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1

Baseline Site Assessments for Wetland Vegetation Establishment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical stage in the successful establishment of vegetation for a wetland management project is plan development. The plan should include details on the influence baseline site conditions may have on wetland plant establishment and growth. Many sources...

1993-01-01

2

Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake  

SciTech Connect

Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond.

Kroeger, S.R.

1990-07-01

3

Water Level Decline Promotes Typha X glauca Establishment and Vegetation Change in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is predicted to reduce Laurentian Great Lakes water levels, altering coastal wetland ecosystems and potentially\\u000a stimulating invasive macrophytes, like Typha X glauca. Recent prolonged low water levels, which climaxed in 2007, created conditions comparable to those predicted by climate change\\u000a science. In 2008, we examined ecosystem and plant community properties in 14 intact northern Great Lakes coastal wetlands

Shane C. Lishawa; Dennis A. Albert; Nancy C. Tuchman

2010-01-01

4

Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa  

SciTech Connect

A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

Atekwana, E.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. (Univ. of Yaounde (Cameroon). Dept. of Plant Biology)

1994-04-01

5

Restoration of wetland vegetation with transplanted wetland soil: An experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of drained wetlands requires the re-establishment of a native wetland plant community. This can be difficult in\\u000a areas where long-term drainage has eliminated wetland vegetation and significantly reduced the number of viable wetland plant\\u000a seeds in the seed bank. This study of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wetland restoration sites in northern New York examines\\u000a the effectiveness of transplanting

Stephen C. Brown; Barbara L. Bedford

1997-01-01

6

Contribution of Seed Banks to Freshwater Wetland Vegetation Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of freshwater wetlands after oil spills depends on removal or degradation of the oil and regeneration of the plant community. To quantify the importance of seed banks to re- establishment of vegetation, soil cores (N = 210) were extracted from a freshwater wetland near Dulac, LA and exposed to sweet or sour crude oil, diesel fuel, or tap water.

MILAN C. VAVREK; WILLIAM J. CAMPBELL

7

Modeling wetland vegetation using polarimetric SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are investigated for their potential in mapping herbaceous coastal wetlands. The subenvironments of coastal wetlands have very distinct vegetation cover and surface properties. Qualitative analysis of the SAR images reveals the relative importance of surface and vegetation scatter in these subenvironments. Furthermore, sampled SAR data distinctly separate the subenvironments, indicating that classification techniques

K. C. Slatton; M. M. Crawford; J. C. Gibeaut; R. Gutierrez

1996-01-01

8

Disturbance metrics predict a wetland Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas in the USA. Knowledge of the best predictors of VIBIs would enable management agencies to make better decisions regarding mitigation site selection and performance monitoring criteria. We use a novel statistical technique to develop predictive models for an established index of wetland vegetation integrity (Ohio VIBI), using as independent variables 20 indices and metrics of habitat quality, wetland disturbance, and buffer area land use from 149 wetlands in Ohio, USA. For emergent and forest wetlands, predictive models explained 61% and 54% of the variability, respectively, in Ohio VIBI scores. In both cases the most important predictor of Ohio VIBI score was a metric that assessed habitat alteration and development in the wetland. Of secondary importance as a predictor was a metric that assessed microtopography, interspersion, and quality of vegetation communities in the wetland. Metrics and indices assessing disturbance and land use of the buffer area were generally poor predictors of Ohio VIBI scores. Our results suggest that vegetation integrity of emergent and forest wetlands could be most directly enhanced by minimizing substrate and habitat disturbance within the wetland. Such efforts could include reducing or eliminating any practices that disturb the soil profile, such as nutrient enrichment from adjacent farm land, mowing, grazing, or cutting or removing woody plants.

Stapanian, Martin A.; Mack, John; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian; Micacchion, Mick

2013-01-01

9

FLUVIAL DISTURBANCE AND WETLAND VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT, UPPER MAIN STEM, WILLAMETTE RIVER, OREGON, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrogeomorphic processes drive vegetation establishment, and promote development of diverse wetland and riparian types associated with lotic ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to estimate the rate and pattern of vegetation development on bars tracked since 1936, a...

10

Climate sensitivity to wetlands and wetland vegetation in mid-Holocene North Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland regions are important components of the local climate, with their own characteristic surface energy and moisture budgets. Realistic representation of wetlands, including the important vegetation component, may therefore be necessary for more accurate simulations of climate and climate change. However, many land-atmosphere coupled models either ignore wetlands or treat wetlands as bare, water-saturated soil, neglecting the vegetation present within wetland environments. This study investigates the possible response of the mid-Holocene climate of North Africa to changes in orbital forcing, both with and without the presence of wetlands. The location of these wetlands is guided by analysis of paleovegetation and wetland distribution. In this study, the wetland regime in the land surface component of a climate model was modified to incorporate vegetation. Field measurements have shown that vegetation affects water loss associated with evaporation (including transpiration) within a wetland area. Comparisons between non-vegetated wetland and vegetated wetland revealed an increase in local albedo that produced an associated decrease in net radiation, evaporation and precipitation in the vicinity of the wetlands regions. Based on an analysis of the model surface water balance, the calculated area of mid-Holocene wetland coverage for North Africa closely matches the observed. For the North African region as a whole, the effects of adding vegetation to the wetland produced relatively small changes in climate, but local recycling of water may have served to help maintain paleo wetland communities.

Carrington, D. P.; Gallimore, R. G.; Kutzbach, J. E.

11

Does Prescribed Fire Benefit Wetland Vegetation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fire on wetland vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States are poorly known, despite the historical\\u000a use of fire by federal, state, and private landowners in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Prescribed fire is widely used by land\\u000a managers to promote vegetation that is beneficial to migratory waterfowl, muskrats, and other native wildlife and to reduce

Dixie L. Bounds; Douglas E. Ruby

2011-01-01

12

Hyperspectral image data for mapping wetland vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data acquired by the Airborne Visible\\/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) with 224 bands, each with 0.01-?m spectral resolution\\u000a and 20-meter spatial resolution, were used to produce a vegetation map for a portion of Everglades National Park, Florida,\\u000a USA. The vegetation map was tested for classification accuracy with a pre-existing detailed GIS wetland vegetation database\\u000a compiled by manual interpretation of 1?40,000-scale color

Akira Hirano; Marguerite Madden; Roy Welch

2003-01-01

13

Vegetation of Upper Coastal Plain depression wetlands: Environmental templates and wetland dynamics within a landscape framework.  

SciTech Connect

Reference wetlands play an important role in efforts to protect wetlands and assess wetland condition. Because wetland vegetation integrates the influence of many ecological factors, a useful reference system would identify natural vegetation types and include models relating vegetation to important regional geomorphic, hydrologic, and geochemical properties. Across the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain, depression wetlands are a major hydrogeomorphic class with diverse characteristics. For 57 functional depression wetlands in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, we characterized the principal vegetation types and used a landscape framework to assess how local (wetland-level) factors and regional landscape settings potentially influence vegetation composition and dynamics. Wetland sites were stratified across three Upper Coastal Plain landscape settings that differ in soils, surface geology, topography, and land use. We sampled plant composition, measured relevant local variables, and analyzed historical transitions in vegetative cover types. Cluster analysis identified six vegetation types, ranging from open-water ponds and emergent marshes to closed forests. Significant vegetation-environment relationships suggested environmental ''templates'' for plant community development. Of all local factors examined, wetland hydrologic regime was most strongly correlated with vegetation type, but depression size, soil textural type, and disturbance history were also significant. Because hydrogeologic settings influence wetland features, local factors important to vegetation were partly predictable from landscape setting, and thus wetland types were distributed non-randomly across landscape settings. Analysis of long-term vegetation change indicated relative stability in some wetlands and succession in others. We developed a landscape-contingent model for vegetation dynamics, with hydroperiod and fire as major driving variables. The wetland classification, environmental templates, and dynamics model provide a reference framework to guide conservation priorities and suggest possible outcomes of restoration or management.

De Steven, Diane; Toner, Maureen, M.

2004-03-01

14

The influence of spatial vegetation distribution on Taim Wetland hydrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water circulation plays an important ecological role in ecosystems such as wetlands. Thus, understanding wetland hydrodynamics becomes an essential factor to the success of conservation and restoration projects. This paper describes the application of a two-dimensional, depth-averaged, hydrodynamic model to the system formed by Lake Mangueira and the Taim Wetland (Brazil). Vegetation resistance to flow was represented in a modelling

ADRIANO ROLIM DA PAZ; ADOLFO NICOLÁS VILLANUEVA; EDITH BEATRIZ; CAMAÑO SCHETTINI

15

Effects of dominant species on vegetation change in Carolina bay wetlands following a multi-year drought.  

SciTech Connect

Wetland vegetation is strongly dependent upon climate-influenced hydrologic conditions, and plant composition responds in generally consistent ways to droughts. However, the extent of species composition change during drought may be influenced by the pre-existing structure of wetland vegetation. We characterized the vegetation of ten herbaceous Carolina bay wetlands on the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain during a period of average rainfall and again near the end of a four-year drought. We hypothesized that, as a group, bays dominated by less robust plant species (characteristic of open-water pond and depression meadow vegetation types) would show greater compositional change than bays dominated by dense, robust-form clonal graminoids (characteristic of grass and sedge marsh vegetation types). Aquatic species decreased during the drought in all wetlands, regardless of vegetation group. Compared to grass/sedge marshes, pond/meadow wetlands acquired more species, particularly non-wetland species, during the drought. Pond/meadow wetlands also had greater increases in the abundances of species that require unflooded conditions to establish. Prior to the drought, all wetlands were ponded almost continuously, but during drought the pond/meadow wetlands had shorter and more variable hydroperiods than the grass/sedge marshes. Thus, vegetation change may be partly confounded with hydrologic conditions that provide greater opportunities for species recruitment in pond/meadow bays. The results suggest that Carolina bay vegetation dynamics may differ as a function of dominant vegetation and climate driven variation in wetland hydrologic condition.

Mulhouse, John, M.; De Steven, Diane; Lide, Robert, F.; Sharitz, Rebecca, R.

2005-05-01

16

Biophysical properties of wetlands vegetation retrieved from satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation carried out at wetlands in Biebrza Basin, the biggest area of the marshes and swamps in Central Europe, aimed at finding the best biophysical properties of wetlands vegetation to characterise marshland habitats. The various soil-vegetation indices on the basis of all considered spectral bands of satellites as Landsat +ETM, SPOT, ERS-2, NOAA, ENVISAT have been calculated. The GEMI

Katarzyna Dabrowska-Zielinska; Maria Gruszczynska; Herve Yesou; Wanda Kowalik; Agata Hoscilo; I. Malck

2004-01-01

17

Correspondence between Vegetation and Soils in Wetlands and Nearby Uplands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between vegetation and soils from a geographically broad sampling of wetlands and adjoining uplands is reported\\u000a for 38 hydric and 26 nonhydric soils, as recognized in the hydric soils list of the Soil Conservation Service. Wetlands represented\\u000a in the study include estuaries, pitcher plant bogs, prairie depressional wetlands, and western riparian lands. The agreement\\u000a between vegetation and soils

Michael L. Scott; William L. Slauson; Charles A. Segelquist; Gregor T. Auble

1989-01-01

18

Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands  

SciTech Connect

A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

Not Available

1991-01-01

19

Metric Similarity in Vegetation-Based Wetland Assessment Methods  

EPA Science Inventory

Wetland vegetation is a recognized indicator group for wetland assessments, but until recently few published protocols used plant-based indicators. To examine the proliferation of such protocols since 1999, this report reviewed 20 published index of biotic integrity (IBI) type p...

20

Changes in the Vegetation Cover in a Constructed Wetland at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

Wetlands are valuable resources that are disappearing at an alarming rate. Land development has resulted in the destruction of wetlands for approximately 200 years. To combat this destruction, the federal government passed legislation that requires no net loss of wetlands. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for regulating wetland disturbances. In 1991, the USACE determined that the construction of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory would damage three wetlands that had a total area of one acre. Argonne was required to create a wetland of equal acreage to replace the damaged wetlands. For the first five years after this wetland was created (1992-1996), the frequency of plant species, relative cover, and water depth was closely monitored. The wetland was not monitored again until 2002. In 2003, the vegetation cover data were again collected with a similar methodology to previous years. The plant species were sampled using quadrats at randomly selected locations along transects throughout the wetland. The fifty sampling locations were monitored once in June and percent cover of each of the plant species was determined for each plot. Furthermore, the extent of standing water in the wetland was measured. In 2003, 21 species of plants were found and identified. Eleven species dominated the wetland, among which were reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), crown vetch (Coronilla varia), and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). These species are all non-native, invasive species. In the previous year, 30 species were found in the same wetland. The common species varied from the 2002 study but still had these non-native species in common. Reed canary grass and Canada thistle both increased by more than 100% from 2002. Unfortunately, the non-native species may be contributing to the loss of biodiversity in the wetland. In the future, control measures should be taken to ensure the establishment of more desired native species.

Bergman, C.L.; LaGory, K.

2004-01-01

21

Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States)); Hackney, C.T. (North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States))

1992-01-01

22

Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States); Hackney, C.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

1992-07-01

23

Differential invasion of a wetland grass explained by tests of nutrients and light availability on establishment and clonal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phalaris arundinacea (Poaceae) is aggressively invading wetlands across North America. We tested the hypotheses that open canopies and increased nutrients facilitate vegetative establishment in the field, using a phytometer (6 rhizome fragments\\/plot, 24 plots\\/wetland). In each of three wetlands, phytometers received three levels of an NPK fertilizer or served as controls. Emergence and survival differed among sites (P=0.0005), but not

Deborah A. Maurer; Joy B. Zedler

2002-01-01

24

[Estimating total nitrogen content in wetland vegetation based on measured reflectance spectra].  

PubMed

More and more urban wetlands have been supplied with reclaimed water. And monitoring the growth condition of large-area wetland vegetation is playing a very important role in wetland restoration and reconstruction. Recently, remote sensing technology has become an important tool for vegetation growth monitoring. The South Wetland in the Olympic Park, a typical wetland using reused water, was selected as the research area. The leaf reflectance spectra and were acquired for the main wetland plants reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha angustifolia) with an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer (350 2 500 nm). The total nitrogen (TN) content of leaf samples was determined by Kjeldahl method subsequently. The research established univariate models involving simple ratio spectral index (SR) model and normalized difference spectral index (ND) model, as well as multivariate models including stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Moreover, the accuracy of all the models was tested through cross-validated coefficient of determination (R2(CV)) and cross-validated root mean square error (RMSE(CV)). The results showed that (1) comparing different types of wetland plants, the accuracy of all established prediction models using Phragmites australis reflectance spectra was higher than that using Typha angustifolia reflectance spectra. (2) compared with univariate techniques, multivariate regressions improved the estimation of TN concentration in leaves. (3) among the various investigated models, the accuracy of PLSR model was the highest (R2(CV) = 0.80, RMSE(CV) = 0.24). PLSR provided the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance and TN consistence of leaves. The result would not only provide a scientific basis for remote sensing retrieval of biochemical variables of wetland vegetation, but also provide a strong scientific basis for the monitoring and management of urban wetlands using recycled water. PMID:22512191

Liu, Ke; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Wang, Yi-hong; Sun, Yong-hua; Miao, Qian

2012-02-01

25

VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT OF THREE CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING AGRICULTURAL RUN-OFF AND SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Case studies of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation development in three constructed wetlands receiving agricultural drainage were conducted. Surveys were completed on three Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation System (WRSIS) constructed wetlands located in Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert counties in north...

26

Integration of vegetation inventory data and ALOS image for vegetation classification in Yancheng coastal wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic mapping and monitoring of wetland landscape are of fundamental importance for wetland development and management. To accurately classify wetland in Yancheng coastal wetland, ground investigation was conducted in 2006. Integrated with ground investigation, the wetland was classified into 8 categories such as Spartina alterniflora Loisel, Farm land, Phragmites Australis, Artemisia halodendron Turcz, Bare beach, Salt field, Fish & shrimp pond, and Sea water. A total of three decision trees were successfully produced. The first represented broad divisions of vegetation (in fact, at this stage, it just can be called vegetated cover like) and non-vegetation, and the second two represented more detailed vegetation classes and non-vegetation classes. To construct the decision trees, NDVI and principal component analysis were used as the evaluation factors. The thresholds were built combining with ground investigation and spectral property. Firstly, almost all kinds of vegetable were divided out of non-vegetation by NDVI. Secondly, the different species of vegetation were distinguished and some vegetated cover like was eliminated out of vegetation. Phragmites Australis belt, Artemisia halodendron Turcz belt, Spartina alterniflora Loisel belt and bare beach belt were distributed regularly from land to sea.

Li, Yunmei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yu; Xia, Rui; Wang, Yanfei; Jin, Xing

2009-10-01

27

Performance criteria, compliance success, and vegetation development in compensatory mitigation wetlands.  

PubMed

The US Army Corps of Engineers often requires wetland creation or restoration as compensation for wetlands damaged during development. These wetlands are typically monitored postconstruction to determine the level of compliance with respect to site-specific performance standards. However, defining appropriate goals and measuring success of restorations has proven difficult. We reviewed monitoring information for 76 wetlands constructed between 1992 and 2002 to summarize the performance criteria used to measure progress, assess compliance with those criteria, and, finally, to evaluate the appropriateness of those criteria. Goals were overwhelmingly focused on plant communities. Attributes used to assess the quality of restored plant communities, including percent native species and the Floristic Quality Index, increased over time but were apparently unrelated to the number of species planted. Compliance frequencies varied depending on site goals; sites often failed to comply with criteria related to survival of planted vegetation or requirements that dominant plant species should not be exotic or weedy, whereas criteria related to the establishment of cover by vegetation or by wetland-dependent plants were often met. Judgment of a site's success or failure was largely a function of the goals set for the site. Some performance criteria were too lenient to be of value in distinguishing failed from successful sites, whereas other criteria were unachievable without more intensive site management. More appropriate goals could be devised for restored wetlands by basing performance standards on past performance of similar restorations, identifying consistent temporal trends in attributes of restored sites, and using natural wetlands as references. PMID:17676406

Matthews, Jeffrey W; Endress, Anton G

2007-08-05

28

Wetland vegetation before and after experimental purple loosestrife removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is considered one of the worst invasive non-native species of North American wetlands, but its reputation rests on few published,\\u000a quantitative field studies. This study described the vegetation of two sites (one flooded, one drier) within a heavily invaded\\u000a wetland in southeastern New York, in order to investigate the common claim that purple loosestrife produces monospecific

Janet A. Morrison

2002-01-01

29

Reestablishment of wetland vegetation on gas pipeline rights-of-way in six different wetland ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Vegetational surveys were carried out to compare reestablished vegetation on pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) with that in adjacent natural ecosystems undisturbed by pipeline installation. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the ROW approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. In four ecosystems, the vegetation on the ROW was limited to a herbaceous layer by ROW maintenance; thus, the ROWs often involved a complex of species quite different from that found in the adjacent ecosystems.

Zimmerman, R.E. Shem, L.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll. Palos Heights, IL (United States)); Hackney, C. (North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)); Gowdy, M. (Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-05-01

30

Modeling Hydrologic and Vegetation Responses in Freshwater Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands constitute 6 - 7 % of the Earth's land surface and provide various critical ecosystem services such as purifying the air and water, mitigating floods and droughts, and supporting wildlife habitats. Despite the importance of wetlands, they are under threat of degradation by human-induced land use changes and climate change. Even if the value of wetlands is recognized, they are often not managed properly or restored successfully due to an inadequate understanding of the ecosystems and their responses to management scenarios. A better understanding of the main components of wetlands, namely the interdependent hydrologic and vegetation systems, and the sensitivity of their responses to engineering works and climate change, is crucial for the preservation of wetlands. To assess these potential impacts, a model is developed in this study for characterizing the coupled dynamics between soil moisture and plant biomass in wetland habitats. The hydrology component of the model is based on the Richards' equation and simulates spatially-varying groundwater movement and provides information on soil moisture at different depths. The plant growth component of the model is described through an equation of the Lotka-Volterra type modified for plant growth dynamics and is adapted from published literature. The two components are coupled via transpiration and ecosystem carrying capacity for plants. Transpiration is modeled for both unsaturated and saturated zones, while the carrying capacity describes limiting oxygen and subsequent nutrient availability in the soil column as a function of water table depth. Vegetation is represented by two species characteristic of mudflat herbaceous plants ranging from facultative wetland to upland plants. The model is first evaluated using a simplified domain and the hydrological information available in the RG2 site of the Everglades wetlands region. The modeled water table fluctuations in general are comparable to field data collected on-site, indicating the potential of the model in capturing soil moisture dynamics. Further application of the model for impact assessments demonstrates that drainage of wetlands resulting in groundwater drawdown is expected to produce appreciable effects on vegetation biomass response. The model developed in this study simulates the coupled and spatially-varying groundwater movement and plant growth dynamics, which allows researchers to better understand and protect the integrated hydrologic and vegetation systems of wetlands worldwide.

Chui, Ting Fong May; Low, Swee Yang; Liong, Shie-Yui

2010-05-01

31

The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: Answering recent challenges to the paradigm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For more than a century, coastal wetlands have been recognized for their ability to stabilize shorelines and protect coastal communities. However, this paradigm has recently been called into question by small-scale experimental evidence. Here, we conduct a literature review and a small meta-analysis of wave attenuation data, and we find overwhelming evidence in support of established theory. Our review suggests that mangrove and salt marsh vegetation afford context-dependent protection from erosion, storm surge, and potentially small tsunami waves. In biophysical models, field tests, and natural experiments, the presence of wetlands reduces wave heights, property damage, and human deaths. Meta-analysis of wave attenuation by vegetated and unvegetated wetland sites highlights the critical role of vegetation in attenuating waves. Although we find coastal wetland vegetation to be an effective shoreline buffer, wetlands cannot protect shorelines in all locations or scenarios; indeed large-scale regional erosion, river meandering, and large tsunami waves and storm surges can overwhelm the attenuation effect of vegetation. However, due to a nonlinear relationship between wave attenuation and wetland size, even small wetlands afford substantial protection from waves. Combining man-made structures with wetlands in ways that mimic nature is likely to increase coastal protection. Oyster domes, for example, can be used in combination with natural wetlands to protect shorelines and restore critical fishery habitat. Finally, coastal wetland vegetation modifies shorelines in ways (e.g. peat accretion) that increase shoreline integrity over long timescales and thus provides a lasting coastal adaptation measure that can protect shorelines against accelerated sea level rise and more frequent storm inundation. We conclude that the shoreline protection paradigm still stands, but that gaps remain in our knowledge about the mechanistic and context-dependent aspects of shoreline protection.

Gedan, Keryn B.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Wolanski, Eric; Barbier, Edward B.; Silliman, Brian R.

2011-01-01

32

Inundation, Wetland Vegetation and Biogeochemical Processes in the Amazon Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing of the Amazon basin with passive and active microwave techniques were applied to determine the temporally varying extent of inundation and associated vegetation, and used in conjunction with field measurements to calculate regional rates of carbon dioxide emission from wetlands to the atmosphere. Monthly inundation areas were derived from analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the

J. M. Melack; L. L. Hess; S. K. Hamilton; J. E. Richey; E. M. Novo

2001-01-01

33

Wetland Soils and Vegetation, Arctic Foothills, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analyses of relationships between hydric soils and wetland plant species were made at a 22 cu km site in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, as part of a cooperative effort between the FWS and SCS to develop methods for field identificatio...

M. D. Walker D. A. Walker K. R. Everett

1989-01-01

34

Wetland Soils and Vegetation, Arctic Foothills, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one of a series sponsored by the FWS to examine relationships between wetland plants and soils in a variety of habitats. It examines a first order watershed in the Arctic Foothills of the Brooks Range, northern Alaska, which is representati...

M. D. Walker D. A. Walker K. R. Everett

1989-01-01

35

Discrimination of wetland vegetation using close-range remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protection and conservation of sensitive environmental habitats has, in recent years, focused public attention on wetland ecosystems. Traditional methods of wetland assessment have been augmented through the use of remote sensing technologies. Remote sensing offers acquisition of copious amounts of data in short periods of time over land areas that might otherwise be inaccessible. The problem, however, from a remote sensing standpoint is that verification of wetland composition relies on accurate ground truth inventories. The establishment of a library containing unique spectral responses for obligates and facultative wetland plant species would provide baseline reference data for accurate assessment of wetland condition. This research focused on the spectral discrimination of five species of wetland plants that commonly coexist in temperate North American non-tidal wetlands. A specially designed wetland was constructed to closely approximate natural conditions, and was planted with monospecific stands of Typha angustifolia L., Nymphaea tuberosa Paine, Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm., Scirpus acutus Muhl., and Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Spectral data from multiple quadrats were collected through the use of a hyperspectral spectroradiometer operating at close range. The degree of similarity and difference within each monospecific stand was evaluated as was the difference and similarity among the species on each of nine dates throughout a single growing season. If identification of a unique spectral response ("signature") was possible, the degree of variation within the stand must not exceed variation among the stands. A temporal investigation compared plant life cycles and physiology to spectral responses. Patterns of spectral variation clearly reflect seasonal lifecycle changes from juvenility through senescence, but do not exhibit spectral integrity that would consistently permit discrimination. Chlorophyll assays were compared to hyperspectral response to discern patterns of light absorption and reflectivity that might aid in the discrimination of species based on periods of increased or decreased chlorophyll production. Correlation between chlorophyll production and growth stages was observed but discrimination of the species based on those observations was not supported.

Demarey, Deborah Marie

36

Vegetation Changes and Partitioning of Selenium in 4-Year-Old Constructed Wetlands Treating Agricultural Drainage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The knowledge of vegetation management and the partitioning of selenium (Se) in treatment wetlands is essential for long-term effective operation of constructed wetlands treating Se-laden agricultural tile-drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Vegetation changes in six vegetated wetl...

37

The role of hydrochory in structuring riparian and wetland vegetation.  

PubMed

Hydrochory, or the passive dispersal of organisms by water, is an important means of propagule transport, especially for plants. During recent years, knowledge about hydrochory and its ecological consequences has increased considerably and a substantial body of literature has been produced. Here, we review this literature and define the state of the art of the discipline. A substantial proportion of species growing in or near water have propagules (fruits, seeds or vegetative units) able to disperse by water, either floating, submerged in flowing water, or with the help of floating vessels. Hydrochory can enable plants to colonize sites out of reach with other dispersal vectors, but the timing of dispersal and mechanisms of establishment are important for successful establishment. At the population level, hydrochory may increase the effective size and longevity of populations, and control their spatial configuration. Hydrochory is also an important source of species colonizing recruitment-limited riparian and wetland communities, contributing to maintenance of community species richness. Dispersal by water may even influence community composition in different landscape elements, resulting in landscape-level patterns. Genetically, hydrochory may reduce spatial aggregation of genetically related individuals, lead to high gene flow among populations, and increase genetic diversity in populations receiving many propagules. Humans have impacted hydrochory in many ways. For example, dams affect hydrochory by reducing peak flows and hence dispersal capacity, altering the timing of dispersal, and by presenting physical barriers to dispersal, with consequences for riverine plant communities. Hydrochory has been inferred to be an important vector for the spread of many invasive species, but there is also the potential for enhancing ecosystem restoration by improving or restoring water dispersal pathways. Climate change may alter the role of hydrochory by modifying the hydrology of water-bodies as well as conditions for propagule release and plant colonization. PMID:20233190

Nilsson, Christer; Brown, Rebecca L; Jansson, Roland; Merritt, David M

2010-11-01

38

An integrated model of soil, hydrology, and vegetation for carbon dynamics in wetland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland ecosystems are an important component in global carbon (C) cycles and may exert a large influence on global climate change. Predictions of C dynamics require us to consider interactions among many critical factors of soil, hydrology, and vegetation. However, few such integrated C models exist for wetland ecosystems. In this paper, we report a simulation model, Wetland-DNDC, for C

Yu Zhang; Changsheng Li; Carl C. Trettin; Harbin Li; Ge Sun

2002-01-01

39

Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.  

SciTech Connect

Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.

Sharitz, Rebecca, A.; Mulhouse, John, M.

2004-05-01

40

Vegetative Ecological Characteristics of Restored Reed ( Phragmites australis) Wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we compared ecological characteristics of wetland vegetation in a series of restoration projects that were carried out in the wetlands of Yellow River Delta. The investigated characteristics include plant composition structure, species diversity and community similarity in three kinds of Phragmites australis wetlands, i.e. restored P. australis wetlands (R1, R2, R3 and R4: restored in 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively), natural P. australis wetland (N) and degraded P. australis wetland (D) to assess the process of wetlands restoration. The coverage of the R1 was 99%, which was similar to natural wetland. Among all studied wetlands, the highest and lowest stem density was observed in R1 and R2, respectively, Plant height and stem diameter show the same trend as N > R2 > R1 > R3 > D > R4. Species diversity of restored P. australis wetlands became closed to natural wetland. Both species richness and Shannon-Wiener index had similar tendency: increased first and then decreased with restored time. The highest species richness and species diversity were observed in R2, while the lowest values of those parameters were found in natural P. australis wetland. Similarity indexes between restored wetlands and natural wetland increased with the restoration time, but they were still less than 50%. The results indicate that the vegetation of P. australis wetlands has experienced a great improvement after several years' restoration, and it is feasible to restored degraded P. australis wetlands by pouring fresh water into those wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. However, it is notable that costal degraded P. australis wetland in this region may take years to decades to reach the status of natural wetland.

Wang, Xuehong; Yu, Junbao; Zhou, Di; Dong, Hongfang; Li, Yunzhao; Lin, Qianxin; Guan, Bo; Wang, Yongli

2012-02-01

41

Vegetative ecological characteristics of restored reed (Phragmites australis) wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared ecological characteristics of wetland vegetation in a series of restoration projects that were carried out in the wetlands of Yellow River Delta. The investigated characteristics include plant composition structure, species diversity and community similarity in three kinds of Phragmites australis wetlands, i.e. restored P. australis wetlands (R1, R2, R3 and R4: restored in 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively), natural P. australis wetland (N) and degraded P. australis wetland (D) to assess the process of wetlands restoration. The coverage of the R1 was 99%, which was similar to natural wetland. Among all studied wetlands, the highest and lowest stem density was observed in R1 and R2, respectively, Plant height and stem diameter show the same trend as N > R2 > R1 > R3 > D > R4. Species diversity of restored P. australis wetlands became closed to natural wetland. Both species richness and Shannon-Wiener index had similar tendency: increased first and then decreased with restored time. The highest species richness and species diversity were observed in R2, while the lowest values of those parameters were found in natural P. australis wetland. Similarity indexes between restored wetlands and natural wetland increased with the restoration time, but they were still less than 50%. The results indicate that the vegetation of P. australis wetlands has experienced a great improvement after several years' restoration, and it is feasible to restored degraded P. australis wetlands by pouring fresh water into those wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. However, it is notable that costal degraded P. australis wetland in this region may take years to decades to reach the status of natural wetland. PMID:21968874

Wang, Xuehong; Yu, Junbao; Zhou, Di; Dong, Hongfang; Li, Yunzhao; Lin, Qianxin; Guan, Bo; Wang, Yongli

2011-10-04

42

Effects of vegetation management in constructed wetland treatment cells on water quality and mosquito production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three vegetation management strategies on wetland treatment function and mosquito production was assessed in eight free water surface wetland test cells in southern California during 1998–1999. The effectiveness of the strategies to limit bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus culm density within the cells was also investigated. Removing accumulated emergent biomass and physically limiting the area in which vegetation could

Joan S. Thullen; James J. Sartoris; William E. Walton

2002-01-01

43

Influence of hydrologic regime and vegetation on phosphorus retention in Everglades stormwater treatment area wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Florida (USA) Everglades ecosystem has been impacted due to increased loading of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P), primarily from adjacent agricultural areas. Consequently, restoration measures involve the establishment of stormwater treatment areas (STAs) comprising a series of constructed wetlands. A series of mesocosms were established at the inflow of the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project wetland, the first such STA constructed. These mesocosms were designed to mimic STAs, as they operated as flow-through systems and were packed with native soil. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of vegetation and hydrologic fluctuations on P retention/release by the wetland soil and on effluent water quality. Four treatment combinations consisted of continuously flooded with emergents (Typha), intermittently flooded with emergents, continuously flooded with no emergents, and intermittently flooded with no emergents. Intermittently flooded treatments underwent two 1 month drawdown events during the year. Soils were collected to determine the various pools of P and surface water samples were collected twice weekly to determine mass P flux in and out of the mesocosms. Results showed that the majority of the P was stored in the calcium- and magnesium-bound fraction, as well as the refractory pool in the soil. Approximately 91% of the inflow soluble reactive P (SRP) mass was retained within the mesocosms for the continuously flooded treatment, and 80% was retained in the treatments subjected to periodic drawdown events, regardless of vegetation type. There was a net annual flux of dissolved organic P (DOP) out of the mesocosms for the drawdown treatments, whereas the net reduction in the DOP concentrations for the continuously flooded treatments was just 17%. These results demonstrate that, although these wetland systems perform well in reducing surface water SRP, additional research may need to focus on improving the reduction of DOP in order to reduce further the P loads to the nutrient-sensitive Everglades system.

White, John R.; Reddy, K. Ramesh; Moustafa, M. Z.

2004-02-01

44

Development of Vegetation Models to Predict the Potential Effect of Groundwater Withdrawals on Forested Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed vegetation models that, when linked to groundwater-hydrology models and landscape-level applications, can be\\u000a used to predict the potential effect of groundwater-level declines on the distribution of wetland-forest communities, individual\\u000a wetland species, and wetland-indicator groups. An upland-to-wetland vegetation gradient, comprising 201 forest plots located\\u000a in five different study basins and classified as either upland pine-oak, pitch pine lowland, pine-hardwood

Kim J. Laidig; Robert A. Zampella; Allison M. Brown; Nicholas A. Procopio

2010-01-01

45

Hot spots of wetland vegetation reduction in relation to human accessibility: differentiating human impacts on natural ecosystems at multiple scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities have profoundly influenced natural ecosystems, especially wetlands. This study attempted to differentiate\\u000a the impact of human activities on reductions in wetland vegetation in the Lixiahe wetlands, China, at multiple spatial scales.\\u000a The reduction in wetland vegetation from 1988 to 2006 was quantified using Landsat data, and moving window analysis was used\\u000a to detect hot spots of vegetation reduction

Sheng ShengChi; Chi Xu; Shaowei Zhang; Shuqing An; Maosong Liu; Xuejiao Yang

46

Global warming and prairie wetlands  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model.

Poiani, K.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Johnson, W.C. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (United States))

1991-10-01

47

Inundation, Wetland Vegetation and Biogeochemical Processes in the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing of the Amazon basin with passive and active microwave techniques were applied to determine the temporally varying extent of inundation and associated vegetation, and used in conjunction with field measurements to calculate regional rates of carbon dioxide emission from wetlands to the atmosphere. Monthly inundation areas were derived from analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (1979 to 1987) for the mainstem Amazon floodplain in Brazil, the Llanos de Moxos (Beni and Mamore rivers) in Bolivia, the Bananal Island (Araguaia River) and Roraima savannas. Maximum areas subject to inundation, including permanent open waters in rivers and lakes, were as follows (in km2): mainstem Amazon 97,400; Moxos 92,000; Bananal 58,500, and Roraima 16,500. Data from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1, L-band synthetic aperture radar were used to determine inundation and wetland vegetation for a quadrat in the central Amazon basin (0o N to 8o S, 72o W to 54o W) at high water (May-June 1996) and low water (October 1995). Flooded area of rivers and floodplains (> 100 m in width) ranged from 79,000 km2 to 290,000 km2. When combined with estimates of inundation associated with streams not detected by the radar, a maximum area of 350,000 km2 (or 20% of the quadrat) was flooded. Combining the areal extent of flooding and measurements of free dissolved CO2 with an evasion model leads to outgassing of CO2 from inundated surfaces to the atmosphere in the central Amazon of 1.1 plus or minus 0.2 MgC ha-1 y-1. Extrapolated over the whole basin, the flux is 10 times the fluvial export of organic carbon to the ocean.

Melack, J. M.; Hess, L. L.; Hamilton, S. K.; Richey, J. E.; Novo, E. M.

2001-12-01

48

Vegetation, sea level rise, and the morphological stability of wetland landscapes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal wetland landscapes -extensive, vegetated marshes and the channel networks that wind through them- provide a striking example of a geomorphological system in which the physical and biological processes cannot be addressed separately. Vegetated marsh platforms and intertwining channel networks are thoroughly coupled; the dynamic marsh elevation relative to high-tide level determines the volume of tidal flow through the channels, and channels distribute the water and sediment that facilitates plant growth and therefore marsh accretion. We have developed a numerical model that couples biologically influenced platform accretion with hydrodynamically driven channel network erosion, and have used it to simulate marsh system response to sea-level rise. In the model, increased inundation on the platform stimulates biomass productivity and therefore tends to increase: sediment deposition rates, resistance to channel bank erosion, and the elevation of vegetated surfaces relative to sea level. Establishment of vegetation plays a critical role in developing, and maintaining, a horizontal platform incised by a well defined channel network. In model simulations with intact vegetation, a 10-fold increase in the rate of sea-level rise results in a stable platform, and a channel network morphology that is undetermined by platform elevation and the volume of water flowing through the channels. Temporary disturbance to vegetation, however, leads to rapid and widespread erosion of the channel network. In some model experiments, an increase in the intensity of disturbance converts broad and expansive marshland into highly dissected platforms characterized by numerous marsh islands and interior ponds. In this case, temporary disturbance in one part of the system (i.e. the vegetated platform) leads to a change in physical conditions in another part of the system (i.e. channel edges), and an irreversible loss of vegetation. Vegetated portions of an episodically disturbed platform accrete more rapidly than rates of relative sea level rise, giving submerging marshland the appearance of maintaining elevation relative to sea-level.

Kirwan, M. L.; Murray, A. B.; Guntenspergen, G. R.

2007-12-01

49

An assessment of the aquatic and wetland vegetation of the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin have strong botanical traditions that have resulted in a macrophyte literature which documents the identity, taxonomy, floristics, and ecology of aquatic macrophytes and wetland vegetation of the Upper Mississippi River and its floodplain. These findings are reviewed with respect to floristics, vegetation dynamics (patterns, history, production and management), and environmental changes that impact vegetation.

James H. Peck; Miles M. Smart

1986-01-01

50

Dual-season mapping of wetland inundation and vegetation for the central Amazon basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland extent was mapped for the central Amazon region, using mosaicked L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired by the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1. For the wetland portion of the 18×8° study area, dual-season radar mosaics were used to map inundation extent and vegetation under both low-water and high-water conditions at 100-m resolution, producing the first high-resolution wetlands map for

Laura L. Hess; John M. Melack; Evlyn M. l. m. Novo; Claudio C. f. Barbosa; Mary Gastil

2003-01-01

51

Derivative spectra matching for wetland vegetation identification and by hyperspectral image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we reported some research result in applying hyperspectral remote sensing data in identification and classification of wetland plant species and associations. Hyperspectral data were acquired by Modular Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (MAIS) over Poyang Lake wetland, China. A derivative spectral matching algorithm was used in hyperspectral vegetation analysis. The field measurement spectra were as reference for derivative spectral matching. In the study area, seven wetland plant associations were identified and classified with overall average accuracy is 84.03%.

Wang, Jinnian; Zheng, Lanfen; Tong, Qingxi

1998-08-01

52

Estimating wetland vegetation biomass in the Poyang Lake of central China from Landsat ETM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of the biomass of wetland vegetation is very important for wetland environment research. A method of rapidly estimating the biomass is discussed in this paper by using the combination of Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Position System (GPS). By using Landsat ETM data of April 16,2000 and the field data investigated contemporaneously, the authors estimated

Li Rendong; Liu Jiyuan

2004-01-01

53

Tidal wetland vegetation and ecotone profiles: The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve (Rush Ranch) is a component site of the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (SF Bay NERR) that includes one of the largest undiked tidal wetlands in the San Francisco Estuary. The brackish tidal wetlands grade into transitional vegetation and unde...

