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1

Capillary Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Capillary Action: In this section of USGS Water Science for School's you will learn how capillary action is important for moving water (and all of the things that are dissolved in it) around. It is defined as the movement of water within the spaces of a porous material due to the forces of adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension.

2

The effect of wettability on capillary pressure and oil recovery  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF WETTABILITY ON CAPILLARY PRESSURE AND OIL RECOVERY A Thesis by BOHYUN CHON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF WETTABILITY ON CAPILLARY PRESSURE AND OIL RECOVERY A Thesis BOHYUN CHON Approved as to style and content by; R. W. Heins (Chair of Committee) J S. Osoba ember) R. R. Berg (Member) W. D. on...

Chon, Bohyun

1987-01-01

3

Exploring Capillary Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students observe multiple examples of capillary action. First they observe the shape of a glass-water meniscus and explain its shape in terms of the adhesive attraction of the water to the glass. Then they study capillary tubes and observe water climbing due to capillary action in the glass tubes. Finally, students experience a real-world application of capillary action by designing and using "capillary siphons" to filter water.

2014-09-18

4

Fundamentals of reservoir surface energy as related to surface properties, wettability, capillary action, and oil recovery from fractured reservoirs by spontaneous imbibition  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Jason Zhengxin Tong; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

2006-02-01

5

FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

Norman R. Morrow

2004-05-01

6

FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

2004-10-01

7

Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action, and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

Norman Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Zhengxin Tong; Evren Unsal; Siluni Wickramathilaka; Shaochang Wo; Peigui Yin

2008-06-30

8

FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

Norman R. Morrow

2004-07-01

9

Fundamentals of reservoir surface energy as related to surface properties, wettability, capillary action, and oil recovery from fractured reservoirs by spontaneous imbibition  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Jason Zhengxin Tong; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

2006-06-08

10

Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

2006-12-08

11

Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crystal growth method described is a capillary action shaping technique. Meniscus shaping for the desired ribbon geometry occurs at the vertex of a wettable die. As ribbon growth depletes the melt meniscus, capillary action supplies replacement material. A capillary die is so designed that the bounding edges of the die top are not parallel or concentric with the growing ribbon. The new dies allow a higher melt meniscus with concomitant improvements in surface smoothness and freedom from SiC surface particles, which can degrade perfection.

Schwuttke, G. H.; Ciszek, T. F.; Kran, A.

1976-01-01

12

Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crystal-growth method under investigation is a capillary action shaping technique. Meniscus shaping for the desired ribbon geometry occurs at the vertex of a wettable dye. As ribbon growth depletes the melt meniscus, capillary action supplies replacement material. The configuration of the technique used in our initial studies is shown. The crystal-growth method has been applied to silicon ribbons it was found that substantial improvements in ribbon surface quality could be achieved with a higher melt meniscus than that attainable with the EFG technique.

Schwuttke, G. H.; Ciszek, T. F.; Kran, A.; Yang, K.

1977-01-01

13

Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Substantial improvements in ribbon surface quality are achieved with a higher melt meniscus than that attainable with the film-fed (EFG) growth technique. A capillary action shaping method is described in which meniscus shaping for the desired ribbon geometry occurs at the vertex of a wettable die. As ribbon growth depletes the melt meniscus, capillary action supplies replacement material. Topics discussed cover experimental apparatus and growth procedures; die materials investigations, fabrication and evaluation; process development for 25 mm, 38 mm, 50 mm and 100 mm silicon ribbons; and long grain direct solidification of silicon. Methods for the structural and electrical characterization of cast silicon ribbons are assessed as well as silicon ribbon technology for the 1978 to 1986 period.

Schwuttke, G. H.; Schwuttke, G. H.; Ciszek, T. F.; Kran, A.

1977-01-01

14

Capillary pressure spectrometry: Toward a new method for the measurement of the fractional wettability of porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transparent porous medium of controlled fractional wettability is fabricated by mixing intermediate-wet glass microspheres with strongly oil-wet polytetrafluouroethylene microspheres, and packing them between two transparent glass plates. Silicon oil is displaced by water, the growth pattern is video-recorded, and the transient response of the pressure drop across the pore network is measured for various fractions of oil-wet particles. The measured global capillary pressure fluctuates as the result of the variation of the equilibrium curvature of menisci between local maxima and local minima. With the aid of wavelets, the transient response of the capillary pressure is transformed to a capillary pressure spectrum (CPS). The peaks of the CPS are used to identify the most significant flow events and correlate their amplitude with the spatial distribution of fractional wettability. The flow events are closely related with the fluctuations of the capillary pressure and are classified into three main categories: motion in pore clusters, generation/expansion of capillary fingers, coalescence of interfaces. The amplitude of the peaks of CPS is related quasilinearly with a local coefficient of fractional wettability presuming that the same class of flow events is concerned. Approximate calculations of the maximum meniscus curvature in pores of converging-diverging geometry and uniform wettability in combination with simple mixing laws predict satisfactorily the experimentally measured average prebreakthrough capillary pressure as a function of the fraction of the oil-wet particles.

Sygouni, Varvara; Tsakiroglou, Christos D.; Payatakes, Alkiviades C.

2006-05-01

15

Moving On Up: Capillary Action II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore capillary action in plants (such as plants ability to move water from roots to leaves) in an investigation called Paper Blooms. Placing paper flowers in water mixed with food coloring, learners observe how water moves through a flower. Students can then try the activity using different fluids such as soapy water or salty water. In the investigation Toothpick Tricks learners observe slightly different capillary action in simple models of flowers made with toothpicks.

New Jersey

2006-01-01

16

Moving On Up: Capillary Action 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the course of several days, learners explore the property of water that helps plants move water from roots to leaves or gives paper towels the capacity to soak up water. Learners will observe water's ability to move through narrow tube-like spaces known as capillaries, in an investigation called Colorizing Carnations. Learners then modify the variables in their activity to test how capillary action is affected by soapy water, salty water, different liquids and/or different plants.

New Jersey

2006-01-01

17

Building a Capillary Action Water Clock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a lesson plan for teachers of grades 2-8 to build a capillary action water clock. Includes a list of objectives, a list of skills/concepts addressed, a rationale for inclusion in the curriculum, and an illustrated lesson outline. (Author/MM)

Tracy, Dyanne M.

2002-01-01

18

Spontaneous imbibition of surfactant solution into an oil-wet capillary: wettability restoration by surfactant-contaminant complexation.  

PubMed

For a given type of rock, the effectiveness of oil recovery through wettability alteration is highly dependent upon the nature of the water-soluble surfactant used. Different mechanisms have been proposed by others to explain wettability alteration by surfactants, and understanding the process is crucial to improve recovery performance. Known mechanisms include (1) surfactant adsorption onto the oil-wet solid surface (coating mechanism) and (2) surfactant molecules complexing with contaminant molecules from the crude oil which are adsorbed on the rock surface so as to strip them off (cleaning mechanism). With the second mechanism, the wettability is restored by lifting the contaminant layer away, exposing the rock surface which was originally water-wet. We previously focused on the numerical modeling of the surfactant coating mechanism (Hammond and Unsal Langmuir2009, 25, 12591; 2010, 26, 6206), and we now present a numerical study for the cleaning process. Our new model shows that when a wettability altering surfactant solution is allowed to imbibe spontaneously and acts by the cleaning process, the meniscus advances more rapidly than when there was wettability alteration by coating alone. In our previous model there was a concentration threshold below which imbibition was not possible. That threshold arose because a finite amount of surfactant needs to be adsorbed onto the oil-wet surface to change the contact angle to a water-wet value, but the maximum amount that can be absorbed is limited by the requirement that it be in equilibrium with the surfactant concentration near the meniscus. In the new model, with the cleaning mechanism there is no such threshold, since the cleaning process is driven by the surfactant flux into the vicinity of the advancing meniscus rather than the surfactant concentration there. As long as there are surfactant molecules present in the aqueous solution, the flux is nonzero and molecule pairs can form and alter the wettability by removing the contaminant from the oil-wet surface. However, under very low surfactant concentrations, the process is extremely slow compared to at higher concentrations. PMID:21428422

Hammond, Paul S; Unsal, Evren

2011-04-19

19

Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique of silicon ribbon growth by the capillary action shaping is assessed for applicability to photovoltaic power device material. Ribbons 25 mm in width and up to 0.5 m in length have been grown from SiC dies, and some new characteristics of growth from such dies have been identified. Thermal modifiers have been studied, and systems were developed which reduce the frozen-in stress un silicon ribbons and improve the thickness uniformity of the ribbons. Preliminary spreading resistance measurements indicate that neither surface striations nor twin boundaries give rise to appreciable resistivity variations, but that large-angle grain boundaries cause local resistivity increases of up to 200%.

Schwuttke, G. H.; Ciszek, T. F.; Kran, A.

1976-01-01

20

The Role of Wettability in Petroleum Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various findings on core handling effects and crude oil\\/brine\\/rock (COBR) interactions have indicated how the wettability of a core sample is altered when retrieved from a reservoir. Moreover, it is revealed that wettability of a core will affect almost all types of physical parameters necessary for reservoir management, such as capillary pressure. However, the most accurate results are obtained when

Adetola L. Ogunberu; Muhammad Ayub

2005-01-01

21

Surface wettability of macroporous anodized aluminum oxide.  

PubMed

The correlation between the structural characteristics and the wetting of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) surfaces with large pore sizes (>100 nm) is discussed. The roughness-induced wettability is systematically examined for oxide films grown by a two-step, high-field anodization in phosphoric acid of three different concentrations using a commercial aluminum alloy. This is done for the as-synthesized AAO layers, after various degrees of pore widening by a wet chemical etching in phosphoric acid solution, and upon surface modification by either Lauric acid or a silane. The as-grown AAO films feature structurally disordered pore architectures with average pore openings in the range 140-190 nm but with similar interpore distances of about 405 nm. The formation of such AAO structures induces a transition from slightly hydrophilic to moderately hydrophobic surfaces up to film thicknesses of about 6 ?m. Increased hydrophobicity is obtained by pore opening and a maximum value of the water contact angle (WCA) of about 128° is measured for AAO arrays with a surface porosity close to 60%. Higher surface porosity by prolonged wet chemical etching leads to a rapid decrease in the WCA as a result of the limited pore wall thickness and partial collapse of the dead-end pore structures. Modification of the AAO surfaces by Lauric acid results in 5-30° higher WCA's, whereas near-superhydrophobicity (WCA ~146°) is realized through silane coating. The "rose petal effect" of strongly hydrophobic wetting with high adhesive force on the produced AAO surfaces is explained by a partial penetration of water through capillary action into the dead-end pore cavities which leads to a wetting state in-between the Wenzel and Cassie states. Moreover, practical guidelines for the synthesis of rough, highly porous AAO structures with controlled wettability are provided and the possibility of forming superhydrophobic surfaces is evaluated. PMID:23506401

Buijnsters, Josephus G; Zhong, Rui; Tsyntsaru, Natalia; Celis, Jean-Pierre

2013-04-24

22

Insulin-mediated capillary recruitment in skeletal muscle: Is this a mediator of insulin action on glucose metabolism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that insulin stimulates microvascular access for itself and glucose in muscle in vivo is discussed. The application\\u000a of new techniques suggests that capillary recruitment is a normal part of insulin's action and that this process becomes impaired\\u000a in insulin resistance. Exercise, which also leads to capillary recruitment, may involve a different mechanism than that used\\u000a by insulin.

Stephen Rattigan; Eugene J. Barrett; Michael G. Clark

2003-01-01

23

Automatic Sampling and Analysis of Organics and Biomolecules by Capillary Action-Supported Contactless Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Contactless atmospheric pressure ionization (C-API) method has been recently developed for mass spectrometric analysis. A tapered capillary is used as both the sampling tube and spray emitter in C-API. No electric contact is required on the capillary tip during C-API mass spectrometric analysis. The simple design of the ionization method enables the automation of the C-API sampling system. In this study, we propose an automatic C-API sampling system consisting of a capillary (?1 cm), an aluminium sample holder, and a movable XY stage for the mass spectrometric analysis of organics and biomolecules. The aluminium sample holder is controlled by the movable XY stage. The outlet of the C-API capillary is placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, whereas the sample well on the sample holder is moved underneath the capillary inlet. The sample droplet on the well can be readily infused into the C-API capillary through capillary action. When the sample solution reaches the capillary outlet, the sample spray is readily formed in the proximity of the mass spectrometer applied with a high electric field. The gas phase ions generated from the spray can be readily monitored by the mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that six samples can be analyzed in sequence within 3.5 min using this automatic C-API MS setup. Furthermore, the well containing the rinsing solvent is alternately arranged between the sample wells. Therefore, the C-API capillary could be readily flushed between runs. No carryover problems are observed during the analyses. The sample volume required for the C-API MS analysis is minimal, with less than 1 nL of the sample solution being sufficient for analysis. The feasibility of using this setup for quantitative analysis is also demonstrated. PMID:23762484

Hsieh, Cheng-Huan; Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

2013-01-01

24

Automatic sampling and analysis of organics and biomolecules by capillary action-supported contactless atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Contactless atmospheric pressure ionization (C-API) method has been recently developed for mass spectrometric analysis. A tapered capillary is used as both the sampling tube and spray emitter in C-API. No electric contact is required on the capillary tip during C-API mass spectrometric analysis. The simple design of the ionization method enables the automation of the C-API sampling system. In this study, we propose an automatic C-API sampling system consisting of a capillary (?1 cm), an aluminium sample holder, and a movable XY stage for the mass spectrometric analysis of organics and biomolecules. The aluminium sample holder is controlled by the movable XY stage. The outlet of the C-API capillary is placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, whereas the sample well on the sample holder is moved underneath the capillary inlet. The sample droplet on the well can be readily infused into the C-API capillary through capillary action. When the sample solution reaches the capillary outlet, the sample spray is readily formed in the proximity of the mass spectrometer applied with a high electric field. The gas phase ions generated from the spray can be readily monitored by the mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that six samples can be analyzed in sequence within 3.5 min using this automatic C-API MS setup. Furthermore, the well containing the rinsing solvent is alternately arranged between the sample wells. Therefore, the C-API capillary could be readily flushed between runs. No carryover problems are observed during the analyses. The sample volume required for the C-API MS analysis is minimal, with less than 1 nL of the sample solution being sufficient for analysis. The feasibility of using this setup for quantitative analysis is also demonstrated. PMID:23762484

Hsieh, Cheng-Huan; Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

2013-01-01

25

Wettability of NAPL-contaminated sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for changes in the wettability of a subsurface system following exposure of sands to a variety of non-aqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) was assessed. Many of the NAPLs were collected from field sites with on-going NAPL recovery systems. Three methods were used to evaluate the wetting conditions: contact angle measurements, a qualitative bottle test, and capillary pressure-saturation curves. The results

Susan E. Powers; William H. Anckner; Thomas F. Seacord

1996-01-01

26

Numerical Evaluation of the Combined Effect of Wettability and Heterogeneity on Waterflood Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments have shown that wettability affects fluid distribution at the pore scale and therefore has an important effect on the end-point saturations and the shapes of capillary pressure (Pc) and relative permeability (Kr) curves. At reservoir scale, the combined effect of wettability and permeability heterogeneity is not so clear. The purpose of the paper is to quantify the effect

R. Lenormand; K. Li; M. Robin; D. Bossie Codreanu

27

Planar lens integrated capillary action microfluidic immunoassay device for the optical detection of troponin I  

PubMed Central

Optical based analysis in microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip systems are currently considered the gold standard methodology for the determination of end point reactions for various chemical and biological reaction processes. Typically, assays are performed using bulky ancillary apparatus such as microscopes and complex optical excitation and detection systems. Such instrumentation negates many of the advantages offered by device miniaturisation, particularly with respect to overall portability. In this article, we present a CO2 laser ablation technique for rapidly prototyping on-chip planar lenses, in conjunction with capillary action based autonomous microfluidics, to create a miniaturised and fully integrated optical biosensing platform. The presented self-aligned on-chip optical components offer an efficient means to direct excitation light within microfluidics and to directly couple light from a LED source. The device has been used in conjunction with a miniaturised and bespoke fluorescence detection platform to create a complete, palm sized system (?60 × 80 × 60 mm) capable of performing fluoro-immunoassays. The system has been applied to the detection of cardiac Troponin I, one of the gold standard biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, achieving a lower detection limit of 0.08?ng/ml, which is at the threshold of clinically applicable concentrations. The portable nature of the complete system and the biomarker detection capabilities demonstrate the potential of the devised instrumentation for use as a medical diagnostics device at the point of care. PMID:24396546

Mohammed, Mazher-Iqbal; Desmulliez, Marc P. Y.

2013-01-01

28

Thin films, asphaltenes, and reservoir wettability  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir wettability impacts the success of oil recovery by waterflooding and other methods. To understand wettability and its alteration, thin-film forces in solid-aqueous-oil systems must be elucidated. Upon rupture of thick aqueous films separating the oil and rock phases, asphaltene components in the crude oil adsorb irreversibly on the solid surface, changing it from water-wet to oil-wet. Conditions of wettability alteration can be found by performing adhesion tests, in which an oil droplet is brought into contact with a solid surface. Exceeding a critical capillary pressure destabilizes the film, causing spontaneous film rupture to a molecularly adsorbed layer and oil adhesion accompanied by pinning at the three-phase contact line. The authors conduct adhesion experiments similar to those of Buckley and Morrow and simultaneously examine the state of the underlying thin film using optical microscopy and microinterferometry. Aqueous thin films between an asphaltic Orcutt crude oil and glass surfaces are studied as a function of aqueous pH and salinity. For the first time, they prove experimentally that strongly water-wet to strongly oil-wet wettability alteration and contact-angle pinning occur when thick aqueous films thin to molecularly adsorbed films and when the oil phase contains asphaltene molecules.

Kaminsky, R.; Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1993-04-01

29

Switching surface wettability properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, recent developments regarding design and preparation of surfaces to modify their wettability behavior by switching between the superhydrophobic and the superhydrophilic state under physical and chemical stimuli are summarized. The complex systems and the strategies developed in nature are investigated as a fundamental support considering the potential applications of these two ‘superstates’ in basic research and in

Michele Ferrari

2012-01-01

30

Modeling Wettability Alteration using Chemical EOR Processes in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our search is to develop a mechanistic simulation tool by adapting UTCHEM to model the wettability alteration in both conventional and naturally fractured reservoirs. This will be a unique simulator that can model surfactant floods in naturally fractured reservoir with coupling of wettability effects on relative permeabilities, capillary pressure, and capillary desaturation curves. The capability of wettability alteration will help us and others to better understand and predict the oil recovery mechanisms as a function of wettability in naturally fractured reservoirs. The lack of a reliable simulator for wettability alteration means that either the concept that has already been proven to be effective in the laboratory scale may never be applied commercially to increase oil production or the process must be tested in the field by trial and error and at large expense in time and money. The objective of Task 1 is to perform a literature survey to compile published data on relative permeability, capillary pressure, dispersion, interfacial tension, and capillary desaturation curve as a function of wettability to aid in the development of petrophysical property models as a function of wettability. The new models and correlations will be tested against published data. The models will then be implemented in the compositional chemical flooding reservoir simulator, UTCHEM. The objective of Task 2 is to understand the mechanisms and develop a correlation for the degree of wettability alteration based on published data. The objective of Task 3 is to validate the models and implementation against published data and to perform 3-D field-scale simulations to evaluate the impact of uncertainties in the fracture and matrix properties on surfactant alkaline and hot water floods.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2007-09-30

31

Experimental investigations of the wettability of clays and shales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wettability in argillaceous materials is poorly understood, yet it is critical to hydrocarbon recovery in clay-rich reservoirs and capillary seal capacity in both caprocks and fault gouges. The hydrophobic or hydrophilic nature of clay-bearing soils and sediments also controls to a large degree the movement of spilled nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface and the options available for remediation of these pollutants. In this paper the wettability of hydrocarbons contacting shales in their natural state and the tendencies for wettability alteration were examined. Water-wet, oil-wet, and mixed-wet shales from wells in Australia were investigated and were compared with simplified model shales (single and mixed minerals) artificially treated in crude oil. The intact natural shale samples (preserved with their original water content) were characterized petrophysically by dielectric spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, plus scanning electron, optical and fluorescence microscopy. Wettability alteration was studied using spontaneous imbibition, pigment extraction, and the sessile drop method for contact angle measurement. The mineralogy and chemical compositions of the shales were determined by standard methods. By studying pure minerals and natural shales in parallel, a correlation between the petrophysical properties, and wetting behavior was observed. These correlations may potentially be used to assess wettability in downhole measurements.

Borysenko, Artem; Clennell, Ben; Sedev, Rossen; Burgar, Iko; Ralston, John; Raven, Mark; Dewhurst, David; Liu, Keyu

2009-07-01

32

Enhancing dropwise condensation through bioinspired wettability patterning.  

PubMed

Dropwise condensation (DWC) heat transfer depends strongly on the maximum diameter (Dmax) of condensate droplets departing from the condenser surface. This study presents a facile technique implemented to gain control of Dmax in DWC within vapor/air atmospheres. We demonstrate how this approach can enhance the corresponding heat transfer rate by harnessing the capillary forces in the removal of the condensate from the surface. We examine various hydrophilic-superhydrophilic patterns, which, respectively, sustain and combine DWC and filmwise condensation on the substrate. The material system uses laser-patterned masking and chemical etching to achieve the desired wettability contrast and does not employ any hydrophobizing agent. By applying alternating straight parallel strips of hydrophilic (contact angle ?78°) mirror-finish aluminum and superhydrophilic regions (etched aluminum) on the condensing surface, we show that the average maximum droplet size on the less-wettable domains is nearly 42% of the width of the corresponding strips. An overall improvement in the condensate collection rate, up to 19% (as compared to the control case of DWC on mirror-finish aluminum) was achieved by using an interdigitated superhydrophilic track pattern (on the mirror-finish hydrophilic surface) inspired by the vein network of plant leaves. The bioinspired interdigitated pattern is found to outperform the straight hydrophilic-superhydrophilic pattern design, particularly under higher humidity conditions in the presence of noncondensable gases (NCG), a condition that is more challenging for maintaining sustained DWC. PMID:25295388

Ghosh, Aritra; Beaini, Sara; Zhang, Bong June; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine M

2014-11-01

33

Wettability control and patterning of PDMS using UV-ozone and water immersion.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a simple method to tune and pattern the wettability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to generate microfluidic mimics of heterogeneous porous media. This technique allows one to tailor the capillary forces at different regions within the PDMS channel to mimic multi-phase flow in oil reservoirs. In this method, UV-ozone treatment is utilized to oxidize and hydrophilize the surface of PDMS. To maintain a stable surface wettability, the oxidized surfaces are immersed in water. Additionally, the use of a photomask makes it convenient to pattern the wettability in the porous media. A one-dimensional diffusive reaction model is established to understand the UV-ozone oxidation as well as hydrophobic recovery of oxidized PDMS surfaces. The modeling results show that during UV-ozone, surface oxidation dominates over diffusion of low-molecular-weight (LMW) species. However, the diffusivity of LMW species plays an important role in wettability control of PDMS surfaces. PMID:21840014

Ma, Kun; Rivera, Javier; Hirasaki, George J; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

2011-11-01

34

Wettability control and patterning of PDMS using UV–ozone and water immersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a simple method to tune and pattern the wettability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to generate microfluidic mimics of heterogeneous porous media. This technique allows one to tailor the capillary forces at different regions within the PDMS channel to mimic multi-phase flow in oil reservoirs. In this method, UV–ozone treatment is utilized to oxidize and hydrophilize the surface of PDMS.

Kun Ma; Javier Rivera; George J. Hirasaki; Sibani Lisa Biswal

2011-01-01

35

Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this five-year project are: (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. During the second year of this project we have tested the generality of the proposed mechanisms by which crude oil components can alter wetting. Using these mechanisms, we have begun a program of characterizing crude oils with respect to their wettability altering potential. Wettability assessment has been improved by replacing glass with mica as a standard surface material and crude oils have been used to alter wetting in simple square glass capillary tubes in which the subsequent imbibition of water can be followed visually.

Buckley, Jill S.

1999-07-01

36

[Capillary permeability factor produced by C 6 glioma cells: role in peritumoral brain edema and possible mechanism of glucocorticoid action].  

PubMed

We studied whether C6 glioma cells produce a diffusible factor that increases capillary permeability of rat brains. Culture supernatant after 4 hours' incubation of C6 glioma cells in serum-free medium was obtained (SUP-N). SUP-N was concentrated 80-fold by dialysis-concentration (MW cut off was 10 kd) (SUP-C). These two supernatant fractions were tested for capillary permeability activity by their infusion into normal rat brains (right caudate-putamen). Control materials (MEM or concentrated MEM) were also infused into the left caudate-putamen as well as supernatants. Capillary permeability was measured by a quantitative autoradiographic method with 14C-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and expressed as an unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (K). Effects of infusates were quantitatively estimated by two parameters, i.e., the highest K value (Kmax) (microliter/g/min) and the spatial extent (D1/2) (mm). The protein concentration of SUP-N and SUP-C was 15 and 950 micrograms/ml, respectively. SUP-N showed a slight increase of capillary permeability, particularly, around the needle track (infusion site) in the brain, but it was not significantly different from the control on the value of Kmax. On the other hand, SUP-C markedly increased capillary permeability (Kmax; SUP-C: 10.83 +/- 0.99, control: 2.53 +/- 0.22, p less than .001) and the effect was much more extensive than that of SUP-N (D1/2; SUP-C: 2.23 +/- 0.26, SUP-N: 0.83 +/- 0.07). A factor in SUP-C increased capillary permeability after a lag phase of 1.5 hours reaching the maximum after 6 hours of infusion, and 24 hours later the effect declined to 30% of Kmax at 6 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2620014

Ohnishi, T; Hayakawa, T; Arita, N; Mogami, H; Ushio, Y; Shapiro, W R

1989-11-01

37

Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens.  

PubMed

Inhalation therapy using essential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris, and evaluate the antibacterial effects of the essential oil and its main components, against common clinically relevant respiratory bacterial pathogens. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography?mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 25 chemical constituents, the main constituents being: ??pinene, ??pinene, limonene, 1,8?cineole, piperitone, ??caryophyllene and capillin. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil, and its major constituents, were evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin?resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA (clinical strain), methicillin?gentamicin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MGRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against the various strains. The essential oil was observed to be much more potent, as compared with any of its major chemical constituents, exhibiting low minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentration values against all of the bacterial strains. The essential oil was most active against S. pyogenes, MRSA (clinical strain), S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and E. coli. Piperitone and capillin were the most potent growth inhibitors, among the major chemical constituents. Furthermore, the essential oil of A. capillaris induced significant and dose?dependent morphological changes in the S. aureus bacterial strain, killing >90% of the bacteria when administered at a higher dose; as determined by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the essential oil induced a significant leakage of potassium and phosphate ions from the S. aureus bacterial cultures. These results indicate that the antibacterial action of A. capillaris essential oil may be mediated through the leakage of these two important ions. In conclusion, A. capillaris essential oil exhibits potent antibacterial activity by inducing morphological changes and leakage of ions in S. aureus bacterial cultures. PMID:25522803

Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

2015-04-01

38

An analytical and numerical study of liquid dynamics in a one-dimensional capillary under entrapped gas action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillary dynamics has been and is yet an important field of research, because of its very relevant role played as the core mechanism at the base of many applications. In this context, we are particularly interested in the liquid penetration inspection technique. Due to the obviously needed level of reliability involved with such a non-destructive test, this paper is devoted to study how the presence of an entrapped gas in a close-end capillary may affect the inspection outcome. This study is carried out through a 1D ordinary differential model that despite its simplicity is able to point out quite well the capillary dynamics under the effect of an entrapped gas. The paper is divided into two main parts; the first starts from an introductory historical review of capillary flows modeling, goes on presenting the 1D second order ordinary differential model, taking into account the presence of an entrapped gas and therefore ends by showing some numerical simulation results. The second part is devoted to the analytical study of the model by separating the initial transitory behavior from the stationary one. Besides, these solutions are compared with the numerical ones and finally an expression is deduced for the threshold radius switching from a fully damped transitory to an oscillatory one.

Fazio, Riccardo; Iacono, Salvatore

2014-11-01

39

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned concept for coal surface wettability evaluation and modulation. The objective of the work are to study the fundamental surface chemistry feature about the evaluation of the surface of coal, pyrite and coal pyrite, and also establish a new separation strategy which could contribute to the advanced coal cleaning for premium fuel application. In this quarter, the capillary rise of three coals, colorado mineral pyrite, and coal pyrite in butanol, pentanol, and butyl ether have been tested. The test results shown that the kinetic wettability of the five samples in the alcohol homolog are dependent on the carbon chain length, as the length of the carbon chain is shorter, the surface wettability is the better. Another test results shown that the kinetic wettability of coals are better than mineral pyrite and coal pyrite in the butyl ether.

Hu, Weibai

1993-12-31

40

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned with the new concept for coal surface wettability evaluation and modulation. The objective of the work is to study the fundamental surface chemistry features about the evaluation of the surface wettability of coal and pyrite and establish a new separation strategy which could contribute to the advanced coal-cleaning for premium fuel application. In the past quarter report, the capillary rise test results of three coal and mineral pyrite samples in distilled water, kerosene, and salt solution indicated that there are good agreements between the experimental observations and theoretical assumption. In this quarter, the further capillary rise tests were conducted for coal, pyrite and coal pyrite in distilled water, kerosene and benzene. The test results shown that surface wettability of coal, mineral pyrite, and coal pyrite have good correlation with the theoretical predictions.

Hu, W.

1993-09-01

41

A pore-level scenario for the development of mixed-wettability in oil reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the role of thin films in porous media is vital if wettability is to be elucidated at the pore level. The type and thickness of films coating pore walls determines reservoir wettability and whether or not reservoir rock can be altered from its initial state of wettability. Pore shape, especially pore wall curvature, is an important factor in determining wetting-film thicknesses. Yet, pore shape and the physics of thin wetting films are generally neglected in models of flow in porous rocks. This paper incorporates thin-film forces into a collection of star-shaped capillary tubes model to describe the geological development of mixed-wettability in reservoir rock. Here, mixed-wettability refers to continuous and distinct oil and water-wetting surfaces coexisting in the porous medium. The proposed model emphasizes the remarkable role of thin films. New pore-level fluid configurations arise that are quite unexpected. For example, efficient water displacement of oil (i.e, low residual oil saturation) characteristic of mixed-wettability porous media is ascribed to interconnected oil lenses or rivulets which bridge the walls adjacent to a pore corner. Predicted residual oil saturations are approximately 35 % less in mixed-wet rock compared to completely water-wet rock. Calculated capillary pressure curves mimic those of mixed-wet porous media in the primary drainage of water, imbibition of water, and secondary drainage modes. Amott-Harvey indices range from {minus}0.18 to 0.36 also in good agreement with experimental values. (Morrow et al, 1986; Judhunandan and Morrow, 1991).

Kovscek, A.R.; Wong, H.; Radke, C.J.

1992-09-01

42

Mechanistic study of wettability alteration using surfactants with applications in naturally fractured reservoirs.  

PubMed

In naturally fractured reservoirs, oil recovery from waterflooding relies on the spontaneous imbibition of water to expel oil from the matrix into the fracture system. The spontaneous imbibition process is most efficient in strongly water-wet rock where the capillary driving force is strong. In oil- or mixed-wet fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, the capillary driving force for the spontaneous imbibition process is weak, and therefore the waterflooding oil recoveries are low. The recovery efficiency can be improved by dissolving low concentrations of surfactants in the injected water to alter the wettability of the reservoir rock to a more water-wet state. This wettability alteration accelerates the spontaneous imbibition of water into matrix blocks, thereby increasing the oil recovery during waterflooding. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the wettability alteration by surfactants, but none have been verified experimentally. Understanding of the mechanisms behind wettability alteration could help to improve the performance of the process and aid in identification of alternative surfactants for use in field applications. Results from this study revealed that ion-pair formation and adsorption of surfactant molecules through interactions with the adsorbed crude oil components on the rock surface are the two main mechanisms responsible for the wettability alteration. Previous researchers observed that, for a given rock type, the effectiveness of wettability alteration is highly dependent upon the ionic nature of the surfactant involved. Our experimental results demonstrated that ion-pair formation between the charged head groups of surfactant molecules and the adsorbed crude oil components on rock surface was more effective in changing the rock wettability toward a more water-wet state than the adsorption of surfactant molecules as a monolayer on the rock surface through hydrophobic interaction with the adsorbed crude oil components. By comparing two anionic surfactants with different charge densities, we propose that wettability alteration processes might be improved through the use of dimeric surfactants, which have two charged head groups and two hydrophobic tails. Gemini surfactants where the molecules are joined at the head end are likely to be effective when ion-pair formation is the wettability alteration mechanism, and bolaform surfactants, in which molecules are joined by the hydrophobic tails, should be more effective in the case of surfactant monolayer adsorption. PMID:19053658

Salehi, Mehdi; Johnson, Stephen J; Liang, Jenn-Tai

2008-12-16

43

Electron-induced wettability modification  

SciTech Connect

The pioneering works by Lippmann [Ann. Chim. Phys. 5, 494 (1875)] and Frumkin [Actual. Sci. Ind. 373, 5 (1936)] reported on electrowetting phenomenon. It was shown that electric potential, applied to an interface between a conducting liquid droplet and solid surface, strengthened the wetting effect. Here, we describe pronounced decrease of wettability induced by a low-energy electron irradiation. We observe this effect in many materials of different origins. The proposed theory of this phenomenon explains the found growth of the hydrophobicity under an electron irradiation by decreasing solid/liquid and solid/vapor interfacial free energies, when reduction of the latter is always higher. This theory considers the droplet shape dependence on the incident electron charge density and energy of the incident electrons, as well as on the liquid and solid origins. The results of calculations are in a good agreement with the experimental data obtained for water droplet on amorphous silicon dioxide. The effect of the decrease of the wettability, induced by an electron irradiation at low incident charge, is completely reversible after subjection of the electron-irradiated material to ultraviolet illumination, which restores its initial wettability state.

Aronov, Daniel; Molotskii, Michel; Rosenman, Gil [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2007-07-15

44

Toxic action of advanced glycation end products on cultured retinal capillary pericytes and endothelial cells: relevance to diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The toxic effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on bovine retinal capillary pericytes (BRP) and endothelial cells\\u000a (BREC) were studied. AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) was toxic to BRP. At a concentration of 500 ?g\\/ml it reduced\\u000a the BRP number to 48 ± 3 % (p < 0.05) of untreated controls, as determined by cell counting with haemocytometer.

R. Chibber; P. A. Molinatti; N. Rosatto; B. Lambourne; E. M. Kohner

1997-01-01

45

Tunable wettability of microstructured polypyrrole films  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the development of the conducting polymer polypyrrole as a viable material for applications requiring switchable wettability. A fabrication procedure that produces robust microstructured polypyrrole ...

Chang, Jean H

2010-01-01

46

Relative-permeability and capillary-pressure functions define how much oil can be recovered and at what rate. These functions,  

E-print Network

Summary Relative-permeability and capillary-pressure functions define how much oil can be recovered in the imaged samples are solved, one can elucidate how relative-permeability and capillary-pressure func- tions depend on wettability, interfacial tension, and the interplay among viscous, capillary and gravitational

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

47

An immersion technique for studying wood wettability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetting properties of wood were studied by a modification of the Wilhelmy technique. This method involved continuously monitoring the force exerted on a wood specimen as it was immersed at a controlled rate into a liquid. Wettability was expressed in terms of the area under the force-immersion curve and was referred to in this study as “wettability index”. The

R. C. Casilla; S. Chow; P. R. Steiner

1981-01-01

48

Wettability evaluation of Iranian carbonate formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of wettability of carbonate rock samples of Iranian formations has been investigated using relative permeability curves and Amott tests. The experiments have been performed at both ambient and reservoir temperature to study the temperature effect on wettability evaluation of carbonate rocks. The samples were carefully cleaned and aged at reservoir temperature in order to achieve restoration of reservoir

Mohammad Reza Esfahani; Manouchehr Haghighi

2004-01-01

49

Effects of surface wettability and liquid viscosity on the dynamic wetting of individual drops.  

PubMed

In this paper, we experimentally investigated the dynamic spreading of liquid drops on solid surfaces. Drop of glycerol water mixtures and pure water that have comparable surface tensions (62.3-72.8 mN/m) but different viscosities (1.0-60.1 cP) were used. The size of the drops was 0.5-1.2 mm. Solid surfaces with different lyophilic and lyophobic coatings (equilibrium contact angle ?(eq) of 0°-112°) were used to study the effect of surface wettability. We show that surface wettability and liquid viscosity influence wetting dynamics and affect either the coefficient or the exponent of the power law that describes the growth of the wetting radius. In the early inertial wetting regime, the coefficient of the wetting power law increases with surface wettability but decreases with liquid viscosity. In contrast, the exponent of the power law does only depend on surface wettability as also reported in literature. It was further found that surface wettability does not affect the duration of inertial wetting, whereas the viscosity of the liquid does. For low viscosity liquids, the duration of inertial wetting corresponds to the time of capillary wave propagation, which can be determined by Lamb's drop oscillation model for inviscid liquids. For relatively high viscosity liquids, the inertial wetting time increases with liquid viscosity, which may due to the viscous damping of the surface capillary waves. Furthermore, we observed a viscous wetting regime only on surfaces with an equilibrium contact angle ?(eq) smaller than a critical angle ?(c) depending on viscosity. A scaling analysis based on Navier-Stokes equations is presented at the end, and the predicted ?(c) matches with experimental observations without any additional fitting parameters. PMID:25215736

Chen, Longquan; Bonaccurso, Elmar

2014-08-01

50

Effects of surface wettability and liquid viscosity on the dynamic wetting of individual drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we experimentally investigated the dynamic spreading of liquid drops on solid surfaces. Drop of glycerol water mixtures and pure water that have comparable surface tensions (62.3-72.8 mN/m) but different viscosities (1.0-60.1 cP) were used. The size of the drops was 0.5-1.2 mm. Solid surfaces with different lyophilic and lyophobic coatings (equilibrium contact angle ?eq of 0°-112°) were used to study the effect of surface wettability. We show that surface wettability and liquid viscosity influence wetting dynamics and affect either the coefficient or the exponent of the power law that describes the growth of the wetting radius. In the early inertial wetting regime, the coefficient of the wetting power law increases with surface wettability but decreases with liquid viscosity. In contrast, the exponent of the power law does only depend on surface wettability as also reported in literature. It was further found that surface wettability does not affect the duration of inertial wetting, whereas the viscosity of the liquid does. For low viscosity liquids, the duration of inertial wetting corresponds to the time of capillary wave propagation, which can be determined by Lamb's drop oscillation model for inviscid liquids. For relatively high viscosity liquids, the inertial wetting time increases with liquid viscosity, which may due to the viscous damping of the surface capillary waves. Furthermore, we observed a viscous wetting regime only on surfaces with an equilibrium contact angle ?eq smaller than a critical angle ?c depending on viscosity. A scaling analysis based on Navier-Stokes equations is presented at the end, and the predicted ?c matches with experimental observations without any additional fitting parameters.

Chen, Longquan; Bonaccurso, Elmar

2014-08-01

51

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of kinetics of capillary rise test between different media is a measure of relative wettability. From table 1, 2 and 3, the Hu`s evaluation of wettability of five samples in the methanol, ethanol and propanol are shown that the kinetic wettability is dependent on the carbon homologous series of alcohol, as shorter the carbon chain of the alcohol, the better surface wettability. The Hu`s evaluation of wettability of H{sub H2O}/H{sub methanol}, H{sub H2O}/H{sub ethanol}, and H{sub H2O}/H{sub propanol} for five samples are listed respectively in table 4, 5 and 6. It indicates that in the water/methanol, water/ethanol, and water/propanol system, Upper Freeport Coal is very little hydrophilicity, or better floatability than Coal Pyrite, it also can be seen that in these system, Pittsburgh No.8 Coal have a little hydrophilicity, or better floatability than Coal pyrite, it would mean that if Methanol, Ethanol, and Propanol are used as flotation collector, coal will be selectively separated from coal pyrite. This has been verified by our investigation elsewhere. The Hu`s evaluation of wettability of H{sub methanol}/H{sub kerosene} for five samples are listed in table 7. It is very interesting to note that the five samples have more methanol-philicity than kerosene. This is very useful for flotation reagents evaluation and selection in practice. The Hu`s evaluation of wettability of H{sub ethanol}/H{sub kerosene} for five samples are listed in table 8. It is indicated that ethanol also can be used as flotation collector. The Hu`s evaluation of wettability H{sub propanol}/H{sub kerosene} for five samples are listed in table 9. It shows that the five samples have lower propanol-philicity than kerosene.

Hu, Weibai

1993-12-01

52

Characterisation of surface wettability based on nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles are becoming frequently used in the research area of creating functional surfaces because they can be more versatile than just making dimensions smaller. Particularly, a variety of nanoparticles have been applied for the construction of superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces with micro- and nano-scaled structures. As nanoparticles can also be fashioned and modified, their effects will be of great importance to the formed surface structures. In the present paper, we review the recent research progress in the utilization of nanoparticles to form extremely wettable/non-wettable surface structures and their influence on surface wettability. This report manifests an apparent inclination of nanoparticle structured surfaces using the multidisciplinary approaches, from the viewpoint of engineer/scientist. Therefore, the typical methodologies with regard to the use of nanoparticles, including the preparation and functionalisation processes, for the realization of surface wettabilities are discussed in this work. The discussions also represent some of the size-determined phenomena that are related to wettable/non-wettable surfaces. This Review thus provides an insight into the connection between nanoparticles and surface wettability. PMID:22392411

Gao, Nan; Yan, Yuying

2012-04-01

53

Wettability of Aluminum on Alumina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wettability of molten aluminum on solid alumina substrate has been investigated by the sessile drop technique in a 10-8 bar vacuum or under argon atmosphere in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1673 K (1000 °C to 1400 °C). It is shown that the reduction of oxide skin on molten aluminum is slow under normal pressures even with ultralow oxygen potential, but it is enhanced in high vacuum. To describe the wetting behavior of the Al-Al2O3 system at lower temperatures, a semiempirical calculation was employed. The calculated contact angle at 973 K (700 °C) is approximately 97 deg, which indicates that aluminum does not wet alumina at aluminum casting temperatures. Thus, a priming height is required for aluminum to infiltrate a filter. Wetting in the Al-Al2O3 system increases with temperature.

