedling growth. I measured growth rates and interaction intensities for seedlings of four species that were transplanted into five wetland monoculture types: invasive Lythrum salicaria; native L. alatum, Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia; unvegetated control. Invasive L. salicaria had the strongest suppressive effect on actual and per-individual bases, but not on a per-gram basis. Seedlings of T. latifolia were better able to grow in established vegetation than were those of L. salicaria and T. angustifolia. These results suggest that L. salicaria is not a good invader of established vegetation, but once established, it is fairly resistant to invasion. Thus, it is likely that disturbance of established vegetation facilitates invasion by L. salicaria, allowing it to compete with other species in even-aged stands where its high growth rate and consequent production of aboveground biomass confer a competitive advantage. PMID:14758534

Hager, Heather A

2004-03-01

232

What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

233

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

VWR -- 1 The Virginia Wetlands Report The Virginia Wetlands Report Winter/Spring 2000 Vol. 15, No. 1 Virginia Debates Nontidal Wetlands Regulation Carl Hershner Wetland regulation is once again- trolling impacts on existing wetlands, as well as creating new wetlands. There is general agreement

234

Application of EPA wetland research program approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.

Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.

2002-01-01

235

Mitigation of micropollutants inside wetland systems: Impacts of season and flow conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The important role of wetlands for retention and mitigation of micropollutants has been documented by numerous studies. Natural wetlands in stream eco-systems comprise different elements, e.g. open water bodies, densely vegetated areas and riparian zones with fluctuating water tables, where different biogeochemical conditions prevail. However, our main knowledge on the mitigation potential of these wetlands stems from input-output balances established for constructed systems and from controlled lab-scale experiments. Less is known about internal processes occurring in natural wetlands. The ability of hydrological tracers to serve as a reference for the transport of aquatic pollutants has been shown for a variety of micropollutants. In this study we used a set of hydrological tracers with different physico-chemical properties to assess the retention potential of a recently restored wetland that comprises a variety of internal flowpaths and wetland elements. We conducted our experiments during summer and winter to document the impacts of different seasons and flow conditions. As such we aimed to shed light on real-world retention capabilities of different wetland elements as a guideline for wetland (re-) construction. On a clear winter day (0°C, runoff 21 l/s) we injected 1kg of sodium bromide (NaBr), 1g of uranine (UR) and 1g of sulphorhodamine (SRB). Tracers were measured continuously by field fluorometers and conductivity meters complemented by manual and automatic sampling for laboratory analysis. In accordance with the constructional setup the Multi-Flow Dispersion Model (MDM) enabled us to numerically separate the existing three main flowpaths (FPs). Approximately 25% of the injected tracers traveled through FP1, which only comprised straight channel sections and narrow riparian zones. Approximately 65% of the tracers followed FP2, which contained one small open water body. The remaining tracers (approximately 10%) made their way through a large water body with a diffuse outlet through a densely vegetated zone. A comparison between conservative (NaBr) and non-conservative tracers (UR, SRB) yielded different retention capabilities for the three different FPs and hence wetland elements. During summer (20°C, runoff 0.8 l/s) we repeated the tracer injections using the same protocol. Then the entire wetland was densely vegetated and we expected higher tracer retention due to enhanced biological activity and longer residence times at low flow conditions. However, we observed the opposite, since only one flowpath (FP1) was active and all open water bodies were disconnected due to wetland succession. Regarding retention of micropollutants in our restored wetland we conclude that (a) retention in deep water bodies is decisive, (b) straight sections show relative small retention capabilities, (c) vegetation activity (summer/winter) seems less important for treatment than for flow path development, and (d) in our case photolysis is overall more effective than sorption. These findings highlight the importance of open water bodies for wetland restoration. This study was financed by the PhytoRet-Project (C.21) of the European INTERREG IV program Upper Rhine.

Lange, Jens; Herbstritt, Barbara; Schuetz, Tobias

2014-05-01

236

7 CFR 1467.6 - Establishing priority for enrollment of properties in WRP.  

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.6 Establishing...regions of the State where restoration of wetlands may better achieve State and regional...to the successful restoration of the wetlands and those adjacent landowners are...

2014-01-01

237

7 CFR 1467.6 - Establishing priority for enrollment of properties in WRP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.6 Establishing...regions of the State where restoration of wetlands may better achieve State and regional...to the successful restoration of the wetlands and those adjacent landowners are...

2010-01-01

238

7 CFR 1467.6 - Establishing priority for enrollment of properties in WRP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.6 Establishing...regions of the State where restoration of wetlands may better achieve State and regional...to the successful restoration of the wetlands and those adjacent landowners are...

2011-01-01

239

7 CFR 1467.6 - Establishing priority for enrollment of properties in WRP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.6 Establishing...regions of the State where restoration of wetlands may better achieve State and regional...to the successful restoration of the wetlands and those adjacent landowners are...

2012-01-01

240

7 CFR 1467.6 - Establishing priority for enrollment of properties in WRP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.6 Establishing...regions of the State where restoration of wetlands may better achieve State and regional...to the successful restoration of the wetlands and those adjacent landowners are...

2013-01-01

241

Ecological distribution and crude density of breeding birds on prairie wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Breeding populations of 28 species of wetland-dwelling birds other than waterfowl (Anatidae) were censused on 1,321 wetlands lying within the prairie pothole region of North Dakota. Ecological distribution and two crude measures of relative density were calculated for the 22 commonest species using eight wetland classes. Semipermanent wetlands supported nearly two-thirds of the population and were used by all 22 species, whereas seasonal wetlands contained about one-third of the population and were used by 20 species Semipermanent, fen, and temporary wetlands contained highest bird densities on the basis of wetland area; on the basis of wetland unit, densities were highest on semipermanent, permanent, alkali, and fen wetlands. The highest ranking of semipermanent wetlands by all three measures of use was probably because these wetlands, as well as being relatively numerous and large, were vegetatively diverse. The fairly large proportion of the bird population supported by seasonal wetlands was a result of wetland abundance and moderate vegetative diversity. Increased vegetative diversity results from the development of characteristic zones of hydrophytes at sites where water persists longer during the growing season. Frequent cultivation of prairie wetlands results in the replacement of tall, robust perennials by bare soil or stands of short, weak-stemmed annuals that likely are unattractive to nesting birds.

Kantrud, H.A.; Stewart, R.E.

1984-01-01

242

Slowing the rate of loss of mineral wetlands on human dominated landscapes - Diversification of farmers markets to include carbon (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada is the fourth-largest exporter of agriculture and agri-food products in the world (exports valued at 28B), but instability of agriculture markets can make it difficult for farmers to cope with variability, and new mechanisms are needed for farmers to achieve economic stability. Capitalizing on carbon markets will help farmers achieve environmentally sustainable economic performance. In order to have a viable carbon market, governments and industries need to know what the carbon capital is and what potential there is for growth, and farmers need financial incentives that will not only allow them to conserve existing wetlands but that will also enable them to restore wetlands while making a living. In southern Ontario, farmers' needs to maximize the return on investment on marginal lands have resulted in loss of 70-90% of wetlands, making this region one of the most threatened region in terms of wetland degradation and loss in Canada. Our project establishes the role that mineral wetlands have in the net carbon balance by contributing insight into the potential benefits to carbon management provided by wetland restoration efforts in these highly degraded landscapes. The goal was to establish the magnitude of carbon offsets that could be achieved through wetland conservation (securing existing carbon stocks) and restoration (creating new carbon stocks). The experimental design was to focus on (1) small (0.2-2.0 ha) and (2) isolated (no inflow or outflow) mineral wetlands with the greatest restoration potential that included (3) a range of restoration ages (drained (0 yr), 3 yr, 6 yr, 12 yr, 20 yr, 35 yr, intact marshes) to capture potential changes in rates of carbon sequestration with restoration age of wetland. From each wetland, wetland soil carbon pools samples were collected at four positions: centre of wetland (open-water); emergent vegetation zone; wet meadow zone where flooding often occurs (i.e., high water mark); and upland where flooding rarely occurs (cores segmented into 5cm increments up to 45 cm, composited and analyzed for carbon pools using mass equivalent and carbon sequestration rates samples were taken at centre of wetland (open-water) (cores segmented into 1 cm increments up to 30 cm, composited and analyzed for Pb-210 and Cs-137 isotopes). The magnitude of wetland loss (?10 ha) is estimated to be over 1.5 million ha in southern Ontario since the time of European settlement. About 75% of converted wetlands (1.1 million ha) are now classified as 'undifferentiated agricultural lands.' We use our measured carbon sequestration rate Mg CO2 equivalents ha/yr under different scenarios of landowner uptake (5-50%) and prices for carbon offsets (2-50/MgCO2 equivalents) to estimate carbon sequestration and the value of this sequestration in restored wetlands. The project provides empirical evidence that restoring wetlands for carbon sequence could improve the livelihood of farmers and that policies should be established to incentivize farmers to adopt wetland restoration practices on marginal areas in order to improve the economic performance and environmental sustainability of agriculture in Ontario.

Creed, I. F.; Badiou, P.; Lobb, D.

2013-12-01

243

Subtropical reservoir shorelines have reduced plant species and functional richness compared with adjacent riparian wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam construction has large negative effects on biodiversity in river and riparian ecosystems worldwide. This study aimed to determine whether reservoir shorelines had lower plant species diversity and functional diversity than unregulated or lightly regulated riparian wetlands and to examine the responses of plant diversity and functional traits to reservoir shoreline environmental gradients. We surveyed 146, 44, and 67 plots on reservoir shorelines and in mainstem and tributary riparian wetlands, respectively, in a subtropical river-reservoir system. Species richness, functional richness, evenness, and divergence were calculated to reflect the species and functional diversity of plant communities. Environmental factors including elevation above water level, slope, landform type, substrate, disturbance, and cover were measured. The results showed that both species and functional richness were significantly lower on reservoir shorelines than in riparian wetlands. The relative species number of clonal plants and relative cover of annual plants were both negatively related to slope and elevation. Structural equation modeling and other statistical analyses indicated that most environmental factors had significant effects on species and functional richness on reservoir shorelines but had no significant effect on functional evenness and divergence. Our findings suggest that reservoir shoreline wetlands formed by damming rivers and inundating pre-existing riparian wetlands can be a biodiversity coldspot in regulated rivers at the plot level. Topographic factors are important in determining the plant diversity and vegetation establishment on reservoir shorelines in the Yangtze River basin.

Liu, Wenzhi; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Hui; Song, Yu; Zhang, Quanfa

2013-12-01

244

Global warming and prairie wetlands: potential consequences for waterfowl habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is expected to warm the earth's climate at an unprecedented rate (Ramanathan 1988, Schneider 1989). If the climate models are correct, within 100 years the earth will not only be warmer than it has been during the past million years, but the change will have occurred more rapidly than any on record. Many profound changes in the earth's environment are expected, including rising sea level, increasing aridity in continental interiors, and melting permafrost. Ecosystems are expected to respond variously to a rapidly changing climate. Tree ranges in eastern North American are expected to shift northward, and seed dispersal may not be adequate to maintain current diversity (Cohn 1989, Johnson and Webb 1989). In coastal wetlands, rising sea level from melting icecaps and thermal expansion could flood salt-grass marshes and generally reduce the size and productivity of the intertidal zone (Peters and Darling 1985). As yet, little attention has been given to the possible effects of climatic warming on inland prairie wetland ecosystems. These wetlands, located in the glaciated portion of the North American Great Plains (Figure 1), constitute the single most important breeding area for waterfowl on this continent (Hubbard 1988). This region annually produces 50-80% of the continent's total duck production (Batt et al. 1989). These marshes also support a variety of other wildlife, including many species of nongame birds, muskrat, and mink (Kantrud et al. 1989a). Prairie wetlands are relatively shallow, water-holding depressions that vary in size, water permanence, and water chemistry. Permanence types include temporary ponds (typically holding water for a few weeks in the springs), seasonal ponds (holding water from spring until early summer), semipermanent ponds (holding water throughout the growing season during most years), and large permanent lakes (Stewart and Kantrud 1971). Refilling usually occurs in spring from precipitation and runoff from melting snow on frozen or saturated soils (Figure 2). Annual water levels fluctuate widely due to climate variability in the Great Plains (Borchert 1950, Kantrud et al. 1989b). Climate affects the quality of habitat for breeding waterfowl by controlling regional water conditions--water depth, areal extent, and length of wet/dry cycles (Cowardin et al. 1988)--and vegetation patterns such as the cover ration (the ratio of emergent plant cover to open water). With increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate models project warmer and, in some cases, drier conditions for the northern Great Plains (Karl et al. 1991, Manabe and Wetherald 1986, Mitchell 1983, Rind and Lebedeff 1984). In general, a warmer, drier climate could lower waterfowl production directly by increasing the frequency of dry basins and indirectly by producing less favorable cover rations (i.e., heavy emergent cover with few or no open-water areas). The possibility of diminished waterfowl production in a greenhouse climate comes at a time when waterfowl numbers have sharply declined for other reasons (Johnson and Shaffer 1987). Breeding habitat continues to be lost or altered by agriculture, grazing, burning, mowing, sedimentation, and drainage (Kantrud et al. 1989b). For example, it has been estimated that 60% of the wetland area in North Dakota has been drained (Tiner 1984). Pesticides entering wetlands from adjacent agricultural fields have been destructive to aquatic invertebrate populations and have significantly lowered duckling survival (Grue et al. 1988). In this article, we discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns, and waterflow habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model. The extent to which intensive management of the waterfowl resource will be needed in the f

Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

1991-01-01

245

Long-term phosphorus removal in Florida aquatic systems dominated by submerged aquatic vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads have been implicated in eutrophication of lakes and wetlands throughout Florida. One technology that holds considerable promise for controlling these loads in a cost-effective manner is the use of treatment wetlands. Preliminary research in south Florida on the use of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) as the dominant vegetation in these treatment wetlands is reporting higher P

Robert L. Knight; Binhe Gu; Ronald A. Clarke; Jana M. Newman

2003-01-01

246

Wetlands ecology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS imagery analyzed provides approximately 2/3 coverage of the test site. Analysis was made using visual methods, density slicing, and multispectral analysis. Preliminary conclusions reached are that most, if not all, of the investigation objectives can be met. Saline and near-saline wetlands can be delineated from ERTS-1 images as the wetland-upland boundaries and land-water interface are clearly defined. Major plant species or communities such as Spartina alterniflora (high and low vigor forms), Spartina patens/Distichlis spicata, and Juncus roemarianus can be discriminated and spoil disposal areas identified.

Anderson, R. R. (principal investigator); Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

1972-01-01

247

Wetland Bioblitz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into biodiversity of a given habitat. Groups of learners will work in pairs or small groups and conduct a bioblitz of a wetland, carefully observing, identifying and recording a list of as many plant and animal species as they can find. Data from all groups will be pooled to determine the âspecies richness,â the total number of species and to make a bar graph to compare numbers of each type of organism. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Wetlands.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

248

A comparative study on the potential of oxygen release by roots of selected wetland plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of root oxygen release by selected wetland plants pre-grown under both nutrient solution and artificial wastewater conditions were determined. The results indicated that the significant differences of root oxygen release by the tested wetland plants existed, and the biochemical process was the main source of root oxygen release as oxygen released by Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash roots through biochemical process was contributed to 77% and 74% of total root oxygen release under nutrient solution conditions and artificial wastewater conditions, respectively, and that was 72% and 71% of total root oxygen release for Cyperus alternifolius L. It was found that the formation of root plaque with iron oxide was a function of root oxygen release as iron oxide concentration in root plaque was positively correlated to the potential of oxygen released by wetland plant roots with the regression coefficients as 0.874 *( p < 0.05) under nutrient solution conditions and 0.944 **( p < 0.01) under artificial wastewater conditions, which could be regarded as an important mechanism of wetland plants being tolerant to anoxia during wastewater treatment. It was suggested that the potential of root oxygen release could be used as a parameter for selecting wetland plants that can increase oxygen supply to soil or substrate of constructed wetlands and enhance nutrient transformation and removal, and V. zizanioides L. Nash with the highest potential of root oxygen release and higher tolerance to wastewater could be recommended to establish vegetated wetlands for treating nutrient-rich wastewater such as domestic wastewater.