54

Vegetation Cover Decreases Evaporative Water Loss in a Wetland Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of water is a useful tool for quantitative measurements of water evaporation. Water molecules with the lighter isotopes, H216O, evaporate faster than H218O and DH16O, leaving the residual water enriched in D and 18O. Therefore, the greater the evaporation, the higher the ?18O and ?D values in the remaining water body. Here we used stable isotope analyses to study evaporative processes in the a wetland water conservation area (WCA-1, South Florida Water Management District) where the primary purpose is to conserve regional water resources. Evaporation is one of the major paths of water loss in WCA-1. We collected water from 50 sampling stations located in the 145,920 acres of WCA-1 area for the months of August, September, and November 2006 and January 2007. Water samples were analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. The results confirm that the water in this area is enriched by evaporation since a plot of water ?D versus ?18O lies off the meteoric water line. However, the enrichment of 18O and D within WCA-1 is not homogeneous, with differences in ?18O values between stations of up to 2‰. We GIS mapped the ?18O values of water for the entire area and found the isotopic enrichment pattern is consistent through time. This result suggests that water at different locations in WCA-1 has different evaporation rates. Possible factors that contribute to this evaporation pattern are: distance to the peripheral canal discharge station, water depth, and vegetation coverage. To find out which is (are) the determining factor(s) affecting water evaporation of the area, we mapped ?18O values of water with elevation and vegetation type of WCA-1 and calculated average elevation and percentage of vegetation coverage of a 100m2 area around each sampling station. A multiple linear regression between ?18O values of water and average distance from the discharge gates, elevation, and percentage coverage indicate that the observed evaporation pattern is not caused by water depth. Distance from the discharge gates and percentage vegetation coverage are both significantly correlated with ?18O values of water. The effect of distance is related to the water turnover rate, i.e. the further the location is to a discharge station the greater the time the water at that location has been exposed to evaporation. In contrast, the higher the vegetation coverage the lower the loss of water through evaporation. In the future, we will determine if the effect of vegetation coverage in diminishing water loss by evaporation is annulled by the loss through transpiration.

Wang, X.; Sternberg, L. O.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F. R.

2007-12-01

55

Soil-Vegetation Correlations in the Sandhills and Rainwater Basin Wetlands of Nebraska,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a national study, vegetation associated with known hydric and nonhydric soil series was sampled in selected wetlands in the Rainwater Basin and Sandhills regions of Nebraska. Weighted averages, presence/absence averages, and Michener averages w...

N. E. Erickson D. M. Leslie

1987-01-01

56

RESPONSES OF WETLAND VEGETATION TO WATER LEVEL VARIATIONS IN LAKE ONTARIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water level fluctuations, a naturally occurring phenomena in the Great Lakes, cause a continuing rejuvenation of lake-influenced wetlands. Two Lake Ontario wetlands (Campbell and Sage Creek Marshes) were mapped for 1 ft. contour intervals and habitat-vegetation type. Historical habitat\\/vegetation conditions were evaluated through interpretation of aerial photography. The photography was selected to represent water levels different from the current. Habitat

Wolf-Dieter N. Busch; Lynn M. Lewis

1984-01-01

57

How do water regime and clipping influence wetland plant establishment from seed banks and subsequent reproduction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings from an experiment designed to address whether grazing in interaction with water regime influences wetland plant establishment and reproduction, using clipping to simulate grazing. The experiment was a randomised complete block design in a set of outdoor tanks in which communities establishing from seed banks were assessed. For wetland plant species from the Northern Tablelands

Katharine Crosslé; Margaret A Brock

2002-01-01

58

A comparison of the vegetation and soils of natural, restored, and created coastal lowland wetlands in Hawai‘i  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of coastal wetlands throughout the Hawaiian Islands has increased the numbers of created (CW) and restored (RW) wetlands.\\u000a An assessment of these wetlands has yet to occur, and it has not been determined whether CWs and RWs provide the same functions\\u000a as natural wetlands (NWs). To address these concerns, vegetation and soil characteristics of 35 wetlands were compared

Meris Bantilan-Smith; Gregory L. Bruland; Richard A. MacKenzie; Adonia R. Henry; Christina R. Ryder

2009-01-01

59

Impact of Multiple Environmental Stresses on Wetland Vegetation Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research quantifies the impacts of climate change on the dynamics of wetland vegetation under the effect of multiple stresses, such as drought, water-logging, shade and nutrients. The effects of these stresses are investigated through a mechanistic model that captures the co-evolving nature between marsh emergent plant species and their resources (water, nitrogen, light, and oxygen). The model explicitly considers the feedback mechanisms between vegetation, light and nitrogen dynamics as well as the specific dynamics of plant leaves, rhizomes, and roots. Each plant species is characterized by three independent traits, namely leaf nitrogen (N) content, specific leaf area, and allometric carbon (C) allocation to rhizome storage, which govern the ability to gain and maintain resources as well as to survive in a particular multi-stressed environment. The modeling of plant growth incorporates C and N into the construction of leaves and roots, whose amount of new biomass is determined by the dynamic plant allocation scheme. Nitrogen is internally recycled between pools of plants, litter, humus, microbes, and mineral N. The N dynamics are modeled using a parallel scheme, with the major modifications being the calculation of the aerobic and anoxic periods and the incorporation of the anaerobic processes. A simple hydrologic model with stochastic rainfall is used to describe the water level dynamics and the soil moisture profile. Soil water balance is evaluated at the daily time scale and includes rainfall, evapotranspiration and lateral flow to/from an external water body, with evapotranspiration loss equal to the potential value, governed by the daily average condition of atmospheric water demand. The resulting feedback dynamics arising from the coupled system of plant-soil-microbe are studied in details and species’ fitnesses in the 3-D trait space are compared across various rainfall patterns with different mean and fluctuations. The model results are then compared with those from experiments and field studies reported in the literature, providing insights about the physiological features that enable plants to thrive in different wetland environments and climate regimes.

Muneepeerakul, C. P.; Tamea, S.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F. R.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

2009-12-01

60

The flood pulse as the underlying driver of vegetation in the largest wetland and fishery of the mekong basin.  

PubMed

The Tonle Sap is the largest wetland in Southeast Asia and one of the world's most productive inland fisheries. The Mekong River inundates the Tonle Sap every year, shaping a mosaic of natural and agricultural habitats. Ongoing hydropower development, however, will dampen the flood pulse that maintains the Tonle Sap. This study established the current underlying relationship among hydrology, vegetation, and human use. We found that vegetation is strongly influenced by flood duration; however, this relationship was heavily distorted by fire, grazing, and rice cultivation. The expected flood pulse alteration will result in higher water levels during the dry season, permanently inundating existing forests. The reduction of the maximum flood extent will facilitate agricultural expansion into natural habitats. This study is the most comprehensive field survey of the Tonle Sap to date, and it provides fundamental knowledge needed to understand the underlying processes that maintain this important wetland. PMID:23877417

Arias, Mauricio E; Cochrane, Thomas A; Norton, David; Killeen, Timothy J; Khon, Puthea

2013-07-23

61

Influence of hummocks and emergent vegetation on hydraulic performance in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of tracer experiments were conducted biannually at the start and end of the vegetation growing season in a surface flow wastewater treatment wetland located near Phoenix, AZ. Tracer experiments were conducted prior to and following reconfiguration and replanting of a 1.2 ha treatment wetland from its original design of alternating shallow and deep zones to incorporate hummocks (shallow planting beds situated perpendicular to flow). Tracer test data were analyzed using analysis of moments and the one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage numerical model to evaluate the effects of the seasonal vegetation growth cycle and hummocks on solute transport. Following reconfiguration, vegetation coverage was relatively small, and minor changes in spatial distribution influenced wetland hydraulics. During start-up conditions, the wetland underwent an acclimation period characterized by small vegetation coverage and large transport cross-sectional areas. At the start of the growing season, new growth of emergent vegetation enhanced hydraulic performance. At the end of the growing season, senescing vegetation created short-circuiting. Wetland hydrodynamics were associated with high volumetric efficiencies and velocity heterogeneities. The hummock design resulted in breakthrough curves characterized by multiple secondary tracer peaks indicative of varied flow paths created by bottom topography.

Keefe, Steffanie H.; Daniels, Joan S. (Thullen); Runkel, Robert L.; Wass, Roland D.; Stiles, Eric A.; Barber, Larry B.

2010-01-01

62

Revegetation of a Taxodium-Nyssa forested wetland following complete vegetation destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revegetation is described for a portion of a Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica (bald cypress-water tupelo) forested wetland in South Carolina. Thermal effluent from nuclear production reactors from 1954 to 1968 eliminated most of the original vegetation from the study area. Vegetation in disturbed and adjacent undisturbed areas was sampled in 1981 and 1985 using permanent plots. Herbs invaded rapidly throughout the

Christopher P. Dunn; Rebecca R. Sharitz

1987-01-01

63

USING AERIAL COLORINFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY AND QUICKBIRD SATELLITE DATA FOR MAPPING WETLAND VEGETATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography and QuickBird high resolution (2.8 m) false color satellite imagery were evaluated for differentiating among wetland vegetation in two freshwater lakes on the Welder Wildlife Refuge in south Texas. Field spectral measurements made on dominant vegetation types...

64

Aircraft MSS data registration and vegetation classification of wetland change detection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Portions of the Savannah River floodplain swamp were evaluated for vegetation change using high resolution (5a??6 m) aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Image distortion from aircraft movement prevented precise image-to-image registration in some areas. However, when small scenes were used (200-250 ha), a first-order linear transformation provided registration accuracies of less than or equal to one pixel. A larger area was registered using a piecewise linear method. Five major wetland classes were identified and evaluated for change. Phenological differences and the variable distribution of vegetation limited wetland type discrimination. Using unsupervised methods and ground-collected vegetation data, overall classification accuracies ranged from 84 per cent to 87 per cent for each scene. Results suggest that high-resolution aircraft MSS data can be precisely registered, if small areas are used, and that wetland vegetation change can be accurately detected and monitored.

Christensen, E.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Ramsey, E.W., III; Mackey, H.E., Jr.

1988-01-01

65

Use of a wetland index to evaluate changes in riparian vegetation after livestock exclusion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method was developed to characterize ecological integrity of riparian sites based on the abundance of hydric species. This wetland index can be calculated with species data, or with community type data as performed here. Classified riparian community types were used to describe vegetation at 14 livestock exclosures and adjacent grazed areas. Community type wetland index values were generated and used to calculate site wetland index values. It was hypothesized that removal of livestock would result in higher wetland index values because of release from herbivory and decreased physical disturbance of vegetation, streambanks, and soil. The wetland index for exclosures was about 12% higher than grazed sites; differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01) based on paired t-tests. The increase in hydric vegetation after livestock exclusion may have contributed to the greater bank stability (p = 0.002) and smaller width-to-depth ratio (p = 0.005) in exclosures. Challenges were encountered in using community types to describe and compare site vegetation, which could be avoided with species data collection. The wetland index can be a tool to monitor sites over time, compare sites with similar environments, or compare sites for which environmental differences can be accounted. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

Coles-Ritchie, M. C.; Roberts, D. W.; Kershner, J. L.; Henderson, R. C.

2007-01-01

66

Establishment of Roadside Vegetation for Arizona Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report lists and, in fact, describes species of native woody and herbaceous plants and have a potential for roadside use in the arid regions of the Southwest. Included are descriptions of techniques useful in effectively propagating and establishing m...

F. D. Cole

1967-01-01

67

Demonstration of Wetland Vegetation Mapping in Florida from Computer-Processed Satellite and Aircraft Multispectral Scanner Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The success of remotely mapping wetland vegetation of the southwestern coast of Florida is examined. A computerized technique to process aircraft and LANDSAT multispectral scanner data into vegetation classification maps was used. The cost effectiveness o...

M. K. Butera

1979-01-01

68

Field Evaluation of Hydromulches for Water Quality and Vegetation Establishment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil erosion and sediment pollution can be major problems in and around construction sites due to land disturbing activities that leave areas of unprotected soil during active construction. Establishing vegetation to control erosion can be difficult due t...

G. Lee R. A. McLaughlin

2013-01-01

69

Cold Season Nitrogen Removal in a High Loaded Free Water Surface Wetland with Emergent Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to quantify nitrogen removal in high loaded free water surface wetlands dominated by emergent vegetation.\\u000a It was undertaken in two subsystems of the full-scale wetland Alhagen in Nynäshamn, Sweden. Time proportional samples were\\u000a taken at the inlets and outlets for 2 weeks in September and November 2005, respectively, and the water flow was monitored.

Christer Svedin; Sofia Kallner Bastviken; Karin S. Tonderski

70

Effects of power-line construction on wetland vegetation in Massachusetts, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility rights-of-way corridors through wetland areas generate long-term impacts from construction activities to these valuable ecosystems. Changes to and recovery of the vegetation communities of a cattail marsh, wooded swamp, and shrub\\/bog wetland were documented through measurements made each growing season for two years prior, five years following, and again on the tenth year after construction of a 345-kV transmission

Norton H. Nickerson; Ross A. Dobberteen; Nancy M. Jarman

1989-01-01

71

Vegetation Response to Re-flooding in the Mesopotamian Wetlands, Southern Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands in the Mesopotamian Plain in southern Iraq were extensively drained in the 1990s. Re-flooding of drained areas commenced\\u000a in 2003, and included parts of the Central marsh between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. New vegetation in the re-flooded\\u000a areas of the Central marsh was studied in 2006. Most of the wetland plant species and communities widely distributed prior\\u000a to

M. A. Hamdan; T. Asada; F. M. Hassan; B. G. Warner; A. Douabul; M. R. A. Al-Hilli; A. A. Alwan

2010-01-01

72

Chironomidae (Diptera) and vegetation in a created wetland and implications for sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although invertebrate communities are used in the evaluation of created freshwater wetlands, spatial patterns of invertebrate\\u000a community structure are frequently ignored. Invertebrate distributions are generally associated with plant community distribution\\u000a in natural aquatic ecosystems. In this study, 180 core samples were collected to examine associations between chironomid (Diptera)\\u000a genera and emergent vegetation communities in a single created freshwater herbaceous wetland

William J. Streever; David L. Evans; Chris M. Keenan; Thomas L. Crisman

1995-01-01

73

Vegetation development on extensive vegetated green roofs: Influence of substrate composition, establishment method and species mix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for establishment of vegetated roofs (green roofs) has developed rapidly over recent years but knowledge about how these systems will develop over time is still limited. This study investigates vegetation development on unfertilised thin extensive vegetated roofs during a 3-year period. The vegetation systems investigated were designed to be low maintenance and had a saturated weight of 50kg\\/m2, a

Tobias Emilsson

2008-01-01

74

Wetland vegetation recovery after fire: Eweburn Bog, Te Anau, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a fire in a sphagnum-wirerush mossland (Sphagnum cristatum-Empodisma minus) in Te Anau Basin, permanent transects were established and recovery of the wetland monitored annually using visual estimation of plant cover. Within four and a half years of the fire, total plant cover had reached 90% or more throughout the wetland, having been reduced by the fire to as low

Susan M. Timmins

1992-01-01

75

Impacts of Land Use on Wetland Vegetation in the Eastern United States: Timing and Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and scale of vegetation change are dependent on the resilience of the ecosystem to land use change that alters hydrologic response and sediment transport. Using palynological methods, we examine the impacts of land use change in 2 distinct ecosystems (the subtropical Florida Everglades and the temperate Roanoke River floodplain) in the Eastern United States. Twentieth century water management strategies have modified the hydrology within the Florida Everglades resulting in varying degrees of vegetation changes depending on community type and location within the greater Everglades ecosystem. Analysis of pollen assemblages from herbaceous wetland communities such as sawgrass ridges, open water sloughs, and marl prairies, show rapid vegetation change in response to both increases and decreases in hydrology. However, evaluations of these wetland environments over longer time periods (centuries to millennia) and through natural alterations to hydroperiod (like Medieval Warm Period) demonstrated the ability of the vegetation to recover within a few decades. Tree-island communities, composed of flood-intolerant, woody vegetation, are largely resistant to decreases in hydroperiod. They are, however, less tolerant to sustained increases (greater than 5 years) in water levels, with no seasonal drying, resulting in long-term degradation. Tree-island pollen assemblages indicate rapid changes in vegetation composition when subjected to prolonged hydroperiod (essentially drowning the tree islands). Pollen assemblages from the Roanoke River floodplain provide a perspective on the impacts of colonial land clearance, altered sedimentation, and changes in flooding regimes on forested wetland vegetation. After land clearance, organic to mineral sediments covered organic floodplain soils. Palynological evidence suggests a change towards less flood tolerant communities in areas of greatest sedimentation. These results demonstrate the rapid response of wetland plant communities to alterations in hydrology and sedimentation as a result of land use changes. Comparisons of modern records with paleoecological records provide a tool to evaluate the scale and timing of wetland vegetation response to land use change.

Bernhardt, C. E.; Willard, D. A.; Townsend, P.; Brown, R.

2004-12-01

76

Efficiency of Constructed Wetland Vegetated with Cyperus alternifolius Applied for Municipal Wastewater Treatment.  

PubMed

The treatment of municipal wastewater from Yazd city (center of Iran) by constructed wetland vegetated with Cyperus alternifolius was assessed. Two identical wetlands with a total working volume of 60?L and 10?cm sandy layer at the bottom were used. First wetland (W1) was control and had no Cyperus alternifolius plant. Second wetland (W2) had 100 Cyperus alternifolius shrubs with 40?cm height. Influent wastewater was provided from Yazd's septic tanks effluents and after a 4-day retention time in wetlands, reactors effluent was sampled for parameters analysis. Results show that chemical oxygen demand (COD), NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, and PO4 (-3)-P in W1 were reduced to 72%, 88%, 32%, and 0.8%, and in W2, these parameters were removed in values of 83%, 81%, 47%, and 10%, respectively. In both wetlands, the highest and lowest removal efficiencies were related to COD and phosphorus, respectively. Also, the removed phosphorus can be released to stream when the soil saturated or influent phosphorus decreased and when the plant died. After a 4-day-retention time, the W2 wetland showed a statistically significantly lower COD and NH4 (+)-N in comparison with W2 wetland. PMID:24027589

Ebrahimi, Asghar; Taheri, Ensiyeh; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Nasiri, Sara; Jalali, Fatemeh; Soltani, Rahele; Fatehizadeh, Ali

2013-08-20

77

Bathymetry and vegetation in isolated marsh and cypress wetlands in the northern Tampa Bay Area, 2000-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wetland bathymetry and vegetation mapping are two commonly used lines of evidence for assessing the hydrologic and ecologic status of expansive coastal and riverine wetlands. For small isolated freshwater wetlands, however, bathymetric data coupled with vegetation assessments are generally scarce, despite the prevalence of isolated wetlands in many regions of the United States and the recognized importance of topography as a control on inundation patterns and vegetation distribution. In the northern Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida, bathymetry was mapped and vegetation was assessed in five marsh and five cypress wetlands. These 10 isolated wetlands were grouped into three categories based on the effects of ground-water withdrawals from regional municipal well fields: natural (no effect), impaired (drier than natural), and augmented (wetlands with artificially augmented water levels). Delineation of the wetland perimeter was a critical component for estimating wetland-surface area and stored water volume. The wetland perimeter was delineated by the presence of Serenoa repens (the 'palmetto fringe') at 9 of the 10 sites. At the 10th site, where the palmetto fringe was absent, hydric-soils indicators were used to delineate the perimeter. Bathymetric data were collected using one or more techniques, depending on the physical characteristics of each wetland. Wetland stage was measured hourly using continuous stage recorders. Wetland vegetation was assessed semiannually for 2 1/2 years in fixed plots located at three distinct elevations. Vegetation assessments were used to determine the community composition and the relative abundance of obligate, facultative wet, and facultative species at each elevation. Bathymetry maps were generated, and stage-area and stage-volume relations were developed for all 10 wetlands. Bathymetric data sets containing a high density of data points collected at frequent and regular spatial intervals provided the most useful stage-area and stage-volume relations. Bathymetric maps of several wetlands also were generated using a low density of data points collected along transect lines or contour lines. In a comparative analysis of the three mapping approaches, stage-area and stage-volume relations based on transect data alone underestimated (by 50-100 percent over certain ranges of stage) the wetland area and volume compared to results using a high density of data points. Adding data points collected along one elevation contour below the wetland perimeter to the transect data set greatly improved the agreement of the resulting stage-area and stage-volume relations to the high-density mapping approach. Stage-area relations and routinely monitored stage data were used to compare and contrast the average flooded area in a natural marsh and an impaired marsh over a 2-year period. Vegetation assessments used together with flooded-area information provided the potential for extrapolating vegetation results from points or transects to wetlands as a whole. A comparison of the frequency of flooding of different areas of the wetland and the species composition in vegetation plots at different elevations indicated the dependence of vegetation on inundation frequency. Because of the broad tolerances of many wetlands plants to a range of inundation conditions, however, vegetation assessments alone provided less definitive evidence of the hydrologic differences between the two sites, and hydrologic changes occurring during the 2 years, than the flooded-area frequencies. Combining flooded-area frequencies with vegetation assessments could provide a more versatile and insightful approach for determining the ecological status of wetlands than using vegetation and stage data alone. Flooded-area frequencies may further provide a useful approach for assessing the ecological status of wetlands where historical vegetation surveys and stage data are lacking. Comparing the contemporary flooded-area frequencies a

Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Herndon, Donald C.

2005-01-01

78

A quantitative technique for estimating the boundaries of wetlands from vegetation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing need for the accurate delineation of wetlands for planning and conservation purposes. We propose a method based on vegetation zonation which requires three steps. The first step is to examine transects crossing the transition zone from marsh to upland. In each transect the uppermost occurrence of each plant species is located relative to a fixed survey point. The second step is to determine which of these species are hydrophytes (wetland plants). This is assessed using the presence or absence of morphological and physiological adaptations for growing in wet environments. Alternatively, a literature search using botanical manuals may suffice. The third step determines the upper limit of the wetland by finding the upper limit of the uppermost hydrophyte in each transect, and taking the mean value of these over all transects. This mean defines the boundary of the wetland. The method is illustrated using two marshes along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River in Ontario.

Sharp, Mirek J.; Keddy, Paul A.

1986-01-01

79

Establishment of Carex stricta Lam. seedlings in experimental wetlands with implications for restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of Carex dominated meadows due to agricultural drainage in the previously glaciated midcontinent of North America has been extensive.\\u000a The lack of natural Carex recruitment in wetland restorations and the failures of revegetation attempts underscore the need for information on the\\u000a establishment requirements of wetland sedges. In this study, seedlings of Carex stricta Lam. were planted in three

Rachel A. Budelsky; Susan M. Galatowitsch

2004-01-01

80

The Relative Impact of Human Disturbances on the Vegetation of a Large Wetland Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic disturbances are important factors structuring the vegetation of ecosystems, but their influence on peatlands\\u000a remain poorly understood. We quantified the relative influence of anthropogenic disturbances, abiotic variables and spatial\\u000a patterns on the floristic composition of a large wetland complex, and assessed the relationship between disturbances and species\\u000a richness. Vegetation and abiotic data were collected in 253 plots, and disturbances

Marie-Êve Tousignant; Stéphanie Pellerin; Jacques Brisson

2010-01-01

81

Vegetation Change in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands: Deviation from the Historical Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-level change is integral to the structure and function of Great Lakes coastal wetlands, and many studies document predictable relationships between vegetation and water level. However, anthropogenic stressors, such as invasive species, land-use change, and water-level stabilization, interact to shift the historical cycle (of native vegetation migration up- and down-slope) toward dominance by invasive Typha species. Knowing from earlier studies

Christin B. Frieswyk; Joy B. Zedler

2007-01-01

82

Soil-Vegetation Correlations in Coastal Mississippi Wetlands,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a national study, vegetation associated with known hydric soil series was sampled on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in southern Mississippi. Weighted average values were calculated for vegetation associations on each so...

N. E. Erickson D. M. Leslie

1988-01-01

83

Vegetation study to assess the nutrient uptake potential of emergent macrophytes in semi-arid wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arc GIS software and ground verification was used to map vegetation of a downstream riparian wetland in the Las Vegas Wash. Monogeneric stands of Phragmites australis dominated the spatial distribution of emergent macrophytes. This paper aims to evaluate the aboveground biomass production and nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) content to determine the maximum nutrient removal efficiency by harvesting Typha domingensis and P. australis during their highest growth rate, in a semi arid wetlands. The average aboveground biomass of T. domingensis (5.61to11.07 kg m-2) was significantly higher than P. australis (2.49-6.35 kg m-2) in the month of July 2010. Despite the high nutrient concentration measured in P. australis aboveground tissue, the net standing stock accumulation potential was still higher in T. domingensis. The net aboveground standing stock of nutrients in the Las Vegas Wash wetlands was measured (approximately 26418.7 kg N and 1264.1 kg P) for P. australis and (approximately 5183.8 kg N and 272.83 kg P) for T. domingensis. Harvesting aboveground biomass from both species would remove total nitrogen significantly from the system but not total phosphorus. Furthermore, harvesting P. australis during the peak growth period might positively impact the semi arid wetlands because it will provide more ground for T. domingensis extension. The comparative analysis of the emergent vegetation potential for biomass accumulation, nutrient concentration and standing stock was not significantly different among humid and semi arid wetlands. The humid and semi arid wetlands are characterized by a better understanding of the long term function and processes associated with the nutrient uptake potential of wetlands vegetation.

Adhikari, A. R.; Acharya, K.; Yu, Z.

2011-12-01

84

Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewaters from leather processing are very complex and lead to water pollution if discharged untreated, especially due to its high organic loading. In this study the survival of different plant species in subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands receiving tannery wastewater was investigated. Five pilot units were vegetated with Canna indica, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Stenotaphrum secundatum and Iris pseudacorus, and

Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2007-01-01

85

Vegetation change in created emergent wetlands (1988–1996) in Connecticut (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in hydrology, water quality and vegetation were evaluated in four palustrine emergent wetland pairs, each including created and reference sites. Located along interstate highways, they were initially sampled in 1988 (Confer and Niering, 1992) and again in 1996. Overall, created sites showed significant decreases in open water and water depth between 1989 and 1996 compared to more stable conditions

H. H. Moore; W. A. Niering; L. J. Marsicano; M. Dowdell

1999-01-01

86

Association between phosphorus and suspended solids in an Everglades treatment wetland dominated by submersed aquatic vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of the Everglades requires reduction of total phosphorus (TP) in the influent run-off from the Everglades agricultural area (EAA). The Everglades nutrient removal project tested phosphorus (P) - removal efficiencies of several treatment wetland cells. The best TP reduction has occurred within the submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) - dominated treatment Cell 4. A significant proportion of the P reduction

M. Farve; W. Harris; F. Dierberg; K. Portier

2004-01-01

87

Bioavailability of Organic Phosphorus in a Submerged Aquatic Vegetation–Dominated Treatment Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

sine triphosphate (ATP). Thus, determining different phosphatase-induced hydrolyses would provide poten- Enzymatic hydrolysis and mineralization of organic phosphorus tial bioavailability of P compounds in the water column (P) were determined in surface water samples collected from inflow and outflow of a submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV)-dominated of stormwater treatment areas (STAs). treatment wetland of the Florida Everglades. Water samples were The

H. K. Pant; K. R. Reddy; F. E. Dierberg

2002-01-01

88

HYDROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VEGETATED RIPARIAN BUFFERS AND CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetated riparian buffers and constructed wetlands are among the stream-corridor management systems that can reduce the amount of sediments, nutrients, and biocides entering streams. Hydrologic factors can constrain water-quality benefits of these practices because riparian buffers can only affect...

89

Role of vegetation in a constructed wetland on nutrient-pesticide mixture toxicity to Hyalella azteca.  

PubMed

The toxicity of a nutrient-pesticide mixture in nonvegetated and vegetated sections of a constructed wetland (882 m² each) was assessed using Hyalella azteca 48-h aqueous whole-effluent toxicity bioassays. Both sections were amended with a mixture of sodium nitrate, triple superphosphate, diazinon, and permethrin simulating storm-event agricultural runoff. Aqueous samples were collected at inflow, middle, and outflow points within each section 5 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days postamendment. Nutrients and pesticides were detected throughout both wetland sections with concentrations longitudinally decreasing more in vegetated than nonvegetated section within 24 h. Survival effluent dilution point estimates-NOECs, LOECs, and LC??s-indicated greatest differences in toxicity between nonvegetated and vegetated sections at 5 h. Associations of nutrient and pesticide concentrations with NOECs indicated that earlier toxicity (5-72 h) was from permethrin and diazinon, whereas later toxicity (7-21 days) was primarily from diazinon. Nutrient-pesticide mixture concentration-response assessment using toxic unit models indicated that H. azteca toxicity was due primarily to the pesticides diazinon and permethrin. Results show that the effects of vegetation versus no vegetation on nutrient-pesticide mixture toxicity are not evident after 5 h and a 21-day retention time is necessary to improve H. azteca survival to ?90% in constructed wetlands of this size. PMID:20814671

Lizotte, Richard E; Moore, Matthew T; Locke, Martin A; Kröger, Robert

2010-09-03

90

Evaluation of multispatial scale measurements for monitoring wetland vegetation, Kushiro wetland, Japan: application of SPOT images, CASI data, airborne CNIR video images and balloon aerial photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study was designed to evaluate the potential use for various spectral and spatial resolutions to classify the wetland vegetation into the species level. The objectives of our study is to investigate which combination of remote sensing systems is the most appropriate for delineating and mapping of specific and preservative vegetation. That is, to clarify appropriate remote sensing data and

M. Miyamoto; K. Kushida; K. Yoshino; T. Nagano; Y. Sato

2003-01-01

91

Aquatic invertebrate responses to fish presence and vegetation complexity in Western Boreal wetlands, with implications for Waterbird productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic invertebrates are essential to wetland function, serving as the key trophic link between primary producers, fish,\\u000a and waterfowl in boreal wetlands. We studied how both aquatic vegetation complexity and prevalence, and fish presence, could\\u000a be used to predict the distribution of invertebrate biomass in 24 wetlands of the Western Boreal Forest (WBF). The percent\\u000a volume occupied by aquatic plants

Jonathan P. Hornung; A. Lee Foote

2006-01-01

92

Bathymetry and Vegetation in Isolated March and Cypress Wetlands in the Northern Tampa Bay Area, 2000-2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to describe the bathymetry and vegetation of 10 isolated wetlands in the NTB area. Specifically, the report: (1) describes relations between wetland water level (stage), the area of inundation, and stored water volume; (2) co...

K. H. Haag T. M. Lee D. C. Herndon

2005-01-01

93

A Demonstration of Wetland Vegetation Mapping in Florida from Computer-Processed Satellite and Aircraft Multispectral Scanner Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following signficant results. Major vegetative classes identified by the remote sensing technique were cypress swamp, pine, wetland grasses, salt grass, mixed mangrove, black mangrove, Brazilian pepper. Australian pine and me...

M. K. Butera

1978-01-01

94

Uncertainties in modelling CH4 emissions from northern wetlands in glacial climates: the role of vegetation parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) interstadials are marked by a sharp increase in the atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration, as recorded in ice cores. Wetlands are assumed to be the major source of this CH4, although several other hypotheses have been advanced. Modelling of CH4 emissions is crucial to quantify CH4 sources for past climates. Vegetation effects are generally highly generalized in modelling past and present-day CH4 fluxes, but should not be neglected. Plants strongly affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and the net primary production of the vegetation supplies organic matter as substrate for methanogens. For modelling past CH4 fluxes from northern wetlands, assumptions on vegetation are highly relevant since paleobotanical data indicate large differences in Last Glacial (LG) wetland vegetation composition as compared to modern wetland vegetation. Besides more cold-adapted vegetation, Sphagnum mosses appear to be much less dominant during large parts of the LG than at present, which particularly affects CH4 oxidation and transport. To evaluate the effect of vegetation parameters, we used the PEATLAND-VU wetland CO2/CH4 model to simulate emissions from wetlands in continental Europe during LG and modern climates. We tested the effect of parameters influencing oxidation during plant transport (fox), vegetation net primary production (NPP, parameter symbol Pmax), plant transport rate (Vtransp), maximum rooting depth (Zroot) and root exudation rate (fex). Our model results show that modelled CH4 fluxes are sensitive to fox and Zroot in particular. The effects of Pmax, Vtransp and fex are of lesser relevance. Interactions with water table modelling are significant for Vtransp. We conducted experiments with different wetland vegetation types for Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) stadial and interstadial climates and the present-day climate, by coupling PEATLAND-VU to high resolution climate model simulations for Europe. Experiments assuming dominance of one vegetation type (Sphagnum vs. Carex vs. Shrubs) show that Carex-dominated vegetation can increase CH4 emissions by 50% to 78% over Sphagnum-dominated vegetation depending on the modelled climate, while for shrubs this increase ranges from 42% to 72%. Consequently, during the LG northern wetlands may have had CH4 emissions similar to their present-day counterparts, despite a colder climate. Changes in dominant wetland vegetation, therefore, may drive changes in wetland CH4 fluxes, in the past as well as in the future.

Berrittella, C.; van Huissteden, J.

2011-10-01

95

Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Loehle, C.

1990-11-01

96

Holocene Vegetation Dynamics of an Upper St. Lawrence River Wetland: Paleoecological Evidence for a Recent Increase in Cattail ( Typha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattails (Typha latifolia L., Typha angustifolia L., and Typha x glauca Godr.) are the predominant emergent vegetation of upper St. Lawrence River coastal wetlands. We sought to describe Holocene\\u000a vegetation in a St. Lawrence River wetland to assess patterns of succession and examine the timing and potential causes of\\u000a a historic cattail invasion. Paleoecological analysis indicated presence of four distinct

Molly Beland Rippke; Matthew T. Distler; John M. Farrell

2010-01-01

97

Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from leather processing are very complex and lead to water pollution if discharged untreated, especially due to its high organic loading. In this study the survival of different plant species in subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands receiving tannery wastewater was investigated. Five pilot units were vegetated with Canna indica, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Stenotaphrum secundatum and Iris pseudacorus, and a sixth unit was left as an unvegetated control. The treatment performance of the systems under two different hydraulic loading rates, 3 and 6 cmd(-1), was assessed. COD was reduced by 41-73% for an inlet organic loading varying between 332 and 1602 kgha(-1)d(-1) and BOD(5) was reduced by 41-58% for an inlet organic loading varying between 218 and 780 kgha(-1)d(-1). Nutrient removal occurred to lower extents. Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were the only plants that were able to establish successfully. Despite the high removal of organic content from the influent wastewater, during 17 months of operation, no significant differences in performance were observed between units. PMID:17320926

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

2007-02-23

98

Relations between topography, wetlands, vegetation cover and stream water chemistry in boreal headwater catchments in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large part of the spatial variation of stream water chemistry is found in headwater streams and small catchments. To understand the dominant processes, taking place in small and heterogeneous catchments, spatial and temporal data with high resolution is needed. In most cases available map data has too low quality and resolution to successfully be used in environmental assessments and modelling. In this study 18 forested catchments (1-4 km2) were selected within a 120×50 km area in the county of Värmland in western Sweden. The aim was to test if topographic and vegetation variables derived from official datasets were correlated to stream water chemistry, represented by DOC, Al, Fe and Si content. A GIS was used to analyse the elevation characteristics, generate topographic indices and calculate the percentage of wetlands and a number of vegetation classes. The results clearly show that the topography has a major influence on the occurrence of wetlands, which has a major influence on stream water chemistry. There were very strong correlations between mean slope and percentage wetland, percentage wetland and DOC, mean slope and DOC and mean topographic wetness index and DOC. The conclusion was that official topographic data, despite uncertain or low quality and resolution, could be useful in the prediction of headwater chemistry in boreal forested catchments.

Andersson, J.-O.; Nyberg, L.

2008-05-01

99

Vegetation analysis on wetlands in a Tuscan agricultural landscape (central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant communities on the wetlands of an agricultural landscape in central Italy were studied. Indicator species, dominant\\u000a life forms, alien species cover and prevailing habitat conditions (using Ellenberg indicator values) were shown to characterize\\u000a the four groups that emerged from a classification analysis. 31 vegetation units were documented by 98 original phytosociological\\u000a relevés and a floristic, synecological and distributional

Lorenzo Lastrucci; Marco Landi; Claudia Angiolini

2010-01-01

100

Role of Vegetation in a Constructed Wetland on Nutrient–Pesticide Mixture Toxicity to Hyalella azteca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of a nutrient–pesticide mixture in nonvegetated and vegetated sections of a constructed wetland (882 m2 each) was assessed using Hyalella azteca 48-h aqueous whole-effluent toxicity bioassays. Both sections were amended with a mixture of sodium nitrate, triple superphosphate,\\u000a diazinon, and permethrin simulating storm-event agricultural runoff. Aqueous samples were collected at inflow, middle, and\\u000a outflow points within each section 5 h, 24 h,

Richard E. Lizotte Jr; Matthew T. Moore; Martin A. Locke; Robert Kröger

2011-01-01

101

Relationship between hydraulic efficiency and phosphorus removal in a submerged aquatic vegetation-dominated treatment wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tracer study (Rhodamine-WT dye) was performed on a 147-ha submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV)-dominated free-water surface treatment wetland in south Florida that received agricultural drainage waters (ADW). Two dimensional, time series plots of the dye concentrations revealed that a disproportionate amount of tracer flowed along the eastern and western levees of the cell. The tracer response curve developed from the

Forrest E. Dierberg; John J. Juston; Thomas A. DeBusk; Kathy Pietro; Binhe Gu

2005-01-01

102

The effects of water-level fluctuations on vegetation in a Lake Huron wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity and resultant habitat value of wetland plant communities in the Laurentian Great Lakes are dependent on water-level\\u000a fluctuations of varying frequency and amplitude. Conceptual models have described the response of vegetation to alternating\\u000a high and low lake levels, but few quantitative studies have documented the changes that occur. In response to recent concerns\\u000a over shoreline management activities during

Douglas A. Wilcox; S. Jerrine Nichols

2008-01-01

103

Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners create a model of a wetland to observe how it absorbs and filters water from the environment. In part 1, learners make it "rain" on their wetland model and compare their predictions of where the water will go to where it actually goes. In part 2, learners consider and discuss the characteristics of wetland plants and animals and match pictures of different organisms to different types of wetlands. An addendum to the lesson provides extensive information, including photos, about wetland plants and animals, plus a section on "Types of Wetlands Found in New Jersey."

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

104

Effects of agricultural runoff on vegetation composition of a priority conservation wetland, Vermont, USA.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of agricultural runoff on the vegetation structure of Franklin Bog, a priority conservation area located in a rapidly developing region of northwestern Vermont. Forested and agricultural runoff from the mixed land use watershed created differential vegetation patterns in the wetland, including weedy species introductions. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were measured in the stream runoff from four forested subwatersheds and two agricultural subwatersheds. Nutrient concentrations were significantly higher for agricultural vs. forested runoff for all measured parameters. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations in agricultural runoff ranged from 0.62 to 1.35 mg L(-1) and 0.07 to 0.37 mg L(-1), respectively. Forested runoff values were less than 0.37 mg L(-1) nitrate and 0.09 mg L(-1) total phosphorus. Significantly higher proportions of weedy species occurred at impacted vs. reference sites (46 +/- 5% vs. 23 +/- 4%). Furthermore, significantly higher total percent vegetated cover occurred at impacted vs. reference sites (116 +/- 11% vs. 77 +/- 9%) suggesting nutrient induced plant growth. Of the nine frequently occurring species categorized as bog species, only one was found within impacted sites while all nine were found at the reference sites. This suggests that the wetland's distinctive native flora is being replaced by widespread, vigorous species enhanced by agricultural nonpoint pollution in the watershed of Franklin Bog. Protection of wetlands requires attention to conservation measures throughout the entire watershed. PMID:11837440

Gustafson, Shelley; Wang, Deane

105

Temporary vegetation disturbance as an explanation for permanent loss of tidal wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems respond to sea level and sediment supply change according to complex, three-way interactions between vegetation, hydrology, and sediment transport. While biogeomorphic feedbacks preserve the morphology of intertidal surfaces covered by marshland, we demonstrate with numerical model and field experimentation that temporary disturbance to vegetation facilitates rapid and widespread degradation. Vertical accretion slows in disturbed areas, allowing localized submergence of the marsh platform, tidal prism enlargement, and permanent channel network expansion. Vegetated portions of an episodically disturbed platform accrete more rapidly than rates of relative sea level rise, giving submerging marshland the appearance of maintaining elevation. This feedback between vegetation disturbance and channel erosion, and its effect on platform accretion, may explain peculiar patterns of wetland loss in Europe and North America.

Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Boyd, W. Sean

2008-03-01

106

[Characteristics of soil nematode communities in coastal wetlands with different vegetation types].  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted on the characteristics of soil nematode communities in different vegetation belts (Spartina alterniflora belt, Sa; Suaeda glauca belt, Sg; bare land, B1; Phragmites australis belt, Pa; and wheat land, Wl) of Yancheng Wetland Reserve, Jiangsu Province of East China. A total of 39 genera and 20 families of soil nematodes were identified, and the individuals of dominant genera and common genera occupied more than 90% of the total. The total number of the nematodes differed remarkably with vegetation belts, ranged from 79 to 449 individuals per 100 grams of dry soil. Wheat land had the highest number of soil nematodes, while bare land had the lowest one. The nematode ecological indices responded differently to the vegetation belts. The Shannon index (H) and evenness index (J) decreased in the order of Pa > Sg > Wl > Sa > Bl, and the dominance index (lambda) was in the order of Bl > Sa > Wl > Sg > Pa, suggesting that the diversity and stability of the nematode community in bare land were lower than those in the other vegetation belts, and the nematode community in the bare land tended to be simplified. The maturity index (MI) was higher in uncultivated vegetation belts than in wheat land, suggesting that the wheat land was disturbed obviously. The nematode community structure differed significantly with vegetation belts, and the main contributing species in different vegetation belts also differed. There existed significant correlations between the soil physical and chemical characteristics and the nematode numbers, trophic groups, and ecological indices. Our results demonstrated that the changes of soil nematode community structure could be used as an indicator well reflecting the diversity of vegetation belt habitat, and an important bio-indicator of coastal wetland ecosystem. PMID:23431791

Liu, Bei-Bei; Ye, Cheng-Long; Yu, Li; Jiao, Jia-Guo; Liu, Man-Qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin

2012-11-01

107

Wetland functional health assessment using remote sensing and other techniques: Literature search and overview. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

Contents: introduction; remote sensing of wetland biomass and other wetland condition indicators; conceptual approaches in wetland assessment; wetland extent and type; landscape and wetland patterns; wetland biomass and productivity; wetland vegetation; wetland habitat quality; wetland hydrology; and conclusions and recommendations.

Patience, N.; Klemas, V.

1993-03-01

108

Hydrological drivers of wetland vegetational biodiversity patterns within Everglades National Park, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of hydrological dynamics on vegetational biodiversity and structuring of wetland environments is of growing interest as wetlands are modified by human alteration and the increasing threat from climate change. Hydrology has long been considered a driving force in shaping wetland communities as the frequency of inundation along with the duration and depth of flooding are key determinants of wetland structure. We attempt to link hydrological dynamics with vegetational distribution and species richness across Everglades National Park (ENP) using two publicly available datasets. The first, the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN),is a water-surface model which determines the median daily measure of water level across a 400mX400m grid over seven years of measurement. The second is a vegetation map and classification system at the 1:15,000 scale which categorizes vegetation within the Everglades into 79 community types. From these data, we have studied the probabilistic structure of the frequency, duration, and depth of hydroperiods. Preliminary results indicate that the percentage of time a location is inundated is a principal structuring variable with individual communities responding differently. For example, sawgrass appears to be more of a generalist community as it is found across a wide range of time inundated percentages while spike rush has a more restricted distribution and favors wetter environments disproportionately more than predicted at random. Further, the diversity of vegetation communities (e.g. a measure of biodiversity) found across a hydrologic variable does not necessarily match the distribution function for that variable on the landscape. For instance, the number of communities does not differ across the percentage of time inundated. Different measures of vegetation biodiversity such as the local number of community types are also studied at different spatial scales with some characteristics, like the slope of the semi-logarithmic relation between rank and occupancy, found to be robust to scale changes. The ENP offers an expansive natural environment in which to study how vegetational dynamics and community composition are affected by hydrologic variables from the small scale (at the individual community level) to the large (biodiversity measures at differing spatial scales).

Todd, J.; Pumo, D.; Azaele, S.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F. R.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

2009-12-01

109

Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands  

SciTech Connect

One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

Not Available

1992-01-01

110

Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands  

SciTech Connect

One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

Not Available

1992-10-01

111

TTC Dyeing for Evaluation of Wetland Vegetation Activity in Sarobetsu Mire, Northern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced groundwater levels cause drying and shrinkage of mires, resulting in rapid changes in wetland vegetation. To conserve pre-existing wetland vegetation, it is important to clarify its behavior in relation to groundwater level fluctuations. Sarobetsu Mire, the biggest high moor in Japan, is experiencing a transition of its wetland vegetation due to increased invasion by dwarf bamboo (Sasa (Eusasa)). Previous studies have been limited to qualitative assessment concluding that the reduction of wetland vegetation areas is taking place. The invasion of dwarf bamboo was found to be inhibited in areas with high groundwater levels, but few studies have sought to quantitatively assess the responses of individual plants to groundwater variations. Growth activity has often been measured using the triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride (TTC) method, which is a simple approach. The purpose of this study is to develop a quantitative method to assess the response (in terms of activity) of wetland vegetation to groundwater levels. To examine the relationship between the two (i.e., whether plants are dead or alive), a pair of laboratory experiments was conducted using the TTC method and absorptimetry with dwarf bamboo collected from Sarobetsu Mire. The first experiment was to investigate the activity of wetland vegetation in an inundated environment, and the second was to investigate annual fluctuations in such activity. The results showed that the activity (in terms of absorbance) of dwarf bamboo continued to decrease immediately after collection, and that the absorbance peak at a wavelength of 480 nm was also smaller. However, after the submersion period exceeded 30 days, there were no significant changes in absorbance as the submersion period went on. This indicates that dwarf bamboo underwent activity loss and died when the submersion period exceeded 30 days. Dwarf bamboo was considered dead when absorbance (480 nm) was 0.2 or lower and the peak became unclear. Since the change in absorbance was the largest for dwarf bamboo at 480 nm, comparison at this wavelength was considered effective for activity judgment. This result indicated the feasibility of quantitative assessment for the activity of underground rhizomes of dwarf bamboo using TTC dyeing. The activity of dwarf bamboo is at its lowest in July, rises from July to December, is flat or shows a falling tendency from December to May, and falls sharply from June to July. The activity of rhizomes was low from June to August because their processes (in terms of nutrition) moved to the aerial parts of plants to supply nutrients to shoots. The growth of the aerial parts then subsided, suggesting that nutrients were stored in rhizomes from September onward. In the future, groundwater levels are expected to increase due to the restoration of river meanders as part of nature restoration projects, as well as in response to changes in hydrological environments caused by influences such as climate change. It will be necessary to verify the response of plant activity to groundwater levels using the TTC assessment method for various types of wetland vegetation and to promote verification in field tests.

Hayashida, K.; Murakami, Y.; Mizugaki, S.; Yano, M.

2011-12-01

112

Microbial Transformations of Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Iron Dictate Vegetation Composition in Wetlands: A Review  

PubMed Central

The majority of studies on rhizospheric interactions focus on pathogens, mycorrhizal symbiosis, or carbon transformations. Although the biogeochemical transformations of N, S, and Fe have profound effects on vegetation, these effects have received far less attention. This review, meant for microbiologists, biogeochemists, and plant scientists includes a call for interdisciplinary research by providing a number of challenging topics for future ecosystem research. Firstly, all three elements are plant nutrients, and microbial activity significantly changes their availability. Secondly, microbial oxidation with oxygen supplied by radial oxygen loss from roots in wetlands causes acidification, while reduction using alternative electron acceptors leads to generation of alkalinity, affecting pH in the rhizosphere, and hence plant composition. Thirdly, reduced species of all three elements may become phytotoxic. In addition, Fe cycling is tightly linked to that of S and P. As water level fluctuations are very common in wetlands, rapid changes in the availability of oxygen and alternative terminal electron acceptors will result in strong changes in the prevalent microbial redox reactions, with significant effects on plant growth. Depending on geological and hydrological settings, these interacting microbial transformations change the conditions and resource availability for plants, which are both strong drivers of vegetation development and composition by changing relative competitive strengths. Conversely, microbial composition is strongly driven by vegetation composition. Therefore, the combination of microbiological and plant ecological knowledge is essential to understand the biogeochemical and biological key factors driving heterogeneity and total (i.e., microorganisms and vegetation) community composition at different spatial and temporal scales.

Lamers, Leon P. M.; van Diggelen, Josepha M. H.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Visser, Eric J. W.; Lucassen, Esther C. H. E. T.; Vile, Melanie A.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Roelofs, Jan G. M.

2012-01-01

113

Microbial transformations of nitrogen, sulfur, and iron dictate vegetation composition in wetlands: a review.  

PubMed

The majority of studies on rhizospheric interactions focus on pathogens, mycorrhizal symbiosis, or carbon transformations. Although the biogeochemical transformations of N, S, and Fe have profound effects on vegetation, these effects have received far less attention. This review, meant for microbiologists, biogeochemists, and plant scientists includes a call for interdisciplinary research by providing a number of challenging topics for future ecosystem research. Firstly, all three elements are plant nutrients, and microbial activity significantly changes their availability. Secondly, microbial oxidation with oxygen supplied by radial oxygen loss from roots in wetlands causes acidification, while reduction using alternative electron acceptors leads to generation of alkalinity, affecting pH in the rhizosphere, and hence plant composition. Thirdly, reduced species of all three elements may become phytotoxic. In addition, Fe cycling is tightly linked to that of S and P. As water level fluctuations are very common in wetlands, rapid changes in the availability of oxygen and alternative terminal electron acceptors will result in strong changes in the prevalent microbial redox reactions, with significant effects on plant growth. Depending on geological and hydrological settings, these interacting microbial transformations change the conditions and resource availability for plants, which are both strong drivers of vegetation development and composition by changing relative competitive strengths. Conversely, microbial composition is strongly driven by vegetation composition. Therefore, the combination of microbiological and plant ecological knowledge is essential to understand the biogeochemical and biological key factors driving heterogeneity and total (i.e., microorganisms and vegetation) community composition at different spatial and temporal scales. PMID:22539932

Lamers, Leon P M; van Diggelen, Josepha M H; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Visser, Eric J W; Lucassen, Esther C H E T; Vile, Melanie A; Jetten, Mike S M; Smolders, Alfons J P; Roelofs, Jan G M

2012-04-25

114

Soil Trace Gas Flux for Wetland Vegetation Zones in North Dakota Prairie Pothole Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland ecosystems are considered a source for radiatively trace gases [methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O)] but flux data for these greenhouse gases are lacking for depressional wetlands that comprise the Prairie Pothole Region. This region is characterized by thousands of small, closed basins that extend along the Missouri Coteau from north central Iowa to central Alberta. Surrounding each body of water are conspicuous zonation patterns given by specific vegetation life-forms and soil properties that are predominately formed by basin hydrology. Basin vegetation zones include deep marsh, shallow marsh, wet meadow, low prairie, and cropland (Stewart and Kantrud,1971). Our primary objective was to determine if net greenhouse gas flux for soils in these wetland basins [mg/m2/day CO2 equivalent (IPCC, 2000)] vary with vegetative zone for prairie pothole ecosystems. These data may then be used to map estimates for total basin greenhouse gas (GHG) flux. Additionally, we aimed to find the relative contribution of each of the 3 trace gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) to net GHG flux. We hypothesized that flux would be greatest for marsh areas and lowest for upland areas. We selected a semi-permenant prairie pothole research site in Max, ND and mapped respective vegetative zones for 3 adjacent basins. Sample points were randomly selected for each basin and zone using aerial imagery. Samples of soil gases were collected using the static chamber method on August 3, 2003, and these were analyzed using gas chromatography for CO2, CH4 and N2O the following day. Soil moisture, clay content, organic matter, and temperature data were also collected. Net greenhouse gas flux for the cropped zone soils was significantly lower (p<0.01) than flux for the deep marsh, shallow marsh and wet meadow zone soils. Average flux measurement by zone (mg CO2 equivalent/m2/day) was 283 for cropland, 677 for low prairie, 1067 for wet meadow, 2572 for shallow marsh, and 6686 for deep marsh. Methane, in terms of CO2 equivalents, contributed most strongly to and was the best predictor of greenhouse gas flux (r2=0.98). Since most of these basin areas are planted with wheat, average net GHG flux per square meter was 600 to 900 mg CO2 equivalents per day. Our results indicate that there are flux differences among wetland zones within these closed basin ecosystems and that CH4 contributes most to net GHG flux for these wetland soils.

Phillips, R. L.; Beeri, O.; Dekaiser, E. S.

2003-12-01

115

Wind driven vertical transport in a vegetated, wetland water column with air-water gas exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow around arrays of cylinders at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers has been studied numerically, analytically and experimentally. Early results demonstrated that at flow around randomly oriented cylinders exhibits reduced turbulent length scales and reduced diffusivity when compared to similarly forced, unimpeded flows (Nepf 1999). While horizontal dispersion in flows through cylinder arrays has received considerable research attention, the case of vertical dispersion of reactive constituents has not. This case is relevant to the vertical transfer of dissolved gases in wetlands with emergent vegetation. We present results showing that the presence of vegetation can significantly enhance vertical transport, including gas transfer across the air-water interface. Specifically, we study a wind-sheared air-water interface in which randomly arrayed cylinders represent emergent vegetation. Wind is one of several processes that may govern physical dispersion of dissolved gases in wetlands. Wind represents the dominant force for gas transfer across the air-water interface in the ocean. Empirical relationships between wind and the gas transfer coefficient, k, have been used to estimate spatial variability of CO2 exchange across the worlds’ oceans. Because wetlands with emergent vegetation are different from oceans, different model of wind effects is needed. We investigated the vertical transport of dissolved oxygen in a scaled wetland model built inside a laboratory tank equipped with an open-ended wind tunnel. Plastic tubing immersed in water to a depth of approximately 40 cm represented emergent vegetation of cylindrical form such as hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). After partially removing the oxygen from the tank water via reaction with sodium sulfite, we used an optical probe to measure dissolved oxygen at mid-depth as the tank water re-equilibrated with the air above. We used dissolved oxygen time-series for a range of mean wind speeds to estimate the gas transfer coefficient, k, for both a vegetated condition and a control condition (no cylinders). The presence of cylinders in the tank substantially increased the rate of the gas transfer. For the highest wind speed, the gas transfer coefficient was several times higher when cylinders were present compared to when they were not. The gas transfer coefficient for the vegetated condition also proved sensitive to wind speed, increasing markedly with increasing mean wind speeds. Profiles of dissolved oxygen revealed well-mixed conditions in the bulk water column following prolonged air-flow above the water surface, suggesting application of the thin-film model is appropriate. The enhanced gas exchange observed might be explained by increased turbulent kinetic energy within the water column and the anisotropy of the cylinder array, which constrains horizontal motions more than vertical motions. Improved understanding of gas exchange in vegetated water columns may be of particularly use to investigations of carbon fluxes and soil accretion in wetlands. Reference: Nepf, H. (1999), Drag, turbulence, and diffusion in flow through emergent vegetation, Water Resour. Res., 35(2), 479-489.

Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

2010-12-01

116

Indicators of nitrate in wetland surface and soil-waters: interactions of vegetation and environmental factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new bio-indicator method for assessing wetland ecosystem health; as such, the study is particularly relevant to current legislation such as the EU Water Framework Directive, which provides a baseline of the current status of surface waters. Seven wetland sites were monitored across northern Britain, with model construction data for predicting eco-hydrological relationships collected from five sites during 1999. Two new sites and one repeat site were monitored during 2000 to provide model test data. The main growing season for the vegetation, and hence the sampling period, was May-August during both years. Seasonal mean concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) in surface and soil water samples during 1999 ranged from 0.01 to 14.07 mg N l-1, with a mean value of 1.01 mg N l-1. During 2000, concentrations ranged from trace level (<0.01 mg N l-1) to 9.43 mg N l-1, with a mean of 2.73 mg N l--1. Surface and soil-water nitrate concentrations did not influence plant species composition significantly across representative tall herb fen and mire communities. Predictive relationships were found between nitrate concentrations and structural characteristics of the wetland vegetation, and a model was developed which predicted nitrate concentrations from measures of plant diversity, canopy structure and density of reproductive structures. Two further models, which predicted stem density and density of reproductive structures respectively, utilised nitrate concentration as one of the independent predictor variables. The models were tested where appropriate using data collected during 2000. This approach is complementary to species-based monitoring, representing a useful and simple tool to assess ecological status in target wetland systems and has potential for bio-indication purposes.

Kennedy, M. P.; Murphy, K. J.

117

Vegetation succession and carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida: Evidence from carbon isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of stable carbon isotopic ratios as well as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents in soils and plants were made along a chronovegetation sequence stretching from high marsh to low marsh in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida. The wetland is dominated by Juncus roemerianus , which is a C3 plant and has an average ?13C of -27‰. Lesser amounts of other species, including C4 plants, are also present in the area. The ?13C values of soil organic matter from low and middle marshes range from -24 to -27 ‰, which are consistent with the current plant community. However, the ?13C values of soil organic matter from high marsh show significant variations, from -23‰ in the surface soil to -17‰ at depth. This large C isotopic variation within soil profiles indicates a shift in local vegetation, from a C4-dominated community to the current C3 plant-dominated marsh, as a result of landward expansion of the wetland due to sea level rise. Radiocarbon dates on soil organic matter indicate that this ecological change occurred in the past hundred years or so as a result of sea level rise presumably due to global warming. Soil organic carbon inventory was ˜29 ± 3.6 kg m-2 in low marsh (the oldest part of the wetland), 15 ± 3.6 kg m-2 in middle marsh, and 13 ± 6.0 kg m-2 in high marsh (the youngest and most inland part of the wetland). N and P inventories are also higher in low marsh than in high marsh and seem to correlate directly with aboveground productivity in the marshes. The much higher C storage in low marsh than in high marsh indicates that carbon sequestration increased significantly as coastal wetland evolves from high marsh (initial stage) to low marsh (steady state). This has important implications to the global C cycle. As sea level rises owing to global warming, coastal wetlands are expected to expand landward in many areas where topography is gentle, which would provide a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Choi, Yonghoon; Wang, Yang; Hsieh, Yuch-Ping; Robinson, Larry

2001-06-01

118

Plant community, primary productivity, and environmental conditions following wetland re-establishment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland restoration can mitigate aerobic decomposition of subsided organic soils, as well as re-establish conditions favorable\\u000a for carbon storage. Rates of carbon storage result from the balance of inputs and losses, both of which are affected by wetland\\u000a hydrology. We followed the effect of water depth (25 and 55 cm) on the plant community, primary production, and changes in\\u000a two re-established

Robin L. Miller; Roger Fujii

2010-01-01

119

[Study on nutrient and salinity in soil covered with different vegetations in Shuangtaizi estuarine wetlands].  

PubMed

Nutrient elements and salinity in soil covered by different vegetations including Phragmites australis (Clay.) Trin., Typha orientalis Presl., Puccinellia distans Parl, and Suaeda salsa in Shuangtaizi estuarine wetlands were investigated to study their distribution characteristics and to reveal the nutrient element variation during the vegetation succession processes. Results indicated that total potassium, total phosphorus and salinity were different significantly in soil between different plant communities while available phosphorus, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium, total sulfur, iron and soil organic carbon were different insignificantly. Correlation analysis suggested that soil organic carbon were related significantly to total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, which implied that decomposition of plant litter might be the mail source of soil nitrogen and available nutrient. Salinity was significantly related to total phosphorus and iron in soil. In Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland soil, ratios of carbon to nitrogen (R(C/N)) was in the range of 12.21-26.33 and the average value was 18.21, which was higher than 12.0. It indicated that soil organic carbon in Shuangtaizi estuarine mainly came from land but not ocean and plants contributed the most of soil organic matters. There was no significant difference in R(C/N) between soil from the four plant communities (F = 1.890, p = 0.151). R(C/N) was related significantly to sol salinity (r = 0.346 3, p = 0.035 8) and was increasing with soil salinity. PMID:22165232

Song, Xiao-Lin; Lü, Xian-Guo; Zhang, Zhong-Sheng; Chen, Zhi-Ke; Liu, Zheng-Mao

2011-09-01

120

Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests studying New York's wetlands, both in the classroom and in the field, to illustrate ecological concepts of diversity, succession, and adaptation and to learn about their importance in controlling flooding, erosion, and pollution. (NEC)|

Nelson, Patricia L.

1986-01-01

121

Accounting for non-photosynthetic vegetation in remote-sensing-based estimates of carbon flux in wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring productivity in coastal wetlands is important due to their high carbon sequestration rates and potential role in climate change mitigation. We tested agricultural- and forest-based methods for estimating the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (f APAR), a key parameter for modelling gross primary productivity (GPP), in a restored, managed wetland with a dense litter layer of non-photosynthetic vegetation, and we compared the difference in canopy light transmission between a tidally influenced wetland and the managed wetland. The presence of litter reduced correlations between spectral vegetation indices and f APAR. In the managed wetland, a two-band vegetation index incorporating simulated World View-2 or Hyperion green and near-infrared bands, collected with a field spectroradiometer, significantly correlated with f APAR only when measured above the litter layer, not at the ground where measurements typically occur. Measures of GPP in these systems are difficult to capture via remote sensing, and require an investment of sampling effort, practical methods for measuring green leaf area and accounting for background effects of litter and water.

Schile, Lisa M.; Byrd, Kristin B.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Kelly, Maggi

2013-01-01

122

Catastrophic Shifts in Wetland Geomorphology and Ecology in Response to Hydrology-Vegetation-Sediment Transport Feedbacks (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal marshes and long-hydroperiod floodplain wetlands exhibit strong bi-directional feedback between hydrology, vegetation, and sediment that impacts landscape dynamics and ecosystem services. In these ecosystems, vegetation responds to and also influences the distribution of topography, with effects on habitat provision, biological diversity, landscape connectivity, surface-subsurface exchange, and microbial and redox reactions. Topography evolves both autogenically and allogenically. Autogenically, peat accretes

L. G. Larsen; J. W. Harvey

2010-01-01

123

Controls on vegetative flow resistance in wetlands and low-gradient floodplains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In low-gradient floodplains and wetlands, vegetation provides the primary resisting force for flow and hence can exert strong influence on flow velocities, water depth, and redistribution of sediments that affect the geomorphic evolution and ecological function of wetland landscapes. Critical research needs that remain for predicting flow in these environments include integration of data over multiple temporal and spatial scales as well as improved methods of estimating flow resistance. Existing relationships predict flow resistance as a function of stem diameter (d) and frontal area (a). Since these flow resistance parameters are difficult to quantify and generally not measured in the field, large-scale estimation of flow resistance requires a suitable proxy measurement that can be directly related to these parameters. Biomass is a parameter commonly obtained in field surveys and from remote sensing data. We use biomass to predict frontal area and stem diameter using empirical relations for vegetation quadrat data collected in the Everglades (Florida, USA). Biomass is directly related to frontal area (a) through a power function. This is generally true across various plant communities, but the relationship is strongest within individual plant communities. Biomass is linearly related to stem diameter (d) and biovolume (ad) in a manner independent of plant community. We found that species diversity, plant community, water depth, phosphorus concentration, and seasonality are important in governing the spatial and temporal variations in flow resistance parameters, specifically stem diameter and biovolume, as well as plant tissue density. We correlate unstratified quadrat biomass estimates to a remote sensing parameter, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to address implications for scaling up quadrat data for integration into landscape-level processes. These results will improve parameterization of flow resistance for ongoing hydrologic modeling efforts, which will ultimately guide future restoration efforts in the heavily managed and degraded Everglades landscape.

Skalak, K.; Harvey, J. W.; Larsen, L. G.; Noe, G. B.; Rybick, N.; Jones, J.

2010-12-01

124

Late Quaternary climate and vegetation changes at Braamhoek wetland, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study contributes a continuous paleo-environmental record from Braamhoek wetland, eastern Free State, South Africa, covering the last 16 ka (16 000 cal yrs BP). The multi-proxy study includes analysis of microfossils (pollen, diatoms, phytoliths, charcoal fragments), stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) and lithological properties (carbon content, grain size). Braamhoek wetland is situated at an altitude of c. 1700 meters, a few kilometres north-west of the eastern escarpment, where the large difference in altitude results in orographic uplift of easterly air masses and annual rainfall is c. 1400 mm. The wetland is fed by ground-water springs, promoting continuous local wetness and organic preservation, which explains the accumulative conditions throughout Holocene and late Pleistocene. Analysis of fossil pollen suggests variations in vegetation patterns throughout the 16 ka period. The most important proxies for past vegetation are pollen of fynbos, forest trees, Poaceae and Asteraceae. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 26 of the regional pollen taxa, yielding high positive loadings on forest trees and fynbos, which may reflect relatively moist conditions, particularly in combination with high representation of Poaceae pollen. The carbon isotope composition is a potential proxy for the relative abundance of C3 versus C4 grasses. The late Pleistocene carbon isotope values are probably an artefact of low carbon dioxide levels favouring C4 plants during late glacial conditions, while during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition and onwards, the isotopes probably reflect the local and regional C3/C4 grass ratio. The phytolith index gives additional information about environmental factors coupled to the grass distribution, while occurrences of planktonic diatoms indicate shifts in the moisture status within the wetland. We interpret depleted carbon isotope values, high PCA-score, high Poaceae/Asteraceae ratio, low phytolith index, as well as presence of planktonic diatoms, as a response to increased wetness, locally and/or regionally. The Braamhoek multi-proxy record suggests three major phases of increased wetness; c. 13.7-12.8 ka, 10.5-9.5 ka, 8.2-7.5 ka and 1.5-0.5 ka. Further, the decline in fynbos pollen representation after c. 9.5 ka and afromontane forest elements being prominent between c. 11 and 8 ka, infer a shift from cooler late glacial conditions, to warmer Holocene conditions at some stage between 11 and 8 ka. The inferred climate and environmental changes suggest a response to millennial scale astronomical forcing and latitudinal shifts in the major weather systems affecting the subcontinent.

Norström, E.; Scott, L.; Finné, M.; Risberg, J.; Partridge, T. C.; Holmgren, K.

2009-04-01

125

A DECISION TREE CLASSIFIER FOR THE MONITORING OF WETLAND VEGETATION USING ASTER DATA IN THE POYANG LAKE REGION, CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the applicability of binary decision tree (DT) classifier and ASTER data for the monitoring of wetland vegetation at plant family level (eight dominant plant families in the study area, bare soil, marshland, residential area, and waterbody) in the Banghu Lake, a seasonal lake in the Poyang Lake region. Two sets of ASTER Level-1B Registered Radiance at the

Ryo Michishita; Bing Xu; Peng Gong

126

Flora and ecological profile of native and exotic estuarine wetland vegetation by hydrogeomorphic setting at Rush Ranch, Suisun Marsh  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The manuscript includes a profile of the ecology and distribution of estuarine wetland vegetation at the Rush Ranch reserve site in the brackish Suisun Marsh reach of San Francisco Estuary The data and analyses will serve as a baseline for future scientific research and conservation management. A ...

127

Studies of Plant Establishment Limitations in Wetlands of the Willamette Valley, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Willamette Valley was historically dominated by three types of wetlands: wet prairies, shrub/scrub, and forested. As a consequence of drainage for agriculture and urban development, most of these diverse wetlands have been lost. Restoration of native ...

M. V. Wilson C. A. Ingersoll M. M. Davis M. G. Wilson E. R. Ingham

1995-01-01

128

Performance Criteria, Compliance Success, and Vegetation Development in Compensatory Mitigation Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Corps of Engineers often requires wetland creation or restoration as compensation for wetlands damaged during development. These wetlands are typically monitored postconstruction to determine the level of compliance with respect to site-specific performance standards. However, defining appropriate goals and measuring success of restorations has proven difficult. We reviewed monitoring information for 76 wetlands constructed between 1992 and

Jeffrey W. Matthews; Anton G. Endress

2008-01-01

129

Regeneration of vegetation on wetland crossings for gas pipeline rights-of-way one year after construction  

SciTech Connect

Four wetland crossings of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs), located in Florida, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York, were surveyed for generation of vegetation roughly one year after pipeline construction was completed. Conventional trench-and-fill construction techniques were employed for all four sites. Estimated areal coverage of each species by vegetative strata within transect plots was recorded for plots on the ROW and in immediately adjacent wetlands undisturbed by construction activities. Relative success of regeneration was measured by percent exposed soil, species diversity, presence of native and introduced species, and hydric characteristics of the vegetation. Variable site factors included separation and replacement of topsoil, final grading of the soil, application of seed and fertilizer, and human disturbance unrelated to construction. Successful regeneration exhibited greater dependency on the first three factors listed.

Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1993-10-01

130

Revising vegetation scattering theories: Adding a rotated dihedral double bounce scattering to explain cross-polarimetric SAR observations over wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common vegetation scattering theories indicate that short wavelength Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations (X- and C-band) measure mainly vegetation canopies as the short-wavelength radar signal interacts mainly with upper sections of the vegetation. Furthermore, these theories also suggest that SAR cross-polarization (cross-pol) observations reflect only volume scattering. Consequently most SAR decomposition techniques assume that the cross-pol signal represent solely volume scattering. However, short-wavelength and cross-pol observations from the Everglades wetlands, south Florida, suggest that a significant portion of the SAR signal scatters from the surface and not only from the upper sections of the vegetation. The indication for surface scattering in wetland environment is derived from phase observable processed using interferometric techniques. The interferometric SAR (InSAR) observations reveal coherent phase signal in all polarizations and all wavelengths, reflecting water level changes beneath the vegetation. This coherent phase signal cannot be explained by neither volume scattering nor radar signal interaction with the upper sections of the vegetations, because canopies and branches are frequently move by wind. The only way that such coherent signal can be maintained and represents surface water level changes is when a multiple bounce from the vegetation and surface occurs. The simplest multi-bounce scattering mechanism that generate cross-pol signal occurs by rotated dihedrals. Thus, we use the rotated dihedral mechanism to explain the InSAR wetland observations and to revise the current vegetation scattering theories to accounts also for double bounce component in cross-pol observations.

Hong, S.; Wdowinski, S.

2010-12-01

131

Performance Variations of COD and Nitrogen Removal by Vegetated Submerged Bed Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetated submerged bed wetlands can supplement treatment of onsite wastewater systems. This study evaluated vegetation, media, and seasonal impacts on system performance in six meso scale rock plant filters with and without narrow leaf cattails (Typha augustifolia). Daily chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions in planted cells averaged 85 percent and weekly total nitrogen (TN) reductions averaged 50 percent. Planted cells had 17 percent greater COD reduction and 76 percent greater TN reduction than unplanted cells, both significant differences. Media type affected COD reduction, particularly in unplanted cells. COD treatment in planted cells was highest for fine crushed limestone (87±13 percent) and least variable for coarse river gravel (85±11 percent). No significant difference in TN reduction was observed for different media types (48 to 51 percent range). Seasonal influences on treatment included a significant decrease during late fall and early spring and a significant increase with temperature. After a step increase in organic loading, treatment efficiency decreased sharply but returned to prior levels after an adaptation period of about one month. Planted cells not only exhibited higher treatment efficiency but also had a retarded organic matter breakthrough, appearing after three to seven times the period for a bromide tracer. This supports a hypothesis that retardation of contaminant movement through the treatment cells results in enhanced removal. These results support the use of rock plant filters, but demonstrate the need to account for performance variations in system design.

He, Qiang; Mankin, Kyle R.

2002-12-01

132

wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aro wetlands are a poorly-known, hydrologically extreme inland habitat type outside permanent waterbodies, often occurring in weekly paludified parts of peatlands. They are characterized by alternating flood and drought periods. We studied these habitats in the mid-boreal zone in the coastal part of Northern Ostrobothnia (65°N). We made classification (Cluster analysis) and ordination analyses (NMDS) with small-sized relevés and measured

Jarmo Laitinen; Teemu Tahvanainen; Sakari Rehell; Jari Oksanen

133

Wetland Functional Health Assessment Using Remote Sensing and Other Techniques: Literature Search and Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Remote sensing of wetland biomass and other wetland condition indicators; Conceptual approaches in wetland assessment; Wetland extent and type; Landscape and wetland patterns; Wetland biomass and productivity; Wetland vegetation; W...

N. Patience V. Klemas

1993-01-01

134

Uncertainty of establishment scheme in the Community Land Model-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic global vegetation models are very important tools to simulate and predict the relationship between terrestrial ecosystem processes and climate change. They usually consist of several main sub-models, such as establishment, growth, mortality due to stress, competition, reproductive and so forth. In this study, we focus on the establishment sub-model. Establishment sub-model describes the processes of germination of tree seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, due to the complexity of the ecological process and the lack of observation data, current DGVMs use different parameterization schemes of establishment, and the uncertainties of these establishment scheme as well as their impacts on vegetation distribution remain largely unknown. Our work is to introduce several new different establishment schemes, each based on different physical and ecological considerations, into a modified Community Land Model - Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM). The sensitivities of the vegetation distribution to different establishment schemes and some essential parameters in the schemes are investigated in different vegetation zones. Our research indicates that establishment scheme has remarkable effects not only on the percent of coverage and population density of different plant functional types (PFTs) but also the community structure such as coexistence of PFTs and even the dominant vegetation. Such changes will alter the ecosystem functioning, and hence have further impacts on climate through the vegetation-atmosphere feedback.

Song, X.; Zeng, X.

2010-12-01

135

Predicting interactions between wetland vegetation and the soil-water and surface-water environment using diversity, abundance and attribute values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the response of freshwater wetland vegetation to hydrological driving factors by assessing collective\\u000a vegetation variables, traits of dominant plant populations and hydrological and hydrochemical variables, repeat-sampled within\\u000a wetland sites across Scotland and northern England. Sampling was conducted at 55 permanent sample stations located along 11\\u000a independent transects. Eco-hydrological interactions were investigated using a regression-based modelling approach. Facets

M. P. Kennedy; K. J. Murphy; D. J. Gilvear

136

Predicting interactions between wetland vegetation and the soil-water and surface-water environment using diversity, abundance and attribute values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the response of freshwater wetland vegetation to hydrological driving factors by assessing collective\\u000a vegetation variables, traits of dominant plant populations and hydrological and hydrochemical variables, repeat-sampled within\\u000a wetland sites across Scotland and northern England. Sampling was conducted at 55 permanent sample stations located along 11\\u000a independent transects. Eco-hydrological interactions were investigated using a regression-based modelling approach. Facets

M. P. Kennedy; K. J. Murphy; D. J. Gilvear

2006-01-01

137

Evaluating Hyperspectral Imaging of Wetland Vegetation as a Tool for Detecting Estuarine Nutrient Enrichment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nutrient enrichment and eutrophication are major concerns in many estuarine and wetland ecosystems, and the need is urgent for fast, efficient, and synoptic ways to detect and monitor nutrients in wetlands and other coastal systems across multiple spatial...

D. Siciliano D. C. Potts K. Wasson R. C. Olsen

2008-01-01

138

Performance Criteria, Compliance Success, and Vegetation Development in Compensatory Mitigation Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Corps of Engineers often requires wetland creation or restoration as compensation for wetlands damaged during\\u000a development. These wetlands are typically monitored postconstruction to determine the level of compliance with respect to\\u000a site-specific performance standards. However, defining appropriate goals and measuring success of restorations has proven\\u000a difficult. We reviewed monitoring information for 76 wetlands constructed between 1992 and

Jeffrey W. Matthews; Anton G. Endress

2008-01-01

139

Evaluating the potential for created wetland establishment on restored surface mine sites. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The authors feel that (1) the design specifications presented in this report provide the guidance necessary for industry to implement wetland construction in contour surface mine reclamation, (2) the monitoring criteria represent conditions that are easily attainable prior to bond release, and (3) that the monitoring criteria allow regulatory agencies to perform field approval of constructed wetlands. However, this report also recommends that additional regulatory impediments to wetland construction in reclamation be addressed to encourage industry participation.

Carins, J.

1995-03-01

140

Effects of vegetation, limestone and aeration on nitritation, anammox and denitrification in wetland treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of partial nitrification (nitritation) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in constructed wetlands creates a sustainable design for nitrogen removal. Three wetland treatment systems were operated with synthetic wastewater (60mg NH3–NL?1) in a batch mode of fill – 1-week reaction – drain. Each treatment system had a surface flow wetland (unplanted, planted, and planted plus aerated, respectively) with a rooting

Wendong Tao; Jing Wang

2009-01-01

141

Influence of hydropattern and vegetation type on phosphorus dynamics in flow-through wetland treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) flux from wetland soil can be a significant factor affecting overall wetland treatment performance. The purpose of our study was to quantify the effects of water level drawdown on P exchange between surface water and organic soil in a constructed wetland. We used 12 fiberglass mesocosms filled with 30cm of peat soil to quantify nutrient exchange between surface

M. Z. Moustafa; J. R. White; C. C. Coghlan; K. R. Reddy

2011-01-01

142

Evidence and implications of the background phosphorus concentration of submerged aquatic vegetation wetlands in Stormwater Treatment Areas for Everglades restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limits of phosphorus (P) removal from the 18,120 ha Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs) for Everglades restoration depend largely on the performance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) wetlands, as SAV treatment cells now provide final stage treatment for 85% of the STA project. A long-term internal P profile in STA-2 cell 3 (STA2C3), one of the longest-running and best performing

John M. Juston; Thomas A. DeBusk

2011-01-01

143

Establishment of vegetation in broadened field boundaries in agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three field experiments with broadened permanent field boundaries were established in agricultural landscapes near Uppsala (southern Sweden). One aim was to test methods for increasing the amount of non-cultivated areas with high plant species diversity and at the same time suppressing the occurrence of weeds. The treatments consisted of re-establishing or broadening boundary strips, sowing a mixture of ley grasses

Anna Bokenstrand; Jan Lagerlöf; Peter Redbo Torstensson

2004-01-01

144

Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado-Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS-VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units.Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units.For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado.Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands.The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, which is useful for identifying and designing areas for conservation.

Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.

2013-10-01

145

Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado–Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS–VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units.Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units.For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado.Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands.The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado–Amazon ecotone, which is useful for identifying and designing areas for conservation.

Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.

2013-10-01

146

Vegetation and soil properties in restored wetlands near Lake Taihu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian wetlands are important components of the lake ecosystem, and they play essential roles in maintaining system health.\\u000a Remediation of degraded lakeshore wetlands is an essential component of lake restoration. A study was conducted to investigate\\u000a the restoration of lakeshore wetlands, which were converted to rice fields and then abandoned for 2, 5, 10 and 15 years, near\\u000a Lake Taihu.

Jinwei Lu; Hongjun Wang; Weidong Wang; Chengqing Yin

2007-01-01

147

Vegetation and soil properties in restored wetlands near Lake Taihu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian wetlands are important components of the lake ecosystem, and they play essential roles in maintaining system health.\\u000a Remediation of degraded lakeshore wetlands is an essential component of lake restoration. A study was conducted to investigate\\u000a the restoration of lakeshore wetlands, which were converted to rice fields and then abandoned for 2, 5, 10 and 15 years, near\\u000a Lake Taihu.