Bao, Sarina; Tang, Kai; Kvithyld, Anne; Tangstad, Merete; Engh, Thorvald Abel

2011-12-01

54

Capillary-Driven Flow in Liquid Filaments Connecting Orthogonal Channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capillary phenomena plays an important role in the management of product water in PEM fuel cells because of the length scales associated with the porous layers and the gas flow channels. The distribution of liquid water within the network of gas flow channels can be dramatically altered by capillary flow. We experimentally demonstrate the rapid movement of significant volumes of liquid via capillarity through thin liquid films which connect orthogonal channels. The microfluidic experiments discussed provide a good benchmark against which the proper modeling of capillarity by computational models may be tested. The effect of surface wettability, as expressed through the contact angle, on capillary flow will also be discussed.

Allen, Jeffrey S.

2005-01-01

55

Wettability and its effect on oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir wettability is determined by complex interface boundary conditions acting within the pore space of sedimentary rocks. These conditions have a dominant effect on interface movement and associated oil displacement. Wettability is a significant issue in multiphase flow problems ranging from oil migration from source rocks to such enhanced recovery processes as alkaline flooding or alternate injection of CO{sub 2} and water. In this paper, wettability is discussed mainly in the context of recovery of light (low-viscosity) oils by waterflooding.

Morrow, N.R. (Petrophysics and Surface Chemistry Group, New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, NM (US))

1990-12-01

56

A study of metal-ceramic wettability in SiC-Al using dynamic melt infiltration of SiC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure-assisted infiltration with a 2014 Al alloy of plain and Cu-coated single crystal platelets of alpha silicon carbide was used to study particulate wettability under dynamic conditions relevant to pressure casting of metal-matrix composites. The total penetration length of infiltrant metal in porous compacts was measured at the conclusion of solidification as a function of pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size for both plain and Cu-coated SiC. The experimental data were analyzed to obtain a threshold pressure for the effect of melt intrusion through SiC compacts. The threshold pressure was taken either directly as a measure of wettability or converted to an effective wetting angle using the Young-Laplace capillary equation. Cu coating resulted in partial but beneficial improvements in wettability as a result of its dissolution in the melt, compared to uncoated SiC.

Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

1993-01-01

57

Impact of surfactant-induced wettability alterations on DNAPL invasion in quartz and iron oxide-coated sand systems.  

PubMed

Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) present in the subsurface may contain surface active compounds that impact DNAPL migration and distribution. While a number of studies have revealed the role surface active compounds play in altering the wettability of quartz sand, few have considered the implications for other minerals common to contaminated sites. This study extends understanding of DNAPL/surfactant wettability to iron oxide surfaces. Specifically, quartz and iron oxide-coated sands in a tetrachloroethene (PCE)/water system containing the organic base (an organic molecule that acts as a base) dodecylamine (DDA) were compared at a variety of scales. Wettability of the minerals' surfaces, and the impact of wettability on capillary resistance to DNAPL entry, were assessed as a function of pH through: (i) advancing and receding contact angles, (ii) primary drainage capillary pressure-saturation experiments, and (iii) small, two-dimensional, flow cell experiments. The work revealed that, at neutral pH and under identical boundary capillary pressures, DNAPL invaded quartz sand but not iron oxide-coated sand; however, at low pH, DNAPL invaded both sands equally. These differences were demonstrated to be due to wettability alterations associated with the strength of attractive forces between DDA and the mineral surface, dictated by the isolectric point of the minerals and system pH. Observed differences in DNAPL invasion behavior were consistent with measured intrinsic contact angles and P(c)-S relationships, the latter requiring scaling by the operative contact angle inside the porous medium for a meaningful comparison. This study suggests that the distribution of minerals (and, more specifically, their isoelectric points), as well as the aqueous phase pH at a given site, may have a significant impact on the DNAPL source zone architecture. PMID:20880604

Molnar, Ian L; O'Carroll, Denis M; Gerhard, Jason I

2011-01-25

58

Wettability modification of rock cores by fluorinated copolymer emulsion for the enhancement of gas and oil recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorine-containing acrylate copolymer emulsion was prepared with butyl acrylate, methacrylic acid and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl acrylate as monomers. Moreover, the structure of the copolymer was verified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 19F NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The results showed that all the monomers had been copolymerized and the presence of fluorine moieties. The contact angle (CA) analyses, capillary rise and imbibition spontaneous tests were used to estimate the influence of the copolymer emulsion on the wettability of gas reservoirs. It was observed that the rock surface was of large contact angles of water, oilfield sewage, hexadecane and crude oil after treatment with the emulsion. The capillary rise results indicated that the contact angles of water/air and oil/air systems increased from 60° and 32° to 121° and 80°, respectively, due to the emulsion treatment. Similarly, because of wettability alteration by the fluoropolymer, the imbibition of water and oil in rock core decreased significantly. Experimental results demonstrated that the copolymer emulsion can alter the wettability of porous media from strong liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This work provides a cost-effective method to prepare the fluoropolymer which can increase gas deliverability by altering the wettability of gas-condensate reservoirs and mitigating the water block effect.

Feng, Chunyan; Kong, Ying; Jiang, Guancheng; Yang, Jinrong; Pu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Yuzhong

2012-07-01

59

Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets  

SciTech Connect

Leidenfrost phenomena on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems utilizing boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant means to direct droplet motion in a variety of recently emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions, namely on impact with Weber numbers 40 at T 325 C. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask, with mean pillar diameters of 100 nm and heights of 200-500 nm. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling, suggesting that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Using high-speed imaging, phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon impact for droplets falling onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. The asymmetric impact and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing that asymmetric wettability upon impact is the mechanism for the droplet directionality.

Agapov, Rebecca L [ORNL] [ORNL; Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL] [ORNL; Briggs, Dayrl P [ORNL] [ORNL; Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL] [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL] [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL] [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

60

Impact of wettability on two-phase displacement patterns in granular media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-phase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes like geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, water infiltration in soil, and methane venting from organic-rich sediments. While the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and the pore fluids, the effect of wettability on the fluid displacement remains poorly understood. Here, we study experimentally how wettability affects fluid displacement patterns in rigid granular media within the capillary and viscous fingering regimes. The experiments consist of saturating a thin bed of glass beads with a viscous fluid, injecting a less viscous fluid, and imaging the invasion morphology. There are two control parameters: the injection rate of the less viscous fluid and the contact angle, which we control by modifying the surface chemistry of the beads. When the contact angle is fixed at zero (drainage), we recover the well-known transition from capillary fingering to viscous fingering as the injection rate is increased. When the injection rate is fixed, we show that the invasion pattern becomes more stable as the contact angle increases (i.e., as the system transitions from drainage to imbibition), both in the capillary-fingering and viscous-fingering regimes. We quantify the effect of the contact angle on the length scale of the instability, and propose a mechanistic pore-scale model that explains the macroscopic observations. The results demonstrate that wettability can significantly impact multiphase flow in porous media, and highlight the need to better understand the specific effects in many processes such as CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Air displacing a water/glycerol mixture within a radial Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads. Varying the wetting properties of the solid matrix (horizontal axis) as well as the injection rate (vertical axis) systematically, the invasion pattern stabilizes as the invading phase (air) becomes more wetting.

Trojer, M.; Szulczewski, M.; Holtzman, R.; Juanes, R.

2013-12-01

61

A Numerical Investigation of Wettability Alteration during Immiscible CO2  

E-print Network

was devoted to laboratory experiments including core and micro-model flooding to investigate wettability the reservoir efficiently. Introduction Wettability is the relative preference for adhesion of two fluids

Hossain, M. Enamul

62

Tuning surface wettability by designing hairy structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a molecular dynamics simulation study on the controlling factors that influence the wettability of a hairy surface. By adopting the hairs with appropriate grafting density, hair length, and hair rigidity, the hairy surface shows good performance on droplet repellency. When the droplet sits on the hairy surface, the flexible hairs can spontaneously bundle with the appropriate amount of neighboring hairs to enhance the surface hydrophobicity, thus providing a new possibility to control the surface wettability. The hairy surface with tunable grafting density and hair rigidity, bridges the gap between surfaces with soft polymer brushes and surfaces that are completely hard but porous.

Pei, Han-Wen; Liu, Hong; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhu, You-Liang

2015-02-01

63

Reversed boiling curve phenomenon on surfaces with interlaced wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally investigated the effects of contact angle difference of heterogeneous wettability surfaces on pool boiling. For surfaces exhibiting heterogeneous wettability, this study determined that the pool boiling curve experiences a superheat decrease in some regions before the system achieves the critical heat flux. In addition, oscillation of the vapor column and bubble transverse motions on the heterogeneous wettability coated surface were observed.

Hsu, C. C.; Chiu, W. C.; Kuo, L. S.; Chen, P. H.

2014-10-01

64

Capillary penetration failure of blood suspensions.  

PubMed

Blood suspension fails to penetrate a capillary with radius R less than 50 microm even if the capillary is perfectly wettable. This invasion threshold is attributed to three red blood cells (RBCs) segregation mechanisms--corner deflection at the entrance, the intermediate deformation-induced radial migration and shear-induced diffusion within a packed slug at the meniscus. The shear-induced radial migration for deformable particles endows the blood cells with a higher velocity than the meniscus to form the concentrated slug behind the meniscus. This tightly packed slug has a higher resistance and arrests the flow. Rigid particles and rigidified blood cells result in wetting behavior similar to that seen for homogeneous liquids, with decreased RBC migration towards the capillary centerline and reduction of packing. Corner deflection with a radial drift velocity accelerates the radial migration for small capillaries. However, deformation-induced radial migration is the key mechanism responsible for penetration failure. This sequence of mechanisms is confirmed through videomicroscopy and scaling theories were applied to capture the dependence of the critical capillary radius as a function of RBC concentrations. PMID:15925633

Zhou, Ronghui; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

2005-07-15

65

The Wettability of a Multi-Component DNAPL on Quartz and Iron Oxide Sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) released to the subsurface often contain a variety of chemical constituents, via either co-disposal or intentional modification to increase their industrial efficacy. These additional constituents are often surface active compounds (surfactants)that partition to soil surfaces. The role that these surface active compounds that sorb to soil surfaces have on DNAPL migration is still poorly understood despite an increasing amount of work in the area. Most studies have focused on the role surface active chemicals play in altering the wettability of quartz sands. This research aims to extend the understanding of multi-component DNAPL transport to other porous media and under a variety of pH conditions. Specifically, the objective of this study was to compare the changes in the wettability of quartz and iron oxide sands in a tetrachloroethylene (PCE)/water system spiked with dodecylamine, a representative cationic surfactant. Wettability was assessed through: (i) contact angles measured on representative quartz and iron oxide-coated plates as well as (ii) contact angles measured directly on sands using an Axial Drop Symmetrical Analyzer apparatus; and (iii) capillary pressure-saturation relationships obtained via multi-step outflow experiments. In addition, two-dimensional sandbox experiments explored the influences of iron oxide and quartz sands on multicomponent DNAPL migration. Results suggest that quartz and iron oxide-coated sands exhibit different wetting characteristics under similar subsurface conditions.

Molnar, I.; O'Carroll, D.; Gerhard, J.

2009-05-01

66

CO2 wettability of seal and reservoir rocks and the implications for carbon geo-sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the literature data published on the topic of CO2 wettability of storage and seal rocks. We first introduce the concept of wettability and explain why it is important in the context of carbon geo-sequestration (CGS) projects, and review how it is measured. This is done to raise awareness of this parameter in the CGS community, which, as we show later on in this text, may have a dramatic impact on structural and residual trapping of CO2. These two trapping mechanisms would be severely and negatively affected in case of CO2-wet storage and/or seal rock. Overall, at the current state of the art, a substantial amount of work has been completed, and we find that: Sandstone and limestone, plus pure minerals such as quartz, calcite, feldspar, and mica are strongly water wet in a CO2-water system. Oil-wet limestone, oil-wet quartz, or coal is intermediate wet or CO2 wet in a CO2-water system. The contact angle alone is insufficient for predicting capillary pressures in reservoir or seal rocks. The current contact angle data have a large uncertainty. Solid theoretical understanding on a molecular level of rock-CO2-brine interactions is currently limited. In an ideal scenario, all seal and storage rocks in CGS formations are tested for their CO2 wettability. Achieving representative subsurface conditions (especially in terms of the rock surface) in the laboratory is of key importance but also very challenging.

Iglauer, Stefan; Pentland, C. H.; Busch, A.

2015-01-01

67

Wettability inversion induced by weak electron irradiation  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a wettability modification of ultrathin dielectric films induced by an electron irradiation. The effect of wettability inversion, transition from hydrophobic to hydrophilic state, is predicted for low irradiation doses. It is supposed that the inversion is caused by a change in the basic mechanism of the influence of an electron irradiation on the interface free energy. For high irradiation doses, the effect of the decrease in wettability under electron irradiation is caused by the interactions of an excess charge in the film with its image charges. At low doses, the mechanism is referred to the interaction of surface charges, which function as hydrophilic adsorption centers, with water molecules. The predicted effect of the wettability inversion has been experimentally verified with electron irradiation of silicon dioxide ultrathin films. A dramatic reduction in water drop surface tension on the liquid/vapor interface has been observed. Such reduction is explained by drop charging as a result of carriers tunneling from semiconductor through ultrathin oxide layer.

Aronov, Daniel; Molotskii, Michel [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2008-12-01

68

CO2 Reaction Induced Wettability Alteration and its Impacts on CO2 Storage: Pore to Core Scale Reservoir Condition Experimental Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wettability of the mineral surfaces plays an important role in subsurface multiphase flow and transport. Wettability affects the capillary pressure-saturation (Pc- S) relations, relative permeability (kr) of each fluid phase, and relative phase occupancy in reservoir pores. Although wettability issues have been studied extensively in other fields, significant knowledge gaps remain when applying the existing understanding to geological carbon sequestration; due largely to the unique physical-chemical properties of supercritical (sc) CO2 relative to other common non-wetting fluids such as air and oil. Here, we report our recent progress on wettability alteration upon reaction with CO2 and the resulting differences in capillary trapping of CO2 versus air. (1) Pore Scale Studies. There are conflict predictions in the literature concerning the effect of wettability on capillary trapping; some find that larger contact angles lead to lower capillary trapping while others have found opposite behavior. We hypothesized that spontaneous imbibition becomes energetically unfavorable with decreased wettability, so that increased residual trapping of scCO2 should occur during the post-injection inbibition stage. We developed a laboratory high-pressure and elevated temperature microscopic-micromodel system that is capable of controlling fine scale capillary pressure of scCO2-brine, and enabled us to conduct imbibition under controlled capillary pressures at the pore scale. We found that the de-wetting enhanced scCO2 capillary trapping is significant. These results suggest that scCO2 reaction induced dewetting can result in higher degrees of CO2 residual trapping in the post-injection stage than previously predicted. (2) Core Scale Studies. Capillary scaling is used routinely to predict Pc(S) relations for scCO2-brine systems at field scale, based on relations measured with air-water or mercury porosimetry. However, scaling-based predictions for CO2-brine systems have not been fully tested. Current limitations include the fact that imbibition curves are seldom measured due to experimental difficulties in controlling capillary pressure, and wettability (contact angles) is usually unknown and applied as adjustable parameters. Applying a new laboratory system to accurately control Pc at high total P, and we measured Pc(S) of a homogeneous quartz sand (selected because its 'normal' hydraulic properties are very well constrained). Drainage and imbibition experiments were conducted to directly measure Pc(S) with air-brine, then with scCO2-brine. With scCO2, intermediate levels of S shifted to Pc values 30% to 90% lower than predicted based on scaling with interfacial tension. Capillary trapping of CO2 were measured at Pc = 0 during brine imbibition, with trapped volumes for scCO2 significantly greater than for trapped air. We conclude that the observed deviations from scaling predictions make predicting the hydraulic behavior of scCO2 in reservoirs more challenging, and that an understanding of scCO2-induced wettability change is needed.

Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Jung, J.; Kim, T.; Dong, W.

2013-12-01

69

Motion of Drops on Surfaces with Wettability Gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid drop present on a solid surface can move because of a gradient in wettability along the surface, as manifested by a gradient in the contact angle. The contact angle at a given point on the contact line between a solid and a liquid in a gaseous medium is the angle between the tangent planes to the liquid and the solid surfaces at that point and is measured within the liquid side, by convention. The motion of the drop occurs in the direction of increasing wettability. The cause of the motion is the net force exerted on the drop by the solid surface because of the variation of the contact angle around the periphery. This force causes acceleration of an initially stationary drop, and leads to its motion in the direction of decreasing contact angle. The nature of the motion is determined by the balance between the motivating force and the resisting hydrodynamic force from the solid surface and the surrounding gaseous medium. A wettability gradient can be chemically induced as shown by Chaudhury and Whitesides who provided unambiguous experimental evidence that drops can move in such gradients. The phenomenon can be important in heat transfer applications in low gravity, such as when condensation occurs on a surface. Daniel et al have demonstrated that the velocity of a drop on a surface due to a wettability gradient in the presence of condensation can be more than two orders of magnitude larger than that observed in the absence of condensation. In the present research program, we have begun to study the motion of a drop in a wettability gradient systematically using a model system. Our initial efforts will be restricted to a system in which no condensation occurs. The experiments are performed as follows. First, a rectangular strip of approximate dimensions 10 x 20 mm is cut out of a silicon wafer. The strip is cleaned thoroughly and its surface is exposed to the vapor from an alkylchlorosilane for a period lasting between one and two minutes inside a desiccator. This is done using an approximate line source of the vapor in the form of a string soaked in the alkylchlorosilane. Ordinarily, many fluids, including water, wet the surface of silicon quite well. This means that the contact angle is small. But the silanized surface resists wetting, with contact angles that are as large as 100 degs. Therefore, a gradient of wettability is formed on the silicon surface. The region near the string is highly hydrophobic, and the contact angle decreases gradually toward a small value at the hydrophilic end away from this region. The change in wettability occurs over a distance of several mm. The strip is placed on a platform within a Plexiglas cell. Drops of a suitable liquid are introduced on top of the strip near the hydrophobic end. An optical system attached to a video camera is trained on the drop so that images of the moving drop can be captured on videotape for subsequent analysis. We have performed preliminary experiments with water as well as ethylene glycol drops. Results from these experiments will be presented in the poster. Future plans include the refinement of the experimental system so as to permit images to be recorded from the side as well as the top, and the conduct of a systematic study in which the drop size is varied over a good range. Experiments will be conducted with different fluids so as to obtain the largest possible range of suitably defined Reynolds and Capillary numbers. Also, an effort will be initiated on theoretical modeling of this motion. The challenges in the development of the theoretical description lie in the proper analysis of the region in the vicinity of the contact line, as well as in the free boundary nature of the problem. It is known that continuum models assuming the no slip condition all the way to the contact line fail by predicting that the stress on the solid surface becomes singular as the contact line is approached. One approach for dealing with this issue has been to relax the no-slip boundary condition using the Navier model. Molecular dynamics simulations of the contact li

Subramanian, R. Shankar; McLaughlin, John B.; Moumen, Nadjoua; Qian, Dongying

2002-01-01

70

A wettability switchable surface by microscale surface morphology change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel wettability switchable surface which shields out any interference from driving energy is demonstrated. In this mechanism, a free-standing metal/polymer membrane with hydrophobic microposts is sustained by spacers, and electrostatic force is used to carry out the deflection of the metal/polymer membrane, hence changing the surface morphology as well as the fraction of a liquid/solid interface. Water contact angles under this mechanism can be manipulated from 131° to 152°, depending on the fraction of a liquid/solid interface. Since the driving energy of electrostatic action is shielded out by the ground electrode, the ingredients carried in the droplet can be thoroughly free from the interference and maintain functionality. Therefore, this mechanism has great potential to manipulate microdroplets for digital fluidic systems in bio-applications.

Chen, Ting-Hsuan; Chuang, Yun-Ju; Chieng, Ching-Chang; Tseng, Fan-Gang

2007-03-01

71

Nanowear of salivary films vs. substratum wettability.  

PubMed

The pellicle serves as a multifunctional protective layer, providing, e.g., lubrication and remineralization and also acting as a diffusion barrier. In addition, since the formation of the pellicle precedes the adhesion of micro-organisms, it is also important as a conditioning film. We present a novel approach to study the influence of the water wettability of solid surfaces on the strength of adsorbed salivary films. It is based on studying the wear resistance of the films with an atomic force microscope operated in the friction force spectroscopy mode. This methodology provides the strength of the films in terms of the forces needed for breaking and removing them. Our results indicate that these forces are highly dependent on the water wettability of the underlying substrata, decreasing with increasing hydrophobicity. Thus, this study provides valuable information for the design of materials exposed in the oral cavity, i.e., materials that will minimize plaque formation and be easy to clean. PMID:22875480

Sotres, J; Pettersson, T; Lindh, L; Arnebrant, T

2012-10-01

72

Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates  

SciTech Connect

Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on carbonate reservoirs of widely varying moldic pore systems that represent the major of reservoirs in Kansas and are important nationally and worldwide. A goal of the project is to measure wettability, using representative oils from Kansas fields, on a wide range of moldic-porosity lithofacies that are representative of Kansas and midcontinent shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs. This investigation will discern the relative influence of wetting and pore architecture. In the midcontinent, reservoir water saturations are frequently greater than 'irreducible' because many reservoirs are largely in the capillary transition zone. This can change the imbibition oil-water relative permeability relations. Ignoring wettability and transition-zone relative permeabilities in reservoir modeling can lead to over- and under-prediction of oil recovery and recovery rates, and less effective improved recovery management. A goal of this project is to measure drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeabilities for a large representative range of lithofacies at differ ent initial water saturations to obtain relations that can be applied everywhere in the reservoir. The practical importance of these relative permeability and wettability models will be demonstrated by using reservoir simulation studies on theoretical/generic and actual reservoir architectures. The project further seeks to evaluate how input of these new models affects reservoir simulation results at varying scales. A principal goal is to obtain data that will allow us to create models that will show how to accurately simulate flow in the shallow-structure, complex carbonate reservoirs that lie in the transition zone. Tasks involved to meet the project objectives include collection and consolidation of available data into a publicly accessible relational digital database and collection of oil and rock samples from carbonate fields around the state (Task 1). Basic properties of these rocks and oils will be measured and used in wettability tests. Comparison will be performed between crude and synthetic oil wettability and

Alan P. Byrnes; Saibal Bhattacharya; John Victorine; Ken Stalder

2007-09-30

73

Wettability patterning of hydroxyapatite nanobioceramics induced by surface potential modification  

SciTech Connect

Hydroxyapatite is known as a substrate for effective adhesion of various biological cells and bacteria as well implantable biomimetic material replacing defective bone tissues. It is found that low energy electron irradiation induces its strong surface potential variation and gives rise to pronounced wettability modification. The found electron-modulation method of the hydroxyapatite wettability enables both wettability switching and its microscopic patterning, which may be used for fabrication of spatially arrayed hydroxyapatite for biological cells immobilization, gene transfer, etc.

Aronov, D.; Rosenman, G.; Karlov, A.; Shashkin, A. [School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 (Israel); Center for Orthopedic and Medical Material Sciences of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 634029 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2006-04-17

74

Bioinspired super-wettability from fundamental research to practical applications.  

PubMed

Engineered wettability is a traditional, yet key issue in surface science and attracts tremendous interest in solving large-scale practical problems. Recently, different super-wettability systems have been discovered in both nature and experiments. In this Review we present three types of super-wettability, including the three-dimensional, two-dimensional, and one-dimensional material surfaces. By combining different super-wettabilities, novel interfacial functional systems could be generated and integrated into devices for use in tackling current and the future problems including resources, energy, environment, and health. PMID:25614018

Wen, Liping; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

2015-03-01

75

Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale  

SciTech Connect

Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1997-08-01

76

Dependence of capillary forces on relative humidity and the surface properties of femtosecond laser micromachined titanium.  

PubMed

Capillary forces were measured with colloidal atomic force microscopy at different levels of relative humidity on femtosecond laser micromachined titanium surfaces. After laser machining at different intensity levels, the titanium surfaces show a nanoscale ripple topology or microscopic bumpy structures. Different machining environments were chosen to influence the surface chemistry in addition to topology: while machining in pure oxygen and water resulted in surfaces consisting of TiO2, a composite surface of TiO2 and TiN was obtained after machining in pure nitrogen. All samples were subsequently exposed to pure oxygen, carbon dioxide or water, and showed different levels of wettability and capillary force. We have introduced the concept of humidity sensitivity as the relative increase of the capillary force with respect to the measured force at 0% humidity. We report that samples with a nanoscale ripple topology machined in pure oxygen exhibit the lowest level of capillary force and the lowest sensitivity towards humidity in the environment. Surfaces with low sensitivity towards changes of the relative humidity are good candidates for technical applications, where capillary forces have to be controlled. This study contributes to the development of such surfaces, to a better understanding of how capillary bridges are formed on rough surfaces and ultimately to the exploration of the relationship between surface wettability and capillary forces. PMID:25746189

Lehr, Jorge; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

2015-06-15

77

Wettability literature survey - Part 6: The effects of wettability on waterflooding  

SciTech Connect

The wettability of a core will strongly affect its waterflood behavior and relative permeability because wettability is a major factor controlling the location, flow, and distribution of fluids in a porous medium. When a strongly water-wet system is waterflooded, recovery at water breakthrough is high, with little additional oil production after breakthrough. Conversely, water breakthrough occurs much earlier in strongly oil-wet systems, with most of the oil recovered during a long period of simultaneous oil and water production. Waterfloods are less efficient in oil-wet systems compared with water-wet ones because more water must be injected to recover a given amount of oil. This paper examines the effects of wettability on waterflooding, including the effects on the breakthrough and residual oil saturations (ROS's) and the changes in waterflood behavior caused by core cleaning. Also covered are waterfloods in heterogeneously wetted systems. Waterfloods in fractionally wetted sandpacks, where the size of the individual water-wet and oil-wet surfaces are on the order of a single pore, behave like waterfloods in uniformly wetted systems. In a mixed-wettability system, the continuous oil-wet paths in the larger pores alter the relative permeability curves and allow the system to be waterflooded to a very low ROS after the injection of many PV's of water.

Anderson, W.G.

1987-12-01

78

Wettability Induced Crack Dynamics and Morphology  

E-print Network

Substrate wettability alteration induced control over crack formation process in thin colloidal films has been addressed in the present study. Colloidal nanosuspension (53nm, mean particle diameter) droplets have been subjected to natural drying to outline the effects of substrate surface energies over the dry-out characteristics with emphasis on crack dynamics, crack morphology and underlying particle arrangements. Experimental findings indicate that number of cracks formed decreases with increase in substrate hydrophobicity. These physical phenomena have been explained based on the magnitude of stress dissipation incurred by the substrate. DLVO predictions are also found to be in tune with the reported experimental investigations.

Udita Uday Ghosh; Monojit Chakraborty; Aditya Bikram Bhandari; Suman Chakraborty; Sunando DasGupta

2014-12-03

79

Azobenzene-containing monolayer with photoswitchable wettability.  

PubMed

A compact monolayer containing azobenzene has been prepared on silicon substrates. The elaboration route consisted of covalent grafting of freshly synthesized azobenzene moieties onto an isocyanate-functionalized self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The highly packed and ordered isocyanate-functionalized SAM and the azobenzene-functionalized SAM were monitored and characterized by contact angle measurements and X-ray reflectivity (XR). Photoswitching of the wettability of the film induced by the reversible cis-trans isomerization of the azobenzene chromophores is experimentally shown from water and olive oil contact angle measurements. PMID:16343003

Delorme, N; Bardeau, J-F; Bulou, A; Poncin-Epaillard, F

2005-12-20

80

Electrically tunable wettability of liquid crystal/polymer composite films  

E-print Network

Electrically tunable wettability of liquid crystal/polymer composite films Yi-Hsin Lin1 , Hongwen/ polymer composite film is demonstrated, in which liquid crystal molecules are anchored among polymer. These liquid crystal/polymer composite films with electrically tunable wettability have potential applications

Wu, Shin-Tson

81

Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller.

Hsu, Chin-Chi; Su, Tsung-Wen; Chen, Ping-Hei

2012-05-01

82

Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller. PMID:22607462

2012-01-01

83

Capillary Driven Flows Along Differentially Wetted Interior Corners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Closed-form analytic solutions useful for the design of capillary flows in a variety of containers possessing interior corners were recently collected and reviewed. Low-g drop tower and aircraft experiments performed at NASA to date show excellent agreement between theory and experiment for perfectly wetting fluids. The analytical expressions are general in terms of contact angle, but do not account for variations in contact angle between the various surfaces within the system. Such conditions may be desirable for capillary containment or to compute the behavior of capillary corner flows in containers consisting of different materials with widely varying wetting characteristics. A simple coordinate rotation is employed to recast the governing system of equations for flows in containers with interior corners with differing contact angles on the faces of the corner. The result is that a large number of capillary driven corner flows may be predicted with only slightly modified geometric functions dependent on corner angle and the two (or more) contact angles of the system. A numerical solution is employed to verify the new problem formulation. The benchmarked computations support the use of the existing theoretical approach to geometries with variable wettability. Simple experiments to confirm the theoretical findings are recommended. Favorable agreement between such experiments and the present theory may argue well for the extension of the analytic results to predict fluid performance in future large length scale capillary fluid systems for spacecraft as well as for small scale capillary systems on Earth.

Golliher, Eric L. (Technical Monitor); Nardin, C. L.; Weislogel, M. M.

2005-01-01

84

Microscale fibre alignment by a three-dimensional sessile drop on a wettable pad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluidic assembly provides solutions for assembling particles with sizes from nano- metres to centimetres. Fluidic techniques based on patterned shapes of monolayers and capillary forces are widely used to assemble microfabrication devices. Usually, for self-assembly, the precondition is that the components must be mobile in a fluidic environment. In the present work, a shape-directed fluidic self-assembly of rod-like microstructures, such as an optical fibre on a wettable pad is demonstrated experimentally with submicrometre positioning precision. A model of the process is proposed, which accounts for the following two stages of the orientation of a fibre submerged in a sessile drop: (i) the drop melting and spreading over a wettable pad; (ii) fibre reorientation related to the surface-tension-driven shrinkage of the drop surface area. At the end of stage (ii), the fibre is oriented along the pad. The experi- mental results for the optical-fibre assembly by a solder joint have been compared to the modelling results, and a reasonable agreement has been found. The major outcome of the experiments and modelling is that surface tension forces on the fibre piercing a drop align the fibre rather than the flow owing to the spreading of the drop over the horizontal pad, i.e. stage (ii) mostly contributes to the alignment.

Reznik, S. N.; Salalha, W.; Yarin, A. L.; Zussman, E.

85

Stick-Slip Control in Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication by Surface Wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of atomic-scale surface-lubricant interactions on nanoscale boundary-lubricated friction by considering two example surfaces—hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphene—confining thin layers of water in molecular dynamics simulations. We observe stick-slip dynamics for thin water films confined by mica sheets, involving periodic breaking-reforming transitions of atomic-scale capillary water bridges formed around the potassium ions of mica. However, only smooth sliding without stick-slip events is observed for water confined by graphene, as well as for thicker water layers confined by mica. Thus, our results illustrate how atomic-scale details affect the wettability of the confining surfaces and consequently control the presence or absence of stick-slip dynamics in nanoscale friction.

Chen, Wei; Foster, Adam S.; Alava, Mikko J.; Laurson, Lasse

2015-03-01

86

Stick-slip control in nanoscale boundary lubrication by surface wettability.  

PubMed

We study the effect of atomic-scale surface-lubricant interactions on nanoscale boundary-lubricated friction by considering two example surfaces-hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphene-confining thin layers of water in molecular dynamics simulations. We observe stick-slip dynamics for thin water films confined by mica sheets, involving periodic breaking-reforming transitions of atomic-scale capillary water bridges formed around the potassium ions of mica. However, only smooth sliding without stick-slip events is observed for water confined by graphene, as well as for thicker water layers confined by mica. Thus, our results illustrate how atomic-scale details affect the wettability of the confining surfaces and consequently control the presence or absence of stick-slip dynamics in nanoscale friction. PMID:25793825

Chen, Wei; Foster, Adam S; Alava, Mikko J; Laurson, Lasse

2015-03-01

87

Stick-Slip Control in Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication by Surface Wettability  

E-print Network

We study the effect of atomic scale surface-lubricant interactions on nanoscale boundary-lubricated friction, by considering two example surfaces - hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphene - confining thin layers of water in molecular dynamics simulations. We observe stick-slip dynamics for thin water films confined by mica sheets, involving periodic breaking-reforming transitions of atomic scale capillary water bridges formed around the potassium ions of mica. However, only smooth sliding without stick-slip events is observed for water confined by graphene, as well as for thicker water layers confined by mica. Thus, our results illustrate how atomic scale details affect the wettability of the confining surfaces, and consequently control the presence or absence of stick-slip dynamics in nanoscale friction.

Wei Chen; Adam S. Foster; Mikko J. Alava; Lasse Laurson

2015-02-13

88

Molecular dynamics of wetting layer formation and forced water invasion in angular nanopores with mixed wettability.  

PubMed

The depletion of conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs has prompted the oil and gas industry to search for unconventional resources such as shale gas/oil reservoirs. In shale rocks, considerable amounts of hydrocarbon reside in nanoscale pore spaces. As a result, understanding the multiphase flow of wetting and non-wetting phases in nanopores is important to improve oil and gas recovery from these formations. This study was designed to investigate the threshold capillary pressure of oil and water displacements in a capillary dominated regime inside nanoscale pores using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. The pores have the same cross-sectional area and volume but different cross-sectional shapes. Oil and water particles were represented with a coarse grained model and the NEMD simulations were conducted by assigning external pressure on an impermeable piston. Threshold capillary pressures were determined for the drainage process (water replaced by oil) in different pores. The molecular dynamics results are in close agreements with calculations using the Mayer-Stowe-Princen (MS-P) method which has been developed on the premise of energy balance in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the drainage simulations, a change in wall particles' wettability from water-wet to oil-wet was implemented based on the final configuration of oil and water inside the pore. Waterflooding simulations were then carried out at the threshold capillary pressure. The results show that the oil layer formed between water in the corner and in the center of the pore is not stable and collapses as the simulation continues. This is in line with the predictions from the MS-P method. PMID:25416901

Sedghi, Mohammad; Piri, Mohammad; Goual, Lamia

2014-11-21

89

Wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetting control of graphene is of great interest for electronic, mechanical, architectural, and bionic applications. In this study, the wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures was manipulated by changing the height of graphene-laminated structures and employing the trichlorosilane (HDF-S)-based self-assembly monolayer. Graphene-laminated micropillar structures with HDF-S exhibited higher hydrophobicity (contact angle of 129.5°) than pristine graphene thin film (78.8°), pristine graphene-laminated micropillar structures (97.5°), and HDF-S self-assembled graphene thin film (98.5°). Wetting states of the graphene-laminated micropillar structure with HDF-S was also examined by using a urea solution, which flowed across the surface without leaving any residues.

Bong, Jihye; Seo, Keumyoung; Park, Ji-Hoon; Ahn, Joung Real; Ju, Sanghyun

2014-12-01

90

Wettability analysis of tin-based, lead free solders  

SciTech Connect

The overall program is comprised of two efforts. The first effort studies the wettability of tin-based, lead free solders on two commonly used substrate materials: copper and gold-nickel plated Kovar{trademark}. The evaluation is being conducted by the meniscometer/wetting balance technique which uses the contact angle as the primary metric to quantify wettability. Information about the rate of wetting is also obtainable with this test. The second part of the program is comprised of an assessment of the solderability of actual circuit board assemblies (surface mount and through-hole). This report will describe data from the wettability analysis of lead free solders on copper.

Vianco, P T; Hosking, F M; Rejent, J A

1992-01-01

91

Capillary Origami Controlled by Electrowetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What happens if a water droplet is deposited over an elastic sheet? The sheet spontaneously wraps around droplet? This is possible if the capillary forces due to the liquid/air interface overcome the bending stiffness of the elastic sheet [1]. This technique called ``capillary origami'' could be used not only to encapsulate micro droplets but also to produce 3-D objects out from planar patterns. Once the microstructure has closed, could it be possible to reopen it at will? The wetting properties of liquids can be modified by the action of an electric field [2]. This phenomenon known as electrowetting can be seen as the electric energy minimization of a capacitor. In order to be capable of reopening the capillary origami, we propose to apply an electric field between the droplet and the substrate, with the flexible sheet as an isolating layer between them. The sheet will stay wrapping the droplet while the circuit is open and will eventually unwrap it if a sufficiently intense electric field is applied. We attempt to describe the original interaction between the electric field, capillarity and elasticity.[4pt] [1] C. Py, P. Reverdy, L. Doppler, J. Bico, B. Roman, C.N.Baroud, Capillary origami : spontaneous wrapping of a droplet with an elastic sheet, Phys. Rev. Lett., 98, 156103 (2007).[0pt] [2] F. Mugele, J.-C. Baret, Electrowetting : from basics to applications, J. Phys. Cond. Mat., 17, R705 (2005).

Pineirua, Miguel; Bico, Jose; Roman, Benoit

2010-03-01

92

Capillary sample (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A capillary sample of blood is obtained by pricking the skin's surface to obtain a drop or several drops ... blood for laboratory testing. The usual location of capillary blood sampling is the skin of the finger ...

93

Measurement of surface tension and viscosity by open capillary techniques  

DOEpatents

An open-channel capillary is provided, having preferably a v-shaped groove in a flat wettable surface. The groove has timing marks and a source marker in which the specimen to be tested is deposited. The time of passage between the timing marks is recorded, and the ratio of surface tension .gamma. to viscosity .mu. is determined from the equation given below: ##EQU1## where h.sub.0 is the groove depth, .alpha. is the groove angle, .theta. is the liquid/solid contact angle, and t is the flow time. It has been shown by the

Rye,Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM), Yost,Frederick G. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1998-01-01

94

IMPACT OF CAPILLARY AND BOND NUMBERS ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and recovery rate of oil, gas and condensates depend crucially on their relative permeability. Relative permeability in turn depends on the pore structure, wettability and flooding conditions, which can be represented by a set of dimensionless groups including capillary and bond numbers. The effect of flooding conditions on drainage relative permeabilities is not well understood and is the overall goal of this project. This project has three specific objectives: to improve the centrifuge relative permeability method, to measure capillary and bond number effects experimentally, and to develop a pore network model for multiphase flows. A centrifuge has been built that can accommodate high pressure core holders and x-ray saturation monitoring. The centrifuge core holders can operate at a pore pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and an overburden pressure of 17 MPa (2500 psi). The effect of capillary number on residual saturation and relative permeability in drainage flow has been measured. A pore network model has been developed to study the effect of capillary numbers and viscosity ratio on drainage relative permeability. Capillary and Reynolds number dependence of gas-condensate flow has been studied during well testing. A method has been developed to estimate relative permeability parameters from gas-condensate well test data.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2002-09-30

95

Surface wettability studies of PDMS using flame plasma treatment  

E-print Network

The flame plasma treatment studied in this thesis was able to oxidize the surface of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in a fraction of a second. It was found to be a much faster way to modify PDMS surface wettability than the ...

Wang, Xin C

2009-01-01

96

Effect of rust on the wettability of steel by water  

SciTech Connect

Rust, as formed on steel by immersion of low-carbon steel in water, was found to improve the wettability of steel by water. The advancing contact angle decreased from 87{degree} to 32{degree}, and the receding contact angle decreased from 81{degree} to 29{degree}. Cleansing of steel by acetone also helped improve the wettability, but the advancing angle only decreased from 87{degree} to 73{degree}, and the receding angle only decreased from 81{degree} to 41{degree}.

Lu, W.; Chung, D.D.L. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.

1998-04-01

97

The modifications of the surface wettability of amorphous carbon films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable and easily controllable wettability of a solid surface is of great significance in many applications. In the present studies, a-C films with special nano-structured surfaces were deposited on silicon and glass substrates with magnetron sputtering method. The morphologies of the surfaces vary with the deposition parameters. Therefore, these a-C surfaces can be controlled to exhibit different wettability in a

Ying Zhou; Bo Wang; Xuehong Zhang; Mei Zhao; Er Li; Hui Yan

2009-01-01

98

Relationship Between the Archie Saturation Exponent and Wettability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the calculation of in-situ water saturations from resistivity well logs relies on the saturation exponent of Archie's equation, where n=2 for clean, consolidated, water-wet sandstones. The saturation exponent, however, is a function of the water\\/oil\\/rock wettability and was found to range from <2 to 8. The relationship between wettability and the saturation exponent is linear, and the

E. C. Donaldson; T. K. Siddiqui

1989-01-01

99

Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

2010-01-01

100

Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements, core-scale effective contact angle can be determined. In addition to providing a quantitative measure of the core-averaged wetting properties, the technique allows for the observation of shifts in contact angle with changing conditions. We examine the wettability changes of the CO2-brine system in Berea sandstone with variations in reservoir conditions including supercritical, gaseous and liquid CO2injection. We evaluate wettability variation within a single rock with temperature, pressure, and salinity across a range of conditions relevant to subsurface CO2 storage. This study will include results of measurements in a Berea sandstone sample across a wide range of conditions representative of subsurface reservoirs suitable for CO2 storage (5-20 MPa, 25-90 oC, 0-5 mol kg-1). The measurement uses X-ray CT imaging in a state of the art core flooding laboratory designed to operate at high temperature, pressure, and concentrated brines.

Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

2014-05-01

101

Controlling the wettability of hierarchically structured thermoplastics.  

PubMed

Surfaces play an important role in defining the properties of materials, controlling wetting, adsorption, or desorption of biomolecules, and sealing/bonding of different materials. We have combined microscale features with plasma-etched nanoscale roughness and chemical modification to tailor the wettability of the substrates. Cyclic olefin polymers and copolymers (COPs/COCs) were processed to make a range of surfaces with controlled superhydrophobic or -hydrophilic properties. The hydrophobic properties of the polymers were increased by the introduction of microstructures of varying geometry and spacing through hot embossing. The COC/COP substrates were functionalized by plasma activation in O(2), CF(4), and a mixture of both gases. The plasma etching introduces nanoscale roughness and also chemically modifies the surface, creating either highly hydrophilic or highly hydrophobic (contact angle >150°) surfaces depending on the gas mixture. The influence of geometry and chemistries was characterized by atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Measurements of the contact angle and contact angle hysteresis demonstrated long-term stability of the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic characteristics (>6 months). PMID:22043942

Cortese, Barbara; Morgan, Hywel

2012-01-10

102

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer  

DOEpatents

A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

1995-01-01

103

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer  

DOEpatents

A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

1995-08-08

104

Intranasal lobular capillary haemangioma.  

