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1

Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii  

PubMed Central

Background Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb), highly repetitive (>80%) and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of recombination in certain regions of the chromosomes, genetic mapping, which uses recombination frequency to map marker loci, alone is not sufficient to develop high quality marker scaffolds for a sequence ready physical map. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, which uses radiation induced chromosomal breaks, has proven to be a successful approach for developing marker scaffolds for sequence assembly in animal systems. Here, the development and characterization of a RH panel for the mapping of D-genome of wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii is reported. Results Radiation dosages of 350 and 450 Gy were optimized for seed irradiation of a synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat with the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78. The surviving plants after irradiation were crossed to durum wheat (AABB), to produce pentaploid RH1s (AABBD), which allows the simultaneous mapping of the whole D-genome. A panel of 1,510 RH1 plants was obtained, of which 592 plants were generated from the mature RH1 seeds, and 918 plants were rescued through embryo culture due to poor germination (<3%) of mature RH1 seeds. This panel showed a homogenous marker loss (2.1%) after screening with SSR markers uniformly covering all the D-genome chromosomes. Different marker systems mostly detected different lines with deletions. Using markers covering known distances, the mapping resolution of this RH panel was estimated to be <140kb. Analysis of only 16 RH lines carrying deletions on chromosome 2D resulted in a physical map with cM/cR ratio of 1:5.2 and 15 distinct bins. Additionally, with this small set of lines, almost all the tested ESTs could be mapped. A set of 399 most informative RH lines with an average deletion frequency of ~10% were identified for developing high density marker scaffolds of the D-genome. Conclusions The RH panel reported here is the first developed for any wild ancestor of a major cultivated plant species. The results provided insight into various aspects of RH mapping in plants, including the genetically effective cell number for wheat (for the first time) and the potential implementation of this technique in other plant species. This RH panel will be an invaluable resource for mapping gene based markers, developing a complete marker scaffold for the whole genome sequence assembly, fine mapping of markers and functional characterization of genes and gene networks present on the D-genome. PMID:23127207

2012-01-01

2

A 4-gigabase physical map unlocks the structure and evolution of the complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor  

PubMed Central

The current limitations in genome sequencing technology require the construction of physical maps for high-quality draft sequences of large plant genomes, such as that of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor. To construct a physical map of the Ae. tauschii genome, we fingerprinted 461,706 bacterial artificial chromosome clones, assembled contigs, designed a 10K Ae. tauschii Infinium SNP array, constructed a 7,185-marker genetic map, and anchored on the map contigs totaling 4.03 Gb. Using whole genome shotgun reads, we extended the SNP marker sequences and found 17,093 genes and gene fragments. We showed that collinearity of the Ae. tauschii genes with Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum decreased with phylogenetic distance and that structural genome evolution rates have been high across all investigated lineages in subfamily Pooideae, including that of Brachypodieae. We obtained additional information about the evolution of the seven Triticeae chromosomes from 12 ancestral chromosomes and uncovered a pattern of centromere inactivation accompanying nested chromosome insertions in grasses. We showed that the density of noncollinear genes along the Ae. tauschii chromosomes positively correlates with recombination rates, suggested a cause, and showed that new genes, exemplified by disease resistance genes, are preferentially located in high-recombination chromosome regions. PMID:23610408

Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong Q.; You, Frank M.; Deal, Karin R.; Ma, Yaqin; Hu, Yuqin; Huo, Naxin; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jirui; Chen, Shiyong; Jorgensen, Chad M.; Zhang, Yong; McGuire, Patrick E.; Pasternak, Shiran; Stein, Joshua C.; Ware, Doreen; Kramer, Melissa; McCombie, W. Richard; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Martis, Mihaela M.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Sehgal, Sunish K.; Li, Wanlong; Gill, Bikram S.; Bevan, Michael W.; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Weining, Song; Lazo, Gerard R.; Anderson, Olin D.; Dvorak, Jan

2013-01-01

3

Effect of the D genome and of selection on photosynthesis in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis and transpiration in wheats and in their progenitors were analyzed in relation to their genome, ploidy and selection. The values of these parameters markedly depend on a specific effect of the D genome and on leaf enlargement in the course of evolution in wheats. Leaf enlargement has had a marked effect on photosynthesis in the genotypes that are devoid

C. Planchon; J. Fesquet

1982-01-01

4

Sequence polymorphism in polyploid wheat and their d-genome diploid ancestor.  

PubMed Central

Sequencing was used to investigate the origin of the D genome of the allopolyploid species Triticum aestivum and Aegilops cylindrica. A 247-bp region of the wheat D-genome Xwye838 locus, encoding ADP-glucopyrophosphorylase, and a 326-bp region of the wheat D-genome Gss locus, encoding granule-bound starch synthase, were sequenced in a total 564 lines of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum, genome AABBDD) involving all its subspecies and 203 lines of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. In Ae. tauschii, two SNP variants were detected at the Xwye838 locus and 11 haplotypes at the Gss locus. Two haplotypes with contrasting frequencies were found at each locus in wheat. Both wheat Xwye838 variants, but only one of the Gss haplotypes seen in wheat, were found among the Ae. tauschii lines. The other wheat Gss haplotype was not found in either Ae. tauschii or 70 lines of tetraploid Ae. cylindrica (genomes CCDD), which is known to hybridize with wheat. It is concluded that both T. aestivum and Ae. cylindrica originated recurrently, with at least two genetically distinct progenitors contributing to the formation of the D genome in both species. PMID:15238542

Caldwell, Katherine S; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans S; Akhunov, Eduard; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Wolters, Petra; Powell, Wayne

2004-01-01

5

Role of D-genome chromosomes in photosynthesis expression in wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of D-genome chromosomes in the expression of net photosynthesis in wheats was analysed with the nullitetrasomic and ditelosomic lines of the bread wheat cultivar ‘Chinese Spring’. The two arms of chromosome 3 D and the short arm of chromosome 6 D control major mechanisms of photosynthesis. The effect of chromosome 6 D can be thoroughly compensated by that

B. Haour-Lurton; C. Planchon

1985-01-01

6

The wheat D-genome HMW-glutenin locus: BAC sequencing, gene distribution, and retrotransposon clusters.  

PubMed

A bacterial-artificial-chromosome (BAC) clone from the genome of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome ancestor of hexaploid bread wheat, was sequenced and the presence of the two paralogous x- and y-type high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin genes of the Glu-D1 locus was confirmed. These two genes occur in the same orientation, are 51,893 bp apart, and the separating DNA includes a 31,000-bp cluster of retrotransposons. A second retrotransposon cluster of 32,000 bp follows the x-type HMW-glutenin gene region. Each HMW-glutenin gene is found within a region of mainly unique DNA sequence which includes multiple additional genes including an active endosperm globulin gene not previously reported in the Triticeae family, a leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) type gene truncated at the 5' end of the BAC, a kinase gene of unknown activity, remnants of a paralogous second globulin gene, and genes similar to two hypothetical rice genes. The newly identified globulin genes are assigned to a locus designated Glo-2. Comparison to available orthologous regions of the wheat A and B genomes show rapid sequence divergences flanking the HMW-glutenin genes, and the absence of two hypothetical and unknown genes found 5' to the B-genome x-type ortholog. The region surrounding the Glu-D1 locus is similar to other reported Triticeae BAC sequences; i.e. small gene islands separated by retrotransposon clusters. PMID:12590343

Anderson, O D; Rausch, C; Moullet, O; Lagudah, E S

2003-03-01

7

Introgression of wheat DNA markers from A, B and D genomes in early generation progeny of Aegilops cylindrica Host  ×  Triticum aestivum L. hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introgression from allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) to allotetraploid jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host, CCDD) can take place in areas where the two species grow in sympatry and hybridize. Wheat and Ae. cylindrica share the D genome, issued from the common diploid ancestor Aegilops tauschii Coss. It has been proposed that the A and B genome of bread wheat

N. Schoenenberger; F. Felber; D. Savova-Bianchi; R. Guadagnuolo

2005-01-01

8

Identification of quantitative trait loci for abscisic acid responsiveness in the D-genome of hexaploid wheat.  