Jinwei Lu; Hongjun Wang; Weidong Wang; Chengqing Yin

148

Using official map data on topography, wetlands and vegetation cover for prediction of stream water chemistry in boreal headwater catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large part of the spatial variation of stream water chemistry can be related to inputs from headwater streams. In order to understand and analyse the dominant processes taking place in small and heterogeneous catchments, accurate data with high spatial and temporal resolution is necessary. In most cases, the quality and resolution of available map data are considered too poor to be used in environmental assessments and modelling of headwater stream chemistry. In this study 18 forested catchments (1-4 km2) were selected within a 120×50 km region in the county of Värmland in western Sweden. The aim was to test if topographic and vegetation variables derived from official datasets were correlated to stream water chemistry, primarily the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but also Al, Fe and Si content. GIS was used to analyse the elevation characteristics, generate topographic indices, and calculate the percentage of wetlands and a number of vegetation classes. The results clearly show that topography has a major influence on stream water chemistry. There were strong correlations between mean slope and percentage wetland, percentage wetland and DOC, mean slope and DOC, and a very strong correlation between mean topographic wetness index (TWI) and DOC. The conclusion was that official topographic data, despite uncertain or of low quality and resolution, could be useful in the prediction of headwater DOC-concentration in boreal forested catchments.

Andersson, J.-O.; Nyberg, L.

2009-04-01

149

Evaluating the Potential for Created Wetland Establishment on Restored Surface Mine Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors feel that (1) the design specifications presented in this report provide the guidance necessary for industry to implement wetland construction in contour surface mine reclamation, (2) the monitoring criteria represent conditions that are easil...

J. Carins

1995-01-01

150

Changes in surface water table depth and soil physical properties after harvest and establishment of loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) in Atlantic coastal plain wetlands of South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface water table is an important factor determining soil chemical, physical and biological processes, and thus affects the functions of forested wetlands. The objective of this study was to assess surface water table dynamics from timber harvesting through early forest plantation establishment in a coastal plain wetland area located in the southeastern United States. Simulated harvesting patterns included two

Yi-Jun Xu; James A Burger; W Michael Aust; Steven C Patterson; Masato Miwa; David P Preston

2002-01-01

151

Vegetation establishment on a deposit of zinc mine wastes.  

PubMed

Field trials concerning the establishment of plant cover on a deposit of wastes from the Ammeberg zinc mine in central Sweden were carried out during 1976-1985. Different soil conditioners and manures were applied and plant species cultivars were evaluated with regard to plant biomass, vigour, durability and content of zinc, lead and cadmium. Sewage sludge and topsoil led to better establishment of grasses than did municipal waste, straw and hydraulic seeding. After 2 years, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis dominated the swards. Other species (Dactylis glomerata, Bromus inermis, Lolium perenne, Phleum nodosum, Festuca pratensis and F. arundinacea) constituted only a minor part of the stand. After 10 years, F. rubra was the most dominant species, while native Agrostis tenuis had invaded 20-50% of the area within the plots. Merlin was the clearly dominant red fescue cultivar. The concentration of zinc in shoots (616 mg kg(-1) dw) was about 10% of that in the soil. Zinc concentration decreased with increasing biomass above ground. It increased with age in Scots pine needles and was very high in birch leaves. Grasses survived longer than legumes in the zinc sand waste. Among the surviving grasses was a group with high (3800 mg kg(-1) dw) and a group with low (320 mg kg(-1) dw) zinc concentrations. The low group included Merlin red fescue and Sobel creeping bent. The cultivar Merlin contained a much lower zinc concentration than the other cultivars of red fescue (375 and 624 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively). A large amount of root biomass was present in plots with dominating Merlin red fescue (1715 g m(-2)), 97% of which was concentrated in the top 10 cm of the soil. The concentration of zinc in the roots was very high (13 000-25 000 mg kg(-1) dw). Nitrate fertilizer, especially ammonium nitrate, and acidic water (pH 4.3) increased zinc leaching. PMID:15092483

Bergholm, J; Steen, E

1989-01-01

152

Soil Trace Gas Flux for Wetland Vegetation Zones in North Dakota Prairie Pothole Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland ecosystems are considered a source for radiatively trace gases [methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O)] but flux data for these greenhouse gases are lacking for depressional wetlands that comprise the Prairie Pothole Region. This region is characterized by thousands of small, closed basins that extend along the Missouri Coteau from north central Iowa to central Alberta. Surrounding

R. L. Phillips; O. Beeri; E. S. Dekaiser

2003-01-01

153

Evaluating hyperspectral imaging of wetland vegetation as a tool for detecting estuarine nutrient enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient enrichment and eutrophication are major concerns in many estuarine and wetland ecosystems, and the need is urgent for fast, efficient, and synoptic ways to detect and monitor nutrients in wetlands and other coastal systems across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We integrated three approaches in a multi-disciplinary evaluation of the potential for using hyperspectral imaging as a tool to

Daria Siciliano; Kerstin Wasson; Donald C. Potts; R. C. Olsen

2008-01-01

154

Late Quaternary climate and vegetation changes at Braamhoek wetland, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes a continuous paleo-environmental record from Braamhoek wetland, eastern Free State, South Africa, covering the last 16 ka (16 000 cal yrs BP). The multi-proxy study includes analysis of microfossils (pollen, diatoms, phytoliths, charcoal fragments), stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) and lithological properties (carbon content, grain size). Braamhoek wetland is situated at an altitude of c. 1700 meters,

E. Norström; L. Scott; M. Finné; J. Risberg; T. C. Partridge; K. Holmgren

2009-01-01

155

Independent Wetland Vegetation Response to Climate Variability and Anthropogenic Hydrologic Control, Everglades, FL, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of a wetland landscape composed of multiple, distinct, plant communities to a single stimulus, whether it results from natural climate variability or human alterations, should not be assumed to be uniform across the entire landscape. The Florida Everglades is such a landscape where elevated sawgrass ridges are immediately next to water lily dominated sloughs, known collectively as the sawgrass ridge and slough landscape (SRS). The distribution of the Everglades individual sawgrass ridge and slough plant communities within the SRS was altered by 20th century construction of water control structures (canals, levees, and dikes) and alteration of the natural hydrologic regime. Although restoration planning to stabilize the remaining ridge and slough habitats is underway, little is known about the landscape's origin and response to past hydrologic changes. Analysis of pollen assemblages from transects of piston cores collected across SRS indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since the mid Holocene. Modern sawgrass ridges formed from a marsh-like environment, whereas slough communities occupied their present sites throughout the history of the sites. Ridge formation was triggered by intervals of drier climate (i.e., the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age) and changes in the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The sloughs are temporarily composed of more marsh plants during drier conditions, but quickly return to their original state when precipitation increases. During the 20th century, sloughs appear to be strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability in spite of water management practices, while the sawgrass ridges respond primarily to [water management] anthropogenic changes in hydrology. Our evidence that, the sawgrass ridge and slough landscape communities can act independent of one another to changes in hydrology, indicates that restoring the pre-20th century hydrology may not restore all aspects of the pre-20th century landscape structure.

Bernhardt, C. E.; Willard, D. A.

2007-12-01

156

Estimation of wetland vegetation biomass in the Poyang Lake area using Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of near-infrared band to biomass decreases with the increase of vegetation density, while there is no significant change in red spectral reflectivity. Using SAR data to quantify the biomass usually suffers from the influence of soil humidity, surface conditions, especially those areas with low and middle biomass, resulting in the phenomenon that different biomass have the same or approximate total radar backscattering coefficient. In this paper, we have done research on the sensitivity to the biomass for three kinds of vegetation indices NDVI, RVI and DVI, and improved parameters of MIMICS model to simulate scattering components, setting up the simulation database of all backscattering components. And then we used Landsat TM and ENVISAT ASAR alternating polarization data with their reciprocal advantages, selecting the difference vegetation index DVI=0.45 as the threshold to divide the wetland plant into two parts. For DVI<0.45, we apply the statistical analysis methods to build a linear regression model with samples. For DVI>=0.45 the areas with high leaf density, it can be estimated by using C-band approximate microwave scattering models. Finally the entire wetland biomass of Poyang Lake is approximately 2.1×109 kg.

Wang, Qing; Liao, Jingjuan

2009-09-01

157

Water-level regulation and coastal wetland vegetation in the upper St. Lawrence River: inferences from historical aerial imagery, seed banks, and Typha dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated habitat changes of tributary (drowned river mouth) wetlands in the upper St. Lawrence River with analysis of\\u000a pre-and post-regulation water levels and historical vegetation reconstruction from aerial photographs. In addition, the germination\\u000a response of transplanted wetland soil was compared to understand responses to moist versus saturated hydrology. Typha stem density was sampled in reference sites under the influence

John M. Farrell; Brent A. Murry; Donald J. Leopold; Alison Halpern; Molly Beland Rippke; Kevin S. Godwin; Sasha D. Hafner

2010-01-01

158

Wetland chronosequence as a model of peatland development: Vegetation succession, peat and carbon accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands form currently a major terrestrial pool of organic matter (OM) and carbon (C). Dynamics of peat accumulation processes can be approached via models, which, however, need to be evaluated against real data. Land uplift coast with ongoing primary peatland formation is a unique setting to study the patterns and controls of peatland vegetation succession, development from fen to bog, and consequent changes in peat, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) accumulation. Here we compared a chronosequence of peatlands with a vertical peat sequence and ran Holocene Peatland Model (HPM) simulations, and evaluated the simulation against the field observations. The modern vegetation from the emergent sea shore to a bog with age of about 3000 years formed a continuum from minerotrophic to ombrotrophic plant communities. Similar sequence of plant communities was found in historical vegetation data. Along the chronosequence the fen-bog transition stage was most diverse regarding to plant community types, but also to spatial variability in peat height and water table depth (WTD). The transition from meadow to fen communities was associated with the establishment of Sphagnum moss patches. Palaeobotanical evidence from the bog site showed a rapid and quite recent fen-bog transition indicated by coinciding decrease in minerotrophic plant functional types (sedge) and increase in ombrotrophic plant functional types (lawn or hummock Sphagna). Concurrent vegetation transition also in the cores from younger, a 700 year old, fen site suggests different pace of succession in these age cohorts, possibly due to external forcing. Evaluation of the HPM simulations indicated that the model is adjustable and it produced reasonable predictions despite temperature not being included directly in the model.

Juutinen, S.; Tuittila, E.; Frolking, S.; Väliranta, M.; Laine, A. M.; Miettinen, A.; Seväkivi, M.; Quillet, A.; Merilä, P.

2011-12-01

159

Bottom-up control of carabid beetle communities in early successional wetlands: mediated by vegetation structure or plant diversity?  

PubMed

Two hypotheses of bottom-up control that predict that the species richness of Carabidae will depend either on the taxonomic diversity of plants ("taxonomic diversity hypothesis") or on the structural heterogeneity of the vegetation ("structural heterogeneity hypothesis") were tested. Plant species were classified into nine plant structural groups through cluster analysis of morphological traits (e.g. total height) at 30 early successional temporary wetlands in the east-German agricultural landscape. In a linear regression analysis, the heterogeneity of vegetation structures explained 55% of the variation in carabid beetle diversity. According to a partial correlation analysis, plant taxonomic diversity did not have a significant effect, consistent with the "structural heterogeneity hypothesis," and contradicting previous studies which concluded that plant taxonomic diversity would be the most important factor in early successional habitats. An experimental study was used to test hypotheses on the processes underlying this bottom-up control by vegetation structure: the "hunting efficiency hypothesis," the "enemy-free space hypothesis," and the "microhabitat specialization hypothesis." The composition of plant structural groups in 15 vegetation plots (1 m(2)) was manipulated, creating a gradient from dense vegetation to open plots. Subsequent pitfall catches revealed significant differences in the activity-abundances of the carabid species. Large species preferred dense vegetation plots, consistent with the enemy-free space hypothesis that large species are more vulnerable to predation on the open plots and prefer dense vegetation to escape from natural enemies. The results indicate that bottom-up control is not mediated only by plant taxonomic or functional group diversity and that vegetation structures may be more important than previously suggested. PMID:12721831

Brose, U

2003-03-20

160

Coastal wetlands  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of coastal wetlands, mainly focusing on the Great Lakes ecosystem. Topics covered include the following: the effects of water level fluctuations on Great Lakes coastal marshes; environmental influences on the distribution and composition of wetlands in the Great Lakes Basin; vegetation dynamics, buried seeds, and water level fluctuations on the shorelines of the Great Lakes; preliminary observations on the flux of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous in a Great Lakes coastal marsh; nutrient cycling by wetlands and possible effects of water levels; and Avain wetland habitat functions affected by water level fluctuations.

Prince, H.H.; d'Itri, F.M.

1986-01-01

161

Biological indicators of wetland health: Comparing qualitative and quantitative vegetation measures with anuran measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding wetland responses to human perturbations is essential to the effective management of Florida's surface and ground water resources. Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Rules (Chapter 40D-2.301(c) FAC) prohibit adverse environmental effects to wetlands, fish and wildlife caused by groundwater withdrawal. Numerous studies have documented the responses of biological attributes across taxa and regions to human disturbance. Biological assessment

Shannon M Gonzalez

2004-01-01

162

Impacts of small amounts of sandy sediment on wetland soils and vegetation: Results from field and greenhouse studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project used three different experiments to test the hypothesis that deposition of small amounts of sediment in wetlands\\u000a alters plant diversity and soil properties. Greenhouse experiments using potting soil and Sagittaria latifolia were used with 0.5–2 cm sediment treatments and controls. Thirty 2 m X 2 m plots were established in a freshwater palustrine\\u000a marsh, and the plots were

Catherine Owen Koning

2004-01-01

163

The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: answering recent challenges to the paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a century, coastal wetlands have been recognized for their ability to stabilize shorelines and protect coastal\\u000a communities. However, this paradigm has recently been called into question by small-scale experimental evidence. Here, we\\u000a conduct a literature review and a small meta-analysis of wave attenuation data, and we find overwhelming evidence in support\\u000a of established theory. Our review suggests

Keryn B. Gedan; Matthew L. Kirwan; Eric Wolanski; Edward B. Barbier; Brian R. Silliman

2011-01-01

164

Monitoring of wetlands Ecosystems using satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are very sensitive ecosystems, functioning as habitat for many organisms. Protection and regeneration of wetlands has been the crucial importance in ecological research and in nature conservation. Knowledge on biophysical properties of wetlands vegetation retrieved from satellite images will enable us to improve monitoring of these unique areas, very often impenetrable. The study covers Biebrza wetland situated in the Northeast part of Poland and is considered as Ramsar Convention test site. The research aims at establishing of changes in biophysical parameters as the scrub encroachment, lowering of the water table, and changes of the farming activity caused ecological changes at these areas. Data from the optical and microwave satellite images collected for the area of Biebrza marshland ecosystem have been analysed and compared with the detailed soil-vegetation ground measurements conducted in conjunction with the overflights. Satellite data include Landsat ETM, ERS-2 ATSR and SAR, SPOT VEGETATION, ENVISAT MERIS and ASAR, and NOAA AVHRR. From the optical data various vegetation indices have been calculated, which characterize the vegetation surface roughness, its moisture conditions and stage of development. Landsat ETM image has been used for classification of wetlands vegetation. For each class of vegetation various moisture indices have been developed. Ground data collected include wet and dry biomass, LAI, vegetation height, and TDR soil moisture. The water cloud model has been applied for retrieval of soil vegetation parameters taking into account microwave satellite images acquired at VV, HV and HH polarisations at different viewing angles. The vegetation parameters have been used for to distinguish changes, which occurred at the area. For each of the vegetation class the soil moisture was calculated from microwave data using developed algorithms. Results of this study will help mapping and monitoring wetlands with the high spatial and temporal resolution for better management and protection of this ecosystems. The research has been conducted under AO ID-122 ESA Project

Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Gruszczynska, M.; Yesou, H.; Hoscilo, A.

165

Wetlands Management I - Determination and Delineation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This instructional guide is designed to provide instructors with lecture and laboratory materials that introduce the concepts and practices of wetland determination and delineation. Student objectives, a general lecture outline and a more detailed PowerPoint presentation with instructor notes are provided. Criteria for the identification of wetlands and accepted delineation methods as established by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers are reviewed including field indicators of hydric soils, hydrology and wetland vegetation. Various sources of archived information commonly used in wetland determination and delineation are also described. A combination laboratory/field exercise is also fully described that guides students through a hands-on experience to illustrate how determinations are performed and how the boundaries of a wetland are defined. Instructors who are looking for videos or additional print and web-based resources on the topics covered here should consult the resources list provided at the end of this module where these resources are summarized and cited.Upon successful completion of this module students should be able to:* Distinguish between âÂÂwetland determinationâ and âÂÂwetland delineationâÂÂ* Describe the need for wetland identification and delineation in wetland management* Identify current and archived sources of information that could be accessed to perform a wetland determination or delineation* Describe field indicators of wetlands based on soils, hydrology and vegetation criteria

Cudmore, Wynn

2011-09-20

166

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE: ESTABLISHMENT OF VEGETATION ON PONDED AND SOIL-APPLIED WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of research to identify and evaluate forms of vegetation and methods of their establishment for reclaiming retired flue gas desulfurization sludge ponds. Also studied were the soil liming value of limestone scrubber sludge (LSS) and plant uptake and perco...

167

Uncoupling of the Pathway of Methanogenesis in Northern Wetlands: Connection to Vegetation, and Implications for Variability and Predictability.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical methanogenic decomposition pathways include near terminal carbon intermediates that turn over rapidly with small pool sizes. However, incubation and field experiments demonstrated that these organic intermediates accumulate in northern wetlands due to the lack of consumption by methanogenic bacteria. Acetate is the major organic end product of decomposition rather than CH4, and methanogenesis can be insignificant. The ratio of CO2:acetate:CH4 varied with vegetation type, and habitats dominated by non-vascular plants (Sphagnum) produced more acetate-C than CO2 or CH4. This ratio correlated well with stable C isotope alpha values used to delineate the path of CH4 formation. We suggest that methanogenesis in general is inhibited in oligotrophic wetlands, but that the conversion of acetate to CH4 is more sensitive, which increases the importance of the conversion of H2/CO2 to CH4. The relative importance of CH4 as an end product increased greatly in sites containing even small populations of Carex compared to sites inhabited only by Sphagnum, suggesting that subtle vegetation changes expected to occur during warming could lead to changes in the path of methanogenesis, increasing production. In addition, depth profiles revealed an active surficial (0-7 cm) C cycle that is sensitive to hydrology that may also greatly affect variability of CH4 formation. Acetate production represented a terminal process and was a sink for a large portion of metabolized C whose ultimate fate was aerobic oxidation to CO2. C destined for CH4 is thus bypassed to CO2 and does not contribute to atmospheric CH4. However, the connection and sensitivity of the pathway of methanogenesis to even small vegetation changes suggests that pathways can be mapped, they vary greatly over small distances, and they can change drastically with relatively small temperature increases.

Hines, M. E.; Duddleston, K. N.; Chanton, J. P.

2006-12-01

168

Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional

Diane De Steven; Maureen Tone

1997-01-01

169

Vegetation dynamics and their implications for the management of wetlands in the lowlands of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of species richness is often a priority in the management of nature reserves, where consumptive use of resources is generally prohibited. The purpose of this research was to improve management by understanding the vegetation dynamics in the lowlands of Nepal. The objectives were to determine vegetation associations in relation to environments and human-induced disturbances that affect vegetation dynamics

Jay Prakash Sah

2002-01-01

170

Pulsed Discharge Through Wetland Vegetation as a Control on Bed Shear Stress and Sediment Transport Affecting Everglades Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ridge and slough landscape is a patterned peatland within the Florida Everglades in which elevated ridges of emergent vegetation are regularly interspersed among open-water sloughs with floating and submerged vegetation. Landscape features are aligned parallel to the historic flow direction. Degradation of patterning over the past 100 years coincides with diminished flow resulting from drainage and construction of levees and canals. A goal of restoration is to increase flow velocities and redistribution of particles and solutes in attempt to preserve remnant patterning and restore degraded portions of the ridge and slough landscape. To explore different management strategies that could induce sediment redistribution in the ridge and slough landscape, we simulated velocity profiles and bed shear stresses for different combinations of surface water stage, water surface slope, and vegetation community structure, based on field measurements and laboratory experiments. A mixing length approach, in which the minimum of stem spacing and distance from a solid boundary determined eddy scale, was used to simulate velocity profiles and bed shear stress in vegetated arrays. Simplified velocity profiles based only on vegetation frontal area above the bed and the Karman-Prandtl logarithmic law near the bed closely were used to approximate solutions of the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for large-scale simulation. Estimates of bed shear stress were most sensitive to bed roughness, vegetation community structure, and energy slope. Importantly, our simulations illustrate that velocity and bed shear stress cannot be increased substantially in the Everglades simply by increasing surface-water stage. This result comes directly from the dependence of velocity and shear stress on vegetation frontal area and the fact that emergent vegetation stems protrude through the water column even during times of relatively deep water in the Everglades. Since merely increasing water depth is not likely to increase water velocity and entrainment, it is necessary instead that restoration focus on increasing energy slope as a means to entrain sediment within sloughs and redistribute it to ridges. Surface-water gravity waves caused by hurricanes or pulsed releases of water from impounded areas may be the most effective mechanism for achieving sediment redistribution in the Everglades and other wetland and riparian environments with abundant emergent vegetation.

Larsen, L. E.; Harvey, J. W.; Crimaldi, J. P.

2007-12-01

171

Bioavailability and uptake of arsenic by wetland vegetation: Effects on plant growth and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the uptake, potential bioavailability and phytotoxicity of arsenic (As) to an important wetland plant species growing in the vicinity of produced water discharge. The effects caused by As chemical form and concentration on growth, tissue concentrations and distribution of As and nutrient elements were studied in Spartina patens, growing in hydroponic conditions. A 4 × 3

A. A. Carbonell; M. A. Aarabi; R. D. DeLaune; R. P. Gambrell; W. H. Patrick Jr

1998-01-01

172

Arsenic in wetland vegetation: Availability, phytotoxicity, uptake and effects on plant growth and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wetland surface sediments of Louisiana, arsenic (As) concentrations are elevated because of a wide use of inorganic arsenicals as cotton desiccants and of organic arsenicals as herbicides in rice-producing areas. Beside this, As levels are even higher in the region of produced water discharge associated with petroleum hydrocarbon recovery operations. The uptake, potential bioavailability and phytotoxicity of As to

A. A Carbonell; M. A Aarabi; R. D DeLaune; R. P Gambrell; W. H Patrick Jr

1998-01-01

173

The Role of Hydropedologic Vegetation Zones in Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Agricultural Wetland Landscapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Net greenhouse gas (GHG) source strength for agricultural wetland ecosystems in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) and spatial constraints associated with CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes are currently unknown. Greenhouse gas fluxes typically vary with edaphic, hydrologic, biologic, and climatic factors. In...

174

Trajectories of vegetation-based indicators used to assess wetland restoration progress.  

PubMed

Temporal trends in attributes of restored ecosystems have been described conceptually as restoration trajectories. Measures describing the maturity or ecological integrity of a restoration site are often assumed to follow monotonically increasing trajectories over time and to eventually reach an asymptote representative of a reference ecosystem. This assumption of simple, predictable restoration trajectories underpins federal and state policies in the United States that mandate wetland restoration as compensation for wetlands damaged during development. We evaluated the validity of this assumption by tracking changes in 11 indicators of floristic integrity, often used to determine legal compliance, in 29 mitigation wetlands. Each indicator was expressed as a percentile relative to the distribution of that indicator among > 100 naturally occurring reference wetlands. Nonlinear regression was used to fit two alternative restoration trajectories to data from each site: an asymptotic (negative exponential) increase in the indicator over time and a peaked (double exponential) relationship. Depending on the particular indicator, between 48% and 76% of sites displayed trends that were at least moderately well described (R2 > 0.5) by one of the two models. Floristic indicators based on species richness, including native richness, number of native genera, and the floristic quality index, rapidly increased to asymptotes exceeding levels in a majority of reference wetlands. In contrast, indicators based on species composition, including mean coefficient of conservatism and relative importance of perennial species, increased very slowly. Thus, some indicators of restoration progress followed increasing trajectories and achieved or surpassed levels equivalent to high-quality reference sites within five years, whereas others appeared destined to either not reach equivalency or to take much longer than mitigation wetlands are typically monitored. Finally, some indicators of restoration progress, such as relative importance of native species, often increased over the first five to 10 years and then declined, which would result in a misleading assessment of progress if based on typical time scales of monitoring. Therefore, the assumption of simple, rapid, and predictable restoration trajectories that underlies wetland mitigation policy is unrealistic. PMID:20014581

Matthews, Jeffrey W; Spyreas, Greg; Endress, Anton G

2009-12-01

175

Greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating dairy wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Nova Scotia, constructed wetland systems are widely considered as effective treatment systems for agricultural wastewater. Although research has examined the water quality treatment attributes, there has been limited focus on the air quality effects of these systems. Six operational pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built with flow-through chambers for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Truro, NS. Utilized within this facility were three gas analyzers to monitor GHG emissions (CO2, N 2O, CH4) and the gaseous fluxes could then be determined using the mass balance micrometeorological technique. Prior to data collection, the site underwent testing to ensure valid conclusions and replicated responses from the wetland systems. Those wetlands receiving wastewater at a typical HLR (10.6 mm d-1) and with ample vegetation displayed the best concentration reductions. During the growing season (GS), average CO 2 consumption was large (approximately -44 g CO2m -2 d-1) for wetlands with dense vegetation (approximately 100% cover) at the typical loading rate. For those wetlands at higher loading rates, CO2 emissions were observed to be as high as +9.2 g CO 2m-2 d-1. Wetlands with typical loading rates and healthy aquatic vegetation produced average CH4 fluxes of approximately 43 g CO2 eq. m-2d-1, while higher loaded systems with little vegetation approached 90 g CO 2 eq. m-2d-1. During the non-growing season (NGS), all vegetated wetlands exhibited higher CH4 emissions than the non-vegetated systems (˜15 to 20% higher). Vegetation maturity played a strong role in the GHG balance. The average CO2consumption for wetlands with established vegetation was ˜ -36 g CO2 m -2 d-1 during the GS. Wetland 4, which had been newly transplanted in 2004, had the highest single day CO2 consumption of -152 g CO2m-2 d-1 . Methane emissions from wetlands with two-year-old vegetation followed the same pattern but were approximately half of the emissions recorded from 2003. The determination of the source and sink potential of each wetland within the GS and NGS, emphasized the importance of HLR and vegetation. Nitrous oxide emissions were generally negligible for all the wetlands throughout the study, except during a dry down period where a burst of N2O was observed.

Glass, Vimy M.

176

Vegetation, substrate and hydrology in floating marshes in the Mississippi river delta plain wetlands, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1940s extensive floating marshes (locally called ‘flotant’) were reported and mapped in coastal wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta Plain. These floating marshes included large areas of Panicum hemitomon-dominated freshwater marshes, and Spartina patens\\/Scirpus olneyi brackish marshes. Today these marshes appear to be quite different in extent and type. We describe five floating habitats and one non-floating, quaking

Charles E. Sasser; James G. Gosselink; Erick M. Swenson; Christopher M. Swarzenski; Nancy C. Leibowitz

1996-01-01

177

Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from plant nursery runoff in vegetated and unvegetated subsurface flow wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface horizontal flow reed beds are being evaluated for Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) removal from plant nursery runoff water in New South Wales Australia. The need to include plants (Phragmites australis), the effect of reaction time (3.5 v 7.0d) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on N and P removal in batch fed gravel wetland tubs (55L) was studied over

D. O. Huett; S. G. Morris; G. Smith; N. Hunt

2005-01-01

178

Nutrient constraints on establishment from seed and on vegetative expansion of the Mediterranean seagrass Cymodocea nodosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional constraints were examined on establishment from seed and vegetative development of patches of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa Ucria (Aschers.) growing in phosphorus-deficient sandy sediments in the shallow Alfacs Bay of the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Seedlings were extremely P-deficient, this P-deficiency increasing with seedling age, which may be a major reason for the failure of most seedlings (90%) to initiate

Carlos M. Duarte; Kaj Sand-Jensen

1996-01-01

179

Using submerged aquatic vegetation to establish minimum and maximum freshwater inflows to the Caloosahatchee estuary, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) are frequently used in the management of estuarine systems to set restoration\\u000a goals, nutrient load reduction goals, and water quality targets. As human need for water increases, the amount of freshwater\\u000a required by estuaries has become an increasingly important issue. While the, science of establishing the freshwater needs\\u000a of estuaries is not well developed,

Peter H. Doering; Robert H. Chamberlain; Daniel E. Haunert

2002-01-01

180

The effect of vegetation on pesticide dissipation from ponded treatment wetlands: Quantification using a simple model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field data shows that plants accelerate pesticide dissipation from aquatic systems by increasing sedimentation, biofilm contact and photolysis. In this study, a graphical model was constructed and calibrated with site-specific and supplementary data to describe the loss of two pesticides, endosulfan and fluometuron, from a vegetated and a non-vegetated pond. In the model, the major processes responsible for endosulfan dissipation

Michael T. Rose; Angus N. Crossan; Ivan R. Kennedy

2008-01-01

181

Evaluating the influence of wetland vegetation on chemical residence time in Mississippi Delta drainage ditches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of emergent vegetation within channelized aquatic environments has the capacity to provide a number of biological functions as well as alter the hydrology of the system. Vegetation within the channel exerts roughness, drag and friction on flowing water, reducing flow rates, increasing water depths and increasing hydraulic retention time. By increasing the hydraulic retention time, chemical residence time

R. Kröger; M. T. Moore; M. A. Locke; R. F. Cullum; R. W. Steinriede Jr.; S. Testa III; C. T. Bryant; C. M. Cooper

2009-01-01

182

Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration  

SciTech Connect

This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

1997-10-01

183

VEGETATIVE DELINEATION OF COASTAL SALT MARSH BOUNDARIES: EVALUATION OF METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Legislation mandating the protection of wetlands and current pressures to convert them to other uses emphasize the need to accurately determine a wetland-upland boundary. The authors investigated six methods designed to establish such a boundary based on vegetation. Each method w...

184

Plant and soil responses to salvaged marsh surface and organic matter amendments at a created wetland in central Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficiency of different methods of wetland plant establishment and different soil amendments, 16 experimental\\u000a plots in 4 treatment groups were established at a 6-ha created palustrine wetland in Tipton, PA. Response of vegetation, soil,\\u000a and hydrology were evaluated. The first objective of the study was to determine if salvaged marsh surface (SMS) from a donor\\u000a wetland can

Aura L. Stauffer; Robert P. Brooks

1997-01-01

185

Effect of vegetation in pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with a low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon.  

PubMed

In order to characterize the effect of vegetation on performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) treating low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs (planted with Phragmites australis and unplanted) treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with MCB (monochlorobenzene, as a low chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 10 mg L(-1)), and PCE (perchloroethylene, as a high chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 2 mg L(-1)), were examined. With mean MCB inflow load of 299 mg m(-2) d(-1), the removal rate was 58 and 208 mg m(-2) d(-1) in the unplanted and planted wetland, respectively, after 4 m from the inlet. PCE was almost completely removed in both wetlands with mean inflow load of 49 mg m(-2) d(-1). However, toxic metabolites cis-1,2-DCE (dichloroethene) and VC (vinyl chloride) accumulated in the unplanted wetland; up to 70% and 25% of PCE was dechlorinated to cis-1,2-DCE and VC after 4 m from the inlet, respectively. Because of high sulphate concentration (around 850 mg L(-1)) in the groundwater, the plant derived organic carbon caused sulphide formation (up to 15 mg L(-1)) in the planted wetland, which impaired the MCB removal but not statistically significant. The results showed significant enhancement of vegetation on the removal of the low chlorinated hydrocarbon MCB, which is probably due to the fact that aerobic MCB degraders are benefited from the oxygen released by plant roots. Vegetation also stimulated completely dechlorination of PCE due to plant derived organic carbon, which is potentially to provide electron donor for dechlorination process. The plant derived organic carbon also stimulated dissimilatory sulphate reduction, which subsequently have negative effect on MCB removal. PMID:22832338

Chen, Zhongbing; Wu, Shubiao; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Paschke, Heidrun; Kästner, Matthias; Köser, Heinz; Kuschk, Peter

2012-07-23

186

Community Structure and Quality After 10 Years in Two Central Ohio Mitigation Bank Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components, by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with an index of floristic quality and we evaluate the predictability of these parameters in year 10, given 5 years of data. Results show that the mitigation wetlands in this study meet vegetation performance criteria of native hydrophyte establishment by year 5 and maintain these characteristics through year 10. Species richness and floristic quality, as well as vegetative similarity with reference wetlands, differ among mitigation wetlands in year 1 and also in their rate of change during the first 10 years. The prevalence of native hydrophytes is reasonably predictable by year 10, but 5 years of monitoring is not sufficient to predict future trends of floristic quality in either the created or restored wetland. By year 10, macroinvertebrate taxa richness does not statistically differ among these wetlands, but mitigation wetlands differ from reference sites by tolerance index and by trophic guild dominance. The created wetland herbivore biomass is significantly smaller than its reference, whereas detritivore biomass is significantly greater in the created wetland and smaller in the restored wetland as compared with respective reference wetlands. These analyses illustrate differences in measures of wetland performance and contrast the monitoring duration necessary for legal compliance with the duration required for development of more complex indicators of ecosystem integrity.

Spieles, Douglas J.; Coneybeer, Meagan; Horn, Jonathan

2006-11-01

187

Community structure and quality after 10 years in two central Ohio mitigation bank wetlands.  

PubMed

We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components, by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with an index of floristic quality and we evaluate the predictability of these parameters in year 10, given 5 years of data. Results show that the mitigation wetlands in this study meet vegetation performance criteria of native hydrophyte establishment by year 5 and maintain these characteristics through year 10. Species richness and floristic quality, as well as vegetative similarity with reference wetlands, differ among mitigation wetlands in year 1 and also in their rate of change during the first 10 years. The prevalence of native hydrophytes is reasonably predictable by year 10, but 5 years of monitoring is not sufficient to predict future trends of floristic quality in either the created or restored wetland. By year 10, macroinvertebrate taxa richness does not statistically differ among these wetlands, but mitigation wetlands differ from reference sites by tolerance index and by trophic guild dominance. The created wetland herbivore biomass is significantly smaller than its reference, whereas detritivore biomass is significantly greater in the created wetland and smaller in the restored wetland as compared with respective reference wetlands. These analyses illustrate differences in measures of wetland performance and contrast the monitoring duration necessary for legal compliance with the duration required for development of more complex indicators of ecosystem integrity. PMID:16841175

Spieles, Douglas J; Coneybeer, Meagan; Horn, Jonathan

2006-07-13

188

Impacts of Land Use on Wetland Vegetation in the Eastern United States: Timing and Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The timing and scale of vegetation change are dependent on the resilience of the ecosystem to land use change that alters hydrologic response and sediment transport. Using palynological methods, we examine the impacts of land use change in 2 distinct ecosystems (the subtropical Florida Everglades and the temperate Roanoke River floodplain) in the Eastern United States. Twentieth century water management

C. E. Bernhardt; D. A. Willard; P. Townsend; R. Brown

2004-01-01

189

Defining Hydrophytes for Wetland Identification and Delineation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presence of hydrophytic vegetation is an essential ingredient in the definition of wetlands. The National Technical Committee for Wetland Vegetation was, among other things, charged with reviewing the concept of a hydrophyte and constructing a definit...

R. W. Tiner

2012-01-01

190

Wetlands International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established as a non-governmental organization, Wetlands International is concerned with promoting the conservation and wise use of wetlands on the global, regional, and national levels. Much of the information on the site is contained within a dozen or so sections along the left-hand side of the homepage. First-time visitors may want to read through the "About Us" area before proceeding to the "Introduction to Wetlands" area. Scholars and policy analysts will want to also look through the "Publications" area. Here they will find information sheets on peatland loss, user handbooks on various wetland regions, and related fact sheets for general use. Visitors may also want to peruse the "Biodiversity Programmes" area to learn more about the species and habitats that Wetlands International works to preserve through their advocacy work. The site is rounded out by a collection of recent news stories and press releases.

191

Seed banks of a river–reservoir wetland system and their implications for vegetation development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Danjiangkou Reservoir, constructed in 1970s, is the water source area of the middle route of China's interbasin South-to-North Water Transfer Project. To serve such purpose, the Danjiangkou Reservoir Dam will be increased from its present 162.0m to 176.6m, and its regular water level from 157m to 170m above mean sea level. Vegetation development in the new reservoir margins is

Wenzhi Liu; Quanfa Zhang; Guihua Liu

2009-01-01

192

Mapping Floating and Emergent Aquatic Vegetation in Coastal Wetlands of Eastern Georgian Bay, Lake Huron, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion and contraction of floating and emergent vegetation due to fluctuating water levels has a direct impact on the amount\\u000a of critical fish habitat in the coastal marshes of Georgian Bay, Lake Huron (Canada). Traditional mapping approaches developed\\u000a for site-specific studies are too expensive to quantify such changes at the scale of Georgian Bay. Here, we use IKONOS images\\u000a to

Jonathan D. Midwood; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2010-01-01

193

Application of remote sensing techniques at different scales of observation on wetland evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The establishment and maintenance of the structure and functions in wetland ecosystems is greatly influenced by hydrologic conditions. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the major output component in the hydrologic water budget. Therefore, in order to provide efficient information for water resources management and the conservation of wetland ecosystems, research on ET is urgently needed. Moreover, to overcome the variable spatial vegetation distribution and the temporal change of wetlands, appropriate remote sensing techniques are also greatly needed. The goal of this research was to study fundamental wetland ET and then with the aid of remote sensing techniques from the micro scale to the macro scale to develop useful wetland ET estimation methods. The study site was located in the Ft. Drum Marsh, Upper St. John's River Basin in Indian River County, Florida. The site is a freshwater marsh with southern cattail ( Typha domingensis Pers.) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) as the dominant vegetation species. There were four stages of the study: (1) a fundamental ET study with a lysimeter system, (2) ground measurements and analyses of spectral responses of wetland vegetation using a field spectroradiometer, (3) wetland vegetation mapping using aerial hyperspectral images, and (4) application of satellite images to delineate wetland vegetation and estimate marsh-wide ET. The results of the fundamental ET study showed the various important vegetation parameters of sawgrass and cattail. A more appropriate estimation method of canopy resistance for sawgrass and cattail was proposed. Among the various ET estimation methods, the Priestley-Taylor method was found to be most applicable. The ground spectral response measurements of sawgrass and cattail demonstrated a distinguishable difference in red wavebands and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which indicated the spectral separability of the two wetland species. Leaf area index and stomatal resistance displayed a high correlation to spectral reflectance. Aerial hyperspectral imaging proved very successful in the identification of wetland vegetation species. Among all 64 wavebands, the separability tests revealed that the wavebands in the blue-green, red edge, and near-infrared spectral regions are the most important contributors for the identification of wetland vegetation species. The satellite image was applied to map wetland vegetation using the knowledge based classification method. Integrating the results from the four stages of study, the marsh-wide ET was estimated. The results of this research can have extensive application to wetland ET, wetland delineation, and remote sensing techniques.

Juan, Chung-Hsin

194

A Wetland Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field projects at this site give students an opportunity to investigate a number of wetland characteristics firsthand: surveying wetland vegetation, soils, water quality and wildlife; documenting the wetland from an artist's perspective; investigating land uses along its periphery; and refining a base map upon which all collected information can be recorded. This resource explains how to organize the field study, thereby securing the interest of the students. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. For educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

195

Soil bacterial community structure and physicochemical properties in mitigation wetlands created in the Piedmont region of Virginia (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland creation is a common practice for compensatory mitigation in the United States. Vegetation attributes have been used as a quick measure of mitigation success in most post-creation monitoring, while little attention has been paid to soils that provide the substrate for flora and fauna to establish and develop. Created wetland soils are often found not indicative of ‘hydric soil’

Changwoo Ahn; Rita M. Peralta

2009-01-01

196

Wetland types and wetland maps differ in ability to predict dissolved organic carbon concentrations in streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three categories of digital wetland maps widely available in the United States were used to develop models relating wetlands to DOC: (1) wetlands mapped by the U.S. National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) (2) wetland vegetation cover mapped by the U.S. National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), and (3) maps of hydric soils. Data extracted from these maps for 27 headwater catchments of

Carol A. Johnstona; Boris A. Shmaginb; Paul C. Frostc; Christine Cherrierd; James H. Larsone; Gary A. Lambertie; Scott D. Bridghamd

2008-01-01

197

Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that planting selected species could supplement passive restoration by promoting a vegetative structure closer to that of natural wetlands.