PubMed

Lobular capillary haemangioma (LCH) is a benign proliferation of capillaries with a characteristic lobular architecture on microscopy; it has an affinity for mucous membrane and skin of the head and neck. It is extremely rare in the nasal cavity. We present the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with epistaxis without any predisposing factors, which was diagnosed as lobular capillary haemangioma. PMID:25304675

Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Shivamurthy, Archana; Joy, Jasmi

2014-01-01

105

A Comparison of Splash Erosion Behavior between Wettable and Water Repellent 'Soil' Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires remove vegetation and litter cover and expose soil surfaces to particle detachment by rain splash. This can serve as an agent of initial soil modification and erosion in the post-fire period. Splash behavior is mainly determined by the kinetic energy delivered by impacting water drops (erosivity), and the detachability (erodibility) of surface particles, affected by their size, aggregate stability and shear strength. Soil detachability may also be affected by water repellency (hydrophobicity). This soil characteristic is influenced by wildfire and may affect splash behavior by reducing capillary forces between particles. Previous work on splash behavior using cumulative drop impact reported larger ejection droplets and lower and shorter trajectories of ejections for water repellent soil compared with wettable soil (Terry and Shakesby 1993). A water film generated by delayed infiltration on water repellent soil was suggested to account for the difference. This study compares the trajectories of ejected wettable and hydrophobic model soil particles from single water drop impacts in order to isolate the effect of soil particle wettability on splash erosion behavior. Acid-washed (wettable) and hydrophobized (water repellent) glass beads used as model soil particles were held in an array within a squat cylinder of 1.5 cm diameter in the centre of a 20 cm diameter disk covered with a viscous adhesive film. A distilled water drop (20?L) was released 40 cm above the centre of the array and the resultant impact was recorded at 976 frames per second using a high speed video camera. The populations of, and distances travelled by, the particles were measured for three arrays of bead sizes within the range (180-400 ?m). Three to five replications were made for each test. The trajectory of each ejected particle was traced on video frames and corrected for the actual distance and direction of travel measured from the adhesive film. The initial velocity and ejecting angle of individual particles were calculated from the equation of motion, ignoring the air resistance and in-flight evaporation. In contrast to Terry and Shakesby (1993), we observed that a single drop impact resulted mainly in dispersion (splash saltation) with few ejections of particles entrained by a water droplet (splashing), and the trajectories of ejections from water repellent particle arrays were higher than those from the hydrophilic arrays. These higher trajectories were driven by higher initial velocity for the water repellent particles, despite lower ejecting angles. This result suggests that water repellent soil is more vulnerable to initial splash detachment before a water film is generated by accumulation of rain drops. The distributions of initial velocity and ejecting angle of all particles are compared between wettable and water repellent particles and discussed in detail in this contribution. Terry JP and Shakesby RA, 1993. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 18: 519-525. Acknowledgement: This study has been funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of United Kingdom.

Ahn, S.; Hamlett, C. A.; Doerr, S.; Bryant, R.; Shirtcliffe, N.; McHale, G.; Newton, M.

2011-12-01

106

Influence of the wettability on the boiling onset.  

PubMed

Experimental investigation of pool boiling is conducted in stationary conditions over very smooth bronze surfaces covered by a very thin layer of gold presenting various surface treatments to isolate the role of wettability. We show that even with surfaces presenting mean roughness amplitudes below 10 nm the role of surface topography is of importance. The study shows also that wettability alone can trigger the boiling and that the boiling position on the surface can be controlled by chemical grafting using for instance alkanethiol. Moreover, boiling curves, that is, heat flux versus the surface superheat (which is the difference between the solid surface temperature and the liquid saturation temperature), are recorded and enabled to quantify, for this case, the significant reduction of the superheat at the onset of incipient boiling due to wettability. PMID:22166139

Bourdon, B; Rioboo, R; Marengo, M; Gosselin, E; De Coninck, J

2012-01-17

107

Capillary rheometry for thermosets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capillary rheometry is effectively used with thermosets. Most important is providing a uniform temperature in the barrel. This was successfully accomplished by using a circulating hot oil system. Standard capillary rheometry methods provide the dependence of thermoset apparent viscosity on shear rate, temperature and time. Such information is very useful in evaluating resin processability and in setting preliminary fabrication conditions.

Malguarnera, S. C.; Carroll, D. R.

1982-01-01

108

Spinal intradural capillary hemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCapillary hemangiomas are typically superficial lesions found in the skin or mucosa of the head and neck, but intradural locations are rare. We report a case of the spinal intradural capillary hemangioma of the lumbar spine with a review of the pertinent literature.

Ki Joon Kim; Ji Young Lee; Sang-Ho Lee

2006-01-01

109

Water-collecting behavior of nanostructured surfaces with special wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dew is commonly formed even in dry regions, and we examined the suitability of surfaces with superhydrophilic patterns on a superhydrophobic background as a dew-harvesting system. Nanostructured surfaces with mixed wettability were fabricated by ZnO and TiO2 nanorods. The condensation properties were investigated by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and the water-collecting function of the patterned surfaces in an artificial environment was confirmed. Condensation and water-collecting behavior were evaluated as a function of surface inclination angle and pattern shape. We examined the collecting efficiency among the different wettabilities at various inclination angles and observed the condensation behavior for various superhydrophilic shapes.

Choo, Soyoung; Choi, Hak-Jong; Lee, Heon

2015-01-01

110

Efficient water collection on integrative bioinspired surfaces with star-shaped wettability patterns.  

PubMed

Inspired by the water-collecting strategies of desert beetles and spider silk, a novel kind of surface with star-shaped wettablity patterns has been developed. By combining both wettability and shape gradients, the as-prepared surface has gained higher efficiency in water collection compared to circle-shaped wettability patterns and uniformly superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24847736

Bai, Hao; Wang, Lin; Ju, Jie; Sun, Ruize; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei

2014-08-01

111

An investigation of the effect of wettability on NMR characteristics of sandstone rock and fluid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting reservoir wettability and its effect on fluid distribution and hydrocarbon recovery remains one of the major challenges in reservoir evaluation and engineering. Current laboratory based techniques require the use of rock–fluid systems that are representative of in situ reservoir wettability and preferably under reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. However, the estimation of reservoir wettability is difficult to obtain

S. H. Al-Mahrooqi; C. A. Grattoni; A. K. Moss; X. D. Jing

2003-01-01

112

Measurements of capillary pressure and electric permittivity of gas-water systems in porous media at elevated pressures: application to geological storage of CO2 in aquifers and wetting behavior in coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequestration of CO2 in aquifers and coal layers is a promising technique to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Considering the reservoir properties, e.g. wettability, heterogeneity and the caprocks sealing capacity, the capillary pressure is an important measure to evaluate the efficiency, the success and the safety of storage applications. In this research, the capillary pressure behavior was investigated for the CO2-water

J.-W. Plug

2007-01-01

113

Wettability of Nafion and Nafion/Vulcan carbon composite films.  

PubMed

The wettability of the Pt/carbon/Nafion catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells is critical to their performance and durability, especially the cathode, as water is needed for the transport of protons to the active sites and is also involved in deleterious Pt nanoparticle dissolution and carbon corrosion. Therefore, the focus of this work has been on the first-time use of the water droplet impacting method to determine the wettability of 100% Nafion films, as a benchmark, and then of Vulcan carbon (VC)/Nafion composite films, both deposited by spin-coating in the Pt-free state. Pure Nafion films, shown by SEM analysis to have a nanochanneled structure, are initially hydrophobic but become hydrophilic as the water droplet spreads, likely due to reorientation of the sulfonic acid groups toward water. The wettability of VC/Nafion composite films depends significantly on the VC/Nafion mass ratios, even though Nafion is believed to be preferentially oriented (sulfonate groups toward VC) in all cases. At low VC contents, a significant water droplet contact angle hysteresis is seen, similar to pure Nafion films, while at higher VC contents (>30%), the films become hydrophobic, also exhibiting superhydrophobicity, with surface roughness playing a significant role. At >80% VC, the surfaces become wettable again as there is insufficient Nafion loading present to fully cover the carbon surface, allowing the calculation of the Nafion:carbon ratio required for a full coverage of carbon by Nafion. PMID:22475507

Li, Xiaoan; Feng, Fangxia; Zhang, Ke; Ye, Siyu; Kwok, Daniel Y; Birss, Viola

2012-04-24

114

Wettability of naturally aged silicone and EPDM composite insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the wettability of aged surfaces and of the bulk of naturally aged silicone and EPDM insulator housings and of silicone elastomer insulator coatings studied. The samples were taken either directly from the insulators or treated by exposing them to corona discharges and\\/or to saline pollution. The results show that the contact angles of the silicone rubber insulator

S. M. Gubanski; A. E. Vlastos

1990-01-01

115

Wettability of low temperature solder alloys for step-soldering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronics industry relies on step-soldering during device attachment or subsequent reworking of heavily populated hybrid microcircuits and multilevel networks. Although there are many low to intermediate melting solder alloys that are commercially available, their wettability on typical base metals, such as Cu, Ni, Au, and Sn, are not well characterized. This investigation examines the wetting behavior of several In,

F. M. Hosking; P. T. Vianco; D. R. Frear

1991-01-01

116

Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma. PMID:24228209

Patil, Prashant; Singla, Saurabh; Mane, Ranoji; Jagdeesh, K. S.

2013-01-01

117

Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Chang, Huan-Tsang (Silver Spring, MD); Fung, Eliza N. (Ames, IA); Li, Qingbo (Ames, IA); Lu, Xiandan (Ames, IA)

1996-12-10

118

Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

1998-04-21

119

Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Li, Qingbo (Ames, IA); Lu, Xiandan (Ames, IA)

1998-04-21

120

Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

1996-12-10

121

Autoclaving as a mean of modifying the soil wettability characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of soil water repellency have often attempted to isolate its hydrological impact by comparing responses of wettable and water repellent soils. It is, however, almost impossible to identify natural wettable and water repellent soils that are otherwise fully comparable. Furthermore no established methodology exists that allows changing a soil from wettable to water repellent (or vice versa) without affecting its chemical composition. Approaches used for rendering wettable soil (or sands) water repellent involve coating particles with hydrophobic or commercial water repellent spray. Heating soil to temperatures >300 °C has been used to eliminate existing water repellency from samples, but this can permanently alter the composition of organic matter. Here we report on a new technique for rendering wettable soil water repellent involving autoclaving. Autoclaving is commonly applied in medicine and biology for sterilization. It uses moist heat and pressure to destroy the bacteria, viruses and fungi. The same method has also been used in soil ecology studies for selective removal of certain micro-organisms. In our study, soils at various moisture contents were autoclaved in sealed bags for 1hr at 121°C. The soils became water repellent and the degree of water repellency was found to be dependent on the original soil moisture content and the soil wettability remained unchanged even with further drying of the soil up to 105°C. No changes in soil wettability were found after autoclaving very dry or wet soils. Only at certain intermediate water contents was the soil able to switch to a hydrophobic state. We suspect that the changes occurring during the autoclaving involve molecular orientation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups of soil organic matter, and moist heat and pressure cause the hydrophobic groups to be directed towards the outside of the soil particles which consequently repels water. Treatment of soil in this way presents a simple, inexpensive method of making a soil hydrophobic without changing its chemical composition. This has considerable potential for controlled experiments requiring both soils that differ only in terms of their degree of hydrophobicity.

Urbanek, Emilia; Bodi, Merche; Shakesby, Rick; Doerr, Stefan

2010-05-01

122

Microbial enhanced oil recovery and wettability research program  

SciTech Connect

This report covers research results for the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and wettability research program conducted by EG G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. The wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC), to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems. Eight facultatively anaerobic surfactant producing isolates able to function in the reservoir conditions of the Minnelusa A Sands of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were isolated from naturally occurring oil-laden environments. Isolates were characterized according to morphology, thermostability, halotolerance, growth substrates, affinity to crude oil/brine interfaces, degradative effects on crude oils, and biochemical profiles. Research at the INEL has focused on the elucidation of microbial mechanisms by which crude oil may be recovered from a reservoir and the chemical and physical properties of the reservoir that may impact the effectiveness of MEOR. Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 (ATCC 39307) has been used as a benchmark organism to quantify MEOR of medium weight crude oils (17.5 to 38.1{degrees}API) the capacity for oil recovery of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 utilizing a sucrose-based nutrient has been elucidated using Berea sandstone cores. Spacial distribution of cells after microbial flooding has been analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Also the effect of microbial surfactants on the interfacial tensions (IFT) of aqueous/crude oil systems has been measured. 87 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Duvall, M.L.

1991-07-01

123

Investigating wettability alteration during MEOR process, a micro/macro scale analysis.  

PubMed

Wettability alteration is considered to be one of the important mechanisms that lead to increased oil recovery during microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. Changes in wettability will greatly influence the petrophysical properties of the reservoir rocks and determine the location, flow and distribution of different fluids inside the porous media. Understanding the active mechanisms of surface wettability changes by the bacteria would help to optimize the condition for more oil recovery. As the mechanisms behind wettability alteration are still poorly understood, the objective of this study is to investigate the wettability alteration at pore scale and find the most effective mechanism of wettability changes in different cases. The experiments were performed on different substrates at fresh condition or aged in crude oil to mimic various wetting conditions. Using an Enterobacter cloacae strain, the influence of bacterial metabolites, bacterial adhesion and bacterial solution with two different carbon sources on wettability were determined for different aging periods. Contact angle measurements were used to quantify the wettability alteration of the solid surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were also utilized to combine the macroscopic measurements of wettability with the microscopic study of the surface changes. It was found that the surface wettability could vary from neutral- or oil-wet to water-wet state. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation seems to be the dominant mechanism of wettability alteration. The aged glass surfaces regained their initial water wetness where the bacteria could remove the polar and asphaltene compounds from them. PMID:22445747

Karimi, Mahvash; Mahmoodi, Maziyar; Niazi, Ali; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Ayatollahi, Shahab

2012-06-15

124

Capillary pressure and saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in sand: High-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter measurements and capillary scaling predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geologic carbon sequestration, reliable predictions of CO2 storage require understanding the capillary behavior of supercritical (sc) CO2. Given the limited availability of measurements of the capillary pressure (Pc) dependence on water saturation (Sw) with scCO2 as the displacing fluid, simulations of CO2 sequestration commonly rely on modifying more familiar air/H2O and oil/H2O Pc(Sw) relations, adjusted to account for differences in interfacial tensions. In order to test such capillary scaling-based predictions, we developed a high-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter, allowing accurate Pc and Sw measurements. Drainage and imbibition processes were measured on quartz sand with scCO2-brine at pressures of 8.5 and 12.0 MPa (45°C), and air-brine at 21°C and 0.1 MPa. Drainage and rewetting at intermediate Sw levels shifted to Pc values that were from 30% to 90% lower than predicted based on interfacial tension changes. Augmenting interfacial tension-based predictions with differences in independently measured contact angles from different sources led to more similar scaled Pc(Sw) relations but still did not converge onto universal drainage and imbibition curves. Equilibrium capillary trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined for Pc = 0 during rewetting. The capillary-trapped volumes for scCO2 were significantly greater than for air. Given that the experiments were all conducted on a system with well-defined pore geometry (homogeneous sand), and that scCO2-brine interfacial tensions are fairly well constrained, we conclude that the observed deviations from scaling predictions resulted from scCO2-induced decreased wettability. Wettability alteration by scCO2 makes predicting hydraulic behavior more challenging than for less reactive fluids.

Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Jung, Jong-Won; Kim, Tae Wook; Kim, Yongman; Dong, Wenming

2013-08-01

125

Displaced capillary dies  

DOEpatents

An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

Kalejs, Juris P. (Wellesley, MA); Chalmers, Bruce (Falmouth, MA); Surek, Thomas (Englewood, CO)

1982-01-01

126

Displaced capillary dies  

DOEpatents

An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

Kalejs, Juris P. (Wellesley, MA); Chalmers, Bruce (Falmouth, MA); Surek, Thomas (Englewood, CO)

1984-01-01

127

Numerical study of drop motion on a surface with stepwise wettability gradient and contact angle hysteresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the motion of a two-dimensional drop on a surface with stepwise wettability gradient (WG) is studied numerically by a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann finite-difference method. We incorporate the geometric wetting boundary condition that allows accurate implementation of a contact angle hysteresis (CAH) model. The method is first validated through a series of tests that check different constituents of the numerical model. Then, simulations of a drop on a wall with given stepwise WG are performed under different conditions. The effects of the Reynolds number, the viscosity ratio, the WG, as well as the CAH on the drop motion are investigated in detail. It was discovered that the shape of the drop in steady motion may be fitted by two arcs that give two apparent contact angles, which are related to the respective contact line velocities and the relevant contact angles (that specify the WG and CAH) through the relation derived by Cox ["The dynamics of the spreading of liquids on a solid surface. Part 1. viscous flow," J. Fluid Mech. 168, 169-194 (1986)] if the slip length in simulation is defined according to Yue et al. ["Sharp-interface limit of the Cahn-Hilliard model for moving contact lines," J. Fluid Mech. 645, 279-294 (2010)]. It was also found that the steady capillary number of the drop is significantly affected by the viscosity ratio, the magnitudes of the WG, and the CAH, whereas it almost shows no dependence on the Reynolds number.

Huang, Jun-Jie; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Xinzhu

2014-06-01

128

Droplet impact on a porous substrate: a capillary tube model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of impacting (spreading, penetrating) a droplet on a porous substrate, modeled by an array of capillary tubes, is studied numerically using diffuse interface methods. The absorption rate depends on the diameter ratio of the capillary tube to the droplet, wettability, and liquid properties. The flow dynamics is resolved by solving the Navier-Stokes equations and interface capturing is governed by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Contact-angle hysteresis is included (Ding&Spelt 2008) and the stress singularity at moving contact lines is relieved using a diffuse interface model (Seppecher 1996; Jaqcmin 2000). The model is validated by studying the evolution of a droplet initially resting on a porous substrate and by comparison to drop-impact experiments involving just one capillary tube (Kogan et al 2008). Comparisons with analytical solutions and results available in the literature (e.g. Hilpert & Ben-David 2009) are presented. Through parametric simulations over relevant ranges of Reynolds and Ohnesorge numbers and contact angles, impact regime maps are derived.

Ding, Hang; Theofanous, Theo

2009-11-01

129

LED-controlled tuning of ZnO nanowires’ wettability for biosensing applications  

PubMed Central

Background Wettability is an important property of solid materials which can be controlled by surface energy. Dynamic control over the surface wettability is of great importance for biosensing applications. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a biocompatible material suitable for biosensors and microfluidic devices. Nanowires of ZnO tend to show a hydrophobic nature which decelerates the adhesion or adsorption of biomolecules on the surface and, therefore, limits their application. Methods Surface wettability of the ZnO nanowires can be tuned using light irradiation. However, the control over wettability using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and the role of wavelength in controlling the wettability of ZnO nanowires are unclear. This is the first report on LED-based wettability control of nanowires, and it includes investigations on tuning the desired wettability of ZnO nanowires using LEDs as a controlling tool. Results The investigations on spectral properties of the LED emission on ZnO nanowires’ wettability have shown strong dependency on the spectral overlap of LED emission on ZnO absorption spectra. Results indicate that LEDs offer an advanced control on dynamically tuning the wettability of ZnO nanowires. Conclusion The spectral investigations have provided significant insight into the role of irradiating wavelength of light and irradiation time on the surface wettability of ZnO nanowires. This process is suitable to realize on chip based integrated sensors and has huge potential for eco-friendly biosensing and environmental sensing applications. PMID:25855065

Bhavsar, Kaushalkumar; Ross, Duncan; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Pollard, Pat

2015-01-01

130

Powder wettability at a static air-water interface.  

PubMed

The reconstitution of a beverage from a dehydrated powder involves several physical mechanisms that determine the practical difficulty to obtain a homogeneous drink in a convenient way and within an acceptable time for the preparation of a beverage. When pouring powder onto static water, the first hurdle to overcome is the air-water interface. We propose a model to predict the percentage of powder crossing the interface in 45s, namely the duration relevant for this application. We highlight theoretically the determinant role of the contact angle and of the particle size distribution. We validate experimentally the model for single spheres and use it to predict the wettability performance of commercial food powders for different contact angles and particles sizes. A good agreement is obtained when comparing the predictions and the wettability of the tested powders. PMID:25721855

Dupas, Julien; Forny, Laurent; Ramaioli, Marco

2015-06-15

131

The wettability of fluoropolymer surfaces: influence of surface dipoles.  

PubMed

The wettabilities of fluorinated polymers were evaluated using a series of contacting probe liquids ranging in nature from nonpolar aprotic to polar aprotic to polar protic. Fully fluorinated polymers were wet less than partially fluorinated polymers, highlighting the weak dispersive interactions of fluorocarbons. For partially fluorinated polymers, the interactions between the distributed dipoles along the polymer backbone and the dipoles of the contacting liquids were evaluated using both polar and nonpolar probe liquids. The results demonstrate that the surface dipoles of the fluoropolymers generated by substituting fluorine atoms with hydrogen or chlorine atoms can strongly interact with polar contacting liquids. The wettabilities of the partially fluorinated polymers were enhanced by increasing the density of dipoles across the surfaces and by introducing differentially distributed dipoles. PMID:18393484

Lee, Sangwha; Park, Joon-Seo; Lee, T Randall

2008-05-01

132

Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect

This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil. In the work reported this quarter, crude oil interactions with Berea sandstone have been used to prepare cores with mixed wettability.

Jill S. Buckley

1998-06-12

133

Comparative clinical wettability of teeth and intraoral mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed reduced adhesiveness of human intraoral mucosa, as compared with adjacent teeth, was determined for 14 healthy humans to correlate with differing measured intraoral contact angles for a variety of otherwise non-interacting test liquids on these two equally water-wettable surfaces under clinical conditions. Measurements were made on the front maxillary tooth surfaces and the-inner lower lip mucosal surfaces of

PER-OLOF J. Glantz; Robert E. Baier; Rolf Attstrom; Anne E. Meyer; Hermann Gucinski

1991-01-01

134

Tunable wettability of carbon nanotube/poly ( ?-caprolactone) hybrid films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have realized a stable superhydrophobic surface, a thermally tunable superhydrophobic surface, and a thermally tunable hydrophobic surface by combining the crystalline/amorphous phase transition of the poly( ?-caprolactone) (PCL) with the optimized surface roughness of the carbon nanotube/PCL hybrid films. The water droplet mobilities and wettabilities were reversibly thermally switched on the tunable superhydrophobic and the hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. These responsive surfaces have potential applications in microfluidic devices and microreactors and for liquid transportation.

Wang, Chih-Feng; Liao, Chih-Siang; Kuo, Shiao-Wei; Lin, Han-Ching

2011-08-01

135

Wettability of grafted poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graft copolymerisation of perfluorooctyl-2 ethanol acrylic monomer\\/stearyl methacrylate monomer mixture onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers using benzoyl peroxide as initiator was carried out in order to improve water repellency. By characterising the surface free energy, the degree of water repellency can be evaluated. In this article, the Wilhelmy plate method is used to determinate the surface fiber wettability by probe liquids

Ahmida El-Achari; Abdellah Ghenaim; Claude Cazé

2002-01-01

136

Aging effects on wettability and structure of ion implanted silicone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wettability, structure, and chemical states of ion implanted silicone rubbers were investigated in relation to aging in air and vacuum. H + He +, C +, N +, O +, Ne +, Na +, N +2, O +2, Ar + and K + ion implantations were performed at energies of 100 and 150 keV at room temperature. Wettability was investigated by contact angle measurements, which showed that the contact angle of water. immediately after ion implantation on the specimens, was decreased under high fluence. The minimum value of contact angle depended on the mass of the implanted ion species. The heavy weight ions were more effective than light ions for improving wettability. As time elapsed, the contact angle gradually increased and finally approached the initial value. Specimens subjected to vacuum conditions required a longer aging time to return to the initial value than specimens exposed to ambient room conditions. Results of FT-IR-ATR showed that ion implantation broke original chemical bonds to form new radicals, and the changes in these chemical bonds and radicals were dependent on the state of preservation of the specimens as the time elapsed. It was concluded that the return to the initial contact angle in atmospheric conditions was due to recombination of siloxane bonds.

Yoshiaki, Suzuki; Craig, Swapp; Masahiro, Kusakabe; Masaya, Iwaki

1990-02-01

137

Surface modification of polystyrene for improving wettability by ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made on the wettability, structure, and chemical states of ion implanted polystyrene. Ne + and Na + ion implantations were performed at energies of 50, 100, and 150 keV at room temperature. The fluences ranged from 1 × 10 14 to 1 × 10 17 ions/cm 2. Wettability was estimated by means of a sessile drop method using water. The results showed that the contact angle of water for Na + implanted polystyrene decreased from 87° to zero, as the fluences increased at energies of 50 and 100 keV. The contact angle for Na + implanted polystyrene did not change under ambient room conditions even if the time elapsed. However, the contact angle for Ne + ion implanted specimen slightly decreased to 65°. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that an increase in the Na content in the surface was observed with decreasing implantation energy. It is concluded that permanent improvement in wettability is caused by doping effects rather than radiation effects induced by Na + ion implantation.

Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro; Iwaki, Masaya

1993-06-01

138

Patterned wettability of oil and water in porous media.  

PubMed

The microscopic wettability state of porous media, based on glass bead packings, after crude oil drainage of brine was investigated using X-ray micro-CT, white-light profilometry, and electron microscopy. Tomography revealed that the bulk residual brine occupied around 10% of void space, located in smaller pores and as pendular rings around bead contacts, in agreement with numerical simulations of drainage. The bead packing contained planar slabs of mica, quartz, and oxidized silicon wafer, which after flushing and disassembly of the pack allowed analysis of their wettability alteration due to deposition of asphaltenes from the crude oil. These substrates exhibited an overall pattern of rings with clean interiors, matching the brine pendular ring size inferred from experimental and simulated drainage, and asphaltene deposition in their exteriors, verifying the mixed wet model of oil reservoir wettability. The extent of asphaltene intrusion into ring interiors and completeness of asphaltene coverage of exteriors both increased with overall deposition tendency for the brine composition. The observed dependence on NaCl concentration and pH was consistent with expectations from DLVO and non-DLVO interactions governing brine thin film rupture and subsequent asphaltene deposition. PMID:19916532

Kumar, Munish; Fogden, Andrew

2010-03-16

139

Photoresponsive Wettability in Monolayer Films from Sinapinic Acid  

PubMed Central

Sinapinic acid is an interesting material because it is both antioxidant and antibacterial agent. In addition, when illuminated with ultraviolet light, it can exhibit the so-called photodimerization process. In this paper, we report on the investigation of monolayer films from 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (sinapinic acid, SinA) deposited onto poly(allylamine hydrochloride), PAH, films. SinA monolayers were prepared by using the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. Adsorption kinetics curves were well fitted by a biexponential function suggesting that the adsorption process is determined by two mechanisms: nucleation and growth of aggregates. By using wetting contact angle analysis, we have found that SinA monolayers exhibit photoresponsive wettability under UV irradiation (365?nm); that is, wettability decreases with increasing UV irradiation time. The photoresponse of wettability was attributed to photodimerization process. This hypothesis was supported by the dependence of surface morphological structure and absorption on UV irradiation time. The mechanism found in the well-known transcinnamic acid crystals is used to explain the photodimerization process in SinA monolayers. PMID:24302879

Moura, Cleverson A. S.; Gomes, Douglas J. C.; de Souza, Nara C.; Silva, Josmary R.

2013-01-01

140

Poor Soil Wettability: Does moisture alter measurement results?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poor soil wettability is a global problem, creating challenges to agriculture by plant drought stress and to soil stability in natural environments. Events that lead to poor soil wettability are varied, including natural and manmade events such as forest fires, hot dry environments, poor soil management or the application of post-consumer materials. Even though options offered in the literature for amelioration of the symptoms of hydrophobicity greatly differ, the basic techniques used to identify hydrophobic soil have changed very little over the past half-century. Recently, however, scientists have begun to question what these traditional techniques are actually measuring. One of the areas of interest is the relationship of hydrophobicity to moisture content, also termed reversible or seasonal hydrophobicity. Many studies suggest that changes in the organic matter structure as it is exposed to soil moisture leads to a reduction of the surface energy of particle surfaces. This study further complements that work by investigating how testing methods and soil-sample treatment impact water sorption of hydrophobic media, so as to make it appear that the surface energy has changed. The understanding of this phenomenon can lead to improved techniques for testing of hydrophobicity soil and also for soil management in agricultural areas by understanding the impact of soil moisture regimes on wettability.

Dragila, M. I.; Woolverton, P.; Horneck, D.; Kleber, M.

2013-12-01

141

Capillary condenser/evaporator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat transfer device is disclosed for transferring heat to or from a fluid that is undergoing a phase change. The heat transfer device includes a liquid-vapor manifold in fluid communication with a capillary structure thermally connected to a heat transfer interface, all of which are disposed in a housing to contain the vapor. The liquid-vapor manifold transports liquid in a first direction and conducts vapor in a second, opposite direction. The manifold provides a distributed supply of fluid (vapor or liquid) over the surface of the capillary structure. In one embodiment, the manifold has a fractal structure including one or more layers, each layer having one or more conduits for transporting liquid and one or more openings for conducting vapor. Adjacent layers have an increasing number of openings with decreasing area, and an increasing number of conduits with decreasing cross-sectional area, moving in a direction toward the capillary structure.

Valenzuela, Javier A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

142

Capillary flows in flexible structures  

E-print Network

Interactions between capillary and elastic effects are relevant to a variety of applications, from micro- and nano-scale manufacturing to biological systems. In this thesis, we investigate capillary flows in extremely ...

Hoberg, Theresa B. (Theresa Blinn)

2013-01-01

143

Capillary Pumped Loop Modeler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) Modeler computer program is amalgamation of software that mathematically models performance of CPL system and its environment. Two-phase heat-transport device capable of transferring heat loads efficiently over large distance with little temperature differential. Utilizes surface-tension forces established in fine-pore capillary wick to circulate working fluid, requiring no external pumpling power. Predicts steady-state or quasi-steady behavior of CPL embedded in spacecraft or other thermal environment. Also predicts location of liquid/vapor interface in each condenser. Written in VAX/VMS FORTAN 77.

Ku, Jentung; Itkin, Elliot; Schweickart, Russell B.; Ottenstein, Laura

1990-01-01

144

Wettability estimation of low-permeability, siliceous shale using surface forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluates shale\\/oil wettability and wettability alteration by solutions whose pH ranges from 3 to 12. The reservoir rocks are siliceous shale that are fractured and low permeability oil-bearing rocks. Wettability alteration is evaluated in terms of estimated thin-film stability, contact angle, and fines migration. Previously, we presented core-scale spontaneous countercurrent imbibition and forced displacement results for the crude

Satoru Takahashi; Anthony R. Kovscek

2010-01-01

145

CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WETTABILITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL RECOVERY EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki

2003-09-01

146

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action.  

E-print Network

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action. III. Effects of petroleum and rapeseed after 24 h was 20% of the applied herbicide on the adaxial surface (poorly wettable), but only 4 Résumé — Effet d'adjuvants sur l'action herbicide. III. Effets d'huiles minérale et végétale sur l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Capillary Condensation in Confined Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and crack

Elisabeth Charlaix; Matteo Ciccotti

2009-01-01

148

Characterization of Mixed Wettability at Different Scales and its Impact on Oil Recovery Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project was to: (1) quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir, (2) study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states, (3) clarify the effect of mixed - wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods, (4) develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturation's and relative permeabilities, and (5) develop methods for properly incorporating wettability in up-scaling from pore to core to reservoir scales.

Sharma, Mukul M.; Hirasaki, George J.

2002-01-28

149

Role of geometry and amphiphilicity on capillary-induced interactions between anisotropic Janus particles.  

PubMed

We study the capillary interactions between ellipsoidal Janus particles adsorbed at flat liquid-fluid interfaces. In contrast to spherical particles, Janus ellipsoids with a large aspect ratio or a small difference in the wettability of the two regions tend to tilt at equilibrium. The interface deforms around ellipsoids with tilted orientations and thus results in energetic interactions between neighboring particles. We quantify these interactions through evaluation of capillary energy variation as a function of the spacing and angle between the particles. The complex meniscus shape results in a pair interaction potential which cannot be expressed in terms of capillary quadrupoles as in homogeneous ellipsoids. Moreover, Janus ellipsoids in contact exhibit a larger capillary force at side-by-side alignment compared to the tip-to-tip configuration, while these two are of comparable magnitude for their homogeneous counterparts. We evaluate the role of particles aspect ratio and the degree of amphiphilicity on the interparticle force and the capillary torque. The energy landscapes enable prediction of micromechanics of particle chains, which has implications in predicting the interfacial rheology of such particles at fluid interfaces. PMID:24205863

Rezvantalab, Hossein; Shojaei-Zadeh, Shahab

2013-12-01

150

Noise suppressing capillary separation system  

DOEpatents

A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Xue, Yongjun (Norwich, NY)

1996-07-30

151

Wettability of supercritical carbon dioxide/water/quartz systems: simultaneous measurement of contact angle and interfacial tension at reservoir conditions.  

PubMed

Injection of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers is considered as a method of carbon sequestration. The efficiency of this process is dependent on the fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions inside the porous media. For instance, the final storage capacity and total amount of capillary-trapped CO2 inside an aquifer are affected by the interfacial tension between the fluids and the contact angle between the fluids and the rock mineral surface. A thorough study of these parameters and their variations with temperature and pressure will provide a better understanding of the carbon sequestration process and thus improve predictions of the sequestration efficiency. In this study, the controversial concept of wettability alteration of quartz surfaces in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was investigated. A novel apparatus for measuring interfacial tension and contact angle at high temperatures and pressures based on Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis with no-Apex (ADSA-NA) method was developed and validated with a simple system. Densities, interfacial tensions, and dynamic contact angles of CO2/water/quartz systems were determined for a wide range of pressures and temperatures relevant to geological sequestration of CO2 in the subcritical and supercritical states. Image analysis was performed with ADSA-NA method that allows the determination of both interfacial tensions and contact angles with high accuracy. The results show that supercritical CO2 alters the wettability of quartz surface toward less water-wet conditions compared to subcritical CO2. Also we observed an increase in the water advancing contact angles with increasing temperature indicating less water-wet quartz surfaces at higher temperatures. PMID:23627310

Saraji, Soheil; Goual, Lamia; Piri, Mohammad; Plancher, Henry

2013-06-11

152

The wettability of selected organic soils in Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wettability was measured in the laboratory by means of two methods: Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test and Thin Column Wicking (TCW) method. WDPT is fast and simple method and was used to investigate potential water repellency of analyzed samples. TCW is an indirect method and was used to determine contact angles and surface free energy components. The measurement was performed in horizontal teflon chambers for thin-layer chromatography, adapted for tubes 10 cm long. The experiment was carried out on muck soils (samples were taken from two levels of soil profile: 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) and peat soils. There were two types of peats: low-moor peats and high moor peats. Samples of low-moor peats were taken from level 25-75 cm (alder peat) and 75-125cm (sedge peat) and 25-75 cm (peloid peat). Samples of high moor peats from level 25-175 cm (sphagnum peat) and 175-225 cm (sphagnum peat with Eriophorum). There was found no variability in persistence of potential water repellency but there were differences in values of contact angles of individual soil samples. Both muck and peat samples are extremely water repellent soils. Water droplets persisted on the surface of soils for more than 24 hours. Contact angles and surface free energy components for all samples were differentiated. Ranges of water contact angles for organic soils are from 27,54o to 96,50o. The highest values of contact angles were for sphagnum peats, and the lowest for muck soil from 20-40 cm level. It means, that there are differences in wettability between these samples. Muck soil is the best wettable and sphagnum peats is the worst wettable soil. If the content of organic compounds in the soil exceeds 40% (like in peats), the tested material displays only dispersion-type interactions. Therefore for peat soils, the technique of thin column wicking could only be used to determine the dispersive component γiLW. For muck soils it was also determined electron-acceptor (Lewis acid) γ+ and electron-donor (Lewis base) γ- surface free energy components. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Ministry of Science and Higher Education for financial support of this work (grant No. N N310 149335).

Ca?ka, A.; Hajnos, M.

2009-04-01

153

Wettability designing by ZnO periodical surface textures.  

PubMed

A facile and effective aqueous chemical synthesis approach towards well control of periodical ZnO textures in large-scale areas is reported, by which considerable adjusting of surface wettability can be realized. With the assistance of polystyrene spheres monolayer template and morphology control agent, we succeeded in preparing a series of ordered ZnO microbowls with different sag height. It was found that the contact angle could be well adjusted by changing geometry of microbowl. Such novel, ordered arrays are expected to exploit the great potentiality in waterproof or self-cleaning micro/nanodevices, and even microfluidic devices. PMID:20716452

Zhang, Yinmin; Lan, Ding; Wang, Yuren; Cao, He; Zhao, Yapu

2010-11-01

154

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL, CARBON, AND POLYETHYLENE FIBERS BY WATER  

E-print Network

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL, CARBON, AND POLYETHYLENE FIBERS BY WATER W. Lu, X at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400, USA (Received March 9, 1998; in final form April 10, 1998) ABSTRACT The wettability of fibers by water was found to increase in this order: polyethylene fiber, steel fiber

Chung, Deborah D.L.

155

Wettability Alteration of Low-permeable Carbonate Reservoir Rocks in Presence of Mixed Ionic Surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altering the wettability of the carbonate reservoir rocks from oil-wet to water-wet has figured prominently as one of the enhanced oil recovery methods in recent years. The authors measured the effect of different ionic surfactants on the wettability alteration of the rock, saturated with crude oil, and the consequent improvement in oil production was investigated by spontaneous imbibitions of solutions

H. Vatanparast; A. H. Alizadeh; A. Bahramian; H. Bazdar

2011-01-01

156

A wettability gradient as a tool to study protein adsorption and cell adhesion on polymer surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for preparing a wettability gradient on polymer surfaces was developed. Low density polyethylene sheets were treated in air with corona from a knife-type electrode whose power gradually increases along the sample length. The polymer surfaces oxidized gradually with the increasing power and the wettability gradient was created on the surfaces as evidenced by the measurement of water

Jin Ho Lee; Hai Bang Lee

1993-01-01

157

Rapid and inexpensive quantification of the combined polar components of surface wettability: Application to biofouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented (the SHM method) that rapidly and inexpensively quantifies surface wettability using aqueous methanol solutions. The SHM method, which can be performed using basic, generally available laboratory equipment, yields a single value that is strongly correlated with the combined polar (acid?base) components of surface wettability. In laboratory studies employing silanised glass surfaces, larval settlement rates of the

D. J. Gerhart; D. Rittschof; I. R. Hooper; K. Eisenman; A. E. Meyer; R. E. Baier; C. Young

1992-01-01

158

The wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene and polymethyl methacrylate by aqueous solution of two cationic surfactants mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancing contact angle (?) measurements were carried out for aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetylpyridinium bromide (CPyB) mixtures on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The obtained results indicate that the wettability of PTFE and PMMA by aqueous solutions of CTAB and CPyB mixtures depends on the composition and concentration of the mixture; however, synergism in the wettability

Katarzyna Szymczyk; Anna Zdziennicka; Bronis?aw Ja?czuk; Wies?aw Wójcik

2006-01-01

159

Enhancing the settlement and attachment strength of pediveligers of Mytilus galloprovincialis bychanging surface wettability and microtopography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface wettability and microtopography can either enhance or deter larval settlement of many sessile marine organisms. This study quantifies the effect of these surface properties on the settlement of pediveligers of Mytilus galloprovincialis, using polymers spanning a range of wettability and microtextured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Furthermore, the adhesion strength of settled pediveligers on microtextured PDMS surfaces was quantified using a flow

C. Carl; A. J. Poole; B. A. Sexton; F. L. Glenn; M. J. Vucko; M. R. Williams; S. Whalan; R. de Nys

2012-01-01

160

Wettability alteration of model sandstone surfaces by vapor-phase treatment with organosilanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wettability of a rock-fluid system has a major influence on the amount of residual oil in a reservoir and its ease of recovery. We have investigated a technique for modifying the natural water-wetness of clean, dry mineral samples by chemically incorporating organosilanes onto their surfaces (silylation). The goal is to provide simulated core samples with different degrees of wettability.

N. E. Takach; L. B. Bennett; C. B. Douglas; M. A. Andersen; D. C. Thomas

1988-01-01

161

Automated Parallel Capillary Electrophoretic System  

DOEpatents

An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

Li, Qingbo (State College, PA); Kane, Thomas E. (State College, PA); Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA); Sonnenschein, Bernard (Brooklyn, NY); Sharer, Michael V. (Tyrone, PA); Kernan, John R. (Loganton, PA)

2000-02-22

162

Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface roughness was also observed.

Rahimi, M.; Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L.; Afshari, A.

2014-03-01

163

Wettability of low temperature solder alloys for step-soldering  

SciTech Connect

The electronics industry relies on step-soldering during device attachment or subsequent reworking of heavily populated hybrid microcircuits and multilevel networks. Although there are many low to intermediate melting solder alloys that are commercially available, their wettability on typical base metals, such as Cu, Ni, Au, and Sn, are not well characterized. This investigation examines the wetting behavior of several In, Sn, Pb, Bi, and Ag containing solder alloys on Ni-Sn plated aluminum alloy substrates with soldering temperatures ranging from 145 to 200{degrees}C. Two rosin mildly activated (RMA) fluxes were included in the study. The wettability experiments were conducted with a Sandia designed wetting balance system. Wetting differences were observed between the two fluxes. The more active flux gave better wetting results and less variability in the meniscus terminations at the lower soldering temperatures. Wetting generally varied from adequate to very good. The Bi-bearing alloys generally gave the lowest wetting values. Work is in progress to determine the effects of aging on intermetallic growth and subsequent mechanical strength. 12 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Frear, D.R.