Yao, Fang; Shen, Gen-xiang; Li, Xue-lian; Li, Huai-zheng; Hu, Hong; Ni, Wu-zhong

249

The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Monitoring the Delivery of Wetland Ecosystem Services across the Landscape  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CEAP-Wetlands (NRCS) and the Choptank Benchmark Watershed CEAP (ARS) have established a partnership to assess and ultimately enhance the effect of conservation practices on ecosystem services provided by wetlands in the Choptank Watershed. The provision of these wetland services (e.g., pollutant red...

250

Effects of wetlands on quality of runoff entering lakes in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four wetlands were compared with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing suspended solids and nutrient concentrations in runoff to lakes immediately downstream from the wetlands. An artificial impoundment in one of the wetlands increased settling of suspended solids. A decrease of nutrients in this wetland was probably the result of high assimilation rates associated with a dense stand of cattails. Two of the other three wetlands consist of open water and land areas, both of which contain abundant vegetation. Drainage from land areas within the wetlands may have lowered the overall effectiveness of the wetlands in decreasing sediment and nutrient concentrations. The third wetland was a constructed wetland that was ineffective in decreasing sediment or nutrient concentrations because its storage capacity was too small to prevent frequent flushing of accumulated sediment. Sediment concentrations in discharge from this wetland were as much as 22 times greater than the already high sediment concentrations in the inflow. (Author 's abstract)

Brown, R.G.

1985-01-01

251

Influence of soft rush ( Juncus effusus) on phosphorus flux in grazed seasonal wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock significantly affect wetland soils and vegetation but their impacts on wetland nutrient dynamics are poorly understood. We set up a full factorial laboratory experiment to assess the effects of Juncus effusus, grazing exclusion, and flooding on P flux from intact cores collected from seasonal wetlands in cattle pastures in south Florida. We collected intact cores from Juncus tussocks and

Andrew W. Tweel; Patrick J. Bohlen

2008-01-01

252

Methane emission from natural wetlands: Global distribution, area, and environmental characteristics of sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global data base of wetlands at 1 degree resolution was developed from the integration of three independent global, digital sources: (1) vegetation, (2) soil properties and (3) fractional inundation in each 1 degree cell. The integration yielded a global distribution of wetland sites identified with in situ ecological and environmental characteristics. The wetland sites were classified into five major

Elaine Matthews; Inez Fung

1987-01-01

253

Aquifers and Wetlands SUMMARY: This chapter begins with an overview of the hydrological cycle and  

E-print Network

Chapter 14 Aquifers and Wetlands SUMMARY: This chapter begins with an overview of the hydrological cycle and considers the flow of water in wetlands and undergraound. Special attention is paid to flow through vegetated wetlands. 14.1 The Hydrological Cycle Rivers and streams are but a link in the global

Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

254

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

VWR -- 1 The Virginia Wetlands Report The Virginia Wetlands Report Spring 2005 Vol. 20, No. 1 Annual Summary of Permitted Tidal Wetland Impacts - 2004 By Karen Duhring The Wetlands Program has main impact areas based on a site visit and information provided in the permit documents. The Wetlands Program

255

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

The Virginia Wetlands Report Summer 1997 Vol. 12, No. 2The Virginia Wetlands Report Wetlands mitigation banking is a relatively new tool for wetlands managers. It is finding increasing application in the struggle to achieve a "no net loss" goal for our remaining wetland resources. The concept of creating

256

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

VWR -- 1 The Virginia Wetlands Report The Virginia Wetlands Report Fall 2005 Vol. 20, No. 2 VMRC Adopts Wetland Mitigation/ Compensation Policy Changes By Tom Barnard When the Virginia Wetlands Act went into effect on July 1, thirty- three years ago, no one had ever heard of compensatory mitigation, wetland

257

Strategies for effective mosquito control in constructed treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands hold considerable promise for providing water quality and wildlife habitat benefits. At the same time, constructed wetlands have been described as “mosquito-friendly habitats” and may raise potential conflicts with neighboring human populations. Conflicts arise because some design features, such as shallow water and emergent vegetation that are essential for optimizing water quality polishing, can result in undesirable increases

Robert L. Knight; William E. Walton; George F O’Meara; William K. Reisen; Roland Wass

2003-01-01

258

Responses of wetland plants to ammonia and water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetland systems receiving animal wastewater may enhance water quality when designed, operated, and maintained properly. In the case of wetlands designed to treat animal waste, system effectiveness may be limited by high ammonia concentrations and inundation, conditions that can adversely affect macrophytic vegetation. We conducted a 4-month greenhouse experiment to assess the impact of ammonia concentration and water level

Ernest Clarke; Andrew H. Baldwin

2002-01-01

259

Inland Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the material. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The materials emphasize characteristics of inland…

Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

260

Wetland Delineation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning how to delineate a wetland using official criteria can be an enlightening experience for students and teachers. The objective of this investigation is for students to delineate the boundaries of an area in a watershed and categorize it as a wetla

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

261

Saltwater Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information about saltwater wetlands. Contains seven learning activities which deal with "making" a mud snail, plants and animals of mangroves, and the effects of tides on salt marshes. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

262

Coastal Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The unit materials emphasize the structure,…

Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

263

Differential assessment of designations of wetland status using two delineation methods.  

PubMed

Two different methods are commonly used to delineate and characterize wetlands. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) delineation method uses field observation of hydrology, soils, and vegetation. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetland Inventory Program (NWI) relies on remote sensing and photointerpretation. This study compared designations of wetland status at selected study sites using both methods. Twenty wetlands from the Wetland Boundaries Map of the Ausable-Boquet River Basin (created using the revised NWI method) in the Ausable River watershed in Essex and Clinton Counties, NY, were selected for this study. Sampling sites within and beyond the NWI wetland boundaries were selected. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, wetland hydrology, soils, and vegetation were examined for wetland indicators following the methods described in the ACOE delineation manual. The study shows that the two methods agree at 78 % of the sampling sites and disagree at 22 % of the sites. Ninety percent of the sampling locations within the wetland boundaries on the NWI maps were categorized as ACOE wetlands with all three ACOE wetland indicators present. A binary linear logistic regression model analyzed the relationship between the designations of the two methods. The outcome of the model indicates that 83 % of the time, the two wetland designation methods agree. When discrepancies are found, it is the presence or absence of wetland hydrology and vegetation that causes the differences in delineation. PMID:24748237

Wu, Meiyin; Kalma, Dennis; Treadwell-Steitz, Carol

2014-07-01

264

The State and Use of Wetlands in Jilin Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation, state and use of wetlands in Jilin Province, China, were surveyed in October 2001. Five types of wetland vegetation were distinguished: larch forest swamp (Ass. Larix olgensis-Betula ovalifolia-Vaccinium uliginosum-Sphagnum spp.), birch scrub mire (Ass. Betula ovalifolia-Carex schmidtii (-Sphagnum spp.)), sedge mire (Form. Carex schmidtii, Ass. Calamagrostis angustifolia-Carex schmidtii, Ass. Phragmites australis- Carex schmidtii, Ass. Carex lasiocarpa-Carex meyeriana, and

Jin ZHOU; Hisako TACHIBANA

265

USDA PROGRAMS WETLAND RESTORATION  

E-print Network

1 USDA PROGRAMS WETLAND RESTORATION PROGRAMS FOUR PROGRAMS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM (WRP ATTENUATION REMOVE OR RETAIN NUTRIENTS TRAP SEDIMENT SUPPORT WILDLIFE EROSION CONTROL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AESTHETICS WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT #12;3 RESTORABLE WETLANDS IDENTIFIED AS PRIOR CONVERTED CROPLAND FARMED

Gray, Matthew

266

Riparian Wetlands: Mapping  

EPA Science Inventory

Riparian wetlands are critical systems that perform functions and provide services disproportionate to their extent in the landscape. Mapping wetlands allows for better planning, management, and modeling, but riparian wetlands present several challenges to effective mapping due t...

267

Our Valuable Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines wetlands and lists several types of wetland habitat. Describes explorations that can be done with secondary school students including the baby boom, a food pyramid, and microenvironments. Includes a classroom poster with text on the variety of wetlands. (CW)

Texley, Juliana

1988-01-01

268

Feedbacks between flow, vegetation, deposition, and the implications for landscape development  

E-print Network

Flow and sedimentation around patches of vegetation are important to landscape evolution, and a better understanding of these processes would facilitate more effective river restoration and wetlands engineering. In wetlands ...

Kondziolka, John M. (John Michael)

2014-01-01

269

PLANT DIVERSITY, COMPOSITION, AND INVASION OF RESTORED AND NATURAL PRAIRIE POTHOLE WETLANDS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESTORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of wetlands comprising thousands of hectares have been restored in the Midwestern United States. In nearly all cases, restoration consisted of simply restoring wetland hydrology. For this reason, the success of these restorations relies on natural colonization. We compared the structure and composition of the vegetation in two types of wetlands: 10 natural wetlands and 17 five-to-seven-year-old restored wet-

Eric W. Seabloom; Arnold G. van der Valk

2003-01-01

270

Nonlinear Characteristics of Wave Propagation over Vegetation  

E-print Network

The attenuation of wave energy by submerged or near-emergent coastal vegetation is one of the prominent methods of energy dissipation in areas with significant presence of wetlands. In this thesis, the nature of this dissipation in nearshore random...

Venkattaramanan, Aravinda

2014-04-28

271

Artificial Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Golf courses are known as places of recreation. But some of them could someday double as water treatment facilities. Water hazards on golf courses can be used to control environmental hazards. That's according to Purdue University soil microbiologist Ron Turco. He says the artificial wetlands can also control flooding in surrounding communities, by collecting excess water. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-11

272

Emissions of sulfur gases from wetlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the emissions of sulfur gases from marine and freshwater wetlands are summarized with respect to wetland vegetation type and possible formation mechanisms. The current data base is largest for salt marshes inhabited by Spartina alterniflora. Both dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) dominate emissions from salt marshes, with lesser quantities of methyl mercaptan (MeSH), carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS2) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) being emitted. High emission rates of DMS are associated with vegetation that produces the DMS precursor dimethylsulfonionpropionate (DMSP). Although large quantities of H2S are produced in marshes, only a small percentage escapes to the atmosphere. High latitude marshes emit less sulfur gases than temperate ones, but DMS still dominates. Mangrove-inhabited wetlands also emit less sulfur than temperate S. alterniflora marshes. Few data are available on sulfur gas emissions from freshwater wetlands. In most instances, sulfur emissions from temperate freshwater sites are low. However, some temperate and subtropical freshwater sites are similar in magnitude to those from marine wetlands which do not contain vegetation that produces DMSP. Emissions are low in Alaskan tundra but may be considerably higher in some bogs and fens.

Hines, Mark E.

1992-01-01

273

Hydroperiod and plant diversity in the wet meadow zone of glaciated prairie wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Stewart and Kantrud`s (1971) widely used wetland classification system does not recognize the large differences in hydroperiod and species diversity that often occur in the same vegetation zone in wetlands of different water permanence class (temporary, seasonal, semi-permanent). Research in eastern South Dakota wetlands in 1994 indicated that annual range in surface water/groundwater elevation within a zone varied inversely with permanence. For example, within the wet meadow zone, average annual water elevation range was 124 cm in temporary wetlands, 65 cm in seasonal wetlands, and 15 cm in semi-permanent wetlands. The number of dominant plants in this zone was strongly and positively correlated to the amount of annual fluctuation in water elevation, from an average of 5 species in the relatively stable, semi-permanent wetlands to 14 species in the ephemeral, temporary wetlands. These results have application to research in wetland restoration and climate change.

Boettcher, S.E.; Johnson, W.C. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)

1995-06-01

274

A study of the role of wetlands in defining spatial patterns of near-surface (top 1 m) soil carbon in the Northern Latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of two observation-based maps (the Harmonised World Soil Database, HWSD and the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database, NCSCD) of the surface (1 m) soil carbon in the Northern Latitudes (containing the Arctic and Boreal regions) reveal that, although the amounts of carbon estimated to be present in this region are very uncertain, the patterns are robust: both maps have soil carbon maxima that coincide with the major wetlands in the region, as described in the Global Lakes and Wetlands Database, GLWD. In fact, the relationship between near-surface soil carbon and the presence of wetlands is stronger than the relationship with soil temperature and vegetation productivity. These relationships are explored using the land surface model of the UK Hadley Centre GCM: JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator). The model is run to represent conditions at the end of the 20th century. Observed vegetation and phenology are used to define the vegetation, the physical properties of organic soils are represented, the fine-scale topography of the region is included in the parameterisation of the hydrology and as a result the GPP and location of the wetlands of the region are reasonably well simulated using JULES. Despite this, the soil carbon simulated by the model does not reveal the same patterns or the correlation with the wetland regions that are present in the data. This suggests that the model does not represent sufficiently strongly the suppression of heterotrophic respiration in saturated conditions. A simple adjustment to the JULES model was made whereby the heterotrophic respiration was reduced by the fraction of the grid that is modelled to be saturated. In effect, for the saturated areas the respiration was zero. This adjustment represents a simple experiment to establish the role of wetlands in defining the spatial patterns of near-surface soil carbon. The results were an improved predicted spatial pattern of soil carbon, with an increase in the correlation between soil carbon and wetlands although not as strong as suggested by the analysis of the data. This may be because the size of the wetlands was underestimated by the model. The study suggests that land surface models in general, and JULES in particular, need to establish a stronger moderation of soil respiration in saturated conditions in order that future climate controls on wetlands in the Northern Latitudes will result in the correct changes in soil carbon and carbon emissions.

Blyth, E. M.; Oliver, R.; Gedney, N.

2014-12-01

275

In situ biodegradation of perchloroethylene in constructed wetland mesocosms  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation initiates degradation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. Subsequent intermediate chlorinated compounds are in turn more readily degraded in aerobic environments. Thus, complete degradation of chlorinated compounds to nontoxic end products requires both anaerobic and aerobic environments. These environments are provided by constructed wetland bioremediation systems, which through the interaction of vegetation, microbial, chemical, and physical processes, result in waste water renovation. The authors integrated the ecological engineering technology of constructed wetland systems with developments in plant-rhizosphere degradation of organic contaminants to examine the effectiveness of constructed wetland systems for in situ bioremediation of waste water contaminated with a chlorinated hydrocarbon, perchloroethylene (PCE) and an aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene. A mesocosm was designed to provide sequential anaerobic and vegetated-aerobic cells with complete control of water and gas flux and to emulate wetland properties such as hydric soil composition, physicochemical parameters, and the presence of wetland vegetation (Eleocharis acicularis). Treatments included contaminated and non-contaminated wetland cells and sterile controls. The fate and transport of PCE, toluene, and metabolic by-products were determined in effluent and chamber headspace, and extracts of soil and plant tissue. These analyses provide the basis for evaluating contaminant fate in wetland systems. Manipulation of aeration and hydrologic regimes in the wetland cells will facilitate testing conditions that affect degradation processes. The experimental apparatus is a innovative design for experimentation on the degradation of volatile organic compounds in plant-soil systems.

Hoylman, A.M.; Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1994-12-31

276

Estimation of soil pH at Mount Beigu Wetland based on visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

pH of the wetland soil is one of the most important indicators for aquatic vegetation and water bodies. Mount Beigu Wetland, just near the Yangtse River, is under ecological recovery. Visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was adopted to estimate soil pH of the wetland. The spectroradiometer, FieldSpec 3 (ASD) with a full spectral range (350-2500 nm), was used to acquire the reflectance spectra of wetland soil, and soil pH was measured with the pH meter of IQ150 (Spectrum) and InPro 3030 (Mettler Toledo). 146 soil samples were taken with soil sampler (Eijkelkamp) according to different position and depth, which covered the wider range of pH value from 7.1 to 8.39. 133 samples were used to establish the calibration model with the method of partial least square regression and principal component analysis regression. 13 soil samples were used to validate the model. The results show that the model is not good, but the mean error and root mean standard error of prediction are less (1.846% and 0.186 respectively). Spectral reflectancebased estimation of soil pH of the wetland is applicable and the calibration model needs to be improved.