PubMed

In crop species such as wheat, abiotic stresses and preharvest sprouting reduce grain yield and quality. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in abiotic stress tolerance and seed dormancy. In previous studies, we evaluated ABA responsiveness of 67 Aegilops tauschii accessions and their synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, finding wide variation that was due to the D-genome. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed using an F2 population derived from crosses of highly ABA-responsive and less-responsive synthetic wheat lines. A significant QTL was detected on chromosome 6D, in a similar location to that reported for ABA responsiveness using recombinant inbred lines derived from common wheat cultivars Mironovskaya 808 and Chinese Spring. A comparative map and physiological and expression analyses of the 6D QTL suggested that this locus involved in line differences among wheat synthetics is different from that involved in cultivar differences in common wheat. The common wheat 6D QTL was found to affect seed dormancy and the regulation of cold-responsive/late embryogenesis abundant genes during dehydration. However, in synthetic wheat, we failed to detect any association of ABA responsiveness with abiotic stress tolerance or seed dormancy, at least under our experimental conditions. Development of near-isogenic lines will be important for functional analyses of the synthetic wheat 6D QTL. PMID:24877675

Iehisa, Julio C M; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Yokota, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Takumi, Shigeo

2014-06-15

9

Wheat pre-breeding using wild progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate the use of wheat wild relatives in conventional breedingprograms, a wheat pre-breeding activity started at ICARDA in 1994\\/1995season. Preliminary results of gene introgression from wild diploidprogenitors, Triticum urartu, T. baeoticum, Aegilops speltoides andAe. tauschii and tetraploid T. dicoccoides are described. Crosseswith wild diploid Triticum spp. yielded high variation in plant andspike morphology. Synthetic hexaploids were produced from crosses

J. J. Valkoun

2001-01-01

10

A complex arrangement of genes at a starch branching enzyme I locus in the D-genome donor of wheat.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA fragments from Triticum tauschii (D-genome donor to wheat) carrying starch branching enzyme I (SBE I) type genes have been characterized. One fragment contains one complete gene and two partial genes in 16 kb of DNA. One of the partial genes is oriented in the opposite strand to the other two. The gene that is complete was sequenced. Its structure corresponds closely to that of rice in that exons 3-8 are retained at similar sizes and spacings. A cDNA closely corresponding to the complete gene was isolated and characterized; it codes for a putative protein that represents a novel type of SBE I, as it is shorter at the 3' end than the forms reported so far in other plants. A second genomic fragment contains a different SBE I gene. There appear to be approximately 10 copies of SBE I type genes in wheat (approximately 5 in T. tauschii) and most of them have been assigned to group 7 chromosomes. In situ hybridization indicates that a major locus for the genes is located at the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 7D. PMID:9276935

Rahman, S; Abrahams, S; Abbott, D; Mukai, Y; Samuel, M; Morell, M; Appels, R

1997-08-01

11

Dynamic evolution of NBS-LRR genes in bread wheat and its progenitors.  

PubMed

Extensive studies have focused on the largest class of disease resistance genes (nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat, NBS-LRR) in various plants. However, no research on the dynamic evolution of these genes in domesticated species and their progenitors has been reported. Recently published genome sequences of bread wheat and its two ancestors provide a good opportunity for comparing NBS-encoding genes between ancestors and their progeny. Over 2000 NBS-encoding genes have been identified in bread wheat, which is the largest number having been reported so far. Compared with other grass species, its two progenitors also contained more NBS-encoding genes, indicating that there was an expansion of these genes in their common ancestor. Interestingly, the inherited relationships of NBS-LRR genes among the bread wheat and its two progenitors were ambiguous and only 3 % single-copy orthologues retained gene order in three-way genome comparisons of the three genomes. Lots of NBS-encoding genes present in the either ancestor could not be found in the bread wheat. These results indicated that NBS-LRR genes in bread wheat might have evolved rapidly through a rapid loss of ancestor genes. PMID:25475390

Gu, Longjiang; Si, Weina; Zhao, Lina; Yang, Sihai; Zhang, Xiaohui

2014-12-01

12

A Method to Produce Radiation Hybrids for the D-Genome Chromosomes of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping is based on radiation-induced chromosome breakage rather than meiotic recombination, as a means to induce marker segregation for mapping. To date, the implementation of this mapping approach in hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.; 2n = 6x = 42; AABBDD) and tetraploid (T. turgidum L.; 2n = 4x = 28; AABB) wheat has concentrated on the production of

O. Riera-Lizarazu; J. M. Leonard; V. K. Tiwari; S. F. Kianian

2010-01-01

13

Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome  

PubMed Central

Background A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN) and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH) population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population. Results Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97%) were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR), one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP), and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79?cM, with a mean distance of 3.48?cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL), including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B. Conclusions A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH) hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of this map in the future study. PMID:22888829

2012-01-01

14

Genetic Fingerprinting of Wheat and Its Progenitors by Mitochondrial Gene orf256  

PubMed Central

orf256 is a wheat mitochondrial gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) that has different organization in various species. This study exploited the orf256 gene as a mitochondrial DNA marker to study the genetic fingerprint of Triticum and Aegilops species. PCR followed by sequencing of common parts of the orf256 gene were employed to determine the fingerprint and molecular evolution of Triticum and Aegilops species. Although many primer pairs were used, two pairs of orf256 specific primers (5:-94/C: 482, 5:253/C: 482), amplified DNA fragments of 576 bp and 230 bp respectively in all species were tested. A common 500 bp of nine species of Triticum and Aegilops were aligned and showed consistent results with that obtained from other similar chloroplast or nuclear genes. Base alignment showed that there were various numbers of base substitutions in all species compared to S. cereal (Sc) (the outgroup species). Phylogenetic relationship revealed similar locations and proximity on phylogenetic trees established using plastid and nuclear genes. The results of this study open a good route to use unknown function genes of mitochondria in studying the molecular relationships and evolution of wheat and complex plant genomes. PMID:24970134

El-Shehawi, Ahmed M.; Fahmi, Abdelmeguid I.; Sayed, Samy M.; Elseehy, Mona M.

2012-01-01

15

Molecular basis of evolutionary events that shaped the hardness locus in diploid and polyploid wheat species (Triticum and Aegilops).  

PubMed

The Hardness (Ha) locus controls grain hardness in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its relatives (Triticum and Aegilops species) and represents a classical example of a trait whose variation arose from gene loss after polyploidization. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of the evolutionary events observed at this locus by comparing corresponding sequences of diploid, tertraploid, and hexaploid wheat species (Triticum and Aegilops). Genomic rearrangements, such as transposable element insertions, genomic deletions, duplications, and inversions, were shown to constitute the major differences when the same genomes (i.e., the A, B, or D genomes) were compared between species of different ploidy levels. The comparative analysis allowed us to determine the extent and sequences of the rearranged regions as well as rearrangement breakpoints and sequence motifs at their boundaries, which suggest rearrangement by illegitimate recombination. Among these genomic rearrangements, the previously reported Pina and Pinb genes loss from the Ha locus of polyploid wheat species was caused by a large genomic deletion that probably occurred independently in the A and B genomes. Moreover, the Ha locus in the D genome of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum) is 29 kb smaller than in the D genome of its diploid progenitor Ae. tauschii, principally because of transposable element insertions and two large deletions caused by illegitimate recombination. Our data suggest that illegitimate DNA recombination, leading to various genomic rearrangements, constitutes one of the major evolutionary mechanisms in wheat species. PMID:15749759

Chantret, Nathalie; Salse, Jérôme; Sabot, François; Rahman, Sadequr; Bellec, Arnaud; Laubin, Bastien; Dubois, Ivan; Dossat, Carole; Sourdille, Pierre; Joudrier, Philippe; Gautier, Marie-Françoise; Cattolico, Laurence; Beckert, Michel; Aubourg, Sébastien; Weissenbach, Jean; Caboche, Michel; Bernard, Michel; Leroy, Philippe; Chalhoub, Boulos

2005-04-01

16

Exploring the origin of the D genome of oat by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Further understanding of the origin of cultivated oat would accelerate its genetic improvement. In particular, it would be useful to clarify which diploid progenitor contributed the D genome of this allohexaploid species. In this study, we demonstrate that the landmarks produced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of species of Avena using probes derived from Avena sativa can be used to explore the origin of the D genome. Selected sets of probes were hybridized in several sequential experiments performed on exactly the same chromosome spreads, with multiple probes of cytological preparations. Probes pITS and A3-19 showed there might be a similar distribution of pITS between the Ac and D genomes. These results indicated that the Ac genome is closely related to the D genome, and that Avena canariensis (AcAc) could be the D-genome donor of cultivated oat. PMID:25478818

Luo, Xiaomei; Zhang, Haiqin; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Zhou, Yonghong

2014-10-14

17

Molecular Basis of Evolutionary Events That Shaped the Hardness Locus in Diploid and Polyploid Wheat Species (Triticum and Aegilops)W?  

PubMed Central

The Hardness (Ha) locus controls grain hardness in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its relatives (Triticum and Aegilops species) and represents a classical example of a trait whose variation arose from gene loss after polyploidization. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of the evolutionary events observed at this locus by comparing corresponding sequences of diploid, tertraploid, and hexaploid wheat species (Triticum and Aegilops). Genomic rearrangements, such as transposable element insertions, genomic deletions, duplications, and inversions, were shown to constitute the major differences when the same genomes (i.e., the A, B, or D genomes) were compared between species of different ploidy levels. The comparative analysis allowed us to determine the extent and sequences of the rearranged regions as well as rearrangement breakpoints and sequence motifs at their boundaries, which suggest rearrangement by illegitimate recombination. Among these genomic rearrangements, the previously reported Pina and Pinb genes loss from the Ha locus of polyploid wheat species was caused by a large genomic deletion that probably occurred independently in the A and B genomes. Moreover, the Ha locus in the D genome of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum) is 29 kb smaller than in the D genome of its diploid progenitor Ae. tauschii, principally because of transposable element insertions and two large deletions caused by illegitimate recombination. Our data suggest that illegitimate DNA recombination, leading to various genomic rearrangements, constitutes one of the major evolutionary mechanisms in wheat species. PMID:15749759

Chantret, Nathalie; Salse, Jérôme; Sabot, François; Rahman, Sadequr; Bellec, Arnaud; Laubin, Bastien; Dubois, Ivan; Dossat, Carole; Sourdille, Pierre; Joudrier, Philippe; Gautier, Marie-Françoise; Cattolico, Laurence; Beckert, Michel; Aubourg, Sébastien; Weissenbach, Jean; Caboche, Michel; Bernard, Michel; Leroy, Philippe; Chalhoub, Boulos

2005-01-01

18

Assessment of Aegilops tauschii for resistance to biotypes of wheat curl mite (Acari: Eriophyidae).  