1991-01-01

164

Improved Surface wettability of polyurethane films by Ultraviolet Ozone treatment  

SciTech Connect

The wettability of polyurethane (PU) was altered using ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment. The effect of UVO treatment on PU surface chemistry was investigated with various experiments. The direct measurement of sessile drops was employed to quantify the static contact angle of different wetting liquids on homogeneous PU films with various UVO treatment times. The contact angle of DI water droplets was decreased to 17.2{sup o} from 70.04{sup o} after 5 min UVO treatment. The surface free energy of PU films was 51.46 mN m{sup -1} before treatment and was increased to 71.5 mN m{sup -1} after being fully treated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows a significant amount of polar functional species (C-O and C-O bonding) were formed on the PU surface by UVO treatment. atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization shows the PU surface morphology was different before and after UVO treatment. The effect of water washing on UVO treated surface was also investigated. An aging effect study indicates the UVO modification can sustain the improved wettability with limited hydrophobic recovery, where the DI water contact angle remains constant at around 22{sup o} after the UVO treatment.

Kuang, Ping; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Kim, Chang-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen

2010-07-01

165

Wettability of AlSi5Mg on Spodumene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new filters for the aluminum industry requires investigations on the wettability of aluminum and its alloys on novel filter materials. The requested filter effects require not only an adequate wetting but also information about the interaction between the filter material and the metal. In the present work the wettability of an AlSi5Mg alloy on spodumene (LiAl[Si2O6]) containing substrates is investigated using the sessile drop technique. These measurements were carried out at 1223 K (950 °C) under vacuum. The spodumene-based substrates showed a completely different wetting behavior compared with an alumina substrate. The contact angel reduced more quickly and leveled out at a lower value (75 ± 2 deg) than in case of a pure alumina substrate (90 ± 1 deg). The reason for this behavior is a reaction between the LiAl(Si2O6) and the alloy droplet which supported deoxidation and formed a silica-rich reaction layer at the droplet/substrate interface.

Fankhänel, Beate; Stelter, Michael; Voigt, Claudia; Aneziris, Christos G.

2015-02-01

166

Capillary reference half-cell  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.

Hall, Stephen H. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

167

Stability of Constrained Capillary Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A capillary surface is an interface between two fluids whose shape is determined primarily by surface tension. Sessile drops, liquid bridges, rivulets, and liquid drops on fibers are all examples of capillary shapes influenced by contact with a solid. Capillary shapes can reconfigure spontaneously or exhibit natural oscillations, reflecting static or dynamic instabilities, respectively. Both instabilities are related, and a review of static stability precedes the dynamic case. The focus of the dynamic case here is the hydrodynamic stability of capillary surfaces subject to constraints of (a) volume conservation, (b) contact-line boundary conditions, and (c) the geometry of the supporting surface.

Bostwick, J. B.; Steen, P. H.

2015-01-01

168

Capillary reference half-cell  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods. 11 figs.

Hall, S.H.

1996-02-13

169

Pore-lining composition and capillary breakthrough pressure of mudstone caprocks : sealing efficiency of geologic CO2 storage sites.  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface containment of CO2 is predicated on effective caprock sealing. Many previous studies have relied on macroscopic measurements of capillary breakthrough pressure and other petrophysical properties without direct examination of solid phases that line pore networks and directly contact fluids. However, pore-lining phases strongly contribute to sealing behavior through interfacial interactions among CO2, brine, and the mineral or non-mineral phases. Our high resolution (i.e., sub-micron) examination of the composition of pore-lining phases of several continental and marine mudstones indicates that sealing efficiency (i.e., breakthrough pressure) is governed by pore shapes and pore-lining phases that are not identifiable except through direct characterization of pores. Bulk X-ray diffraction data does not indicate which phases line the pores and may be especially lacking for mudstones with organic material. Organics can line pores and may represent once-mobile phases that modify the wettability of an originally clay-lined pore network. For shallow formations (i.e., < {approx}800 m depth), interfacial tension and contact angles result in breakthrough pressures that may be as high as those needed to fracture the rock - thus, in the absence of fractures, capillary sealing efficiency is indicated. Deeper seals have poorer capillary sealing if mica-like wetting dominates the wettability.

Petrusak, Robin (Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA); Heath, Jason E.; McPherson, Brian J. O. L. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Dewers, Thomas A.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

2010-08-01

170

Pore-lining composition and capillary breakthrough pressure of mudstone caprocks : sealing efficiency at geologic CO2 storage sites.  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface containment of CO2 is predicated on effective caprock sealing. Many previous studies have relied on macroscopic measurements of capillary breakthrough pressure and other petrophysical properties without direct examination of solid phases that line pore networks and directly contact fluids. However, pore-lining phases strongly contribute to sealing behavior through interfacial interactions among CO2, brine, and the mineral or non-mineral phases. Our high resolution (i.e., sub-micron) examination of the composition of pore-lining phases of several continental and marine mudstones indicates that sealing efficiency (i.e., breakthrough pressure) is governed by pore shapes and pore-lining phases that are not identifiable except through direct characterization of pores. Bulk X-ray diffraction data does not indicate which phases line the pores and may be especially lacking for mudstones with organic material. Organics can line pores and may represent once-mobile phases that modify the wettability of an originally clay-lined pore network. For shallow formations (i.e., < {approx}800 m depth), interfacial tension and contact angles result in breakthrough pressures that may be as high as those needed to fracture the rock - thus, in the absence of fractures, capillary sealing efficiency is indicated. Deeper seals have poorer capillary sealing if mica-like wetting dominates the wettability. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the Southeast and Southwest Carbon Sequestration Partnerships for supporting this work.

Heath, Jason E.; Nemer, Martin B.; McPherson, Brian J. O. L. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Dewers, Thomas A.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

2010-12-01

171

Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery.  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first year of the project, `Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery.` The objectives of this five-year project are (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. During the first year of this project we have focused on understanding the interactions between crude oils and mineral surfaces that establish wetting in porous media. As background, mixed-wetting and our current understanding of the influence of stable and unstable brine films are reviewed. The components that are likely to adsorb and alter wetting are divided into two groups: those containing polar heteroatoms, especially organic acids and bases; and the asphaltenes, large molecules that aggregate in solution and precipitate upon addition of n-pentane and similar agents. Finally, the test procedures used to assess the extent of wetting alteration-tests of adhesion and adsorption on smooth surfaces and spontaneous imbibition into porous media are introduced. In Part 1, we report on studies aimed at characterizing both the acid/base and asphaltene components. Standard acid and base number procedures were modified and 22 crude oil samples were tested. Our approach to characterizing the asphaltenes is to focus on their solvent environment. We quantify solvent properties by refractive index measurements and report the onset of asphaltene precipitation at ambient conditions for nine oil samples. Four distinct categories of interaction mechanisms have been identified that can be demonstrated to occur when crude oils contact solid surfaces: polar interactions can occur on dry surfaces, surface precipitation is important if the oil is a poor solvent for its asphaltenes, and acid/base and ion-binding interactions occur in the presence of water. Specific instances when each of these mechanisms is dominant can be identified using crude oils of different acid number, base number, and solvent quality. Part 2 of this project is devoted to improved assessment of wetting. We report on a baseline study of crude oil interactions with mica surfaces that shows wettability alteration characteristics that are comparable to those reported previously for glass surfaces. Mica has advantages over amorphous glass that make it a better choice as a standard surface for wettability testing, especially for tests at high temperatures.

Buckley, J.S.

1998-01-15

172

Capillary suspensions: Particle networks formed through the capillary force  

E-print Network

The addition of small amounts of a secondary fluid to a suspension can, through the attractive capillary force, lead to particle bridging and network formation. The capillary bridging phenomenon can be used to stabilize particle suspensions and precisely tune their rheological properties. This effect can even occur when the secondary fluid wets the particles less well than the bulk fluid. These materials, so-called capillary suspensions, have been the subject of recent research studying the mechanism for network formation, the properties of these suspensions, and how the material properties can be modified. Recent work in colloidal clusters is summarized and the relationship to capillary suspensions is discussed. Capillary suspensions can also be used as a pathway for new material design and some of these applications are highlighted. Results obtained to date are summarized and central questions that remain to be answered are proposed in this review.

Erin Koos

2014-11-18

173

Automatic droplet transportation on a plastic microfluidic device having wettability gradient surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a microfluidic device that can automatically transport a droplet on a plastic plate. This device consists of a Cyclo Olefin Polymer (COP) plate and a SiO2 membrane and has wettability gradient surface. Lithographic patterns of hydrophilic SiO2 permitted wettability modification of a hydrophobic COP surface. A series of alternate hydrophobic and hydrophilic wedge-shaped patterns generated a required gradient in wettability. When we dropped a droplet on the wettability gradient surface, it moved along the wettability gradient due to an imbalance between surface tension forces acting on the opposite sides of the droplet edge. The droplet transportation test was carried out using water of 5 ?l. As a result, we succeeded in automatically transporting the droplet on the SiO2/COP wettability gradient pattern. We also carried out droplet transportation in an enclosed microchannel for preventing droplet evaporation using DI (Deionized) water of 5 ?l. In this case, the droplet was automatically transported by forming the wettability gradient pattern at the top and bottom in an enclosed microchannel without evaporation.

Nakashima, Y.; Nakanishi, Y.; Yasuda, T.

2015-01-01

174

Design and fabrication of zwitter-wettable nanostructured films.  

PubMed

Manipulating surface properties using chemistry and roughness has led to the development of advanced multifunctional surfaces. Here, in a nanostructured polymer film consisting of a hydrophilic reservoir of chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose capped with various hydrophobic layers, we demonstrate the role of a third design factor, water permeation rate. We use this additional design criterion to produce antifogging coatings that readily absorb water vapor while simultaneously exhibiting hydrophobic character to liquid water. These zwitter-wettable films, produced via aqueous layer-by-layer assembly, consist of a nanoscale thin hydrophobic capping layer (chitosan/Nafion) that enables water vapor to diffuse rapidly into the underlying hydrophilic reservoir rather than nucleating drops of liquid water on the surface. We characterize these novel films using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and via depth-profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in addition to extensive testing for fogging/antifogging performance. PMID:25494724

Lee, Hyomin; Gilbert, Jonathan B; Angilè, Francesco E; Yang, Rong; Lee, Daeyeon; Rubner, Michael F; Cohen, Robert E

2015-01-14

175

Atmospheric plasma torch treatment of aluminium: Improving wettability with silanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma torch (APPT) treatments on the surface of aluminium alloys. The influence of torch-to-sample distance, speed of treatment and ageing time is analyzed in terms of contact angles and surface energy. Results show that APPT treatment strongly increases the surface energy and wettability of aluminium surfaces. This is related to the formation of polar groups, as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has confirmed. In all conditions, hydrophobic recovery of aluminium surfaces takes place. Finally, the compatibility of the APPT treated aluminium substrate with ?-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) has been evaluated through adhesion work and spread tension, showing that it is possible to achieve a spontaneous wetting process of silane on aluminium.

Díaz-Benito, B.; Velasco, F.

2013-12-01

176

Methods and preliminary measurement results of liquid Li wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A test of lithium wettability was performed in high vacuum (< 3 × 10-4 Pa). High magnification images of Li droplets on stainless steel substrates were produced and processed using the MATLAB® program to obtain clear image edge points. In contrast to the more standard "?/2" or polynomial fitting methods, ellipse fitting of the complete Li droplet shape resulted in reliable contact angle measurements over a wide range of contact angles. Using the ellipse fitting method, it was observed that the contact angle of a liquid Li droplet on a stainless steel substrate gradually decreased with increasing substrate temperature. The critical wetting temperature of liquid Li on stainless steel was observed to be about 290 °C.

Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Ren, J.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Zakharov, L. E.; Mansfield, D. K.

2014-02-01

177

Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect

This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil.

Jill S. Buckley

1998-04-13

178

Carbonaceous cathode with enhanced wettability for aluminum production  

DOEpatents

A method of preparing carbonaceous blocks or bodies for use in a cathode in an electrolytic cell for producing aluminum wherein the cell contains an electrolyte and has molten aluminum contacting the cathode, the cathode having improved wettability with molten aluminum. The method comprises the steps of providing a carbonaceous block and a boron oxide containing melt. The carbonaceous block is immersed in the melt and pressure is applied to the melt to impregnate the melt into pores in the block. Thereafter, the carbonaceous block is withdrawn from the melt, the block having boron oxide containing melt intruded into pores therein, the boron oxide capable of reacting with a source of titanium or zirconium or like metal to form titanium or zirconium diboride during heatup or operation of said cell.

Keller, Rudolf; Gatty, David G.; Barca, Brian J.

2003-09-09

179

Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect

This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil.

Buckley, Jill S.

1999-11-09

180

On Capillary Rise and Nucleation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

Prasad, R.

2008-01-01

181

Tapered capillary optics  

DOEpatents

A metal or glass wire is etched with great precision into a very narrowly tapering cone which has the shape of the desired final capillary-optics bore. By controlling the rate of removal of the wire from an etchant bath, a carefully controlled taper is produced. A sensor measures the diameter of the wire as it leaves the surface of the etchant. This signal is used for feedback control of the withdrawal speed. The etched wire undergoes a treatment to produce an extremely low surface-roughness. The etched and smoothed wire is coated with the material of choice for optimizing the reflectivity of the radiation being focused. This could be a vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD or aqueous chemical process. The coated wire is either electroplated, built up with electroless plating, or encapsulated in a polymer cylinder such as epoxy to increase the diameter of the wire for easier handling and greater robustness. During this process, the wire is vertically oriented and tensioned to assure that the wire is absolutely straight. The coated and electroformed wire is bonded to a flat, rigid substrate and is then periodically segmented by cutting or etching a series of narrow slits or grooves into the wire. The wire is vertically oriented and tensioned during the bonding process to assure that it is straight. The original wire material is then chemically etched away through the slits or otherwise withdrawn to leave the hollow internal bore of the final tapered-capillary optical element.

Hirsch, Gregory (365 Talbot Ave., Pacifica, CA 94044)

1998-01-01

182

Capillary optics for radiation focusing  

SciTech Connect

Capillary lens technology may ultimately bring benefits to neutron and x-ray-based science like conventional lenses with visible light. Although the technology is not yet 10 years old, these lenses have already had a significant impact in engineering, science, and medicine. Capillary lenses are advantageous when it is desirable to increase the radiation flux at a location without regard to its angular divergence. PNNL has worked to improve the technology in several ways. A single, optimally tapered capillary was manufactured, which allows intensity gains of a factor of 270 for an initially parallel, incident x-ray beam. Feasibility of constructing neutron lenses using {sup 58}Ni (particularly effective at reflecting neutrons) has been explored. Three applications for capillary optics have been identified and studied: neutron telescope, Gandolphi x-ray diffractometry, and neutron radiotherapy. A brief guide is given for determining which potential applications are likely to be helped by capillary optics.

Peurrung, A.J.; Reeder, P.L.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Lepel, E.A.; Stromswold, D.C.; Stoffels, J.; Sunberg, D.S.; Tenny, H.

1996-11-01

183

Noise suppressing capillary separation system  

DOEpatents

A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans. 13 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Xue, Y.

1996-07-30

184

Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Chang, Huan-Tsang (Silver Spring, MD); Fung, Eliza N. (Ames, IA)

1997-12-09

185

Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

1997-12-09

186

Wettability conundrum: Discrepancies of soft contact lens performance in vitro and in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition and appreciation of soft contact lenses as simple, efficient and aesthetically gratifying vision-correction devices is ever growing, especially among younger population. Stable thin tear film uniformly spread over corrective lens surface is essential for acute vision, and also for comfortable and safe contact lens wear. The significant efforts have been invested by the contact lens industry to develop soft lens surface that is completely wet by tear aqueous in the ocular environment. Number of the publications dedicated to the wettability properties of the soft hydrogel lenses is on the steady rise. However, the clinical results show that no unambiguous correlation emerges when lens surface wettability in vitro is judged against tear film stability evaluated in vivo. This paper assesses and compares the modern techniques used for evaluation of soft contact lens surface wettability and reports some findings regarding relations between lens surface wettability in vitro and in vivo.

Svitova, T. F.; Lin, M. C.

2011-08-01

187

Radiation Induced Surface Activity Phenomenon: 1. Report - Surface Wettability on Metal Oxides  

SciTech Connect

Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. We investigated surface wettability using metal oxides irradiated by gamma rays in room condition. Contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on oxide metal pieces of titanium, zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304 and copper improved significantly by Radiation Induced Surface Activity (RISA) phenomenon. Highly hydrophilic conditions on the test pieces were achieved after 500 kGy irradiation of {sup 60}Co gamma ray. (authors)

Yasuyuki Imai; Tatsuya Koga; Tomoji Takamasa [Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine, 2-1-6 Etchu-jima, Koto-Ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Koji Okamoto [University of Tokyo (Japan); Susumu Uematsu [Advanced Maritime Transport Technology Department, National Maritime Research Institute, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan)

2002-07-01

188

Separate effects of surface roughness, wettability, and porosity on the boiling critical heat flux  

E-print Network

The separate effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on the critical heat flux (CHF) of water were examined using engineered surfaces. Values explored were 0, 5, 10, and 15??m for Rz (roughness), <5°, ?75°, ...

O'Hanley, Harry

189

PATTERNS OF LEAF WETTABILITY ALONG AN EXTREME MOISTURE GRADIENT IN WESTERN PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA  

E-print Network

PATTERNS OF LEAF WETTABILITY ALONG AN EXTREME MOISTURE GRADIENT IN WESTERN PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA Patagonia, Argentina. Morphological and structural characteristics of leaves significantly affected leaf surfaces. Keywords: leaf wetness, morphology, water droplet, Patagonia, gradient. Introduction A large

Brewer, Carol

190

Surfactant Screening to Alter the Wettability and Aid in Acidizing Carbonate Formations  

E-print Network

Surfactant flooding in carbonate matrix acidizing treatment has been widely used for changing the wettability of the rock and to achieve low IFT values. Optimizing the type of surfactant and concentration for the specific oil field is very important...

Yadhalli Shivaprasad, Arun Kumar

2013-02-26

191

Benign sinonasal capillary haemangioma.  

PubMed

Haemangiomas are benign fibrovascular tumours relatively that are common in the head and neck, where 60% of them occur Among the various categories of haemangiomas, lobular capillary haemangiomas (LCH) occur frequently on the skin, lips, buccal mucosa, tongue and gingiva. However, they are vanishingly rare in the paranasal sinuses. The imaging features of LCH are non-specific. The histological characteristics of LCH can also make diagnosis difficult as sometimes resemble highly vascular malignant tumours. This leads to the false preoperative diagnosis of suspected malignancy in many cases, which places the patient under unnecessary distress and anxiety. We present a case of LCH appearing as a suspicious nasal lesion of the lateral nasal wall with unilateral nasal obstruction, necrotic centre and epistaxis. The tumour was excised endoscopically in one operation including endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Further education about this lesion is deemed important as preoperative embolisation may be needed for a safe operation. PMID:25287393

Stubbs, Darren; Poulios, Aristotelis; Khalil, Hisham

2014-01-01

192

Capillary interconnect device  

DOEpatents

A manifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device for high pressure applications is provided. The fluid connector for coupling at least one fluid conduit to a corresponding port of a substrate that includes: (i) a manifold comprising one or more channels extending therethrough wherein each channel is at least partially threaded, (ii) one or more threaded ferrules each defining a bore extending therethrough with each ferrule supporting a fluid conduit wherein each ferrule is threaded into a channel of the manifold, (iii) a substrate having one or more ports on its upper surface wherein the substrate is positioned below the manifold so that the one or more ports is aligned with the one or more channels of the manifold, and (iv) means for applying an axial compressive force to the substrate to couple the one or more ports of the substrate to a corresponding proximal end of a fluid conduit.

Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2007-12-25

193

Capillary evaporation in pores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine a density functional theory (DFT) treatment of capillary evaporation in a cylindrical pore with the morphometric approach in order to study the formation and breaking of bubbles in a hydrophobically lined part of a cone. The morphometric approach, in which the grand potential of a system is described in four geometrical terms with corresponding thermodynamical coefficients, allows extrapolation or scaling from macroscopic system sizes to nanoscales. Since only a small number of fluid particles are involved in bubble formation, it is a pseudo phase transition, and the system is subjected to fluctuations between states with and without a bubble. Fluctuations are not included in a DFT treatment, which makes it possible to explore both states of the system in great detail, in contrast to computer simulations, in which averages might be obscured by fluctuations.

Roth, R.; Kroll, K. M.

2006-07-01

194

Multidimensional capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Multidimensional separation where two or more orthogonal displacement mechanisms are combined is a promising approach to increase peak capacity in CE. The combinations allow dramatic improvement of analytical performance since the total peak capacity is given by a product of the peak capacities of all methods. The initial reports were concentrated on the construction of effective connections between capillaries for 2D analysis. Today, 2D and 3D CE systems are now able to separate real complex biological or environmental mixtures with good repeatability, improved resolution with minimal loss of sample. This review will present the developments in the field of multidimensional CE during the last 15 years. The endeavors in this specific field were on the development of interfaces, interface-free techniques including integrated separations, microdevices, and on-line sample concentration techniques to improve detection sensitivity. PMID:25255727

Grochocki, Wojciech; Markuszewski, Micha? J; Quirino, Joselito P

2015-01-01

195

Applications of capillary optical fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper updates and summarizes contemporary applications of capillary optical fibers. Some of these applications are straight consequence of the classical capillary properties and capillary devices like: rheometry, electrophoresis, column chromatography (gas and liquid). Some new applications are tightly connected with co-propagation (or counter-propagation) of micro-mass together with optical wave - evanescent or of considerable intensity. In the first case, the optical wave is propagated in a narrow (more and more frequently single-mode) optical ring core adjacent to the capillary hole. The optical propagation is purely refractive. In the second case, the intensity maximum of optical wave is on the capillary long axis, i.e. in the center of the hole. The optical propagation is purely photonic, i.e. in a Bragg waveguide (one dimensional photonic band-gap). The capillary hole is filled with vacuum or with propagated matter (gas, liquid, single atoms, continuous particle arrangement). Optical capillaries, filamentary and embedded, are turning to a fundamental component of nano- and micro-MOEMS.

Romaniuk, Ryszard

2006-10-01

196

Establishment of a capillary-cumulus model to study the selection of sperm for fertilization by the cumulus oophorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Spermatozoa have to traverse the cumulus oophorus before fertilization in vivo. Evidence suggests that the cumulus oophorus plays an important role in the fertilization process. We describe the establishment of a capillary-cumulus oophorus model with which to study the action of cumulus mass on the function of human spermatozoa. METHODS: Human cumulus oophorus was aspirated into a glass capillary.

S. J. Hong; P. C. Chiu; K. F. Lee; J. M. Y. Tse; P. C. Ho; W. S. B. Yeung

2004-01-01

197

Wettability of Silicon Carbide by CaO-SiO 2 Slags  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wettability of silicon carbide by liquid CaO-SiO2 slags that contain 47 to 60 wt pct SiO2 was studied using the sessile drop wettability technique. The experiments were carried out in Ar and CO atmospheres. A small\\u000a piece of slag was melted on SiC substrates under different heating regimes up to 1600 °C. It was found that the wetting is\\u000a not significantly dependent

Jafar Safarian; Merete Tangstad

2009-01-01

198

Quantitatively controlled nanoliter liquid manipulation using hydrophobic valving and control of surface wettability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss nanoliter metering, transportation, merging, and biochemical reaction on a nanoliter fluidic chip. The proposed nanoliter fluidic handling is based on passive fluidic control using hydrophobic valving and liquid flow control by selective wettability patterning. For the selective patterning of the wettability, a hydrophobic fluorocarbon (FC) film (a mixture of FluoradTM from 3M, USA) was spin-coated

Sang-Ho Lee; Chang-Soo Lee; Byung-Gee Kim; Yong-Kweon Kim

2003-01-01

199

Adhesion of cultured human endothelial cells onto methacrylate polymers with varying surface wettability and charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion of human endothelial cells (HEC) onto a series of well-characterized methacrylate polymer surfaces with varying wettabilities and surface charges was studied either in serum-containing (CMS) or in serum-free (CM) culture medium. HEC adhesion in CMS onto (co)polymers * of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was found to be optimal on the moderately wettable copolymer (mol ratio

Wachem van P. B; A. H. Hogt; T. Beugeling; J. Feijen; A. Bantjes; J. P. Detmers; Aken van W. G

1987-01-01

200

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2006-01-01

201

Capillary electrophoresis of inorganic anions.  

PubMed

This review deals with the separation mechanisms applied to the separation of inorganic anions by capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques. It covers various CE techniques that are suitable for the separation and/or determination of inorganic anions in various matrices, including capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, electrochromatography and capillary isotachophoresis. Detection and sample preparation techniques used in CE separations are also reviewed. An extensive part of this review deals with applications of CE techniques in various fields (environmental, food and plant materials, biological and biomedical, technical materials and industrial processes). Attention is paid to speciations of anions of arsenic, selenium, chromium, phosphorus, sulfur and halogen elements by CE. PMID:10189691

Kaniansky, D; Masár, M; Marák, J; Bodor, R

1999-02-26

202

Decay of capillary wave turbulence  

E-print Network

We report on the observation of freely decaying capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid. The capillary wave turbulence spectrum decay is found to be self-similar in time with the same power law exponent than the one found in the stationary regime, in agreement with weak turbulence predictions. The amplitude of all Fourier modes are found to decrease exponentially with time at the same damping rate. The longest wavelengths involved in the system are shown to be damped by viscous surface boundary layer. These long waves play the role of an energy source during the decay that sustains nonlinear interactions to keep capillary waves in a wave turbulent state.

Luc Deike; Michaël Berhanu; Eric Falcon

2012-07-13

203

Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Tan, Hongdong (Ames, IA)

2002-05-14

204

Uniform and mixed wetting in square capillaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Square capillaries provide a better model of the pore space in rocks than do capillary tubes of circular cross-section because they have corners where wetting fluid can be retained. We report experimental observations of imbibition of an aqueous phase into square capillary tubes with uniform and mixed wetting. Each capillary had an oil-wet end to ensure that water imbibed in

Kristine Spildo; Jill S. Buckley

1999-01-01

205

A review on the wettability of dental implant surfaces I: theoretical and experimental aspects.  

PubMed

The surface wettability of biomaterials determines the biological cascade of events at the biomaterial/host interface. Wettability is modulated by surface characteristics, such as surface chemistry and surface topography. However, the design of current implant surfaces focuses mainly on specific micro- and nanotopographical features, and is still far from predicting the concomitant wetting behavior. There is an increasing interest in understanding the wetting mechanisms of implant surfaces and the role of wettability in the biological response at the implant/bone or implant/soft tissue interface. Fundamental knowledge related to the influence of surface roughness (i.e. a quantification of surface topography) on titanium and titanium alloy surface wettability, and the different associated wetting regimes, can improve our understanding of the role of wettability of rough implant surfaces on the biological outcome. Such an approach has been applied to biomaterial surfaces only in a limited way. Focusing on titanium dental and orthopaedic implants, the present study reviews the current knowledge on the wettability of biomaterial surfaces, encompassing basic and applied aspects that include measurement techniques, thermodynamic aspects of wetting and models predicting topographical and roughness effects on the wetting behavior. PMID:24590162

Rupp, Frank; Gittens, Rolando A; Scheideler, Lutz; Marmur, Abraham; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen

2014-07-01

206

Tailoring surface hydrophilicity of porous electrospun nanofibers to enhance capillary and push-pull effects for moisture wicking.  

PubMed

In this article, liquid moisture transport behaviors of dual-layer electrospun nanofibrous mats are reported for the first time. The dual-layer mats consist of a thick layer of hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with a thin layer of hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) nanofibers with and without interpenetrating nanopores, respectively. The mats are coated with polydopamine (PDOPA) to different extents to tailor the water wettability of the PS layer. It is found that with a large quantity of nanochannels, the porous PS nanofibers exhibit a stronger capillary effect than the solid PS nanofibers. The capillary motion in the porous PS nanofibers can be further enhanced by slight surface modification with PDOPA while retaining the large hydrophobicity difference between the two layers, inducing a strong push-pull effect to transport water from the PS to the PAN layer. PMID:25020135

Dong, Yuliang; Kong, Junhua; Phua, Si Lei; Zhao, Chenyang; Thomas, Noreen L; Lu, Xuehong

2014-08-27

207

Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Severs, Joanne C. (Hayward, CA)

1999-01-01

208

DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis  

SciTech Connect

Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

Zhang, N.

1997-10-08

209

Capillary viscometry of sodium soaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The rheological properties of a sodium tallow-coconut oil soap (15% water) have been determined using a high pressure capillary extrusion viscometer over shear rates of 14.7 to 2560 sec?1 and temperatures of 70–103°C. Capillary flow measurements were also made on sodium stearate (25% water) at 90°C. The data indicated shear thinning characteristics and were fitted to an equation of

John E. Bujake

1966-01-01

210

Inverse Problem of Capillary Filling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverse problem of capillary filling, as defined in this work, consists in determining the capillary radius profile from experimental data of the meniscus position l as a function of time t. This problem is central in diverse applications, such as the characterization of nanopore arrays or the design of passive transport in microfluidics; it is mathematically ill posed and has multiple solutions; i.e., capillaries with different geometries may produce the same imbibition kinematics. Here a suitable approach is proposed to solve this problem, which is based on measuring the imbibition kinematics in both tube directions. Capillary filling experiments to validate the calculation were made in a wide range of length scales: glass capillaries with a radius of around 150 ?m and anodized alumina membranes with a pores radius of around 30 nm were used. The proposed method was successful in identifying the radius profile in both systems. Fundamental aspects also emerge in this study, notably the fact that the l(t)?t1/2 kinematics (Lucas-Washburn relation) is not exclusive of uniform cross-sectional capillaries.

Elizalde, Emanuel; Urteaga, Raúl; Koropecki, Roberto R.; Berli, Claudio L. A.

2014-04-01

211

Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because of decreased velocity gradients at the wall. Both these effects essentially stem from the spontaneous formation of an electric double layer (EDL) and the resulting streaming potential caused by the net capillary-flow-driven advection of ionic species within the EDL. Our results demonstrate that filling of charged capillaries also exhibits the well-known linear and Washburn regimes witnessed for uncharged capillaries, although the filling rate is always lower than that of the uncharged capillary. We attribute this to a competitive success of the lowering of the driving forces (because of electroviscous effects), in comparison to the effect of weaker drag forces. We further reveal that the time at which the transition between the linear and the Washburn regime occurs may become significantly altered with the introduction of surface charges, thereby altering the resultant capillary dynamics in a rather intricate manner.

Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J. C. T.; Tas, N. R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

2014-10-01

212

Wettability model for various-sized droplets on solid surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetting phenomenon is crucial for the formation of stable liquid films on solid surfaces. The wettability of a liquid on a solid surface is characterized by the Young equation, which represents an equilibrium condition of a droplet at the three phase contact line. In general, the surface force in the vertical direction on a solid surface is ignored because of the resistance of the solid surface. However, considering the adhesion energy of the droplet rather than the force balance at the contact line, the vertical component of the surface force can be expected to be an important factor during wetting. Based on this concept, an analytical model is developed herein by considering the energy balance including adhesion forces acting not only in the horizontal but also in the vertical direction, in addition to the effect of gravity on the droplet. The validity of the developed model is then evaluated by experimental observation of the wetting phenomena of droplets on low- and high-surface-energy solids. Existing data are also used for evaluation of our model. The developed model describes the wetting phenomena of droplets with sizes ranging from nano- to millimeters under all experimental conditions and exhibits universality. In addition, on the basis of our model, the line tension is discussed. The results indicate that the line tension approach may be considered as a method to explain wetting phenomena by considering gravitational potential and other macroscopic parameters as a single parameter (i.e., line tension).

Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Kunugi, Tomoaki

2014-08-01

213

Surface wettability plays a significant role in gecko adhesion underwater.  

PubMed

Although we now have thousands of studies focused on the nano-, micro-, and whole-animal mechanics of gecko adhesion on clean, dry substrates, we know relatively little about the effects of water on gecko adhesion. For many gecko species, however, rainfall frequently wets the natural surfaces they navigate. In an effort to begin closing this gap, we tested the adhesion of geckos on submerged substrates that vary in their wettability. When tested on a wet hydrophilic surface, geckos produced a significantly lower shear adhesive force (5.4 ± 1.33 N) compared with a dry hydrophilic surface (17.1 ± 3.93 N). In tests on an intermediate wetting surface and a hydrophobic surface, we found no difference in shear adhesion between dry and wet contact. Finally, in tests on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), we found that geckos clung significantly better to wet PTFE (8.0 ± 1.09 N) than dry PTFE (1.6 ± 0.66 N). To help explain our results, we developed models based on thermodynamic theory of adhesion for contacting surfaces in different media and found that we can predict the ratio of shear adhesion in water to that in air. Our findings provide insight into how geckos may function in wet environments and also have significant implications for the development of a synthetic gecko mimic that retains adhesion in water. PMID:23576727

Stark, Alyssa Y; Badge, Ila; Wucinich, Nicholas A; Sullivan, Timothy W; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

2013-04-16

214

Wettability of naturally aged silicone and EPDM composite insulators  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the wettability of aged surfaces and of the bulk of naturally aged silicone and EPDM insulator housings and of silicone elastomer insulator coatings studied. The samples were taken either directly from the insulators or treated by exposing them to corona discharges and/or to saline pollution. The results show that the contact angles of the silicone rubber insulator surfaces are larger than the contact angles of the RTV silicone rubber coating and of the EPDM rubber insulator surfaces, especially when the surfaces are aged. When the insulators were exposed to corona discharges, the contact angles of the silicone rubber insulators are reduced but after the exposure they recover with time. The contact angles of the EPDM rubber insulators, however, after the exposure, continue to reduce. When exposed to artificial saline pollution, the silicone rubber insulators show a limited recovery of their contact angles with time, while, when exposed to corona discharge, they show a recovery of the contact angle after the exposure. The time for recovery is dependent on the exposure time to the corona discharges.

Gubanski, S.M. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)); Vlastos, A.E. (Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden))

1990-07-01

215

Effect of wettability of adhesive resins on bonding to dentin.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate on human dentin the relationships between, on the one hand, the wettability of five adhesive compounds, characterized by different solubility parameters delta, and on the other, the thickness of the resin impregnated dentin layer (RIL) and the shear bond strength (SBS). Cut dentin surfaces were treated with conditioners of pH 1.25, 3.6 or 7.4. Shear bond strength was measured on 20 specimens each. RIL was determined by scanning electron microscope on specimens fractured perpendicularly to the bonding interface. When resins with delta 32, 30 or 39 (MJ1/2/m3/2) were used RILs were consistently 4 microns and 1 micron on dentin pretreated with the two acidic conditioners. No clearly measurable RIL was shown after application of the conditioner with pH 7.4, and when resins with delta-values of 20 and 25 were applied. For the same adhesive no difference in SBS was found, when applied on the differently conditioned dentin sites. Resins with delta > 30 produced significantly higher SBS than the two adhesives with smaller delta. PMID:9115677

Finger, W J; Inoue, M; Asmussen, E

1994-02-01

216

AFM study of mineral wettability with reservoir oils.  

PubMed

Wettability plays a key role in determining fluid distributions and consequently the multiphase flow and transport in petroleum reservoirs. Many crude oils have polar organic components that collect at oil-water interfaces and can adsorb onto the mineral surface if the brine film breaks, rendering the medium oil-wet or mixed-wet. Mica and silica surfaces have been aged with brine and crude oils to induce oil component adsorption. Bulk oil is eventually replaced by water in these experiments by washing with common solvents without ever drying the mineral surface. The organic deposit on the mineral surface is studied by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode under water. Drying the surface during the removal of bulk oil induces artifacts; it is essential to keep the surface wet at all times before atomic force microscopy or contact angle measurement. As the mean thickness of the organic deposit increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The organic deposits left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion with a probe sphere for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil. The force of adhesion for the minerals aged with just the resin fraction is the highest of all SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fractions. PMID:16009229

Kumar, K; Dao, E; Mohanty, K K

2005-09-01

217

The wettability of PTFE and glass surfaces by nanofluids.  

PubMed

Wetting of solid surfaces by surfactant solutions is well focused in the literature compared that of nanofluids. Similar to the surfactant solutions nanofluids are also able to reduce the surface tension as well as influence on contact angle at the solid, liquid and gas interface. The surface tension and wettability of two different nanofluids containing hydrophilic (TiO2) and hydrophobic (S) particles have been experimentally studied here. The surface tension reduction of nanofluids strongly depends on material property, particle size and as well as concentration. These parameters also influence the change in contact angle on both hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (PTFE) surfaces. Three important factors such as surface tension, surface hydrophobicity after deposition of particles on a solid surface, and the disjoining pressure influence the final contact angle of nanofluids on a solid surface. Sulfur nanofluids show maximum enhancement in contact angle (30.6°) on the glass surface; on the other hand TiO2 nanofluids show maximum reductions in surface tension (25.4 mN/m) and contact angle on the PTFE surface (17.7°) with respect to pure water. PMID:25181329

Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh; Paria, Santanu

2014-11-15

218

Influence of variable substrate geometry on wettability and cellular responses.  

PubMed

In this report, we evaluate the impact of a systematic change to the extracellular environment on cell morphology and functionality by combining the inherent properties of biocompatible polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane and polycaprolactone with a specific surface response. By microstructuring pillars and pits on the substrates, varying spacing and height of the structures, we investigate the role of topography in fibroblast cell adhesion and viability. The change of wetting behaviour was tailored and evaluated in terms of contact angle measurements. It was shown that the range of micro-scale physical cues at the interface between the cells and the surrounding environment affects cell shape and migrations, indicating a tendency to respond differently to higher features of the micro-scale. We found that surface topography seems dominant over material wettability, fibroblasts responded to variations in topography by altering morphology and migrating along the direction of spacing among the features biased by the height of structures and not by the material. It is therefore possible to selectively influence either cell adhesion or morphology by choosing adequate topography of the surface. This work can impact in the design of biomaterials and can be applied to implanted biomedical devices, tissue engineering scaffolds and lab on chip devices. PMID:23270757

Cortese, Barbara; Riehle, Mathis O; D'Amone, Stefania; Gigli, Giuseppe

2013-03-15

219

Capillary foams: stabilization and functionalization of porous liquids and solids.  

PubMed

Liquid foams are two-phase systems in which a large volume of gas is dispersed as bubbles in a continuous liquid phase. These foams are ubiquitous in nature. In addition, they are found in industrial applications, such as pharmaceutical formulation, food processing, wastewater treatment, construction, and cosmetics. Recently, we reported a new type of foam material, capillary foam, which is stabilized by the synergistic action of particles and a small amount of an immiscible secondary liquid. In this study, we explore in more detail the foam preparation routes. To illustrate some of the potential applications, we create vividly colored wet and dried foams, which are difficult to prepare using traditional methods, and load-bearing porous solids. The combined action of particles and immiscible secondary fluid confers exceptional stability to capillary foams and many options for functionalization, suggesting a wide range of possible applications. PMID:25689577

Zhang, Yi; Allen, Michael C; Zhao, Ruiyang; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Behrens, Sven H; Meredith, J Carson

2015-03-10

220

Capillary filling under electro-osmotic effects in the presence of electromagneto-hydrodynamic effects.  

PubMed

We report various regimes of capillary filling dynamics under electromagneto-hydrodynamic interactions, in the presence of electrical double layer effects. Our chosen configuration considers an axial electric field and transverse magnetic field acting on an electrolyte. We demonstrate that for positive interfacial potential, the movement of the capillary front resembles capillary rise in a vertical channel under the action of gravity. We also evaluate the time taken by the capillary front to reach the final equilibrium position for positive interfacial potential and show that the presence of a transverse magnetic field delays the time of travel of the liquid front, thereby sustaining the capillary motion for a longer time. Our scaling estimates reveal that the initial linear regime starts, as well as ends, much earlier in the presence of electrical and magnetic body forces, as compared to the corresponding transients observed under pure surface tension driven flow. We further obtain a long time solution for the capillary imbibition for positive interfacial potential, and derive a scaling estimate of the capillary stopping time as a function of the applied magnetic field and an intrinsic length scale delineating electromechanical influences of the electrical double layer. Our findings are likely to offer alternative strategies of controlling dynamical features of capillary imbibition, by modulating the interplay between electromagnetic interactions, electrical double layer phenomena, and hydrodynamics over interfacial scales. PMID:25019889

Desai, Nikhil; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman

2014-06-01

221

Leucocyte capillary migration: an adherence dependent phenomenon.  

PubMed Central

To determine the mode of action of leucocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) on polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) migration out of capillary tubes, this phenomenon has been compared with PMN adhesion to cotton wool columns. Colchicine and vinblastine sulphate had no effect on either of these processes but cytochalasin B caused marked inhibition of PMN migration and increased PMN adhesion. The cytochalasin B effect could be reversed in the presence of drugs known to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. For inhibition of PMN migration by LIF, Mg2+ but not Ca2+ was essential. LIF not only inhibited PMN migration but also increased PMN adhesion to cotton wool columns. LIF inhibitory activity on PMN migration was not affected by colchicine or vinblastine. Leucocyte migration and adhesion depend on similar mechanisms, and are both influenced by LIF which probably acts by affecting micro-filament function. PMID:182422

Lomnitzer, R; Rabson, A R; Koornhof, H J

1976-01-01

222

[The wettability of leaf surfaces and the submicroscopic structure of their wax].  

PubMed

The wettability of a leaf surface is defined by the contact angle between a water-droplet and the surface of the leaf.Contact angles of 60-80° were measured on easily wettable leaves. These leaves have no wax on the outer cuticular layer.Contact angles of 130-160° were measured on leaves with a low wettability. These leaves have wax on the outer cuticular layer, which shows submicroscopic structures characteristic of the particular plants.A comparison of the wettability and the different structures of the wax showed no true distinctions.The wax does not adhere strongly to the outer cuticular layer and is cast off in the case of old leaves. Therefore the wetability alters with the age of the leaves. If the wax on young leaves is destroyed or removed by outer influences it can be produced again within a few hours.The rebuilt structure of the wax is not always similar to the original one. When the wax was dissolved by organic solvents no new wax formation was observed.Cigarette smoke greatly increases the wettability of leaves of Tropaeolum majus, parochetus communis and Chelidonium majus without causing a visible alteration of the submicroscopic structure. In this case the leaves recover their water-repellency within a few hours, but not if they were treated with Diesel smoke.When the wax structure was destroyed by fungus or Aleurodina no new wax formation was observed. PMID:24493084

Rentschler, I

1971-06-01

223

Effects of initial surface wettability on biofilm formation and subsequent settlement of Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

Hydroides elegans is a major fouling organism in tropical waters around the world, including Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. To determine the importance of initial surface characteristics on biofilm community composition and subsequent colonization by larvae of H. elegans, the settlement and recruitment of larvae to biofilmed surfaces with six different initial surface wettabilities were tested in Pearl Harbor. Biofilm community composition, as determined by a combined approach of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, was similar across all surfaces, regardless of initial wettability, and all surfaces had distinct temporal shifts in community structure over a 10 day period. Larvae settled and recruited in higher numbers to surfaces with medium to low wettability in both May and August, and also to slides with high wettability in August. Pearl Harbor biofilm communities developed similarly on a range of surface wettabilities, and after 10 days in Pearl Harbor all surfaces were equally attractive to larvae of Hydroides elegans, regardless of initial surface properties. PMID:19306143

Huggett, Megan J; Nedved, Brian T; Hadfield, Michael G

2009-01-01

224

Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery.  