De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

2007-12-01

198

Pipeline Corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1992 Survey  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to identify representative impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of the survey July 1992, at the Mills Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. Data were collected from three wetland communities along the 1991 pipeline and compared with predisturbance data obtained in a June 1991 survey. Within one year after pipeline installation, 50% of the soil surface of the ROW in the scrub-shrub community was covered by emergent vegetation. Average wetland values for the ROW in 1992 were lower than in 1991, indicating that the removal of woody plants resulted in a community composed of species with greater fidelity to wetlands. In the emergent marsh community after one year, the average percentage of surface covered by standing water was greater in the ROW than in the adjacent natural areas. The ROW in the forested wetland community also contained standing water, although none was found in the natural forest areas. The entire study site remains a wetland, with the majority of plant species in all sites being either obligate or facultative wetland species. Weighted and unweighted average wetland indices for each community, using all species, indicated wetland vegetation within the newly established ROW.

Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-01

199

AVIAN USE OF PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE DOMINATED HABITAT RELATIVE TO OTHER VEGETATION TYPES IN A LAKE HURON WETLAND COMPLEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purple loosestrife (L@vum salicaria), native to Eurasia, is an introduced perennial plant in North American wetlands that displaces other wetland plants. Although not well studied, purple loosestrife is widely believed to have little value as habitat for birds. To examine the value of purple loosestrife as avian breeding habitat, we conducted early, mid-, and late season bird surveys during two

MICHAEL B. WHITT; HAROLD H. PRINCE; ROBERT R. COX

1999-01-01

200

Evidence and implications of the background phosphorus concentration of submerged aquatic vegetation wetlands in Stormwater Treatment Areas for Everglades restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limits of phosphorus (P) removal from the 18,120 ha Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs) for Everglades restoration depend largely on the performance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) wetlands, as SAV treatment cells now provide final stage treatment for 85% of the STA project. A long-term internal P profile in STA-2 cell 3 (STA2C3), one of the longest-running and best performing SAV cells, demonstrated no further net removal in the back quarter of the cell once total P (TP) levels approached 15 ?g L-1. Inflow-outflow performance data from STA2C3 were analyzed at monthly and annual scales and were pooled with data from an additional eight STA SAV treatment cells. The pooled data allowed inference of background TP concentrations in SAV treatment cells using existing Bayesian methods. Results showed a central tendency of 16 ?g L-1 (13-17, 90% bounds), insensitivity to P loads less than ˜1.7 g m-2 yr-1, and interannual variability outside these bounds. Internal data from the STA2C3 profile provided validation. Background P concentrations of 7 and 6 ?g L-1 were identified for dissolved organic and particulate P fractions in the data pool, respectively, again similar to values in the STA2C3 gradient. Existing simulation modeling approaches for STA evaluations were identified as ineffective at or near background TP concentrations. Instead, we use an empirical and probabilistic approach based on full-scale data from STAs that produces annual risk of exceedance statistics and is easy to update. The current analysis suggests tangible risks for exceeding proposed annual discharge criteria from the STAs in the range of 16-20 ?g L-1.

Juston, John M.; Debusk, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

201

Development of an automated micrometeorological method for measuring the emission of mercury vapor from wetland vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of green plants to act as conduits to enhance the transport ofHg from soils to the atmosphere is now established, but the data base isseverely limited. The potential role of this process in mobilizing Hg inglobal and regional cycles makes it imperative that automated methods bedeveloped to increase our capability to measure and understand the processin a variety

S. E. Lindberg; T. P. Meyers

2001-01-01

202

Reducing sedimentation of depressional wetlands in agricultural landscapes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Depressional wetlands in agricultural landscapes are easily degraded by sediments and contaminants accumulated from their watersheds. Several best management practices can reduce transport of sediments into wetlands, including the establishment of vegetative buffers. We summarize the sources, transport dynamics, and effect of sediments, nutrients, and contaminants that threaten wetlands and the current knowledge of design and usefulness of grass buffers for protecting isolated wetlands. Buffer effectiveness is dependent on several factors, including vegetation structure, buffer width, attributes of the surrounding watershed (i.e., area, vegetative cover, slope and topography, soil type and structure, soil moisture, amount of herbicides and pesticides applied), and intensity and duration of rain events. To reduce dissolved contaminants from runoff, the water must infiltrate the soil where microbes or other processes can break down or sequester contaminants. But increasing infiltration also diminishes total water volume entering a wetland, which presents threats to wetland hydrology in semi-arid regions. Buffer effectiveness may be enhanced significantly by implementing other best management practices (e.g., conservation tillage, balancing input with nutrient requirements for livestock and crops, precision application of chemicals) in the surrounding watershed to diminish soil erosion and associated contaminant runoff. Buffers require regular maintenance to remove sediment build-up and replace damaged or over-mature vegetation. Further research is needed to establish guidelines for effective buffer width and structure, and such efforts should entail a coordinated, regional, multi-scale, multidisciplinary approach to evaluate buffer effectiveness and impacts. Direct measures in "real-world" systems and field validations of buffer-effectiveness models are crucial next steps in evaluating how grass buffers will impact the abiotic and biotic variables attributes that characterize small, isolated wetlands. ?? 2008 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Skagen, S. K.; Melcher, C. P.; Haukos, D. A.

2008-01-01

203

Evaluation of Freshwater Wetland Replacement Projects in Massachusetts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluated the status of several completed replacement wetlands. The goals were to: (1) evaluate success of replacement wetlands, (2) determine vegetation growing in replacement areas, and (3) make recommendations for conditioning of wetland pro...

1989-01-01

204

Distribution of soil carbon stocks in Canada's forests and wetlands simulated based on drainage class, topography and remotely sensed vegetation parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quasi-three-dimensional hydrological model was developed and integrated into the integrated terrestrial ecosystem carbon-budget model (InTEC V3·0) to improve the estimation of the carbon (C) dynamics in Canadian forests and wetlands. Climate, soil, digital elevation map, and drainage class data, in conjunction with remotely sensed vegetation parameters, including leaf area index, land cover type, and stand age, are used to drive the model. Soil is divided into three layers, for which temperature and moisture dynamics are simulated. Individual 1 km × 1 km pixels are hydrologically linked with neighbouring pixels through subsurface saturated base-flow, which is simulated using a TOPMODEL-based scheme. Soil C and nitrogen (N) dynamics are simulated using the soil submodel of CENTURY suitably modified for forests and wetlands. The interannual variation in net primary productivity is iteratively computed after integrating the effects of N, climate, stand age and atmospheric CO2 concentration on productivity. Compared with data in the Soil Landscape of Canada, the newly updated InTEC V3·0 can capture 66·6% of spatial variations in soil C and effectively alleviate soil C underestimation in wetland areas from its predecessor (InTEC V2·0) by considering the lateral water flow and the water table variation. Copyright

Ju, Weimin; Chen, Jing M.

2005-01-01

205

The effect of wetland vegetation on the survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, bacteriophage MS-2 and polio virus.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to examine the role of aquatic plants used in constructed wetlands on the survival of enteric bacteria and viruses. Four small-scale wetland systems, receiving fresh water and two other wetland systems, receiving secondary unchlorinated sewage were used in this study. Fresh water and secondary sewage without the presence of any aquatic plants were used as controls. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, bacteriophage MS-2 and poliovirus were added to the waters collected from the wetlands and controls. The presence of aquatic plants significantly increased the die-off of both bacteria in fresh water and secondary sewage. No significant difference in the die-off of E. coli and S. typhimurium was observed in water from wetlands with different types of plants in freshwater. However, there was a significant difference in the die-off of E. coli in water with aquatic plants when sewage was used. The presence of the plants significantly increased the inactivation of MS-2 and poliovirus. Additional work on the survival of E. coli indicated that the plausible mechanism of bacterial die-off in constructed wetlands is through increased microbial competition or predation. PMID:18209279

Karim, Mohammad R; Glenn, Edward P; Gerba, Charles P

2008-06-01

206

The effects of size of opening in vegetation and litter cover on seedling establishment of goldenrods ( Solidago spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of size of opening in the vegetation and litter cover on seedling establishment of two species of goldenrods (Solidago spp.) in an abandoned field in southwestern Michigan, U.S.A. Seeds of S. canadensis and S. juncea were sown into clipped plots, ranging from 0 cm (control, unclipped) to 100 cm in diameter, with and without litter. Seedling

Deborah E. Goldberg; Patricia A. Werner

1983-01-01

207

Numerical modeling of the effects of water flow, sediment transport and vegetation growth on the spatiotemporal patterning of the ridge and slough landscape of the Everglades wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model has been developed to simulate the spatiotemporal patterning of the ridge and slough landscape in wetlands, characterized by crests (ridges) and valleys (sloughs) that are elongated parallel to the direction of water flow. The model formulation consists of governing equations for integrated surface water and groundwater flow, sediment transport, and soil accretion, as well as litter production by vegetation growth. The model simulations show how the spatial pattern self-organizes over time with the generation of ridges and sloughs through sediment deposition and erosion driven by the water flow field. The spatial and temporal distributions of the water depth, flow rates and sediment transport processes are caused by differential flow due to vegetation and topography heterogeneities. The model was parameterized with values that are representative of the Everglades wetland in the southern portion of the Florida peninsula in the USA. Model simulation sensitivity was tested with respect to numerical grid size, lateral vegetation growth and the rate of litter production. The characteristic wavelengths of the pattern in the directions along and perpendicular to flow that are simulated with this model develop over time into ridge and slough shapes that resemble field observations. Also, the simulated elevation differences between the ridges and sloughs are of the same order of those typically found in the field. The width of ridges and sloughs was found to be controlled by a lateral vegetation growth distance parameter in a simplified formulation of vegetation growth, which complements earlier modeling results in which a differential peat accretion mechanism alone did not reproduce observations of ridge and slough lateral wavelengths. The results of this work suggest that ridge and slough patterning occurs as a result of vegetation's ability to grow laterally, enhancing sediment deposition in ridge areas, balanced by increased sediment erosion in slough areas to satisfy flow continuity. The interplay between sediment transport, water flow and vegetation and soil dynamic processes needs to be explored further through detailed field experiments, using a model formulation such as the one developed in this work to guide data collection and interpretation. This should be one of the focus areas of future investigations of pattern formation and stability in ridge and slough areas.

Lago, Marcelo E.; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Mahmoudi, Mehrnoosh; Engel, Vic

2010-10-01

208

Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy substrates amended with compost produced from locally available sewage sludge and saw dust can be improved. The metal content of grass grown in the various treatments was considered to be elevated compared to normal contents. However, metal uptake in compost treatments was lower than in untreated plots. A preliminary cost assessment, comparing the remediation technology tested on site Divkovici with a standard soil covering technique revealed financial benefits for the compost method due to significant lower application rates.

Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

2009-04-01

209

Land use and riparian effects on prairie wetland sediment properties and herbicide sorption coefficients.  

PubMed

Sorption of commonly used herbicides by wetland sediment can provide important information for herbicide fate modeling. The influence of sediment properties on herbicide sorption as a result of different land uses in the wetland catchment is unclear. We examined the effects of land use on the physiochemical properties of wetland sediments and the associations between these sediment properties and herbicide sorption characteristics. Bottom sediments were sampled in 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-cm sections from 17 wetlands under five different land use classes: (i) ephemeral wetlands with no riparian vegetation in a cultivated catchment (ECNR), (ii) ephemeral wetlands with riparian vegetation in a cultivated catchment (ECR), (iii) ephemeral wetlands in a grassland catchment established 4 yr ago (E4G), (iv) ephemeral wetlands in a brome grass catchment established 20 yr ago (E20G), and (v) semi-permanent (SP) wetlands in a multiple-land-use catchment. Sediments were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), pH, electrical conductivity, exchangeable cations (EXCAT), total cation exchangeable capacity (CEC), and percent clay (%clay). Sediment herbicide sorption partition coefficient (Kd) was measured for trifluralin, atrazine, 2,4-D, and glyphosate. The sorption of the herbicides in the sediment increased in the order of 2,4-D < atrazine < glyphosate < trifluralin. The sorption of 2,4-D, atrazine, and trifluralin was positively correlated to TOC, EXCAT, and CEC but negatively correlated to %clay. Glyphosate sorption was negatively correlated to pH, TIC, EXCAT, and %clay. Overall, wetland sediments that were recently cultivated (ECNR and E4G) had lower TOC, TIC, EC, EXCAT, CEC, and Kd values (2,4-D, trifluralin, and atrazine) than sediments that had not been recently cultivated (ECR, E20G, and SP). The ECR wetland sediments had the largest Kd for all four herbicides, suggesting that land use and riparian vegetation have a significant impact on herbicide sorption. PMID:19549953

Xu, Dani; Meyer, Sheila; Gaultier, Jeanette; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Pennock, Dan

2009-06-23

210

The Carolina Bay Restoration Project: Implementation and Management of a Wetland Mitigation Bank.  

SciTech Connect

A wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses associated with future authorized construction and environmental restoration projects in SRS wetlands. The Bank was intended not only to hasten mitigation efforts with respect to regulatory requirements and implementation, but also to provide onsite and fully functional compensation of impacted wetland acreage prior to any impact. Restoration and enhancement of small isolated wetlands, as well as major bottomland wetland systems scattered throughout the nonindustrialized area of SRS were designated for inclusion in the Bank. Based on information and techniques gained from previous research efforts involving Carolina bay wetlands (DOE 1997), a project to restore degraded Carolina bays on SRS has been undertaken to serve as the initial ''deposit'' in The Bank. There are over 300 Carolina bays or bay-like depression wetlands on the SRS, of which an estimated two-thirds were ditched or disturbed prior to federal occupation of the Site (Kirkman et al., 1996). These isolated wetlands range from small ephemeral depressions to large permanent ponds of 10-50 hectares in size. They provide habitat to support a wide range of rare plant species, and many vertebrates (birds, amphibians, bats). Historical impacts to the Carolina bays at SRS were primarily associated with agricultural activities. Bays were often drained tilled and planted to crops. The consequence was a loss in the wetland hydrologic cycle, the native wetland vegetation, and associated wildlife. The purpose of this mitigation and research project is to restore the functions and vegetation typical of intact depression wetlands and, in doing so, to enhance habitat for wetland dependent wildlife on SRS.

Barton, Christopher; DeSteven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca; Kilgo, John; Imm, Donald; Kolka, Randy; Blake, John, I.

2003-01-01

211

Effects of a Long-Term Disturbance on Arthropods and Vegetation in Subalpine Wetlands: Manifestations of Pack Stock Grazing in Early versus Mid-Season  

PubMed Central

Conclusions regarding disturbance effects in high elevation or high latitude ecosystems based solely on infrequent, long-term sampling may be misleading, because the long winters may erase severe, short-term impacts at the height of the abbreviated growing season. We separated a) long-term effects of pack stock grazing, manifested in early season prior to stock arrival, from b) additional pack stock grazing effects that might become apparent during annual stock grazing, by use of paired grazed and control wet meadows that we sampled at the beginning and end of subalpine growing seasons. Control meadows had been closed to grazing for at least two decades, and meadow pairs were distributed across Sequoia National Park, California, USA. The study was thus effectively a landscape-scale, long-term manipulation of wetland grazing. We sampled arthropods at these remote sites and collected data on associated vegetation structure. Litter cover and depth, percent bare ground, and soil strength had negative responses to grazing. In contrast, fauna showed little response to grazing, and there were overall negative effects for only three arthropod families. Mid-season and long-term results were generally congruent, and the only indications of lower faunal diversity on mid-season grazed wetlands were trends of lower abundance across morphospecies and lower diversity for canopy fauna across assemblage metrics. Treatment x Season interactions almost absent. Thus impacts on vegetation structure only minimally cascaded into the arthropod assemblage and were not greatly intensified during the annual growing season. Differences between years, which were likely a response to divergent snowfall patterns, were more important than differences between early and mid-season. Reliance on either vegetation or faunal metrics exclusively would have yielded different conclusions; using both flora and fauna served to provide a more integrative view of ecosystem response.

Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A.

2013-01-01

212

Use of Bryophytes as Indicators of Hydric Soils and Wetland Hydrology during Wetland Delineations in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for delineating wetland boundaries, using hydrophytic vegetation, hydric soils, and wetland hydrology. Current procedures for making hydrophytic vegetation determina...

J. J. Gillrich K. C. Bowman

2010-01-01

213

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

1992-01-01

214

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

1992-12-01

215

Developing vegetation metrics for the assessment of beneficial uses of impounded wetlands surrounding Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many wetlands around Farmington Bay of Great Salt Lake are managed waterfowl habitat by means of impounding the flow at the terminus of the Jordan River. The majority of the Jordan River flow is comprised of the secondary-treated effluent of several municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTP), resulting in elevated phosphorus concentrations. This study was initiated to determine whether the

Heidi M. Hoven; Theron G. Miller

2009-01-01

216

An integrated approach to assess broad-scale condition of coastal wetlands - The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Wetlands pilot survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a two-year regional pilot survey in 2007 to develop, test, and validate tools and approaches to assess the condition of northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal wetlands. Sampling sites were selected from estuarine and palustrine wetland areas with herbaceous, forested, and shrub/scrub habitats delineated by the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Status and Trends (NWI S&T) program and contained within northern GOM coastal watersheds. A multi-level, stepwise, iterative survey approach is being applied to multiple wetland classes at 100 probabilistically-selected coastal wetlands sites. Tier 1 provides information at the landscape scale about habitat inventory, land use, and environmental stressors associated with the watershed in which each wetland site is located. Tier 2, a rapid assessment conducted through a combination of office and field work, is based on best professional judgment and on-site evidence. Tier 3, an intensive site assessment, involves on-site collection of vegetation, water, and sediment samples to establish an integrated understanding of current wetland condition and validate methods and findings from Tiers 1 and 2. The results from this survey, along with other similar regional pilots from the Mid-Atlantic, West Coast, and Great Lakes Regions will contribute to a design and implementation approach for the National Wetlands Condition Assessment to be conducted by EPA's Office of Water in 2011. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Nestlerode, J. A.; Engle, V. D.; Bourgeois, P.; Heitmuller, P. T.; Macauley, J. M.; Allen, Y. C.

2009-01-01

217

Wetlands - An Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This instructional guide is designed to provide instructors with lecture materials and resources that introduce wetlands as ecosystems. Student objectives, a general lecture outline and a more detailed PowerPoint presentation with instructor notes are provided. Wetland definitions and their importance are discussed as well as the criteria that are used to distinguish wetlands from uplands. The structural and physiological adaptations of wetland plants, wetland functions and the economic value of ecological services provided by wetlands are also presented. Instructors who are looking for videos or additional print and web-based resources on the topics covered here should consult the resources list provided at the end of this module where these resources are summarized and cited.Upon successful completion of this module students should be able to:* Distinguish between wetlands and uplands using soils, hydrological and vegetation criteria* Describe the structural and physiological adaptations of wetland plants* Describe the various ecosystem functions that are provided by wetlands* Evaluate the economic value of ecological services provided by wetlands

Cudmore, Wynn

2011-09-20

218

Mechanisms involved in the re-establishment of Sphagnum dominated vegetation in rewetted bog remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of peat bog vegetation inhighly degraded peatlands is generallyattempted by improving the hydrology ofthese areas. The present paper discussesand explains various restoration strategiesrelating to peat quality, water chemistryand hydrology. In some cases, (shallow)inundation of bog remnants leads to a rapidredevelopment of (floating) Sphagnumvegetation, usually when poorly humifiedSphagnum peat is still present. Afterinundation, the peat either swells up tothe newly

A. J. P. Smolders; H. B. M. Tomassen; M. van Mullekom; L. P. M. Lamers; J. G. M. Roelofs

2003-01-01

219

Re-establishing a saltmarsh vegetation structure in a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major management decision in an ecological restoration or rehabilitation project is whether supplementary planting or natural vegetation regeneration is the better alternative or if a combination can be applied. Management decisions are further complicated when the project involves saltmarsh as tidal cycles, the effects of salinity and sea level rise add to the complexity of decisions. The ecological values

Joanne Green; Mandy Reichelt-Brushett; Surrey W. L. Jacobs

2009-01-01

220

Wetland Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

State and Federal laws affecting coastal wetlands and the importance of these laws to the wetland areas are discussed. Wetlands usually include swamps, marshes, bogs, sloughs, mud flats, and natural ponds. The term 'wetland' encompasses a variety of envir...

F. Dennis

1982-01-01

221

The impact of aridification and vegetation type on changes in the community structure of methane-cycling microorganisms in Japanese wetland soils.  

PubMed

Over the years, the wetlands covered by Sphagnum in Bibai, Japan have been turning into areas of aridity, resulting in an invasion of Sasa into the bogs. Yet little is known about the methane-cycling microorganisms in such environments. In this study, the methanotrophic, methanogenic, and archaeal community structures within these two types of wetland vegetation were studied by phylogenetic analysis targeting particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA), methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), and the archaeal 16S rRNA gene. The pmoA library indicated that Methylomonas and Methylocystis predominated in the Sphagnum-covered and Sasa-invaded areas, respectively. The mcrA and 16S rRNA libraries indicated that Methanoregula were abundant methanogens in the Sphagnum-covered area. In the Sasa-invaded area, by contrast, mcrA genes were not detected, and no 16S rRNA clones were affiliated with previously known methanogens. Because the Sasa-invaded area still produced methane, of the various uncultured populations detected, novel euryarchaeotal lineages are candidate methane producers. PMID:21897040

Narihiro, Takashi; Hori, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Osamu; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

2011-09-07

222

Wetland restoration and compliance issues on the Savannah River site  

SciTech Connect

Operation of the nuclear production reactors on the Savannah River Site has faced potential conflicts with wetland regulations on several occasions. This paper provides two examples in which regulatory compliance and restoration research have been meshed, providing both compliance and better knowledge to aid future regulatory needs. The decision to restart the L reactor required the mitigation of thermal effluents under Sec. 316 of the Clean Water Act. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, permit for the selected mitigation alternative, a 405-ha once-through cooling reservoir, required the establishment of a balanced biological community (BBC) within the lake. To promote the development of a BBC, the reservoir was seeded with water from an existing BBC (Par Pond) and stocked with fish and had artificial reefs constructed. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also requested that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory establish littoral/wetland vegetation along the shoreline to provide aquatic and wildlife habitat, shoreline stabilization, and a good faith effort toward the establishment of a BBC. The development of wetland vegetation was deemed important to the successful development of a BBC within L Lake. However, in a similar cooling reservoir system constructed in 1957 (Par Pond), wetland vegetation successfully developed without any planting effort. Other than the good faith effort toward a BBC, there is no reason to assume a littoral/wetland community would not develop of its own accord. However, research conducted at L Lake indicates that the planting of wetland vegetation at L Lake accelerated the process of natural selection over that of areas that were not planted.

Wein, G.R.; McLeod, K.W.; Sharitz, R.R. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

1993-01-01

223

FGD liner experiments with wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

1999-07-01

224

Functional assessment of five wetlands constructed to mitigate wetland loss in Ohio, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five replacement wetlands in Ohio, USA, were investigated to determine their ecological and legal success. Hydrology soils,\\u000a vegetation, wildlife, and water quality of each wetland determined their functional success. The progress of the wetlands\\u000a was also compared to their legal requirements. Four of the five wetlands (80%) were in compliance with legal requirements\\u000a and the same four wetlands demonstrated medium

Renée F. Wilson; William J. Mitsch

1996-01-01

225

Effects of vegetative-periodic-induced rhizosphere variation on the uptake and translocation of metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steudel growing in the Sun Island Wetland.  

PubMed

To evaluate the vegetative periodic effect of rhizosphere on the patterns of metal bioaccumulation, the concentrations of Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the corresponding rhizosphere soil and tissues of Phragmites australis growing in the Sun Island wetland (Harbin, China) were compared. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in roots were higher than in shoots, suggesting that roots are the primary accumulation organs for these metals and there exists an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance. In contrast, the rest of the metals showed an opposite trend, suggesting that they were not restricted in roots. Harvesting would particularly be an effective method to remove Mn from the environment. The concentrations of metals in shoots were generally higher in autumn than in summer, suggesting that Ph. australis possesses an efficient root-to-shoot translocation system, which is activated at the end of the growing season and allows more metals into the senescent tissues. Furthermore, metal bioaccumulation of Ph. australis was affected by vegetative periodic variation through the changing of physicochemical and microbial conditions. The rhizospheric microbial characteristics were significantly related to the concentrations of Mg, K, Zn, Fe and Cu, suggesting that microbial influence on metal accumulation is specific and selective, not eurytopic. PMID:23455898

Wu, Jieting; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Yang, Jixian; Li, Shiyang; Li, Zhe

2013-03-02

226

Testing wetland features to increase amphibian reproductive success and species richness for mitigation and restoration.  

PubMed

Aquatic habitat features can directly influence the abundance, species richness, and quality of juvenile amphibians recruited into adult populations. We examined the influences of within-wetland slope, vegetation, and stocked mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) on amphibian metamorph production and species richness during the first two years post-construction at 18 experimental wetlands in northeast Missouri (U.S.A.) grasslands. We used an information theoretic approach (AICc) to rank regression models representing total amphibian metamorph production, individual amphibian species metamorph production, and larval amphibian species richness. Total amphibian metamorph production was greatest at shallow-sloped, fish-free wetlands during the first year, but shallow-sloped wetlands with high vegetation cover were best the second year. Species richness was negatively associated with fish and positively associated with vegetation in both survey years. Leopard frog (Rana blairi/sphenocephala complex) metamorph quality, based on average metamorph size, was influenced by slope and the number of cohorts in the wetland. However, the tested variables had little influence on the size of American toads (Bufo americanus) or boreal chorus frogs (Pseudacris maculata). Our results indicate that wetlands designed to act as functional reproductive habitat for amphibians should incorporate shallows, high amounts of planted or naturally established vegetation cover, and should be fish-free. PMID:22908722

Shulse, Christopher D; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Trauth, Kathleen M; Gardner, James E

2012-07-01

227

Freshwater Wetland Eutrophication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The traditional perception of wetlands as nutrient sinks has led them to be used as wastewater disposal areas for a long time,\\u000a resulting in a severe alteration of the structure and function by eutrophication. Nutrient loading is usually linked to hydrological\\u000a alterations which encompass shifts in vegetation patterns and nutrient cycling. The eutrophication process in wetlands accelerates\\u000a primary productivity and

S. Sánchez-Carrillo; D. G. Angeler; M. Álvarez-Cobelas; R. Sánchez-Andrés

228

Wetland 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course provides an introduction to wetland ecology, types of wetlands, wetland functions and values, and wetlands management. Topics include how a wetland is defined, wetland hydrology, seasonal and other fluctuations in water levels, and wetland soils and plants. The course consists of a series of slide presentations with self-quizzes and an online final quiz. Registration and log-in are required.

229

Establishment of woody riparian vegetation in relation to annual patterns of streamflow, Bill Williams River, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have revealed the close coupling of components of annual streamflow hydrographs and the germination and establishment\\u000a ofPopulus species. Key hydrograph components include the timing and magnitude of flood peaks, the rate of decline of the recession\\u000a limb, and the magnitude of base flows. In this paper, we retrospectively examine establishment of four woody riparian species\\u000a along the Bill

Patrick B. Shafroth; Gregor T. Auble; Juliet C. Stromberg; Duncan T. Patten

1998-01-01

230

Controls on wetland loss during large magnitude storms: a case study in Breton Sound, LA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km^2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained largely intact and unchanged. Field studies were undertaken in Breton Sound, Louisiana, where both the low and high salinity wetlands experienced very similar hydrodynamic conditions during Hurricane Katrina. This site provides a natural case to study the causes of the observed land loss patterns. We observe geotechnical differences between soil profiles in high and low salinity wetlands, as controlled by vegetation, and which result in differential erosion. Low salinity wetlands contain a weak zone at a depth of ~30 cm below the marsh surface; this coincides with the base of rooting and has shear strengths as low as 500-1450 Pa. High salinity wetlands display deeper rooting, have no identifiable weak zone, and shear strengths exceed 4500 Pa throughout the upper soil profile. Results from a model (STWAVE-ADCIRC) are used to establish the hydrodynamic conditions during Hurricane Katrina (storm surge, wave height, and wave period). We calculate the potential shear stresses exerted by waves, accounting for the interaction between the oscillatory flow and the vegetation. Calculated shear stresses were in the range 425-3600 Pa, values sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands, but not the high salinity wetlands, corresponding with the observed patterns of land loss. A conceptual model is developed to illustrate the influence of rooting type and depth on the strength profile of wetlands soils and their susceptibility to erosion during large magnitude storms. These findings have implications for wetland restoration schemes involving freshwater diversions.

Howes, N. C.; Hughes, Z. J.; Fitzgerald, D.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Kulp, M. A.; Miner, M. D.; Smith, J. M.; Barras, J. A.

2010-12-01

231

The biogeochemistry of nitrogen in freshwater wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of N in freshwater wetlands is complicated by vegetation characteristics that range from annual herbs to perennial woodlands; by hydrologic characteristics that range from closed, precipitation-driven to tidal, riverine wetlands; and by the diversity of the nitrogen cycle itself. It is clear that sediments are the single largest pool of nitrogen in wetland ecosystems (100's to 1000's g

William B. Bowden

1987-01-01

232

The role of plant type and salinity in the selection for the denitrifying community structure in the rhizosphere of wetland vegetation.  

PubMed

Coastal wetlands, as transient links from terrestrial to marine environments, are important for nitrogen removal by denitrification. Denitrification strongly depends on both the presence of emergent plants and the denitrifier communities selected by different plant species. In this study, the effects of vegetation and habitat heterogeneity on the community of denitrifying bacteria were investigated in nine coastal wetlands in two preserved areas of Spain. Sampling locations were selected to cover a range of salinity (0.81 to 31.3 mS/cm) and nitrate concentrations (0.1 to 303 ?M NO3-), allowing the evaluation of environmental variables that select for denitrifier communities in the rhizosphere of Phragmites sp., Ruppia sp., and Paspalum sp. Potential nitrate reduction rates were found to be dependent on the sampling time and plant species and related to the denitrifier community structure, which was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the functional genes nirS, nirK and nosZ. The results showed that denitrifier community structure was also governed by plant species and salinity, with significant influences of other variables, such as sampling time and location. Ruppia sp. and Phragmites sp. selected for certain communities, whereas this was not the case for Paspalum sp. The plant species effect was strongest on nirK-type denitrifiers, whereas water carbon content was a significant factor defining the structure of the nosZ-harboring community. The differences recognized using the three functional gene markers indicated that different drivers act on denitrifying populations capable of complete denitrification, compared to the overall denitrifier community. This finding may have implications for emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. PMID:22847270

Bañeras, Luís; Ruiz-Rueda, Olaya; López-Flores, Rocío; Quintana, Xavier D; Hallin, Sara

2012-06-01

233

Better rationale for wetland management  

SciTech Connect

A sound, yet practical, rationale for wetland management and regulatory relief should be linked to the scarcity of certain wetland habitats, the habitat diversity or carrying capacity, the degree of degradation from past development, and the incremental losses already incurred within the same wetland ecosystem. The regulatory effort should be concentrated where these characteristics indicate high-value wetlands. Wetlands impacts appear to fit into five basic orders of magnitude: immediate, total, and essentially irreversible although confined wetland conversion by filling or excavation, or long-term wetland displacement by flooding or draining and clearing; permanent and practically irreversible adverse change to the hydrologic regime, primarily in wetland water levels, temperature, salinity, velocity, circulation, flushing, and fluctuation, resulting in the loss of wetland vegetation and wet or dry cycles; enduring, often economically irreversible, but gradual and relatively confined changes to wetland soils and substrate from erosion, sedimentation, and chemical contamination; chronic but usually low-level water-quality deterioration from nutrient overenrichment, organics with low biodegradability, and trace element that are potentially toxic; and temporary, usually localized damage to soils, water quality, vegetation, and other environmental features from effects such as high turbidity, oil or chemical spills, defoliation, noise, and similar phenomena.

Nelson, R.W.; Weller, E.C.

1984-07-01

234

Measuring Above Ground Biomass and Vegetation Structure in the South Florida Everglades Wetland Ecosystem with X-, C-, and L-band SAR data and Ground-based LiDAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, anthropogenic activities are disturbing and disrupting nutrient rich bio-diverse wetland ecosystems. Disturbance of the South Florida Everglades has been particularly acute, but difficult to quantify given its limited accessibility. Successful ecosystem monitoring requires the use of remote sensing. We used space-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations to estimate vegetation structure and above-ground biomass and track their changes over time.

E. A. Feliciano; S. Wdowinski; M. Potts; S. Chin; D. A. Phillips

2010-01-01

235

Wetland Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Suzanne Savanick at SERC. Find wetland images and visualizations that illustrate wetland loss or wetland function. Browse the complete set of Visualization Collections. National Estuary Program Habitat ...

236

Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina).  

SciTech Connect

Barton, Christopher, D., Diane DeSteven and John C. Kilgo. 2004. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina). Ecol. Rest. 22(4):291-292. Abstract: Carolina bays and smaller depression wetlands support diverse plant communities and provide critical habitat for semi-aquatic fauna throughout the Coastal Plain region of the southeastern United States. Historically, many depression wetlands were altered or destroyed by surface ditching, drainage, and agricultural or silviculture uses. These important habitats are now at further risk of alteration and loss following a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2001 restricting federal regulation of isolated wetlands. Thus, there is increased attention towards protecting intact sites and developing methods to restore others. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 312-mi2 (800-km2) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina includes about 350 Carolina bays and bay-like wetland depressions, of which about two-thirds were degraded or destroyed prior to federal acquisition of the land. Although some of the altered wetlands have recovered naturally, others still have active active drainage ditches and contain successional forests typical of drained sites. In 1997, DOE established a wetland mitigation bank to compensate for unavoidable wetland impacts on the SRS. This effort provided an opportunity fir a systematic research program to investigate wetland restoration techniques and ecological responses. Consequently, research and management staffs from the USDA Forest Service, Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, the Savannah River Technology Center, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) and several universities developed a collaborative project to restore degraded depression wetlands on the SRS. The mitigation project seeks cost-effective methods to restore the hydrology and vegetation typical of natural depression wetlands, and so enhance habitats for wetland-dependent wildlife. We present a brief summary of this project and the research studies now underway.

Barton, Christopher D.; DeSteven, Diane; Kilgo, John C.

2004-12-31

237

NUTRIENT AND HABITAT INDICATORS FOR CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division is testing indicators and establishing stressor - response relationships to support development of nutrient and habitat criteria for Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Our focus is on water quality changes, food web shifts, and vegetation loss as ...

238

Wetlands of Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes 9 chapters covering wetland definition/classification, National Wetlands Inventory techniques and results, wetland formation and hydrology, hydric soils, wetland plant communities, wetland values, wetland trends, and wetland protection...

R. W. Tiner D. G. Burke

1995-01-01

239

Modeling the suitability of potential wetland mitigation sites with a geographic information system.  

PubMed

Wetland mitigation is frequently required to compensate for unavoidable impacts to wetlands. Site conditions and landscape context are critical factors influencing the functions that created wetlands perform. We developed a spatial model and used a geographic information system (GIS) to identify suitable locations for wetland mitigation sites. The model used six variables to characterize site conditions: hydrology, soils, historic condition, vegetation cover, adjacent vegetation, and land use. For each variable, a set of suitability scores was developed that indicated the wetland establishment potential for different variable states. Composite suitability scores for individual points on the landscape were determined from the weighted geometric mean of suitability scores for each variable at each point. These composite scores were grouped into five classes and mapped as a wetland mitigation suitability surface with a GIS. Sites with high suitability scores were further evaluated using information on the feasibility of site modification and project cost. This modeling approach could be adapted by planners for use in identifying the suitability of locations as wetland mitigation sites at any site or region. PMID:15031767

Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A; LaGory, Kirk E; Kuiper, James A

2004-03-23

240

Modeling the suitability of potential wetland mitigation sites with a geographic information system.  

SciTech Connect

Wetland mitigation is frequently required to compensate for unavoidable impacts to wetlands. Site conditions and landscape context are critical factors influencing the functions that created wetlands perform. We developed a spatial model and used a geographic information system (GIS) to identify suitable locations for wetland mitigation sites. The model used six variables to characterize site conditions: hydrology, soils, historic condition, vegetation cover, adjacent vegetation, and land use. For each variable, a set of suitability scores was developed that indicated the wetland establishment potential for different variable states. Composite suitability scores for individual points on the landscape were determined from the weighted geometric mean of suitability scores for each variable at each point. These composite scores were grouped into five classes and mapped as a wetland mitigation suitability surface with a GIS. Sites with high suitability scores were further evaluated using information on the feasibility of site modification and project cost. This modeling approach could be adapted by planners for use in identifying the suitability of locations as wetland mitigation sites at any site or region.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; LaGory, K. E.; Kuiper, J. A.; Environmental Assessment

2004-03-01

241

Freshwater wetlands human-induced changes: Indirect effects must also be considered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent studies have documented changes in wetland ecosystems in New England by examining changes in wetland vegetation over time. Both documented shifts in vegetation towards shrub and forest dominated wetlands Both then concluded that natural succession has changed more wetlands than human impact has. The last conclusion does not necessarily follow from the data provided.

Pall A. Keddy

1983-01-01

242

Freshwater wetlands human-induced changes: Indirect effects must also be considered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent studies have documented changes in wetland ecosystems in New England by examining changes in wetland vegetation over time. Both documented shifts in vegetation towards shrub and forest dominated wetlands Both then concluded that natural succession has changed more wetlands than human impact has. The last conclusion does not necessarily follow from the data provided. There are three important

Pall A. Keddy

1983-01-01

243

Wetland Types  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource will help students to distinguish between wetland types. They will discover that coastal wetlands include salt marshes and tidal brackish marshes while inland wetlands consist of freshwater marshes, wet meadows, forested swamps, shrub swamps, bogs, fens, and vernal pools. A Guide to Wetland Wildlife in New England Regional Wetland "Celebrities" is included. This site is part of a guide that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. Even though the site is about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland. An associated set of activities is also available.

244

Assessment of Vegetation Establishment on Tailings Dam at an Iron Ore Mining Site of Suburban Beijing, China, 7 Years After Reclamation with Contrasting Site Treatment Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

2013-09-01

245

THE ABILITY OF DIFFERENT MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES FOR SPATIAL EXTENT MAPPING OF LAKES AND COASTAL WETLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of primary classes and sub classes of open water bodies and wetlands using remote sensing data is very important for different purposes. Because of the mixture of water and vegetation in wetlands, the spectral properties of wetlands are a complex mixture of the two. Therefore, when the different wetlands are located near or around the lakes (coastal wetlands), spectral

H. Taheri Shahraini; M. Tajrishy; A. Alimohammadib; A. Abrishamchi

246

Testing a passive revegetation approach for restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Restoration of coastal plain depressions, a biologically significant and threatened wetland type of the southeastern United States, has received little systematic research. Within the context of an experimental project designed to evaluate several restoration approaches, we tested whether successful revegetation can be achieved by passive methods (recruitment from seed banks or seed dispersal) that allow for wetland ‘‘self-design’’ in response to hydrologic recovery. For 16 forested depressions that historically had been drained and altered, drainage ditches were plugged to reestablish natural ponding regimes, and the successional forest was harvested to open the sites and promote establishment of emergent wetland vegetation. We sampled seed bank and vegetation composition 1 year before restoration and monitored vegetation response for 3 years after. Following forest removal and ditch plugging, the restored wetlands quickly developed a dense cover of herbaceous plant species, of which roughly half were wetland species. Seed banks were a major source of wetland species for early revegetation. However, hydrologic recovery was slowed by a prolonged drought, which allowed nonwetland plant species to establish from seed banks and dispersal or to regrow after site harvest. Some nonwetland species were later suppressed by ponded conditions in the third year, but resprouting woody plants persisted and could alter the future trajectory of revegetation. Some characteristic wetland species were largely absent in the restored sites, indicating that passive methods may not fully replicate the composition of reference systems. Passive revegetation was partially successful, but regional droughts present inherent challenges to restoring depressional wetlands whose hydrologic regimes are strongly controlled by rainfall variability.