PubMed

Aegilops tauschii, the wild diploid D-genome progenitor of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is an important source of resistance to several arthropod pests and pathogens. A total of 108 Ae. tauschii accessions from different geographic regions were evaluated for resistance to biotypes of the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, from Kansas, Nebraska, and Montana. The wheat curl mite is the only vector known to transmit wheat streak mosaic virus. Wheat curl mite resistance was detected in germplasm from all the geographic locations represented. The highest percentage of resistant accessions originated from Turkey, followed by Afghanistan and the Caspian Sea region of Iran. Sixty-seven percent of the accessions exhibited resistance to at least one wheat curl mite biotype and 19% were resistant to all the three biotyopes. Resistance to the accessions tested occurred more frequently in the Nebraska and Kansas biotypes (69% and 64%, respectively) than did resistance to the Montana biotype (42%), although the frequency of resistance was not significant. The differential reactions of accessions to the different wheat curl mite biotypes suggests that Ae. tauschii has at least five different genes for resistance to mite colonization. Ae. tauschii continues to be a very useful source for wheat curl mite resistance genes for bread wheat improvement. PMID:14503608

Malik, Renu; Smith, C Michael; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Harvey, Tom L; Gill, Bikram S

2003-08-01

19

Synteny perturbations between wheat homoeologous chromosomes caused by locus duplications and  

E-print Network

Synteny perturbations between wheat homoeologous chromosomes caused by locus duplications- gous chromosomes of the wheat A, B, and D genomes, in relation to both bin position on the centromere were lower than those between the A and D genome homoeologues. These differences among the wheat

Gill, Kulvinder

20

Genes encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase of the Triticum/Aegilops complex and the evolutionary history of polyploid wheat  

PubMed Central

The classic wheat evolutionary history is one of adaptive radiation of the diploid Triticum/Aegilops species (A, S, D), genome convergence and divergence of the tetraploid (Triticum turgidum AABB, and Triticum timopheevii AAGG) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) species. We analyzed Acc-1 (plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and Pgk-1 (plastid 3-phosphoglycerate kinase) genes to determine phylogenetic relationships among Triticum and Aegilops species of the wheat lineage and to establish the timeline of wheat evolution based on gene sequence comparisons. Triticum urartu was confirmed as the A genome donor of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. The A genome of polyploid wheat diverged from T. urartu less than half a million years ago (MYA), indicating a relatively recent origin of polyploid wheat. The D genome sequences of T. aestivum and Aegilops tauschii are identical, confirming that T. aestivum arose from hybridization of T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii only 8,000 years ago. The diploid Triticum and Aegilops progenitors of the A, B, D, G, and S genomes all radiated 2.5–4.5 MYA. Our data suggest that the Acc-1 and Pgk-1 loci have different histories in different lineages, indicating genome mosaicity and significant intraspecific differentiation. Some loci of the S genome of Aegilops speltoides and the G genome of T. timophevii are closely related, suggesting the same origin of some parts of their genomes. None of the Aegilops genomes analyzed is a close relative of the B genome, so the diploid progenitor of the B genome remains unknown. PMID:12060759

Huang, Shaoxing; Sirikhachornkit, Anchalee; Su, Xiujuan; Faris, Justin; Gill, Bikram; Haselkorn, Robert; Gornicki, Piotr

2002-01-01

21

The cuticular wax inhibitor locus Iw2 in wild diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii : phenotypic survey, genetic analysis, and implications for the evolution of common wheat.  

PubMed

BackgroundCuticular wax production on plant surfaces confers a glaucous appearance and plays important roles in plant stress tolerance. Most common wheat cultivars, which are hexaploid, and most tetraploid wheat cultivars are glaucous; in contrast, a wild wheat progenitor, Aegilops tauschii, can be glaucous or non-glaucous. A dominant non-glaucous allele, Iw2, resides on the short arm of chromosome 2D, which was inherited from Ae. tauschii through polyploidization. Iw2 is one of the major causal genes related to variation in glaucousness among hexaploid wheat. Detailed genetic and phylogeographic knowledge of the Iw2 locus in Ae. tauchii may provide important information and lead to a better understanding of the evolution of common wheat.ResultsGlaucous Ae. tauschii accessions were collected from a broad area ranging from Armenia to the southwestern coastal part of the Caspian Sea. Linkage analyses with five mapping populations showed that the glaucous versus non-glaucous difference was mainly controlled by the Iw2 locus in Ae. tauschii. Comparative genomic analysis of barley and Ae. tauschii was then used to develop molecular markers tightly linked with Ae. tauschii Iw2. Chromosomal synteny around the orthologous Iw2 regions indicated that some chromosomal rearrangement had occurred during the genetic divergence leading to Ae. tauschii, barley, and Brachypodium. Genetic associations between specific Iw2-linked markers and respective glaucous phenotypes in Ae. tauschii indicated that at least two non-glaucous accessions might carry other glaucousness-determining loci outside of the Iw2 locus.ConclusionAllelic differences at the Iw2 locus were the main contributors to the phenotypic difference between the glaucous and non-glaucous accessions of Ae. tauschii. Our results supported the previous assumption that the D-genome donor of common wheat could have been any Ae. tauschii variant that carried the recessive iw2 allele. PMID:25224598

Nishijima, Ryo; Iehisa, Julio C M; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo

2014-09-16

22

A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii)  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. Results A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo hybridization probes, agarose based fingerprints and 'high information content fingerprinting' (HICF). A total of 13,662 BAC-end sequences and 2,828 DNA probes were used in genetically anchoring 1585 contigs to a cotton consensus genetic map, and 370 and 438 contigs, respectively to Arabidopsis thaliana (AT) and Vitis vinifera (VV) whole genome sequences. Conclusion Several lines of evidence suggest that the G. raimondii genome is comprised of two qualitatively different components. Much of the gene rich component is aligned to the Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera genomes and shows promise for utilizing translational genomic approaches in understanding this important genome and its resident genes. The integrated genetic-physical map is of value both in assembling and validating a planned reference sequence. PMID:20569427

2010-01-01

23

Coverage and consistency: bioinformatics aspects of the analysis of multirun iTRAQ experiments with wheat leaves.  

PubMed

The hexaploid genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is large (17 Gb) and repetitive, and this has delayed full sequencing and annotation of the genome, which is a prerequisite for effective quantitative proteomics analysis. Aware of these constraints we investigated the most effective approaches for shotgun proteomic analyses of bread wheat that would support large-scale quantitative comparisons using iTRAQ reagents. We used a data set that was generated by two-dimensional LC-MS of iTRAQ labeled peptides from wheat leaves. The main items considered in this study were the choice of sequence database for matching LC-MS data, the consistency of identification when multiple LC-MS runs were acquired, and the options for downstream functional analysis to generate useful insight. For peptide identification we examined the extensive NCBInr plant database, a smaller composite cereals database, the Brachypodium distachyon model plant genome, the EST-based SuperWheat database, as well as the genome sequence from the recently sequenced D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii. While the most spectra were assigned by using the SuperWheat database, this extremely large database could not be readily manipulated for the robust protein grouping that is required for large-scale, multirun quantitative experiments. We demonstrated a pragmatic alternative of using the composite cereals database for peptide spectra matching. The stochastic aspect of protein grouping across LC-MS runs was investigated using the smaller composite cereals database where we found that attaching the Brachypodium best BLAST hit reduced this problem. Further, assigning quantitation to the best Brachypodium locus yielded promising results enabling integration with existing downstream data mining and functional analysis tools. Our study demonstrated viable approaches for quantitative proteomics analysis of bread wheat samples and shows how these approaches could be similarly adopted for analysis of other organisms with unsequenced or incompletely sequenced genomes. PMID:24015675

Pascovici, Dana; Gardiner, Donald M; Song, Xiaomin; Breen, Edmond; Solomon, Peter S; Keighley, Tim; Molloy, Mark P

2013-11-01

24

Genetic diversity of wild emmer wheat in Israel and Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme variation in the tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of all cultivated wheats, was studied for the proteins encoded by 42 gene loci in 1815 plants representing 37 populations - 33 from Israel and 4 from Turkey - sampled in 33 localities from 1979 to 1987. The results showed that: (a) 6 loci (14%) were monomorphic in

E. Nevo; A. Beiles

1989-01-01

25

Wheat Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... contain wheat. Wheat has been found in some brands of ice cream, marinara sauce, play dough, potato ... Camp List College Traveling Work For Employers Education & Awareness Education Working Group Annual Conference Speaker Proposals Webinars ...