SciTech Connect

This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil. Crude Oil/Brine/Solid Interactions The interactions between crude oils, brines, and solid surfaces have been studied using a variety of core materials as well as in two-dimensional micromodels of interconnecting pores and throats. In the work reported this quarter, these same interactions have been applied to create mixed-wet conditions in a very simple model porous material, namely square glass tubes which have the advantage of permitting dual occupancy by both wetting and nonwetting phases simultaneously. The interactions between crude oil samples from Prudhoe Bay have been studied on a variety of surfaces. Figure 1 outlines the regions of stable and unstable brine compositions with A-93, a sample from Prudhoe Bay, and glass surfaces. A brine with pH 8 and 1 M concentration of NaCl produces a stable water film between glass and A-93 crude oil. If the brine has pH 4 and 0.01M NaCl, thin films of water are unstable and oil contacts the glass. Between these extremes is a wide band of brine compositions for which film stability is conditional.

Buckley, J.S.

1997-10-01

225

Curvature Capillary Migration of Microspheres  

E-print Network

We address the question: How does capillarity propel microspheres along curvature gradients? For a particle on a fluid interface, there are two conditions that can apply at the three phase contact line: Either the contact line adopts an equilibrium contact angle, or it can be pinned by kinetic trapping, e.g. at chemical heterogeneities, asperities or other pinning sites on the particle surface. We formulate the curvature capillary energy for both scenarios. For particles with equilibrium contact angles, we find that the capillary energy is negligible, with the first contribution bounded to fourth order in the deviatoric curvature. For pinned contact lines, we find curvature capillary energies that are finite, with a functional form investigated previously by us for disks and microcylinders on curved interfaces. In experiments, we show microsphere migration along deterministic trajectories toward regions of maximum deviatoric curvature with curvature capillary energies ranging from $6 \\times10^3 - 5 \\times 10^4~k_BT$. These data agree with the curvature capillary energy for the case of pinned contact lines. The underlying physics of this migration is a coupling of the interface deviatoric curvature with the quadrupolar mode of nanometric disturbances in the interface owing to the particle's contact line undulations. This work is an example of the major implications of nanometric roughness and contact line pinning for colloidal dynamics.

Nima Sharifi-Mood; Iris B. Liu; Kathleen J. Stebe

2015-02-05

226

Treatment process for capillary hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Background Hemangiomas, usually, present at the first few months of life and are the most common benign tumor in children. There are various therapeutic methods for hemangioma. Capillary hemangioma is a type of hemangiomas. The steps of treatment of a child with capillary hemangioma in Taleghani Hospital of Gorgan, Iran, are reported. Case report In this report, it is described an 18-month-old child with capillary hemangioma on the right side of face. She was presented to the hematologic clinic of Taleghani Hospital of Gorgan. Three drugs, including prednisolon, propranolol and interferon alpha-2b (IFN-?-2b), were used for treating this patient. At the end of treatment, good results were obtained. After that, laser therapy was performed for fading the lesions. Conclusion Prescription of drug was our first choice for treating capillary hemangioma and it had a positive result without any complications. We used propranolol and IFN-?-2b for treating capillary hemangioma because of their better effect on this patient. PMID:25254092

Mirbehbahani, NB; Rashidbaghan, A

2014-01-01

227

Motion of an isolated liquid plug inside a capillary tube: effect of contact angle hysteresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of a single, small and isolated partially wetting liquid plug (of known length L and wettability), placed at rest inside a long, dry, circular capillary tube ( D = 1.5 mm), and subsequently quasi-statically pushed from one end by applying air pressure, the other end being kept exposed to atmosphere, are reported. The air pressure first overcomes the `static' friction manifested by the three-phase contact line at the advancing and receding menisci, and then, the plug motion gets initiated, eventually leading to a terminal velocity (Ca ~ 2.8 × 10-5), when pressure force balances net frictional resistance due to viscous and surface forces. It is seen that, under steady motion, the curvature profiles of the advancing and receding menisci of liquid plug, respectively, remain the same, independent of the plug length. Steady-state pressure drop is dominated by the contribution due to contact angle hysteresis, which is also independent of the plug length. Increasing the system wettability drastically decreased the contact angle hysteresis and the associated net pressure drop.

Srinivasan, Vyas; Khandekar, Sameer; Bouamrane, Nathan; Lefevre, Frederic; Bonjour, Jocelyn

2015-01-01

228

Electrical resistance of a capillary endothelium  

PubMed Central

The electrical resistance of consecutive segments of capillaries has been determined by a method in which the microvessels were treated as a leaky, infinite cable. A two-dimensional analytical model to describe the potential field in response to intracapillary current injection was formulated. The model allowed determination of the electrical resistance from four sets of data: the capillary radius, the capillary length constant, the length constant in the mesentery perpendicular to the capillary, and the relative potential drop across the capillary wall. Of particular importance were the mesothelial membranes covering the mesenteric capillaries with resistances several times higher than that of the capillary endothelium. 27 frog mesenteric capillaries were characterized. The average resistance of the endothelium was 1.85 omega cm2, which compares well with earlier determinations of the ionic permeability of such capillaries. However, heterogeneity with respect to resistance was observed, that of 10 arterial capillaries being 3.0 omega cm2 as compared with 0.95 omega cm2 for 17 mid- and venous capillaries. The average in situ length constant was 99 micrometers for the arterial capillaries and 57 micrometers for the mid- and venous capillaries. It is likely that the ions that carry the current must move paracellularly, through junctions that are leaky to small solutes. PMID:7241087

1981-01-01

229

UV/thermally driven rewritable wettability patterns on TiO2-PDMS composite films.  

PubMed

Composite films of TiO2 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are prepared by a sol-gel method, cured with UV irradiation, and then treated in hot water to crystallize the TiO2 in the film. The presence of anatase TiO2 contributes to the photoinduced superhydrophilicity of the film under UV irradiation. Contact angle studies reveal that the TiO2-PDMS composite film recovers its original hydrophobic state. Hydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterns are successfully formed on the films. The wettability patterns can be erased by UV irradiation and thermal treatment. New wettability patterns can be reconstructed, demonstrating that the film exhibits rewritable wettability without the need for organic chemicals. PMID:20712336

Nakata, Kazuya; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sakai, Munetoshi; Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Murakami, Taketoshi; Abe, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira

2010-09-01

230

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the experimental results of some baseline imbibition tests on recovery of mineral oil at very strongly water wet conditions (VSWW) from sandstones with air permeability ranging from 80 to 360 md. Mixed wettability cores were prepared by adsorption from either Minnelusa or Gullfaks crude oil using either synthetic Minnelusa reservoir brine or sea water. Recovery of two synthetic-based mud (SBM) base oils, Petrofree(reg sign)SF and LVT 200 from mixed wettability cores gave results that correlated closely with results for refined oils with viscosities ranging from 3.8 to 84 cp. Two synthetic-based mud emulsifiers (LE SUPERMUL and EZ MUL(reg sign)NT) were added to mineral oil and tested for their effect on the wettability of MXW-F core samples as indicated by spontaneous imbibition. In both cases a significant decrease in water wetness was obtained.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-05-01

231

Janus Si micropillar arrays with thermal-responsive anisotropic wettability for manipulation of microfluid motions.  

PubMed

In this paper, Janus micropillar array (MPA) with fore-aft controllable wettability difference was demonstrated. With two-step modification process, we successfully decorate the Janus pillar skeletons with wettability-switchable polymer brush on one side and hydrophilic self-assembled monolayer on the other. Owing to the switchable wettability of the polymer brush, the patterned surface could switch between anisotropic wetting and isotropic wetting at different temperatures, which gives the possibility of coupling the well-designed surface with microfluidic channel to manipulate the microfluid motion. Additionally, a further photothermal control of microfluid was also established based on the thermal-responsive Janus MPA through introducing infrared light to adjust the temperature of the microfluidic system. We believe that the thermal-responsive Janus micropillar arrays would provide a new strategy to control the flow and motion of fluids in microfluidic channels and show potential applications in the future microfluidic chips. PMID:25479323

Wang, Tieqiang; Chen, Hongxu; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuli; Xue, Peihong; Yu, Ye; Ge, Peng; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai

2015-01-14

232

Capillary interactions in Pickering emulsions  

E-print Network

The effective capillary interaction potentials for small colloidal particles trapped at the surface of liquid droplets are calculated analytically. Pair potentials between capillary monopoles and dipoles, corresponding to particles floating on a droplet with a fixed center of mass and subjected to external forces and torques, respectively, exhibit a repulsion at large angular separations and an attraction at smaller separations, with the latter resembling the typical behavior for flat interfaces. This change of character is not observed for quadrupoles, corresponding to free particles on a mechanically isolated droplet. The analytical results for quadrupoles are compared with the numerical minimization of the surface free energy of the droplet in the presence of ellipsoidal particles.

J. Guzowski; M. Tasinkevych; S. Dietrich

2011-03-28

233

Capillary Dropout in Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Capillary dropout is a critical process in diabetic retinopathy, resulting in ischemia, release of angiogenic growth factors,\\u000a and sight-threatening retinal neovascularization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a It is essential to gain a greater understanding of this process in order to develop improved treatments for diabetic retinopathy.\\u000a This chapter will review the organization, structure, and cellular composition of retinal capillaries. The histopathologic\\u000a and clinical manifestations of

Renu A. Kowluru; Pooi-See Chan

234

EFFECT OF RUST ON THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL BY WATER W. Lu and D.D.L. Chung1  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF RUST ON THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL BY WATER W. Lu and D.D.L. Chung1 Composite Materials Research Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400, USA (Received-carbon steel in water, was found to improve the wettability of steel by water. The advancing contact angle

Chung, Deborah D.L.

235

Effect of Surface Wettability on the Adsorption of Proteins and George B. Sigal, Milan Mrksich, and George M. Whitesides*  

E-print Network

Effect of Surface Wettability on the Adsorption of Proteins and Detergents George B. Sigal, Milan wettability on the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and detergents to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold. The adsorption of both proteins and detergents to uncharged SAMs showed a general

Mrksich, Milan

236

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned with the new concept for coal surface wettability and floatability and modulation. The objective of this work is to study the fundamental surface chemistry features about the evaluation of the surface wettability and floatability of coal and pyrite, and establish a new separation strategy which could contribute to advanced coal-cleaning for premium fuel applications.

Hu, W.

1994-08-01

237

Improvement of water\\/resin wettability of graphite using carbon black nano particles coating via ink media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon coated graphite with high resin and water wettability characteristics could expand the refractory and carbon–carbon composites application in different fields. Improvement of water and resin wettability of graphite using carbon black coating via ink media is reported. Present method is based on preparing colloidal disperion of carbon black in ink followed by adding proper amount of graphite to the

F. Golestani-Fard; H. Sarpoolaky

2009-01-01

238

Influence of biochar and terra preta substrates on wettability and erodibility of soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar (BC) and terra preta substrates (TPS) have recently been promoted as soil amendments suitable for soil stabilization, soil amelioration and long-term carbon sequestration. BC is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material. TPS is composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including BC, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Their effect on wettability, soil erodibility and nutrient discharge through overland flow was studied by laboratory experiments. At water contents between 0 and 100% BC is water repellent, while TPS changes from a wettable into a repellent state. The 5 and 10 vol % mixtures of BC and 10 and 20 vol% mixtures of TPS with sand remain mainly wettable during drying but repellency maxima are shifted to higher water contents with respect to pure sand and are mainly of subcritical nature. The runoff response was dominated by infiltration properties of the substrates rather than their wettability.Only one mixtures (20% TPS) produced more runoff than sandy-loamy soil on a 15% slope at an intensity of 25 mm•h-1. The 10% BC decreased runoff by up to 40%. At higher rainfall intensities (45 and 55 mm•h-1) the 10% TPS7 was up to 35% less erodible than 10% BC. Despite the TPS containing more nutrients, nutrient discharge varied between types of nutrients, slopes, rainfall intensities and mixtures. The application of a 1 cm layer onto the soil surface instead of 10% mixtures is not recommended due to high nutrient concentrations in the runoff and the wettability of pure substrates. The usage of 10% BC in lowland areas with low frequency and low-intensity precipitation and 10% TPS7 in areas with higher rainfall intensities appears to be appropriate and commendable according to current results. However, together with reversibility of repellency, it needs to undergo further examination in the field under different environmental and land use conditions Key words: biochar, terra preta substrate, wettability, erodibility, nutrient discharge

Smetanova, A.; Dotterweich, M.; Diehl, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fohrer, N.

2012-04-01

239

Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis  

DOEpatents

A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

1996-03-12

240

Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis  

DOEpatents

A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Taylor, John A. (Nevada, IA)

1996-03-12

241

Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis  

DOEpatents

A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Taylor, John A. (Nevada, IA)

1994-06-28

242

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2006-01-01

243

Malpighi and the Discovery of Capillaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leonardo da Vinci clearly observed and described capillaries. Using the microscope, Marcello Malpighi examined the brain and major organs to demonstrate their finer anatomical features. This led to his discovery in 1661, of capillaries that proved fundamental to our understanding of the vascular system in the brain and cord. He hypothesized that capillaries were the connection between arteries and veins

J. M. S. Pearce

2007-01-01

244

Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells  

SciTech Connect

Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field tests were conducted in an area of the field that has not met production expectations. The dataset on the 23 Phosphoria well surfactant soaks was updated. An analysis of the oil decline curves indicted that 4.5 lb of chemical produced a barrel of incremental oil. The AI analysis supports the adage 'good wells are the best candidates.' The generally better performance of surfactant in the high permeability core laboratory tests supports this observation. AI correlations were developed to predict the response to water-frac stimulations in a tight San Andres reservoir. The correlations maybe useful in the design of Cedar Creek Anticline surfactant soak treatments planned for next year. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance scans of dolomite cores to measure porosity and saturation during the high temperature laboratory work were acquired. The scans could not be correlated with physical measurement using either conventional or AI methods.

W. W. Weiss

2006-09-30

245

Surface wettability and platelet adhesion studies on Langmuir Blodgett films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition technique is known to be capable of preparing highly ordered monomolecular films with densely packed structure, LB technique is used to prepare films of DPPC, DMPC, cholesterol, octadecylamine (ODA), and stearic acid, with thickness of one molecular layer. The film surfaces were characterized by dynamic contact angle measurement and the interaction between blood and these materials were investigated. The properties of LB films were also compared with the results obtained on continuous films prepared by solution dipping. The results show that the contact angles of water on LB films of the five compounds decreases as the following order: ODA> DMPC? DPPC> stearic acid > cholesterol. The hydrophobic property reflects the highest organization of ODA molecules on the substrate, which is related to its interaction between the molecule and substrate. The advancing contact angle of ODA is equivalent to that of a methyl-terminated SAM, but its receding contact angle is smaller which implies the exposing of hydrophilic pole or glass substrate on LB film. The irregular orientation of molecules on LB film increases with decreasing of contact angle and is especially significant on LB film of cholesterol which has highest hydrophilic property. The plate adhesion experiments on the continuous films show that the hemocompatibility of the five materials decreases as the order: DPPC? DMPC> ODA> cholesterol> stearic acid ? glass. This result implies that the lipid has highest blood compatibility, and then -NH 2, and then -OH functionality. On the contrary, the glass surface, -COOH and -CH 3 functionalities have high reactivity to platelet. Due to the possibility of glass exposure on LB films, as estimated from the surface wettability, the LB films have higher platelet reactivity, especially for the cholesterol, compared with the continuous films. Because the interaction of the LB film to the substrate is physical force, the deposited molecules may be peeled off from the substrate by dipping in Hepes-Tyrodes buffer solution. As a consequence, the LB films after equilibrating with Hepes-Tyrodes buffer solution have high platelet reactivity as that on glass surface.

Lee, Yuh-Lang; Chen, Chi-Yun

2003-02-01

246

Pore-Lining Composition and Capillary Breakthrough Pressure of Mudstone Caprocks: Sealing Efficiency of Geologic CO2 Storage Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface containment of CO2 is predicated on effective caprock sealing. Many previous studies have relied on macroscopic measurements of capillary breakthrough pressure and other petrophysical properties without direct examination of solid phases that line pore networks and directly contact fluids. However, pore-lining phases strongly contribute to sealing behavior through interfacial interactions among CO2, brine, and the mineral or non-mineral phases. Our high resolution (i.e., sub-micron) examination of the composition of pore-lining phases of several continental and marine mudstones indicates that sealing efficiency (i.e., breakthrough pressure) is governed by pore shapes and pore-lining phases that are not identifiable except through direct characterization of pores. Bulk X-ray diffraction data does not indicate which phases line the pores and may be especially lacking for mudstones with organic material. Organics can line pores and may represent once-mobile phases that modify the wettability of an originally clay-lined pore network. For shallow formations (i.e., < ~800 m depth), interfacial tension and contact angles result in breakthrough pressures that may be as high as those needed to fracture the rock—thus, in the absence of fractures, capillary sealing efficiency is indicated. Deeper seals have poorer capillary sealing if mica-like wetting dominates the wettability. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the Southeast and Southwest Carbon Sequestration Partnerships for supporting this work. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; McPherson, B. J.; Kotula, P. G.

2010-12-01

247

Capillary electrophoresis for drug analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a high resolution separation technique which is amenable to a wide variety of solutes, including compounds which are thermally degradable, non-volatile and highly polar, and is therefore well suited for drug analysis. Techniques which have been used in our laboratory include electrokinetic chromatography (ECC), free zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). ECC, which uses a charged run buffer additive which migrates counter to osmotic flow, is excellent for many applications, including, drug screening and analyses of heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine samples. ECC approaches include the use of micelles and charged cyclodextrins, which allow for the separation of complex mixtures. Simultaneous separation of acidic, neutral and basic solutes and the resolution of optical isomers and positional isomers are possible. CZE has been used for the analysis of small ions (cations and anions) in heroin exhibits. For the ECC and CZE experiments performed in our laboratory, uncoated capillaries were used. In contrast, CEC uses capillaries packed with high performance liquid chromatography stationary phases, and offers both high peak capacities and unique selectivities. Applications include the analysis of cannabinoids and drug screening. Although CE suffers from limited concentration sensitivity, it is still applicable to trace analysis of drug samples, especially when using injection techniques such as stacking, or detection schemes such as laser induced fluorescence and extended pathlength UV.

Lurie, Ira S.

1999-02-01

248

Bacterial motion in narrow capillaries.  

PubMed

Motile bacteria often have to pass through small tortuous pores in soil or tissue of higher organisms. However, their motion in this prevalent type of niche is not fully understood. Here, we modeled it with narrow glass capillaries and identified a critical radius (Rc) for bacterial motion. Near the surface of capillaries narrower than that, the swimming trajectories are helices. In larger capillaries, they swim in distorted circles. Under non-slip condition, the peritrichous Escherichia coli swam in left-handed helices with an Rc of ?10 ?m near glass surface. However, slipping could occur in the fast monotrichous Pseudomonas fluorescens, when a speed threshold was exceeded, and thus both left-handed and right-handed helices were executed in glass capillaries. In the natural non-cylindrical pores, the near-surface trajectories would be spirals and twisted loops. Engaging in such motions reduces the bacterial migration rate. With a given pore size, the run length and the tumbling angle of the bacterium determine the probability and duration of their near-surface motion. Shear flow and chemotaxis potentially enhance it. Based on this observation, the puzzling previous observations on bacterial migration in porous environments can be interpreted. PMID:25764548

Ping, Liyan; Wasnik, Vaibhav; Emberly, Eldon

2015-02-01

249

Capillary Rise in a Wedge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In introductory-level physics courses, the concept of surface tension is often illustrated using the example of capillary rise in thin tubes. In this paper the author describes experiments conducted using a planar geometry created with two small plates forming a thin wedge. The distribution of the fluid entering the wedge can be studied as a…

Piva, M.

2009-01-01

250

DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other application papers of sequencing up to this level were also published in the mid 1990's. A major interest of the sequencing community has always been read length. The longer the sequence read per run the more efficient the process as well as the ability to read repeat sequences. We therefore devoted a great deal of time to studying the factors influencing read length in capillary electrophoresis, including polymer type and molecule weight, capillary column temperature, applied electric field, etc. In our initial optimization, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the sequencing of over 1000 bases with 90% accuracy. The run required 80 minutes for separation. Sequencing of 1000 bases per column was next demonstrated on a multiple capillary instrument. Our studies revealed that linear polyacrylamide produced the longest read lengths because the hydrophilic single strand DNA had minimal interaction with the very hydrophilic linear polyacrylamide. Any interaction of the DNA with the polymer would lead to broader peaks and lower read length. Another important parameter was the molecular weight of the linear chains. High molecular weight (> 1 MDA) was important to allow the long single strand DNA to reptate through the entangled polymer matrix. In an important paper, we showed an inverse emulsion method to prepare reproducibility linear polyacrylamide polymer with an average MWT of 9MDa. This approach was used in the polymer for sequencing the human genome. Another critical factor in the successful use of capillary electrophoresis for sequencing was the sample preparation method. In the Sanger sequencing reaction, high concentration of salts and dideoxynucleotide remained. Since the sample was introduced to the capillary column by electrokinetic injection, these salt ions would be favorably injected into the column over the sequencing fragments, thus reducing the signal for longer fragments and hence reading read length. In two papers, we examined the role of individual components from the sequencing reaction and then developed a protocol to reduce the deleterio

Dr. Barry Karger

2011-05-09

251

Development of a Contingency Capillary Wastewater Management Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Personal Body .Attached Liquid Liquidator (PBALL) is conceived as a passive, capillary driven contingency wastewater disposal device. In this contingency scenario, the airflow system on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is assumed to have failed, leaving only passive hardware and vacuum vent to dispose of the wastewater. To meet these needs, the PBALL was conceived to rely on capillary action and urine wetting design considerations. The PBALL is designed to accommodate a range of wetting conditions, from 0deg < (theta)adv approx. 90deg, be adaptable for both male and female use, collect and retain up to a liter of urine, minimize splash-back, and allow continuous drain of the wastewater to vacuum while minimizing cabin air loss. A sub-scale PBALL test article was demonstrated on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft in April, 2010.

Thomas, Evan A.

2010-01-01

252

Capillary filling dynamics of viscoelastic fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the filling of a capillary by a viscoelastic fluid described by the Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) constitutive behavior. By considering both vertical capillary filling and horizontal capillary filling, we demarcate the role played by gravity and fluid rheology towards long-time oscillations in the capillary penetration depth. We also consider the isothermal filling of the capillary for a closed channel and thus bring out the fundamental differences in the nature of capillary filling for PTT and Newtonian fluids for closed channels in comparison to open channels. Through a scaling analysis, we highlight a distinct viscoelastic regime in the horizontal capillary filling which is in contrast to the Washburn scaling seen in the case of Newtonian fluids. Such an analysis with a very general constitutive behavior is therefore expected to shed light on many areas of microfluidics which focus on biofluids that are often well described by the PTT constitutive behavior.

Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman

2014-05-01

253

Surfactant and Irrigation Effects on Runoff, Erosion, and Water Retention of Three Wettable Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surfactants are chemical compounds that change the contact angle of water on solid surfaces and are commonly used to increase infiltration into hydrophobic soil. Since production fields with water-repellent soil often contain areas of wettable soil, surfactants applied to such fields will likely be ...

254

Effect of surface wettability on carbon nanotube water-based nanofluid droplet impingement heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies into droplet impingement heat transfer have demonstrated that it has great potential for providing high heat flux cooling in areas such as thermal management of electronics. The wettability of the surface affects the flow dynamics of the impingement process and the resulting heat transfer. In this study, the effect of surface wettability on carbon nanotube water-based nanofluid droplet impingement heat transfer has been studied and compared with water. Superhydrophobic or hydrophilic coatings are applied on one face of monocrystalline silicon wafers (the drop impinges on this face) while the other face is painted matt black to permit infrared thermography. The silicon wafer is preheated to 40 °C and a single droplet impinges normally on the top facing coated surface of the monocrystalline silicon wafer. The inverse heat conduction problem has been solved using the measured black face temperature. For both the water and nanofluid droplets, the convective heat transfer coefficient reduces with the decrease in surface wettability. It is found that the nanofluid produce a significantly higher convective heat transfer coefficient during droplet impingement than water, with the enhancement increasing with increasing wettability.

Jackson, Robert Gordon; Kahani, Mostafa; Karwa, Nitin; Wu, Alex; Lamb, Robert; Taylor, Robert; Rosengarten, Gary

2014-07-01

255

Micropure water wettability evaluation of SUS304 steel with a tapping mode of atomic force microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro pure water wetting morphologies on SUS304 steel surface before and after immersion corrosion in 3.5 mass% sodium chloride aqueous solution were observed with a tapping mode of atomic force microscope. The micro pure water wettabilities of these were evaluated.

Rongguang Wang; Mutsumi Takeda; Mitsuo Kido

2002-01-01

256

Interaction of Different Types of Cells on Polymer Surfaces with Wettability Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradient surfaces whose properties are changed gradually along the sample length are of particular interest for basic studies of the interaction between biological species and surfaces since the effect of a selected property can be examined in a single experiment on one surface. We prepared a wettability gradient on low density polyethylene (PE) sheets by treating them in air with

Jin Ho Lee; Gilson Khang; Jin Whan Lee; Hai Bang Lee

1998-01-01

257

Surfactant Effects on the Water-stable Aggregation of Wettable and Nonwettable Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surfactants may affect soil structure differently, depending upon a soil’s wettability or the quality of rainfall or irrigation water. This study evaluated the effects of two nonionic surfactants and a surfactant-free water control on the water drop penetration time (WDPT) and mean weight diameter ...

258

Investigation of wettability by NMR microscopy and spin-lattice relaxation  

SciTech Connect

The wettability of reservoir rock has an important impact on the efficiency of oil recovery processes and the distribution of oil and water within the reservoir. One of the potentially useful tools for wettability measurements is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and spin-lattice relaxation. More recently using NMR microscopy NIPER has developed the capability of imaging one- and two-phase fluid systems in reservoir rock at resolutions to 25 microns. Effects seen in the images of fluids within the pore space of rocks near the rock grain surfaces hinted at the possibility of using NMR microscopy to map the wettability variations at grain sites within the pore space. Investigations were begun using NMR microscopy and spin-lattice relaxation time measurements on rock/fluid systems and on well-defined fractional wet model systems to study these effects. Relaxation data has been modelled using the stretched exponential relationship recently introduced. Comparisons of the NMR microscopy results of the model system with the rock results indicate that the observed effects probably do not reflect actual wettability variations within the pore space. The results of the relaxation time measurements reveal that even in the simple model studied, the behavior of two phases is somewhat ambiguous and much more complex and requires more study.

Doughty, D.A.; Tomutsa, Liviu

1993-11-01

259

Surfactant and irrigation effects on wettable soils: Runoff, erosion, and water retention responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surfactants are chemical compounds that change the contact angle of water on solid surfaces and are commonly used to increase infiltration into hydrophobic soil. Since production fields with water-repellent soil often contain areas of wettable soil, surfactants applied to such fields will likely be ...

260

The impact of additives found in industrial formulations of TCE on the wettability of sandstone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wettability of aquifer rocks is a key physical parameter which exerts an important control on the transport, residual trapping, distribution and eventual fate of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (CHSs) released into the subsurface. Typically chlorinated solvents are assumed to be non-wetting in water saturated rocks and unconsolidated sediments. However industrially formulated solvent products are often combined with basic additives such

Gavin Harrold; David N. Lerner; Stephen A. Leharne

2005-01-01

261

Multifunctional superamphiphobic TiO2 nanostructure surfaces with facile wettability and adhesion engineering.  

PubMed

Compared to conventional top-down photo-cleavage method, a facile bottom-up ink-combination method to in situ and rapidly achieve water wettability and adhesion transition, with a great contrast on the superamphiphobic TiO2 nanostructured film, is described. Moreover, such combination method is suitable for various kinds of superamphiphobic substrate. Oil-based ink covering or removing changes not only the topographical morphology but also surface chemical composition, and these resultant topographical morphology and composition engineering realize the site-selectively switchable wettability varying from superamphiphobicity to amphiphilicity, and water adhesion between sliding superamphiphobicity and sticky superamphiphobicity in micro-scale. Additionally, positive and negative micro-pattern can be achieved by taking advantage of the inherent photocatalytic property of TiO2 with the assistance of anti-UV light ink mask. Finally, the potential applications of the site-selectively sticky superamphiphobic surface were demonstrated. In a proof-of-concept study, the microdroplet manipulation (storage, moving, mixing, and transfer), specific gas sensing, wettability template for positive and negative ZnO patterning, and site-selective cell immobilization have been demonstrated. This study will give an important input to the field of advanced functional material surfaces with special wettability. PMID:25070619

Huang, Jian-Ying; Lai, Yue-Kun; Pan, Fei; Yang, Lei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Fuchs, Harald; Chi, Li-Feng

2014-12-10

262

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Wettability Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report covers research results for fiscal year 1991 for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and Wettability Research Program conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory ONEL) for the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID). The program is funded by the Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, and managed by DOE-ID and the Bartlesville Project Office (BPO). The objectives of this multi-year program are to develop MEOR systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy crude oils and to design and implement an industry cost-shared field demonstration project of the developed technology. An understanding of the controlling mechanisms will first be developed through the use of laboratory scale testing to determine the ability of microbially mediated processes to recover oil under reservoir conditions and to develop the design criteria for scale-up to the field. Concurrently with this work, the isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. Research focus includes the study of biogenic product and formation souring processes including mitigation and prevention. Souring research performed in FY 1991 also included the development of microsensor probe technology for the detection of total sulfide in collaboration with the Montana State University Center for Interfacial Microbial Process Engineering (CIMPE). Wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC) at the New Mexico institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems.

Bala, G.A.; Barrett, K.B.; Eastman, S.L.; Herd, M.D.; Jackson, J.D.; Robertson, E.P.; Thomas, C.P.

1993-09-01

263

Wettability and Oil Recovery by Imbibition and Viscous Displacement from Fractured and Heterogeneous Carbonates  

SciTech Connect

About one-half of U.S. oil reserves are held in carbonate formations. The remaining oil in carbonate reservoirs is regarded as the major domestic target for improved oil recovery. Carbonate reservoirs are often fractured and have great complexity even at the core scale. Formation evaluation and prediction is often subject to great uncertainty. This study addresses quantification of crude oil/brine/rock interactions and the impact of reservoir heterogeneity on oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement from pore to field scale. Wettability-alteration characteristics of crude oils were measured at calcite and dolomite surfaces and related to the properties of the crude oils through asphaltene content, acid and base numbers, and refractive index. Oil recovery was investigated for a selection of limestones and dolomites that cover over three orders of magnitude in permeability and a factor of four variation in porosity. Wettability control was achieved by adsorption from crude oils obtained from producing carbonate reservoirs. The induced wettability states were compared with those measured for reservoir cores. The prepared cores were used to investigate oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement. The results of imbibition tests were used in wettability characterization and to develop mass transfer functions for application in reservoir simulation of fractured carbonates. Studies of viscous displacement in carbonates focused on the unexpected but repeatedly observed sensitivity of oil recovery to injection rate. The main variables were pore structure, mobility ratio, and wettability. The potential for improved oil recovery from rate-sensitive carbonate reservoirs by increased injection pressure, increased injectivity, decreased well spacing or reduction of interfacial tension was evaluated.

Norman R. Morrow; Jill Buckley

2006-04-01

264

Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.  

DOEpatents

An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

Li, Qingbo (State College, PA); Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA); Kane, Thomas E. (State College, PA); Kernan, John R. (Loganton, PA); Sonnenschein, Bernard (Brooklyn, NY); Sharer, Michael V. (Tyrone, PA)

2002-04-23

265

Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods  

DOEpatents

An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

Dorairaj, Rathissh (Hillsboro, OR); Keynton, Robert S. (Louisville, KY); Roussel, Thomas J. (Louisville, KY); Crain, Mark M. (Georgetown, IN); Jackson, Douglas J. (New Albany, IN); Walsh, Kevin M. (Louisville, KY); Naber, John F. (Goshen, KY); Baldwin, Richard P. (Louisville, KY); Franco, Danielle B. (Mount Washington, KY)

2011-08-02

266

Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an on-line separation method, capillary electrophoresis (CE)-mass spectrometry (MS) distinguishes analytes by both their differences in electrophoretic mobilities and structural information. CE-MS combines the advantages of CE and MS so that information on both high separation efficiency and molecular masses and\\/or fragmentation can be obtained in one analysis. During the past few years CE-MS has undergone significant development both

Jianyi Cai; Jack Henion

1995-01-01

267

Wettability of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe78B13Si9 substrates by molten Sn and Bi  

PubMed Central

The wettability of amorphous and annealing-induced nanocrystalline Fe78B13Si9 ribbons by molten Sn and Bi at 600 K was measured using an improved sessile drop method. The results demonstrate that the structural relaxation and crystallization in the amorphous substrates do not substantially change the wettability with molten Bi because of their invariable physical interaction, but remarkably deteriorate the wettability and interfacial bonding with molten Sn as a result of changing a chemical interaction to a physical one for the atoms at the interface. PMID:21711852

2011-01-01

268

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned with the new concept for coal surface wettability and floatability evaluation and modulation. During this quarter the Hallimond-tube tests were conducted for the three coals, mineral pyrite, and coal pyrite samples. The kinetic floatability of the five samples have been tested without collector, with kerosene and with benzene as collector. The test results indicate that there are good agreements between the experimental observation and the theoretical assumption hypothesis about the new concept of the surface wettability and floatability of the coal and pyrite. These test results also shown that wettability is incompatible with floatability.

Hu, W.

1994-05-01

269

Wettability of poultry litter biochars at variable pyrolysis temperatures and their impact on soil wettability and water retention relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the impact of poultry farming on greenhouse gas emissions, poultry farming waste - poultry litter - can be converted to biofuel and biochar through slow-pyrolysis, with the biochar added to agricultural soil for nutrient enrichment and carbon sequestration. While biochars from source materials other than poultry litter have been shown to sequester carbon and increase soil fertility, there is considerable variability in biochar behavior - even with biochars created from the same source material. This situation is exacerbated by our limited understanding of how biochars alter physical, chemical, and biological processes in agricultural soils. The focus of this work is to develop a mechanistic understanding of how poultry litter (PL) biochars affect the hydrology, microbial communities, N2O emissions, and nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils. The initial focus is on the impact of PL biochar on soil hydrology. PL from Perdue AgriRecycle, LLC (Seaford, Delaware) was used to produce biochars at pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 600°C. To explore the impact of these biochars on soil wettability, the PL biochars were mixed with a 30/40 Accusand in mass fractions from 0% to 100%. The water contact angle was then measured using a goniometer on these sand/biochar mixtures using the sessile drop method and a single layer of sample particles. The PL biochars produced at temperatures between 300°C to 400°C were hydrophobic, while those pyrolized at > 400°C were hydrophilic. Water contact angles for samples with 100% biochar varied systematically with pyrolysis temperature, decreasing from 101.12° to 20.57° as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. Even for small amounts of hydrophobic biochar added to the hydrophilic sand, the contact angle of the mixture was altered: for sand/biochar mixtures containing only 2% hydrophobic PL biochar by weight, the contact angle of the mixture increased from ~ 8° (0% biochar) to 20° (2% biochar). For higher mass fractions, the impact of hydrophobic PL biochar on the sand/mixture contact angle was more dramatic: for a sand/biochar mixture with 15% PL biochar, the contact angle was 40.12°. Water drop penetration tests were also performed on these samples, and results were consistent with contact angles measured with the sessile drop method. To further explore the cause of the varying contact angle with pyrolysis temperature, the PL biochars were vigorously rinsed with deionized water or heated for 24 hours at 105°C, and the contact angle measurements repeated. Both rinsing and heating samples rendered hydrophobic PL biochar hydrophilic. Rinsate samples were analyzed for total organic carbon and with GC-MS. These data suggest that bio-oils produced during slow-pyrolysis at temperatures < 400°C condensed on biochar and caused hydrophobicity. These bio-oils could be removed through vigorous washing with deionized water or heating to 105°C. The implication of these changes in water contact angle from PL biochar addition on water retention relationships for soil and on water distribution within pores will be discussed.

Yi, S. C.; Witt, B.; Guo, M.; Chiu, P.; Imhoff, P. T.

2012-12-01

270

Treelike networks accelerating capillary flow.  

PubMed

Transport in treelike networks has received wide attention in natural systems, oil recovery, microelectronic cooling systems, and textiles. Existing studies are focused on transport behaviors under a constant potential difference (including pressure, temperature, and voltage) in a steady state [B. Yu and B. Li, Phys. Rev. E 73, 066302 (2006); J. Chen, B. Yu, P. Xu, and Y. Li, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056301 (2007)]. However, dynamic (time-dependent) transport in such systems has rarely been concerned. In this work, we theoretically investigate the dynamics of capillary flow in treelike networks and design the distribution of radius and length of local branches for the fastest capillary flow. It is demonstrated that capillary flow in the optimized tree networks is faster than in traditional parallel tube nets under fixed constraints. As well, the flow time of the liquid is found to increase approximately linearly with penetration distance, which differs from Washburn's classic description that flow time increases as the square of penetration distance in a uniform tube. PMID:25353880

Shou, Dahua; Ye, Lin; Fan, Jintu

2014-05-01

271

Treelike networks accelerating capillary flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport in treelike networks has received wide attention in natural systems, oil recovery, microelectronic cooling systems, and textiles. Existing studies are focused on transport behaviors under a constant potential difference (including pressure, temperature, and voltage) in a steady state [B. Yu and B. Li, Phys. Rev. E 73, 066302 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.066302; J. Chen, B. Yu, P. Xu, and Y. Li, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056301 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevE.75.056301]. However, dynamic (time-dependent) transport in such systems has rarely been concerned. In this work, we theoretically investigate the dynamics of capillary flow in treelike networks and design the distribution of radius and length of local branches for the fastest capillary flow. It is demonstrated that capillary flow in the optimized tree networks is faster than in traditional parallel tube nets under fixed constraints. As well, the flow time of the liquid is found to increase approximately linearly with penetration distance, which differs from Washburn's classic description that flow time increases as the square of penetration distance in a uniform tube.

Shou, Dahua; Ye, Lin; Fan, Jintu

2014-05-01

272

Capillary Flow Limitations of Nanowicks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal management is an important issue in microelectronic systems. The inaccessibility and diminishing size of these systems, however, requires that the heat management components be reliable and compact, such as is the case with heat pipes. In most intermediate temperature heat pipes typically found in microelectronics, the critical heat flux is governed by the capillary limit. Given the projected increases in computer chip heat fluxes, it is important to investigate the use of nanowicks as a means of raising this capillary limit. A theoretical model was developed to simulate flow through a vertical nanopillar array by balancing the capillary driving forces and the viscous losses in a quasi-steady state dynamic formulation. Based on this model, the maximum mass flow and its critical heat flux can be found for a wick given its microstructure geometry. These values were also found experimentally for commercially available wicks and nanowicks. We found that nanowicks provide lower mass flow rates than conventional wicks, mainly due to a reduced cross section. However, nanowicks achieved higher velocities and show promise over some conventional heat pipe wicks.

Zhang, Conan; Hidrovo, Carlos

2009-11-01

273

Microlithographic wet chemical processing in a capillary space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patented device and procedure described provide a method of processing the flat, thin-film coated surfaces encountered in the ultraclean manufacture of integrated circuit wafers, photomasks, panel displays or other similar substrates. The device provides a means of delivering liquids and vapors to those surfaces while temperature, evaporation and particulate contamination are controlled as a natural consequent of its physical configuration. The essential mechanism exploits the surface tension of liquids and the differences in the wettability of surfaces. By juxtaposing the target surface with a prepared surface on the processing device and maintaining a separation of a few millimeters, the gap formed provides a reaction space into which liquids are easily distributed exploiting so-called capillary behavior. While placing the liquid reagent on the hydrophobic, horizontal surface of the processor, the hydrophilic substrate surface suspended above it is transported laterally. The substrate surface then engages the liquid edge which, driven by its own surface tension, quickly fills the gap. The ending of the reaction and removal of the liquid is effected by further transporting the substrate with its captive liquid reactants to a trench provided in the processor surface where the liquid flows down and away. Thus, the processor surface is seen as a series of 'mesas' allowing a sequence of wet process, rinse and vapor treatments, all with the simple lateral movement of the substrate. The effects of improved reaction kinetics on process precision as well as the benefits mentioned above are discussed and compared to previous immersion and spin methods. Critical dimension measurement data are presented from large photomask substrates processed by the instrument.

Morgan, Russell

1994-05-01

274

Biomimetic self-assembly of helical electrical circuits using orthogonal capillary interactions  

E-print Network

faces of the polyhedra carried pat- terns of solder Bi­Pb­In­Sn­Cd alloy, mp 47 °C , and hy- drophobic forces: a strong capillary inter- action between drops of molten solder4 the free energy of the water­solder interacted laterally through drops of molten solder; this interaction mimics the lateral interaction between

Prentiss, Mara

275

Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

1998-01-01

276

Treatment of septic tank effluents by a full-scale capillary seepage soil biofiltration system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of septic tank effluent treatment by an underground capillary seepage soil biofiltration system in a suburban area of Taipei, Taiwan. In contrast to traditional subsurface wastewater infiltration systems, capillary seepage soil biofiltration systems initially draw incoming influent upwards from the distribution pipe by capillary and siphonage actions, then spread influent throughout the soil biofiltration bed. The underground capillary seepage soil biofiltration system consists of a train of underground treatment units, including one wastewater distribution tank, two capillary seepage soil biofiltration units in series, and a discharge tank. Each capillary seepage soil biofiltration unit contains one facultative digestion tank and one set of biofiltration beds. At the flow rate of 50 m3/day, average influent concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and total phosphates (TP), were 36.15 mg/L, 29.14 mg/L, 16.05 mg/L, and 1.75 mg/L, respectively. After 1.5 years of system operation, the measured influent and effluent results show that the treatment efficiencies of the soil biofiltration system for BOD, SS, NH3-N, TP, and total coliforms are 82.96%, 60.95%, 67.17%, 74.86%, and 99.99%, respectively. PMID:19326671

Fan, Chihhao; Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Teng, Chia-Ji; Chang, Tzi-Chin; Sheu, Yiong-Shing

2009-03-01

277

Joule heating in packed capillaries used in capillary electrochromatography.  