Hu, Yongguang; Li, Pingping; Mao, Hanping; Chen, Bin; Wang, Xi

2006-12-01

277

USDA PROGRAMS WETLAND RESTORATION  

E-print Network

1 USDA PROGRAMS WETLAND RESTORATION PROGRAMS PROGRAM OBJECTIVES RESTORE FUNCTIONS/VALUES MAXIMIZE-FEDERAL PUBLIC #12;2 RESTORABLE WETLANDS IDENTIFIED AS PRIOR CONVERTED CROPLAND FARMED WETLAND FARMED WETLAND OPTIONS PERMANENT EASEMENT 30-YEAR EASEMENT 10-YEAR RESTORATION AGREEMENT PERMANENT EASEMENT 100% OF CAP

Gray, Matthew

278

Wetlands of Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetlands of seven Central American countries – Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panamá – are reviewed. The region's wetlands are classified into five systems: marine, estuarine, riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine. At a minimum, wetlands cover ˜40,000 km2 (˜8%) of the land area of Central America. These wetlands support high levels of biological diversity, especially of

Aaron M. Ellison

2004-01-01

279

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

VWR -- 1 The Virginia Wetlands Report The Virginia Wetlands Report Fall 2001 Vol. 16, No. 3 A GIS Approach for Targeting Potential Wetlands Mitigation or Restoration Sites By Marcia Berman and Tamia vegeta- tion, islands, and wetlands. Most activi- ties enhance habitat for living resources, but also

280

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

The Virginia Wetlands Report Continued on page 2 Spring 1996 Vol. 11, No. 2The Virginia Wetlands Report Completely Updated The Wetlands Program of the Vir- ginia Institute of Marine Science has completed its update of the Vir- ginia Wetlands Management Hand- book, and with the aid of the Marine

281

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

The Virginia Wetlands Report Fall 1997 Vol. 12, No. 3The Virginia Wetlands Report Almost everyone their actions. It is this com- mon sense notion which is motivating a new Wetlands Initiative under the auspices of the Chesapeake Bay Program Wetlands Workgroup. State and federal wet- lands program man- agers are working

282

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

The Virginia Wetlands Report Winter/Spring 1998 Vol. 13, No. 1The Virginia Wetlands Report N o net loss of wetland resources is a goal frequently announced by policy makers and resource manag- ers. Most the challenge of measuring progress toward achieving the goals. Knowledge about how many wetlands

283

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

VWR 1 The Virginia Wetlands Report The Virginia Wetlands Report Summer 1999 Vol. 14, No. 2 Historic Wetland Loss in the Elizabeth River Walter I. Priest, III Introduction Since earliest colonial consumed many of the natural resources of the river basin, including its wetlands, forests, water quality

284

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

VWR -- 1 The Virginia Wetlands Report The Virginia Wetlands Report Winter/Spring 2003 Vol. 18, No. 1 I n a recently published final report entitled, Assessing the Decision- making Process in Wetlands Richards report the results of their preliminary examination of how wet- lands boards balance wetlands

285

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

VWR -- 1 The Virginia Wetlands Report The Virginia Wetlands Report Winter/Spring 2001 Vol. 16, No. 1 The VIMS Teaching Marsh: A Tidal Wetland Restoration and Education Project Karen Duhring Purpose wetlands education opportunities, including field lessons. Due to the vari- ety and geographic distribution

286

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

VWR -- 1 The Virginia Wetlands Report The Virginia Wetlands Report Summer 2000 Vol. 15, No. 2 Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Implementing Nontidal Wetlands Protection Mandate Ellen Gilinsky wetland resources, but which occur outside of federal regulation. The General Assembly was motivated

287

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

VWR -- 1 The Virginia Wetlands Report The Virginia Wetlands Report Spring 2002 Vol. 17, No. 1 Update On Virginia's New and Improved Nontidal Wetlands Program By Ellen Gilinsky, Ph.D. PWS Virginia wetlands program. Key changes included the provi- sion of additional jurisdic- tion over: excavation in all

288

Physiological Ecology and Ecohydrology of Coastal Forested Wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The form, function, and productivity of wetland communities are influenced strongly by the hydrologic regime of an area. Wetland ecosystems persist by depending upon surpluses of rainfall, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and frequency and amplitude of water-level fluctuations. Yet, wetland vegetation can also influence ecosystem water economy through conservative water- and carbon-use strategies at several organizational scales. Scientists have described leaf-level water-use efficiency in coastal mangrove forests as being among the highest of any ecosystem. These forested wetlands occur in intertidal areas and often persist under flooded saline conditions. Are these same strategies used by other types of coastal forested wetlands? Do conservative water-use strategies reflect a consequence of salt balance more than efficiency in water use per se? At what organizational scales do these strategies manifest? These are just a few of the questions being answered by physiological and landscape ecologists at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC).

Krauss, Ken W.

2007-01-01

289

Understanding wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students collect soil cores (~12 inches) from one or more wetlands, describe the color and other physical features they can observe. Section each core according to grain size or color, weigh each section, dry in oven for 24 hours (can use microwave if the soil is fairly sandy). Use sieve machine to sieve each section and weigh each size fraction (sand...coarse, medium, fine, very fine, silt/clay). The activity gives students practice in making good observation, measuring, interpreting and analyzing data, and to propose a probable source region for the soil materials. Have students plo Has minimal/no quantitative component

Solomon Isiorho

290

High Arctic wetlands: Their occurrence, hydrological characteristics and sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Arctic wetlands, though limited in occurrence, are an important ecological niche, providing the major vegetated areas in an arid and cold polar desert environment. These wetlands are often found as patches in the barren landscape. At a few locales which may be ice-wedge polygonal grounds, glacial terrain and zones of recent coastal uplift, wetland occurrence can become extensive, forming a mosaic that comprises patches of different wetland types. Reliable water supply during the thawed season is a deciding factor in wetland sustainability. The sources include meltwater from late-lying snowbanks, localized ground water discharge, streamflow, inundation by lakes and the sea, and for some ice-wedge wetlands, ground-ice melt. Different types of wetlands have their own characteristics, and peat accumulation or diatom depositions are common. The peat cover insulates the wetland from summer heating and encourages permafrost aggradation, with the feedback that a shallow frost table reduces the moisture storage capacity in a thinly thawed layer, which becomes easily saturated. All the wetlands studied have high calcium content since they are formed on carbonate terrain. Coastal wetlands have high salt concentration while snowmelt and ground-ice melt provides dilution. The sustainability of High Arctic wetlands is predicated upon water supply exceeding the losses to evaporation and lateral drainage. Disturbances due to natural causes such as climatic variations, geomorphic changes, or human-induced drainage, can reduce inundation opportunities or increase outflow. Then, the water table drops, the vegetation changes and the peat degrades, leading to the detriment of the wetlands.

Woo, Ming-ko; Young, Kathy L.

2006-04-01

291

Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs ecosystems are among the most productive, biologically diverse and culturally important ecosystems on Earth. Net annual productivity of some springs exceeds 5 kg/m^2/yr. Springs support an estimated 19% of the endangered species and numerous rare taxa in the United States. Springs serve as keystone ecosystems in arid regions, and as cornerstones of indigenous cultural well-being, history, economics, and aesthetics. Despite their significance, the ecosystem ecology and stewardship of springs have received scant scientific and public attention, resulting in loss or impairment of 50-90% of the springs in many regions, both arid and temperate. Six reasons contribute to the lack of attention to springs. Springs are poorly mapped because: 1) their generally small size is less than the pixel area of most remote sensing analyses and they are overlooked; and 2) springs detection is often limited by emergence on cliff faces, beneath heavy vegetation cover, or under water. In addition, 3) high levels of ecosystem complexity at springs require multidisciplinary team approaches for inventory, assessment, and research, but collaboration between the fields of hydrogeology and ecology has been limited. 4) Protectionism by land owners and organizations that manage springs limits the availability information, preventing regional assessment of status. 5) Prior to recent efforts, the absence of a descriptive lexicon of springs types has limited discussion about variation in ecological characteristics and processes. 6) Neither regarded entirely as groundwater or as surface water, springs fall 'between jurisdictional cracks' and are not subject to clear legal and regulatory oversight. With regards to the latter point, two jurisdictional phrases have reduced scientific understanding and stewardship of springs ecosystems: 'jurisdictional wetlands' and 'groundwater-dependent ecosystems' (GDEs). Most springs have insufficient monitoring data to establish perenniality or the range of natural variation in flow, and many of the 12 springs types do not develop hydric soils or wetland vegetation. These factors and their normally small size preclude springs as jurisdictional wetlands by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Army Corps of Engineers criteria. Helocrenes (springfed wet meadows, cienegas, and some fens) are considered as wetlands, but the other 11 types of terrestrial springs often are not. The use of the phrase 'GDE' applies to any aquatic ecosystem supported by groundwater, and the utility of this phrase as a descriptor of springs is diluted by its application to all subterranean and surface aquatic habitats. The failure to recognize the importance of springs ecosystems has become a quiet but global crisis, in part due to inappropriate conceptual understanding and poor jurisdictional terminology. We clarify relationships between these concepts and terms to establish effective, consistent monitoring, assessment, restoration, management, and monitoring goals and protocols for improving springs stewardship.

Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

2013-12-01

292

Does Facilitation of Faunal Recruitment Benefit Ecosystem Restoration? An Experimental Study of Invertebrate Assemblages in Wetland Mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used wetland mesocosms (1) to experimentally as- sess whether inoculating a restored wetland site with vegetation\\/sediment plugs from a natural wetland would alter the development of invertebrate commu- nities relative to unaided controls and (2) to determine if stocking of a poor invertebrate colonizer could fur- ther modify community development beyond that due to simple inoculation. After filling mesocosms

Valerie J. Brady; Bradley J. Cardinale; Joseph P. Gathman; Thomas M. Burton

2002-01-01

293

Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e., forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydrogeomorphic, and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 ?g P g-1, of which an average of 58% was extracted in a single-step NaOH-EDTA procedure. The extracts contained a broad range of P forms, including phosphomonoesters (averaging 24% of the total soil P), phosphodiesters (averaging 10% of total P), phosphonates (up to 4% of total P), and both pyrophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates (together averaging 6% of total P). Soil P composition was found to be dependant upon two key biogeochemical properties: organic matter content and pH. For example, stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate were detected exclusively in acidic soils with high mineral content, while phosphonates were detected in soils from a broad range of vegetation and hydrogeomorphic types but only under acidic conditions. Conversely inorganic polyphosphates occurred in a broad range of wetland soils, and their abundance appears to reflect more broadly that of a "substantial" and presumably active microbial community with a significant relationship between total inorganic polyphosphates and microbial biomass P. We conclude that soil P composition varies markedly among freshwater wetlands but can be predicted by fundamental soil properties.

Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

2014-12-01

294

Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e. forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydro-geomorphic and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 ?g P gvegetation and hydrogeomorphic types, but only under acidic conditions. Conversely inorganic polyphosphates occurred in a broad range of wetland soils and their abundance appears to reflect more broadly that of a "substantial" and presumably active microbial community with a significant relationship between total inorganic polyphosphates and microbial biomass P. We conclude that soil P composition varies markedly among freshwater wetlands, but can be predicted by fundamental soil properties.

Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

2014-06-01

295

Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

296

Wetlands and Fish: A Vital Connection 2 What is a Wetland? 3  

E-print Network

#12;Wetlands and Fish: A Vital Connection 2 What is a Wetland? 3 Are Wetlands Important? 4 Wetlands and their Surroundings 5 Wetlands in the U.S. Caribbean Region 6 Distribution 6 Common Wetland Types 7 Saltwater wetlands 7 Freshwater wetlands 7 Wetland Loss and Consequences 9 Fish Need Wetlands 10 Wetlands as Habitat 10

297

Protect Your Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains how to create a wetlands awareness program and how to protect wetlands through the regulatory process. In addition, it explains the federal programs designed to protect wetlands and how to procure state and local protection for wetlands. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. For educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

298

Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

2010-01-01

299

Warm season grass establishment on limestone-amended coal slurry  

SciTech Connect

Direct seeding of limestone amended areas can be an effective alternative to soil covering. Both wetland and upland plant communities have been established on post law (PL 95-87) slurry areas by the Wildlife Research Laboratory of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Terrestrial habitat reclamation has emphasized both cool and warm season grass species, using a 3-year program of limestone amendment (40-50 tons/acre/year) and cover crop (years 1 and 2) and perennial grass (year 3) establishment. Warm season grasses have been included in Midwest slurry reclamation projects since 1984. Vegetation monitoring of three Midwest sites (Illinois and Kentucky), ranging in age from 3 to 12 years since planting, identified current ground cover in excess of 100 percent. Warm season grasses accounted for 48 to 73 percent of the ground cover. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was the dominant warm season species at all sites, with vegetative cover values ranging from 48 to more than 56 percent. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) accounted for 12 to 16 percent of the ground cover at the two Kentucky sites 3 years after establishment. Vegetative density for all species (forbs and grasses) ranged from 539 to 622 stems/m{sup 2} while above ground biomass values ranged from 404 to over 900 gm/m{sup 2}. Warm season grass establishment practices on these direct seeded slurry areas have been successful in providing excellent ground cover and diverse upland wildlife habitat.

Nawrot, J.R.; Skeel, V.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gray, B. [Peabody Coal Company, Graham, KY (United States); Newton, R.

1997-12-31

300

Canada's Wetland Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This detailed information on the wetlands of Canada begins with an introduction defining wetlands and their locations along with details about their value and human and biological threats. The second chapter provides a summary of the Canadian wetland classification system with descriptions on the five classes of wetlands which are bogs, fens, swamps, marshes, and shallow open water. Chapter three gives an opportunity to explore the seven major wetland regions in Canada, which are classified as arctic, subarctic, boreal, prairie, temperate, oceanic, and mountain. The Ramsar internatioinal convention on wetlands and Canadian Ramsar sites are outlined in the last chapter.

301

Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of wetland…

Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

302

How the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1993 has impacted the constitutional dynamics of federal wetlands delineation and regulation  

SciTech Connect

A reliable source of specific criteria for recognizing a wetland, as defined for regulatory purposes would be valuable. In 1987 the Army Corps of Engineers developed a technical manual for identifying wetlands (1987 Wetlands Manual). An interagency manual (1989 Wetlands Manual) was later developed. This manual has been used to identify wetlands according to three evidentiary factors: vegetation, hydrology, and soil. This paper addresses the development of criteria to delineate wetlands, and describes some of the logic used by federal courts to uphold the limited constitutional use of the 1989 Wetlands Manual.

Johnson, J.J.S.; Logan, W.L.

1995-12-31

303

Constructing a Baseline Model of Alpine Wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, contain a variety of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Unlike their counterparts in other areas of the Rocky Mountains, these systems have been relatively unstudied. The Reader Lakes area on the southern slope of the range was selected for detailed study because of its variety of wetland plant communities, homogenous bedrock geology, and minimal human impact. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study is to establish the functional links between the geomorphology and hydrogeology of these high mountain wetlands and their constituent plant communities. In addition to traditional field studies and water chemistry, geospatial technologies are being used to organize and analyze both field data (water chemistry and wetland vegetation) and archived multispectral imagery (2006 NAIP images). The hydrology of these wetlands is dominated by groundwater discharge and their surface is dominated by string-and-flark morphology of various spatial scales, making these montane wetlands classic patterned fens. The drainage basin is organized into a series of large-scale stair-stepping wetlands, bounded by glacial moraines at their lower end. Wetlands are compartmentalized by a series of large strings (roughly perpendicular to the axial stream) and flarks. This pattern may be related to small ridges on the underlying ground moraine and possibly modified by beaver activity along the axial stream. Small-scale patterning occurs along the margins of the wetlands and in sloping-fen settings. The smaller-scale strings and flarks form a complex; self-regulating system in which water retention is enhanced and surface flow is minimized. Major plant communities have been identified within the wetlands for example: a Salix planifolia community associated with the peaty strings; Carex aquatilis, Carex limosa, and Eriophorum angustifolium communities associated with flarks; as well as a Sphagnum sp.- rich hummocky transition zone between wetland and non-wetland areas. On-going analyses of water-chemistry data will be used to identify discrete water sources and to characterize the degree of horizontal and vertical water mixing within the system, as well as to help identify the biochemical requirements of the different plant communities. Results indicate that the chemical composition of the main creek reflects the accumulative effect that the peaty flarks have on the creek as it passes through the wetland system, with pH overall decreasing from 7.3 to 7.0, dissolved oxygen decreasing from 9400 to 8400 micrograms per liter and total dissolved solids increasing from 9 mg/L to 13 mg/L. String ground water is characterized by relatively high pH (ranging from 6.0 to 7.1), high oxidizing-reducing potential (ORP) (ranging from 50 mV to 180 mV), high dissolved oxygen (from 2500 ?g/L to 9600 ?g /L) while flark ground water has relatively lower pH (5.6 to 6.8), low oxidizing reducing potential (ORP) (ranging from -66 mV to 150 mV), low dissolved oxygen (from 900 ?g /L to 9000 ?g /L).