26

Homoeolog-specific transcriptional bias in allopolyploid wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Interaction between parental genomes is accompanied by global changes in gene expression which, eventually, contributes to growth vigor and the broader phenotypic diversity of allopolyploid species. In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of allopolyploidization on the regulation of diverged gene networks, we performed a genome-wide analysis of homoeolog-specific gene expression in re-synthesized allohexaploid wheat created by the hybridization of a tetraploid derivative of hexaploid wheat with the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome Ae. tauschii. Results Affymetrix wheat genome arrays were used for both the discovery of divergent homoeolog-specific mutations and analysis of homoeolog-specific gene expression in re-synthesized allohexaploid wheat. More than 34,000 detectable parent-specific features (PSF) distributed across the wheat genome were used to assess AB genome (could not differentiate A and B genome contributions) and D genome parental expression in the allopolyploid transcriptome. In re-synthesized polyploid 81% of PSFs detected mid-parent levels of gene expression, and only 19% of PSFs showed the evidence of non-additive expression. Non-additive expression in both AB and D genomes was strongly biased toward up-regulation of parental type of gene expression with only 6% and 11% of genes, respectively, being down-regulated. Of all the non-additive gene expression, 84% can be explained by differences in the parental genotypes used to make the allopolyploid. Homoeolog-specific co-regulation of several functional gene categories was found, particularly genes involved in photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis in wheat. Conclusions Here, we have demonstrated that the establishment of interactions between the diverged regulatory networks in allopolyploids is accompanied by massive homoeolog-specific up- and down-regulation of gene expression. This study provides insights into interactions between homoeologous genomes and their role in growth vigor, development, and fertility of allopolyploid species. PMID:20849627

2010-01-01

27

A Species Cytoplasm Specific Gene in Euplasmic Durum Wheat Does Not Alter Field Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

vii cytoplasm with the T. turgidum nucleus, however, produced weak, sterile plants (Maan, 1992). The en- Wild related Triticum species have been and will be a useful reser- hanced NC compatibility found in hexaploid wheat was voir of genetic diversity for solving problems in the development of thought to be associated with the D-genome (Maan, 1992). improved durum (Triticum turgidum

Sarah B. Gehlhar; Kristin J. Simons; Elias M. Elias; Schivcharan S. Maan; Shahryar F. Kianian

28

A Reassessment of the Origin of the Polyploid Wheats  

PubMed Central

The diploid species that donated the A and D genomes to the polyploid wheats have been recognized for some time. New evidence indicates that Triticum speltoides cannot be the B genome donor to T. turgidum or T. aestivum. T. speltoides is probably homologous to the G genome of T. timopheevii. The donor of the B genome to T. turgidum and T. aestivum is currently unrecognized. PMID:17248665

Kimber, Gordon

1974-01-01

29

Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat.  

PubMed

The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D genome through homoploid hybrid speciation 1 to 2 million years later. Our findings imply that the present-day bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid speciation (homoploid and polyploid) and lay the foundation for a new framework for understanding the wheat genome as a multilevel phylogenetic mosaic. PMID:25035499

Marcussen, Thomas; Sandve, Simen R; Heier, Lise; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Wulff, Brande B H; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

2014-07-18

30

Wheat Newsletter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

31

Metaphase-I bound-arm frequency and genome analysis in wheat-Aegilops hybrids. 2. Cytogenetical evidence for excluding Ae. Sharonensis as the donor of the B genome of polyploid wheats.  

PubMed

Genome affinities were analyzed at meiosis in C-banded metaphase-I cells of wheat x Ae. Sharonensis hybrid plants. The results showed that the most frequent type of pairing occurred between chromosomes of the A and D genomes in all plants, as well as in cells with different numbers of associations. These findings clearly indicated that Ae. Sharonensis can be excluded as the donor of the B genome of wheat. PMID:24195933

Fernández-Calvin, B; Orellana, J

1993-01-01

32

Agricultural Genotyping RAPiD Genomics is a DNA genotyping and genetic data analysis company providing tools for  

E-print Network

Agricultural Genotyping RAPiD Genomics is a DNA genotyping and genetic data analysis company or animal even before the seed germinates or the animal is born. The system developed by RAPiD Genomics in parallel, at a cost of several hundred dollars per sample. RAPiD Genomics has short- ened this process

Jawitz, James W.

33

The Major Threshability Genes Soft Glume (sog) and Tenacious Glume (Tg), of Diploid and Polyploid Wheat, Trace Their Origin to Independent Mutations at Non-Orthologous Loci  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Threshability is an important crop domestication trait. The wild wheat progenitors have tough glumes enveloping the floret that make spikes difficult to thresh, whereas cultivated wheats have soft glumes and are free-threshing. In hexaploid wheat, the glume tenacity gene Tg along with the major dome...

34

The Major Threshability Genes Soft Glume (sog) and Tenacious Glume (Tg), of Diploid and Polyploid Wheat, Trace Their Origin to Independent Mutations at Non-Orthogous Loci  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Threshability is an important crop domestication trait. The wild wheat progenitors have tough glumes enveloping the floret that make spikes difficult to thresh, whereas cultivated wheats have soft glumes and are free-threshing. In hexaploid wheat, the glume tenacity gene Tg along with the major dome...

35

Development of high amylose wheat through TILLING  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an important source of food worldwide and the focus of considerable efforts to identify new combinations of genetic diversity for crop improvement. In particular, wheat starch composition is a major target for changes that could benefit human health. Starches with increased levels of amylose are of interest because of the correlation between higher amylose content and elevated levels of resistant starch, which has been shown to have beneficial effects on health for combating obesity and diabetes. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) is a means to identify novel genetic variation without the need for direct selection of phenotypes. Results Using TILLING to identify novel genetic variation in each of the A and B genomes in tetraploid durum wheat and the A, B and D genomes in hexaploid bread wheat, we have identified mutations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in starch branching enzyme IIa genes (SBEIIa). Combining these new alleles of SBEIIa through breeding resulted in the development of high amylose durum and bread wheat varieties containing 47-55% amylose and having elevated resistant starch levels compared to wild-type wheat. High amylose lines also had reduced expression of SBEIIa RNA, changes in starch granule morphology and altered starch granule protein profiles as evaluated by mass spectrometry. Conclusions We report the use of TILLING to develop new traits in crops with complex genomes without the use of transgenic modifications. Combined mutations in SBEIIa in durum and bread wheat varieties resulted in lines with significantly increased amylose and resistant starch contents. PMID:22584013

2012-01-01

36

Quanah Wheat.  

E-print Network

.* , . + , "r-,."* $,' . - .-A$ . -. EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMEE~T STATION r R. D. Mjtector. Wege Station, Texas % Au!ui& 734 Ahq 1951 QUANAH WHEAT I. M. ATKINS Digest This bulletin reports the development and characteristics of Quanah, a... new disease-resistant hard red winter wheat of excellent quality, which is now available to Texas farmers. This new variety was developed in the cooperative small grain improvement program of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station...

Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1951-01-01

37

Wheat: The Whole Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

38

Rapid linkage disequilibrium decay in the Lr10 gene in wild emmer wheat ( Triticum dicoccoides ) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Recombination is a key evolutionary factor enhancing diversity. However, the effect of recombination on diversity in inbreeding\\u000a species is expected to be low. To estimate this effect, recombination and diversity patterns of Lr10 gene were studied in natural populations of the inbreeder species, wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides). Wild emmer wheat is the progenitor of most cultivated wheats and it

Hanan Sela; Caroline Loutre; Beat Keller; Alan Schulman; Eviatar Nevo; Abraham Korol; Tzion Fahima

2011-01-01

39

Spring Wheat Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat (various species of the genus Triticum) is a grass originating from the Levant area of the Middle East. However, only hexaploid common wheat (Triticum eastivum), and tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) are presently cultivated worldwide. Not only is wheat an important crop today, it may well have influenced human history.\\u000a Wheat was a key factor enabling the

M. Mergoum; P. K. Singh; J. A. Anderson; R. J. Peña; R. P. Singh; S. S. Xu; J. K. Ransom

40

GENES ENCODING PLASTID ACETYL-COA CARBOXYLASE AND 3-PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE OF THE TRITICUM/AEGILOPS COMPLEX AND THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF POLYPLOID WHEAT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The classic wheat evolutionary history is one of adaptive radiation of the diploid Triticum/Aegilops species (A, S, D) , genome convergence and divergence of the tetraploid (T. turgidum AABB, and T. timopheevii AAAGG) and hexaploid (T. aestivum, AABBDD) species. The objective of this study was to a...

41

Structural organization of the barley D-hordein locus in comparison with its orthologous regions of wheat genomes.  

PubMed

D hordein, a prolamin storage protein of barley endosperms, is highly homologous to the high molecular weight (HWM) glutenin subunits, which are the major determinants of bread-making quality in wheat flour. In hexaploid wheat (AABBDD), each genome contains two paralogous copies of HMW-glutenin genes that encode the x- and y-type HMW-glutenin subunits. Previously, we reported the sequence analysis of a 102-kb genomic region that contains the HMW-glutenin locus of the D genome from Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat. Here, we present the sequence analysis of a 120-kb D-hordein region of the barley genome, a more distantly related member of the Triticeae grass tribe. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that gene content and order are generally conserved. Genes included in both of these orthologous regions are arranged in the following order: a Xa21-like receptor kinase, an endosperm globulin, an HMW prolamin, and a serine (threonine) protein kinase. However, in the wheat D genome, a region containing both the globulin and HMW-glutenin gene was duplicated, indicating that this duplication event occurred after the separation of the wheat and barley genomes. The intergenic regions are divergent with regard to the sequence and structural organization. It was found that different types of retroelements are responsible for the intergenic structure divergence in the wheat and barley genomes. In the barley region, we identified 16 long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in three distinct nested clusters. These retroelements account for 63% of the contig sequence. In addition, barley D hordein was compared with wheat HMW glutenins in terms of cysteine residue conservation and repeat domain organization. PMID:14663527

Gu, Yong Qiang; Anderson, Olin D; Londeorë, Cynthia F; Kong, Xiuying; Chibbar, Ravindra N; Lazo, Gerard R

2003-12-01

42

Winter and Specialty Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two main commercial types of wheat are durum (Triticum durum L., 2n=4x= 28) and common (T. aestivum L, 2n=6x=42.) wheat, the latter being the more widely grown. Wheat has three growth habits, namely winter (wheats grown over the winter months that require vernalization and can withstand prolong...