PubMed

Effective heat dissipation is critical for reproducible and efficient separations in electrically driven separation systems. Flow rate, retention kinetics, and analyte diffusion rates are some of the characteristics that are affected by variation in the temperature of the mobile phase inside the column. In this study, we examine the issue of Joule heating in packed capillary columns used in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). As almost all commonly used CEC packings are poor thermal conductors, it is assumed that the packing particles do not conduct heat and heat transfer is solely through the mobile phase flowing through the system. The electrical conductivity of various mobile phases was measured at different temperatures by a conductivity meter and the temperature coefficient for each mobile phase was calculated. This was followed by measurement of the electrical current at several applied voltages to calculate the conductivity of the solution within the column as a function of the applied voltage. An overall increase in the conductivity is attributed to Joule heating within the column, while a constant conductivity means good heat dissipation. A plot of conductivity versus applied voltage was used as the indicator of poor heat dissipation. Using theories that have been proposed earlier for modeling of Joule heating effects in capillary electrophoresis (CE), we estimated the temperature within CEC columns. Under mobile and stationary phase conditions typically used in CEC, heat dissipation was found to be not always efficient. Elevated temperatures within the columns in excess of 23 degrees C above ambient temperature were calculated for packed columns, and about 35 degrees C for an open column, under a given set of conditions. The results agree with recently published experimental findings with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) thermometry, and Raman spectroscopic measurements. PMID:12207300

Rathore, Anurag S; Reynolds, Kimberly J; Colón, Luis A

2002-09-01

278

Capillary Phenomena at Nanoscales: Electrowetting and Capillary Adhesion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of capillary phenomena have traditionally been based on continuum approximations that break down as dimensions shrink to nanometer scales. Molecular simulations are used to test the limits of continuum theory in electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) and capillary adhesion between solids. In EWOD, a fluid drop is separated from an electrode by a dielectric. Increasing the voltage V between drop and electrode, decreases the contact angle ?, allowing the droplet to be manipulated. Simulations of nanoscale drops show the same behavior as experiments on millimeter drops. The contact angle follows the continuum Young-Lippmann equation (YLE) at low voltages and then saturates. The saturation mechanism has been difficult to identify in experiments. Simulations show that charged molecules are pulled from the drop by large electrostatic forces near the contact line. Saturation can be delayed by increasing molecular binding, lowering temperature or increasing dielectric constant. A local force balance equation is derived that agrees with the YLE below saturation and remains valid after saturation. Simulations of capillary adhesion examined the force between a spherical tip of radius R and a flat substrate. The shape of the meniscus agrees remarkably well with continuum theory down to nanometer separations, as does the adhesive force from interfacial tension. However, the total force may deviate by factors of two or have the opposite sign. While the component of the pressure along the substrate agrees with the Laplace pressure from continuum theory, the out-of --plane component does not. There may also be significant force oscillations associated with layering near the solids. The elastic response of the solid has little affect on adhesive forces.

Robbins, Mark

2011-11-01

279

Pharmacological effects of various venoms on cutaneous capillary leakage.  

PubMed

Studies to counteract the cutaneous vasopermeability actions of a wasp (Vespa orientalis), an anemone (Bolocera tuediae) and three jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Physalia physalis) venoms were conducted by using various pharmacological antagonists. Piripost (a leukotriene inhibitor) reduced vasopermeability if administered 5 min prior to challenge with the jellyfish venoms. Methysergide counteracted the vasopermeability of three of four coelenterate venoms, whereas indomethacin was effective against capillary leakage induced by Chironex venom. These studies indicate that anti-dermonecrotic therapy against various venoms will have to be species-specific. PMID:2875548

Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

1986-01-01

280

Polymer microfluidic device replacing fluids using only capillary force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel polymer microfluidic device for self-wash using only capillary force is presented. A liquid filled in a reaction chamber is replaced by another liquid with no external actuation. All the fluidic actuations in the device is pre-programmed about time and sequence, and accomplished by capillary force naturally. Careful design is necessary for exact actions. The fluidic conduits were designed by the newly derived theoretical equations about the capillary stop pressure and flow time. Simulations using CFD-ACE+ were conducted to check the validity of theory and the performance of the chip. These analytic results were consistent with experimental ones. The chip was made of polymers for the purpose of single use and low price. It was fabricated by sealing the hot-embossed PMMA substrate with a PET film. For simpler fabrication, the chip was of a single height. The embossing master was produced from a nickel-electroplating on a SU8-patterned Ni-plate followed by CMP. The contact angles of liquids on substrates were manipulated through the mixing of surfactants, and the temporal variations were monitored for a more exact design. The real actuation steps in experiment revealed the stable performance of selfwash, and coincided well with the designed ones. The presented microfluidic method can be applicable to other LOCs of special purposes through simple modification. For example, array or serial types would be possible for multiple selfwashes.

Chung, Kwang Hyo; Lee, Dae Sik; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Sung Jin; Pyo, Hyun Bong

2005-02-01

281

A variational approach to the study of capillary phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of determining the free surface of a liquid in a capillary tube, and of a liquid drop, sitting first on a horizontal plane and then on more general surfaces is considered. With some modifications, the method applies to the study of pendent drops and of rotating drops as well. The standard capillary problem, i.e. the determination of the free surface of a liquid in a thin tube of general cross section, which resuls from the simultaneous action of surface tension, boundary adhesion and gravity is discussed. It turns out that in this case the existence of the solution surface depends heavily on the validity of a simple geometric condition about the mean curvature of the boundary curve of the cross section of the capillary tube. Some particular examples of physical interest are also be discussed. Liquid drops sitting on or hanging from a fixed horizontal plane are discussed. The symmetry of the solutions (which can actually be proved, as consequence of a general symmetrization argument) now plays the chief role in deriving both the existence and the regularity of energy-minimizing configurations. When symmetry fails (this is the case, for example, when the contact angle between the drop and the plate is not constant, or when the supporting surface is not itself symmetric), then more sophisticated methods must be used. Extensions in this direction are outlined.

Emmer, M.; Gonzalez, E.; Tamanini, I.

1982-01-01

282

Factors in snake venoms that increase capillary permeability.  

PubMed

Capillary permeability increasing (CPI) activity is a phenomenon of the microvasculature caused by many agents such as snake venoms, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Since no systematic study has been done to determine what components of snake venom cause CPI activity, a CPI factor from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom was isolated using intravenous injections of Evan's blue dye as the indicator of increased permeability and the factor's properties were extensively studied. Cardiotoxin from Naja naja kaouthia (Thailand cobra) and Mojave toxin from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave rattlesnake) venoms demonstrated CPI activity. Postsynaptic neurotoxins from an elapid and a hydrophid and myotoxin a from Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake) showed no CPI activity at the dose studied. The purified CPI active component from Naja naja atra venom was found to have cardiotoxic activity. Therefore, Elapidae cardiotoxins are CPI active factors. However, CPI activity is not due to cardiotoxins alone as the presynaptic neurotoxin, Mojave toxin, also showed CPI activity. Selective inhibitors were used to indicate possible mechanisms of action on the capillaries by Naja naja atra venom and Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus venom. The histamine H1-receptor blockers diphenhydramine, promethazine, and cyproheptadine were effective against both venoms in preventing increased capillary permeability. These results suggested that histamine release activity is the most likely mechanism resulting in CPI activity from these venoms. PMID:2576052

Miller, R A; Tu, A T

1989-11-01

283

Capillary rise kinetics of some building materials.  

PubMed

The presence of water in masonry is one of the main factors in deterioration. Capillary rise is the most usual mechanism of water penetration into building materials. In this study the kinetics of the capillary rise phenomenon was studied for various building materials: four stones, two bricks, and six plasters. A first-order kinetic model was proposed, in which the equilibrium moisture height derived from Darcy law. The capillary height time constant found to be strongly affected by the material characteristics. Moreover, the capillary height time constant can be predicted if the average pore radius of the materials is known. PMID:15752811

Karoglou, M; Moropoulou, A; Giakoumaki, A; Krokida, M K

2005-04-01

284

Enhancing the settlement and attachment strength of pediveligers of Mytilus galloprovincialis by changing surface wettability and microtopography.  

PubMed

Surface wettability and microtopography can either enhance or deter larval settlement of many sessile marine organisms. This study quantifies the effect of these surface properties on the settlement of pediveligers of Mytilus galloprovincialis, using polymers spanning a range of wettability and microtextured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Furthermore, the adhesion strength of settled pediveligers on microtextured PDMS surfaces was quantified using a flow chamber. Settlement was enhanced at the hydrophilic end of the wettability spectrum, where mean settlement on nylon reached 33.5 ± 13.1%. In contrast, mean settlement on the most hydrophobic polymer (PDMS) was 4.2 ± 3.2%. Microtopography had a much stronger effect compared to wettability, where 400 ?m textured PDMS enhanced settlement above 90%. Settlement preferences were also positively correlated to adhesion strength at flow rates of 4 knots, with all initially settled pediveligers on smooth PDMS detaching, while 79.9 ± 5.7% of pediveligers remained on the 400 ?m texture. PMID:22332795

Carl, C; Poole, A J; Sexton, B A; Glenn, F L; Vucko, M J; Williams, M R; Whalan, S; de Nys, R

2012-01-01

285

Use of dynamically coated capillaries with added cyclodextrins for the analysis of opium using capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, precise, accurate, and robust method using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with dynamically coated capillaries for the analysis of the major opium alkaloids in opium is presented. Dynamic coating of the capillary surface is accomplished using a commercially available reagent kit (polycation coating followed by polyanion coating). The addition of dual cyclodextrins (hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin) to the run buffer imparts

Ira S Lurie; Sini Panicker; Patrick A Hays; Agnes D Garcia; Bryan L Geer

2003-01-01

286

Electric transport, reversible wettability and chemical sensing of single-crystalline zigzag Zn2SnO4 nanowires  

E-print Network

as well as the exploration of their novel properties, for example, ZnO, In2O3, SnO2, Ga2O3, TiO2, Cu2OElectric transport, reversible wettability and chemical sensing of single-crystalline zigzag Zn2Sn on the electronic transport, surface wettability and chemical sensing properties of zigzag Zn2SnO4 nanowires, which

Zhou, Chongwu

287

21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or...

2014-04-01

288

21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or...

2013-04-01

289

21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or...

2012-04-01

290

Polymeric matrices for DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis  

E-print Network

Polymeric matrices for DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis We review the wide range of polymeric materials that have been employed for DNA sequencing separations by capillary electrophoresis-linked polymer networks. Keywords: DNA sequencing / Capillary electrophoresis / Polymer solutions / Matrices

Barron, Annelise E.

291

21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or...

2010-04-01

292

21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or...

2011-04-01

293

Colloidal silver nanoparticle gradient layer prepared by drying between two walls of different wettability.  

PubMed

A one-dimensional silver (Ag) nanoparticle gradient layer is prepared from an aqueous colloidal solution upon a polystyrene (PS) coated silicon (Si) substrate. For preparation two walls of different wettability are used. The 40 nm PS-layer exhibits a locally constant film thickness due to the strong roughness correlation with the underlying Si-substrate and is less wettable as compared to the glass plate placed above. The Ag nanoparticles have a triangular prism-like shape. The structural characterization of the obtained complex gradient formed by drying is performed with microbeam grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering based on compound refractive lenses. Due to the adsorption from aqueous solution in the selective geometry a double gradient type structure defined by two areas with characteristic lateral lengths and a cross-over regime between both is observed. PMID:21828460

Roth, S V; Kuhlmann, M; Walter, H; Snigirev, A; Snigireva, I; Lengeler, B; Schroer, C G; Burghammer, M; Riekel, C; Müller-Buschbaum, P

2009-07-01

294

Modifications of roughness and wettability properties of metals induced by femtosecond laser treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic and wetting properties of AISI 316L stainless steel and Ti-6Al-V alloys were modified via linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. In order to induce a gradual evolution of the surface topography and wettability, four samples of each alloy were irradiated with different number of pulses. From the topographic point of view, a multi-scale morphology made of nano- and micro-periodic ripples was induced. The increase in the number of pulses led to the appearance of a third scale structure of waviness that is due to the laser scanning. The wettability of alloys was changed from a hydrophilic behavior to a hydrophobic one without lowering surface energies by chemical coatings. The apparent contact angle (CA) increased with increasing the number of pulses. A rise of about 50° of the apparent CA of the Ti-6Al-V was noticed.

Bizi-Bandoki, P.; Benayoun, S.; Valette, S.; Beaugiraud, B.; Audouard, E.

2011-04-01

295

Enhanced wettability of SU-8 photoresist through a photografting procedure for bioanalytical device applications  

PubMed Central

In this work, we detail a method whereby a polymeric hydrogel layer is grafted to the negative tone photoresist SU-8 in order to improve its wettability. A photoinitiator is first immobilized on freshly prepared SU-8 samples, acting as the starting point for various surface modifications strategies. Grafting of a 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-based hydrogel from the SU-8 surface resulted in the reduction of the static contact angle of a water droplet from 79 ± 1° to 36 ± 1°, while addition of a poly(ethylene glycol)-rich hydrogel layer resulted in further improvement (8 ± 1°). Wettability is greatly enhanced after 30 minutes of polymerization, with a continued but more gradual decrease in contact angle up to approximately 50 minutes. Hydrogel formation is triggered by exposure to UV irradiation, allowing for the formation of photopatterned structures using existing photolithographic techniques. PMID:19756177

Gao, Zhan; Henthorn, David B.; Kim, Chang-Soo

2009-01-01

296

Correlation between sol-gel reactivity and wettability of silica films deposited on stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sol-gel silica films were deposited on 316L and 409 stainless steel substrates in order to investigate their wettability properties. These films were deposited by dip-coating varying some parameters of the sol-gel process, including the acid used in the synthesis, its concentration, and the heat treatment temperature. Water and oil contact angles were measured on the surfaces and discussed regarding the physico-chemical and morphological properties of the prepared films. The findings shown in this work allow correlating the wettability behavior of silica coatings with the sol-gel reactivity of sols prepared using various amounts of nitric acid. It was observed that the more reactive the silica sol, the more hydrophilic and oleophilic the prepared coating. The presence in the films of alkoxy residues due to an incomplete condensation reaction could decrease both the polar and dispersive components of the coating surface energy, respectively responsible for water and oil wetting.

Houmard, M.; Nunes, E. H. M.; Vasconcelos, D. C. L.; Berthomé, G.; Joud, J.-C.; Langlet, M.; Vasconcelos, W. L.

2014-01-01

297

Wettability-regulated extracellular electron transfer from the living organism of Shewanella loihica PV-4.  

PubMed

C-type cytochromes located on the outer membrane (OMCs) of genus Shewanella act as the main redox-active species to mediate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from the inside of the outer membrane to the external environment: the central challenge that must be met for successful EET. The redox states of OMCs play a crucial role in dictating the rate and extent of EET. Here, we report that the surface wettability of the electrodes strongly influences the EET activity of living organisms of Shewanella loihica PV-4 at a fixed external potential: the EET activity on a hydrophilic electrode is more than five times higher than that on a hydrophobic one. We propose that the redox state of OMCs varies significantly at electrodes with different wettability, resulting in different EET activities. PMID:25470810

Ding, Chun-mei; Lv, Mei-ling; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Huan

2015-01-26

298

Facile control of thermo-responsive wettability through an all-electrostatic self-assembling process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the facile fabrication of a thermo-responsive wetting surface through an electrostatic assembly process and the use of thermo-responsive polyelectrolyte copolymers. The organic-inorganic nanostructured films were prepared through the layer-by-layer assembly of negatively charged silica nanoparticles (11 nm) and positively charged poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). The thermo-responsive polyelectrolyte copolymer, poly(allylamine hydrochloride)- g-poly( N-isopropylacrylamide) (PAH- g-PNIPAAm), was synthesized by grafting a carboxylic end group of PNIPAAm on to the PAH. The nanostructured surfaces modified with PAH- g-PNIPAAm exhibit enhanced thermal switching of surface wettability. Our approach provides a versatile strategy for control over the thermo-responsive wettability of substrates with complex structures for various applications such as sensors, microfluidics, etc.

Kwak, Donghoon; Han, Joong Tark; Lee, Ji Hwang; Lim, Ho Sun; Lee, Dae Ho; Cho, Kilwon

2008-10-01

299

Influence of surface topography and chemical structure on wettability of electrodeposited ZnO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wettability of electrodeposited zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films has been rationally controlled by individually engineering surface topography and surface chemical structure. We have studied the wettability of hydrophobic ZnO thin films that were rendered ultrahydrophobic by coating with low surface-energy self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane and also hydrophilized by annealing at elevated temperature in air ambient. The as deposited ZnO film was hydrophobic with contact angle of around 105°±3° against water, while the annealed films were distinctly hydrophilic. The silanized films were ultrahydrophobic with a contact angle of 143°±3°. The films could be successfully tailored to obtain hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as ultrahydrophobic behavior. It is likely that similar tunable wetting behavior may be observed in other oxide materials also.

Patra, S.; Sarkar, S.; Bera, S. K.; Paul, G. K.; Ghosh, R.

2010-10-01

300

Capillary Bridges between Soft Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wetting droplet trapped in the thin gap between two elastic bodies will deflect the bodies towards one another. The deformation increases the total capillary adhesion force by increasing the contact radius and narrowing the gap height. For flat droplets, with a large ratio of radius to gap height, the Laplace pressure causes surface deformations that are orders of magnitude larger than those induced by a sessile droplet of the same radius. We present experiments, scalings, and closed-form solutions that describe the deformation. Using variational techniques, we also show that the problem exhibits a bifurcation, where the gap spontaneously closes due to an incremental increase in drop volume.

Wexler, Jason S.; Heard, Tiara M.; Stone, Howard A.

2014-02-01

301

Capillary surfaces in exotic containers  

SciTech Connect

A survey is presented of results to date for capillary surfaces in exotic'' containers. These containers have the property that each one admits a continuum of distinct equilibrium free surfaces, all bounding with the container walls the same volume of fluid, making the same contact angle at the trip interface curve, and having identical mechanical energies. The containers can be so designed that they are themselves axially symmetric but that the fluid configurations of minimizing energy cannot be axially symmetric. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Concus, P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Finn, R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics)

1991-07-01

302

Exotic containers for capillary surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses 'exotic' rotationally symmetric containers that admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium capillary free surfaces. The paper extends earlier work to a larger class of parameters and clarifies and simplifies the governing differential equations, while expressing them in a parametric form appropriate for numerical integration. A unified presentation suitable for both zero and nonzero gravity is given. Solutions for the container shapes are depicted graphically along with members of the free-surface continuum, and comments are given concerning possible physical experiments.

Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

1991-01-01

303

High pressure pulsed capillary viscometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical and test program was conducted in order to establish the feasibility of a multichamber pulsed-capillary viscometer. The initial design incorporated a piston, ram, and seals which produced measured pulses up to 30,000 psi in the closed chamber system. Pressure pulses from one to ten milliseconds were investigated in a system volume of 1 cuin. Four test fluids: a MIL-L-7808, a 5P4E polyphenyl ether, a MIL-L-23699A, and a synthetic hydrocarbon were examined in the test pressure assembly. The pressure-viscosity coefficient and viscosity delay time were determined for the MIL-L-7808 lubricant tested.

Smith, R. L.; Walowitt, J. A.; Pan, C. H. T.

1972-01-01

304

Electromigration dispersion in Capillary Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

In a previous paper (S. Ghosal and Z. Chen Bull. Math. Biol. 2010 72, pg. 2047) it was shown that the evolution of the solute concentration in capillary electrophoresis is described by a nonlinear wave equation that reduced to Burger’s equation if the nonlinearity was weak. It was assumed that only strong electrolytes (fully dissociated) were present. In the present paper it is shown that the same governing equation also describes the situation where the electrolytic buffer consists of a single weak acid (or base). A simple approximate formula is derived for the dimensionless peak variance which is shown to agree well with published experimental data. PMID:22147104

Chen, Zhen; Ghosal, Sandip

2012-01-01

305

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to crude oil in the presence of an initial brine saturation can render rocks mixed-wet. Subsequent exposure to components of synthetic oil-based drilling fluids can alter the wetting toward less water-wet or more oil-wet conditions. Mixing of the non-aromatic base oils used in synthetic oil-based muds (SBM) with an asphaltic crude oil can destabilize asphaltenes and make cores less water-wet. Wetting changes can also occur due to contact with the surfactants used in SBM formulations to emulsify water and make the rock cuttings oil-wet. Reservoir cores drilled with SBMs, therefore, show wetting properties much different from the reservoir wetting conditions, invalidating laboratory core analysis using SBM contaminated cores. Core cleaning is required in order to remove all the drilling mud contaminants. In theory, core wettability can then be restored to reservoir wetting conditions by exposure to brine and crude oil. The efficiency of core cleaning of SBM contaminated cores has been explored in this study. A new core cleaning procedure was developed aimed to remove the adsorbed asphaltenes and emulsifiers from the contaminated Berea sandstone cores. Sodium hydroxide was introduced into the cleaning process in order to create a strongly alkaline condition. The high pH environment in the pore spaces changed the electrical charges of both basic and acidic functional groups, reducing the attractive interactions between adsorbing materials and the rock surface. In cores, flow-through and extraction methods were investigated. The effectiveness of the cleaning procedure was assessed by spontaneous imbibition tests and Amott wettability measurements. Test results indicating that introduction of sodium hydroxide played a key role in removing adsorbed materials were confirmed by contact angle measurements on similarly treated mica surfaces. Cleaning of the contaminated cores reversed their wettability from oil-wet to strongly water-wet as demonstrated by spontaneous imbibition rates and Amott wettability indices.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2005-04-01

306

Wettability of dentin after Yb:KYW thin-disk femtosecond ablation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the wettability of dentin after Yb:KYW thin-disk femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation by measuring the contact angle. Different laser parameters were used including different fluences (F), scanning speeds, and scanning line spacings. Crowns of 15 extracted human teeth were cut longitudinally into slices approximately 1.5-mm thick with a cutting instrument. The samples were randomly divided into ten groups (n?=?3/group). Samples in groups 1-8 were irradiated with a femtosecond-pulsed laser. The dentin samples were fixed on a stage at the focal plane, and the laser beam irradiated the samples through a galvanometric scanning system so rectangular movement could be achieved. Samples in groups 9 and 10 were prepared with grinding instruments. Following ablation and preparation, the samples were examined for contact angle with an optical contact angle measuring instrument. The results showed that scanning speed and scanning line spacing had little influence on the wettability of dentin following femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation, except when F?=?6 J/cm(2). For six out of the eight laser ablation groups, when a lower fluence was used, the dentin contact angle was higher and vice versa. Most of the dentin which had been ablated using the femtosecond-pulsed laser had improved wettability compared to samples prepared with the grinding instruments. This study showed that various laser fluences, scanning speeds, and scanning line spacings can alter dentin wettability. Therefore, adequate parameters should be chosen to achieve proper therapeutic benefits. PMID:25213830

Liu, Jing; Lü, Peijun; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong

2014-09-12

307

Effect of Microstructural Evolution on Wettability of Laser Coated Calcium Phosphate on Titanium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

Surface engineering of synthetic implant materials provides an exciting opportunity to mimic natural biomaterials. Surface that are bioactive and textured at multi scale have the potential for easier osseointegration. Ti alloy surfaces known for their biocompatibility are coated with bioactive Calcium Phosphate using a laser source at multiple processing speeds. The resulting surface has multiscale morphology and multi-phase chemical nature. Faster processing speeds showed improved wettability to water along with higher degree of crystallinity in the phases present.

Kurella, Anil K [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Dahotre, Narendra B [ORNL

2008-01-01

308

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate the surface wettability and flotation of coal and pyrite in order to establish a new separation strategy for advanced coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. During this quarter, mini-cell flotation tests were carried out on Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Illinois No. 6 coals, and two pyrite samples. Flotation media used were kerosene, benzene, and amyl-xanthate. Test results are given and discussed.

Hu, W.

1996-05-01

309

Metal oxide-based nanoparticles: revealing their potential to enhance oil recovery in different wettability systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents systematic studies of hydrophilic metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in brine intended to reveal their potential to enhance oil recovery (EOR) in various rock wettability systems. The stability in suspension (nanofluid) of the NPs has been identified as a key factor related to their use as an EOR agent. Experimental techniques have been developed for nanofluid stability using three coupled methods: direct visual observation, surface conductivity and particle size measurements. The use of a dispersant has been investigated and has been shown to successfully improve metal oxide nanofluid stability as a function of its concentration. The dispersant alters the nanofluid properties, i.e. surface conductivity, pH and particle size distribution. A two-phase coreflood experiment was conducted by injecting the stable nanofluids as a tertiary process (nano-EOR) through core plugs with various wettabilities ranging from water-wet to oil-wet. The combination of metal oxide nanofluid and dispersant improved the oil recovery to a greater extent than either silica-based nanofluid or dispersant alone in all wettability systems. The contact angle, interfacial tension (IFT) and effluent were also measured. It was observed that metal oxide-based nanofluids altered the quartz plates to become more water-wet, and the results are consistent with those of the coreflood experiment. The particle adsorption during the transport process was identified from effluent analysis. The presence of NPs and dispersant reduced the IFT, but its reduction is sufficient to yield significant additional oil recovery. Hence, wettability alteration plays a dominant role in the oil displacement mechanism using nano-EOR.

Hendraningrat, Luky; Torsæter, Ole

2015-02-01

310

Structural, surface wettability and antibacterial properties of HPMC-ZnO nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The developed hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)/Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite films were examined for structural property and surface wettability using X-ray diffraction and contact angle measurement. Antibacterial activity of these films was evaluated as a function of ZnO concentration. The microstructuralline parameters ( and (g in %)) decreased with increasing concentration of ZnO nanoparticles and there was increase in hydrophilicity. Addition of ZnO nanoparticles in films resulted in antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms.

Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Madhukumar, R.; Latha, S.; Gowda, Mahadeva; Shetty, G. Rajesha; Chandra, K. Sharath; Naik, Prashantha; Sangappa

2014-04-01

311

Addition of silver nanoparticles reduces the wettability of methacrylate and silorane-based composites.  

PubMed

Incorporation of silver nanoparticles into composite resins is recommended for their reported antibacterial properties, but this incorporation can affect the wettability of such materials. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of nano-silver addition to silorane-based and methacrylate-based composites on their contact angle. Nano-silver particles were added to Z250 (methacrylate-based) and P90 (silorane-based) composites at 0.5% and 1% by weight. The control group had no additions. SEM-EDX analysis was performed to confirm the homogeneity of the nano-silver distribution. Seventy-two composite discs were prepared and standardized to the identical surface roughness values, and then distributed randomly into 6 groups containing 12 samples each (N = 12). Two random samples from each group were observed by atomic force microscopy. Distilled water contact angle measurements were performed for the wettability measurement. Two-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey-HSD test, with a significance level of 5%, were used for data analysis. It was observed that wettability was significantly different between the composites (p = 0.0001), and that the addition of nano-silver caused a significant reduction in the contact angle (p = 0.0001). Wettability varied depending on the concentration of the nano silver (p = 0.008). Silorane-based composites have a higher contact angle than methacrylate-based composites. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the addition of 0.5% nano-silver particles to the composites caused a decrease in the contact angle of water. PMID:23184163

Kasraei, Shahin; Azarsina, Mohadese

2012-01-01

312

The wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene by aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and Triton X-100 mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the advancing contact angle (?) were carried out for aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenoxypoly(ethylene glycol), Triton X-100 (TX100) mixtures on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The obtained results indicate that the wettability of PTFE depends on the concentration and composition of the surfactants mixture. There is a minimum of the dependence between contact angle and composition of

Katarzyna Szymczyk; Bronis?aw Ja?czuk

2006-01-01

313

Wettability alteration and oil recovery by water imbibition at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation adopts a new perspective on wettability alteration as a function of temperature. Colloidal (i.e., DLVO) theory and calculations are used to interpret results from laboratory-scale displacements. Water imbibition tests were conducted with 9 reservoir cores from a diatomaceous reservoir. Permeability and porosity of cores varied from 0.2 to 0.7 md and 46% to 65%, respectively. The experiments included spontaneous

J. M. Schembre; G.-Q. Tang; A. R. Kovscek

2006-01-01

314

Structural, surface wettability and antibacterial properties of HPMC-ZnO nanocomposite  

SciTech Connect

The developed hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)/Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite films were examined for structural property and surface wettability using X-ray diffraction and contact angle measurement. Antibacterial activity of these films was evaluated as a function of ZnO concentration. The microstructuralline parameters ( and (g in %)) decreased with increasing concentration of ZnO nanoparticles and there was increase in hydrophilicity. Addition of ZnO nanoparticles in films resulted in antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms.

Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Madhukumar, R.; Latha, S.; Gowda, Mahadeva; Shetty, G. Rajesha; Sangappa, E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri - 574199 (India); Chandra, K. Sharath; Naik, Prashantha [Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri - 574199 (India)

2014-04-24

315

Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

2014-06-17

316

Morphing and vectoring impacting droplets by means of wettability-engineered surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driven by its importance in nature and technology, droplet impact on solid surfaces has been studied for decades. To date, research on control of droplet impact outcome has focused on optimizing pre-impact parameters, e.g., droplet size and velocity. Here we follow a different, post-impact, surface engineering approach yielding controlled vectoring and morphing of droplets during and after impact. Surfaces with patterned domains of extreme wettability (high or low) are fabricated and implemented for controlling the impact process during and even after rebound --a previously neglected aspect of impact studies on non-wetting surfaces. For non-rebound cases, droplets can be morphed from spheres to complex shapes --without unwanted loss of liquid. The procedure relies on competition between surface tension and fluid inertial forces, and harnesses the naturally occurring contact-line pinning mechanisms at sharp wettability changes to create viable dry regions in the spread liquid volume. Utilizing the same forces central to morphing, we demonstrate the ability to rebound orthogonally-impacting droplets with an additional non-orthogonal velocity component. We theoretically analyze this capability and derive a We-.25 dependence of the lateral restitution coefficient. This study offers wettability-engineered surfaces as a new approach to manipulate impacting droplet microvolumes, with ramifications for surface microfluidics and fluid-assisted templating applications.

Schutzius, Thomas M.; Graeber, Gustav; Elsharkawy, Mohamed; Oreluk, James; Megaridis, Constantine M.

2014-11-01

317

Effects of wettability and pore-level displacement on hydrocarbon trapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a three-dimensional mixed-wet random network model representing Berea sandstone to extend our previous work on relative permeability hysteresis during water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection cycles [Suicmez, VS, Piri, M, Blunt, MJ, 2007, Pore-scale simulation of water alternate gas injection, Transport Porous Med 66(3), 259-86]. We compute the trapped hydrocarbon saturation for tertiary water-flooding, which is water injection into different initial gas saturations, Sgi, established by secondary gas injection after primary drainage. Tertiary water-flooding is continued until all the gas and oil is trapped. We study four different wettability conditions: water-wet, weakly water-wet, weakly oil-wet and oil-wet. We demonstrate that the amounts of oil and gas that are trapped show surprising trends with wettability that cannot be captured using previously developed empirical trapping models. We show that the amount of oil that is trapped by water in the presence of gas increases as the medium becomes more oil-wet, which is opposite from that seen for two-phase flow. It is only through a careful analysis of displacement statistics and fluid configurations that these results can be explained. This illustrates the need to have detailed models of the displacement processes that represent the three-phase displacement physics as carefully as possible. Further work is needed to explore the full range of behavior as a function of wettability and displacement path.

Suicmez, V. Sander; Piri, Mohammad; Blunt, Martin J.

2008-03-01

318

Substrate material affects wettability of surfaces coated and sintered with silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica nanoparticles coating and sintering is a widely-used approach for creating hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. The role of substrate material in this process, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. In this work, the role of substrate material is examined by measuring surface wettability of three different substrate materials (glass, polyimide and copper) under systematically varied conditions. These surfaces are modulated from hydrophilic (water contact angle (WCA) < 90°) to superhydrophobic (WCA > 150°) by coating and sintering silica nanoparticles, followed by assembling a layer of fluorine compound. Static WCA characterization shows that surface wettability is not solely dependent on the concentration of the coating colloidal, but is also on the substrate material. In particular, copper substrate exhibits a larger WCA than glass and polyimide substrates. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) characterizations show that the substrate material-dependent wettability is attributed to thermal-induced nanostructures on the copper surface, which contributes to the hierarchical micro-/nano- topography. This finding is important for designing hydrophobic/superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of different materials, especially those that would experience thermal cycles in surface functionalization and subsequent use.

Wei, Kang; Zeng, Hansong; Zhao, Yi

2013-05-01

319

A review on the wettability of dental implant surfaces II: Biological and clinical aspects.  

PubMed

Dental and orthopedic implants have been under continuous advancement to improve their interactions with bone and ensure a successful outcome for patients. Surface characteristics such as surface topography and surface chemistry can serve as design tools to enhance the biological response around the implant, with in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies confirming their effects. However, the comprehensive design of implants to promote early and long-term osseointegration requires a better understanding of the role of surface wettability and the mechanisms by which it affects the surrounding biological environment. This review provides a general overview of the available information about the contact angle values of experimental and of marketed implant surfaces, some of the techniques used to modify surface wettability of implants, and results from in vitro and clinical studies. We aim to expand the current understanding on the role of wettability of metallic implants at their interface with blood and the biological milieu, as well as with bacteria, and hard and soft tissues. PMID:24709541

Gittens, Rolando A; Scheideler, Lutz; Rupp, Frank; Hyzy, Sharon L; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

2014-07-01

320

Relationship between wettability and lubrication characteristics of the surfaces of contacting phospholipid-based membranes.  

PubMed

The wettability of the articular surface of cartilage depends on the condition of its surface active phospholipid overlay, which is structured as multi-bilayer. Based on a hypothesis that the surface of cartilage facilitates the almost frictionless lubrication of the joint, we examined the characteristics of this membrane surface entity in both its normal and degenerated conditions using a combination of atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurement, and friction test methods. The observations have led to the conclusions that (1) the acid-base equilibrium condition influences the lubrication effectiveness of the surface of cartilage and (2) the friction coefficient is significantly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the surface of the tissue, thereby confirming the hypothesis tested in this paper. Both wettability angle and interfacial energy were obtained for varying conditions of the cartilage surface both in its wet, dry and lipid-depleted conditions. The interfacial energy also increased with mole fraction of the lipid species reaching an asymptotic value after 0.6. Also, the friction coefficient was found to decrease to an asymptotic level as the wettability angle increased. The result reveal that the interfacial energy increased with pH till pH = 4.0, and then decreased from pH = 4.0 to reach equilibrium at pH = 7.0. PMID:23099644

Pawlak, Zenon; Petelska, Aneta D; Urbaniak, Wieslaw; Yusuf, Kehinde Q; Oloyede, Adekunle

2013-04-01

321

Morphing and vectoring impacting droplets by means of wettability-engineered surfaces  

PubMed Central

Driven by its importance in nature and technology, droplet impact on solid surfaces has been studied for decades. To date, research on control of droplet impact outcome has focused on optimizing pre-impact parameters, e.g., droplet size and velocity. Here we follow a different, post-impact, surface engineering approach yielding controlled vectoring and morphing of droplets during and after impact. Surfaces with patterned domains of extreme wettability (high or low) are fabricated and implemented for controlling the impact process during and even after rebound —a previously neglected aspect of impact studies on non-wetting surfaces. For non-rebound cases, droplets can be morphed from spheres to complex shapes —without unwanted loss of liquid. The procedure relies on competition between surface tension and fluid inertial forces, and harnesses the naturally occurring contact-line pinning mechanisms at sharp wettability changes to create viable dry regions in the spread liquid volume. Utilizing the same forces central to morphing, we demonstrate the ability to rebound orthogonally-impacting droplets with an additional non-orthogonal velocity component. We theoretically analyze this capability and derive a We?.25 dependence of the lateral restitution coefficient. This study offers wettability-engineered surfaces as a new approach to manipulate impacting droplet microvolumes, with ramifications for surface microfluidics and fluid-assisted templating applications. PMID:25392084

Schutzius, Thomas M.; Graeber, Gustav; Elsharkawy, Mohamed; Oreluk, James; Megaridis, Constantine M.

2014-01-01

322

Mussel (Mytilus edulis) byssus deposition in response to variations in surface wettability.  

PubMed

Mussels (Mytilus edulis) are economically important in their role as an aquaculture species and also with regard to marine biofouling. They attach tenaciously to a wide variety of submerged surfaces by virtue of collagenous attachment threads termed 'byssi'. The aim of this study was to characterize the spreading of the byssal attachment plaque, which mediates attachment to the surface, on a range of surfaces in response to changes in wettability. To achieve this, well characterized self-assembled monolayers of omega-terminated alkanethiolates on gold were used, allowing correlation of byssal plaque spreading with a single surface characteristic--wettability. The present results were inconsistent with those from previous studies, in that there was a positive correlation between plaque size and surface wettability; a trend which is not explained by conventional wetting theory for a three-phase system. A recent extension to wetting theory with regard to hydrophilic proteins is discussed and the results of settlement assays are used to attempt reconciliation of these results with those of similar previous studies and, also, with recent data presented for the spreading of Ulva linza spore adhesive. PMID:16849215

Aldred, N; Ista, L K; Callow, M E; Callow, J A; Lopez, G P; Clare, A S

2006-02-22

323

Wettability control of BeO surfaces by alpha-irradiation-induced nuclear transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method to control the wettability of BeO surfaces is developed on the base of alpha irradiation. In this research, BeO disks were irradiated with an alpha beam under conditions of ?25 MeV in alpha particle energy and ?315 nA/cm2 in beam current density. After the alpha irradiation, changes in morphology and chemical composition of BeO surfaces were analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wettability of pristine and alpha-irradiated BeO surfaces was analyzed by measuring water contact angles (CAs). The result of analysis indicated that C and F atoms were produced by the alpha irradiation. 12C atoms were mainly produced by (?, n) nuclear reaction when 9Be atoms collide with energetic alpha particles. On the other hand, 19F atoms were mostly created by (?, n) reaction and following ?+ decay when 16O atoms collide with alpha particles. Moreover, CF2 functional groups, which provide hydrophobic property, were formed by the combination of produced C and F atoms. The amount of CF2 functional groups produced on the surface increased as the fluence increased while no significant change in the surface roughness was observed. Accordingly, the CA of alpha-irradiated BeO surfaces gradually increased as the fluence increased. In conclusion, the wettability of BeO surfaces could be easily and precisely controlled by the alpha irradiation, from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity.

Lee, Eun Je; Hur, Min Goo; Kong, Young Bae; Son, Jeong Mun; Park, Yong Dae; Park, Jeong Hoon; Yang, Seung Dae

2014-08-01

324

Laser surface modification of AZ31B?Mg alloy for bio-wettability.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys are the potential degradable materials for load-bearing implant application due to their comparable mechanical properties to human bone, excellent bioactivity, and in vivo non-toxicity. However, for a successful load-bearing implant, the surface of bio-implant must allow protein absorption and layer formation under physiological environment that can assist the cell/osteoblast growth. In this regard, surface wettability of bio-implant plays a key role to dictate the quantity of protein absorption. In light of this, the main objective of the present study was to produce favorable bio-wettability condition of AZ31B Mg alloy bio-implant surface via laser surface modification technique under various laser processing conditions. In the present efforts, the influence of laser surface modification on AZ31B Mg alloy surface on resultant bio-wettability was investigated via contact-angle measurements and the co-relationships among microstructure (grain size), surface roughness, surface energy, and surface chemical composition were established. In addition, the laser surface modification technique was simulated by computational (thermal) model to facilitate the prediction of temperature and its resultant cooling/solidification rates under various laser processing conditions for correlating with their corresponding composition and phase evolution. These predicted thermal properties were later used to correlate with the corresponding microstructure, chemical composition, and phase evolution via experimental analyses (X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy). PMID:25201909

Ho, Yee-Hsien; Vora, Hitesh D; Dahotre, Narendra B

2015-02-01

325

Interfacial dynamics of two immiscible fluids in spatially periodic porous media: the role of substrate wettability.  

PubMed

We delineate the contact line dynamics of two immiscible fluids in a medium having spatially periodic porous structures. The flow is driven by an external applied pressure gradient. We bring out the combined consequences of the solid fraction distribution and the substrate wettability on the resulting dynamics of the contact line, by employing phase-field formalism. We capture the sequence of spatiotemporal events leading to formation of liquid bridges by trapping a small amount of displaced phase fluid between two consecutive porous blocks, as dictated by the combinations of substrate wettability and solid fraction. We also demonstrate the existence of a regime of complete interfacial recovery, depending on the parametric space of the governing parameters under concern. Our results essentially demonstrate the intricate mechanisms by virtue of which the wettabilities of the substrates alter the dynamical evolutions of interfaces and the subsequent shapes and sizes of the adsorbed dispersed phases, bearing far-ranging consequences in several practical applications ranging from oil recovery to groundwater flow. PMID:25122365

Mondal, Pranab Kumar; DasGupta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

2014-07-01

326

Interfacial dynamics of two immiscible fluids in spatially periodic porous media: The role of substrate wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We delineate the contact line dynamics of two immiscible fluids in a medium having spatially periodic porous structures. The flow is driven by an external applied pressure gradient. We bring out the combined consequences of the solid fraction distribution and the substrate wettability on the resulting dynamics of the contact line, by employing phase-field formalism. We capture the sequence of spatiotemporal events leading to formation of liquid bridges by trapping a small amount of displaced phase fluid between two consecutive porous blocks, as dictated by the combinations of substrate wettability and solid fraction. We also demonstrate the existence of a regime of complete interfacial recovery, depending on the parametric space of the governing parameters under concern. Our results essentially demonstrate the intricate mechanisms by virtue of which the wettabilities of the substrates alter the dynamical evolutions of interfaces and the subsequent shapes and sizes of the adsorbed dispersed phases, bearing far-ranging consequences in several practical applications ranging from oil recovery to groundwater flow.