Matyjasik, M.; Ford, R. L.; Bartholomew, L. M.; Welsh, S. B.; Hernandez, M.; Koerner, D.; Muir, M.

2008-12-01

304

-Spatio-temporal variation of salt marsh seedling establishment in relation to the environment -61 Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 61-74, 2001  

E-print Network

- Spatio-temporal variation of salt marsh seedling establishment in relation to the environment variation in plant establishment in the upper intertidal marsh of three southern California wet- lands intertidal marsh. Abbreviations: CCA = Canonical Correspondence Analysis; DCA = Detrended Correspondence

305

Copper stable isotopes to trace copper behavior in wetland systems.  

PubMed

Wetlands are reactive zones of the landscape that can sequester metals released by industrial and agricultural activities. Copper (Cu) stable isotope ratios (?(65)Cu) have recently been used as tracers of transport and transformation processes in polluted environments. Here, we used Cu stable isotopes to trace the behavior of Cu in a stormwater wetland receiving runoff from a vineyard catchment (Alsace, France). The Cu loads and stable isotope ratios were determined in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter (SPM), wetland sediments, and vegetation. The wetland retained >68% of the dissolved Cu and >92% of the SPM-bound Cu, which represented 84.4% of the total Cu in the runoff. The dissolved Cu became depleted in (65)Cu when passing through the wetland (?(65)Cuinlet-outlet from 0.03‰ to 0.77‰), which reflects Cu adsorption to aluminum minerals and organic matter. The ?(65)Cu values varied little in the wetland sediments (0.04 ± 0.10‰), which stored >96% of the total Cu mass within the wetland. During high-flow conditions, the Cu flowing out of the wetland became isotopically lighter, indicating the mobilization of reduced Cu(I) species from the sediments and Cu reduction within the sediments. Our results demonstrate that the Cu stable isotope ratios may help trace Cu behavior in redox-dynamic environments such as wetlands. PMID:24787375

Babcsányi, Izabella; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Granet, Mathieu; Chabaux, François

2014-05-20

306

Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

2009-01-01

307

Advection, dispersion, and filtration of fine particles within emergent vegetation of the Florida Everglades  

E-print Network

wetlands, where changes in sediment fluxes and deposition rates have been shown to alter primaryAdvection, dispersion, and filtration of fine particles within emergent vegetation of the Florida, and the evolution of the wetland landscape. Despite the importance of particle transport in influencing wetland form

308

Wetland Characteristics and Denitrification  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation serves as an initial summary of our wetland field work's watershed characteristics hydrologic characteristics, water quality measurements, and denitrification assays. We present our measurement results in the context of wetland type (Estuarine, Freshwater Mars...

309

Threats to Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents a history of wetland loss and describes how wetlands are lost. It also stresses the consequences of wetland loss including flooding, loss of wildlife habitat, and declining water quality. The site is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. For educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

310

Investigating Neighborhood Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is field investigation where students map a neighborhood wetland and generate various watershed questions. Students identify engineered structures in or around this wetland and consider how flood water can be controlled.

Tim Shulstad, Lincoln Elementary School, Alexandria, MN, based on The Nature of Science and Engineering, an original activity created by Molly Stoddard, Prairie Wetlands Learning Center, Fergus Falls, MN.

311

Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

2010-11-01

312

California Wetlands Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive wetlands information to the general public, the educational community, and government agencies. Though much of the information is California-specific, there is an abundance of location-independent information available. Topics covered include restoration and mitigation, wetlands policy, vernal pools, and the role the state agencies play in wetlands conservation. Site features many links to external resources. The "What's new" section features all the latest California wetlands news and research.

313

Modeling Wetland Vegetation using Polarimetric SAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-year project to study small-scale topographic changes and relict geomorphic features on barrier islands using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is described. A study area on the Texas coast consisting of Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula was overflown by the NASA/JPL DC 8 AIRSAR in April 1995. Data was acquired in the fully polarimetric mode using C-, L-, and P-bands and in the TOPSAR configuration with C- and L-bands in interferometric mode. The study area will be overflown again in late spring 1996. The data will be registered to global positioning system (GPS) surveyed points to form high resolution digital elevation models (DEM) and then analyzed to investigate possible topographic changes.

Slatton, K. Clint; Crawford, Melba M.; Gibeaut, James C.; Gutierrez, Roberto O.

1996-01-01

314

Create a Wetland Scene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about the importance of wetlands. They will learn about the different types of freshwater wetlands and the things that threaten their health. Finally, they will study specific examples of wetland areas of the U.S. and what is being done to protect them.

315

Wetlands: An Interdisciplinary Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of wetlands provides a rich context for curriculum integration. This unit contains seven activities that integrate environmental science with math, technology, social studies, language arts, and other disciplines. In this series, students will identify plants and animals found in wetlands, understand the function of wetlands through the…

Czerniak, Charlene M.

2004-01-01

316

Wetlands, Wildlife, and People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems created when wetlands are drained or altered by humans. Provides a brief case study of the Everglades as an example of the effects of human intervention. Presents four learning activities (along with reproducible worksheets) that deal with the benefits of wetlands, and some debated issues over wetlands. (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

317

EPA Wetlands Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wetlands Education site contains everything teachers need to help students understand wetlands and how they fit into the water cycle and the environment. The site offers links to activities, curricula and instructor guides, education programs, resources and teaching tools to assist teachers in wetlands and habitat education.

318

Ecologically Significant Wetlands  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys FINAL REPORT Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork of the Flathead River Valley Appendix 29b #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys JUNE 1, 1999 DEQ

319

Gulf Coast Wetlands  

article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...

2014-05-15

320

Anacostia River fringe wetlands restoration project: final report for the five-year monitoring program (2003 through 2007)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 6-hectare (ha) freshwater tidal Anacostia River Fringe Wetlands (Fringe Wetlands) were reconstructed along the mainstem of the Anacostia River in Washington, DC (Photograph 1, Figure 1) during the summer of 2003. The Fringe Wetlands consist of two separate planting cells. Fringe A, located adjacent to Lower Kingman Island, on the west bank of the Anacostia River, occupies 1.6 ha; Fringe B, located on the east bank of the Anacostia River, occupies 4.4 ha. This project is the third in a series of freshwater tidal wetland reconstructions on the Anacostia River designed and implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Baltimore District and District Department of the Environment (DDOE) on lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS). The first was Kenilworth Marsh, reconstructed in 1993 (Syphax and Hammerschlag 2005); the second was Kingman Marsh, reconstructed in 2000 (Hammerschlag et al. 2006). Kenilworth and Kingman were both constructed in low-energy backwaters of the Anacostia. However, the Fringe Wetlands, which were constructed on two pre-existing benches along the high-energy mainstem, required sheet piling to provide protection from erosive impacts of increased flow and volume of water associated with storm events during the establishment phase (Photograph 2). All three projects required the placement of dredged sediment materials to increase elevations enough to support emergent vegetation (Photograph 3). The purpose of all three wetland reconstruction projects was to restore pieces of the once extensive tidal freshwater marsh habitat that bordered the Anacostia River historically, prior to the dredge and fill operations and sea wall installation that took place there in the early to mid-1900's (Photograph 4).

Krafft, Cairn C.; Hammerschlag, Richard S.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

2009-01-01

321

Factors affecting waterfowl use of constructed wetlands in northwestern Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterfowl pair and brood use of constructed wetlands was evaluated during 1980–81 on 4 Wildlife Management Areas in northwestern\\u000a Minnesota. Weekly ground counts of waterfowl were made at each of 109 wetlands during the April to mid-July nesting season\\u000a and correlated with physical, vegetative, and limnological characteristics. The number of pairs of the 10 most common waterfowl\\u000a species using the

Douglas A. Leschisin; Gary L. Williams; Milton W. Weller

1992-01-01

322

Wetlands of the Magellanic Steppe (Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our main objective was to classify vegetation and soils of wetlands in northern Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) along a latitudinal\\u000a precipitation gradient within the Magellanic Steppe Zone. We presented the first detailed ecological characterization of these\\u000a wetlands by relating floristic composition to local site conditions, bedrock and climate. The survey consisted of 125 phytosociological\\u000a censuses and 52 soil profile descriptions.

Marta B. Collantes; Juan A. Anchorena; Susana Stoffella; Celina Escartín; Ruth Rauber

2009-01-01

323

The growing season water balance and controls on evapotranspiration in wetland reclamation test cells Fort McMurray, Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the oil sands mining region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, efforts to establish specific wetland reclamation techniques are underway. During the 2010 growing season, the water balance of 12 plots (cells) of different soil and vegetation treatments were studied with emphasis on understanding the controls on evapotranspiration (ET) and the effects of construction techniques. Cell hydrologic behaviour was distinct from natural wetlands due to frequent artificial irrigation. ET ranged from ˜0 6 mm day-1 to ˜8.2 mm day-1 with a mean of ˜3.2 mm day-1 and variation among the cells was attributed to the construction techniques used, specifically placement period and soil depth. ET was weakly correlated to individual environmental variables; however, multivariate statistical models revealed complex interactions among environmental variables that acted to control ET. Cumulative water balances indicated certain construction techniques produced ET rates comparable to natural wetlands, which may be an important factor in improving the long-term sustainability of reclaimed wetlands.

Faubert, Jean-Pascal R.

324

Evaluation of surface water dynamics for water-food security in seasonal wetlands, north-central Namibia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural use of wetlands is important for food security in various regions. However, land-use changes in wetland areas could alter the water cycle and the ecosystem. To conserve the water environments of wetlands, care is needed when introducing new cropping systems. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the water dynamics in the case of the introduction of rice-millet mixed-cropping systems to the Cuvelai system seasonal wetlands (CSSWs) in north-central Namibia. We first investigated seasonal changes in surface water coverage by using satellite remote sensing data. We also assessed the effect of the introduction of rice-millet mixed-cropping systems on evapotranspiration in the CSSWs region. For the former investigation, we used MODIS and AMSR-E satellite remote sensing data. These data showed that at the beginning of the wet season, surface water appears from the southern (lower) part and then expands to the northern (higher) part of the CSSWs. For the latter investigation, we used data obtained by the classical Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) method at an experimental field site established in September 2012 on the Ogongo campus, University of Namibia. This analysis showed the importance of water and vegetation conditions when introducing mixed-cropping to the region.

Hiyama, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hanamura, M.; Mizuochi, H.; Kambatuku, J. R.; Niipele, J. N.; Fujioka, Y.; Ohta, T.; Iijima, M.

2014-09-01

325

Influence of beaver impoundments on vegetative composition, and modeling habitat suitability as a tool for wildlife management and conservation.  

E-print Network

??Beavers (Castor canadensis) can have dramatic effects on vegetative communities through impounding streams and wetlands. These alterations may influence rare plant species where beaver create… (more)

Bonner, Jerri LeAnne.

2005-01-01

326

Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands  

PubMed Central

During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ?30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

2010-01-01

327

Design Methodology of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple criteria, guidelines and models are established for free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland selection and preliminary sizing. The analysis employs models for FWS constructed wetland design, considering simultaneously the removal requirements and the hydraulics of the system. On the basis of these models, a step-by-step methodology is developed outlining the design procedure for new and performance evaluation for existing

Maria A. Economopoulou; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis

2004-01-01

328

Use of JERS Satellite Imagery Mosaics for Boreal Wetlands Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands play a critical role, not only in the health of boreal ecosystems, but also as significant carbon sinks and sources whose quantification may be key in balancing the global carbon budget. An accurate assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of wetlands could thus be used to significantly improve estimates of the global net carbon exchange. The locations, types, and extents of wetlands are still uncertain, however, partly because it is difficult to identify and classify wetlands on a global scale using widely available optical remote sensing data. Low-frequency synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is well suited to the task of identifying and classifying wetlands. Its ability to penetrate the forest canopy has been used to advantage in characterizing vegetation structure, biomass, and moisture content. It is especially sensitive to scattering from flooded forest swamplands, due to its ability to penetrate vegetation and reflect back from standing water under vegetation. We have used multi-temporal L-band JERS-1 SAR imagery in order to produce a thematic map of wetlands in the North American boreal zone. The map will identify four land cover classes based on their distinct scattering characteristics: Open water, Herbacious wetlands (e.g., marshes, fens, bogs), Woody wetlands (e.g., swamps), and Non-wetlands. Tasks involved in generating the map included the following: 1) training sites for each class within each ecoregion are identified, 2) two seasons of JERS imagery are geographically co-registered with a digital elevation model (DEM), a slope model, and an open water mask, 3) the slope model is used to mask out areas that cannot be wetlands and the open water mask is applied to distinguish herbacious wetlands from open water, 4) the spectral characteristics of each wetlands class as a function of imagery acquisition date and boreal ecoregion are identified, and 5) classification is performed by a combination of the spectral/eco-regional knowledgebase with a minimum distance classifier. The performance of the algorithm is validated using ground truth reference data from multiple wetland validation sites of known characteristics.

Whitcomb, J. B.; Moghaddam, M.; Kellndorfer, J.; McDonald, K.; Podest, E.

2005-12-01

329

Wetlands in Changed Landscapes: The Influence of Habitat Transformation on the Physico-Chemistry of Temporary Depression Wetlands  

PubMed Central

Temporary wetlands dominate the wet season landscape of temperate, semi-arid and arid regions, yet, other than their direct loss to development and agriculture, little information exists on how remaining wetlands have been altered by anthropogenic conversion of surrounding landscapes. This study investigates relationships between the extent and type of habitat transformation around temporary wetlands and their water column physico-chemical characteristics. A set of 90 isolated depression wetlands (seasonally inundated) occurring on coastal plains of the south-western Cape mediterranean-climate region of South Africa was sampled during the winter/spring wet season of 2007. Wetlands were sampled across habitat transformation gradients according to the areal cover of agriculture, urban development and alien invasive vegetation within 100 and 500 m radii of each wetland edge. We hypothesized that the principal drivers of physico-chemical conditions in these wetlands (e.g. soil properties, basin morphology) are altered by habitat transformation. Multivariate multiple regression analyses (distance-based Redundancy Analysis) indicated significant associations between wetland physico-chemistry and habitat transformation (overall transformation within 100 and 500 m, alien vegetation cover within 100 and 500 m, urban cover within 100 m); although for significant regressions the amount of variation explained was very low (range: ?2 to ?5.5%), relative to that explained by purely spatio-temporal factors (range: ?35.5 to ?43%). The nature of the relationships between each type of transformation in the landscape and individual physico-chemical variables in wetlands were further explored with univariate multiple regressions. Results suggest that conservation of relatively narrow (?100 m) buffer strips around temporary wetlands is likely to be effective in the maintenance of natural conditions in terms of physico-chemical water quality. PMID:24533161

Bird, Matthew S.; Day, Jenny A.

2014-01-01

330

Tools for Carex revegetation in freshwater wetlands: understanding dormancy loss and germination temperature requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carex is a globally distributed genus with more than 2000 species worldwide and Carex species are the characteristic vegetation of sedge meadow wetlands. In the mid-continental United States, Carex species are dominant in natural freshwater wetlands yet are slow to recolonize hydrologically restored wetlands. To aid in\\u000a Carex revegetation efforts, we determined the dormancy breaking and temperature germination requirements of

Karin M. Kettenring; Susan M. Galatowitsch

2007-01-01

331

Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale wetland was constructed to assess the feasibility of treating the wastewater from a tool industry in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. The wastewater had high conductivity and pH, and contained Cr, Ni and Zn. This paper describes the growth of vegetation in the experimental wetland and the nutrient and metal removal.The wetland was 6×3×0.4m. Water discharge was 1000ld?1

H. R. Hadad; M. A. Maine; C. A. Bonetto

2006-01-01

332

A comparison of sampling techniques to estimate number of wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Service use annual estimates of the number of ponded wetlands to estimate duck production and establish duck hunting regulations. Sampling techniques that minimize bias may provide more reliable estimates of annual duck production. Using a wetland geographic information system (GIS), we estimated number of wetlands using standard counting protocol with belt transects and samples of square plots. Estimates were compared to the known number of wetlands in the GIS to determine bias. Bias in transect-derived estimates ranged from +67-87% of the known number of wetlands, compared to bias of +3-6% in estimates from samples of 10.24-km2 plots. We recommend using samples of 10.24-km2 plots stratified by wetland density to decrease bias.