43

Progenitors of white dwarfs  

SciTech Connect

Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs.

Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

1985-01-01

44

Stripe rust analysis of D-genome synthetic wheats (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) and their molecular diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stripe or yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is a threat to many of the existing cultivars of Pakistan. Many attempts are being made to evolve new varieties resistant to stripe rust to reduce the losses caused by this disease. For this purpose, novel genes are needed to incorporate into the existing cultivars. These genes are found

Mian Abdur Rahman Arif; Hadi Bux; Alvina Gul Kazi; Awais Rasheed; Abdul Aziz Napar; Abid Riaz; Abdul Mujeeb-Kazi

2012-01-01

45

Wheat grass selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

Richard Wang (USDA;ARS)

2006-09-25

46

Wheat: Science and Trade  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

47

Wheat Stripe Rust  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a chapter on wheat stripe rust in a book entitled “Wheat: Science and Trade”. The chapter provides an overview on various aspects of wheat stripe rust and control, including distribution and epidemiology; origin and historical importance; taxonomy, lifecycle, and host range; genetic variati...

48

Genetic analysis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication  

PubMed Central

Wheat is undoubtedly one of the world's major food sources since the dawn of Near Eastern agriculture and up to the present day. Morphological, physiological, and genetic modifications involved in domestication and subsequent evolution under domestication were investigated in a tetraploid recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between durum wheat and its immediate progenitor wild emmer wheat. Experimental data were used to test previous assumptions regarding a protracted domestication process. The brittle rachis (Br) spike, thought to be a primary characteristic of domestication, was mapped to chromosome 2A as a single gene, suggesting, in light of previously reported Br loci (homoeologous group 3), a complex genetic model involved in spike brittleness. Twenty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring threshability and yield components (kernel size and number of kernels per spike) were mapped. The large number of QTLs detected in this and other studies suggests that following domestication, wheat evolutionary processes involved many genomic changes. The Br gene did not show either genetic (co-localization with QTLs) or phenotypic association with threshability or yield components, suggesting independence of the respective loci. It is argued here that changes in spike threshability and agronomic traits (e.g. yield and its components) are the outcome of plant evolution under domestication, rather than the result of a protracted domestication process. Revealing the genomic basis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication, and clarifying their inter-relationships, will improve our understanding of wheat biology and contribute to further crop improvement. PMID:21778183

Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B.; Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua

2011-01-01

49

Genetic control over silica deposition in wheat awns.  

PubMed

Awns are long, stiff filamentous extensions of glumes in many grasses. In wheat, awns contribute up to 40% of the grain's photosynthetic assimilates, and assist in seed dispersal. Awns accumulate silica in epidermal hairs and papillae, and silica has been positively associated with yield and environmental stress tolerance. Here, the awns of a set of domesticated wheat genotypes and their direct progenitor, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides were characterized. In addition, the silica concentration in awns was genetically dissected in a tetraploid wheat population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between durum wheat (cv. Langdon) and wild emmer (accession G18-16). Scanning electron micrographs revealed a continuous silica layer under the cuticle. Extended silicification was identified in the epidermis cell wall and in sclerenchyma cells near the vascular bundles, but not in the stomata, suggesting that an active process directs the soluble silica away from the water evaporation stream. The number of silicified cells was linearly correlated to silica concentration in dry weight (DW), suggesting cellular control over silicification. Domesticated wheat awns contained up to 19% silica per DW, as compared with 7% in the wild accessions, suggesting selection pressure associated with the domestication process. Six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for silica were identified in the awns, with a LOD score of 3.7-6.3, three of which overlapped genomic regions that contribute to high grain protein. Localization of silica in the awns and identification of QTLs help illuminate mechanisms associated with silica metabolism in wheat. PMID:20444192

Peleg, Zvi; Saranga, Yehoshua; Fahima, Tzion; Aharoni, Asaph; Elbaum, Rivka

2010-09-01

50

of wheat. Socrates Overview  

E-print Network

Canada, the company publicly pledged that it would not commercially release the world’s first strain of genetically engineered wheat until several conditions were met. First, Monsanto pledged to gain market acceptance for genetically engineered wheat by convincing major international wheat buyers to agree to purchase it. Second, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada would have to approve Monsanto’s genetically engineered wheat simultaneously, so as not to give one country a market advantage over the other. Third, Monsanto pledged to work with the wheat industry and the regulatory agencies to establish “appropriate ” contami-150 Hard Red Spring Wheat 151 nation thresholds. 1 And finally, Monsanto committed to work with the wheat industry and the regulatory agencies to resolve unanswered questions about the costs of segregation and to address outstanding agronomic stewardship concerns (Monsanto Canada 2003). By March of 2004 Monsanto had failed to meet virtually all these self-imposed conditions, but

R. Dennis Olson

51

Production and identification of wheat-Agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines.  

PubMed

The narrow genetic background of wheat is the primary factor that has restricted the improvement of crop yield in recent years. The kernel number per spike is the most important factor of the many potential characteristics that determine wheat yield. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, has the characteristics of superior numbers of florets and kernels per spike, which are controlled by chromosome 6P. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and substitution lines were used as bridge materials to produce wheat-A. cristatum 6P translocation lines induced by gametocidal chromosomes and irradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that the frequency of translocation induced by gametocidal chromosomes was 5.08%, which was higher than the frequency of irradiated hybrids (2.78%) and irradiated pollen (2.12%). The fluorescence in situ hybridization results of the translocation lines showed that A. cristatum chromosome 6P could be translocated to wheat ABD genome, and the recombination frequency was A genome > B genome > D genome. The alien A. cristatum chromosome 6P was translocated to wheat homoeologous groups 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6. We obtained abundant translocation lines that possessed whole-arm, terminal, segmental and intercalary translocations. Three 6PS-specific and four 6PL-specific markers will be useful to rapidly identify and trace the translocated fragments. The different wheat-A. cristatum 6P translocation lines obtained in this study can provide basic materials for analyzing the alien genes carried by chromosome 6P. The translocation line WAT33-1-3 and introgression lines WAI37-2 and WAI41-1, which had significant characteristics of multikernel (high numbers of kernels per spike), could be utilized as novel germplasms for high-yield wheat breeding. PMID:20490543

Luan, Yang; Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Weihua; Li, Chunye; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Wang, Yandong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Lihui

2010-07-01

52

Cash Wheat in a Wheat-Ryegrass Grazing System.  

E-print Network

~-~ash Wheat ? Ina B~1452 November 1983 t Wheat--Ryegrass Grazing System ~ THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION / Neville P. Clarke, Director / The Texas A&M University System / College Station, 'l"exas SUMMARY Wheat is an important...

Nelson, L.R.; Rouquette, F.M. Jr.; Randel, R.D.

1983-01-01

53

Characterization of HMW-GS and evaluation of their diversity in morphologically elite synthetic hexaploid wheats  

PubMed Central

High molecular weight glutenin subunit composition and variation in 95 Elite-1 synthetic hexaploid (SH) wheats (Triticum turgidum/Aegilops tauschii; 2n = 6× = 42; AABBDD) were determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method (SDS-PAGE). Twenty two different alleles at Glu-1 loci in SHs were observed. Forty four different patterns of HMW-GS in synthetics were found. This higher HMW glutenin composition was due to higher proportion of D-genome encoded subunits in these SHs. 8% urea/SDS-PAGE better discriminated subunit 2* than 12% gels. However 12% urea/SDS-PAGE allowed differentiated mobility of Glu-Dt1 subunits. Genetic variability at Glu-Dt1 locus was greater than Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 loci. The relative high frequency of superior alleles, Glu-B1b and Glu-Dt1d indicated the superior bread making quality attributes embedded in these synthetic hexaploid wheats. Of the 95 Elite-1 SHs 27.1% possessed superior alleles at Glu-A1 and 51% had superior alleles at Glu-B1 locus. At Glu-Dt1 frequency of inferior allele 1Dx2 + 1Dy12 was very low (5.26%) and nine different rare alleles along with the higher frequency (22.1%) of D-genome encoded subunit, 1Dx5 + 1Dy10, were observed. These superior alleles shall form the priority selective sieve for their usage in wheat improvement efforts. PMID:23341752

Rasheed, Awais; Safdar, Tania; Gul-Kazi, Alvina; Mahmood, Tariq; Akram, Zahid; Mujeeb-Kazi, Abdul

2012-01-01

54

Short, natural, and extended photoperiod response in BC2F4 lines of bread wheat with different photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) alleles.  