Mondal, Pranab Kumar; DasGupta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

2014-07-01

327

Capillary versus venous bedside blood glucose estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the mean difference and correlation between capillary and venous bedside glucose estimation in comparison to laboratory blood glucose analysis in emergency department (ED) patients.Methods: Blood glucose levels were synchronously analysed using a bedside blood glucometer on capillary and venous derived samples from consenting ED patients aged >12 years. The venous sample was sent for comparative testing using

R Boyd; B Leigh; P Stuart

2005-01-01

328

Direct Visual Observation of Thermal Capillary Waves  

E-print Network

in real space with a resolution comparable to the particle size. Moreover, the droplet coalescence event the capillary wave model down to almost the particle level. The ultralow interfacial tension, the capillary are of key importance in the process of droplet coalescence. At rest, the free interface between any two

Weeks, Eric R.

329

Gravity Capillary Standing Water Waves Pietro Baldi  

E-print Network

Gravity Capillary Standing Water Waves Pietro Baldi Universit`a di Napoli Federico II Joint work with Thomas Alazard (ENS Paris) Pienza, 29 October 2014 Pietro Baldi Gravity Capillary Standing Water Waves, with gravity and capillarity (WW) t = G() t = -g - 1 2 2 x + (G() + xx)2 2(1 + 2 x) + xx (1 + 2 x)3/2 We

Thomann, Laurent

330

Derive capillary pressure from well logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical

A. Ibrahim; R. Desbrandes; Z. Bassiouni

1994-01-01

331

Dumbbell-Shaped Epidural Capillary Hemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report a case of a purely epidural capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spine with foraminal exten- sion. Epidural hemangiomas are rare; only a few cases of dumbbell-shaped ones have been reported, and all were cavernous. MR imaging showed characteristic findings of a capillary hemangioma, which are also consistent with other epidural lesions such as neuromas or meningiomas. Hemangiomas

Bruno Badinand; Christophe Morel; Nicolas Kopp; A. Tran; Francois Cotton

332

Evaluation of capillary reinforced composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anti-icing of the inlet of jet engines is generally performed with high pressure heated air that is directed forward from the compressor through a series of pipes to various manifolds located near the structures to be anti-iced. From these manifolds, the air is directed to all flowpath surfaces that may be susceptible to ice formation. There the anti-icing function may be performed by either heat conduction or film heating. Unfortunately, the prospect of utilizing lighweight, high strength composites for inlet structures of jet engines has been frustrated by the low transverse thermal conductivity of such materials. It was the objective of this program to develop an advanced materials and design concept for anti-icing composite structures. The concept that was evaluated used capillary glass tubes embedded on the surface of a composite structure with heated air ducted through the tubes. An analytical computer program was developed to predict the anti-icing performance of such tubes and a test program was conducted to demonstrate actual performance of this system. Test data and analytical code results were in excellent agreement. Both indicate feasibility of using capillary tubes for surface heating as a means for composite engine structures to combat ice accumulation.

Cahill, J. E.; Halase, J. F.; South, W. K.; Stoffer, L. J.

1985-01-01

333

Cryogenic Capillary Screen Heat Entrapment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of sub-cooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: "To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs.?"Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by LN2 tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, "200x1400" and "325x2300", both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN2 data it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

Bolshinskiy, L.G.; Hastings, L.J.; Stathman, G.

2007-01-01

334

Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithography based on scanning probe microscopic techniques has considerable potential for accurate & localized deposition of material on the nanometer scale. Controlled deposition of metallic features with high purity and spatial accuracy is of great interest for circuit edit applications in the semiconductor industry, for plasmonics & nanophotonics and for basic research in surface enhanced Raman scattering & nanobiophysics. Within the context of metal deposition we will review the development of fountain pen nanochemistry and its most recent emulation Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis (ACCE). Using this latter development we will demonstrate achievement of unprecedented control of nanoparticle deposition using a three-electrode geometry. Three electrodes are attached: one on the outside of a metal coated glass probe, one on the inside of a hollow probe in a solution containing Au nanoparticles in the capillary, and a third on the surface where the writing takes place. The three electrodes provide electrical pulses for accurate control of deposition and retraction of the liquid from the surface overcoming the lack of control seen in both dip pen lithography & fountain pen nanochemistry when the tip contacts the surface. With this development, we demonstrate depositing a single 1.3 nm Au nanoparticle onto surfaces such as semiconductors.

Lewis, Aaron; Yeshua, Talia; Palchan, Mila; Lovsky, Yulia; Taha, Hesham

2010-03-01

335

Gravity Capillary Standing Water Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the 2D gravity-capillary water waves equations in their Hamiltonian formulation, addressing the question of the nonlinear interaction of a plane wave with its reflection off a vertical wall. The main result is the construction of small amplitude, standing (namely periodic in time and space, and not travelling) solutions of Sobolev regularity, for almost all values of the surface tension coefficient, and for a large set of time-frequencies. This is an existence result for a quasi-linear, Hamiltonian, reversible system of two autonomous pseudo-PDEs with small divisors. The proof is a combination of different techniques, such as a Nash-Moser scheme, microlocal analysis and bifurcation analysis.

Alazard, Thomas; Baldi, Pietro

2015-02-01

336

Microchip capillary electrophoresis/electrochemistry.  

PubMed

Microfabricated fluidic devices have generated considerable interest over the past ten years due to the fact that sample preparation, injection, separation, derivatization, and detection can be integrated into one miniaturized device. This review reports progress in the development of microfabricated analytical systems based on microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical (EC) detection. Electrochemical detection has several advantages for use with microchip electrophoresis systems, for example, ease of miniaturization, sensitivity, and selectivity. In this review, the basic components necessary for microchip CEEC are described, including several examples of different detector configurations. Lastly, details of the application of this technique to the determination of catechols and phenols, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, nitroaromatics, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, organophosphates, and hydrazines are described. PMID:11519957

Lacher, N A; Garrison, K E; Martin, R S; Lunte, S M

2001-08-01

337

Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA); Li, Qingbo (State College, PA)

2005-08-09

338

CREOSOTE WETTABILITY REVIEW AND EVALUATION AT A PORTION OF THE CABOT CARBON\\/KOPPERS SUPERFUND SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creosote in the subsurface is acted on by three forces: (1) gravitational (pressure due to gravity), (2) capillary (capillary pressure) and (3) hydraulic (also known as viscous force or hydrodynamic pressure). Due to its high viscosity (~10 cp, and higher with weathering) and similar density (~1.03 to 1.10 g\\/cc) relative to water (1 cp and 1.0 g\\/cc), creosote movement and

Robert M. Cohen; James W. Mercer; Michael Slenska; Mitchell Brourman

339

Micromechanism linear actuator with capillary force sealing  

DOEpatents

A class of micromachine linear actuators whose function is based on gas driven pistons in which capillary forces are used to seal the gas behind the piston. The capillary forces also increase the amount of force transmitted from the gas pressure to the piston. In a major subclass of such devices, the gas bubble is produced by thermal vaporization of a working fluid. Because of their dependence on capillary forces for sealing, such devices are only practical on the sub-mm size scale, but in that regime they produce very large force times distance (total work) values.

Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

340

Capillary force repels coffee-ring effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a coffee drop dries on a solid surface, it leaves a ringlike deposit along the edge and this is known as the “coffee-ring effect.” We find a different motion of particles repelling the coffee-ring effect in drying droplets; the motion of particles that is initially toward the edge by the coffee-ring effect is reversed toward the center by a capillary force. The reversal takes place when the capillary force prevails over the outward coffee-ring flow. We discuss the geometric constraints for the capillary force and the reverse motion. Our findings of reversal phenomena would be important in many scenarios of drying colloidal fluids.

Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

2010-07-01

341

Cytokine Analysis by Immunoaffinity Capillary Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (ICE) is a powerful tool used to detect and quantify target proteins of interest in complex biological fluids. The target analyte is captured and bound to antibodies immobilized onto the wall of a capillary, labeled in situ with a fluorescent dye, eluted and detected online using laser-induced fluorescence following electrophoretic separation. Here, we illustrate how to construct an immunoaffinity capillary and utilize it to run ICE in order to capture and quantify target cytokines and chemokines from a clinical sample. PMID:22976107

Mendonca, Mark; Kalish, Heather

2014-01-01

342

WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF POROUS MEDIA TO GAS-WETTING FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND INJECTIVITY IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS  

SciTech Connect

Wettability alteration to intermediate gas-wetting in porous media by treatment with FC-759, a fluoropolymer polymer, has been studied experimentally. Berea sandstone was used as the main rock sample in our work and its wettability before and after chemical treatment was studied at various temperatures from 25 to 93 C. We also studied recovery performance for both gas/oil and oil/water systems for Berea sandstone before and after wettability alteration by chemical treatment. Our experimental study shows that chemical treatment with FC-759 can result in: (1) wettability alteration from strong liquid-wetting to stable intermediate gas-wetting at room temperature and at elevated temperatures; (2) neutral wetting for gas, oil, and water phases in two-phase flow; (3) significant increase in oil mobility for gas/oil system; and (4) improved recovery behavior for both gas/oil and oil/water systems. This work reveals a potential for field application for improved gas-well deliverability and well injectivity by altering the rock wettability around wellbore in gas condensate reservoirs from strong liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting.

Abbas Firoozabadi

2003-12-01

343

Analysis of Simple Carbohydrates by Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Electrophoresis–Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An overview of the application of capillary electrophoresis and ­capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry in the analysis\\u000a of simple carbohydrates without any previous derivatization step is given. Besides electrolyte systems for ­carbohydrate separation,\\u000a detection techniques employed in capillary electrophoresis, such as ­spectrophotometric detection, electrochemical detection,\\u000a and mass spectrometric ­detection, are discussed, as are less common detection techniques. Thus, the chapter focuses on

Christian W. Klampfl; Markus Himmelsbach; Wolfgang Buchberger

344

Incorporation of polymerizable surfactants in hydroxyethyl methacrylate lenses for improving wettability and lubricity.  

PubMed

Dryness and discomfort are the main reasons for dropouts in contact lens wearers. Incorporating surfactants in lens formulations could improve wettability and lubricity, which can improve comfort. We have focused on incorporating polymerizable surfactants in hydroxyethyl methacrylate lenses to improve comfort, while minimizing the potential for surfactant release into the tears. The surfactants were added to the polymerization mixture, followed by UV curing and extraction of leachables in hot water. Wettability and lubricity were characterized by measuring the contact angle and coefficient of friction. Lenses were also characterized by measuring transmittance, loss and storage moduli and ion permeability. Incorporation of surfactants significantly reduced contact angle from 90° for p-HEMA gels to about 10° for 2.43% (w/w) surfactant loading in hydrated gel. The coefficient of friction also decreased from about 0.16 for HEMA gels to 0.05 for the gels with 2.43% surfactant loading. There was a good correlation between the contact angle and coefficient of friction suggesting that both effects can be related to the stretching of the surfactant tails near the surface into the aqueous phase. The water content was also correlated with the surfactant loading but the contact angle was more sensitive suggesting that the observed improvements in wettability and lubricity arise from the protrusion of the surfactant tails in into the liquid, and not purely from the increase in the water content. The gels were clear and certain compositions also have the capability to block UVC and UVB radiation. The results suggest that incorporation of polymerizable surfactants could be useful in improving surface properties without significantly impacting any bulk property. PMID:25596369

Bengani, Lokendrakumar C; Scheiffele, Gary W; Chauhan, Anuj

2015-05-01

345

CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORETIC BEHAVIOR OF SEVEN SULFONYLUREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The electrophoretic behavior of bensulfuron Me, sulfometuron Me, nicosulfuron (Accent), chlorimuron Et, thifensulfuron Me (Harmony), metsulfuron Me, and chlorsulfuron was studied under capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) conditio...

346

Capillary flow of dense colloidal suspensions   

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to study the flow of dense colloidal suspensions into micronsized capillaries at the particle level. Understanding the flow of complex fluids in terms of their constituents (colloids, ...

Isa, Lucio

2008-01-01

347

Capillary instability on a hydrophilic stripe  

E-print Network

A recent experiment showed that cylindrical segments of water filling a hydrophilic stripe on an otherwise hydrophobic surface display a capillary instability when their volume is increased beyond the critical volume at ...

Speth, Raymond L.

348

Capillary electrochromatography using fibers as stationary phases.  

PubMed

Fiber-packed capillary columns have been evaluated in chromatographic performance in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The change of electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity and selectivity using different kinds of fiber materials was examined. Although the EOF velocity among the different fiber packed columns was almost the same, retention of parabens was larger on the Kevlar-packed column than on the Zylon-packed one, and was larger on the as-span-type fiber-packed column than on the high-modulus-type packed one. Using 200 microm ID x 5 cm Kevlar packed column combined with a 100 microm ID x 20 cm precolumn capillary and a 530 microm ID x 45 cm postcolumn capillary, the separation of three parabens within 30 s was achieved. Other compounds were also separated in a few minutes by the fiber-packed CEC method. PMID:11669512

Jinno, K; Watanabe, H; Saito, Y; Takeichi, T

2001-10-01

349

Characterising Microstructured Materials Using a Capillary Rheometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parallel plate and capillary rheometer have been used to rheologically characterize an Australian hard wheat flour-water dough over an extensive range of shear rates (10-3-104 s-1). Torsional measurements showed that the shear viscosity of dough increased with strain to a maximum value then decreased, suggesting a breakdown of the dough structure. This was consistent with other published data on doughs. Capillary experiments revealed the shear thinning behavior of dough, which was described by a power-law model. The wall slip behavior of dough was examined, revealing a critical shear stress at which slip occurs for a 1 mm diameter capillary. The capillary data was best linked to the torsional data at low strain values (˜0.1) as expected given the nature of sampling in the two rheometers.

Hicks, Christopher I.; See, Howard; Arabo, Emad Y. M.

2008-07-01

350

Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier  

DOEpatents

A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1980-01-01

351

Fragment Analysis of Carbohydrates Following Capillary Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Depending on the macromolecule size and configuration, migration rates through capillary electrophoresis vary greatly. Internal size standards for capillary electrophoresis of the same macromolecule may not be readily available. The Macromolecule Tool in GeneMarker® aids with analysis of macromolecule fragments without an internal lane size standard. Methods included importing raw data files to the software and physically identifying reference peaks in the samples known to have the same size. The program uses this information to calibrate from one capillary to another. Characteristics of the aligned data (such as relative size, peak height, peak area, peak ratios) were exported in an excel sheet. Ninety six raw data files from 4 dye capillary electrophoresis were analyzed. Peak height, height ratio, area, area ratio, and relative sizes were determined for all samples. These values can be used to determine characteristics such as number and relative size of degradation products or other macromolecules, such as DNA binding carbohydrates commonly functioning in gene regulation.

Hulce, D.; Li, F.; Li, X.; Liu, C.S.; Snyder-Leiby, T.

2011-01-01

352

Geometry and wetting of capillary folding  

E-print Network

Capillary forces are involved in a variety of natural phenomena, ranging from droplet breakup to the physics of clouds. The forces from surface tension can also be exploited in industrial applications provided the length ...

Lauga, Eric

353

Self-erasing and rewritable wettability patterns on ZnO thin films  

SciTech Connect

Self-erasing patterns allow a substrate to be patterned multiple times or could store temporary information for secret communications, and are mostly based on photochromic molecules to change the color of the pattern. Herein we demonstrate self-erasing patterns of wettability on thin ZnO films made by atomic layer deposition. Hydrophilic patterns are written using UV light and decay spontaneously, i.e. become hydrophobic, or are erased aided by vacuum conditions or heat. We demonstrate that these patterns can be applied for channels to confine flow of water without physical walls.

Kekkonen, Ville; Hakola, Antti; Kajava, Timo; Ras, Robin H. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Sahramo, Elina; Malm, Jari; Karppinen, Maarit [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

2010-07-26

354

Simple relations for wettability of a droplet on a low-surface-energy solid  

SciTech Connect

A treatment of the contact angle is very difficult because it exhibits a hysteresis such as dynamic contact angle and does not necessarily take a constant value. For understanding such complicated behavior of droplet, simple but fundamental consideration is very important. In the present study, wettability of a binary mixture droplet on low surface energy solid is experimentally and theoretically investigated. A simple theoretical model is applied to the droplet behavior considering a situation before and after touching the solid surface from a view point of thermodynamic surface energy. The model can explain the relationships among the contact angle (?), surface energy of liquid (?{sub lg}) and the droplet radius (R)

Yonemoto, Yukihiro [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, C3-d2S06, Kyoto Daigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto, 15-8540 (Japan)

2014-04-11

355

Wettability of a glass surface in the presence of two nonionic surfactant mixtures.  

PubMed

Measurements of the advancing contact angle (theta) were carried out for aqueous solution of p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenoxypoly(ethylene glycol), Triton X-100 (TX100), and Triton X-165 (TX165) mixtures on glass. The obtained results indicate that the wettability of glass depends on the concentration and composition of the surfactant mixture. The relationship between the contact angle and concentration suggests that the lowest wettability corresponds to the concentration of TX100 and TX165 and their mixture near the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The minimum of the dependence between the contact angle and composition of the mixtures for each concentration at a monomer mole fraction of TX100, alpha, equals 0.2 and 0.4 points to synergism in the wettability of the glass surface. In contrast to the results of Zisman ( Zisman, W. A. In Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion; Gould, R. F., Ed.; Advances in Chemistry Series 43; American Chemical Society Washington, DC, 1964; p 1 ) there was no linear dependence between cos theta and the surface tension of aqueous solutions of TX100 and TX165 mixtures for all studied systems, but a linear dependence exists between the adhesional tension and surface tension for glass, practically, in the whole concentration range of surfactants studied, the slopes of which are positive in the range of 0.43-0.67. These positive slopes indicate that the interactions between the water molecules and glass surface might be stronger than those between the surface and surfactant molecules. So, the surface excess of surfactant concentration at the glass-water interface is probably negative, and the possibility for surfactant to adsorb at the glass/water film-water interface is higher than that at the glass-water interface. This conclusion is confirmed by the values of the work of adhesion of "pure" surfactants, aqueous solutions of surfactants, and aqueous solutions of their mixtures to the glass surface and by the negative values of glass-water interfacial tension determined from the Young equation in the range of surfactant concentrations corresponding to their unsaturated monolayer at the water-air interface. PMID:18572957

Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Ja?czuk, Bronis?aw

2008-08-01

356

Photo-induced wettability of TiO{sub 2} film with Au buffer layer  

SciTech Connect

The effect of thickness of Au buffer layer (15-25 nm) between TiO{sub 2} film and substrate on the wettability of TiO{sub 2} films is reported. TiO{sub 2} films grown on Au buffer layer have a higher contact angle of 96-;100° as compared to 47.6o for the film grown without buffer layer. The transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity under UV irradiation occurs within 10 min. for the buffer layered films whereas it is almost 30 min. for the film grown without buffer layer. The enhanced photo induced hydrophilicity is shown to be surface energy driven.

Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Madhurima, V., E-mail: madhurima.v@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur-610004 (India)

2014-04-24

357

Capillary filling in microchannels patterned by posts  

E-print Network

We investigate the capillary filling of three dimensional micro-channels with surfaces patterned by posts of square cross section. We show that pinning on the edges of the posts suppresses, and can halt, capillary filling. We stress the importance of the channel walls in controlling whether filling can occur. In particular for channels higher than the distance between adjacent posts, filling occurs for contact angles less than a threshold angle \\sim 55 deg., independent of the height of the channel.

B. M. Mognetti; J. M. Yeomans

2009-10-27

358

Capillary hemangioma of the cervical intervertebral disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anterior cervical decompression and fusion operation was complicated by extensive bleeding from the disc space. Histopathological\\u000a evaluation of the resected specimen revealed the diagnosis as the very first reported case of capillary hemangioma in intervertebral\\u000a disc space. Retrospective review of the preoperative MRI demonstrated supporting findings of a capillary hemangioma within\\u000a the cervical intervertebral disc.

Ahmet Cetinkal; Ahmet Colak; Kivanc Topuz; Cem Atabey; Ufuk Berber

2011-01-01

359

Reversible wettability of electron-beam deposited indium-tin-oxide driven by ns-UV irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the most widely used semiconductor oxides in the field of organic optoelectronics, especially for the realization of anode contacts. Here the authors report on the control of the wettability properties of ITO films deposited by reactive electron beam deposition and irradiated by means of nanosecond-pulsed UV irradiation. The enhancement of the surface water wettability, with a reduction of the water contact angle larger than 50 deg., is achieved by few tens of seconds of irradiation. The analyzed photo-induced wettability change is fully reversible in agreement with a surface-defect model, and it can be exploited to realize optically transparent, conductive surfaces with controllable wetting properties for sensors and microfluidic circuits.

Persano, Luana [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies UNILE, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, I-73010 Arnesano-LE (Italy); Del Carro, Pompilio [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Pisignano, Dario [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies UNILE, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, I-73010 Arnesano-LE (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ''Ennio De Giorgi'', Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

2012-04-09

360

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member  

DOEpatents

A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

1996-10-22

361

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member  

DOEpatents

A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

1996-01-01

362

Integrated, Multi-Scale Characterization of Imbibition and Wettability Phenomena Using Magnetic Resonance and Wide-Band Dielectric Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The petrophysical properties of rocks, particularly their relative permeability and wettability, strongly influence the efficiency and the time-scale of all hydrocarbon recovery processes. However, the quantitative relationships needed to account for the influence of wettability and pore structure on multi-phase flow are not yet available, largely due to the complexity of the phenomena controlling wettability and the difficulty of characterizing rock properties at the relevant length scales. This project brings together several advanced technologies to characterize pore structure and wettability. Grain-scale models are developed that help to better interpret the electric and dielectric response of rocks. These studies allow the computation of realistic configurations of two immiscible fluids as a function of wettability and geologic characteristics. These fluid configurations form a basis for predicting and explaining macroscopic behavior, including the relationship between relative permeability, wettability and laboratory and wireline log measurements of NMR and dielectric response. Dielectric and NMR measurements have been made show that the response of the rocks depends on the wetting and flow properties of the rock. The theoretical models can be used for a better interpretation and inversion of standard well logs to obtain accurate and reliable estimates of fluid saturation and of their producibility. The ultimate benefit of this combined theoretical/empirical approach for reservoir characterization is that rather than reproducing the behavior of any particular sample or set of samples, it can explain and predict trends in behavior that can be applied at a range of length scales, including correlation with wireline logs, seismic, and geologic units and strata. This approach can substantially enhance wireline log interpretation for reservoir characterization and provide better descriptions, at several scales, of crucial reservoir flow properties that govern oil recovery.

Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Carlos Torres-Verdin; George Hirasaki

2007-09-30

363

Capillary fracture of soft gels  

E-print Network

A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material, and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

Joshua B. Bostwick; Karen E. Daniels

2013-10-16

364

OCT methods for capillary velocimetry  

PubMed Central

To date, two main categories of OCT techniques have been described for imaging hemodynamics: Doppler OCT and OCT angiography. Doppler OCT can measure axial velocity profiles and flow in arteries and veins, while OCT angiography can determine vascular morphology, tone, and presence or absence of red blood cell (RBC) perfusion. However, neither method can quantify RBC velocity in capillaries, where RBC flow is typically transverse to the probe beam and single-file. Here, we describe new methods that potentially address these limitations. Firstly, we describe a complex-valued OCT signal in terms of a static scattering component, dynamic scattering component, and noise. Secondly, we propose that the time scale of random fluctuations in the dynamic scattering component are related to red blood cell velocity. Analysis was performed along the slow axis of repeated B-scans to parallelize measurements. We correlate our purported velocity measurements against two-photon microscopy measurements of RBC velocity, and investigate changes during hypercapnia. Finally, we image the ischemic stroke penumbra during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO), where OCT velocimetry methods provide additional insight that is not afforded by either Doppler OCT or OCT angiography. PMID:22435106

Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Lo, Eng H.; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Jiang, James Y.; Barry, Scott; Cable, Alex E.

2012-01-01

365

Capillary fracture of soft gels  

E-print Network

A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an impo...

Bostwick, Joshua B

2013-01-01

366

Capillary fracture of soft gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L?t3/4. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

Bostwick, Joshua B.; Daniels, Karen E.

2013-10-01

367

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report for the project, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned with the new concept for coal surface wettability and floatability evaluation and modulation. the objective of the work is the fundamental surface chemistry features about the evaluation of the surface wettability and floatability of coal and pyrite, and establish a new separation strategy which could contribute to advanced coal-cleaning for premium fuel application. In this quarter, the mini-cell flotation tests are conducted to study kinetic floatability and kinetic collectability of coal and pyrite. The kinetic floatability of the five samples have been tested with methanol, butanol, and hexanol as collector.

Hu, W.

1995-12-31

368

Effect of plasma treatment on the wettability of elastomeric impression materials.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of "plasma treatment" on the wettability of impression materials and void formation in die stone casts. Four addition reaction silicones, one condensation reaction silicone, and one polyether impression material were used. Wettability was determined before and after plasma treatment by contact angle registration of a saturated aqueous solution of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) on flat surfaces made from the tested impression materials. Two groups of surfaces were used for each material. The surfaces in one of the groups were exposed to saliva for 5 minutes. The same impression materials were used to produce four groups of die stone casts from a master die. Two groups were produced from impressions that had been exposed to milk. One group from the exposed and one from the bare surfaces were plasma-treated before pouring. Voids in the stone casts were counted under a stereoscopic microscope. The results indicated that after plasma treatment, the drop of CaSO4 solution completely spread over the addition type silicone surfaces. The corresponding die stone casts were found to be void free. It was concluded that plasma treatment produced high-energy impression surfaces that result in void-free die stone casts from the addition type silicone materials. PMID:8371180

Vassilakos, N; Fernandes, C P; Nilner, K

1993-08-01

369

Quantitatively controlled nanoliter liquid manipulation using hydrophobic valving and control of surface wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss nanoliter metering, transportation, merging, and biochemical reaction on a nanoliter fluidic chip. The proposed nanoliter fluidic handling is based on passive fluidic control using hydrophobic valving and liquid flow control by selective wettability patterning. For the selective patterning of the wettability, a hydrophobic fluorocarbon (FC) film (a mixture of FluoradTM from 3M, USA) was spin-coated on a hydrophilic glass wafer and patterned using a lift-off process. The patterned FC film showed strong hydrophobicity, indicated by a high water contact angle (108-110°). For the fabrication of the nanoliter fluidic chip, polydimethysiloxane microchannel networks were aligned and bonded onto the glass wafer, along with the FC patterns. The proposed nanoliter metering technique showed an accuracy of 4% using a 20 nL criterion. A biochemical reaction on a chip was performed between beta-galactosiadase (enzyme) and a fluorescein di-beta-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate. The FDG and the enzyme solution were manipulated on the nanoliter fluidic chip in desired volumes and mixing ratios. The reactions between different ratios of the enzyme and FDG substrate were monitored using the fluorescence intensity as a function of the reaction time. From the enzymatic reaction on the chip, we confirmed that the proposed fluidic handling was successfully performed on the chip, and that the reaction depended on the enzyme concentration.

Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Chang-Soo; Kim, Byung-Gee; Kim, Yong-Kweon

2003-01-01

370

Development of a Freeze-Dried Fungal Wettable Powder Preparation Able to Biodegrade Chlorpyrifos on Vegetables  

PubMed Central

Continuous use of the pesticide chlorpyrifos has resulted in harmful contaminations in environment and species. Based on a chlorpyrifos-degrading fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides strain Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711), a fungal wettable powder preparation was developed aiming to efficiently remove chlorpyrifos residues from vegetables. The formula was determined to be 11.0% of carboxymethyl cellulose-Na, 9.0% of polyethylene glycol 6000, 5.0% of primary alcohol ethoxylate, 2.5% of glycine, 5.0% of fucose, 27.5% of kaolin and 40% of freeze dried fungi by response surface methodology (RSM). The results of quality inspection indicated that the fungal preparation could reach manufacturing standards. Finally, the degradation of chlorpyrifos by this fungal preparation was determined on pre-harvest cabbage. Compared to the controls without fungal preparation, the degradation of chlorpyrifos on cabbages, which was sprayed with the fungal preparation, was up to 91% after 7 d. These results suggested this freeze-dried fungal wettable powder may possess potential for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos residues on vegetables and provide a potential strategy for food and environment safety against pesticide residues. PMID:25061758

Chen, Shaohua; Xiao, Ying; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

2014-01-01

371

Wettability Engendered Templated Self-assembly (WETS) for Fabricating Multiphasic Particles.  

PubMed

Precise control over the geometry and chemistry of multiphasic particles is of significant importance for a wide range of applications. In this work, we have developed one of the simplest methodologies for fabricating monodisperse, multiphasic micro- and nanoparticles possessing almost any composition, projected shape, modulus, and dimensions as small as 25 nm. The synthesis methodology involves the fabrication of a nonwettable surface patterned with monodisperse, wettable domains of different sizes and shapes. When such patterned templates are dip-coated with polymer solutions or particle dispersions, the liquids, and consequently the polymer or the particles, preferentially self-assemble within the wettable domains. Utilizing this phenomenon, we fabricate multiphasic assemblies with precisely controlled geometry and composition through multiple, layered depositions of polymers and/or particles within the patterned domains. Upon releasing these multiphasic assemblies from the template using a sacrificial layer, we obtain multiphasic particles. The templates can then be readily reused (over 20 times in our experiments) for fabricating a new batch of particles, enabling a rapid, inexpensive, and easily reproducible method for large-scale manufacturing of multiphasic particles. PMID:25625176

Kobaku, Sai P R; Kwon, Gibum; Kota, Arun K; Karunakaran, Raghuraman G; Wong, Philip; Lee, Duck Hyun; Tuteja, Anish

2015-02-25

372

The Wettability of LaRC Colorless Polyimide Resins on Casting Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two colorless polyimides developed at NASA Langley Research Center, LaRC -CP1 and LaRC -CP2, are noted for being optically transparent, resistant to radiation, and soluble in the imide form. These materials may be used to make transparent, thin polymer films for building large space reflector/collector inflatable antennas, solar arrays, radiometers, etc. Structures such as these require large area, seamless films produced via spin casting or spray coating the soluble imide on a variety of substrates. The ability of the soluble imide to wet and spread over the mandrel or casting substrate is needed information for processing these structures with minimum waste and reprocessing, thereby, reducing the production costs. The wettability of a liquid is reported as the contact angle of the solid/liquid system. This fairly simple measurement is complicated by the porosity and the amount of contamination of the solid substrate. This work investigates the effect of inherent viscosity, concentration of polyimide solids, and solvent type on the wettability of various curing surfaces.

Miner, Gilda A.; Stoakley, Diane M.; St.Clair, Anne K.; Gierow, Paul A.; Bates, Kevin

1997-01-01

373

Enhanced mixing of droplets during coalescence on a surface with a wettability gradient.  

PubMed

We investigated the dynamics of head-on collisions between a moving droplet and a stationary droplet on a surface with a wettability gradient. The mixing of fluids is achieved passively through convective mass transfer caused by the release of surface energy during coalescence, and also through diffusive mass transfer. The coalescence dynamics were visualized with a high-speed camera; the internal flow patterns were resolved with measurement of micro-PIV (particle image velocimetry). The results show that the released surface energy creates a pair recirculation flow inside the merged droplet when the stationary droplet is placed near the gradient, whereas most released surface energy is converted into oscillation when the stationary droplet is far from the gradient. This distinction is attributed to the motion of the contact line during coalescence. The mixing of fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides in these two modes is revealed with confocal micro-laser induced fluorescence technique. The results of 3D scans demonstrate that the motion of the contact line during coalescence distributes the fluids in a complicated manner, thus beneficial for mixing. This mechanism of enhanced mixing is applicable also for platforms other than a surface with a wettability gradient; prospective applications include improving the mixing of biochemical fluids. PMID:20922226

Lai, Yu-Hsuan; Hsu, Miao-Hsing; Yang, Jing-Tang

2010-11-21

374

Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application.  

PubMed

For a lab-on-chip application, we fabricate a blue bottom emitting strong microcavity organic light emitting diode (OLED), using very smooth and optically thin (25 nm) silver film as anode on a glass substrate. To improve the hole injection in the OLED device, PEDOT-PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonic acid)) has been used, so the silver anode must present not only a very smooth surface but also a strong adherence on the glass and a high wettability to allow a good PEDOT-PSS spin coating deposition. To obtain these physical properties, different 5 nm thick nucleation layers (germanium, chromium, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon) have been used to grow the silver thin films by e-beam deposition. The Ge/Ag bilayer presents all the desired properties: this bilayer, investigated by ellipsometry, optical profilometry, contact angle measurements, and XPS analysis, highlights an ultrasmooth surface correlated with the film growth mode and a high wettability related to its surface chemical composition. PMID:21391637

Cioarec, Cristina; Melpignano, Patrizia; Gherardi, Nicolas; Clergereaux, Richard; Villeneuve, Christina

2011-04-01

375

Biofilm formation on a TiO2 nanotube with controlled pore diameter and surface wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titania (TiO2) nanotube arrays (TNAs) with different pore diameters (140 ? 20 nm) are fabricated via anodization using hydrofluoric acid (HF) containing ethylene glycol (EG) by changing the HF-to-EG volume ratio and the anodization voltage. To evaluate the effects of different pore diameters of TiO2 nanotubes on bacterial biofilm formation, Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis) MR-1 cells and a crystal-violet biofilm assay are used. The surface roughness and wettability of the TNA surfaces as a function of pore diameter, measured via the contact angle and AFM techniques, are correlated with the controlled biofilm formation. Biofilm formation increases with the decreasing nanotube pore diameter, and a 20 nm TiO2 nanotube shows the maximum biofilm formation. The measurements revealed that 20 nm surfaces have the least hydrophilicity with the highest surface roughness of ˜17 nm and that they show almost a 90% increase in the effective surface area relative to the 140 nm TNAs, which stimulate the cells more effectively to produce the pili to attach to the surface for more biofilm formation. The results demonstrate that bacterial cell adhesion (and hence, biofilm formation) can effectively be controlled by tuning the roughness and wettability of TNAs via controlling the pore diameters of TNA surfaces. This biofilm formation as a function of the surface properties of TNAs can be a potential candidate for both medical applications and as electrodes in microbial fuel cells.

Anitha, V. C.; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae; Narayan Banerjee, Arghya; Joo, Sang Woo; Min, Bong Ki

2015-02-01

376

Temperature Gradient Capillary Electrophoresis (TGCE) Related Protocols 1 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT CAPILLARY  

E-print Network

Temperature Gradient Capillary Electrophoresis (TGCE) Related Protocols 1 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT/l, Applied Biosystems Cloned Pfu DNA polymerase 100U, 2.5U/l, CAT#600153-81, Stratagene #12;Temperature Gradient Capillary Electrophoresis (TGCE) Related Protocols 2 PCR program used to denature/re-anneal mixed

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

377

Study of the plasma wave excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses in a dielectric capillary  

SciTech Connect

Laser wakefield in a gas-filled capillary driven by a 1-TW femtosecond Ti:Sa laser pulse is studied experimentally by observing driving pulse spectrum modifications, which are caused by the combined action of the optical field ionization and the plasma density oscillations. Good agreement between the results of extensive numerical simulations and the experimental data allows us to estimate the accelerating gradients in the wake, which range from 5 to 10 MV/cm for typical experimental conditions.

Eremin, V.; Malkov, Yu.; Korolikhin, V.; Kiselev, A.; Skobelev, S.; Stepanov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Andreev, N. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15

378

High performance of cyclic olefin copolymer-based capillary electrophoretic chips.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates a simple, one step, and low cost surface modification technique for producing cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) polymer-based microcapillary electrophoresis chips consisting highly hemocompatible microchannels by UV-photografting with N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) monomer. An optimal condition has been identified to achieve the best surface grafting process. It has been found that this surface treatment enables extremely high surface wettability, hemocompatibility, and bond strength to the microchannels. The surface grafting was confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) study. In vitro protein adsorption using fluorescent labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) into the COC microchannel results indicates that the modified chips have excellent protein resistance ability because of the increase of surface hydrophilicity. Hence, the modified chips showed fast, reproducible and high efficient separations of proteins (up to 51,000 theoretical plates per meter). Moreover, this surface modification process show no loss in the optical transparency to the modified microchannel surfaces: an important requirement for real capillary electrophoresis since the fluorescent intensity is directly related to the amount of adsorbed protein on the surface. Therefore, we believe that this simple and promising route of surface modification could be very useful for developing high performance COC microfluidic devices for the separation of proteins, amino acids, and other biomolecules. PMID:23748936

Roy, Sunanda; Das, Tanya; Yue, C Y

2013-06-26

379

Capillary adhesion at the nanometer scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the capillary adhesion from a nonvolatile liquid meniscus between a spherical tip and a flat substrate. The atomic structure of the tip, the tip radius, the contact angles of the liquid on the two surfaces, and the volume of the liquid bridge are varied. The capillary force between the tip and substrate is calculated as a function of their separation h. The force agrees with continuum predictions based on macroscopic theory for h down to ˜5 to 10 nm. At smaller h, the force tends to be less attractive than predicted and has strong oscillations. This oscillatory component of the capillary force is completely missed in the macroscopic theory, which only includes contributions from the surface tension around the circumference of the meniscus and the pressure difference over the cross section of the meniscus. The oscillation is found to be due to molecular layering of the liquid confined in the narrow gap between the tip and substrate. This effect is most pronounced for large tip radii and/or smooth surfaces. The other two components considered by the macroscopic theory are also identified. The surface tension term, as well as the meniscus shape, is accurately described by the macroscopic theory for h down to ˜1 nm, but the capillary pressure term is always more positive than the corresponding continuum result. This shift in the capillary pressure reduces the average adhesion by a factor as large as 2 from its continuum value and is found to be due to an anisotropy in the pressure tensor. The component in the plane of the substrate is consistent with the capillary pressure predicted by the macroscopic theory (i.e., the Young-Laplace equation), but the normal pressure that determines the capillary force is always more positive than the continuum counterpart.

Cheng, Shengfeng; Robbins, Mark O.

2014-06-01

380

Critical Velocities in Open Capillary Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the proposed research program on open capillary flow and the preliminary work performed theoretically and in drop tower experiments. The work focuses on the fundamental physical understanding of the flow through capillary bound geometries, where the circumference of the cross section of the flow path contains free surfaces. Examples for such a flow configuration are capillary vanes in surface tension tanks, flow along edges and corners and flow through liquid bridges. The geometries may be classified by their cross section areas, wetted circumferences and the radii of curvature of the free surfaces. In the streaming float zone the flow path is bound by a free surface only. The ribbon vane is a model for vane types used in surface tension tanks, where a structure in proximity to the tank wall forms a capillary gap. A groove is used in heat pipes for the transportation of the condensed working fluid to the heat source and a wedge may occur in a spaceborne experiment where fluid has to be transported by the means of surface tension. The research objectives are the determination of the maximum volume flux, the observation of the free surfaces and the liquid flow inside the flow path as well as the evaluation of the limiting capillary wave speed. The restriction of the maximum volume flux is due to convective forces (flow velocity exceeding the capillary wave speed) and/or viscous forces, i.e. the viscous head loss along the flow path must be compensated by the capillary pressure due to the curved free surface. Exceeding the maximum volume flux leads to the choking of the flow path, thus the free surface collapses and.gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. The means are ground-based experimental work with plateau tanks and in a drop tower, a sounding rocket flight, and theoretical analysis with integral balances as well as full three dimensional CFD solutions for flow with free surfaces.

Dreyer, Michael; Langbein, Dieter; Rath, Hans J.

1996-01-01

381

Capillary fracture of soft gels.  

PubMed

A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L[proportional]t(3/4). We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent. PMID:24229192

Bostwick, Joshua B; Daniels, Karen E

2013-10-01

382

Capillary liquid chromatography using laser-based and mass spectrometric detection. [Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE); micellar electrokinetic capillary kchromatography (MECC)  

SciTech Connect

In the years following the 1986 seminal paper (J. Chromatogr. Sci., 24, 347-352) describing modern capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the prominence of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques has grown. A related electrochromatographic technique is micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). This report presents a brief synopsis of research efforts during the current 3-year period. In addition to a description of analytical separations-based research, results of efforts to develop and expand spectrometric detection for the techniques is reviewed. Laser fluorometric detection schemes have been successfully advanced. Mass spectrometric research was less fruitful, largely owing to personnel limitations. A regenerable fiber optic sensor was developed that can be used to remotely monitor chemical carcinogens, etc. (DLC)

Sepaniak, M.J.; Cook, K.D.

1992-01-01

383

Modeling aerobic biodegradation in the capillary fringe.  

PubMed

Vapor intrusion from volatile subsurface contaminants can be mitigated by aerobic biodegradation. Laboratory column studies with contaminant sources of chlorobenzene and a mixture of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene showed that contaminants were rapidly degraded in thin reactive zones with high biomass and low substrate concentrations in the vicinity of the capillary fringe. Such behavior was well characterized by a model that includes oxygen-, substrate-, and biomass-dependent biodegradation kinetics along with diffusive transport processes. An analytical solution was derived to provide theoretical support for the simplification of reaction kinetics and the approximation of reactive zone location and mass flux relationships at steady state. Results demonstrate the potential of aerobic natural attenuation in the capillary fringe for preventing contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. The solution indicates that increasing contaminant mass flux into the column creates a thinner reactive zone and pushes it toward the oxygen boundary, resulting in a shorter distance to the oxygen source and a larger oxygen mass flux that balances the contaminant mass flux. As a consequence, the aerobic biodegradation can reduce high contaminant concentrations to low levels within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone. The results are consistent with the observations of thin reactive layers at the interface in unsaturated zones. The model considers biomass while including biodegradation in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone and clearly demonstrates that microbial communities capable of using the contaminants as electron donors may lead to instantaneous degradation kinetics in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone. PMID:25548946

Luo, Jian; Kurt, Zohre; Hou, Deyi; Spain, Jim C

2015-02-01

384

EUV radiation from nitrogen capillary discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade EUV sources attract interest from researchers over the world. One of the main motivations is EUV lithography, which could lead to further miniaturization in electronics. Nitrogen recombination laser at wavelength of 13.4 nm based on capillary discharge Z-pinch configuration could be used in experiments with testing of resolution of photoresist for EUV lithography (close to wavelength of 13.5 nm Si/Mo multilayer mirrors have a high reflectivity at normal incidence angles). In this work, pinching of nitrogen-filled capillary discharge is studied for the development of EUV laser, which is based on recombination pumping scheme. The goal of this study is achieving the required plasma conditions using a capillary discharge Z-pinch apparatus. In experiments with nitrogen, the capillary length was shortened from 232 mm to 90 mm and current quarter-period was changed from 60 ns to 50 ns in contrast with early experiments with Ne-like argon laser. EUV radiation from capillary discharge was registered by X-ray vacuum diode for different pressure, amplitude and duration of pre-pulse and charging voltage of the Marx generator.