Johnson, R.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.; Jenks, J.A.

1999-01-01

333

Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)  

SciTech Connect

This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action.

Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.; Rosensteel, B.; Awl, D. [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

1994-10-01

334

Removal of metals in constructed wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Trace metals are difficult to remove from municipal wastewater by conventional wastewater treatment methods. Constructed wetlands have the potential to trap and remove metals from the water column. Long term removal is expected to occur by accumulation and burial in the plant detritus in a manner similar to the removal of phosphorus. Few data are available in the literature on removal of metals by constructed wetlands. A free water surface constructed wetland at Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant treating secondary municipal effluent has been operating since the spring of 1994. Removal data for 13 metals are presented for the period from August 1994 to May 1995. About 3,785 m{sup 3}/d (1 mgd) of pure oxygen activated sludge effluent, disinfected using UV light, is further treated through a 8 ha (20 acre) constructed wetlands Ten separate, parallel treatment cells are available to demonstrate the effects of detention time, vegetation management, and application frequency on the removal of metals, organics and ammonia. Detention time can be varied from 3 to 13 days by varying the flow and the water depth. The vegetation, primarily bulrush with some cattails, will be managed by different techniques to minimize mosquito production. Application frequency varies from continuous flow to batch flow (1 to 2 days of loading with 1 day of discharge).

Crites, R.W.; Watson, R.C.; Williams, C.R.

1996-12-31

335

H. R. 2594: This Act may be cited as the Wetlands Stewardship Trusts Act of 1991, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 7, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on June 7, 1991 to provide for the designation of Wetlands Stewardship Trusts. This legislation amended the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to establish special rules for contributions of wetlands and riparian lands to Wetlands Stewardship Trusts. Key features of the bill address the following: tax treatment of donations of wetlands and riparian lands to Wetlands Stewardship Trusts; amortization of expenditures to restore wetlands and riparian lands; expenditures for restoring wetlands and riparian lands; exclusion from gross income for amounts received from compatible uses of wetlands or riparian lands; and income from compatible uses of wetlands or riparian lands.

Not Available

1991-01-01

336

Symbiont nitrogenase, alder growth, and soil nitrate response to phosphorus addition in alder ( Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) is a characteristic species of scrub-shrub 1-type wetlands, the second most common wetland type in major watersheds of the Adirondack Mountains in New York State. Speckled alder is an actinorhizal nitrogen fixer that relies heavily on N2 over soil N and fixes substantial amounts of nitrogen in wetlands, resulting in little vegetation processing of

Kemal Gökkaya; Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal

2006-01-01

337

Ecological risk assessment of a wetland exposed to boron  

SciTech Connect

A wetland located in the southeastern portion of the United States was the site of an investigation to determine the potential ecological risk of elevated boron concentrations to the flora and fauna living in the wetland. The conceptual model identified the vegetation as the primary receptor of concern, and thus the vegetation is the focus of this article. Samples of surface water, sediments, and selected vegetation were collected from the study wetland and several nearby reference sites and were analyzed for boron. Concentrations of boron in all three media exceeded reference site concentrations. Boron concentrations were highest near the suspected source but decreased almost to reference-site concentrations near the outer perimeter of the wetland. Some plants appeared stressed with yellowing and necrotic leaves; however, a correlation between tissue boron concentrations and the plant`s visual appearance was not apparent for all species studied. Modeling of the fate of boron indicated that the wetland has likely been at a steady state for many years and that boron concentrations were not expected to increase. It was concluded that no observable adverse ecological impacts to the vegetation could be attributed to boron, nor is it likely that the boron poses an unacceptable risk to the surrounding areas.

Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Coyle, G.T. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States). Environmental Sciences Center; Best, G.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-11-01

338

Experimental investigation of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation are not fully understood. K...

339

Laboratory measurements of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surge and waves generated by hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation a...

340

Recognizing Wetlands An Informational Pamphlet  

E-print Network

Recognizing Wetlands An Informational Pamphlet What is a Wetland? The US Army Corps of Engineers(Corps) and the US Environmental Protection Agency define wetlands as follows: Those areas that are inundated conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas. Wetlands are areas

US Army Corps of Engineers

341

Wetland Loss and Biodiversity Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most species of wetland-dependent organisms live in multiple local populations sustained through occasional migration. Retention of minimum wetland densities in human-dominated landscapes is funda- mental to conserving these organisms. An analysis of wetland mosaics was performed for two regions of the northeastern United States to assess the degree to which historical wetland loss alters the metrics of wetland mosaics and

James P. Gibbs

2000-01-01

342

Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Three Plant Species in Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three common Appalachian plant species (Juncus effusus L., Scirpus validus L., and Typha latifolia L.) were planted into small-scale constructed wetlands receivingprimary treated wastewater. The experimental design includedtwo wetland gravel depths (45 and 60 cm) and five plantingtreatments (each species in monoculture, an equal mixture of the three species, and controls without vegetation), with two replicates per depth × planting

Jerry Coleman; Keith Hench; Keith Garbutt; Alan Sexstone; Gary Bissonnette; Jeff Skousen

2001-01-01

343

INFLUENCE OF CATTLE GRAZING AND PASTURE LAND USE ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES IN FRESHWATER WETLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of wetland abiotic variables and aquatic invertebrate community structure to cattle stocking density, pasture type, and dominant vegetation were evaluated in subtropical pastures. Cattle were stocked at four treatment levels on improved (fertilized) and semi-native (unfertilized) pastures in south- central Florida, USA. Improved pasture wetlands were dominated either by Panicum hemitomon (maiden- cane) or by a mixture of Polygonum

Alan D. Steinman; Julie Conklin; Patrick J. Bohlen; Donald G. Uzarski

2003-01-01

344

HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF LARVAL FISH IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Habitat associations of larval fishes in Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCW) are not well documented. To determine the distribution of larval fish in coastal wetlands with regard to location and vegetation characteristics, we used a larval tow-sled to sample four macrohabitat typ...

345

EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES AND BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON WATER QUALITY OF SEASONAL PRAIRIE POTHOLE WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Long-term effectsof within-basin tillage can constrain condition and function of prairie wetlands even after uplands are restored. Runoff was significantly greater to replicate wetlands within tilled basins with or without vegetated buffer strips as compared to ConsrvationReserve...

346

Reporting on ecological condition and ecosystem services for the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The first-ever National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 2011. Vegetation, algae, soil, water chemistry, and hydrologic data were collected at ~900 wetland points across the contiguous United States. The NW...

347

The Role of Migratory Waterfowl as Nutrient Vectors in a Managed Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense aggregations of waterfowl, often caused by loss of native wetlands and increased waterfowl numbers, can result in the destruction of wetland vegetation and agricultural crops, increase the risk of infec- tious disease outbreaks, and decrease water quality. Problems related to water quality may be particularly se- vere in arid regions of the southwestern United States, where water quality and

D. M. Post; J. P. Taylor; J. F. Kitchell; M. H. Olson; D. E. Schindler; B. R. Herwig

1998-01-01

348

Classifying and mapping wetlands and peat resources using digital cartography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital cartography allows the portrayal of spatial associations among diverse data types and is ideally suited for land use and resource analysis. We have developed methodology that uses digital cartography for the classification of wetlands and their associated peat resources and applied it to a 1:24 000 scale map area in New Hampshire. Classifying and mapping wetlands involves integrating the spatial distribution of wetlands types with depth variations in associated peat quality and character. A hierarchically structured classification that integrates the spatial distribution of variations in (1) vegetation, (2) soil type, (3) hydrology, (4) geologic aspects, and (5) peat characteristics has been developed and can be used to build digital cartographic files for resource and land use analysis. The first three parameters are the bases used by the National Wetlands Inventory to classify wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. The fourth parameter, geological aspects, includes slope, relief, depth of wetland (from surface to underlying rock or substrate), wetland stratigraphy, and the type and structure of solid and unconsolidated rock surrounding and underlying the wetland. The fifth parameter, peat characteristics, includes the subsurface variation in ash, acidity, moisture, heating value (Btu), sulfur content, and other chemical properties as shown in specimens obtained from core holes. These parameters can be shown as a series of map data overlays with tables that can be integrated for resource or land use analysis.

Cameron, Cornelia C.; Emery, David A.

1992-01-01

349

Vulnerability of Northern Prairie Wetlands to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the effect of climate change on northern prairie wetlands. The prairie pothole region (PPR) lies in the heart of North America and contains millions of glacially formed, depressional wetlands embedded in a landscape matrix of natural grassland and agriculture. These wetlands provide valuable ecosystem services and produce 50% to 80% of the continent's ducks. We explored the broad spatial and temporal patterns across the PPR between climate and wetland water levels and vegetation by applying a wetland simulation model (WETSIM) to 18 stations with 95-year weather records. Simulations suggest that the most productive habitat for breeding waterfowl would shift under a drier climate from the center of the PPR (the Dakotas and southeastern Saskatchewan) to the wetter eastern and northern fringes, areas currently less productive or where most wetlands have been drained. Unless these wetlands are protected and restored, there is little insurance for waterfowl against future climate warming. WETSIM can assist wetland managers in allocating restoration dollars in an uncertain climate future

W. CARTER JOHNSON, BRUCE V. MILLETT, TAGIR GILMANOV, RICHARD A. VOLDSETH, GLENN R. GUNTENSPERGEN, and DAVID E. NAUGLE (;)

2005-11-01

350

Agricultural Encroachment: Implications for Carbon Sequestration in Tropical African Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical wetlands have been shown to exhibit high rates of net primary productivity and may therefore play an important role in global climate change mitigation through carbon assimilation and sequestration. Many permanently flooded areas of tropical East Africa are dominated by the highly productive C4 emergent macrophyte sedge, Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus). However, increasing population densities around wetland margins in East Africa are reducing the extent of papyrus coverage due to the planting of subsistence crops such as Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). We have assessed the impact of this land use change on the carbon cycle in theis wetland environment. Eddy covariance techniques were used, on a campaign basis, to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide over both papyrus and cocoyam dominated wetlands located on the Ugandan shore of Lake Victoria. The integration of flux data over the annual cycle shows that papyrus wetlands have the potential to act as a sink for significant amounts of carbon, in the region of 10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The cocoyam vegetation was found to assimilate ~7 t C ha-1 yr-1 but when carbon exports from crop biomass removal were taken into account these wetlands represent a significant net loss of carbon of similar magnitude. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required in order to promote the dual wetland function of crop production and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions especially under future climate change scenarios.

Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.; Kansiime, F.

2013-12-01

351

Assessment of Water Availability Impact on Wetland Management using Multi-temporal Landsat Images and Bayesian-based Learning Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water availability has a direct impact on the wetland ecosystems. While wetland managers need better information to allocate scarce water to improve wetland services, most monitoring activities of flood areas and vegetation condition on wetlands relies on manual estimation of water depth and use of airboat with GPS devices. This process is costly and time-consuming. Remote sensing techniques have been previously used to characterize vegetation conditions along with hydrological characteristics of the wetlands with excellent results. Nevertheless, limited analysis has been done to relate the resulting wetland characterization with the historical water availability records. The present paper addresses the lack of adequate feedback on wetland conditions upon the available water for the wetland system by making use of multi-temporal Landsat images. These images are processed at wetland unit and system level to extract information about vegetation, soil and water conditions. This information is then correlated with historical water availability records for the wetland system by means of the Relevance Vector Machine, a Bayesian-based algorithm known for its robustness, efficiency, and sparseness. This research is applied at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (the Refuge), located on the northeast side of Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Refuge constitutes one of the most important habitats for migratory birds for the Pacific Flyway of North America. Water-discharge records and coverage vegetation collected at the Refuge has been used to calibrate and evaluate the effects on wetland services to the process of flooding and drought in wetland units during different years. The final product of this research is to provide a methodology that wetland managers can use to make informed decisions about water allocation to improve wetland services while avoiding wasting resources, effort, time and money.

Alminagorta, O.; Torres, A. F.

2013-12-01

352

Restoration of a forested wetland ecosystem in a thermally impacted stream corridor  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Swamp is a 3,020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS). Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950`s. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 50 C. The nearly continuous flood of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. Research has been ongoing to determine methods to reintroduce tree species characteristic of more mature forested wetlands. The goal of the restoration is to create structural and biological diversity in the forest canopy by establishing a mix of species typically present in riparian and wetland forests of the area.

Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Corp., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; McKee, W.H. Jr.; Dulohery, C.J. [Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States). Center for Forested Wetlands Research

1995-09-01

353

Transport and attenuation of dissolved glyphosate and AMPA in a stormwater wetland.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is an herbicide used widely and increasingly since the early 1990s in production of many crops and in urban areas. However, knowledge on the transport of glyphosate and its degradation to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in ecosystems receiving urban or agricultural runoff is lacking. Here we show that transport and attenuation of runoff-associated glyphosate and AMPA in a stormwater wetland differ and largely vary over time. Dissolved concentrations and loads of glyphosate and AMPA in a wetland receiving runoff from a vineyard catchment were assessed during three consecutive seasons of glyphosate use (March to June 2009, 2010 and 2011). The load removal of glyphosate and AMPA by the wetland gradually varied yearly from 75% to 99%. However, glyphosate and AMPA were not detected in the wetland sediment, which emphasises that sorption on the wetland vegetation, which increased over time, and biodegradation were prevailing attenuation processes. The relative load of AMPA as a percentage of total glyphosate increased in the wetland and ranged from 0% to 100%, which indicates the variability of glyphosate degradation via the AMPA pathway. Our results demonstrate that transport and degradation of glyphosate in stormwater wetlands can largely change over time, mainly depending on the characteristics of the runoff event and the wetland vegetation. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for considering degradation products of runoff-associated pesticides during their transfer in wetlands, in particular when using stormwater wetlands as a management practice targeting pesticide attenuation. PMID:22633860

Imfeld, Gwenaël; Lefrancq, Marie; Maillard, Elodie; Payraudeau, Sylvain

2013-01-01

354

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

355

Establishment, succession, and stability of vegetation on surface mined lands in eastern Montana. Annual progress report, June 1, 1975February 29, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological investigation of reclamation and plant succession on stripmined lands near Colstrip, Montana, was initiated in July, 1975. The purpose of the study is to investigate and document the permanence and stability of plant communities established on lands mined since 1923. Nine fenced exclosures on 1 to 8 year old reclamation plantings and on 44 to 53 year old

Sindelar

1976-01-01

356

-Long-term assessment of seed provenance effect on the establishment of Bromus erectus -821 Journal of Vegetation Science 19: 821-830, 2008  

E-print Network

- Long-term assessment of seed provenance effect on the establishment of Bromus erectus - 821 of the perennial grass Bromus erectus Zeiter, Michaela1* & Stampfli, Andreas1,2 1Institute of Plant Sciences Switzerland. Methods: 18 000 seeds of Bromus erectus of three provenances were sown in a reciprocal design

Stampfli, Andreas

357

Vegetation Colonization in a Restoring Tidal Marsh: A Remote Sensing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although remote sensing offers the ability to monitor wetland restoration, few have tested automated methods for quantifying vegetation change. We implemented a semiautomated technique using color infrared aerial photography and a common vegetation index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), to document vege- tation colonization in a restoring salt marsh. Change in vegetation over a period of 10 years was analyzed

Karin A. Tuxen; Lisa M. Schile; Maggi Kelly; Stuart W. Siegel

2008-01-01

358

Changes in plant form and function across altitudinal and wetness gradients in the wetlands of the Maloti-Drakensberg, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 93 wetlands in six catchments across the Maloti-Drakensberg is used to assess the distribution of plant functional\\u000a types across altitudinal and wetness gradients. Altitudes range from 1,000 to 3,200 m a.s.l. Within each catchment, the wetlands\\u000a were selected to cover the complete range in altitude and wetland types. In each of the selected wetlands, vegetation was\\u000a sampled in

Erwin J. J. Sieben; Craig D. Morris; Donovan C. Kotze; A. Muthama Muasya

2010-01-01

359

Wetlands and Bird Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity demonstrates that coastal wetlands are an important factor to insure the success of bird migration. Students will discover that ponds, lakes and marshes provide food and shelter for traveling birds and, without the wetlands, birds would not have the energy to make the trek from areas as far south as Panama. They also learn that besides providing habitats for waterfowl, wetlands help relieve flooding, filter pollutants and are an integral part of the biosphere.