PubMed

Flowering is a critical period in the life cycle of flowering plant species, resulting in an irreversible commitment of significant resources. Wheat is photoperiod sensitive, flowering only when daylength surpasses a critical length; however, photoperiod insensitivity (PI) has been selected by plant breeders for >40 years to enhance yield in certain environments. Control of flowering time has been greatly facilitated by the development of molecular markers for the Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) homeoloci, on the group 2 chromosomes. In the current study, an allelic series of BC2F4 lines in the winter wheat cultivars 'Robigus' and 'Alchemy' was developed to elucidate the influence on flowering of eight gene variants from the B- and D-genomes of bread wheat and the A-genome of durum wheat. Allele effects were tested in short, natural, and extended photoperiods in the field and controlled environments. Across genetic background and treatment, the D-genome PI allele, Ppd-D1a, had a more potent effect on reducing flowering time than Ppd-B1a. However, there was significant donor allele effect for both Ppd-D1a and Ppd-B1a, suggesting the presence of linked modifier genes and/or additional sources of latent sensitivity. Development of Ppd-A1a BC2F4 lines derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat provided an opportunity to compare directly the flowering time effect of the A-genome allele from durum with the B- and D-genome variants from bread wheat for the first time. Analyses indicated that the reducing effect of Ppd-A1a is comparable with that of Ppd-D1a, confirming it as a useful alternative source of PI. PMID:23420880

Bentley, A R; Horsnell, R; Werner, C P; Turner, A S; Rose, G A; Bedard, C; Howell, P; Wilhelm, E P; Mackay, I J; Howells, R M; Greenland, A; Laurie, D A; Gosman, N

2013-04-01

55

High level of conservation between genes coding for the GAMYB transcription factor in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) and bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor GAMYB is involved in gibberellin signalling in cereal aleurone cells and in plant developmental processes.\\u000a Nucleotide diversity of HvGAMYB and TaGAMYB was investigated in 155 barley (Hordeum vulgare) and 42 wheat (Triticum aestivum) accessions, respectively. Polymorphisms defined 18 haplotypes in the barley collection and 1, 7 and 3 haplotypes for the\\u000a A, B, and D genomes of

Grit Haseneyer; Catherine Ravel; Mireille Dardevet; François Balfourier; Pierre Sourdille; Gilles Charmet; Dominique Brunel; Sascha Sauer; Hartwig H. Geiger; Andreas Graner; Silke Stracke

2008-01-01

56

Wheat Evolution: Dough Washing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 5), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by washing different types of dough with water and comparing the results. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

2012-01-01

57

Wheat Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

grain or forage varieties and the development of short stat- ure, strong-strawed varieties for growing under irrigation and high fertility conditions. RECOMMENDED AND ACCEPTABLE WHEAT VARIETIES BY AREAS Area Recommended Acceptable 1 Tascosa Comanche.... wheat are different from those used in dryland production. The land usually is plowed with a disc or moldboard plow and the straw is turned under. Weeds and volunteer wheat are controlled with the usual implements. In many cases the land may...

Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Lahr, Keith; Merkle, Owen G.; Futrell, M. C.

1960-01-01

58

The origin of the B-genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

Understanding the origin of cultivated wheats would further their genetic improvement. The hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) is believed to have originated through one or more rare hybridization events between Aegilops tauschii (DD) and the tetraploid T. turgidum (AABB). Progenitor of the A-genome of the tetraploid and hexaploid wheats has generally been accepted to be T. urartu. In spite of the large number of attempts and published reports about the origin of the B-genome in cultivated wheats, the donor of the B-genome is still relatively unknown and controversial and, hence, remains open. This genome has been found to be closely related to the S-genome of the Sitopsis section (Ae. speltoides, Ae. longissima, Ae. sharonensis, Ae. searsii, and Ae. bicornis) of the genus Aegilops L. Among Sitopsis species, the most positive evidence has been accumulated for Ae. speltoides as the progenitor of the B-genome. Therefore, one or more of the Sitopsis species were proposed frequently as the B-genome donor. Although several reviews have been written on the origin of the genomes of wheat over the years, this paper will attempt for the first time to review the immense literature on the subject, with a particular emphasis on the B-genome which has attracted a huge attention over some 100 years. The ambiguity and conflicting results in most of the methods employed in deducing the precise B-genome donor/s to bread wheat are also discussed. PMID:23755530

Haider, N

2013-03-01

59

Molecular and cytological analysis of a novel leaf rust resistance gene in wheat  

E-print Network

cylindrica (2n=4x, CCDD) accession TTCC295, collected by Drs. David Narshall and Lloyd Nelson of Texas A&M University in a plant collect. ing expedition to Turkey in 1991. The original accession was crossed with the adapted parent TAN 300, which has... species might lead to the supposition that they are different genes, but this is far from a foregone conclusion. Since both Ae. cylindrica and common wheat share the D genome from a common ancestor, identical genes in both these species would suggest...

Franks, Cleve Douglas

2012-06-07

60

Types and Rates of Sequence Evolution at the High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Locus in Hexaploid Wheat and Its Ancestral Genomes  

PubMed Central

The Glu-1 locus, encoding the high-molecular-weight glutenin protein subunits, controls bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and represents a recently evolved region unique to Triticeae genomes. To understand the molecular evolution of this locus region, three orthologous Glu-1 regions from the three subgenomes of a single hexaploid wheat species were sequenced, totaling 729 kb of sequence. Comparing each Glu-1 region with its corresponding homologous region from the D genome of diploid wheat, Aegilops tauschii, and the A and B genomes of tetraploid wheat, Triticum turgidum, revealed that, in addition to the conservation of microsynteny in the genic regions, sequences in the intergenic regions, composed of blocks of nested retroelements, are also generally conserved, although a few nonshared retroelements that differentiate the homologous Glu-1 regions were detected in each pair of the A and D genomes. Analysis of the indel frequency and the rate of nucleotide substitution, which represent the most frequent types of sequence changes in the Glu-1 regions, demonstrated that the two A genomes are significantly more divergent than the two B genomes, further supporting the hypothesis that hexaploid wheat may have more than one tetraploid ancestor. PMID:17028342

Gu, Yong Qiang; Salse, Jérôme; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Dupin, Adeline; Crossman, Curt; Lazo, Gerard R.; Huo, Naxin; Belcram, Harry; Ravel, Catherine; Charmet, Gilles; Charles, Mathieu; Anderson, Olin D.; Chalhoub, Boulos

2006-01-01

61

Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum) from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA) SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST) at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM). Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and among populations. The higher extent of LD in the wheat D-genome versus the A- and B-genomes likely reflects the episodes of recent introgression and population bottleneck accompanying the origin of hexaploid wheat. The assessment of LD and population structure in this assembled panel of diverse lines provides critical information for the development of genetic resources for genome-wide association mapping of agronomically important traits in wheat. PMID:21190581

2010-01-01

62

Architectural proteins: regulators of 3D genome organization in cell fate.  

PubMed

The relation between alterations in chromatin structure and changes in gene expression during cell differentiation has served as a paradigm to understand the link between genome organization and function. Yet, the factors involved and the mechanisms by which the 3D organization of the nucleus is established remain poorly understood. The use of Chromosome Conformation-Capture (3C)-based approaches has resulted in a new appreciation of the role of architectural proteins in the establishment of 3D genome organization. Architectural proteins orchestrate higher-order chromatin organization through the establishment of interactions between regulatory elements across multiple spatial scales. The regulation of these proteins, their interaction with DNA, and their co-occurrence in the genome, may be responsible for the plasticity of 3D chromatin architecture that dictates cell and time-specific blueprints of gene expression. PMID:25218583

Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Corces, Victor G

2014-11-01

63

Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat.  

PubMed

Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ever evolving pathogens. The germplasm of nonprogenitor Aegilops species with substantial amount of variability has been exploited to a limited extent. In the present investigation introgression, inheritance and molecular mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene of Ae. caudata (CC) acc. pau3556 in cultivated wheat were undertaken. An F(2) population derived from the cross of Triticum aestivum cv. WL711 - Ae. caudata introgression line T291-2 with wheat cultivar PBW343 segregated for a single dominant leaf rust resistance gene at the seedling and adult plant stages. Progeny testing in F(3) confirmed the introgression of a single gene for leaf rust resistance. Bulked segregant analysis using polymorphic D-genome-specific SSR markers and the cosegregation of the 5DS anchored markers (Xcfd18, Xcfd78, Xfd81 and Xcfd189) with the rust resistance in the F(2) population mapped the leaf rust resistance gene (LrAC) on the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D. Genetic complementation and the linked molecular markers revealed that LrAC is a novel homoeoallele of an orthologue Lr57 already introgressed from the 5M chromosome of Ae. geniculata on 5DS of wheat. PMID:22942085

Riar, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Satinder; Dhaliwal, H S; Singh, Kuldeep; Chhuneja, Parveen