De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Singer, Julian H.; Barton, Christopher D.

2006-09-01

247

Why wetlands?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the creation of Ramsar Convention on Wetlands in 1971, the term wetland has been widely and increasingly mentioned by scientists and environmental managers. During the last decades of the Twentieth Century environmental concerns due to the dramatic loss of aquatic and related habitats have made wetlands target ecosystems for their conservation and restoration. Instead of regarding them as wetlands,

Juan A. Schnack

2006-01-01

248

Wetland Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first section of a module about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students. Although designed for students in New England, it applies to and gives examples of wetlands across the country. It suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland. This guide aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. This first section explains what wetlands are and explains that the water cycle is the connection between wetlands and watersheds. In addition, it explains in detail the characteristics of wetland water, soil and plants. An associated set of activities is also available.

249

Spatio-temporal variation in contrasting effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland plants: implications for seed addition experiments.  

PubMed

Successful establishment of plants is limited by both biotic and abiotic conditions and their interactions. Seedling establishment is also used as a direct measure of habitat suitability, but transient changes in vegetation might provide windows of opportunity allowing plant species to colonize sites which otherwise appear unsuitable. We aimed to study spatio-temporal variability in the effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland species in abandoned arable fields representing potentially suitable habitats. Seeds were sown in disturbed (bare of vegetation and roots) and undisturbed plots in three fields abandoned in the last 20 years. To assess the effects of temporal variation on plant establishment, we initiated our experiments in two years (2007 and 2008). Seventeen out of the 35 sown species flowered within two years after sowing, while three species completely failed to become established. The vegetation in the undisturbed plots facilitated seedling establishment only in the year with low spring precipitation, and the effect did not hold for all species. In contrast, growth and flowering rate were consistently much greater in the disturbed plots, but the effect size differed between the fields and years of sowing. We show that colonization is more successful when site opening by disturbance coincide with other suitable conditions such as weather or soil characteristics. Seasonal variability involved in our study emphasizes the necessity of temporal replication of sowing experiments. Studies assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing should either involve both vegetation removal treatments and untreated plots or follow the gradient of vegetation cover. We strongly recommend following the numbers of established individuals, their sizes and reproductive success when assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing since one can gain completely different results in different phases of plant life cycle. PMID:23755288

Knappová, Jana; Knapp, Michal; Münzbergová, Zuzana

2013-06-05

250

Operational relationships between NOAA-advanced very high resolution radiometer vegetation indices and daily fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, established for Sahelian vegetation canopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the estimation of primary production at a regional scale, an assessment of the utility of fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) estimated from spectral vegetation indices (VI) for the case of the Sahelian vegetation was studied. Simulations using a three-dimensional radiative transfer model were conducted for two types of structurally distinct vegetation canopies: millet crop (regularly distributed clumps of vegetation over bare soil) and savanna (mixture of a grass layer and a sparse woody layer). A realistic range of values is extracted for each vegetation input variable (leaf area index, ground cover, height and spatial distribution) from published literature. Bidirectional reflectance factors were calculated in the NOAA-advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) spectral bands for a geometric configuration representative of the NOAA satellite series. Two vegetation indices were tested: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI). The simulations indicate that the fAPAR-VI relationship is sensitive to the geometry of measurement and soil optical properties, especially in the case of a millet crop. Simple linear models that include this variability and are directly applicable to atmospherically corrected AVHRR data are proposed, and the error of estimation of fAPAR is evaluated. MSAVI gives better results, especially when the brightness of soil is known. For natural vegetation the relationship between fAPAR and MSAVI is then reduced to a coefficient that is a constant (˜2.2). For millet canopies this coefficient is a function of Sun and view angles. Finally, the utility of our approach is illustrated with two examples of fAPAR-VI relationships applied to a NOAA time series.

BéGué, A.; Myneni, R.

1996-09-01

251

Restoring biodiversity in the Gwydir Wetlands through environmental flows.  

PubMed

As part of the Water Reforms process, environmental flow rules have been progressively implemented in New South Wales rivers. The Integrated Monitoring of Environmental Flows (IMEF) is a major project established to better understand how rivers and associated wetlands respond to environmental water allocations. The results presented here represent the vegetation data collected for the testing of the hypothesis that "protecting or restoring a portion of freshes and high flows and otherwise maintaining natural flow variability will replenish anabranches and riverine wetlands, restoring their biodiversity". The study site is the Ramsar listed Gwydir Wetlands, located on the Gingham and Gwydir (Big Leather) Watercourses in the Lower Gwydir Valley, 100 km west of Moree. The expansion of irrigated agriculture in the lower Gwydir valley has severely altered flow regimes in the wetlands. The spread of the weed Phyla canescens (Lippia) is of major concern to landholders in the Gwydir Wetlands. Results indicate that Paspalum distichum (Water couch) and Eleocharis plana (Ribbed spike-rush) can maintain dominance over Phyla canescens if flooding occurs on a semi-regular basis. Conversely, Eichhornia crassipes (Water hyacinth) is a rampant noxious weed of open water in the Gwydir Wetlands, and has quickly spread in areas that are inundated for long periods. Management of this weed requires periodic drying of the wetlands to cause desiccation and death of the plants. The flooding requirement of individual species and plant associations in the Gwydir Wetlands are currently not fully understood. By providing better information on the consequence of different flows, the IMEF project will help to develop better management strategies to shift the dominance from introduced species such as P. canescens and E. crassipes to more desirable native plant species. PMID:14653636

Mawhinney, W A

2003-01-01

252

Chemical Properties of Pore Water and Sediment at Three Wetland Sites Near the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, vegetative stress and arboreal mortality in wetland plant communities down-gradient from the F- and H-Area seepage basins were detected using aerial imagery. By 1988, approximately six acres in H-Area and four acres in F-Area had been adversely impacted. Today, wetland plant communities have become well established at the H-Area tree-kill zone.

Friday, G.P.

2001-05-15

253

Wetlands stewardship  

SciTech Connect

Wetlands have important ecological values and functions. It is estimated that 80 percent of the Nation's coastal fisheries are dependent on wetlands for spawning, nursery areas, and food sources. Both coastal and inland wetlands provide essential breeding, nesting, feeding, and predator escape habitats for millions of waterfowl, other birds, mammals, and reptiles. Well over one-third of the 564 plant and animal species listed as threatened or endangered in the United States utilize wetland habitats during some portion of their life cycle. Wetlands Stewardship is intended as a resource for everyone interested in wetlands protection.

Whelan, J.M.

1992-04-01

254

Integration of multi-temporal spectral and structural information to map wetland vegetation in a brackish Connecticut marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study utilizes multitemporal QuickBird and single date LiDar canopy height data to classify the common plant communities of a tidal marsh at the mouth of the Connecticut River. A specific goal was to map the expanding distribution of non-native Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud (common reed), which has been outcompeting native species, particularly in disturbed marshes. P. australis spreads vigorously, forming dense monocultures that result in reduced biodiversity of plant, avian and macroinvertebrate species. We collected visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra of the dominant plant species S. patens (salt meadow grass), Typha spp. (cattail), and P. australis over two growing seasons to develop metrics that maximize phenological spectral and canopy height variability to distinguish these plants within a complex marsh community containing >100 plant species. Relative to other species, P. australis is best distinguished by its high NIR response and height late in the growing season. Typha spp. was well distinguished from other species by its high red/green ratio and S. patens by a unique green/blue ratio and low heights throughout the growing season. The field spectra and LiDar-derived heights were used to guide an object-oriented classification methodology using multitemporal QuickBird data collected over the same time interval as the field spectra. The classification was validated using a field inventory of marsh vegetation. Overall maximum fuzzy accuracy for the classification was 97% for Phragmites, 63% for Typha spp. and 80% for S. patens meadows; this improved to 97%, 76%, and 92%, respectively, using a fuzzy acceptable match measure. Image acquisition timing was critical for the identification of targeted plant species in this heterogeneous marsh. These datasets and protocols may provide coastal resource managers, municipal officials and researchers a set of recommended guidelines for remote sensing data collection for marsh inventory and monitoring.

Gilmore, M. S.; Wilson, E. H.; Barrett, N.; Civco, D. L.; Prisloe, S.; Hurd, J. D.; Chadwick, C.

2008-12-01

255

[Disturbance assessment of urban wetland ecosystem services: a case study in Pingshan watershed of Shenzhen City].  

PubMed

To understand the wetland ecosystem services in urbanizing area is much needed in wetland assessment. Currently, the dominant approach in assessing wetland value is the assessment model using environmental economic analysis. However, this approach can not reflect the impact of human disturbance. This paper introduced the connotation of wetland ecosystem services and the patterns of human disturbance, established an evaluation index system which could characterize the disturbance impact, and determined the weight of each index by using analytic hierarchy process. Moreover, a dual-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was applied to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of human disturbance. Our case study in Pingshan River Basin, a typical urbanizing area of Shenzhen, showed that geographic condition was the primary factor in determining the intensity of human disturbance on wetland ecosystem services. The main disturbance pattern in the south hilly area was vegetation degeneration, but the disturbance intensity was low. Even so, the vegetation protection and management in this area shouldn't be ignored though. The disturbance pattern in north valley area was diverse, and the disturbance intensity was much higher than that south hilly area. From the upper reach to the lower reach of the main stream, the impact of human disturbance increased first and decreased then, being accorded with the characteristics of land use pattern, but the disturbance pattern didn't have a continuous distribution. Our study showed that fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model had good performance in the disturbance assessment of wetland ecosystem services. PMID:20707092

Zhang, Wen-juan; Li, Gui-cai; Zeng, Hui

2010-05-01

256

Establishment of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Everglades Stormwater Treatment Areas: Value of Early Control of Torpedograss ( Panicum repens )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management and manipulation of vegetation community characteristics of constructed stormwater treatment areas (STAs) is an important component of efforts to improve wa- ter quality in Florida's Everglades. Results of this study indi- cate that herbicide treatments of torpedograss ( Panicum repens ) during STA startup will help promote subsequent es- tablishment of desired submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) species. Extensive beds

LOUIS A. TOTH

257

Wetland Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains a number of critical functions performed by wetlands. Students will discover that wetlands moderate impacts from flooding, control erosion, purify water, and provide habitat for fish and wildlife. They also provide a unique natural environment for people to enjoy outdoor recreation activities. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. Although it is about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

258

Detached Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video depicts a detached wetland, a small pool that forms beside a shallow meandering stream when it overflows its banks. These wetlands are important breeding grounds for the invertebrates that live in and beside streams

Ket

2011-01-11

259

The influence of papermill sludge application on the biogeochemistry and vegetation of young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait. ) plantations established in recent clearcut forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined primary and secondary papermill sludge was applied to three young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation (age < 8 years) in western Maine. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of sludge application on forest soil chemical and physical properties, soil solution and streamwater chemistry, and conifer and competitive vegetation growth. Research sites were established in Letter E

Kraske

1992-01-01

260

Establishment of Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent of purple loosestrife, in Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), an exotic root feeding weevil, has been released in the USA and Canada for biological control of purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae), an aggressive emergent aquatic weed of Eurasian origin that has replaced native wetland vegetation. Questions have remained about the establishment and impact of this agent on purple loosestrife in North America. In

T. J McAvoy; L. T Kok; W. T Mays

2002-01-01

261

Ecohydraulics and Estuarine Wetland Rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulics or water flow in wetlands is known to be a key factor influencing ecosystem development in estuarine wetland environments. The relationship is indirect, with the hydraulics of wetlands influencing a host of factors including soil salinity, waterlogging, sediment transport, sediment chemistry, vegetation dispersal and growth and nutrient availability and cycling. The relationship is also not one way, with the hydraulics of wetlands being influenced by plant and animal activity. Understanding these complex interactions is fundamental for the adequate management of estuarine wetlands. Listed as a Wetland of International Importance under the 1971 Ramsar Convention, the Hunter River estuary is regarded as the most significant site for migratory shorebirds in New South Wales, Australia. Over the past 20 years, the number of migratory shorebirds in the estuary has sharply declined from 8,000 to 4,000 approx. Alteration of bird habitat is believed to be one of the reasons for this alarming trend. In 2004 we started a three-year program to investigate the links between hydraulics, sediment, benthic invertebrates, vegetation and migratory shorebird habitat in the estuary. During the first year we have focused on a highly disturbed part of the Hunter estuary wetlands located on Ash Island. The area is one of the major roosting sites in the estuary and is characterized by a complex hydraulic regime due to a restricted tidal interchange with the Hunter River and the presence of infrastructure for the maintenance of power lines (i.e., roads, bridges, culverts). Salt marshes, mudflat and mangroves are the dominant vegetation types. The monitoring program includes measurements of water levels, salinity, discharge, velocity, turbulence, sediment transport and deposition, plant species and density, soil composition and benthic invertebrates coordinated with observations of bird habitat utilization on a number of locations throughout the wetland and for different flow conditions. We present a preliminary analysis of the data aimed at the hydrodynamic and geomorphologic characterization of the different vegetation zones and the resulting habitat properties.

Rodriguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saintilan, N.; Spencer, J.

2004-12-01

262

Climatic and physiographic controls on wetland type and distribution in Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands represent a substantial part of Manitoba’s terrestrial landscape, covering 233,340 km2 or 43% of the province; peatlands represent 90% of all wetlands. A wetland inventory for Manitoba is presented following\\u000a a classification scheme grounded in wetland function, vegetation, and landform. The province is subdivided into twelve wetland\\u000a regions each having distinctive wetland types and abundances. A hybrid Detrended Canonical

Linda Halsey; Dale Vitt; Stephen Zoltai

1997-01-01

263

Influence of wetland type, hydrology, and wetland destruction on aquatic communities within wetland reservoir subirrigation systems in northwestern Ohio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of two different types of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one treatment wetland designed to process agricultural contaminants (...

264

Impact of standing vegetation on early establishment of willow cuttings in the flooded area of the Parana River Delta (Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the growth and survival of a willow clone (Salix matsudana × Salix alba ‘A 13\\/44’) growing under different vegetation management in the flooded area of the Parana River Delta (Argentina) during\\u000a the first 2 years after planting. Treatments consisted in a combination of practices applied in the row and in the inter-row.\\u000a In the row (1-m wide) vegetation was manually cut

Ana M. Garau; Fernando D. Caccia; Ana B. Guarnaschelli

2008-01-01

265

The establishment of heathland vegetation on ex-arable land: the response of Calluna vulgaris to soil acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK Biodiversity Action Plan has identified the creation of lowland heathland as an important objective. Heathland restoration studies have identified soil pH, elevated soil nutrients and large weed seed banks as major problems in the restoration of heathland vegetation on ex-arable land. Heathland vegetation is usually found on nutrient-poor acidic soils. Creating acidic soil conditions on ex-arable sites thus

Clare S. Lawson; Martin A. Ford; Jonathan Mitchley; John M. Warren

2004-01-01

266

COMMUNITY CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH ELEVATION CENTRAL APPALACHIAN WETLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined multiple biotic and abiotic features of 20 wetlands in West Virginia and western Maryland. Wetland characterization data (vegetation, soils, hydrology, and geology) was collected to determine baseline measures for these regional wetlands. Small animals (mammals and herpetofauna) were intensively surveyed to obtain species distribution and abundance information. GIS analyses were implemented to determine the influence of landscape factors

KAREN E. FRANCL

267

Latitudinal gradient of floristic condition among Great Lakes coastal wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal wetland vegetation along the Great Lakes differs strongly with latitude, but most studies of Great Lakes wetland condition have attempted to exclude the effect of latitude to discern anthropogenic effects on condition. We developed an alternative approach that takes advantage of the strong relationship between latitude and coastal wetland floristic condition. Latitude was significantly correlated with 13 of 37

Carol A. Johnston; Joy B. Zedler; Mirela G. Tulbure

2010-01-01

268

Estimating relative wetland values for regional planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numeric method is described for establishing the relative values of wetlands in regional planning. The method combines qualitative\\u000a understanding of how local wetlands function with assessments of their regional values. The method, called the IVA (Indicator\\u000a Value Assessment), is a rapid assessment method based on the assumption that wetlands having specific environmental indicators\\u000a perform a wetland function better than

Thomas Hruby; William E. Cesanek; Keith E. Miller

1995-01-01

269

Hydrologic changes and processes underlying recent wetland loss in Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are some of the most biologically productive yet vulnerable ecosystems on Earth. They provide essential habitat for various biota and act as landscape indicators by reflecting the status of catchment-scale processes. The drying and shrinking of wetlands during the past four decades in Yellowstone National Park's Northern Range has recently incited concern among National Park managers and the public at large. Investigation of wetland hydrologic regime is a critical step in building an understanding of these changing ecosystems. Our research has the following objectives: (1) Classify wetlands according to their particular hydrologic function, including climatic and geomorphic processes supporting them, (2) Determine the patterns and magnitude of water level declines that occurred during the late 20th and early 21st centuries and assess whether these fall within the natural range of variation, (3) More closely examine a focal site that has experienced dramatically reduced water levels to gain a more refined understanding of wetland processes. In 2009 we established a monitoring network of 24 wetlands within the Northern Range. Each wetland was instrumented with 4 to 6 shallow groundwater well and piezometer nests. Well data was manually collected from each site at one to two week intervals in summers 2009 and 2010. Data analyses indicate that the study sites represent locations of ground water discharge, recharge, and flow-through, as well as sites perched above the regional water table. We classified wetlands into 7 groups using a hydrograph shape-magnitude framework previously used in stream systems. Climatic data reveal that hydrologic conditions occurring in the recent past are within the range of historic variation, but that we are in a drier than average period. Aerial photographs and wetland soil delineation both reveal greater wetland extent in the past 50 years, and these conditions are linked to the environmental setting of each wetland. Wetland vegetation is shown to inhabit zones of specific water table fluctuation patterns, and thus can be used to infer subsurface hydrology in the absence of hydrologic data. In continuing analyses we will synthesize these wetland variables into a comprehensive view of wetland prevalence in Yellowstone's Northern Range, and consider this phenomenon in the context of global climate change.

Schook, D. M.; Cooper, D. J.

2011-12-01

270

The influence of hydrology on soil properties and carbonate chemistry in alluvial wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wetlands, hydrology is a key factor in understanding soil formation and properties. Hydrological conditions also have an influence on seasonal and spatial variability of parameters such as soil moisture content, soil moisture pH and calcium content, which are recognized as important factors controlling distribution of wetland vegetation. In order to be able to restore wetlands and wetland biodiversity, an

I. Joris; J. Feyen

2003-01-01

271

Linkages between organic matter mineralization and denitrification in eight riparian wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denitrification (N2 production) and oxygen consumption rates were measured at ambient field nitrate concentrations during summer in sediments from eight wetlands (mixed hardwood swamps, cedar swamps, heath dominated shrub wetland, herbaceous peatland, and a wetland lacking live vegetation) and two streams. The study sites included wetlands in undisturbed watersheds and in watersheds with considerable agricultural and\\/or sewage treatment effluent input.

Sybil P. Seitzinger

1994-01-01

272

Broadscale modelling of coastal wetlands: what is required?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Wetland Change Model has been developed to identify the vulnerability of coastal wetlands at broad spatial (regional to\\u000a global (mean spatial resolution of 85 km)) and temporal scales (modelling period of 100 years). The model provides a dynamic\\u000a and integrated assessment of wetland loss, and a means of estimating the transitions between different vegetated wetland types\\u000a and open water

Loraine McFadden; Tom Spencer; Robert J. Nicholls

2007-01-01

273

Broadscale modelling of coastal wetlands: what is required?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Wetland Change Model has been developed to identify the vulnerability of coastal wetlands at broad spatial (regional to\\u000a global (mean spatial resolution of 85 km)) and temporal scales (modelling period of 100 years). The model provides a dynamic\\u000a and integrated assessment of wetland loss, and a means of estimating the transitions between different vegetated wetland types\\u000a and open water

Loraine McFadden; Tom Spencer; Robert J. Nicholls

274

Vegetation Dynamics during the Establishment Phase of an Energy Forest on a Riverside in South-Western Sweden,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The succession of ground vegetation was studied in a meadow in SW Sweden during four years after planting with Salix viminalis. Two older stands (11 and 18 years) were included as reference points for the next stage of succession. Before energy forest was...

L. Gustafsson

1988-01-01

275

Mapping an inland wetland complex using hyperspectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal is to determine the extent to which heterogeneous inland wetland vegetation communities and their dominant species, as well as adjacent upland vegetation types, can be mapped using 4?m hyperspectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data. Two classification algorithms, the maximum?likelihood classifier (MLC) and the spectral angle mapper (SAM), are applied to CASI data acquired over an inland wetland

M. Y. Jollineau; P. J. Howarth

2008-01-01

276

Wetland change detection in Nile swamps of southern Sudan using multitemporal satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the maximum likelihood supervised classification and the post-classification comparison change detection are applied in order to monitor the wetlands by assessing and quantifying the wetland cover changes in the Nile swamps of southern Sudan, called the Sudd, by using the ERDAS IMAGINE software. Three multispectral satellite imageries, acquired in the wet season from 1986 to 2006 by Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images, are classified into five main land cover classes namely water, vegetation, urban, wetland-vegetation, and wetland-no vegetation, by using the maximum likelihood supervised classification. A pixel-by-pixel comparison was then performed over the classified thematic map images. The post-classification change detection results show a 3.69% decrease in the wetland-vegetation areas and a 2.68% decrease in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1986 to 1999. In addition, a noticeable increase is observed in the wetland-vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006 in the Sudd area as 14.95% of the land cover classes' areas, excluding the wetland-vegetation areas are changed into wetland-vegetation areas while there was a decrease of 5.18% in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006. The objective of this paper is to introduce precedence in studying the wetland cover changes over the Sudd area which can help the output planners develop water resources management projects leading to enhance the life conditions in the Sudd region.

Soliman, Ghada; Soussa, Hoda

2011-01-01

277

Differences in Aquatic Communities Between Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to s...

278

Hyperspectral applications in wetland characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the considerable slowdown of wetlands loss in conterminous U.S., management of these valuable resources continues to be an area of interest for environmental professionals. The development of remote sensing technologies, particularly hyperspectral, offers an alternative for ecological and functional assessment of these sites. Extensive hyperspectral data image collected from the various sensor types can be analyzed by discriminatory techniques for reflectance analysis. Although data processing can become tedious, it enables scientists to target the various inherited characteristics of large wetland areas such as vegetative species and habitats. This information can be applied to determine the health and functionality of the nation"s wetlands for means of wetland characterization, assessment, management and possible restorative efforts to bring a consistent and fundamental change on how these are managed today.

Barona, Moises Y.; Gomez, Richard B.; Roper, William E.

2003-08-01

279

Productivity of wet soils: Biomass of cultivated and natural vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Wet soils, soils which have agronomic limitations because of excess water, comprise 105 million acres of non-federal land in the conterminous United States. Wet soils which support hydrophytic plants are ''wetlands'', and are some of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. When both above- and belowground productivity are considered, cattail (Typha latifolia) is the most productive temperate wetland species (26.4 Mg/ha/year). Both cattail and reed (Phragmites australis) have aboveground productivities of about 13 Mg/ha/year. Although average aboveground yields of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are lower (9.5 Mg/ha/year), techniques for its establishment and cultivation are well-developed. Other herbaceous wetland species which show promise as biomass crops include sedge (Carex spp.), river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis) and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). About 40% of wet soils in the conterminous US are currently cultivated, and they produce one-quarter of the major US crops. Most of this land is artificially drained for crops such as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. US wetlands are drained for agriculture at the rate of 223,000 ha/yr. Paddies flooded with water are used to grow rice, cranberries, and wild rice. Forage and live sphagnum moss are products of undrained wetlands. A number of federal and state regulations apply to the draining or irrigation of wetlands, but most do not seriously restrict their use for agriculture. 320 refs., 36 tabs.

Johnston, C.A.

1988-12-01

280

Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

281

Freshwater Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)|

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

282

Wetland Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines what wetland conservation means to different groups of Louisiana's coastal residents. Describes coastal resources, reasons for their deterioration, conservation efforts, and the impact of a public perception that conservation of wetlands is closely tied to conservation of the existing lifestyle. (LZ)|

Barrett, Marilyn

1994-01-01

283

Exploring Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a wetlands education model for secondary education students. Students monitor a wetland, participate in decision-making, and take actions to protect it. In a series of six steps, the model guides students through the process of defining a problem; envisioning solutions; evaluating appropriate solutions based on environmental, economic…

Kerr, Elizabeth; Harrison, Gordon

1996-01-01

284

Coastal wetlands: Proceedings of First Great Lakes Wetlands Colloquium, November 1984, East Lansing, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book explores the wetlands of the Great Lakes. Topics considered include the effects of water level fluctuations on Great Lakes coastal marshes; environmental influences on the distribution and composition of wetlands in the Great Lakes Basin; vegetation dynamics, buried seeds, and water level fluctuations on the shoreline of the Great Lakes; preliminary observations on the flux of carbon, nitrogen,

H. H. Prince; F. M. DItri

1986-01-01

285

Study of Panjin wetlands along Bohai coast: (I) the information system of wetlands based on 3S technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous studies on Panjin wetlands along the coast of the Bohai Sea, this paper adopts RS, GIS and GPS techniques\\u000a and establishes the information system for Panjin wetlands. The system involves many functions, such as identification and\\u000a classification of wetlands, calculation of the area of wetlands and storage of the information of the wetland management.\\u000a Moreover, our study

Tieliang Wang; Linfei Zhou; Peiqi Yang; Bo Zhao

2008-01-01

286

Wetland plant responses to varying degrees of purple loosestrife removal in southeastern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the response of native vegetation to varying levels of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) removal and determined its impact on subsequent loosestrife germination and establishment in a southern Ontario wetland\\u000a during 1993 and 1994. The study site was treated in 1991 with varying dosages of triclopyr amine herbicide, the triethylamine\\u000a salt formulation of triclopyr [[(3,4,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy] acetic acid]; 4.0,

T. Shane Gabor; Tip Haagsma; Henry R. Murkin

1996-01-01

287

Wetland types and wetland maps differ in ability to predict dissolved organic carbon concentrations in streams.  

PubMed

Three categories of digital wetland maps widely available in the United States were used to develop models relating wetlands to DOC: (1) wetlands mapped by the U.S. National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) (2) wetland vegetation cover mapped by the U.S. National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), and (3) maps of hydric soils. Data extracted from these maps for 27 headwater catchments of the Ontonagon River in northern Michigan, USA were used with DOC concentrations measured in catchment streams to develop stepwise multiple regressions based on wetland area and type. The catchments of the 27 tributaries ranged in area from 2 to 66 km(2) and wetlands constituted 10 to 53% of their area. Although all three databases provided regressions that were highly significant (p<0.001), the variance explained was greater for NWI maps (R(2)=0.75) than for NLCD (R(2)=0.61) or soil maps (R(2)=0.60). Wetland-stream relationships were strongest during September 2002, but were significant for nine out of ten dates sampled during subsequent seasons. The individual wetland type most highly correlated (r>0.62) with stream DOC concentrations was conifer peatland, represented on the NWI maps as Palustrine Needle-leaved Forest, the NLCD maps as woody wetland, and the soil maps as organic soils. For the NWI dataset, DOC was negatively correlated with area of palustrine emergent wetlands (i.e., sedge meadows and graminoid fens) and bog shrubs, inferring that these wetland types may be sinks for DOC. Because of the different effects of wetland vegetation types on DOC, a GIS data source such as the NWI which depicts those wetland types is superior for predicting landscape contributions to stream DOC concentrations. PMID:18054999

Johnston, Carol A; Shmagin, Boris A; Frost, Paul C; Cherrier, Christine; Larson, James H; Lamberti, Gary A; Bridgham, Scott D

2007-12-04

288

WETLANDS INVENTORY, ASSESSMENT, AND MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The duration of the work described in this proposal will be approximately 24 months. There will essentially be two cycles. During the first year the wildlife and vegetation inventories and the wetland assessments will be done for the area of the Warwick and Tokio Aquifers. The...

289

Uptake of /sup 226/Ra by established vegetation and black cutworm larvae, Agrotis ipsilon (class Insecta: order Lepidoptera), on U mill tailings at Elliot Lake, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Radium-226 levels in samples from an inactive U tailings site at Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, were: 9140 +/- 500 mBq g-1 dry weight in the substrate; 62 +/- 1 mBq g-1 dry weight in rye, Secale cereale, and less than 3.7 mBq g-1 dry weight in oats, Avena sativa, the dominant species established by revegetation of the tailings; and 117 +/- 7 mBq g-1 dry weight in washed and unwashed black cutworm larvae. Concentration ratios were: vegetation to tailings 0.001-0.007; black cutworms to vegetation 3.6 and black cutworms to tailings 0.01. The values are considered too low to be considered a hazard to herring gulls, Larus argentatus, which occasionally feed on cutworms.

Clulow, F.V.; Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.; Cloutier, N.R.

1988-07-01

290

Organic carbon oxidation and suppression of methane production by microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction in vegetated and unvegetated freshwater wetland sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations (20-75 pmol cm-3) of amorphous Fe(III) oxide were observed in unvegetated surface and Juncus eflusus rhizosphere sediments of a freshwater wetland in the southeastern United States. Incu- bation experiments demonstrated that microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction suppressed sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in surface scdimcnts and mediated 240% of depth-integrated (O-10 cm) unvegetated sedi- ment carbon metabolism, compared to I

Eric E. Roden; Robert G. Wetzel

1996-01-01

291

Impact of land use on vegetation composition, diversity, and selected soil properties of wetlands in the southern Drakensberg mountains, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands provide the ecosystem services of enhancing water quality, attenuating floods, sequestrating carbon and supporting\\u000a biodiversity. In southern Africa, the pattern and intensity of land use is influenced by whether land tenure is public (state),\\u000a private (individual ownership), or communal (shared agricultural and grazing resources). The influence of land tenure and\\u000a its associated use on service provision was compared for

D. J. J. Walters; D. C. Kotze; T. G. O’Connor

2006-01-01

292

Integration of biosynthesis and long-distance transport establish organ-specific glucosinolate profiles in vegetative Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although it is essential for plant survival to synthesize and transport defense compounds, little is known about the coordination of these processes. Here, we investigate the above- and belowground source-sink relationship of the defense compounds glucosinolates in vegetative Arabidopsis thaliana. In vivo feeding experiments demonstrate that the glucosinolate transporters1 and 2 (GTR1 and GTR2), which are essential for accumulation of glucosinolates in seeds, are likely to also be involved in bidirectional distribution of glucosinolates between the roots and rosettes, indicating phloem and xylem as their transport pathways. Grafting of wild-type, biosynthetic, and transport mutants show that both the rosette and roots are able to synthesize aliphatic and indole glucosinolates. While rosettes constitute the major source and storage site for short-chained aliphatic glucosinolates, long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates are synthesized both in roots and rosettes with roots as the major storage site. Our grafting experiments thus indicate that in vegetative Arabidopsis, GTR1 and GTR2 are involved in bidirectional long-distance transport of aliphatic but not indole glucosinolates. Our data further suggest that the distinct rosette and root glucosinolate profiles in Arabidopsis are shaped by long-distance transport and spatially separated biosynthesis, suggesting that integration of these processes is critical for plant fitness in complex natural environments. PMID:23995084

Andersen, Tonni Grube; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Fuller, Victoria Louise; Olsen, Carl Erik; Burow, Meike; Halkier, Barbara Ann

2013-08-30

293

Measuring Above Ground Biomass and Vegetation Structure in the South Florida Everglades Wetland Ecosystem with X-, C-, and L-band SAR data and Ground-based LiDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide, anthropogenic activities are disturbing and disrupting nutrient rich bio-diverse wetland ecosystems. Disturbance of the South Florida Everglades has been particularly acute, but difficult to quantify given its limited accessibility. Successful ecosystem monitoring requires the use of remote sensing. We used space-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations to estimate vegetation structure and above-ground biomass and track their changes over time. Our study leveraged three different SAR wavelengths that interact with different aspects of the vegetation. The short wavelength X-band (3.2 cm) signal interacts mainly with canopies; the intermediate wavelength C-band (5.6 cm) signal interacts with both canopies and branches; and the long wavelength L-band (24 cm) signal interacts with both the surface and lower portion of the vegetation. We used dual- and quadruple-polarization observations acquired from the TerraSAR-X, RadarSAT-2, and ALOS satellites. Different polarization data reflect radar signal interaction with different sections of the vegetation due to different scattering mechanisms. In order to calibrate the multi-wavelength and multi-polarization SAR observations, we conducted field measurement in three vegetation communities: hammock, pine and cypress. Our ground measurements included both traditional forestry surveys and state-of-the-art Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), a.k.a. ground based LiDAR surveys. A week long TLS survey was conducted in the Everglades National Park in the three calibrations sites using a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS instrument which utilizes a narrow, green (532 nm) laser beam. During this week we collected a total of 29 scans (33 GB of data). The TLS surveys provided centimeter resolution 3-D point clouds of the ground surface and below-canopy vegetation. Initial analysis of the data has provided detailed 3-D estimates of the vegetation structure and above ground biomass. A comparative analysis of the ability of the three bands of SAR to quantify above ground biomass in the different communities is presented. We also determine the essential bands needed to most efficiently estimate biomass. We find that the performance of SAR differs by community types. More rigorous data processing will provide important quantitative measures that will allow careful calibration of the remote sensing SAR data.

Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M.; Chin, S.; Phillips, D. A.

2010-12-01

294

Coastal wetlands: Proceedings of First Great Lakes Wetlands Colloquium, November 1984, East Lansing, Michigan  

SciTech Connect

This book explores the wetlands of the Great Lakes. Topics considered include the effects of water level fluctuations on Great Lakes coastal marshes; environmental influences on the distribution and composition of wetlands in the Great Lakes Basin; vegetation dynamics, buried seeds, and water level fluctuations on the shoreline of the Great Lakes; preliminary observations on the flux of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous in a Great Lakes coastal marsh; nutrient cycling by wetlands and possible effects of water levels; and avian wetland habitat functions affected by water level fluctuations.

Prince, H.H.; D'Itri, F.M.

1986-01-01

295

Late Holocene to present climatic and anthropogenic drivers affecting wetland plant communities, Florida Everglades, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesize the paleoecological results of dozens of sediment cores to evaluate the complex interactions of regional climate variability and anthropogenic modifications during the late Holocene affecting the development, stability, and resilience of the Florida Everglades wetlands. The Everglades is a mosaic of wetland types whose distributions are controlled by water depth, hydroperiod, fire, and substrate. External stressors could trigger shifts in the vegetation composition and change the community structure. Episodic severe periods of aridity during the late Holocene caused regional shifts in vegetation including the initiation and development of tree islands and sawgrass ridges, which became established during abrupt drought events. While the timing varies site to site, most droughts occurred during well-documented global climate events like the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. However, slough vegetation is more resilient to climate variability and quickly returns to its original composition after droughts. Twentieth century modification to the natural Everglades hydrology saw the distribution wetlands severely altered. The response was not homogeneous. Some communities were drowned by prolonged hydroperiods whereas other communities, such as marl prairies became drier. However, slough vegetation in the ridge and slough landscape did not respond to 20th century land use but instead has been sensitive to changes in precipitation associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

Bernhardt, C. E.; Willard, D. A.

2011-12-01

296

Wetland Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive site allows students to learn about wetlands while conducting several activities on the computer. These include two games: Croaker concentration, in which the sounds of frogs are matched, and Secrets of the marsh, which allows students to construct a marsh food chain. Another activity allows students to watch what happens to the wetland as the seasons change. The topics of a section named 'What's happening with our wetlands?' include: Learn about wetland threats, Take a walk on the wild side, and Dip into our marsh's past. One feature invites students to meet some local marsh inhabitants, such as a beaver, red fox, great blue heron, wood duck, carp (Goldfish or Koi), green darner dragonfly, and cattails.

297

What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)|

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

298

Beta-catenin is required for the establishment of vegetal embryonic fates in the nemertean, Cerebratulus lacteus.  

PubMed

Downstream components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway that result in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin are involved in diverse developmental processes including the formation of the mesendoderm, the regulation of axial properties and asymmetric cell divisions in a wide array of metazoans. The nemertean worm, Cerebratulus lacteus, represents a member of the understudied lophotrochozoan clade that exhibits a highly stereotyped spiral cleavage program in which ectodermal, endodermal, and mesodermal origins are known from intracellular fate mapping studies. Here, the embryonic distribution of beta-catenin protein was studied using injection of synthetic mRNA, encoding GFP-tagged beta-catenin, into fertilized eggs. During the early cleavage stages beta-catenin was destabilized/degraded in animal hemisphere blastomeres and became localized to the nuclei of the four vegetal-most cells at the 64-cell stage, which give rise to definitive larval and adult endoderm. Functional assays indicate that beta-catenin plays a key role in the development of the endoderm. Morpholino knockdown of endogenous beta-catenin, as confirmed by Western analysis, resulted in the failure to gastrulate, absence of the gut and an animalized phenotype in the resulting larvae, including the formation of ectopic (anterior) apical organ tissue with elongated apical tuft cilia and no indications of dorsoventral polarity. Similarly, over-expression of the cytoplasmic domain of cadherin or a beta-catenin-engrailed repressor fusion construct prevented endoderm formation and generated the same animalized phenotype. Injections of mRNA encoding either a stabilized, constitutively activated form of beta-catenin or a dominant negative form of GSK3-beta converted all or nearly all cells into endodermal fates expressing gut-specific esterase. Thus, beta-catenin appears to be both necessary and sufficient to promote endoderm formation in C. lacteus, consistent with its role in endoderm and endomesoderm formation in anthozoan cnidarians, ascidians, and echinoderms. Consistent with the results of other studies, beta-catenin may be viewed as playing a role in the development of posterior/vegetal larval fates (i.e., endoderm) in C. lacteus. However, unlike the case found in polychaete annelid and soil nematode embryos, there is no evidence for a role of beta-catenin in regulating cell fates and asymmetric cell divisions along the entire anterior-posterior axis. PMID:18387602

Henry, Jonathan Q; Perry, Kimberly J; Wever, Jason; Seaver, Elaine; Martindale, Mark Q

2008-03-05

299

Nebraska Wetlands Priority Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Table of Contents: Introduction Methods Results .S ite 1: Rainwater Basin Wetland Complex Results - Site 2: Platte River Wetland Complex .B ig Bend Reach Results - Site 3: Nebraska Sandhills Wetland Complex Results - Site 4: Eastern Nebraska Saline Wetland Results - Site 5: Missoun. Ri.v er Wetland Complex Results - Site 6: Lower North Platte River Wetland Complex

Richard Gersib

1991-01-01

300

Strength in Numbers: Describing the Flooded Area of Isolated Wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of isolated, freshwater wetlands are scattered across the karst1 landscape of central Florida. Most are small (less than 15 acres), shallow, marsh and cypress wetlands that flood and dry seasonally. Wetland health is threatened when wetland flooding patterns are altered either by human activities, such as land-use change and ground-water pumping, or by changes in climate. Yet the small sizes and vast numbers of isolated wetlands in Florida challenge our efforts to characterize them collectively as a statewide water resource. In the northern Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida alone, water levels are measured monthly in more than 400 wetlands by the Southwest Florida Water Management Distirct (SWFWMD). Many wetlands have over a decade of measurements. The usefulness of long-term monitoring of wetland water levels would greatly increase if it described not just the depth of water at a point in the wetland, but also the amount of the total wetland area that was flooded. Water levels can be used to estimate the flooded area of a wetland if the elevation contours of the wetland bottom are determined by bathymetric mapping. Despite the recognized importance of the flooded area to wetland vegetation, bathymetric maps are not available to describe the flooded areas of even a representative number of Florida's isolated wetlands. Information on the bathymetry of isolated wetlands is rare because it is labor intensive to collect the land-surface elevation data needed to create the maps. Five marshes and five cypress wetlands were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during 2000 to 2004 as part of a large interdisciplinary study of isolated wetlands in central Florida. The wetlands are located either in municipal well fields or on publicly owned lands (fig. 1). The 10 wetlands share similar geology and climate, but differ in their ground-water settings. All have historical water-level data and multiple vegetation surveys. A comprehensive report by Haag and others (2005) documents bathymetric mapping approaches, the frequency of flooding in different areas of the wetlands, and the relation between flooding and vegetation in these wetlands. This fact sheet describes bathymetric mapping approaches and partial results from two natural marshes (Hillsborough River State Park Marsh, and Green Swamp Marsh) and one impaired marsh (W-29 Marsh) that is located on a municipal well field and is affected by ground-water withdrawals. (fig. 1).