360

Observing Wetland Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Observing Wetland Habitats contains tips on finding wetlands to explore and wetland scavenger hunt observation sheets that can be used as a starting point for discovery. While on their scavenger hunt, students can look for adaptations in plants and animals that help them live in a partially wet habitat. After the students have finished their scavenger hunt, they can share what they've seen and heard.

361

Hurricane Katrina: Wetland Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wetlands along the southern coastlines of the United States serve as natural blocks to approaching hurricanes, starving them of warm ocean water and creating physical barriers to storm surge floods. However, construction of levees and canals in the last one hundred years has turned thousands of square miles of wetland habitat into open water. This video explores the importance of wetlands and examines the damage Hurricane Katrina caused to a wetland area south of New Orleans. The segment is one minute fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

362

The Influence of Speckled Alder on Nitrogen Accumulation in Adirondack Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrub-dominated wetlands of the Adirondacks typically support vigorous populations of nitrogen-fixing speckled alder Alnus incana (L.) Moench var. americana Regel), and are the second most abundant wetland type in the Adirondack region. In symbiotic association with an actinomycete of the genus Frankia, this shrub fixes 37-43 kg N/ha/yr in monotypic stands. This study was undertaken to quantify the abundance of alder in wetlands typed as "Scrub-shrub 1" (SS1; known as alder/willow wetlands) in the National Wetlands Inventory, and to determine the accumulation of nitrate and ammonium in alder wetland substrates. Twenty wetlands from the Oswegatchie-Black (OB) and Upper Hudson (UH) watersheds were randomly selected using the Adirondack Park Agency's GIS data base which includes wetland cover types assigned using remotely sensed data. Wetlands designated as "SS1" (scrub-shrub vegetation) and "SS1/EM1" (scrub-shrub with emergent herbaceous vegetation) were included in the sample. Six wetlands varying in alder abundance were chosen to estimate N accumulation in the substrate, with measurement of dissolved inorganic N in groundwater and ion exchange resin extracts. In the OB watershed, A. incana averaged 30 % of total shrub density in SS1 wetlands and 36 % in SS1/EM1 wetlands. Alder accounted for 49 % of all stems in UH SS1 wetlands, 28 % in the SS1/EM1 wetlands and in total accounted for 35 % of all stems in this study. Nitrate in IER extracts and groundwater was significantly higher in high-density alder wetlands (p < 0.05). Eight of the 20 wetlands included in this study were estimated to have less than 3,000 alder stems/ha, and five were estimated to have greater than 10,000 stems/ha. The other seven wetlands averaged 6,000 stems/ha. At nine sites, foliar N equaled or exceeded estimated atmospheric deposition (~10 kg/ha/yr), and was likely derived from N fixation. We conclude that 50 % of the SS1/EM1 wetlands and at least 75 % of the SS1 wetlands in these watersheds are characterized by elevated nitrate due to the effect of alder on these systems.

Kiernan, B. D.; Hurd, T. M.; Raynal, D. J.

2001-05-01

363

Constructed wetlands in UK urban surface drainage systems.  

PubMed

This paper presents the outcome of an inventory of planted wetland systems in the UK which are classified according to land use type and are all examples of sustainable drainage systems. The introduction of constructed wetlands to treat surface runoff essentially followed a 1997 Environment Agency for England and Wales report advocating the use of "soft engineered" facilities including wetlands in the context of sustainable development and Agenda 21. Subsequently published reports by the UK Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) have promoted the potential benefits to both developer and the community of adopting constructed wetlands and other vegetated systems as a sustainable drainage approach. In addition, the UK Environment Agency and Highways Agency (HA) have recently published their own design criteria and requirements for vegetative control and treatment of road runoff. A case study of the design and performance of a constructed wetland system for the treatment of road runoff is discussed. The performance of these systems will be assessed in terms of their design criteria, runoff loadings as well as vegetation and structure maintenance procedures. The differing design approaches in guidance documents published in the UK by the Environment Agency, CIRIA and HA will also be evaluated. PMID:16042240

Shutes, B; Ellis, J B; Revitt, D M; Scholes, L N L

2005-01-01

364

Mercury in Wetlands, Adirondack Region of New York State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands play a prominent role in the cycling of mercury by harboring bacteria that transform mercury into methyl mercury, a neurotoxin, and by having high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that interact with mercury transport. We are measuring total mercury and methyl mercury in vegetation, soil, surface water, and ground water in the Sunday Lake watershed, in which wetlands cover 274 ha of the 1340-ha watershed area. Three wetland types occur: (1) riparian wetlands adjacent to low-order streams that drain the upland forested watershed; (2) peat-forming wetlands dominated by Carex sedges; and, (3) low shrub, Sphagnum (bog moss) dominated peatlands. Total mercury concentrations in wetland ground waters were greater in the riparian wetland (10.6 ng/L) and in sites with shallow peat than deep peat, suggesting water moves more readily around the peat than through it. The highest rates of microbial activity occurred in the top 10-cm of the sedge-derived peat, presumably being fueled by the freshest organic matter, although there was no relationship between microbial activity and DOC. Microbial sulfate reduction, which can methylate inorganic mercury, occurred in sites closest to low-order streams, presumably being fueled by sulfate brought into wetlands in surface water. Sites located away from the stream had microbial methane production, where demethylation might be occurring. Overall the wetlands are the primary source of methyl mercury within the watershed, and we are measuring water flow pathways and microbial processes to learn more about wetland controls of mercury cycling in watersheds.

Yavitt, J. B.; Kalicin, M.; Driscoll, C. T.; Newton, R.; Munson, R.

2001-05-01

365

Wetland reclamation by accelerating succession  

SciTech Connect

This research analyzed mechanisms and processes for accelerating natural succession in order to restore soils and forests on clay setting areas left from phosphate mining in central Florida. Field measurements of succession on unreclaimed clay ponds showed wet sites dominated by dense stands of small shrubby willows even after 60 years with succession arrested because of a shortage of seeds for later stage trees. For drier sites an orderly procession of pioneer wetland trees colonized when wetland seed sources were within 20 meters. The first woody species were willows, myrtles, and baccharis followed in 5 to 10 years by red maple and elm. Oaks colonized slightly drier elevations. Hackberry, cherry, and sweetgum were also found. Experiments in which 3000 seedlings of 11 species were planted in six clay settling areas demonstrated succession can be accelerated. After the first growing season, results suggest that mixed swamp vegetation typical of floodplains may be the most suitable forested wetland community for settling pond reclamation. Percent survival was best for Carolina ash, American elm, and red maple. Some alluvial floodplain species were intermediate in success with 74% survival for baldcypress, 61% for sweetgum, and 61% for laurel oak. Trees from bayheads had the least survival with 52% for swampbay and 41% for loblolly bay. Poorest survival for all species planted (39%) was swamp tupelo. Floodplain species which required fairly dry conditions had poor survival, i.e., southern magnolia (53%) and cabbage palm (43%). Planted tree seedlings were more cost effective than placing seeds on the ground and covering them with litter. A simulation model with hydrologic regimes and outside seeding was used to summarize the operation of the successional system. Simulation that suggested trends for a longer time period than those observed in the field trials are yet to be confirmed.

Rushton, B.T.

1988-01-01

366

International Wetlands Conference WETLANDS IN A COMPLEX WORLD  

E-print Network

9th INTECOL International Wetlands Conference WETLANDS IN A COMPLEX WORLD June 3-8, 2012 Orlando .................................................................................... 27 Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) Section-Organized Symposia and Section-Sponsored Sessions.................................................................................................................. 222 #12;9 th INTECOL: International Wetlands Conference 2 WELCOME TO THE JOINT CONFERENCE OF: 9TH

Slatton, Clint

367

Evaluating Wetlands Sustainability Using a Hierarchical Systems Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hierarchical systems analysis approach, using Geographical Information Systems (GIS)software, is used to integrate and assess the different types of data necessary to characterize the surface and ground-water system as it pertains to the wetlands environment within the landscape context. This hierarchical approach was applied to the Cucumber Gulch wetlands complex, located near Breckenridge, Colorado. The Cucumber Gulch watershed is currently being studied for proposed expansion and development of the existing Breckenridge ski area. The delineated wetland complex is a jurisdictional wetland and is protected under section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The proposed development has the potential to impact the wetlands complex. The various data integrated through the hierarchical systems analysis include climate, topography, geomorphology, geology, vegetation, hydrology, and anthropogenic influences to the natural system. A three-dimensional solid computer model of the surface and sub-surface geology was constructed. Through analysis and integration of these various layers, the surface and ground-water hydrological framework and flow models were developed and calibrated. Throughout the process the ground-water modeling performed to assess the sustainability of the wetland was reconciled with the hydrological framework developed from the "soft" data layers, and with the hydrologic system conceptual model developed from the hierarchical systems analysis. This hierarchical systems approach to modeling provided the Town of Breckenridge with means of assessing the validity of the computer models and potential impact to the wetland complex. Computer modeling was continually refined in response to this process.

Allen, L. E.; Kolm, K. E.

2002-12-01

368

Effect of constructed wetlands receiving agricultural return flows on disinfection byproduct precursors.  

PubMed

The effects of wetland treatment on disinfection byproduct precursors were evaluated for six constructed wetlands receiving agricultural return flows in the Central Valley of California. Wetlands varied in size, age, vegetation, hydrologic residence time (0.9-20 days) and water management (continuous flow vs. flood pulse). The effects of wetland treatment were determined by analyzing input and outflow waters for dissolved organic carbon concentration and quality, bromide concentration, and formation potentials for nine disinfection byproduct species, including trihalomethanes, haloacetronitriles, chloral hydrate, and haloketones. We hypothesized that hydraulic residence time was a key factor governing differences in disinfection byproduct precursors. Small wetlands (<3 ha) with short hydraulic residence times (<2 days) did not produce significant changes in disinfection byproduct precursor concentrations with respect to the agricultural return flows input to the wetlands. In these wetlands hydraulic residence times were not long enough to promote processes that adversely affect dissolved organic carbon and bromide quantity, such as evapoconcentration and leaching from vegetation. Thus, less negative effects were associated with disinfection byproduct formation. In contrast, larger wetlands (>100 ha) with long hydraulic residence times (>10 days) resulted in higher dissolved organic carbon and bromide levels, increasing disinfection byproduct formation by factors ranging between 1.7 and 10.2 compared to agricultural return flows. Results from this study provide important information for optimizing the design and management of constructed wetlands to effectively combine control of disinfection byproduct precursors with other water quality parameters. PMID:19375774

Díaz, Francisco J; Chow, Alex T; O'Geen, Anthony T; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wong, Po-Keung

2009-06-01

369

Differences in wetland nitrogen cycling between the invasive grass Microstegium vimineum and a diverse plant community.  

PubMed

Wetlands are valuable for buffering waterways from excess nitrogen, yet these habitats are often dominated by invasive plant species. There is little understanding as to how various invasive species alter ecosystem nitrogen cycling, especially if one invasive overtakes an entire community of plants. Microstegium vimineum is a nonnative annual grass from Asia that is dominating riparian wetlands in the southeastern United States. To evaluate M. vimineum impacts on the N cycle, we used six paired plots, one invaded by M. vimineum and the other carefully weeded of M. vimineum; removal allowed the establishment of a diverse plant community consisting of Polygonum, Juncus, and Carex species. In the paired plots, we estimated (1) N uptake and accumulation in vegetation biomass, (2) rates of decomposition and N release from plant detritus, (3) mineral soil N mineralization and nitrification, (4) root zone redox potential, and (5) soil water concentrations of inorganic N. The M. vimineum community accumulated approximately half the annual N biomass of the diverse community, 5.04 vs. 9.36 g N x m(-2) x yr(-1), respectively (P = 0.05). Decomposition and release of N from M. vimineum detritus was much less than in the diverse community, 1.19 vs. 5.24 g N x m(-2) x yr(-1). Significantly higher inorganic soil N persisted beneath M. vimineum during the dormant season, although rates of soil N mineralization estimated by in situ incubations were relatively similar in all plots. Microstegium vimineum invasion thus appears to greatly diminish within-ecosystem circulation of N through the understory plants of these wetlands, whereas invasion effects on ecosystem N losses may derive more from enhanced denitrification (due to lower redox potential under M. vimineum plots) than due to leaching. Microstegium vimineum's dominance and yet slower internal cycling of N are counterintuitive to conventional thinking that ecosystems with high N contain vegetation that quickly uptake and release N. PMID:20437951

DeMeester, Julie E; DeB Richter, Daniel

2010-04-01

370

Wetland Resources of Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park online report provides an overview of the park's wetlands and associated flora and fauna. Chapters include wetland plants, wetlands and wildlife, wetlands and people, thermal wetlands, a wetland inventory, wetland classification and acreage, and others. Information is presented as text, photos, graphs, tables, and maps.

Elliott Charles

371

Wetlands and Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This forum from the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks discusses the creation of wetlands as a means to help cure village sewage problems. The author believes that constructed wetlands have the potential to capture pollutants from sewage lagoons and keep them from drifting downstream to be ingested by animals and plants.

Rozell, Ned; Geophysical Institute, University O.

372

Constructed wetlands: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first aim of this invited literature review is critically to review and evaluate hydrological, physical and biochemical processes within natural and constructed wetlands. The second aim is to contribute the thoughts of the authors to the discussion with the help of a case study focusing on gully pot liquor treatment. The performances of constructed treatment wetlands with and without

Miklas Scholz

2005-01-01

373

Sedimentation of Prairie Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its high standards, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC, discussed in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has released more wetland resources. Sedimentation of Prairie Wetlands by Robert Gleason and Ned Euliss, Jr. was first released in 1998.

374

Loss of Wetlands: Subsidence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These demonstrations help to define subsidence and illustrate the resulting effects on wetlands. They will also introduce global warming and sea-level rise as factors in wetland loss. There are suggestions for more complex models to teach subsidence and formation of sinkholes related to the removal of subsurface materials such as gas and oil.

375

Wetlands and Web Pages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the preservation of areas like the Shoreline Park (California) wetlands depends on educating students about the value of natural resources. Describes the creation of a Web page on the wetlands for third-grade students by seventh-grade art and ecology students. Outlines the technical process of developing a Web page. (DSK)

Tisone-Bartels, Dede

1998-01-01

376

Wetlands Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has provided an extensive list of over 40 fact sheets relating to various aspects of wetlands. Most are provided in a low resoluion format for viewing or a high resolution format for printing. A great deal of basic information regarding the definition, values, and functions of wetlands is provided.

377

Wetland Restoration Response Analysis using MODIS and Groundwater Data  

PubMed Central

Vegetation cover and groundwater level changes over the period of restoration are the two most important indicators of the level of success in wetland ecohydrological restoration. As a result of the regular presence of water and dense vegetation, the highest evapotranspiration (latent heat) rates usually occur within wetlands. Vegetation cover and evapotranspiration of large areas of restoration like that of Kissimmee River basin, South Florida will be best estimated using remote sensing technique than point measurements. Kissimmee River basin has been the area of ecological restoration for some years. The current ecohydrological restoration activities were evaluated through fractional vegetation cover (FVC) changes and latent heat flux using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Groundwater level data were also analyzed for selected eight groundwater monitoring wells in the basin. Results have shown that the average fractional vegetation cover and latent heat along 10 km buffer of Kissimmee River between Lake Kissimmee and Lake Okeechobee was higher in 2004 than in 2000. It is evident that over the 5-year period of time, vegetated and areas covered with wetlands have increased significantly especially along the restoration corridor. Analysis of groundwater level data (2000-2004) from eight monitoring wells showed that, the average monthly level of groundwater was increased by 20 cm and 34 cm between 2000 and 2004, and 2000 and 2003, respectively. This change was more evident for wells along the river.

Melesse, Assefa M.; Nangia, Vijay; Wang, Xixi; McClain, Michael

2007-01-01

378

HYDROGEOMORPHIC INFLUENCES ON MACROPHYTES AS HABITAT IN GREAT LAKES WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

We used rapid survey techniques to map saubmergerd, floating and emergent vegetation in 10 coastal wetlands of Lake Superior. Density and structure of plant beds in "bay," "main channel," and "side channel" areas was evaluated from cover indices and presence/dominance by growth f...

379

Wetland Ecosystem Services Vary With Climate for Prairie Pothole Landscapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydrology is the primary mechanism for the cyclic vegetation dynamics collectively known as the wetland cover cycle, which drives ecosystem services for the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). These palustrine, depressional basin waters vacillate with regional drought and deluge, so surface water fluctuat...