2012-08-01

64

Functional characterisation of wheat Pgip genes reveals their involvement in the local response to wounding.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genome AABBDD) genome contains one Pgip gene per genome. Tapgip1 (B genome) and Tapgip2 (D genome) are expressed in all tissues, whereas Tapgip3 (A genome) is inactive because of a long terminal repeat, Copia retrotransposon insertion within the coding region. To verify whether Tapgip1 and Tapgip2 encode active PGIPs and are involved in the wheat defence response, we expressed them transiently and analysed their expression under stress conditions. Neither TaPGIP1 nor TaPGIP2 showed inhibition activity in vitro against fungal polygalacturonases. Moreover, a wheat genotype (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) lacking active homologues of Tapgip1 or Tapgip2 possesses PGIP activity. At transcript level, Tapgip1 and Tapgip2 were both up-regulated after fungal infection and strongly induced following wounding. This latter result has been confirmed in transgenic wheat plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under control of the 5'-flanking region of Tdpgip1, a homologue of Tapgip1 with an identical sequence. Strong and transient GUS staining was mainly restricted to the damaged tissues and was not observed in adjacent tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that Tapgips and their homologues are involved in the wheat defence response by acting at the site of the lesion caused by pathogen infection. PMID:23574379

Janni, M; Bozzini, T; Moscetti, I; Volpi, C; D'Ovidio, R

2013-11-01

65

Wheat: Science and Trade  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

66

Agrometeorology and Wheat Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

67

Registration of 'Ripper' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

68

Registration of ‘Kelse’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hard red spring (HRS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain must have high grain protein concentration (GPC) to maximize market value. The objective of this research was to develop a HRS wheat cultivar with high GPC and durable resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici), a ...

69

REGISTRATION OF 'MCCORMICK' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘McCormick’ (Reg. no. CV-959, PI 632691) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed and released May 2002 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. McCormick wheat was named in tribute of Robert Hall of Walnut Grove in Rockbridge County, VA, and his sons, including Cyrus Hal...

70

REGISTRATION OF 'TRIBUTE' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Tribute’ (Reg. no. CV-958, PI 632689) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed and released May 2002 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Tribute is broadly adapted and has performed well over most of the soft red winter wheat production regions in the U.S.A. and Can...

71

Reconciliation of D-genome puroindoline allele designations with current DNA sequence data.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Kernel texture is an important trait in cereals, especially wheat (Triticum sp.). Throughout the Triticeae, the puroindoline genes act to soften kernel endosperm. Absence or mutation of either or both of the two puroindolines, ‘a’ and ‘b’, in T. aestivum results in harder grain texture. Apparent...

72

Whole Wheat Pizza Dough Ingredients  

E-print Network

Whole Wheat Pizza Dough Ingredients: 1 cup flour, white, for breads 1 cup whole wheat flour 1. Blend yeast with flour mixture. Add hot water; stir to form dough. 3. Add enough whole wheat flour whole wheat flour on the kneading surface; turn out dough onto floured surface; knead to form stiff

Liskiewicz, Maciej

73

Neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivation of neural progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (ES) cells is of value both in the study of early human neurogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for neural transplantation therapy. Here we report the generation of enriched and expandable preparations of proliferating neural progenitors from human ES cells. The neural progenitors could

Pavel Itsykson; Tikva Turetsky; Martin F. Pera; Etti Reinhartz; Anna Itzik; Tamir Ben-Hur; Benjamin E. Reubinoff

2001-01-01

74

Wheat Evolution: Dough Rising  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.6-7 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by creating dough from different flours, observing the samples of dough as they rise, and then baking the dough. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

2012-01-01

75

Wheat Evolution: Sedimentation Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.8-9 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by conducting sedimentation tests on different flours. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant. Note: Sedimentation test can also be done using SDS detergent and lactic acid instead of soap and vinegar.

Council, Biotechnology A.

2012-01-01

76

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

E-337 1/05 Gaylon Morgan, State Extension Small Grains Specialist, College Station, TX Carl Patrick, Extension Entomologist, Amarillo, TX Karl Steddom and Charlie Rush, Plant Pathologists, Amarillo, TX W Overview of WSMV and HPV Wheat Streak Mosaic...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

77

Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat  

PubMed Central

Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K+ Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na+ retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na+ removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat. PMID:25074914

Yang, Chunwu; Zhao, Long; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Zongze; Wang, Huan; Wen, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunyu; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

2014-01-01

78

Durum Wheat Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter summarizes the scientific and technical knowledge for durum wheat breeding, giving some examples of the methods\\u000a applied in national programs. Section 1 refers to the importance of durum wheat in the world. Sections 2 and 3 give technical\\u000a details on genetic diversity and the choice of germplasm, while the main varietal groups are explained in Section 4. Information

Conxita Royo; Elias M. Elias; Frank A. Manthey

79

Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Vasculogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Postnatal vasculogenesis is considered to be involved in neovascularization of adult tissues, because bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were isolated from circulating mononuclear cells in peripheral blood and were shown to incorporate into sites of physiological and pathological neovascularization and to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. EPCs might have an attractive potential therapeutic application for cardiovascular ischemic diseases as a novel cell-based strategy mainly via a vasculogenesis mechanism.

Satoshi Murasawa (Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation/RIKEN Department of Regenerative Medicine and Research); Takayuki Asahara (Tokai University School of Medicine Department of Regenerative Medicine Science)

2005-02-01

80

Progenitors of Recombining Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

Moriya, Takashi J.

2012-05-01

81

PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

2012-05-01

82

NADP-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase in polyploid wheats and their diploid relatives. On the origin and phylogeny of polyploid wheats.  

PubMed

The three major isoenzymes of the NADP-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-B), distinguished in polyploid wheats by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, are shown to be coded by homoeoalleles of the locus Adh-2 on short arms of chromosomes of the fifth homoeologous group. Essentially codominant expression of the Adh-2 homoeolleles of composite genomes was observed in young seedlings of hexaploid wheats (T. aestivum s.l.) and tetraploid wheats of the emmer group (T. turgidum s.l.), whereas only the isoenzyme characteristic of the A genome is present in the seedlings of the timopheevii-group tetraploids (T. timopheevii s.str. and T. araraticum).The slowest-moving B(3) isoenzyme of polyploid wheats, coded by the homoeoallele of the B genome, is characteristic of the diploid species Aegilops speltoides S.l., including both its awned and awnless forms, but was not encountered in Ae. bicornis, Ae. sharonensis and Ae. longissima. The last two diploids, as well as Ae. tauschii, Ae. caudata, Triticum monococcum s.str., T. boeoticum s.l. (incl. T. thaoudar) and T. urartu all shared a common isoenzyme coinciding electrophoretically with the band B(2) controlled by the A and D genome homoeoalleles in polyploid wheats. Ae. bicomis is characterized by the slowest isoenzyme, B(4), not found in wheats and in the other diploid Aegilops species studied.Two electrophoretic variants of ADH-B, B(1) and B(2), considered to be alloenzymes of the A genome homoeoallele, were observed in T. dicoccoides, T. dicoccon, T. turgidum. s.str. and T. spelta, whereas B(2) was characteristic of T. timopheevii s.l. and only B(1) was found in the remaining taxa of polyploid wheats. The isoenzyme B(1), not encountered among diploid species, is considered to be a mutational derivative which arose on the tetraploid level from its more ancestral form B(2) characteristic of diploid wheats.The implication of the ADH-B isoenzyme data to the problems of wheat phylogeny and gene evolution is discussed. PMID:24309759

Jaaska, V

1978-09-01

83

Insects which challenge global wheat production: Russian wheat aphid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The book chapter on Russian wheat aphid, (Diuraphis noxia (Mord.)), is one of several that addresses significant pests in the book entitled, Wheat Science and Trade. The chapter gives a detailed account of the history of the Russian wheat aphid as global pest, and its biology, ecology and managemen...

84

Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops  

PubMed Central

Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat. PMID:24600464

Borrill, Philippa; Connorton, James M.; Balk, Janneke; Miller, Anthony J.; Sanders, Dale; Uauy, Cristobal

2014-01-01

85

Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients  

E-print Network

Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 1 cup strawberries, chopped 2 wheat flour 1/2 cup brown sugar, packed 1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda Directions 1. Heat oven to 400º bowl mix together whole wheat flour, brown sugar and baking soda. Mix well. 5. Add strawberry mixture

Liskiewicz, Maciej

86

Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

87

Identification and validation of a major quantitative trait locus for slow-rusting resistance to stripe rust in wheat.  