Frolov, Oleksandr; Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav

2014-08-01

385

Restructuring and aging in a capillary suspension  

E-print Network

The rheological properties of capillary suspensions, suspensions with small amounts of an added immiscible fluid, are dramatically altered with the addition of the secondary fluid. We investigate a capillary suspension to determine how the network ages and restructures at rest and under applied external shear deformation. The present work uses calcium carbonate suspended in silicone oil (11 % solids) with added water as a model system. Aging of capillary suspensions and their response to applied oscillatory shear is distinctly different from particulate gels dominated by the van der Waals forces. The suspensions dominated by the capillary force are very sensitive to oscillatory flow, with the linear viscoelastic regime ending at a deformation of only 0.1 % and demonstrating power-law aging behavior. This aging persists for long times at low deformations or for shorter times with a sudden decrease in the strength at higher deformations. This aging behavior suggests that the network is able to rearrange and even rupture. This same sensitivity is not demonstrated in shear flow where very high shear rates are required to rupture the agglomerates returning the apparent viscosity of capillary suspensions to the same viscosity as for the pure vdW suspension. A transitional region is also present at intermediate water contents wherein the material response depends very strongly on the type, strength, and duration of the external forcing.

Erin Koos; Wolfgang Kannowade; Norbert Willenbacher

2014-10-16

386

The effect of clean and no-clean flux in enhancing the wettability of eutectic solder bump flip chip PBGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different types of clean flux and no-clean flux, which are mainly used in flip chip die attach, have been analyzed in respect to the wettability of eutectic solder bump in flip chip PBGA. An experimental study is carried out to measure the spreading area of the eutectic solder bump processed with different types of flux. Various types of clean

Nowshad Amin; Ang Ye Cheah; Z. Kornain; I. Ahmad

2008-01-01

387

Tuning of surface wettability of RGO-based aerogels for various adsorbates in water using different amino acids.  

PubMed

RGO-based aerogels with varied and controllable surface wettability were fabricated using different amino acids. Hydrophobic cys-RGO aerogels prepared by L-cysteine exhibited an outstanding adsorption toward oils and organic solvents, while hydrophilic lys-RGO aerogels obtained from L-lysine can be used as adsorbents for heavy metal ions in water. PMID:25057754

Liu, Wenjun; Wang, Yongke; Li, Zhaohui

2014-09-14

388

Surfactant effects on the water-stable aggregation of wettable soils from the continental U.S  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surfactants may affect soil structure differently depending upon the soil or the quality of rainfall or irrigation water. This study examined whether the water-stable aggregation of 11 wettable soils was affected by surfactants and the water in which the soils were sieved. The study also examined wh...

389

Elasto-capillary collapse of floating structures - Non-linear response of elastic structures under capillary forces  

E-print Network

Flexible rings and rectangle structures floating at the surface of water are prone to deflect under the action of surface pressure induced by the addition of surfactant molecules on the bath. While the frames of rectangles bend inward or outward for any surface pressure difference, circles are only deformed by compression beyond a critical buckling load. However, compressed frames also undergo a secondary buckling instability leading to a rhoboidal shape. Following the pioneering works of \\cite{Hu} and \\cite{Zell}, we describe both experimentally and theoretically the different elasto-capillary deflection and buckling modes as a function of the material parameters. In particular we show how this original fluid structure interaction may be used to probe the adsorption of surfactant molecules at liquid interfaces.

Adami, N; Roman, B; Bico, J; Caps, H

2013-01-01

390

Choosing Actions  

PubMed Central

Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

2013-01-01

391

Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis  

SciTech Connect

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

Xue, Y.

1994-07-27

392

Chocked flows in open capillary channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillary systems provide a passive means to control fluids and are widely used for space craft fuel management. In the present study the forced liquid flow through an open capillary channel under low gravity conditions is investigated. Due to convective and viscous momentum transport the pressure along the flow path decreases and causes the free surface to bend inwards the open channel. Since the curvature of the free surface depends on the channel pressure the flow rate is limited. The maximum flow rate is achieved when the free surface collapses and gas ingestion occurs. This critical flow rate depends on channel geometry and liquid properties. The talk concludes analytical modeling and numerical computations to calculate pressure, free surface curvature and velocity parameters. The results predict the critical flow rate for different geometries and can be used to avoid greater design margins of capillary systems.

Klatte, Joerg; Rosendahl, U.; Haake, D.; Grah, A.; Dreyer, M.

2007-11-01

393

Mach-like capillary-gravity wakes.  

PubMed

We determine experimentally the angle ? of maximum wave amplitude in the far-field wake behind a vertical surface-piercing cylinder translated at constant velocity U for Bond numbers Bo(D)=D/?(c) ranging between 0.1 and 4.2, where D is the cylinder diameter and ?(c) the capillary length. In all cases the wake angle is found to follow a Mach-like law at large velocity, ??U(-1), but with different prefactors depending on the value of Bo(D). For small Bo(D) (large capillary effects), the wake angle approximately follows the law ??c(g,min)/U, where c(g,min) is the minimum group velocity of capillary-gravity waves. For larger Bo(D) (weak capillary effects), we recover a law ???[gD]/U similar to that found for ship wakes at large velocity [Rabaud and Moisy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214503 (2013)]. Using the general property of dispersive waves that the characteristic wavelength of the wave packet emitted by a disturbance is of order of the disturbance size, we propose a simple model that describes the transition between these two Mach-like regimes as the Bond number is varied. We show that the new capillary law ??c(g,min)/U originates from the presence of a capillary cusp angle (distinct from the usual gravity cusp angle), along which the energy radiated by the disturbance accumulates for Bond numbers of order of unity. This model, complemented by numerical simulations of the surface elevation induced by a moving Gaussian pressure disturbance, is in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:25215822

Moisy, Frédéric; Rabaud, Marc

2014-08-01

394

Mach-like capillary-gravity wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine experimentally the angle ? of maximum wave amplitude in the far-field wake behind a vertical surface-piercing cylinder translated at constant velocity U for Bond numbers BoD=D/?c ranging between 0.1 and 4.2, where D is the cylinder diameter and ?c the capillary length. In all cases the wake angle is found to follow a Mach-like law at large velocity, ? ˜U-1, but with different prefactors depending on the value of BoD. For small BoD (large capillary effects), the wake angle approximately follows the law ? ?cg ,min/U, where cg ,min is the minimum group velocity of capillary-gravity waves. For larger BoD (weak capillary effects), we recover a law ? ˜?gD /U similar to that found for ship wakes at large velocity [Rabaud and Moisy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214503 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.214503]. Using the general property of dispersive waves that the characteristic wavelength of the wave packet emitted by a disturbance is of order of the disturbance size, we propose a simple model that describes the transition between these two Mach-like regimes as the Bond number is varied. We show that the new capillary law ? ?cg ,min/U originates from the presence of a capillary cusp angle (distinct from the usual gravity cusp angle), along which the energy radiated by the disturbance accumulates for Bond numbers of order of unity. This model, complemented by numerical simulations of the surface elevation induced by a moving Gaussian pressure disturbance, is in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

Moisy, Frédéric; Rabaud, Marc

2014-08-01

395

Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by CE after enzymatic reaction at capillary inlet.  

PubMed

In this study the development of a procedure based on capillary electrophoresis after enzymatic reaction at capillary inlet methodology for the screening and in vitro evaluation of the biological activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is presented. The progress of the enzymatic reaction of the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine at pH 8 in the presence of AChE and the inhibitor studied is determined by measuring at 230 nm the peak area of the reaction product thiocholine (TCh). In the method employed the capillary was first filled with 30 mM borate-phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) and subsequently, plugs of: (i) water, (ii) AChE solution, (iii) substrate solution with or without inhibitor, (iv) AChE solution, and (v) water, were hydrodynamically injected into the capillary, and were allowed to stand (and react) during a waiting period of 2 min. The applicability of the proposed methodology to estimate different kinetic parameters of interest such as inhibition constants K(i), identification of inhibitory action mechanism and IC(50), is evaluated using compounds with known activity, tacrine edrophonium, and neostigmine. The results obtained are compared with bibliographic values and confirm the effectiveness of the methodology proposed. Finally a method for AChE Inhibitor screening is proposed. PMID:19472276

Martín-Biosca, Yolanda; Asensi-Bernardi, Lucia; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa M; Sagrado, Salvador; Medina-Hernández, Maria J

2009-05-01

396

DEVELOPMENT OF A CAPILLARY WICK UNSATURATED ZONE PORE WATER SAMPLER  

EPA Science Inventory

Existing unsaturated zone soil water samplers have several deficiencies which jeopardize their utility for field sampling. A capillary wick sampler was developed to overcome these problems. Materials for its construction were selected and tested for conductivity, capillary rise, ...

397

Genetics Home Reference: Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2014 What is ... malformation syndrome? Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (MCAP) is ...

398

Capillary origami and superhydrophobic membrane surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillary origami uses surface tension to fold and shape solid films and membranes into three-dimensional structures. It uses the fact that solid surfaces, no matter how hydrophobic, will tend to adhere to and wrap around the surface of a liquid. In this work, we report that a superhydrophobic coating can be created, which can completely suppress wrapping as a contacting water droplet evaporates. We also show that using a wetting azeotropic solution of allyl alcohol, which penetrates the surface features, can enhance liquid adhesion and create more powerful Capillary Origami. These findings create the possibility of selectively shaping membrane substrates.

Geraldi, N. R.; Ouali, F. F.; Morris, R. H.; McHale, G.; Newton, M. I.

2013-05-01

399

Capillary rise of yield-stress fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter the capillary rise of yield-stress fluids is investigated experimentally. Contrary to the case of simple fluids, the final height reached by yield-stress fluids weakly depends on the gap and is strongly affected by the yield stress and the hydrodynamic boundary conditions. Such dependences suggest that the capillary rise of yield-stress fluids results from a dynamical arrest rather than from a thermodynamic equilibrium. To rationalize these results, we propose and validate an extension of Jurin's law to such complex systems. Finally we show that measuring the final height allows for the determination of both the surface tension and the yield stress.

Géraud, Baudouin; Jørgensen, Loren; Petit, Laure; Delanoë-Ayari, Hélène; Jop, Pierre; Barentin, Catherine

2014-09-01

400

Observation of gravity-capillary wave turbulence  

E-print Network

We report the observation of the cross-over between gravity and capillary wave turbulence on the surface of mercury. The probability density functions of the turbulent wave height are found to be asymmetric and thus non Gaussian. The surface wave height displays power-law spectra in both regimes. In the capillary region, the exponent is in fair agreement with weak turbulence theory. In the gravity region, it depends on the forcing parameters. This can be related to the finite size of the container. In addition, the scaling of those spectra with the mean energy flux is found in disagreement with weak turbulence theory for both regimes.

Eric Falcon; Claude Laroche; Stéphan Fauve

2007-03-07

401

Use of Plastic Capillaries for Macromolecular Crystallization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of crystallization of biomolecules in plastic capillaries (Nalgene 870 PFA tubing) are presented. These crystallization methods used batch, free-interface liquid- liquid diffusion alone, or a combination with vapor diffusion. Results demonstrated growth of crystals of test proteins such as thaumatin and glucose isomerase, as well as protein studied in our laboratory such dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Once the solutions were loaded in capillaries, they were stored in the tubes in frozen state at cryogenic temperatures until the desired time of activation of crystallization experiments.

Potter, Rachel R.; Hong, Young-Soo; Ciszak, Ewa M.

2003-01-01

402

The fastest capillary flow under gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-layer porous structure composed of packed particles is designed to achieve the fastest capillary flow under gravity. The minimum flow time for a fixed flow distance is determined by dynamic competition between capillary pressure, gravity, and viscous effects, all of which have different sensitivities to local microstructures of the porous system. Optimal structural parameters are found that account for the minimum flow time in the single-layer porous medium. The theoretical results obtained can be used for the optimization of porous architectures, achieving excellent liquid management properties.

Shou, Dahua; Ye, Lin; Fan, Jintu

2014-06-01

403

Lobular capillary hemangioma of the trachea.  

PubMed

As a polypoid form of capillary hemangioma, lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) most commonly occurs on the cutaneous and mucosal surfaces and is frequently benign in children. Tracheal LCH is a rare benign tumor in adults, with hemoptysis being one of the most serious forms of presentation. A definite diagnosis of LCH depends on its histopathology. In clinical practice, however, radiological characteristics are an important component for making a suggestive diagnosis. We present a case of tracheal LCH and describe its features on computed tomography, pathology, and differential diagnosis. A review of the relevant literature is also provided. PMID:25644803

Xu, Qingqing; Yin, Xindao; Sutedjo, Janesya; Sun, Jun; Jiang, Liang; Lu, Lingquan

2015-02-01

404

Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)  

SciTech Connect

Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

2008-12-31

405

Sessile droplet freezing and ice adhesion on aluminum with different surface wettability and surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focused on the sessile droplet freezing and ice adhesion on aluminum with different wettability (hydrophilic, common hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces, coded as HIS, CHS, SHS, respectively) over a surface temperature range of -9°C to -19°C. It was found that SHS could retard the sessile droplet freezing and lower the ice adhesion probably due to the interfacial air pockets (IAPs) on water/SHS interface. However, as surface temperature decreasing, some IAPs were squeezed out and such freezing retarding and adhesion lowering effect for SHS was reduced greatly. For a surface temperature of -19°C, ice adhesion on SHS was even greater than that on CHS. To discover the reason for the squeezing out of IAPs, forces applied to the suspended water on IAPs were analyzed and it was found that the stability of IAPs was associated with surface micro-structures and surface temperature. These findings might be helpful to designing of SHS with good anti-icing properties.

Ou, JunFei; Shi, QingWen; Wang, ZhiLe; Wang, FaJun; Xue, MingShan; Li, Wen; Yan, GuiLong

2015-02-01

406

Thermal conductance and wettability of xenon on resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed thermal conductivity and adsorption isotherm measurements to investigate the system formed by Xe adsorbed on resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogel. Below 80 K, the thermal conductivity of the Xe/RF-aerogel system is essentially identical to that of the bare RF aerogel; however, above this temperature the thermal conductivity of the system increases significantly above that of the bare aerogel. Adsorption isotherm measurements indicate that Xe incompletely wets the RF aerogel below Xe's bulk triple point temperature. The thickness of the Xe film that forms on the RF aerogel decreases with decreasing temperature. By 80 K the total amount of Xe present on the aerogel in equilibrium with the saturated vapor pressure is less than the amount needed to form about 1.5 atomic layers of Xe on the substrate. We attribute the observed changes in the thermal conductivity of the Xe/aerogel system to changes in the wettability of the aerogel by the Xe film.

Zhu, Da-Ming; Zambano, Antonio; Migone, Aldo; Harrington, Steven

2001-01-01

407

Thermal conductance and wettability of Xe on resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed thermal conductivity and adsorption isotherm measurements to investigate Xe adsorbed on resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogel. Below 80 K, the thermal conductivity of the Xe/RF-aerogel system is essentially identical to that of the bare RF-aerogel. Above this temperature the thermal conductivity of the system increases significantly above that of the bare aerogel. Adsorption isotherm measurements indicate that Xe incompletely wets the RF-aerogel below Xe’s bulk triple point temperature. The maximum amount of Xe adsorbed on the RF-aerogel at the bulk saturation pressure decreases with temperature. By 80 K the total amount of Xe present on the aerogel in equilibrium with the saturated vapor pressure is less than the amount needed to form about 1.5 atomic layers of Xe on the substrate. The observed changes in the thermal conductance can be understood in terms of decreasing wettability of Xe on the RF-aerogel as temperature decreases.

Zhu, Da-Ming; Zambano, Antonio; Migone, Aldo; Harrington, Steven; Rao, Nanxia

2001-03-01

408

Fabrication of super-repellent cotton textiles with rapid reversible wettability switching of diverse liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By in situ introducing polyaniline (PANI) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to cotton fibers, normally hydrophilic and oleophilic cotton textile has easily turned superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic. This super-repellent cotton fabric exhibits a high contact angle (>150°) and low contact angle hysteresis, even with liquids possessing significantly low surface tension. The water or oil repellent property is ascribed to the combination of a dual-size surface roughness and low-surface-energy material. In particular, a reversible wettability switching of various low-surface-tension liquids on the PANI-fabric can be simultaneously observed, when it is doped with PFOA and de-doped with sodium hydroxide via a simple dipping method. This transition can be explained by the conversion of fluorine content and hydrophilic groups on the surface during the doping/dedoping process. Besides, this doping polymerization and dedoping process can slightly affect the mechanical strength of the cotton fabrics, even with harsh chemicals like acid and base.

Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Xu, Xianghui; Men, Xuehu; Zhu, Xiaotao

2013-07-01

409

Gallium-based thermal interface material with high compliance and wettability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports a gallium-based thermal interface material (GBTIM) consisting of gallium oxides dispersed uniformly into the 99 % gallium metal. The wettability of GBTIM with other materials is disclosed and compared. The thermal conductivity of GBTIM measured by a computer-controlled Mathis TCi thermal analyzer is ˜13.07 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature, which is significantly higher than that of conventional thermal greases. An experimental facility is described to measure the thermal resistance across the GBTIM under steady-state conditions and the thermal interface resistance is measured as low as 2.6 mm2 kW-1 with a pressure of 0.05 MPa, which is an order lower than that of the best commercialized thermal greases. Further, the GBTIM is formed into a desired shape to enhance thermal transfer, such as semi-liquid paste or thermal pad, which can be cut into a required shape.

Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

2012-06-01

410

Improving endothelialization on 316L stainless steel through wettability controllable coating by sol-gel technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid endothelialization by surface coverage is considered as a way to increase blood compatibility of the vascular stent and reduce smooth muscle cell (SMC) mediated restenosis. Coatings on 316L stainless steels with different wettabilities and similar topographies were obtained through sol-gel process by regulating the proportions of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES). Adhesion and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (EC) and SMC on these substrates have been evaluated by cell numbers, cell morphology, and expression of cytoskeletal protein. Results showed that EC and SMC responded differently to the coated surfaces. Enhanced endothelialization of bare 316L was found at the moderately hydrophilic coating (contact angle 45.3°) which exhibited effective inhibition of SMC and negligible influence on EC. These results are expected to lay foundation for the solution of the vascular restenosis which was mainly derived from the hyperplasia of SMC.

Wang, Mingqi; Wang, Yao; Chen, Yijie; Gu, Hongchen

2013-03-01

411

Importance of excipient wettability on tablet characteristics prepared by moisture activated dry granulation (MADG).  

PubMed

For moisture activated dry granulation (MADG), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or silicon dioxide is recommended for the moisture absorption stage. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative excipients as moisture absorbents with regard to the disintegration mechanism of resulting lactose based placebo formulations. Beside high and low moisture MCC grades, the additions of magnesium aluminometasilicate (MAMS), pregelatinized starch (S1500), crospovidone (Kollidon CL) and carmellose calcium (ECG 505) were evaluated. High shear granulation (HSG) was conducted as a reference process. The overall disintegration time of all tablets produced by MADG was significantly faster whereas hardness yield and mass-variability were equal or superior compared to the HSG process. Powder wettability of the different moisture absorbents was identified to be a key driver for rapid disintegration, whereas tablet porosity had only a minor influence on the target hardness of the tablets. PMID:23994013

Takasaki, Hiroshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Messerschmid, Roman; Ito, Masanori; Wada, Koichi; Terada, Katsuhide

2013-11-01

412

Spectrometer capillary vessel and method of making same  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an arrangement of a glass capillary tube for use in spectroscopy. In particular, the invention is a capillary arranged in a manner permitting a plurality or multiplicity of passes of a sample material through a spectroscopic measurement zone. In a preferred embodiment, the multi-pass capillary is insertable within a standard NMR sample tube. The present invention further includes a method of making the multi-pass capillary tube and an apparatus for spinning the tube.

Linehan, John C. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Kennewick, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Franz, James A. (Kennewick, WA)

1995-01-01

413

Spectrometer capillary vessel and method of making same  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an arrangement of a glass capillary tube for use in spectroscopy. In particular, the invention is a capillary arranged in a manner permitting a plurality or multiplicity of passes of a sample material through a spectroscopic measurement zone. In a preferred embodiment, the multi-pass capillary is insertable within a standard NMR sample tube. The present invention further includes a method of making the multi-pass capillary tube and an apparatus for spinning the tube. 13 figs.

Linehan, J.C.; Yonker, C.R.; Zemanian, T.S.; Franz, J.A.

1995-11-21

414

Wettability in reactive Sn-base alloy/Ni-base metallic glass systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxless wetting of a Ni-base metallic glass alloy with a nominal composition of Ni-7Cr-3.2B-4.5Si-3Fe (wt.%) by several Sn-base solders was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum at 523 K, and their interfacial microstructures were characterized. The results show that the wettability was in the sequence of Sn-51 wt.% In > Sn-37 wt.% Pb > Sn-57 wt.% Bi > Sn-0.7 wt.% Cu > Sn-3.0 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Cu > pure Sn. The interface consisted of two distinct layers with the upper being the reaction layer and the lower the Sn-diffusion layer. For the Sn-0.7 wt.% Cu, Sn-3.0 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Cu and Sn-51 wt.% In solders, the primary reaction products were (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 and Ni3(Sn,In)4, respectively, while for the other solders, they were Ni3Sn4. The thickness of the reaction layer in the central area varied in the order of Sn-51 wt.% In > pure Sn > Sn-3.0 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Cu ? Sn-0.7 wt.% Cu > Sn-57 wt.% Bi > Sn-37 wt.% Pb, which is likely related to the concentration and diffusion rate of Sn. Moreover, the interfacial reaction facilitated the crystallization of the amorphous Ni-base substrates adjacent to the reaction layer and the crystallization in turn promoted the diffusion of Sn toward the substrate. The mechanisms for the different wettability of these solders with the Ni-base amorphous alloy were discussed, and finally suitable solders were recommended for the joining of this amorphous material

Zhang, Lin-Yang; Shen, Ping; Qi, Yan; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

2013-07-01

415

A Process for Producing Highly Wettable Aluminum 6061 Surfaces Compatible with Hydrazine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an ongoing Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project whose basic objective is to improve global precipitation measurements. The space-based portion of the mission architecture consists of a primary or core spacecraft and a constellation of NASA and contributed spacecrafts. The efforts described in this paper refer to the core spacecraft (hereafter referred to as simply GPM) which is to be fabricated at GSFC. It has been decided that the GPM spacecraft is to be a "design-for-demise-spacecraft." This requirement resulted in the need for a propellant tank that would also demise or ablate to an appropriate degree upon re-entry. Composite overwrapped aluminum lined propellant tanks with aluminum propellant management devices (PMD) were shown by analyses to demise and thus became the baseline configuration for GPM. As part of the GPM tank development effort, long term compatibility and wettability testing with hydrazine was performed on Al6061 and 2219 coupons fabricated and cleaned by conventional processes. Long term compatibility was confirmed. However, the wettability of the aluminum as measured by contact angle produced higher than desired angles (greater than 30 deg.) with excessive scatter. The availability of PMD materials exhibiting consistently low contact angles aids in the design of simple PMDs. Two efforts performed by Angeles Crest Engineering and funded by GSFC were undertaken to reduce the risk of using aluminum for the GPM PMD. The goal of the first effort was to develop a cleaning or treatment process to produce consistently low contact angles. The goal of the second effort was to prove via testing that the processed aluminum would retain compatibility with hydrazine and retain low contact angle after long term exposure to hydrazine. Both goals were achieved. This paper describes both efforts and the results achieved.

Moore, N. R.; Ferraro, N. W.; Yue, A. F.; Estes, R. H.

2007-01-01

416

Protein immobilization on epoxy-activated thin polymer films: effect of surface wettability and enzyme loading.  

PubMed

A series of epoxy-activated polymer films composed of poly(glycidyl methacrylate/butyl methacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate) were prepared. Variation in comonomer composition allowed exploration of relationships between surface wettability and Candida antartica lipase B (CALB) binding to surfaces. By changing solvents and polymer concentrations, suitable conditions were developed for preparation by spin-coating of uniform thin films. Film roughness determined by AFM after incubation in PBS buffer for 2 days was less than 1 nm. The occurrence of single CALB molecules and CALB aggregates at surfaces was determined by AFM imaging and measurements of volume. Absolute numbers of protein monomers and multimers at surfaces were used to determine values of CALB specific activity. Increased film wettability, as the water contact angle of films increased from 420 to 550, resulted in a decreased total number of immobilized CALB molecules. With further increases in the water contact angle of films from 55 degrees to 63 degrees, there was an increased tendency of CALB molecules to form aggregates on surfaces. On all flat surfaces, two height populations, differing by more than 30%, were observed from height distribution curves. They are attributed to changes in protein conformation and/or orientation caused by protein-surface and protein-protein interactions. The fraction of molecules in these populations changed as a function of film water contact angle. The enzyme activity of immobilized films was determined by measuring CALB-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Total enzyme specific activity decreased by decreasing film hydrophobicity. PMID:18991420

Chen, Bo; Pernodet, Nadine; Rafailovich, Miriam H; Bakhtina, Asya; Gross, Richard A

2008-12-01

417

Electrochromic performance, wettability and optical study of copper manganese oxide thin films: Effect of annealing temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the nanostructured copper manganese oxide (CMO) thin films were prepared from acetate based sol-gel precursors and deposited on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by dip-coating technique. The films were annealed at 300, 400 and 500 °C in ambient atmosphere. The effects of annealing temperature on structural, morphological, wettability, electrochromic and optical properties of CMO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), water contact angle measurement (WCA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometery. The presence of mixed oxide phases comprising of copper manganese oxide (CuMn2O4) and manganese oxide at different annealing temperature was confirmed by XRD patterns. The results showed that the Mn3O4 phase has been changed to Mn2O3 when the annealing temperature is increased from 300 to 500 °C. The FESEM images indicated that the granular surface morphology was sensitive to annealing temperature. EDX studies indicated that the thin films contained O, Mn and Cu species. Wettability studies showed that the water contact angle of the nanostructured CMO thin films coated on glass substrates was influenced by the variation of annealing temperature and the surface nature of thin films was changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The results of CVs measurement indicated that the anodic and cathodic charge density and capacitance of all CMO samples decreased with increasing scan rate in potential range of -1-1 eV. Also, the annealed CMO thin film at 500 °C showed better electrochromic performance with respect to other samples at lower scan rate. The thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical band gap of thin films coated on glass substrates were calculated from reflectance and transmittance spectra using an iterative numerical method. The optical band gap of nanostructured CMO thin films increased with increasing annealing temperature.

Falahatgar, S. S.; Ghodsi, F. E.; Tepehan, F. Z.; Tepehan, G. G.; Turhan, ?.

2014-01-01

418

Investigation of antibacterial and wettability behaviours of plasma-modified PMMA films for application in ophthalmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this research is the experimental investigation of the surface properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) such as wettability and the roughness effect on Escherichia coli (gram negative) cell adhesion. Radio frequency (RF; 13.56 MHz) oxygen plasma was used to enhance the antibacterial and wettability properties of this polymer for biomedical applications, especially ophthalmology. The surface was activated by O2 plasma to produce hydrophilic functional groups. Samples were treated with various RF powers from 10 to 80 W and different gas flow rates from 20 to 120 sccm. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the plasma process. The modified surface hydrophilicity, morphology and transparency characteristics were studied by water contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. Based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids, surface free energy variations were investigated. Moreover, the antibacterial properties were evaluated utilizing the method of plate counting of Escherichia coli. Also, in order to investigate stability of the plasma treatment, an ageing study was carried out by water contact angle measurements repeated in the days after the treatment. For biomedical applications, especially eye lenses, highly efficient antibacterial surfaces with appropriate hydrophilicity and transparency are of great importance. In this study, it is shown that the plasma process is a reliable and convenient method to achieve these purposes. A significant alteration in the hydrophilicity of a pristine PMMA surface was observed after treatment. Also, our results indicated that the plasma-modified PMMAs exhibit appropriate antibacterial performance. Moreover, surface hydrophilicity and surface charge have more influence on bacterial adhesion rate than surface roughness. UV-vis analysis results do not show a considerable difference for transparency of samples after plasma treatment.

Rezaei, Fatemeh; Abbasi-Firouzjah, Marzieh; Shokri, Babak

2014-02-01

419

Generation of Plasma Using Capillary Discharge in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on providing a facile method for the production of underwater plasma by a capillary discharge in water. The underwater plasma is formed from a tungsten electrode inserted in a narrow dielectric capillary, showing the breakdown of water vapor in the capillary. This mainly produces atomic oxygen, atomic hydrogen, and hydroxyl radicals from the dissociation of water

Yong C. Hong; Hyeong W. Jeon; Bong J. Lee; Han S. Uhm

2010-01-01

420

Third sound measurements as capillary condensation probe in porous materials  

E-print Network

L-619 Third sound measurements as capillary condensation probe in porous materials J. P. Laheurte clearly capillary condensation in porous materials such as compressed exfoliated graphite and alumina with isotherm adsorption measurements for different porous materials : alumina powder and papyex. Capillary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

421

Analysis of Capillary Guided Laser Plasma Accelerator Experiments at LBNL  

E-print Network

Analysis of Capillary Guided Laser Plasma Accelerator Experiments at LBNL K. Nakamura , A. J wakefield acceleration experiments were carried out by using a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide. For a 15 mm long, 200 µm diameter capillary, quasi-monoenergetic e-beams up to 300 MeV were observed. By de

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

422

Laser illumination of multiple capillaries that form a waveguide  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for efficient laser illumination of the interiors of multiple capillaries simultaneously, and collection of light emitted from them. Capillaries in a parallel array can form an optical waveguide wherein refraction at the cylindrical surfaces confines side-on illuminating light to the core of each successive capillary in the array. Methods are provided for determining conditions where capillaries will form a waveguide and for assessing and minimizing losses due to reflection. Light can be delivered to the arrayed capillaries through an integrated fiber optic transmitter or through a pair of such transmitters aligned coaxially at opposite sides of the array. Light emitted from materials within the capillaries can be carried to a detection system through optical fibers, each of which collects light from a single capillary, with little cross talk between the capillaries. The collection ends of the optical fibers can be in a parallel array with the same spacing as the capillary array, so that the collection fibers can all be aligned to the capillaries simultaneously. Applicability includes improving the efficiency of many analytical methods that use capillaries, including particularly high-throughput DNA sequencing and diagnostic methods based on capillary electrophoresis. 35 figs.

Dhadwal, H.S.; Quesada, M.A.; Studier, F.W.

1998-08-04

423

Laser illumination of multiple capillaries that form a waveguide  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for efficient laser illumination of the interiors of multiple capillaries simultaneously, and collection of light emitted from them. Capillaries in a parallel array can form an optical waveguide wherein refraction at the cylindrical surfaces confines side-on illuminating light to the core of each successive capillary in the array. Methods are provided for determining conditions where capillaries will form a waveguide and for assessing and minimizing losses due to reflection. Light can be delivered to the arrayed capillaries through an integrated fiber optic transmitter or through a pair of such transmitters aligned coaxially at opposite sides of the array. Light emitted from materials within the capillaries can be carried to a detection system through optical fibers, each of which collects light from a single capillary, with little cross talk between the capillaries. The collection ends of the optical fibers can be in a parallel array with the same spacing as the capillary array, so that the collection fibers can all be aligned to the capillaries simultaneously. Applicability includes improving the efficiency of many analytical methods that use capillaries, including particularly high-throughput DNA sequencing and diagnostic methods based on capillary electrophoresis.

Dhadwal, Harbans S. (Setauket, NY); Quesada, Mark A. (Middle Island, NY); Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY)

1998-08-04

424

Evaluation and Management of Periocular Capillary Hemangioma: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To r eview the salient features of periocular capillary hemangioma, provide the ophthalmologist with clinical, diagnostic and histological features characteristic of the tumor and discuss various methods of manage- ment. Methods: Literature review of periocular capillary hemangioma, diagnostic evaluation with emphasis on treat- ment through the presentation of illustrative clinical cases. Results: Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign

Saeed A. Al-Motowa; Imtiaz A. Chaudhry

2006-01-01

425

Analysis of Inorganic Polyphosphates by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis  

E-print Network

Analysis of Inorganic Polyphosphates by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis Andrew Lee and George M This paper describes the development of a method that uses capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) to analyze mix)n, by capillary gel electrophoresis. Samples of condensed inorganic phosphate are typically mixtures of (Pi

Church, George M.

426

Application of CHESS single-bounce capillaries at synchrotron beamlines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-bounce capillaries are achromatic X-ray focusing optics that can provide efficient and high demagnification focusing with large numerical apertures. Capillary fabrication at CHESS can be customized according to specific application requirements. Exemplary applications are reviewed in this paper, as well as recent progress on condensers for high-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy and small focal size capillaries.

Huang, R.; Szebenyi, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Woll, A.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Finkelstein, K.; Dale, D.; Wang, Y.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gillilan, R.; Cook, M.; Bilderback, D. H.

2014-03-01

427

SEPARATION OF GLUTEN PROTEINS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) is an analytical method that uses a voltage differential to accurately move solvents and solutes through a capillary. HPCE is a relative newcomer to the field of cereal chemistry, it utilizes small inner diameter capillaries as an anti-convective med...

428

DNA ADDUCT RESEARCH WITH CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

DNA's central importance in all biological systems dictates a wide variety of DNA-related research. or much of this research, the utilization of capillary electrophoresis (CE) can be of significant advantage. pen-tube CE yields excellent separations of DNA components, which can b...

429

Illposedness of the gravity-capillary equations  

E-print Network

We prove via explicitly constructed initial data that solutions to the gravity-capillary wave system in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ representing a 2d air-water interface immediately fails to be $C^3$ with respect to the initial data if the initial data $(h_0, \\psi_0) \\in H^{s+\\frac12} \\otimes H^{s}$ for $swater wave system.

Chen, Robin Ming; Spirn, Daniel; Wright, J Douglas

2011-01-01

430

WATER DIVERSION CAPACITY OF INCLINED CAPILLARY BARRIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covers with capillary barrier effects (CCBE) are an interesting alternative to low hydraulic conductivity covers to limit water infiltration into waste disposal sites, especially for arid and semi-arid climates. This type of cover system typically includes a fine-grained material layer overlying a coarser one. In sloping systems, water can be diverted at the interface between the two materials, hence reducing

Bruno Bussière; Senami Aurore Apithy; Michel Aubertin; Robert P. Chapuis

431

Using Capillary Flows to Pattern Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One can appreciate how capillary forces cause unexpected patterns and shapes by looking at a soap bubble. Pattern formation by surface tension is seen in ring patterns of coffee stains, fingering patterns in Hele-Shaw cells, ordering of two dimensional micro-sphere crystals, combing of DNA and skeleton formation in marine creatures called radiolarians. Though comman, problems involving the understanding and control of the self-assembly mechanism need to be resolved before using capillary forces as a practical lithographic tool. Here, we report capillary flows create line patterns in evaporating liquids between closely spaced parallel plates. The widths of these lines range from a few microns to a few nanometers. Deliberate patterning of such lines requires pinning of the contact line and the presence of foaming surfactants. The position and type of line can be controlled with artificial pinning points and varying solutes respectively, and large-scale photolithography can be used to guide and control the definition of nanostructures. We provide ``proof of principle'' demonstrations of this method's application by creating lines of colloidal quantum dots and micro-spheres. This represents the first step in using capillary phenomena to create controlled, self--assembling, one-dimensional wire-like structures

Vyawahare, Saurabh; Craig, Kate; Scherer, Axel

2006-03-01

432

Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis.  

PubMed

In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials. PMID:25646688

Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry

2015-03-01

433

Derive capillary pressure from well logs  

SciTech Connect

A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical data where core data is absent or not representative of in-situ conditions. It is based on using log data to derive a water saturation vs. depth profile in the transition zone of the formation of interest. The log-derived water saturation distribution is then correlated to generalized capillary pressure curves typical of the formation studied. The capillary pressure type curves are generated from available core data and other petrophysical information. Relative permeability curves are then generated using correlations based on Purcell's model. The technique can be used in multi-layered and homogeneous reservoirs provided that one homogeneous layer is at least 20 ft thick.

Ibrahim, A. (Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Desbrandes, R.; Bassiouni, Z. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1994-07-01

434

Capillary migration of microdisks on curved interfaces  

E-print Network

The capillary energy landscape for particles on curved fluid interfaces is strongly influenced by the particle wetting conditions. Contact line pinning has now been widely reported for colloidal particles, but its implications in capillary interactions have not been addressed. Here, we present experiment and analysis for disks with pinned contact lines on curved fluid interfaces. In experiment, we study microdisk migration on a host interface with zero mean curvature; the microdisks have contact lines pinned at their sharp edges and are sufficiently small that gravitational effects are negligible. The disks migrate away from planar regions toward regions of steep curvature with capillary energies inferred from the dissipation along particle trajectories which are linear in the deviatoric curvature. We derive the curvature capillary energy for an interface with arbitrary curvature, and discuss each contribution to the expression. By adsorbing to a curved interface, a particle eliminates a patch of fluid interface and perturbs the surrounding interface shape. Analysis predicts that perfectly smooth, circular disks do not migrate, and that nanometric deviations from a planar circular, contact line, like those around a weakly roughened planar disk, will drive migration with linear dependence on deviatoric curvature, in agreement with experiment.

Lu Yao; Nima Sharifi-Mood; Iris B. Liu; Kathleen J. Stebe

2014-12-23

435

Capillary migration of microdisks on curved interfaces.  

PubMed

The capillary energy landscape for particles on curved fluid interfaces is strongly influenced by the particle wetting conditions. Contact line pinning has now been widely reported for colloidal particles, but its implications in capillary interactions have not been addressed. Here, we present experiment and analysis for disks with pinned contact lines on curved fluid interfaces. In experiment, we study microdisk migration on a host interface with zero mean curvature; the microdisks have contact lines pinned at their sharp edges and are sufficiently small that gravitational effects are negligible. The disks migrate away from planar regions toward regions of steep curvature with capillary energies inferred from the dissipation along particle trajectories which are linear in the deviatoric curvature. We derive the curvature capillary energy for an interface with arbitrary curvature, and discuss each contribution to the expression. By adsorbing to a curved interface, a particle eliminates a patch of fluid interface and perturbs the surrounding interface shape. Analysis predicts that perfectly smooth, circular disks do not migrate, and that nanometric deviations from a planar circular, contact line, like those around a weakly roughened planar disk, will drive migration with linear dependence on deviatoric curvature, in agreement with experiment. PMID:25618486

Yao, Lu; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Liu, Iris B; Stebe, Kathleen J

2015-07-01

436

Capillary hemangioma of the sphenoid bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary hemangioma in the body of the sphenoid bone produced unilateral optic atrophy in a 13-year-old boy. The typical reticulated appearance of an osseous hemangioma was clearly demonstrated only on direct magnification radiographs. At angiography, patchy filling occurred through vessles arising from the internal carotid and internal maxillary arteries bilaterally. The few other reports of sphernoid hemangiomas are reviewed.

Richard A. Suss; Ashok J. Kumar; Howard D. Dorfman; Neil R. Miller; Arthur E. Rosenbaum

1984-01-01

437

Capillary Electrophoresis for the Analysis of Biopolymers  

E-print Network

becoming available for some parts of proteomic research, but manually intensive slab-gel electrophoresis instruments will displace cumbersome slab-gel electrophoresis for protein analysis. We also believeCapillary Electrophoresis for the Analysis of Biopolymers Sergey N. Krylov and Norman J. Dovichi

Krylov, Sergey

438

Design criteria for SW-205 capillary system  

SciTech Connect

This design criteria covers the converting of the SW-250 Capillary System from fumehood manual operation to sealed glovebox automated operation. The design criteria contains general guidelines and includes drawings reflecting a similar installation at another site. Topics include purpose and physical description, architectural-engineering requirements, reference document, electrical, fire protection, occupational safety and health, quality assurance, and security.

Lyons, W.J.

1989-04-01

439

A novel capillary polymerase chain reaction machine  

E-print Network

I built a novel prototype capillary polymerase chain reaction machine. The purpose was to perform a single reaction as fast as possible with a reaction volume - 100 nl. The PCR mix is in the form of a 1 /1 droplet that ...

Chiou, Jeffrey Tsungshuan

2001-01-01

440

Modelling capillary oxygen supply capacity in mixed muscles: capillary domains revisited.  

PubMed

Developing effective therapeutic interventions for pathological conditions associated with abnormal oxygen transport to muscle fibres critically depends on the objective characterisation of capillarity. Local indices of capillary supply have the potential to identify the onset of fine-scale tissue pathologies and dysregulation. Detailed tissue geometry, such as muscle fibre size, has been incorporated into such measures by considering the distribution of Voronoi polygons (VP) generated from planar capillary locations as a representation of capillary supply regions. Previously, detailed simulations have predicted that this is generally accurate for muscle tissue with uniform oxygen uptake. Here we extend this modelling framework to heterogeneous muscle for the assessment of capillary supply capacity under maximal sustainable oxygen consumption. We demonstrate for muscle with heterogeneous fibre properties that VP theoretically provide a computationally simple but often accurate representation of trapping regions (TR), which are predicted from biophysical transport models to represent the areas of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. However, this use of VP may become less accurate around large fibres, and at the interface of fibres of largely different oxidative capacities. In such cases, TR may provide a more robust representation of capillary supply regions. Additionally, given VP can only approximate oxygen delivery by capillaries, we show that their generally close relationship to TR suggests that (1) fibre type distribution may be tightly regulated to avoid large fibres with high oxidative capacities, (2) the anatomical fibre distribution is also tightly regulated to prevent a large surface area of interaction between metabolically dissimilar fibres, and (3) in chronically hypoxic tissues capillary distribution is more important in determining oxygen supply than the spatial heterogeneity of fibre demand. PMID:24768706

Al-Shammari, Abdullah A; Gaffney, Eamonn A; Egginton, Stuart

2014-09-01