380

7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...within a certified wetland is subject to change when the soil, hydrology, and vegetation evaluation is completed and identified as...certification only if a natural event alters the topography or hydrology of the subject land to the extent that the final...

2011-01-01

381

7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...within a certified wetland is subject to change when the soil, hydrology, and vegetation evaluation is completed and identified as...certification only if a natural event alters the topography or hydrology of the subject land to the extent that the final...

2010-01-01

382

7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...within a certified wetland is subject to change when the soil, hydrology, and vegetation evaluation is completed and identified...certification only if a natural event alters the topography or hydrology of the subject land to the extent that the final...

2013-01-01

383

7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.  

...within a certified wetland is subject to change when the soil, hydrology, and vegetation evaluation is completed and identified...certification only if a natural event alters the topography or hydrology of the subject land to the extent that the final...

2014-01-01

384

7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...within a certified wetland is subject to change when the soil, hydrology, and vegetation evaluation is completed and identified...certification only if a natural event alters the topography or hydrology of the subject land to the extent that the final...

2012-01-01

385

Where are the Wetlands?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students walk around outdoors and observe the wetlands they find. Observations will include types of plants and animals, types of soil, smells, and sounds that may be different from those they have experienced in places they might not consider to be a wetland. In a wooded area students look for signs that water has been there although it may be dry when they are there. They look for water marks on trees, debris and leaves caught in bushes or trees above ground level, leaf litter that is soft due to absorption of water from the ground, or plant leaves covered with a film of mud or silt as they try to identify one or more types of wetland. Students may collect and identify wetland plants and consult topographic maps of the wetland area.

386

Building spectral libraries for wetlands land cover classification and hyperspectral remote sensing.  

PubMed

Recent advances in remote sensing provide opportunities to map plant species and vegetation within wetlands at management relevant scales and resolutions. Hyperspectral imagers, currently available on airborne platforms, provide increased spectral resolution over existing space-based sensors that can document detailed information on the distribution of vegetation community types, and sometimes species. Development of spectral libraries of wetland species is a key component needed to facilitate advanced analytical techniques to monitor wetlands. Canopy and leaf spectra at five sites in California, Texas, and Mississippi were sampled to create a common spectral library for mapping wetlands from remotely sensed data. An extensive library of spectra (n=1336) for coastal wetland communities, across a range of bioclimatic, edaphic, and disturbance conditions were measured. The wetland spectral libraries were used to classify and delineate vegetation at a separate location, the Pacheco Creek wetland in the Sacramento Delta, California, using a PROBE-1 airborne hyperspectral data set (5m pixel resolution, 128 bands). This study discusses sampling and collection methodologies for building libraries, and illustrates the potential of advanced sensors to map wetland composition. The importance of developing comprehensive wetland spectral libraries, across diverse ecosystems is highlighted. In tandem with improved analytical tools these libraries provide a physical basis for interpretation that is less subject to conditions of specific data sets. To facilitate a global approach to the application of hyperspectral imagers to mapping wetlands, we suggest that criteria for and compilation of wetland spectral libraries should proceed today in anticipation of the wider availability and eventual space-based deployment of advanced hyperspectral high spatial resolution sensors. PMID:18395960

Zomer, R J; Trabucco, A; Ustin, S L

2009-05-01

387

HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

388

Wetland Wildlife Ecology Spring 2012  

E-print Network

for the management, restoration and conservation of wetlands and the wildlife they support. #12;2 Instructor: Debbie1 WIS 4443C 4 credits Wetland Wildlife Ecology Spring 2012 Course Objectives Lecture and Laboratory of major wetland types the types of animals that use wetlands, their abundance and distribution within

Watson, Craig A.

389

Wetland Losses and Human Impacts  

E-print Network

Common Alaska (Minnesota Michigan) Estuarine wetlands are most common coastal wetland Gulf of Mexico Restoration? Human Influences on Wetlands Deforestation Agricultural Use Especially in SE Cotton, rice1 Wetland Losses and Human Impacts Matthew J. Gray University of Tennessee Distribution of North

Gray, Matthew

390

Are Small, Isolated Wetlands Expendable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is most evident in the recent debate concerning new wetland regulations drafted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is that small, isolated wetlands will likely continue to be lost. The critical biological question is whether small wetlands are expendable, and the fundamental issue is the lack of biologically rele- vant data on the value of wetlands, especially so-called

Raymond D. Semlitsch; J. Russell Bodie

1998-01-01

391

Regulating Constructed Wetlands in Scotland  

E-print Network

23/05/2012 1 Regulating Constructed Wetlands in Scotland Andy Hemingway Constructed wetlands for Industry & Commerce 21st May 2012 Content · Types of wetland from regulatory perspective · Main regulatory regimes · Regulatory considerations and case studies of constructed wetlands ­ Sewage ­ Industrial

Heal, Kate

392

Mitigation of two pyrethroid insecticides in a Mississippi Delta constructed wetland.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands are a suggested best management practice to help mitigate agricultural runoff before entering receiving aquatic ecosystems. A constructed wetland system (180 m x 30 m), comprising a sediment retention basin and two treatment cells, was used to determine the fate and transport of simulated runoff containing the pyrethroid insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, as well as suspended sediment. Wetland water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally over 55 d. Results showed 49 and 76% of the study's measured lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin masses were associated with vegetation, respectively. Based on conservative effects concentrations for invertebrates and regression analyses of maximum observed wetland aqueous concentrations, a wetland length of 215 m x 30 m width would be required to adequately mitigate 1% pesticide runoff from a 14 ha contributing area. Results of this experiment can be used to model future design specifications for constructed wetland mitigation of pyrethroid insecticides. PMID:18789833

Moore, M T; Cooper, C M; Smith, S; Cullum, R F; Knight, S S; Locke, M A; Bennett, E R

2009-01-01

393

The value of wetlands in protecting southeast louisiana from hurricane storm surges.  

PubMed

The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 have spurred global interest in the role of coastal wetlands and vegetation in reducing storm surge and flood damages. Evidence that coastal wetlands reduce storm surge and attenuate waves is often cited in support of restoring Gulf Coast wetlands to protect coastal communities and property from hurricane damage. Yet interdisciplinary studies combining hydrodynamic and economic analysis to explore this relationship for temperate marshes in the Gulf are lacking. By combining hydrodynamic analysis of simulated hurricane storm surges and economic valuation of expected property damages, we show that the presence of coastal marshes and their vegetation has a demonstrable effect on reducing storm surge levels, thus generating significant values in terms of protecting property in southeast Louisiana. Simulations for four storms along a sea to land transect show that surge levels decline with wetland continuity and vegetation roughness. Regressions confirm that wetland continuity and vegetation along the transect are effective in reducing storm surge levels. A 0.1 increase in wetland continuity per meter reduces property damages for the average affected area analyzed in southeast Louisiana, which includes New Orleans, by $99-$133, and a 0.001 increase in vegetation roughness decreases damages by $24-$43. These reduced damages are equivalent to saving 3 to 5 and 1 to 2 properties per storm for the average area, respectively. PMID:23536815

Barbier, Edward B; Georgiou, Ioannis Y; Enchelmeyer, Brian; Reed, Denise J

2013-01-01

394

The Value of Wetlands in Protecting Southeast Louisiana from Hurricane Storm Surges  

PubMed Central

The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 have spurred global interest in the role of coastal wetlands and vegetation in reducing storm surge and flood damages. Evidence that coastal wetlands reduce storm surge and attenuate waves is often cited in support of restoring Gulf Coast wetlands to protect coastal communities and property from hurricane damage. Yet interdisciplinary studies combining hydrodynamic and economic analysis to explore this relationship for temperate marshes in the Gulf are lacking. By combining hydrodynamic analysis of simulated hurricane storm surges and economic valuation of expected property damages, we show that the presence of coastal marshes and their vegetation has a demonstrable effect on reducing storm surge levels, thus generating significant values in terms of protecting property in southeast Louisiana. Simulations for four storms along a sea to land transect show that surge levels decline with wetland continuity and vegetation roughness. Regressions confirm that wetland continuity and vegetation along the transect are effective in reducing storm surge levels. A 0.1 increase in wetland continuity per meter reduces property damages for the average affected area analyzed in southeast Louisiana, which includes New Orleans, by $99-$133, and a 0.001 increase in vegetation roughness decreases damages by $24-$43. These reduced damages are equivalent to saving 3 to 5 and 1 to 2 properties per storm for the average area, respectively. PMID:23536815

Barbier, Edward B.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Enchelmeyer, Brian; Reed, Denise J.

2013-01-01

395

Creating and managing wetland impoundments to provide habitat for aquatic birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Patuxent Research Refuge, located in Central Maryland (USA), has approximately 140 ha of impoundments that were constructed for recreational and wildlife conservation purposes. Impoundments are of three major designs: dammed ravines, excavated basins, and diked ponds. Over 50 species of wetland plants were transplanted to impoundments of Patuxent from many parts of the United States between 1945 and 1963 to determine the species best suited for establishment in tannin-stained infertile waters. The wood duck was the only waterfowl species commonly observed on the Refuge when the area was established, but Canada geese, mallards, and black ducks, were introduced and numerous techniques developed to improve nesting and brood habitat. Twenty-six waterfowl species and 80 species of other water birds have used the impoundments for resting, feeding, or nesting. Management is now conducted to optimize avian biodiversity. Management techniques include drawdowns of water every 3-5 years in most impoundments to provide maximum plant and invertebrate food resources for wildlife. Research on the impounded wetlands at Patuxent has included evaluation of vegetation in regard to water level management, improving nest box design to reduce use of boxes by starlings, imprinting of waterfowl to elevated nesting structures to reduce predation on nests, and drawdown techniques to increase macroinvertebrates. Data on waterfowl abundance are evaluated relative to management activities and a preliminary computer model for management of the impoundments has been developed. Past, present, and future management and research projects are reviewed in this paper.

Perry, M.C.; Kangas, P.; Obrecht, H.H., III

2000-01-01

396

Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Cassadaga Creek Tributary Crossing, Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. Topical report, August 1992--November 1993  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 3-4, 1992, at the Cassadaga wetlands crossing in Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. The pipeline at this site was installed during February and March 1981. After completion of pipeline installation, the ROW was fertilized, mulched, and seeded with annual ryegrass. Two adjacent sites were surveyed in this study: a forested wetland and an emergent wetlands Eleven years after pipeline installation, the ROW at both sites supported diverse vegetative communities. Although devoid of large woody species, the ROW within the forested wetland had a dense vegetative cover. The ROW within the emergent wetland had a slightly less dense and more diverse vegetative community compared with that in the adjacent natural areas (NAs). The ROW within the emergent wetland also had a large number of introduced species that were not present in the adjacent NAs. The ROW, with its emergent marsh plant community, provided habitat diversity within the forested wetlands Because the ROW contained species not found within the adjacent NAs, overall species diversity was increased.

Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-01

397

VEGETATION ASSESSMENT OF SAWAN WARI OF NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation assessment of Sawan Wari of Nara Desert was carried out in the month of October, 2001. Different vegetation parameters like cover, frequency and density were recorded using Quadrate method. These values were computed to obtain Importance Value Index (IVI) and plant communities were delineated. Five plant communities were constructed from 5 distinct habitats i.e., 1) Phragmites- Typha-Saccharum in wetland;

RAHMATULLAH QURESHI

2008-01-01

398

Pipeline corridors through wetlands - summary of seventeen plant-community studies at ten wetland crossings. Topical report, February 1990--August 1994  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program, Argonne National Laboratory conducted field studies on 10 wetland crossings located in six states to document impacts of natural gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) on 15 wetland plant communities. This study is unique in the number, range, ages, and variety of wetland crossings surveyed and compared. Vegetation data and recorded observations were analyzed to reveal patterns associated with age, installation technology, maintenance practices, and wetland type. This report summarizes the findings of this study. Results revealed that ROWs of pipelines installed according to recent wetland regulations rapidly revegetated with dense and diverse plant communities. The ROW plant communities were similar to those in the adjacent natural areas in species richness, wetland indicator values, and percentages of native species. The ROW plant communities developed from naturally available propagules without fertilization, liming, or artificial seeding. ROWs contributed to increased habitat and plant species diversity in the wetland. There was little evidence that they degrade the wetland by providing avenues for the spread of invasive and normative plant species. Most impacts are temporal in nature, decreasing rapidly during the first several years and more slowly thereafter to the extent permitted by maintenance and other ROW activities.

Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States); Shem, L.M.; Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-01

399

EVALUATION OF WETLAND DEVELOPMENT AND WATERBIRD RESPONSE AT ELK CREEK WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA, LAKE MILLS, IOWA, 1961-1990  

EPA Science Inventory

A waterfowl habitat development project involving 7.5 miles of stream was evaluated after 27 years. here was a modest 12% net increase in wetlands in impounded areas, but much of the wetland vegetation changed from seasonally flooded, nonpersistent and persistent emergents to sha...

400

Responsiveness of Great Lakes Wetland Indicators to Human Disturbances at Multiple Spatial Scales: A Multi-Assemblage Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing indicators of ecosystem condition is a priority in the Great Lakes, but little is known about appropriate spatial scales to characterize disturbance or response for most indicators. We surveyed birds, fish, amphibians, aquatic macroinvertebrates, wetland vegetation, and diatoms at 276 coastal wetland locations throughout the U.S. Great Lakes coastal region during 2002–2004. We assessed the responsiveness of 66 candidate

John C. Brazner; Nicolas P. Danz; Anett S. Trebitz; Gerald J. Niemi; Ronald R. Regal; Tom Hollenhorst; George E. Host; Euan D. Reavie; Terry N. Brown; JoAnn M. Hanowski; Carol A. Johnston; Lucinda B. Johnson; Robert W. Howe; Jan J. H. Ciborowski

2007-01-01

401

A multivariate assessment of changes in wetland habitat for waterbirds at Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We assessed changes in vegetative structure of 49 impoundments at Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR), Maine, USA, between the periods 1984-1985 to 2002 with a multivariate, adaptive approach that may be useful in a variety of wetland and other habitat management situations. We used Mahalanobis Distance (MD) analysis to classify the refuge?s wetlands as poor or good waterbird habitat based on five variables: percent emergent vegetation, percent shrub, percent open water, relative richness of vegetative types, and an interspersion juxtaposition index that measures adjacency of vegetation patches. Mahalanobis Distance is a multivariate statistic that examines whether a particular data point is an outlier or a member of a data cluster while accounting for correlations among inputs. For each wetland, we used MD analysis to quantify a distance from a reference condition defined a priori by habitat conditions measured in MNWR wetlands used by waterbirds. Twenty-five wetlands declined in quality between the two periods, whereas 23 wetlands improved. We identified specific wetland characteristics that may be modified to improve habitat conditions for waterbirds. The MD analysis seems ideal for instituting an adaptive wetland management approach because metrics can be easily added or removed, ranges of target habitat conditions can be defined by field-collected data, and the analysis can identify priorities for single or multiple management objectives.

Hierl, L.A.; Loftin, C.S.; Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Urban, D.L.

2007-01-01

402

Bioassessment of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Wetland Habitats of Lake Saint-Pierre (St. Lawrence River)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the potential of vegetation and sediment habitats in wetlands of the St. Lawrence River for developing a macroinvertebrate bioassessment program with reference conditions. During September 2004, we collected macroinvertebrates in emergent vegetation and sediment in both fluvial sites (reference) and tributary-plume sites (impacted) in waters of the north and south shores of Lake Saint-Pierre (St. Lawrence River). In

Laure Tall; Ginette Méthot; Alain Armellin; Bernadette Pinel-Alloul

2008-01-01

403

Wetlands Functions and Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module on wetland functions and values is the newest addition to the EPA's Watershed Academy Website (first reviewed in the January 19, 2000 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The module explores the ecological and societal benefits and values that wetlands provide, such as "fish and wildlife habitats, natural water quality improvement, flood storage, shoreline erosion protection, opportunities for recreation and aesthetic appreciation," and much more. First-time users will find helpful instructions at "How to navigate this module;" the hyperlinked instructional text is also accompanied by useful color images. For anyone interested in wetland ecology, there is much to be learned (or reviewed) here.