Lee, Terrie M.; Haag, Kim H.

2006-01-01

301

Differences in Fish, Amphibian, and Reptile Communities Within Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System in Northwestern Ohio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Establishment of a water recycling system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to store subirriga...

302

West Virginia wetland research program — An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources have initiated a multidisciplinary\\u000a wetland research program. Fields of investigation include vegetation, geology, hydrology, biogeochemistry, floristics and\\u000a fauna. The program arose because very little is known about wetlands in the central Appalachian region which, in turn, frustrated\\u000a personnel responsible for the section 404 permit review procedure.

Brian R. McDonald

1981-01-01

303

Biomanipulation: A Useful Tool for Wetland Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food web manipulation, or biomanipulation, is a frequently applied lake management tool, aiming to restore water quality and\\u000a vegetation characteristics through interventions in the fish communities. Despite the strong management appeal of biomanipulations,\\u000a this tool found so far little application in wetlands. This chapter highlights pros and cons of biomanipulations in wetlands,\\u000a and suggests that an extension of the current

D. G. Angeler

304

Wetlands protection in the New Jersey Pinelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland vegetation types of the New Jersey Pinelands include cedar and hardwood swamps, pitch pine lowlands, inland and coastal\\u000a marshes, and bogs. These wetlands comprise 30–35% of the 470,000 ha Pinelands region. In response to both federal and state\\u000a legislative mandates, a Comprehensive Management Plan was developed by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission to preserve and\\u000a protect the unique and

Robert A. Zampella; Charles T. Roman

1983-01-01

305

Wetlands protection. Bibliographic series  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography serves as a tool for understanding wetlands and the regulations, policies and activities that form the current framework for protection or degradation and loss. It is organized according to the following topics: Wetland types; Wetland characterization; Wetland values or functions; Trends in wetlands; Wetland mitigation; Wetland regulations and policies. Citations included in the bibliography were selected from articles and papers published between 1974 and 1987.

Not Available

1988-11-01

306

Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

2004-12-01

307

Chemical weathering of silicate rocks in Karelia region and Kola peninsula, NW Russia: Assessing the effect of rock composition, wetlands and vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed at assessing the effect of factors including lithology, forest\\/peatland coverage, dissolved organic carbon, and vegetation on chemical fluxes and concentrations of major elements in rivers. The mean annual element concentrations and dissolved fluxes of acid and basic rock dominated watersheds of the Karelia region and Kola peninsula, NW Russia, have been estimated from the chemical composition

E. A. Zakharova; O. S. Pokrovsky; B. Dupré; J. Gaillardet; L. E. Efimova

2007-01-01

308

Fate of viruses in artificial wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Little is known about the ability of wetlands to remove disease-causing viruses from municipal wastewater. In this study the authors examined the survival of several indicators of viral pollution applied in primary municipal wastewater to artificial wetland ecosystems. Only about 1% of the indigenous F-specific RNA bacteriophages survived flow through the vegetated wetland beds at a 5-cm-day/sup -1/ hydraulic application rate during the period from June through December 1985. The total number of indigenous F-specific bacteriophages was also reduced by about 99% by wetland treatment, with the mean inflow concentration over the period of an entire year reduced from 3129 to 33 PFU ml/sup -1/ in the outflow of an vegetated bed and to 174 PFU ml/sup -1/ in the outflow of an unvegetated bed. Such superior treatment by the vegetated bed demonstrates the significant role of higher aquatic plants in the removal process. Seeded MS2 bacteriophage and seeded poliovirus were removed more efficiently than were the indigenous bacteriophages, with less than 0.2% and MS2 and 0.1% of the poliovirus surviving flow at the same hydraulic application rate. The decay rate (k) of MS2 in a stagnant wetlands was lower than that for flowing systems, reflecting the enhanced capacity for filtration or adsorption of viruses by the root-substrate complex. Artificial wetlands may offer an attractive alternative to conventional land treatment systems for reducing the load disease-causing viruses to the aquatic environment.

Gersberg, R.M.; Lyon, S.R.; Brenner, R.; Elkins, B.V.

1987-04-01

309

Primary Study on Compensation Mechanism for Wetland Loss in Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land demand is one of the key elements of Shanghai development, and wetland or tidal flat exploitation is the main way to land increase in Shanghai. Here comes an issue of the double-win between wetland exploitation and protection. A compensation mechanism for wetland loss is established in this paper, and a fuzzy decision-making chain is put forward with the example

Lei Zhiyi; Wu Ying

2010-01-01

310

Mapping Coastal Wetlands Using EM and Airborne Lidar: a Texas Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined EM induction and airborne lidar measurements with vegetation surveys along two transects across Mustang Island, a Texas barrier island, to examine whether EM and lidar can be used to map coastal wetlands and associated geomorphic environments. Lidar-derived elevations correlate well with National Wetland Inventory (NWI) upland, palustrine, estuarine, and marine units. Lidar can be used to map wetland

J. G. Paine; W. A. White; R. C. Smyth; J. R. Andrews; J. C. Gibeaut

2005-01-01

311

A unifying approach for evaluating the condition of wetland plant communities and identifying related stressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of vegetation is an important part of evaluating wetland condition, but it is complicated by the variety of plant communities that are naturally present in freshwater wetlands. We present an approach to evaluate wetland condition consisting of: (1) a stratified random sample representing the entire range of anthropogenic stress, (2) field data representing a range of water depths within

Carol A. Johnston; Joy B. Zedler; Mirela G. Tulbure; Christin B. Frieswyk; Barbara L. Bedford; Lynn Vaccaro

2009-01-01

312

Methane emission from natural wetlands: Global distribution, area, and environmental characteristics of sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global data base of wetlands at 1 degree resolution was developed from the integration of three independent global, digital sources: (1) vegetation, (2) soil properties and (3) fractional inundation in each 1 degree cell. The integration yielded a global distribution of wetland sites identified with in situ ecological and environmental characteristics. The wetland sites were classified into five major

Elaine Matthews; Inez Fung

1987-01-01

313

Rapid Invasion of a Great Lakes Coastal Wetland by Non-native Phragmites australis and Typha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great Lakes coastal wetlands are subject to water level fluctuations that promote the maintenance of coastal wetlands. Point au Sauble, a Green Bay coastal wetland, was an open water lagoon as of 1999, but became entirely vegetated as Lake Michigan experienced a prolonged period of below-average water levels. Repeat visits in 2001 and 2004 documented a dramatic change in emergent

Mirela G. Tulbure; Carol A. Johnston; Donald L. Auger

2007-01-01

314

INFLUENCE OF MACROPHYTES ON WATER LEVEL AND FLOOD DYNAMICS IN A RIVERINE WETLAND IN NORTHERN GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrology of riverine wetlands is naturally controlled by groundwater, precipitation and river water exchange and is altered by wetland drainage, river straightening and deepening and regular management of riverine macrophyte vegetation. In this study, the effect of macrophyte growth and management on water level and flood dynamics is quantified for a lowland riverine wetland in Northern Germany in order

Michael Trepel; Bettina Holsten; Jan Kieckbusch; Insa Otten; Frank Pieper

2003-01-01

315

The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Monitoring the Delivery of Wetland Ecosystem Services across the Landscape  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CEAP-Wetlands (NRCS) and the Choptank Benchmark Watershed CEAP (ARS) have established a partnership to assess and ultimately enhance the effect of conservation practices on ecosystem services provided by wetlands in the Choptank Watershed. The provision of these wetland services (e.g., pollutant red...

316

Functional profile of black spruce wetlands in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The profile describes the ecologic context and wetland functions of black spruce (Picea mariana) wetlands (BSWs) covering about 14 million ha of Alaska taiga. Ecologic descriptions include climate, permafrost, landforms, post-Pleistocene vegetation, fire, successional processes, black spruce community types and adaptations, and characteristics of BSWs. The profile describes human activities potentially affecting BSWs and identifies research literature and data gaps

Post

1996-01-01

317

Strategies for effective mosquito control in constructed treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands hold considerable promise for providing water quality and wildlife habitat benefits. At the same time, constructed wetlands have been described as “mosquito-friendly habitats” and may raise potential conflicts with neighboring human populations. Conflicts arise because some design features, such as shallow water and emergent vegetation that are essential for optimizing water quality polishing, can result in undesirable increases

Robert L. Knight; William E. Walton; George F O’Meara; William K. Reisen; Roland Wass

2003-01-01

318

Subsidence in coastal Louisiana: causes, rates, and effects on wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal wetlands are being lost at a rapid and accelerating rate in Louisiana. Much of this loss is attributable to a relative lowering of the wetland surface below the level adequate to support vegetation. Such rapid subsidence is a natural phenomenon, related to the progradation and abandonment of distributary lobes of the Mississippi river Deltaic Plain. For a considerable period

D. F. Boesch; D. Levin; D. Nummedal; K. Bowles

1983-01-01

319

Stochastic description of water table fluctuations in wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands are crucial ecosystems which provide several functions, beneficial both to human beings and to the environment. Despite such importance, quantitative approaches to many aspects of wetlands are far from being adequate, above all the interaction between rainfall, vegetation, soil moisture and groundwater depth. Starting from a previously developed model for below-ground stochastic water level fluctuations, we extend it to

Stefania Tamea; Rachata Muneepeerakul; Francesco Laio; Luca Ridolfi; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe

2010-01-01

320

Denitrification Potentials in Restored and Natural Bottomland Hardwood Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

functioning in a restored wetland when compared with its natural counterpart. We used the denitrification en- Wetland restoration projects are frequently evaluated by their hy- zyme activity (DEA) assay, a measure of the potential of drologic roles and vegetation characteristics, but their success in re- a microbial population to produce the nitrate reductase storing biogeochemical processes, such as denitrification, is

Rachael G. Hunter; Stephen P. Faulkner

2001-01-01

321

Quality assurance project plan: 1991 EMAP wetlands southeastern pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Wetlands (EMAP-Wetlands) Southeastern Pilot Study is to develop field indicators of salt marsh condition. These indicators are of four general types: (1) vegetation; (2) hydrology; (3) soil parameters; and (4) soil constituents. Field measurements and samples will be collected during late summer\\/early fall in 1991 and will be analyzed to

E. M. Swenson; J. M. Lee; R. E. Turner

1992-01-01

322

Responses of wetland plants to ammonia and water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetland systems receiving animal wastewater may enhance water quality when designed, operated, and maintained properly. In the case of wetlands designed to treat animal waste, system effectiveness may be limited by high ammonia concentrations and inundation, conditions that can adversely affect macrophytic vegetation. We conducted a 4-month greenhouse experiment to assess the impact of ammonia concentration and water level

Ernest Clarke; Andrew H. Baldwin

2002-01-01

323

Saltwater Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information about saltwater wetlands. Contains seven learning activities which deal with "making" a mud snail, plants and animals of mangroves, and the effects of tides on salt marshes. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)|

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

324

Wetland Delineation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning how to delineate a wetland using official criteria can be an enlightening experience for students and teachers. The objective of this investigation is for students to delineate the boundaries of an area in a watershed and categorize it as a wetla

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

325

Differences in Aquatic Communities Within Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems in Northwestern Ohio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Specifically, each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and on...

326

WETLAND DETECTION METHODS INVESTIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this investigation was to research and document the application of remote sensing technology for wetlands detection. arious sensors and platforms are evaluated for: suitability to monitor specific wetland systems; effectiveness of detailing wetland extent and capab...

327

Our Valuable Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines wetlands and lists several types of wetland habitat. Describes explorations that can be done with secondary school students including the baby boom, a food pyramid, and microenvironments. Includes a classroom poster with text on the variety of wetlands. (CW)|

Texley, Juliana

1988-01-01

328

Development issues in extending plant-based IBIs to forested wetlands in the Midwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most plant-based indices of biotic integrity (IBIs) developed for wetlands have focused on emergent wetlands. A Vegetation\\u000a Index of Biotic Integrity (VIBI-Forest) was developed for forested wetlands in the four large ecoregions of the Ohio. Assessing\\u000a the effect of human disturbance on the ecological condition of wetland forests is complicated by several factors. First, forest\\u000a canopies can remain largely intact

John J. Mack

2009-01-01

329

Growth rates of American alligators in estuarine and palustrine wetlands in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) growth rates was made in estuarine and palustrine wetlands in southwestern Louisiana. In the estuarine wetlands, where characteristic\\u000a salinity levels were ?5%, alligators grew faster and therefore reached sexual maturity earlier than did those in palustrine\\u000a wetlands, which are characterized by shallow, freshwater marsh vegetation. Slower growth rates in palustrine wetlands appeared

Williams L. Rootes; Robert H. Chabreck; Vernon L. Wright; Bobby W. Brown; Thomas J. Hess

1991-01-01

330

Community Structure and Quality After 10 Years in Two Central Ohio Mitigation Bank Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components,\\u000a by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with\\u000a reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with\\u000a an index of floristic quality and we evaluate

Douglas J. Spieles; Meagan Coneybeer; Jonathan Horn

2006-01-01

331

Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on simultaneous measurements of CO2 and CH4 exchange in wetlands extending from subarctic peatlands to subtropical marshes, a positive correlation between CH4 emission and net ecosystem production is reported. It is suggested that net ecosystem production is a master variable integrating many factors which control CH4 emission in vegetated wetlands. It is found that about 3 percent of the daily net ecosystem production is emitted back to the atmosphere as CH4. With projected stimulation of primary production and soil microbial activity in wetlands associated with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, the potential for increasing CH4 emission from inundated wetlands, further enhancing the greenhouse effect, is examined.

Whiting, G. J.; Chanton, J. P.

1993-08-01

332

Quality-assurance project plan: Tampa, Florida wetlands study  

SciTech Connect

The project will compare characteristics of naturally occurring wetlands with wetlands created or restored as mitigation required under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. It will also evaluate the utility of the Wetland Characterization Method developed by Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL-C). The study includes field work and the associated data analysis. Data on vegetation, soils, and hydrology will be collected at each site. The study sites will be photographed and mapped, relative elevation measured, and general site descriptions compiled. Project results will be summarized for use by 404 personnel in making decisions concerning the use of creation and restoration as mitigation for proposed wetland destruction.

Sherman, A.D.; Gwin, S.E.; Kentula, M.E.; Brown, M.

1991-12-01

333

Hydroperiod and plant diversity in the wet meadow zone of glaciated prairie wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Stewart and Kantrud`s (1971) widely used wetland classification system does not recognize the large differences in hydroperiod and species diversity that often occur in the same vegetation zone in wetlands of different water permanence class (temporary, seasonal, semi-permanent). Research in eastern South Dakota wetlands in 1994 indicated that annual range in surface water/groundwater elevation within a zone varied inversely with permanence. For example, within the wet meadow zone, average annual water elevation range was 124 cm in temporary wetlands, 65 cm in seasonal wetlands, and 15 cm in semi-permanent wetlands. The number of dominant plants in this zone was strongly and positively correlated to the amount of annual fluctuation in water elevation, from an average of 5 species in the relatively stable, semi-permanent wetlands to 14 species in the ephemeral, temporary wetlands. These results have application to research in wetland restoration and climate change.

Boettcher, S.E.; Johnson, W.C. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)

1995-06-01

334

Artificial Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Golf courses are known as places of recreation. But some of them could someday double as water treatment facilities. Water hazards on golf courses can be used to control environmental hazards. That's according to Purdue University soil microbiologist Ron Turco. He says the artificial wetlands can also control flooding in surrounding communities, by collecting excess water. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-11

335

Eco-hydrological feedback mechanisms control ecological services in wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland ecosystems contain various feedback mechanisms between their abiotc and biotic components. The feedbacks are triggered by climate and propagate into patterns of environment partitioning based on distinct zones of hydrological function that vary in time and space. This partitioning co-evolves with vegetation, defines carbon metabolism and creates niches that govern patterns of flora and fauna abundance and distribution. Using a minimalistic model for wetland eco-hydrology, we explore vegetation adaptation to climate variability and the net metabolism of a wetland ecosystem given a range of climate conditions. We then apply the model to characterize the changes in niche habitat availability for a tortoise population endangered by a drying climate.

Coletti, J.; Hinz, C.; Vogwill, R.; Tareque, H.; Hipsey, M. R.

2011-12-01

336

Highway and Wetlands: Compensating Wetland Losses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implementation package is a practical guide for the creation and restoration of wetlands. It provides concepts, methods and general specifications for compensating unavoidable wetland losses in a cost effective manner. The manual includes guidance for...

E. W. Garbisch

1986-01-01

337

Effect of earthworm Eisenia fetida and wetland plants on nitrification and denitrification potentials in vertical flow constructed wetland.  

PubMed

The response of nitrification potentials, denitrification potentials, and N removal efficiency to the introduction of earthworms and wetland plants in a vertical flow constructed wetland system was investigated. Addition of earthworms increased nitrification and denitrification potentials of substrate in non-vegetated constructed wetland by 236% and 8%, respectively; it increased nitrification and denitrification potentials in rhizosphere in vegetated constructed wetland (Phragmites austrail, Typha augustifolia and Canna indica), 105% and 5%, 187% and 12%, and 268% and 15% respectively. Denitrification potentials in rhizosphere of three wetland plants were not significantly different, but nitrification potentials in rhizosphere followed the order of C. indica>T. augustifolia>P. australis when addition of earthworms into constructed wetland. Addition of earthworms to the vegetated constructed significantly increased the total number of bacteria and fungi of substrates (P<0.05). The total number of bacteria was significantly correlated with nitrification potentials (r=913, P<0.01) and denitrification potentials (r=840, P<0.01), respectively. The N concentration of stems and leaves of C. indica were significantly higher in the constructed wetland with earthworms (P<0.05). Earthworms had greater impact on nitrification potentials than denitrification potentials. The removal efficiency of N was improved via stimulated nitrification potentials by earthworms and higher N uptake by wetland plants. PMID:23591133

Xu, Defu; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong

2013-04-13

338

Fish and Wildlife Resources of the Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands within the United States. Volume 2: Lake Ontario, Parts 1-3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wetlands of Lake Ontario are predominantly palustrine and are frequently wooded. The growing season for wetland vegetation is about five months. Fringe roadways are the most common feature likely to have an impact on the physical and biological status...

C. E. Herdendorf S. M. Hartley M. D. Barnes

1981-01-01

339

Wetlands of Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetlands of seven Central American countries – Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panamá – are reviewed. The region's wetlands are classified into five systems: marine, estuarine, riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine. At a minimum, wetlands cover ˜40,000 km2 (˜8%) of the land area of Central America. These wetlands support high levels of biological diversity, especially of

Aaron M. Ellison

2004-01-01

340

Tidal Freshwater Wetland Herbivory in Anacostia Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Herbivory has played a major role in dictating vegetation abundance and species composition at Kingman Marsh in Anacostia Park, Washington, D.C., since restoration of this tidal freshwater wetland was initiated in 2000. In June 2009 an herbivory study was...

C. C. Krafft J. S. Hatfield R. S. Hammerschlag

2010-01-01

341

Wetland ecotones as refugia for endangered fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands may serve as refugia for indigenous fishes from introduced predatory fishes because of their structural complexity, which may reduce hunting efficiency, or if the low oxygen conditions that prevail in many swamps limit exploitation by the predator. The vegetated ecotone between lake shores and open water may be extremely important, relative to the dense interior of swamps, because of

Mark Chandler; Ca Chapman

1996-01-01

342

Desert vegetation and vegetation-environment relationships in Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the desert vegetation of Kirthar National Park, Pakistan, recorded 466 plant species in 372 sample quadrats. Classification (Twinspan) and ordination (NMDS) of dry season vegetation data (using 368 species) identified nine ‘natural’ and one ‘cultural’ vegetation assemblages: (1) Wetlands, (2) Riparian woodlands, (3) Sandy riparian woodlands, (4) Plains woodlands, (5) Stony shrublands, (6) Stony foothills woodlands, (7)

N. J. Enright; B. P. Miller; R. Akhter

2005-01-01

343

Exploring Microbial Iron Oxidation in Wetland Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and is essential for life. Because of its importance, iron cycling and its interaction with other chemical and microbial processes has been the focus of many studies. Iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) have been detected in a wide variety of environments. Among those is the rhizosphere of wetland plants roots which release oxygen into the soil creating suboxic conditions required by these organisms. It has been reported that in these rhizosphere microbial iron oxidation proceeds up to four orders of magnitude faster than strictly abiotic oxidation. On the roots of these wetland plants iron plaques are formed by microbial iron oxidation which are involved in the sequestering of heavy metals as well organic pollutants, which of great environmental significance.Despite their important role being catalysts of iron-cycling in wetland environments, little is known about the diversity and distribution of iron-oxidizing bacteria in various environments. This study aimed at developing a PCR-DGGE assay enabling the detection of iron oxidizers in wetland habitats. Gradient tubes were used to enrich iron-oxidizing bacteria. From these enrichments, a clone library was established based on the almost complete 16s rRNA gene using the universal bacterial primers 27f and 1492r. This clone library consisted of mainly ?- and β-Proteobacteria, among which two major clusters were closely related to Gallionella spp. Specific probes and primers were developed on the basis of this 16S rRNA gene clone library. The newly designed Gallionella-specific 16S rRNA gene primer set 122f/998r was applied to community DNA obtained from three contrasting wetland environments, and the PCR products were used in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. A second 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed using the PCR products from one of our sampling sites amplified with the newly developed primer set 122f/998r. The cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences all represented novel culturable iron oxidizers most closely related to Gallionella spp. Based on their nucleotide sequences four groups could be identified, which were comparable to the DGGE banding pattern obtained before with the gradient tubes enrichments. The above mentioned nested PCR-DGGE method was used to study the distribution and community composition of Gallionella-like iron-oxidizing bacteria under the influence of plants species, soil depth, as well as season. Soil samples from Appels, Belgium, an intertidal, freshwater marsh known to hold intensive iron cycling, were taken from 5 different vegetation types in April, July and October 2007. Soil cores were sliced at 1-cm intervals and subjected to chemical and molecular analyses. The DGGE patterns showed that the community of iron-oxidizing bacteria differed with vegetation type, and sediment depth. Samples taken in autumn held lower diversity in Gallionella-related iron oxidizers than those sampled in spring and summer.

Wang, J.; Muyzer, G.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; den Oudsten, F.; Laanbroek, H. J.

2009-04-01

344

Study of Panjin wetlands along Bohai coast: (I) the information system of wetlands based on 3S technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on previous studies on Panjin wetlands along the coast of the Bohai Sea, this paper adopts RS, GIS and GPS techniques and establishes the information system for Panjin wetlands. The system involves many functions, such as identification and classification of wetlands, calculation of the area of wetlands and storage of the information of the wetland management. Moreover, our study indicates that remote sensing technique is a useful tool for great macrography, speediness and accuracy to carry out the extraction, analysis, management and handling of information together with geography information system, which has prospective applications in similar kinds of research.

Wang, Tieliang; Zhou, Linfei; Yang, Peiqi; Zhao, Bo

2008-11-01

345

Understanding wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students collect soil cores (~12 inches) from one or more wetlands, describe the color and other physical features they can observe. Section each core according to grain size or color, weigh each section, dry in oven for 24 hours (can use microwave if the soil is fairly sandy). Use sieve machine to sieve each section and weigh each size fraction (sand...coarse, medium, fine, very fine, silt/clay). The activity gives students practice in making good observation, measuring, interpreting and analyzing data, and to propose a probable source region for the soil materials. Have students plo Has minimal/no quantitative component

Isiorho, Solomon

346

Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-01

347

Improved wetland remote sensing in Yellowstone National Park using classification trees to combine TM imagery and ancillary environmental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the term palustrine wetland to describe vegetated wetlands traditionally identified as marsh, bog, fen, swamp, or wet meadow. Landsat TM imagery was combined with image texture and ancillary environmental data to model probabilities of palustrine wetland occurrence in Yellowstone National Park using classification trees. Model training and test locations were identified from National

Chris Wright; Alisa Gallant

2007-01-01

348

Does Facilitation of Faunal Recruitment Benefit Ecosystem Restoration? An Experimental Study of Invertebrate Assemblages in Wetland Mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used wetland mesocosms (1) to experimentally as- sess whether inoculating a restored wetland site with vegetation\\/sediment plugs from a natural wetland would alter the development of invertebrate commu- nities relative to unaided controls and (2) to determine if stocking of a poor invertebrate colonizer could fur- ther modify community development beyond that due to simple inoculation. After filling mesocosms

Valerie J. Brady; Bradley J. Cardinale; Joseph P. Gathman; Thomas M. Burton

2002-01-01

349

FORT BELKNAP WETLANDS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The product activities include: 1) Conducting wetland inventories and wetland assessments in the Milk River Watershed. This will include wetland delineations, and the collection of vascular plants and plant identification. Currently there is no baseline data of wetland activite...

350

Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

351

68 FR 13522 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Proposed Regulations To Establish Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pipefish, and scup). The amount of wetlands acreage needed to restore impingement...needed for the many other species found in wetlands, it appears from the available data...Provided by Submerged Aquatic Vegetation and Wetlands for the North Atlantic Region For...

2003-03-19

352

Protect Your Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains how to create a wetlands awareness program and how to protect wetlands through the regulatory process. In addition, it explains the federal programs designed to protect wetlands and how to procure state and local protection for wetlands. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. For educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

353

Riparian Vegetation Response to the March 2008 Short-Duration, High-Flow Experiment-Implications of Timing and Frequency of Flood Disturbance on Nonnative Plant Establishment Along the Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Riparian plant communities exhibit various levels of diversity and richness. These communities are affected by flooding and are vulnerable to colonization by nonnative species. Since 1996, a series of three high-flow experiments (HFE), or water releases designed to mimic natural seasonal flooding, have been conducted at Glen Canyon Dam, Ariz., primarily to determine the effectiveness of using high flows to conserve sediment, a limited resource. These experiments also provide opportunities to examine the susceptibility of riparian plant communities to nonnative species invasions. The third and most recent HFE was conducted from March 5 to 9, 2008, and scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center examined the effects of high flows on riparian vegetation as part of the overall experiment. Total plant species richness, nonnative species richness, percent plant cover, percent organic matter, and total carbon measured from sediment samples were compared for Grand Canyon riparian vegetation zones immediately following the HFE and 6 months later. These comparisons were used to determine if susceptibility to nonnative species establishment varied among riparian vegetation zones and if the timing of the HFE affected nonnative plant establishment success. The 2008 HFE primarily buried vegetation rather than scouring it. Percent nonnative cover did not differ among riparian vegetation zones; however, in the river corridor affected by Glen Canyon Dam operations, nonnative species richness showed significant variation. For example, species richness was significantly greater immediately after and 6 months following the HFE in the hydrologic zone farthest away from the shoreline, the area that represents the oldest riparian zone within the post-dam riparian area. In areas closer to the river channel, tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima X chinensis) seedling establishment occurred (<2 percent cover) in 2008 but not to the extent reported in either 2000, a year when experimental summer flows coincided with tamarisk seed production, or in 1986, a year following several years of sustained flooding. The results from the 2008 HFE suggest that riparian vegetation zones subject to intermittent disturbance and near the river under normal dam operations are more susceptible to nonnative species introductions following a disturbance. This study also finds that the timing of an HFE affects the types of species that can become established. For example, HFEs conducted in March are associated with reduced tamarisk seedling establishment compared to disturbances later in the season. Additionally, early season, short-duration flooding that results in vegetation burial may favor clonal species. Along the Colorado River many of these clonal species are native; these species include arrowweed (Pluchea sericea), coyote willow (Salix exigua), and rivercane (Phragmites australis).

Ralston, Barbara E.

2010-01-01

354

How the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1993 has impacted the constitutional dynamics of federal wetlands delineation and regulation  

SciTech Connect

A reliable source of specific criteria for recognizing a wetland, as defined for regulatory purposes would be valuable. In 1987 the Army Corps of Engineers developed a technical manual for identifying wetlands (1987 Wetlands Manual). An interagency manual (1989 Wetlands Manual) was later developed. This manual has been used to identify wetlands according to three evidentiary factors: vegetation, hydrology, and soil. This paper addresses the development of criteria to delineate wetlands, and describes some of the logic used by federal courts to uphold the limited constitutional use of the 1989 Wetlands Manual.

Johnson, J.J.S.; Logan, W.L.

1995-12-31

355

Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of wetland

Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

356

Satellite-based Wetland Mapping in High Latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flat terrain with poor drainage in high-latitude regions yields excessive wetlands characterized by saturated soil and riparian vegetation. These wetlands have long been recognized for their importance in the global carbon and hydrological cycles and continue to receive substantial attention. As a part of our NASA THP (Terrestrial Hydrology Program) project to assess recent terrestrial water storage change in Arctic lakes and wetlands, this paper addresses wetland mapping using remote sensing. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) have been widely used in wetland mapping to quantify vegetation and underlying surface water. However, the performance of such indices is limited by the "mixed pixel" effect due to the fact that a wetland pixel comprises of mixed spectral responses of water and vegetation. Hence, we propose to estimate the abundance of each of these surface materials within a pixel through a spectral unmixing approach. The general assumption in spectral unmixing is that the observed pixel spectrum is a linear combination of several endmembers denoting pure material spectra available in existing spectral libraries. The limited and poor availability of ground truth in regional-scale research however prohibits the use of library spectra, necessitating the use of unsupervised spectral unmixing techniques. The proposed research applies independent component analysis (ICA) to perform a non-orthogonal linear transformation of the multi-spectral Landsat images for an unsupervised spectral unmixing to obtain water and vegetation abundances, which are crucial to wetland mapping. The method is highly efficient with a high-level of replicability and automation. Performance of the proposed approach is evaluated quantitatively, and a high accuracy is achieved in high-latitude wetland mapping.

Shah, C. A.; Sheng, Y.; Smith, L. C.; Li, J.; Lyons, E.; Hinkel, K. M.; Winston, B.

2008-12-01

357

Decomposition rates and phosphorus concentrations of purple Loosestrife ( Lythrum salicaria ) and Cattail ( Typha spp.) in fourteen Minnesota wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purple Loosestrife is rapidly displacing native vegetation in North American wetlands. Associated changes in wetland plant\\u000a communities are well understood. Effects of Loosestrife invasion on nutrient cycling and decomposition rates in affected wetlands\\u000a are unknown, though potentially of significance to wetland function. We used litter bag methods to quantify decomposition\\u000a rates and phosphorus concentrations of purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and

Sarah L. Emery; James A. Perry

1996-01-01

358

Canada's Wetland Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This detailed information on the wetlands of Canada begins with an introduction defining wetlands and their locations along with details about their value and human and biological threats. The second chapter provides a summary of the Canadian wetland classification system with descriptions on the five classes of wetlands which are bogs, fens, swamps, marshes, and shallow open water. Chapter three gives an opportunity to explore the seven major wetland regions in Canada, which are classified as arctic, subarctic, boreal, prairie, temperate, oceanic, and mountain. The Ramsar internatioinal convention on wetlands and Canadian Ramsar sites are outlined in the last chapter.

359

Experiences with constructed wetland systems in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance. Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands’ safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

Youngchul, Kim; Gilson, Hwang; Jin-Woo, Lee; Je-Chul, Park; Dong-Sup, Kim; Min-Gi, Kang; in-Soung, Chang

2006-10-01

360

Constructing a Baseline Model of Alpine Wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, contain a variety of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Unlike their counterparts in other areas of the Rocky Mountains, these systems have been relatively unstudied. The Reader Lakes area on the southern slope of the range was selected for detailed study because of its variety of wetland plant communities, homogenous bedrock geology, and minimal human impact. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study is to establish the functional links between the geomorphology and hydrogeology of these high mountain wetlands and their constituent plant communities. In addition to traditional field studies and water chemistry, geospatial technologies are being used to organize and analyze both field data (water chemistry and wetland vegetation) and archived multispectral imagery (2006 NAIP images). The hydrology of these wetlands is dominated by groundwater discharge and their surface is dominated by string-and-flark morphology of various spatial scales, making these montane wetlands classic patterned fens. The drainage basin is organized into a series of large-scale stair-stepping wetlands, bounded by glacial moraines at their lower end. Wetlands are compartmentalized by a series of large strings (roughly perpendicular to the axial stream) and flarks. This pattern may be related to small ridges on the underlying ground moraine and possibly modified by beaver activity along the axial stream. Small-scale patterning occurs along the margins of the wetlands and in sloping-fen settings. The smaller-scale strings and flarks form a complex; self-regulating system in which water retention is enhanced and surface flow is minimized. Major plant communities have been identified within the wetlands for example: a Salix planifolia community associated with the peaty strings; Carex aquatilis, Carex limosa, and Eriophorum angustifolium communities associated with flarks; as well as a Sphagnum sp.- rich hummocky transition zone between wetland and non-wetland areas. On-going analyses of water-chemistry data will be used to identify discrete water sources and to characterize the degree of horizontal and vertical water mixing within the system, as well as to help identify the biochemical requirements of the different plant communities. Results indicate that the chemical composition of the main creek reflects the accumulative effect that the peaty flarks have on the creek as it passes through the wetland system, with pH overall decreasing from 7.3 to 7.0, dissolved oxygen decreasing from 9400 to 8400 micrograms per liter and total dissolved solids increasing from 9 mg/L to 13 mg/L. String ground water is characterized by relatively high pH (ranging from 6.0 to 7.1), high oxidizing-reducing potential (ORP) (ranging from 50 mV to 180 mV), high dissolved oxygen (from 2500 ?g/L to 9600 ?g /L) while flark ground water has relatively lower pH (5.6 to 6.8), low oxidizing reducing potential (ORP) (ranging from -66 mV to 150 mV), low dissolved oxygen (from 900 ?g /L to 9000 ?g /L).

Matyjasik, M.; Ford, R. L.; Bartholomew, L. M.; Welsh, S. B.; Hernandez, M.; Koerner, D.; Muir, M.

2008-12-01

361

Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992  

SciTech Connect

This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

362

Testing a Fish Index of Biotic Integrity for Responses to Different Stressors in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish community composition often varies across ecoregions and hydrogeomorphic types within ecoregions. We evaluated two indices of biotic integrity (IBIs) developed for fish in Great Lakes coastal wetlands dominated (> 50% cover) by Typha (cattail) and Schoenoplectus (formerly Scirpus) (bulrush) vegetation. Thirty-three coastal wetlands dominated by either Typha or Schoenoplectus vegetation were sampled using fyke nets set overnight. These sites

Yakuta Bhagat; Jan J. H. Ciborowski; Lucinda B. Johnson; Donald G. Uzarski; Thomas M. Burton; Steven T. A. Timmermans; Matthew J. Cooper

2007-01-01

363

Subsidence in coastal Louisiana: causes, rates, and effects on wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Coastal wetlands are being lost at a rapid and accelerating rate in Louisiana. Much of this loss is attributable to a relative lowering of the wetland surface below the level adequate to support vegetation. Such rapid subsidence is a natural phenomenon, related to the progradation and abandonment of distributary lobes of the Mississippi river Deltaic Plain. For a considerable period after abandonment of new sediment sources, wetlands are able to keep pace with subsidence by accreting sediments reworked by marine processes. But inundation of interior wetlands removed from such an active sediment supply, wave exposure, and saltwater intrusion eventually result in deterioration of the wetlands. Human activities may accelerate this process by disrupting sediment supplies for wetland accretion, raising global sea level, causing saltwater intrusion, and withdrawals of subsurface materials. Present subsidence rates from tide gauge records exceed 40 mm/yr at the modern Mississippi River delta and approximate 10 mm/yr in wetlands near the gulf coast. Subsidence rates over the last 1000 years appear to have been half the rates presently observed. This either results from natural variability, inaccuracy of tide gauge records, or human influences. The effect of the high rate of increase in locally apparent sea level on wetlands is difficult to quantitatively predict because of local variations in subsidence and accretion, uncertainty regarding future global sea level, and lack of knowledge of the accretionary limits of wetlands. 66 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

Boesch, D.F.; Levin, D.; Nummedal, D.; Bowles, K.

1983-08-01

364

Advection, dispersion, and filtration of fine particles within emergent vegetation of the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of particulate matter within wetland surface waters affects nutrient cycling, contaminant mobility, and the evolution of the wetland landscape. Despite the importance of particle transport in influencing wetland form and function, there are few data sets that illuminate, in a quantitative way, the transport behavior of particulate matter within surface waters containing emergent vegetation. We report observations from

Yong H. Huang; James E. Saiers; Judson W. Harvey; Gregory B. Noe; Steven Mylon

2008-01-01

365

Advection, dispersion, and filtration of fine particles within emergent vegetation of the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The movement of particulate matter within wetland surface waters affects nutrient cycling, contaminant mobility, and the evolution of the wetland landscape. Despite the importance of particle transport in influencing wetland form and function, there are few data sets that illuminate, in a quantitative way, the transport behavior of particulate matter within surface waters containing emergent vegetation. We report observations

Yong H. Huang; James E. Saiers; Judson W. Harvey; Gregory B. Noe; Steven Mylon

2008-01-01

366

Multilevel responses of emergent vegetation to environmental factors in a semiarid floodplain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland emergent vegetation of Tablas de Daimiel National Park (Central Spain), mainly composed by Cladium mariscus, Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, was studied to test if population responses to environmental factors were invariant to scaling-up conditions from the single plant to the entire wetland. While the significance of the main controlling, abiotic factors (wetland location, sedimentary and water nitrogen and

M. Alvarez-Cobelas; S. Cirujano

2007-01-01

367

Threats to Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents a history of wetland loss and describes how wetlands are lost. It also stresses the consequences of wetland loss including flooding, loss of wildlife habitat, and declining water quality. The site is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. For educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

368

Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

2010-11-01

369

California Wetlands Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive wetlands information to the general public, the educational community, and government agencies. Though much of the information is California-specific, there is an abundance of location-independent information available. Topics covered include restoration and mitigation, wetlands policy, vernal pools, and the role the state agencies play in wetlands conservation. Site features many links to external resources. The "What's new" section features all the latest California wetlands news and research.

370

Nature and transformation of dissolved organic matter in treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

This investigation into the occurrence, character, and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in treatment wetlands in the western United States shows that (i) the nature of DOM in the source water has a major influence on transformations that occur during treatment, (ii) the climate factors have a secondary effect on transformations, (iii) the wetlands receiving treated wastewater can produce a net increase in DOM, and (iv) the hierarchical analytical approach used in this study can measure the subtle DOM transformations that occur. As wastewater treatment plant effluent passes through treatment wetlands, the DOM undergoes transformation to become more aromatic and oxygenated. Autochthonous sources are contributed to the DOM, the nature of which is governed by the developmental stage of the wetland system as well as vegetation patterns. Concentrations of specific wastewater-derived organic contaminants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caffeine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were significantly attenuated by wetland treatment and were not contributed by internal loading. PMID:11775156

Barber, L B; Leenheer, J A; Noyes, T I; Stiles, E A

2001-12-15

371

Nature and transformation of dissolved organic matter in treatment wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This investigation into the occurrence, character, and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in treatment wetlands in the western United States shows that (i) the nature of DOM in the source water has a major influence on transformations that occur during treatment, (ii) the climate factors have a secondary effect on transformations, (iii) the wetlands receiving treated wastewater can produce a net increase in DOM, and (iv) the hierarchical analytical approach used in this study can measure the subtle DOM transformations that occur. As wastewater treatment plant effluent passes through treatment wetlands, the DOM undergoes transformation to become more aromatic and oxygenated. Autochthonous sources are contributed to the DOM, the nature of which is governed by the developmental stage of the wetland system as well as vegetation patterns. Concentrations of specific wastewaterderived organic contaminants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caffeine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were significantly attenuated by wetland treatment and were not contributed by internal loading.

Barber, L. B.; Leenheer, J. A.; Noyes, T. I.; Stiles, E. A.