2001-01-01

404

Wetlands Functions and Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module on wetland functions and values is the newest addition to the EPA's Watershed Academy Website. The module explores the ecological and societal benefits and values that wetlands provide, such as "fish and wildlife habitats, natural water quality improvement, flood storage, shoreline erosion protection, opportunities for recreation and aesthetic appreciation," and much more. First-time users will find helpful instructions at "How to navigate this module;" the hyperlinked instructional text is also accompanied by useful color images. For anyone interested in wetland ecology, there is much to be learned (or reviewed) here.

2007-07-30

405

Channel, Floodplain, And Wetland Responses To Floods And Overbank Sedimentation, 1846-2006, Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi Valley, Wisconsin  

EPA Science Inventory

Conversion of upland forest and prairie vegetation to agricultural land uses, following Euro-American settlement in the Upper Mississippi River System, led to accelerated runoff and soil erosion that subsequently transformed channels, floodplains, and wetlands on bottomlands. Ha...

406

Integrated wetland management: an analysis with group model building based on system dynamics model.  

PubMed

The wetland system possesses diverse functions such as preserving water sources, mediating flooding, providing habitats for wildlife and stabilizing coastlines. Nonetheless, rapid economic growth and the increasing population have significantly deteriorated the wetland environment. To secure the sustainability of the wetland, it is essential to introduce integrated and systematic management. This paper examines the resource management of the Jiading Wetland by applying group model building (GMB) and system dynamics (SD). We systematically identify local stakeholders' mental model regarding the impact brought by the yacht industry, and further establish a SD model to simulate the dynamic wetland environment. The GMB process improves the stakeholders' understanding about the interaction between the wetland environment and management policies. Differences between the stakeholders' perceptions and the behaviors shown by the SD model also suggest that our analysis would facilitate the stakeholders to broaden their horizons and achieve consensus on the wetland resource management. PMID:25194518

Chen, Hsin; Chang, Yang-Chi; Chen, Kung-Chen

2014-12-15

407

Improved wetland remote sensing in Yellowstone National Park using classification trees to combine TM imagery and ancillary environmental data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the term palustrine wetland to describe vegetated wetlands traditionally identified as marsh, bog, fen, swamp, or wet meadow. Landsat TM imagery was combined with image texture and ancillary environmental data to model probabilities of palustrine wetland occurrence in Yellowstone National Park using classification trees. Model training and test locations were identified from National Wetlands Inventory maps, and classification trees were built for seven years spanning a range of annual precipitation. At a coarse level, palustrine wetland was separated from upland. At a finer level, five palustrine wetland types were discriminated: aquatic bed (PAB), emergent (PEM), forested (PFO), scrub-shrub (PSS), and unconsolidated shore (PUS). TM-derived variables alone were relatively accurate at separating wetland from upland, but model error rates dropped incrementally as image texture, DEM-derived terrain variables, and other ancillary GIS layers were added. For classification trees making use of all available predictors, average overall test error rates were 7.8% for palustrine wetland/upland models and 17.0% for palustrine wetland type models, with consistent accuracies across years. However, models were prone to wetland over-prediction. While the predominant PEM class was classified with omission and commission error rates less than 14%, we had difficulty identifying the PAB and PSS classes. Ancillary vegetation information greatly improved PSS classification and moderately improved PFO discrimination. Association with geothermal areas distinguished PUS wetlands. Wetland over-prediction was exacerbated by class imbalance in likely combination with spatial and spectral limitations of the TM sensor. Wetland probability surfaces may be more informative than hard classification, and appear to respond to climate-driven wetland variability. The developed method is portable, relatively easy to implement, and should be applicable in other settings and over larger extents. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wright, C.; Gallant, A.

2007-01-01

408

A method for detecting dewatering effects of underground mining activities on surface wetlands  

SciTech Connect

In 1996 US Energy/Kennecott Uranium Company initiated a large-scale, long-term monitoring program to document whether or not proposed uranium mining activities under Green Mountain in Central Wyoming would cause a groundwater draw-down resulting in changes in the existing riparian/wetland habitats. The monitoring program consisted of establishing 12 study drainages on Green Mountain and six control drainages on an adjacent but hydrologically isolated mountain not scheduled for mining. Baseline data were collected in 1996 and 1997 prior to the commencement of mining. For each drainage, breeding bird densities (birds/km) and richness (species/km), winter wild ungulate fecal pellet group densities (groups/km), small mammal densities (captures/trap night), and density and species composition of aquatic macro invertebrates were measured along permanent, marked transects within each riparian zone. In order to characterize the baseline vegetation and isolate the effects of livestock grazing, species composition, percent cover, production, and type boundary delineation of riparian vegetation were quantified within adjacent fenced and unfenced half-acre sample sites within each drainage. Baseline photographs were taken at permanent marked points from fixed angles at each of the sample sites. Piezometer holes were drilled at each monitoring site for measuring potential changes in ground water levels over time. If, during mining, water levels are found to drop significantly from baseline, a new study of wildlife and vegetative parameters would be conducted to determine whether or not significant decreases in wetland function or changes from baseline characteristics have occurred.

Hayden-Wing, L.D.; Baldwin, J.R.; Webber, K.; Winstead, J.B.

1999-07-01

409

Hydrology or floristics? Mapping and classification of wetlands in Victoria, Australia, and implications for conservation planning.  

PubMed

A national approach to the conservation of biodiversity in Australia's freshwater ecosystems is a high priority. This requires a consistent and comprehensive system for the classification, inventory, and assessment of wetland ecosystems. This paper, using the State of Victoria as a case study, compares two classification systems that are commonly utilized to delineate and map wetlands--one based on hydrology (Victorian Wetland Database [VWD]) and one based on indigenous vegetation types and other natural features (Ecological Vegetation Classes [EVC]). We evaluated the extent of EVC mapping of wetlands relative to the VWD classification system using a number of datasets within a geographical information system. There were significant differences in the coverage of extant EVCs across bioregions, different-sized wetlands, and VWD wetland types. Resultant depletion levels were markedly different when examined using the two systems, with depletion levels, and therefore perceived conservation status, of EVCs being significantly higher. Although there is little doubt that many wetland ecosystems in Victoria are in fact threatened, the extent of this threat cannot accurately be determined by relying on the EVC mapping as it currently stands. The study highlighted the significant impact wetland classification methods have in determining the conservation status of freshwater ecosystems. PMID:15747407

Robertson, Hugh A; Fitzsimons, James A

2004-10-01

410

del Moral--Primary Successional Wetland--1 PREDICTABILITY OF PRIMARY SUCCESSIONAL WETLANDS ON PUMICE,  

E-print Network

ON PUMICE, MOUNT ST. HELENS ROGER DEL MORAL Department of Botany, Box 355325, University of Washington. (1999) studied wetlands established after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens on the Pumice Plain on pumice. Earlier studies on Mount St. Helens suggested that homogeneity increases as species expand from

del Moral, Roger

411

The Virginia Wetlands Report  

E-print Network

that Roberts' graphic demonstration of siting The Virginia Wetlands Report Northern Neck Workshops Prove." Curry, a five-year veteran board member who knows his manual through and through, was surprised to see

412

The Value of Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department explores the role of the wetlands in our environment, including providing habitats for wildlife, acting as natural water filters, and playing a part in the greater water cycle.

2007-08-09

413

Environmental Protection Agency: Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created this site to inform the general public about their role in wetland preservation and restoration. At the top of their page, visitors can read the "What they are" area to get some basic definitions, look over some fact sheets, and learn about the recent history of wetlands in the United States. Also on the homepage are sections such as "Why Protect Wetlands?", "How are Wetlands Protected?", and "What You Can Do To Protect our Vital Resource". These sections are meant for general audiences, and they might be used in classroom settings as a way to illuminate the role of the EPA and some of the broader concerns surrounding different natural environments. The right-hand side of the homepage features "In the News" items about recent regulatory changes, interagency agreements, and public hearings and comment periods. Finally, on the left-hand side of the page contains thematic sections like "Monitoring and Assessment", "Restoration", and "Education".

414

Wetland Filter Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (located on page 2 of the PDF), learners will model how wetlands act as natural filters for the environment. Learners prepare a mixture of water, soil, gravel, and leaves and then pour it down a piece of artificial grass, observing how much gets trapped in the fake grass and comparing water at the bottom with the initial âpollutedâ sample. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Wetlands.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

415

Wastewater Reclamation/Wetlands  

E-print Network

supplied by Trinity Valley Electric Cooperative ? Incoming power 138 kV reduced to 5 kV Conveyance Pipeline Conveyance Pipeline ? Transfers polished water to outfall structure at Lavon Lake ? Pipeline divided into 3 segments ? Northern ? Central... Wetland easement (2000 acres) 3.7 miles 1.4 miles Direction of flow NORTH FM 3039 US 175 Five Major Components ? Diversion Pump Station & Diversion Structure ? Constructed Wetland ? Conveyance Pump Station ? Electrical Substation...

Hickey, D.

2011-01-01

416

Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf ?13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific ?13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ?29 and ?33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ?29 and ?33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ?29 and ?33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and ?13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2013-12-01

417

Fish Utilisation of Wetland Nurseries with Complex Hydrological Connectivity  

PubMed Central

The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting ‘facultative wetland resident’ group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the ’interrupted persistence’ group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the ‘facultative wetland resident’ and ‘delayed recruitment group’, and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the ‘delayed recruitment’ group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity. Consequently, there is a need to incorporate this diversity into understandings of habitat function, conservation and management. PMID:23152857

Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

2012-01-01

418

Living in Harmony with Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) site provides basic information on wetland areas and is written so that adults and children may use the site to learn more about these areas. These summaries include information on where wetlands are located, how a wetland is defined, and what kinds of animals and plants are found in wetlands. Additionally, information is provided on common agricultural practices and crops found in wetland areas. This site is a good source for a quick tour through wetlands and what they can contribute to an ecosystem.

Natural Resources Conservation Service / Attn: Conservation Communication Staff

419

Wetland Loss: Digging of Canals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students build a model canal and perform experiments with it to illustrate the destruction of wetlands, resulting from the digging of canals for oil and gas exploration in the coastal wetlands and cypress logging in the swamps. Older students will examine topographic maps of the area in which they live to identify natural and constructed canals in the wetlands, and find older maps to compare the area of wetlands before and after major canals were built. Students can also research the relationship between channel building, subsidence and salt-water intrusion, and wetland loss in both fresh and salt-water wetlands across the United States.

420

Transfer of pesticides and copper in a stormwater wetland receiving contaminated runoff from a vineyard catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands can collect contaminated runoff from urban and agricultural catchments, and have intrinsic physical, chemical and biological processes useful for mitigating pesticides. However, knowledge about the ability of wetlands to mitigate pesticide mixtures in runoff is currently very limited. Our results show that stormwater wetlands that primarily serve for flood protection can also be effective tools for reducing concentrations and loads of runoff-related pesticides. Concentrations and loads of 20 pesticides and degradation products, as well as copper were continuously recorded during the period of pesticide application (April to September 2009, 2010 and 2011) at the inlet, the outlet and in sediments of a stormwater wetland that collects runoff from a vineyard catchment. Removal rates of dissolved loads ranged from 39% (simazine) to 100% (cymoxanil, gluphosinate, kresoxim methyl and terbuthylazine). Dimethomorph, diuron, glyphosate and metalaxyl were more efficiently removed in spring than in summer. The calculation of sedimentation rates from discharge measurements and total suspended solids (TSS) values revealed that the wetland retained more than 77% of the input mass of suspended solids, underscoring the capability of the wetland to trap pesticide-laden particles. Only flufenoxuron was frequently detected in the wetland sediments. An inter-annual comparison showed that changes in the removal of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, a degradation product of glyphosate), isoxaben or simazine can be attributed mainly to the larger vegetation cover in 2010 compared to 2009. More than 80% of the copper load entering the wetland was retained in the sediments and the plants. Our results demonstrate that stormwater wetlands can efficiently remove pesticide mixtures and copper in agricultural runoff during critical periods of pesticide application. Nevertheless, fluctuations in the runoff regime, as well as the vegetation and hydrochemical characteristics affect the removal rate of individual pesticides and copper in stormwater wetlands. Therefore the use of stormwater wetlands as a management practice targeting pesticide and copper mitigation should not be conceived as a unique solution to treat pesticide runoff.

Maillard, E.; Babcsanyi, I.; Payraudeau, S.; Imfeld, G.

2012-04-01

421

EVALUATING CREATED WETLANDS THROUGH COMPARISONS WITH NATURAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the evaluation and recommendations regarding n approach to wetland sampling and characterization developed by the Wetlands Research Program (WRP) at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR. etween trials, team ...

422

Opposing environmental gradients govern vegetation zonation in an intermountain playa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation zonation was investigated at an intermountain playa wetland (Mishak Lakes) in the San Luis Valley (SLV) of southern\\u000a Colorado. Plant composition and abiotic conditions were quantified in six vegetation zones. Reciprocal transplants were performed\\u000a to test the importance of abiotic factors in governing zonation. Abiotic conditions differed among several vegetation zones.\\u000a Prolonged inundation led to anaerobic soils in the

John S. Sanderson; Natasha B. Kotliar; David A. Steingraeber

2008-01-01

423

[Changes of wetland landscape pattern in Dayang River Estuary based on high-resolution remote sensing image].  

PubMed

Based on the comprehensive consideration of the high resolution characteristics of remote sensing data and the current situation of land cover and land use in Dayang River Estuary wetland, a classification system with different resolutions of wetland landscape in the Estuary was established. The landscape pattern indices and landscape transition matrix were calculated by using the high resolution remote sensing data, and the dynamic changes of the landscape pattern from 1984 to 2008 were analyzed. In the study period, the wetland landscape components changed drastically. Wetland landscape transferred from natural wetland into artificial wetland, and wetland core regional area decreased. Natural wetland's largest patch area index descended, and the fragmentation degree ascended; while artificial wetland area expanded, its patch number decreased, polymerization degree increased, and the maximum patch area index had an obvious increasing trend. Increasing human activities, embankment construction, and reclamation for aquaculture were the main causes for the decrease of wetland area and the degradation of the ecological functions of Dayang River Estuary. To constitute long-term scientific and reasonable development plan, establish wetland nature reserves, protect riverway, draft strict inspective regimes for aquaculture reclamation, and energetically develop resource-based tourism industry would be the main strategies for the protection of the estuarine wetland. PMID:22007462

Wu, Tao; Zhao, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Feng-shou; Wei, Bao-quan

2011-07-01

424

Microtopography enhances nitrogen cycling and removal in created mitigation wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural wetlands often have a heterogeneous soil surface topography, or microtopography (MT), that creates microsites of variable hydrology, vegetation, and soil biogeochemistry. Created mitigation wetlands are designed to mimic natural wetlands in structure and function, and recent mitigation projects have incorporated MT as one way to attain this goal. Microtopography may influence nitrogen (N) cycling in wetlands by providing adjacent areas of aerobic and anaerobic conditions and by increasing carbon storage, which together facilitate N cycling and removal. This study investigated three created wetlands in the Virginia Piedmont that incorporated disking-induced MT during construction. One site had paired disked and undisked plots, allowing an evaluation of the effects of this design feature on N flux rates. Microtopography was measured using conventional survey equipment along a 1-m circular transect and was described using two indices: tortuosity (T), describing soil surface roughness and relief, and limiting elevation difference (LD), describing soil surface relief. Ammonification, nitrification, and net N mineralization were determined with in situ incubation of modified ion-exchange resin cores and denitrification potential was determined using denitrification enzyme assay (DEA). Results demonstrated that disked plots had significantly greater LD than undisked plots one year after construction. Autogenic sources of MT (e.g. tussock-forming vegetation) in concert with variable hydrology and sedimentation maintained and in some cases enhanced MT in study wetlands. Tortuosity and LD values remained the same in one wetland when compared over a two-year period, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium of MT-forming and -eroding processes at play. Microtopography values also increased when comparing the original induced MT of a one-year old wetland with MT of older created wetlands (five and eight years old) with disking-induced MT, indicating that MT can increase by natural processes over time. When examined along a hydrologic gradient, LD increased with proximity to an overflow point as a result of differential sediment deposition and erosion during flood events. Nitrification increased with T and denitrification potential increased with LD, indicating that microtopographic heterogeneity enhances coupled N fluxes. The resulting N flux patterns may be explained by the increase in oxygen availability elicited by greater T (enhancing nitrification) and by the adjacent zones of aerobic and anaerobic conditions elicited by greater LD (enhancing coupled nitrification and denitrification potential). Findings of this study support the incorporation of MT into the design and regulatory evaluation of created wetlands in order to enhance N cycling