2001-01-01

372

Create a Wetland Scene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about the importance of wetlands. They will learn about the different types of freshwater wetlands and the things that threaten their health. Finally, they will study specific examples of wetland areas of the U.S. and what is being done to protect them.

373

Wetlands: An Interdisciplinary Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The topic of wetlands provides a rich context for curriculum integration. This unit contains seven activities that integrate environmental science with math, technology, social studies, language arts, and other disciplines. In this series, students will identify plants and animals found in wetlands, understand the function of wetlands through the…

Czerniak, Charlene M.

2004-01-01

374

Are isolated wetlands isolated?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H., Jr.; Haukos, David A.

2011-01-01

375

EPA Wetlands Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wetlands Education site contains everything teachers need to help students understand wetlands and how they fit into the water cycle and the environment. The site offers links to activities, curricula and instructor guides, education programs, resources and teaching tools to assist teachers in wetlands and habitat education.

376

Wetlands, Wildlife, and People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the problems created when wetlands are drained or altered by humans. Provides a brief case study of the Everglades as an example of the effects of human intervention. Presents four learning activities (along with reproducible worksheets) that deal with the benefits of wetlands, and some debated issues over wetlands. (TW)|

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

377

Effects of wetland excavation on avian communities in eastern Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite having an arid climate, the Columbia River Basin of eastern Washington is one of the most important areas for breeding,\\u000a migrating, and wintering wetland birds in the Pacific Northwest. Extensive farmland irrigation near the O’Sullivan Reservoir\\u000a and other areas has raised water tables, resulting in closed canopies of emergent vegetation in what are now permanent, shallow\\u000a wetlands. During 1994–95,

Janean H. Creighton; Rodney D. Sayler; James E. Tabor; Matthew J. Monda

1997-01-01

378

Systematic Classification, Nomenclature and Reporting for Constructed Treatment Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a structured foundation for classifying and naming different treatment wetland (TW) design alternatives,\\u000a based on observable physical design traits. A classification hierarchy is organised like a polychotomous key, from general\\u000a classification criteria to wetland type identification. The three characteristics are typical of all TW: the presence of macrophytic\\u000a vegetation; the existence of water-logged or saturated substrate conditions

Nat Fonder; Tom Headley

379

Amphibian occurrence and wetland characteristics in the Puget Sound Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the pattern of amphibian distributions within 19 wetlands of the Puget Sound Basin in King County, Washington State\\u000a from 1988 through 1991. Amphibian richness was compared to wetland size, vegetation classes, presence of bullfrog and fish\\u000a predators, hydrologic characteristics of water flow, fluctuation, and permanence, and land use. Low velocity flow and low\\u000a fluctuation were correlated with high

Klaus O. Richter; Amanda L. Azous

1995-01-01

380

Anacostia River fringe wetlands restoration project: final report for the five-year monitoring program (2003 through 2007)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 6-hectare (ha) freshwater tidal Anacostia River Fringe Wetlands (Fringe Wetlands) were reconstructed along the mainstem of the Anacostia River in Washington, DC (Photograph 1, Figure 1) during the summer of 2003. The Fringe Wetlands consist of two separate planting cells. Fringe A, located adjacent to Lower Kingman Island, on the west bank of the Anacostia River, occupies 1.6 ha; Fringe B, located on the east bank of the Anacostia River, occupies 4.4 ha. This project is the third in a series of freshwater tidal wetland reconstructions on the Anacostia River designed and implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Baltimore District and District Department of the Environment (DDOE) on lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS). The first was Kenilworth Marsh, reconstructed in 1993 (Syphax and Hammerschlag 2005); the second was Kingman Marsh, reconstructed in 2000 (Hammerschlag et al. 2006). Kenilworth and Kingman were both constructed in low-energy backwaters of the Anacostia. However, the Fringe Wetlands, which were constructed on two pre-existing benches along the high-energy mainstem, required sheet piling to provide protection from erosive impacts of increased flow and volume of water associated with storm events during the establishment phase (Photograph 2). All three projects required the placement of dredged sediment materials to increase elevations enough to support emergent vegetation (Photograph 3). The purpose of all three wetland reconstruction projects was to restore pieces of the once extensive tidal freshwater marsh habitat that bordered the Anacostia River historically, prior to the dredge and fill operations and sea wall installation that took place there in the early to mid-1900's (Photograph 4).

Krafft, Cairn C.; Hammerschlag, Richard S.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

2009-01-01

381

Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period.

NONE

1995-10-01

382

Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands  

PubMed Central

During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ?30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes.

Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

2010-01-01

383

1997 Monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado Wetlands Mitigation Plan  

SciTech Connect

Under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleaned up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination near the town of Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) (1.7 hectares [ha]) of wetlands. This loss is mitigated by the enhancement of six spring-fed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land (mitigation sites). Approximately 254 ac (1 03.3 ha) were fenced at the six sites to exclude grazing livestock. Of the 254 ac (103.3 ha), 17.8 ac (7.2 ha) are riparian plant communities; the rest are sagebrush communities. Baseline grazed conditions of the riparian plant communities at the mitigation sites were measured prior to fencing. This report discusses results of the fourth year of a monitoring program implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. Three criteria for determining success of the mitigation were established: plant height, vegetation density (bare ground), and vegetation diversity. By 1996, Prospector Spring, Upper Long`s Gulch, and Camp Kettle met the criteria. The DOE requested transfer of these sites to BLM for long-term oversight. The 1997 evaluation of the three remaining sites, discussed in this report, showed two sites (Houston Gulch and Lower Long`s Gulch) meet the criteria. The DOE will request the transfer of these two sites to the BLM for long-term oversight. The last remaining site, Sage Hen Spring, has met only two of the criteria (percent bare ground and plant height). The third criterion, vegetation diversity, was not met. The vegetation appears to be changing from predominantly wet species to drier upland species, although the reason for this change is uncertain. It may be due to below-normal precipitation in recent years, diversion of water from the spring to the stock tank, or manipulation of the hydrology farther up gradient.

NONE

1997-11-01

384

Wetlands Reserve Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recognizing that the health of the nation's wetlands depends on the fate of private (as well as public-owned) wetlands, the Wetlands Reserve Program is an important, voluntary initiative led by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to provide "technical and financial support" to help private landowners restore their wetlands. This straightforward site describes the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP), including a map showing national WRP acreage, several question/ answer fact sheets, state programs and contacts, and a slide show (PowerPoint) entitled Producing Wildlife Habitat Results. Although the site targets the general public, students and educators will find it useful and instructive.

385

Fuzzy learning vector quantization for hyperspectral coastal vegetation classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) may be of significant value in extracting vegetation type information in complex vegetation mapping problems, particularly in coastal wetland environments. Unsupervised, self-organizing ANNs have not been employed as frequently as supervised ANNs for vegetation mapping tasks, and further remote sensing research involving fuzzy ANNs is also needed. In this research, the utility of a fuzzy unsupervised

Anthony M. Filippi; John R. Jensen

2006-01-01

386

Ecological Threats and Agricultural Opportunities of the Aquatic Cane-Like Grass Phragmites australis in Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wetlands are some of the most biologically productive and dynamic natural ecosystems with multiple value for man and nature.\\u000a Indeed wetlands provide goods and service such as water storing, floodwater trapping, and trapping of sediment and pollutants.\\u000a Wetlands also affect climate change by absorbing CO2,?storing and releasing heat, and harnessing sunlight using a rich variety of vegetation that supports animal

Andreas P. Mamolos; Anna E. Nikolaidou; Athina K. Pavlatou-Ve; Sofia K. Kostopoulou; Kiriaki L. Kalburtji

387

Tools for Carex revegetation in freshwater wetlands: understanding dormancy loss and germination temperature requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carex is a globally distributed genus with more than 2000 species worldwide and Carex species are the characteristic vegetation of sedge meadow wetlands. In the mid-continental United States, Carex species are dominant in natural freshwater wetlands yet are slow to recolonize hydrologically restored wetlands. To aid in\\u000a Carex revegetation efforts, we determined the dormancy breaking and temperature germination requirements of

Karin M. Kettenring; Susan M. Galatowitsch

2007-01-01

388

Water Quality and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in Three Types of Seasonally Inundated Limesink Wetlands in Southwest Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In southwest Georgia there are three types of shallow, seasonally inundated limesink wetlands based on soil characteristics and vegetation—grass-sedge marshes, cypress savannas, and cypress-gum swamps. We sampled wetlands of the three types from February 1997 through June 1998 during early, mid, and late hydroperiod in 1997. The wetlands had similar water chemistry soon after inundation. Over time, water in swamps

Juliann Battle; Stephen W. Golladay

2001-01-01

389

Response of ducks to glyphosate-induced habitat alterations in wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of glyphosate herbicide-induced changes in wetland emergent vegetation (largely cattails,Typha spp.) on densities of ducks (Anatinae) were assessed in northeastern North Dakota. In 1990 and 1991, 17 cattail-dominated\\u000a wetlands were randomly assigned to 0% (reference wetlands), 50%, 70%, or 90% areal spray coverages with glyphosate herbicide.\\u000a Densities of green-winged teal (Anas crecca), bluewinged teal (Anas discors), gadwalls (Anas

George M. Linz; Dage C. Blixt; David L. Bergman; William J. Bleier

1996-01-01

390

Microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil profiles of different vegetation covers established for soil rehabilitation in a red soil region of southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the distribution of microbial biomass carbon (MB-C), nitrogen (MB-N) and phosphorus (MB-P) in the soil profiles of five different vegetation systems including bare area (Br), Bamboo (Bmb), Chinese Fir (CF), Citrus Orchard (Ctr) and Rice field (Rf). The MB-C levels in the Bmb system were higher than those in the other systems, and it decreased with increasing

F. E. Wang; Y. X. Chen; G. M. Tian; S. Kumar; Y. F. He; Q. L. Fu; Q. Lin

2004-01-01

391

Wetlands - Then and Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This instructional guide is designed to provide instructors with lecture materials and resources that describe the various ways that wetlands are classified, their current status and a historical perspective on wetlands. Trajectories and drivers of wetland loss and degradation in the United States are emphasized. Current wetland issues including the loss of mangrove wetlands and the impacts of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill are also examined. Student objectives, a general lecture outline and a more detailed PowerPoint presentation with instructor notes are provided. Instructors who are looking for videos or additional print and web-based resources on the topics covered here should consult the resources list provided at the end of this module where these resources are summarized and cited.Upon successful completion of this module students should be able to:* Describe the various classification schemes used to categorize wetland types* Describe changes in the human perception of wetlands* Describe historical trends in the loss and degradation of wetlands with an emphasis on those in the United States* Describe the primary drivers of wetland loss* Evaluate the loss of mangrove wetlands and the impact of oil spills as examples of short-term and long-term impacts on wetlands

Cudmore, Wynn

2011-09-20

392

SYNERGISTIC USE OF OPTICAL AND RADAR REMOTE SENSING FOR MAPPING AND MONITORING FLOODING SYSTEM IN KAFUE FLATS WETLAND OF SOUTHERN ZAMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

These Wetlands are lands with characteristics between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They generally consist of grasslands, swamps, marshes, peat bogs, willows, mangroves, etc. Some wetlands are found in shallow slow flowing or percolating waters with hydric soils and hydrophytic vegetation. These characteristics ensure the biological diversity and uniqueness of wetland ecosystems. However, as population increases there is increased need to

Michael Aduah; Ben Maathuis; Yousif Ali Hussin

393

Symbiont nitrogenase, alder growth, and soil nitrate response to phosphorus addition in alder ( Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) wetlands of the Adirondack Mountains, New York State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa) is a characteristic species of scrub-shrub 1-type wetlands, the second most common wetland type in major watersheds of the Adirondack Mountains in New York State. Speckled alder is an actinorhizal nitrogen fixer that relies heavily on N2 over soil N and fixes substantial amounts of nitrogen in wetlands, resulting in little vegetation processing of

Kemal Gökkaya; Todd M. Hurd; Dudley J. Raynal

2006-01-01

394

Assessing avian richness in remnant wetlands: Towards an improved methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because the North American Breeding Bird Survey provides inadequate coverage of wetland habitat, the Wetland Breeding Bird Survey was recently established in Ohio, USA. This program relies on volunteers to conduct 3 counts at each monitored wetland. Currently, all counts are conducted during the morning. Under the premise that volunteer participation could be increased by allowing evening counts, we evaluated the potential for modifying the methodology. We evaluated the sampling efficiency of all 3-count combinations of morning and evening counts using data collected at 14 wetlands. Estimates of overall species richness decreased with increasing numbers of evening counts. However, this pattern did not hold when analyses were restricted to wetland-dependent species or those of conservation concern. Our findings suggest that it would be reasonable to permit evening counts, particularly if the data are to be used to monitor wetland dependent species and those of concern.

Krzys, Greg; Waite, Thomas A.; Stapanian, Martin; Vucetich, John A.

2002-01-01

395

A comparison of sampling techniques to estimate number of wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Service use annual estimates of the number of ponded wetlands to estimate duck production and establish duck hunting regulations. Sampling techniques that minimize bias may provide more reliable estimates of annual duck production. Using a wetland geographic information system (GIS), we estimated number of wetlands using standard counting protocol with belt transects and samples of square plots. Estimates were compared to the known number of wetlands in the GIS to determine bias. Bias in transect-derived estimates ranged from +67-87% of the known number of wetlands, compared to bias of +3-6% in estimates from samples of 10.24-km2 plots. We recommend using samples of 10.24-km2 plots stratified by wetland density to decrease bias.

Johnson, R. R.; Higgins, K. F.; Naugle, D. E.; Jenks, J. A.

1999-01-01

396

Wetland Loss and Biodiversity Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most species of wetland-dependent organisms live in multiple local populations sustained through occasional migration. Retention of minimum wetland densities in human-dominated landscapes is funda- mental to conserving these organisms. An analysis of wetland mosaics was performed for two regions of the northeastern United States to assess the degree to which historical wetland loss alters the metrics of wetland mosaics and

James P. Gibbs

2000-01-01

397

Ecological risk assessment of a wetland exposed to boron  

SciTech Connect

A wetland located in the southeastern portion of the United States was the site of an investigation to determine the potential ecological risk of elevated boron concentrations to the flora and fauna living in the wetland. The conceptual model identified the vegetation as the primary receptor of concern, and thus the vegetation is the focus of this article. Samples of surface water, sediments, and selected vegetation were collected from the study wetland and several nearby reference sites and were analyzed for boron. Concentrations of boron in all three media exceeded reference site concentrations. Boron concentrations were highest near the suspected source but decreased almost to reference-site concentrations near the outer perimeter of the wetland. Some plants appeared stressed with yellowing and necrotic leaves; however, a correlation between tissue boron concentrations and the plant`s visual appearance was not apparent for all species studied. Modeling of the fate of boron indicated that the wetland has likely been at a steady state for many years and that boron concentrations were not expected to increase. It was concluded that no observable adverse ecological impacts to the vegetation could be attributed to boron, nor is it likely that the boron poses an unacceptable risk to the surrounding areas.

Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Coyle, G.T. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States). Environmental Sciences Center; Best, G.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-11-01

398

Catchment-wide wetland assessment and prioritization using the multi-criteria decision-making method TOPSIS.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that wetland ecosystems are under threat worldwide. Many communities are now trying to establish wetland rehabilitation programs, but are confounded by a lack of objective information on wetland condition or significance. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making method, TOPSIS (the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), was adapted to assist in the role of assessing wetland condition and rehabilitation priority in the Clarence River Catchment (New South Wales, Australia). Using 13 GIS data layers that described wetland character, wetland protection, and wetland threats, the wetlands were ranked in terms of condition. Through manipulation of the original model, the wetlands were prioritized for rehabilitation. The method offered a screening tool for the managers in choosing potential candidate wetlands for rehabilitation in a region. PMID:16779697

Liu, Canran; Frazier, Paul; Kumar, Lalit; Macgregor, Catherine; Blake, Nigel

2006-08-01

399

The ecological value of constructed wetlands for treating urban runoff.  

PubMed

The Sweetwater Authority's urban runoff diversion system (URDS) comprises constructed wetlands on a hillside between the town of Spring Valley and the Sweetwater Reservoir, California, USA. The URDS were designed to divert dry-weather and first-flush urban runoff flows from the Sweetwater reservoir. However, these constructed wetlands have developed into ecologically valuable habitat. This paper evaluates the following ecological questions related to the URDS: (1) the natural development of the species present and their growth pattern; (2) the biodiversity and pollutant stress on the plants and invertebrates; and (3) the question of habitat provided for endangered species. The URDS wetlands are comprised primarily of rush (Scirpus spp.) and cattails (Typha spp.). This vegetative cover ranged from 39-78% of the area of the individual wetland ponds. Current analyses of plant tissues and wetland sediment indicates the importance of sediment sorption for metals and plant uptake of nutrients. Analyses of URDS water following runoff events show the URDS wetlands do reduce the amount of nutrients and metals in the water column. Invertebrate surveys of the wetland ponds revealed lower habitat quality and environmental stress compared to unpolluted natural habitat. The value of the wetlands as wildlife habitat is constrained by low plant biodiversity and pollution stress from the runoff. Since the primary Sweetwater Authority goal is to maintain good water quality for drinking, any secondary utilization of URDS habitat by species (endangered or otherwise) is deemed an added benefit. PMID:17410841

Pankratz, S; Young, T; Cuevas-Arellano-, H; Kumar, R; Ambrose, R F; Suffet, I H

2007-01-01

400

Vulnerability of Northern Prairie Wetlands to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the effect of climate change on northern prairie wetlands. The prairie pothole region (PPR) lies in the heart of North America and contains millions of glacially formed, depressional wetlands embedded in a landscape matrix of natural grassland and agriculture. These wetlands provide valuable ecosystem services and produce 50% to 80% of the continent's ducks. We explored the broad spatial and temporal patterns across the PPR between climate and wetland water levels and vegetation by applying a wetland simulation model (WETSIM) to 18 stations with 95-year weather records. Simulations suggest that the most productive habitat for breeding waterfowl would shift under a drier climate from the center of the PPR (the Dakotas and southeastern Saskatchewan) to the wetter eastern and northern fringes, areas currently less productive or where most wetlands have been drained. Unless these wetlands are protected and restored, there is little insurance for waterfowl against future climate warming. WETSIM can assist wetland managers in allocating restoration dollars in an uncertain climate future

W. CARTER JOHNSON, BRUCE V. MILLETT, TAGIR GILMANOV, RICHARD A. VOLDSETH, GLENN R. GUNTENSPERGEN, and DAVID E. NAUGLE (;)

2005-11-01

401

Assessment of saltwater intrusion impact on gas exchange behavior of Louisiana Gulf Coast wetland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of gas exchange responses of wetland plants to salinity is presented for several species representative of different wetland habitats extending along water level and salinity gradients in the Louisiana Gulf Coast, U.S.A. The information was synthesized from earlier plant physiological response studies. Vegetation examined represent a broad range of sensitivity to salt, including brackish marsh, freshwater marsh, and

S. R. Pezeshki; R. D. DeLaune

1989-01-01

402

Evapotranspiration Measurement and Estimation of Three Wetland Envornments in the Upper St. Johns River Basin, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimates of evapotranspiration from areas dominated by wetland vegetation are needed in the water budget of the Upper St. Johns River Basin. However, local data on evapotranspiration rates, especially in wetland environments, were lacking in the project area. In response to this need, the St. Johns River Water Management District collected evapotranspiration field data in Fort Drum Marsh Conservation

L. M. Mao; M. J. Bergman; C. C. Tai

2002-01-01

403

Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Three Plant Species in Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three common Appalachian plant species (Juncus effusus L., Scirpus validus L., and Typha latifolia L.) were planted into small-scale constructed wetlands receivingprimary treated wastewater. The experimental design includedtwo wetland gravel depths (45 and 60 cm) and five plantingtreatments (each species in monoculture, an equal mixture of the three species, and controls without vegetation), with two replicates per depth × planting

Jerry Coleman; Keith Hench; Keith Garbutt; Alan Sexstone; Gary Bissonnette; Jeff Skousen

2001-01-01

404

Assessing change in fish habitat and communities in coastal wetlands of Georgian Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic vegetation in the pristine coastal marshes of eastern Georgian Bay (GB) provides critical spawning and foraging habitat for fish species, with complex habitat supporting the greatest diversity. These wetlands are threatened by a changing water level regime and forecasted lower water levels. To monitor and conserve these wetlands, we must understand how they function and respond to this stressor.

Jonathan D Midwood

2012-01-01

405

Glacial wetland distribution and methane emissions estimated from PMIP2 climate simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interglacial–glacial decrease in atmospheric methane concentration is often attributed to a strong decline in the wetland source. This seems consistent with the extreme coldness and vastly expanded ice sheets. Here we analyse coupled model simulations for the last glacial maximum from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, using simple relations to estimate wetland characteristics from the simulated climate and vegetation.

S. L. Weber; A. J. Drury; W. H. J. Toonen; M. van Weele

2010-01-01

406

Hydrological systems beyond a nature reserve, the major problem in wetland conservation of Naardermeer (The Netherlands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological relations within a wetland depend on it is hydrology, but this is determined largely by what happens outside the wetland area. These statements are illustrated with respect to the Naardermeer nature reserve in the Netherlands. Succession and eutrophication have led to a reduction in the variety of vegetation types in the area. Eutrophication has been caused by a lowering

A. Barendregt; M. J. Wassen; P. P. Schot

1995-01-01

407

Hydrology and history: land use changes and ecological responses in an urban wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of changing land use on hydrology and dominant plant species from 1850–1990 were investigated in a palustrine wetland in southern Wisconsin, USA. Aerial photographs, historic maps and water levels of the area were used to determine changes in land use, wetland vegetation, and groundwater and surface flows over time. Piezometers and water table wells were monitored weekly for

C. R. Owen

1999-01-01

408

AN INVESTIGATION ON THE PARK AND PEOPLE PROBLEMS: SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE IMPACT ON WETLAND SURROUNDING VEGETATION DUE TO OVERGRAZING OF LIVESTOCK IN KOSHI TAPPU WILDLIFE RESERVE, NEPAL. (A Case Study of Kusaha VDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (KTWR) is an important wetland area in the floodplain of Sapta Koshi River in the east terai of Nepal. It covers about 150 km2 area. It is decorated by a total of 515 species of plants consisting submerged, floating species as well as grassland\\/subannah and riverine forest. The study was carried out to investigate the impact

Anu Shrestha; Rana Bahadur Chhetri; Sanjay Nath

409

Transport and attenuation of dissolved glyphosate and AMPA in a stormwater wetland.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is an herbicide used widely and increasingly since the early 1990s in production of many crops and in urban areas. However, knowledge on the transport of glyphosate and its degradation to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in ecosystems receiving urban or agricultural runoff is lacking. Here we show that transport and attenuation of runoff-associated glyphosate and AMPA in a stormwater wetland differ and largely vary over time. Dissolved concentrations and loads of glyphosate and AMPA in a wetland receiving runoff from a vineyard catchment were assessed during three consecutive seasons of glyphosate use (March to June 2009, 2010 and 2011). The load removal of glyphosate and AMPA by the wetland gradually varied yearly from 75% to 99%. However, glyphosate and AMPA were not detected in the wetland sediment, which emphasises that sorption on the wetland vegetation, which increased over time, and biodegradation were prevailing attenuation processes. The relative load of AMPA as a percentage of total glyphosate increased in the wetland and ranged from 0% to 100%, which indicates the variability of glyphosate degradation via the AMPA pathway. Our results demonstrate that transport and degradation of glyphosate in stormwater wetlands can largely change over time, mainly depending on the characteristics of the runoff event and the wetland vegetation. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for considering degradation products of runoff-associated pesticides during their transfer in wetlands, in particular when using stormwater wetlands as a management practice targeting pesticide attenuation. PMID:22633860

Imfeld, Gwenaël; Lefrancq, Marie; Maillard, Elodie; Payraudeau, Sylvain

2012-05-23

410

Is the interaction between Retama sphaerocarpa and its understorey herbaceous vegetation always reciprocally positive? Competition–facilitation shift during Retama establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retama sphaerocarpa is a Mediterranean shrub that when adult, facilitates the establishment of herbaceous plants under its canopy. We test the hypothesis that during the establishment of R. sphaerocarpa seedlings, the interaction with the herbaceous plants is negative. We carried out a greenhouse experiment in which seedlings of R. sphaerocarpa were grown under different conditions of competition with herbs, watering

Tíscar Espigares; Antonio López-Pintor; José M. Rey Benayas

2004-01-01

411

Constructed Wetlands for Stormwater Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of research to evaluate the potential of utilizing mitigated wetlands as stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs). Results of wetland monitoring, wetland modeling, and geographic information system (GIS) development are...

S. L. Yu G. M. Fitch T. A. Earles

1998-01-01

412

Casco Bay Watershed Wetlands Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a pilot project to develop a watershed-based wetlands characterization using digital data and GIS technology for the state of Maine. The Casco Bay Watershed Wetlands Characterization Method determines relative significance of wetland...

E. Hertz J. Sartoris

2001-01-01

413

WATER QUALITY AND AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN 3 TYPES OF REFERENCE LIMESINK WETLANDS IN SOUTHWEST GEORGIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In SW Georgia, three wetlands types have been classified based on vegetation and soils: marshes dominated by herbaceous vegetation, open savannas with an overstory canopy of cypress, and forested swamps composed of cypress\\/hardwoods. We sampled 28 relatively unimpacted limesink wetlands for water quality at eight different times during 1997-98, and sampled invertebrates using a D-frame sweep net at early, mid,

Juliann Battle; Stephen W. Golladay

414

Changes in piping plover nesting habitat availability at Great Plains alkaline wetlands, 1938–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline wetland beaches provide crucial habitat for breeding piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) in the northern Great Plains of the United States and Canada. Vegetation encroachment has been identified as a potential\\u000a threat that decreases alkaline beach habitat availability, but the long-term status of these breeding habitats has not been\\u000a evaluated. We measured vegetation changes at two North Dakota alkaline wetland

Brian G. Root; Mark R. Ryan

2004-01-01

415

Observing Wetland Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Observing Wetland Habitats contains tips on finding wetlands to explore and wetland scavenger hunt observation sheets that can be used as a starting point for discovery. While on their scavenger hunt, students can look for adaptations in plants and animals that help them live in a partially wet habitat. After the students have finished their scavenger hunt, they can share what they've seen and heard.

416

Wetlands: A Multidisciplinary Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Today wetland managers and practitioners are faced with considerable challenges and responsibilities. Not only do they need\\u000a to consider and fully understand all of the traditional components of wetland science such as ecology, geology, and engineering,\\u000a but also, the aesthetic, socio-political, and economic aspects of the discipline. Nevertheless, over the last several decades\\u000a the science of wetlands in the United

Ben A. LePage

417

Wetlands and Bird Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity demonstrates that coastal wetlands are an important factor to insure the success of bird migration. Students will discover that ponds, lakes and marshes provide food and shelter for traveling birds and, without the wetlands, birds would not have the energy to make the trek from areas as far south as Panama. They also learn that besides providing habitats for waterfowl, wetlands help relieve flooding, filter pollutants and are an integral part of the biosphere.

418

Hurricane Katrina: Wetland Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wetlands along the southern coastlines of the United States serve as natural blocks to approaching hurricanes, starving them of warm ocean water and creating physical barriers to storm surge floods. However, construction of levees and canals in the last one hundred years has turned thousands of square miles of wetland habitat into open water. This video explores the importance of wetlands and examines the damage Hurricane Katrina caused to a wetland area south of New Orleans. The segment is one minute fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

419

[Recreational attraction of urban park wetlands in Beijing].  

PubMed

Taking the 20 urban park wetlands in Beijing as test objects, a 3-layer evaluation index system including urban park wetland landscape quality, location condition, and accessibility for the recreational attraction of urban bark wetlands was established, and, by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and an integrating index evaluation method, the recreational attraction of the urban park wetlands in Beijing was quantitatively assessed, and validated with questionnaire data. In Beijing, the urban park wetlands with high recreational attraction were in the order of the Summer Palace, Olympic Park, Qinglong Lake Park, Beihai Park, Yuanmingyuan Park, Yuyuantan Park, Shidu, Golden Sea Lake scenic area, Taoranting Park, and Yeyahu wetland. The Rice Fragrance Lake wetland and Zhenzhuhu scenic area had the lowest recreational attraction, and the others were fair. The evaluation results were supported by the questionnaire data, which indicated that the index system and evaluation model were useful. According to the recreational services, the 20 park wetlands in Beijing could be clustered into four categories, which could be managed in different ways. Appropriately assessing the recreational services of urban park wetlands could help the decision-making on the urban parks optimal planning and designing, improve human living environment, and optimize the spatial distribution of urban landscape. PMID:23189684

Li, Fen; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

2012-08-01

420

The Influence of Speckled Alder on Nitrogen Accumulation in Adirondack Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrub-dominated wetlands of the Adirondacks typically support vigorous populations of nitrogen-fixing speckled alder Alnus incana (L.) Moench var. americana Regel), and are the second most abundant wetland type in the Adirondack region. In symbiotic association with an actinomycete of the genus Frankia, this shrub fixes 37-43 kg N/ha/yr in monotypic stands. This study was undertaken to quantify the abundance of alder in wetlands typed as "Scrub-shrub 1" (SS1; known as alder/willow wetlands) in the National Wetlands Inventory, and to determine the accumulation of nitrate and ammonium in alder wetland substrates. Twenty wetlands from the Oswegatchie-Black (OB) and Upper Hudson (UH) watersheds were randomly selected using the Adirondack Park Agency's GIS data base which includes wetland cover types assigned using remotely sensed data. Wetlands designated as "SS1" (scrub-shrub vegetation) and "SS1/EM1" (scrub-shrub with emergent herbaceous vegetation) were included in the sample. Six wetlands varying in alder abundance were chosen to estimate N accumulation in the substrate, with measurement of dissolved inorganic N in groundwater and ion exchange resin extracts. In the OB watershed, A. incana averaged 30 % of total shrub density in SS1 wetlands and 36 % in SS1/EM1 wetlands. Alder accounted for 49 % of all stems in UH SS1 wetlands, 28 % in the SS1/EM1 wetlands and in total accounted for 35 % of all stems in this study. Nitrate in IER extracts and groundwater was significantly higher in high-density alder wetlands (p < 0.05). Eight of the 20 wetlands included in this study were estimated to have less than 3,000 alder stems/ha, and five were estimated to have greater than 10,000 stems/ha. The other seven wetlands averaged 6,000 stems/ha. At nine sites, foliar N equaled or exceeded estimated atmospheric deposition (~10 kg/ha/yr), and was likely derived from N fixation. We conclude that 50 % of the SS1/EM1 wetlands and at least 75 % of the SS1 wetlands in these watersheds are characterized by elevated nitrate due to the effect of alder on these systems.

Kiernan, B. D.; Hurd, T. M.; Raynal, D. J.

2001-05-01

421

Redox properties of a constructed wetland: theoretical and practical aspects.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands represent a progressive approach to the wastewater treatment. A fundamental prerequisite of the efficient water quality improvement is the presence of redox potential gradients (connected with the aeration of the system) inside the vegetation bed. Redox properties of a constructed wetland were tested in three longitudinal transects crossing the vegetation bed from the inflow zone to the outflow using diverse indicators (e.g., Fe(III)/Fe(II), SO(2-)(4)/S(2-)). Approximately 10-25% of iron was reoxidized in samples taken 10 m from the inflow zone in 2006. Redox processes of iron in artificial (constructed wetland) and natural (peat bog) ecosystems were compared. The peat bog was characterized with higher percentages of Fe(II) (usually ca. 90-100%). Thus, the aeration of the peat land was lower in comparison with the constructed wetland. The constructed wetland efficiently reduced sulfates (average concentrations of 44.7 and 11.2 mg/l at the inflow and the outflow, resp., in 2007). Organics, expressed as COD(Cr) and BOD(5), and NH+(4) were removed with efficiencies of 86.4, 92.2, and 60.4%, respectively. However, total phosphorus (redox processes play a negligible role in this case) was removed only with 39.6% efficiency. Redox properties of the wetland did not significantly depend on the heterogeneity of the treated wastewater flow. PMID:19319861

Síma, Jan; Diáková, Katerina; Pavelcová, Lenka; Havelka, Michal

2009-03-01

422

Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands  

PubMed Central

With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands.

Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

2012-01-01

423

Sensitivity analysis of a wetland methane emission model based on temperate and Arctic wetland sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling of wetland CH4 fluxes using wetland soil emission models is used to determine the size of this natural source of CH4 emission on local to global scale. Most process models of CH4 formation and soil-atmosphere CH4 transport processes operate on a plot scale. For large scale emission modelling (regional to global scale) upscaling of this type of model requires thorough analysis of the sensitivity of these models to parameter uncertainty. We applied the GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Analysis) methodology to a well-known CH4 emission model, the Walter-Heimann model, as implemented in the PEATLAND-VU model. The model is tested using data from two temperate wetland sites and one arctic site. The tests include experiments with different objective functions, which quantify the fit of the model results to the data. The results indicate that the model 1) in most cases is capable of estimating CH4 fluxes better than an estimate based on the data avarage, but does not clearly outcompete a regression model based on local data; 2) is capable of reproducing larger scale (seasonal) temporal variability in the data, but not the small-scale (daily) temporal variability; 3) is not strongly sensitive to soil parameters, 4) is sensitive to parameters determining CH4 transport and oxidation in vegetation, and the temperature sensitivity of the microbial population. The GLUE method also allowed testing of several smaller modifications of the original model. We conclude that upscaling of this plot-based wetland CH4 emission model is feasible, but considerable improvements of wetland CH4 modelling will result from improvement of wetland vegetation data.

van Huissteden, J.; Petrescu, A. M. R.; Hendriks, D. M. D.; Rebel, K. T.

2009-09-01

424

Sensitivity analysis of a wetland methane emission model based on temperate and arctic wetland sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling of wetland CH4 fluxes using wetland soil emission models is used to determine the size of this natural source of CH4 emission on local to global scale. Most process models of CH4 formation and soil-atmosphere CH4 transport processes operate on a plot scale. For large scale emission modelling (regional to global scale) upscaling of this type of model requires thorough analysis of the sensitivity of these models to parameter uncertainty. We applied the GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Analysis) methodology to a well-known CH4 emission model, the Walter-Heimann model, as implemented in the PEATLAND-VU model. The model is tested using data from two temperate wetland sites and one arctic site. The tests include experiments with different objective functions, which quantify the fit of the model results to the data. The results indicate that the model 1) in most cases is capable of estimating CH4 fluxes better than an estimate based on the data avarage, but does not clearly outcompete a regression model based on local data; 2) is capable of reproducing larger scale (seasonal) temporal variability in the data, but not the small-scale (daily) temporal variability; 3) is not strongly sensitive to soil parameters, 4) is sensitive to parameters determining CH4 transport and oxidation in vegetation, and the temperature sensitivity of the microbial population. The GLUE method also allowed testing of several smaller modifications of the original model. We conclude that upscaling of this plot-based wetland CH4 emission model is feasible, but considerable improvements of wetland CH4 modelling will result from improvement of wetland vegetation data.

van Huissteden, J.; Petrescu, A. M. R.; Hendriks, D. M. D.; Rebel, K. T.

2009-12-01

425

The use of hydrologically altered wetlands to treat wastewater in coastal Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Two major environmental problems currently affecting Louisiana are a high rate of coastal wetland loss and high levels of surface water pollution. The application of secondarily treated wastewater to wetlands is proposed to dealing with these problems. The benefits of wetland wastewater treatment include improved surface water quality, increased accretion rates to balance subsidence, improved plant productivity, and decreased capital outlays for conventional engineering treatment systems. Wetland treatment systems can be designed and operated to restore deteriorating wetlands to previous levels of productivity. Hydrologically altered wetlands in the Louisiana coastal zone are appropriate for receiving municipal and some industrial effluent. While the US EPA has determined that wetland wastewater treatment is effective in treating municipal effluent, it has discouraged the use of natural wetlands for this purpose. As a result, hydrologically altered wetlands in the Louisiana coastal zone are being neglected and ultimately lost, while scarce funds are used to construct artificial wetlands to treat municipal effluent. Effluent discharge to existing wetlands can be incorporated into a comprehensive management plan designed to increase sediment and nutrient input into subsiding wetlands in the Louisiana coastal zone. Secondarily treated effluent discharged from industrial and municipal facilities in the Louisiana coastal zone were reviewed for suitability for wetland wastewater treatment. Selection criteria for wetland treatment systems were developed for both dischargers and receiving wetlands. Designs for two potential case studies based on established selection criteria for wetland wastewater treatment systems are presented. An economic analysis of the four case studies indicates a high potential for financial savings when wetlands replace conventional engineering methods for tertiary treatment.

Breaux, A.M.

1992-01-01

426

Refinement of microwave vegetation indices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous investigations have established the basis for a new type of vegetation index based on passive microwave satellite observations. These microwave vegetation indices (MVIs) have been qualitatively evaluated by examining global spatial and seasonal temporal features. Limited quantitative studie...

427

Findings of the wetland survey of the David Witherspoon, Inc., 1630 Site, South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in September 1996 on the DWI-1630 site (Witherspoon Landfill) located in South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee. The DWI-1630 site includes a closed, capped landfill area, areas of past disturbance adjacent to the capped area, and patches of hardwood forest. Wetlands were identified on the landfill cap and in a small bottomland that was formerly used for a retention pond in the southwest corner of the DWI-1630 site. The wetlands identified on the cap are man-induced, atypical situation wetlands. These areas have hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology, but the soils do not have hydric characteristics. Wetland development appears to be due to a combination of the grading or subsidence of the clay landfill cap, the low permeability of the clay fill soil, and the absence of surface drainage outlets from the depressions. These atypical situation wetland areas may not be considered by the US Army Corps of Engineers or the State of Tennessee to be jurisdictional wetlands. The wetland in the former retention pond area has hydrophytic vegetation, wetland hydrology, and hydric soils and is a jurisdictional wetland.

Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR Environmental, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-03-01

428

Federal wetlands law: the cases and the problems  

SciTech Connect

Like environmental statutes generally, wetlands laws have engendered much litigation, accompanied by the judicial establishment of general legal doctrine. The Supreme Court has ruled on questions of taking and private rights of action. Lower courts have decided issues of strict liability, estoppel, ripeness, injunction requirements, and hearing rights. This article surveys federal wetlands cases, presenting the issues litigated and the principles established. The author concludes with the hope that the administration's and environmentalists' disagreement on whether wetlands regulation is excessive will not end in a sacrifice of this important resource. 487 references.

Want, W.L.

1984-01-01

429

The Touzi Decomposition for Wetland Classification Using Polarimetric C-Band SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Touzi decomposition [1] is investigated for wetland characterization. Like the Cloude ? scattering type, the magnitude αs of the symmetric scattering is not effective for vegetation type discrimination. The phase ??s of the symmetric scattering type has to be used for enhanced characterization of wetland vegetation species. A new tool is introduced for assessment of the scattering type phase coherence, and the phase of the dominant scattering type is shown to be very promising for wetland target classifica- tion. The unique information provided by ??s for enhanced wetland class discrimination is demonstrated using Convair- 580 polarimetric C-band SAR data collected over the Mer Bleue wetland in the East of Ottawa, Canada. The use of ??s makes possible the discrimination of shrub bog from sedges fen, and permits even the discrimination between conifer dominated treed bog from upland deciduous forest under leafy conditions.

Touzi, E.; Deschamps, A.; Demers, A. M.; Rother, G.

2009-04-01

430

Stochastic description of water table fluctuations in wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are crucial ecosystems which provide several functions, beneficial both to human beings and to the environment. Despite such importance, quantitative approaches to many aspects of wetlands are far from being adequate, above all the interaction between rainfall, vegetation, soil moisture and groundwater depth. Starting from a previously developed model for below-ground stochastic water level fluctuations, we extend it to consider the case of waterlogging. The extended model is now suitable for describing the long-term probability distribution of water table depth in temporarily inundated wetland sites, whose hydrologic input is dominated by stochastic rainfall. The extended model performs well when compared to real data collected in the Everglades National Park (Florida, US), confirming its capability to capture the stochastic variability of wetland ecosystems.

Tamea, Stefania; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ign