PubMed

Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks (Pst), is one of the most important wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) diseases and causes significant yield losses. A recombinant inbred (RI) population derived from a cross between Yanzhan 1 and Xichang 76-9 cultivars was evaluated for resistance to wheat stripe rust strain CYR32 at both the seedling and adult plant stages. Four resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in this population, in which the major one, designated as Yrq1, was mapped on chromosome 2DS. The strategy of using the Brachypodium distachyon genome, wheat expressed sequence tags and a draft DNA sequences (scaffolds) of the D-genome (Aegilops tauschii Coss.) for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was successfully used to identify 147 SSRs in hexaploid wheat. Of the 19 polymorphic SSRs in the RI population, 17 SSRs were mapped in the homeologous group 2 chromosomes near Yrq1 region and eight SSRs were genetically mapped in the 2.7 cM region of Yrq1, providing abundant DNA markers for fine-mapping of Yrq1 and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding program. The effectiveness of Yrq1 was validated in an independent population, indicating that this resistance QTL can be successfully transferred into a susceptible cultivar for improvement of stripe rust resistance. PMID:22349012

Cao, Xiaohua; Zhou, Jianghong; Gong, Xiaoping; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; Qi, Xiaoquan

2012-05-01

88

Endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in the maintenance of endothelial homoeostasis and in the process of new vessel formation. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that atherosclerosis is associated with reduced numbers and dysfunction of EPCs; and that medications alone are able to partially reverse the impairment of EPCs in patients with atherosclerosis. Therefore, novel EPC-based therapies may provide enhancement in restoring EPCs’ population and improvement of vascular function. Here, for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis, we provide a comprehensive overview on EPC characteristics, phenotypes, and the signaling pathways underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis. PMID:22652782

Du, Fuyong; Zhou, Jun; Gong, Ren; Huang, Xiao; Pansuria, Meghana; Virtue, Anthony; Li, Xinyuan; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

2012-01-01

89

Genetic relationships of D-genome species based on two types of EST-SSR markers derived from G. arboreum and G. raimondii in Gossypium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tetraploid cotton species, which includes two commercially important species, Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L., were synthesized by A and D compound genomes. There are two A-genome species and 13 D-genome species in Gossypium. The A-genome species are distributed throughout Africa and Asia, and the D-genome species occur primarily in Mexico, but also in Peru, the Galapagos Islands

W. Z. Guo; Z. Q. Sang; B. L. Zhou; T. Z. Zhang

2007-01-01

90

Inheritance of Russian wheat aphid resistance from tetraploid wheat accessions during transfer to hexaploid wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of new sources of resistance to Russian wheat aphid (RWA) (Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has become very important with the identification of several new biotypes since 2003. Our objective was to characterize\\u000a inheritance and expression of resistance to RWA biotype 2 from three tetraploid wheat landraces (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. dicoccon) during transfer to hexaploid

Benjamin M. Beyer; Scott D. Haley; Nora L. V. Lapitan; Junhua H. Peng; Frank B. Peairs

2011-01-01

91

A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability. PMID:23134614

2012-01-01

92

Biolistics Transformation of Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

93

Neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivation of neural progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (ES) cells is of value both in the study of early human neurogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for neural transplantation therapy. Here we report the generation of enriched and expandable preparations of proliferating neural prog- enitors from human ES cells. The neural progenitors

Benjamin E. Reubinoff; Pavel Itsykson; Tikva Turetsky; Martin F. Pera; Etti Reinhartz; Anna Itzik; Tamir Ben-Hur

2000-01-01

94

RESEARCH ARTICLE Implanted Neural Progenitor Cells Regulate  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Implanted Neural Progenitor Cells Regulate Glial Reaction to Brain Injury, David Macias, Victoria Galvez, and Angel M. Pastor Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) in the lesioned brain is able to restore morphological and physiological alterations induced by different injuries

Newman, Eric A.

95

Haplotype Variation of Glu-D1 Locus and the Origin of Glu-D1d Allele Conferring Superior End-Use Qualities in Common Wheat  

PubMed Central

In higher plants, seed storage proteins (SSPs) are frequently expressed from complex gene families, and allelic variation of SSP genes often affects the quality traits of crops. In common wheat, the Glu-D1 locus, encoding 1Dx and 1Dy SSPs, has multiple alleles. The Glu-D1d allele frequently confers superior end-use qualities to commercial wheat varieties. Here, we studied the haplotype structure of Glu-D1 genomic region and the origin of Glu-D1d. Using seven diagnostic DNA markers, 12 Glu-D1 haplotypes were detected among common wheat, European spelt wheat (T. spelta, a primitive hexaploid relative of common wheat), and Aegilops tauschii (the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat). By comparatively analyzing Glu-D1 haplotypes and their associated 1Dx and 1Dy genes, we deduce that the haplotype carrying Glu-D1d was likely differentiated in the ancestral hexaploid wheat around 10,000 years ago, and was subsequently transmitted to domesticated common wheat and T. spelta. A group of relatively ancient Glu-D1 haplotypes was discovered in Ae. tauschii, which may serve for the evolution of other haplotypes. Moreover, a number of new Glu-D1d variants were found in T. spelta. The main steps in Glu-D1d differentiation are proposed. The implications of our work for enhancing the utility of Glu-D1d in wheat quality improvement and studying the SSP alleles in other crop species are discussed. PMID:24098671

Li, Yiwen; Zhang, Kunpu; Lou, Haijuan; An, Xueli; Dong, Lingli; Gu, Yong Qiang; Anderson, Olin D.; Liu, Xin; Qin, Huanju; Wang, Daowen

2013-01-01

96

Registration of 'Chesapeake' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Chesapeake’ (Reg. No. CV-1011, PI 643935) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. Ches...

97

Registration of Camelot Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Camelot ' (PI 653832) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2008. In addition to researchers at the releasing institutions, USDA-ARS researchers at Manhattan, KS, and St. Paul, MN, ...

98

REGISTRATION OF ‘CHOPTANK’ WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Choptank’ (Reg. no. CV-976, PI 639724) is a soft red winter wheat (triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Natural Resource Sciences and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2...

99

REGISTRATION OF GOODSTREAK WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goodstreak¿ (Reg. No. Cv- , PI ) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2000 by the developing institutions and the Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station. Goodstreak was re...

100

Registration of ‘Warhorse’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Warhorse’ (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

101

Registration of Warhorse wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Warhorse' (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

102

Registration of 'Tiger' wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

103

Registration of ‘Coral’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Coral’ soft white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008, via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Coral was selected from the cross MSU D3913 / MSU D0331 made i...

104

Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’ (PI 612958)/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ (PI 590941 PVPO) and was tested under the experim...

105

Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-1041, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ and was tested under the experimental number VA02W-370. J...

106

Wheat Germ DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from wheat germ using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

107

Registration of Howard Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Howard’ (Reg. no. CV-998, PI 642367) is a hard red spring wheat (HRSP) (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed at North Dakota State University (NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES) in January 2006. Howard was released because it combines a good level of...

108

Drought resistance in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.The general trend of various factors in the leaves of the wheat varieties Currawa, Federation and Major, respectively, has been followed throughout the season of the year 1933.2.The factors observed included the water content of the leaves, the sap expressed from the leaves under pressure, the water content of the pressed leaves, the total, free and bound water and

J. Calvert

1935-01-01

109

Registration of ‘3434’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘3434’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Cultivar 3434 was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ (PI 612958) / ’Coker 9835’ (PI 548846 PVPO) // VA96W-270. Cul...

110

Registration of ‘Shirley’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Shirley’ (Reg. No. CV-1039, PI 656753) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), developed and tested as VA03W-409 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2008. Shirley was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25/‘Coker 9835’//VA96-54-234. Shirley is wid...

111

REGISTRATION OF 'BAUERMEISTER' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Bauermeister' (J981107, WA007939) hard red winter wheat (HRW)(Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-XXX, PI 634717) was released in 2005 by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University (WSU) in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. Bauermeister is a semidwarf cultivar adapted to the low- ...

112

Registration of ‘Shirley’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Shirley’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Shirley was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25 / ‘Coker 9835’ (PI 548846 PVPO) // VA96-54-234. Shirley is widely adapted ...

113

Registration of ‘5205’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘5205’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Cultivar 5205 was derived from the three-way cross Pioneer Brand ‘2684’ (PI 566923 PVPO) / VA93-54-185 // ’Pocahontas’ ...

114

Registration of ‘3434’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 3434 (Reg. No. CV-1040, PI 656754) developed and tested as VA03W-434 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Cultivar 3434 was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’/‘Coker 9835’//VA96W-270. Cultivar 34...

115

Registration of "Merl" Wheat.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

116

Registration of ‘Decade’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Decade’ (Reg. No. CV-1058, PI 660291) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released jointly by the Montana and North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Stations in 2010. The name “Decade” denotes the extended time period (1997–2010) during which the Montana State Univers...

117

Registration of 'Guymon' wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Guymon' (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 643133) is a hard white (HW) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed and released cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2005. It is recommended for grain-only and dual-purpose production systems in an area of the so...

118

REGISTRATION OF 'DELIVER' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Deliver’ (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 639232) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was released to certified seed growers with permission of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2004. Deliver, an awnletted cultivar, was named for its unique and competitive abil...

119

REGISTRATION OF 'MASAMI' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Masami' soft white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI 634715) was developed by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University (WSU) in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. Masami was jointly released by Washington and Idaho Agricultural Experiment Stations and the ...

120

Registration of ‘Endurance’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Endurance’ (Reg. No. CV-994, PI 639233) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was released to certified seed growers with permission of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS in 2004. Its name derives from the unique ability to endure and recover from extended and inte...

121

Registration of 'Juniper' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Juniper’ (PI 639951) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in February 2006. Juniper, named for the town of Juniper, Idaho, was released for its superior yield and quality compared with previous full stature hard red...

122

Hypersensitive Response-Like Reaction Is Associated with Hybrid Necrosis in Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii Coss  

PubMed Central

Background Hybrid speciation is classified into homoploid and polyploid based on ploidy level. Common wheat is an allohexaploid species that originated from a naturally occurring interploidy cross between tetraploid wheat and diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Aegilops tauschii provides wide naturally occurring genetic variation. Sometimes its triploid hybrids with tetraploid wheat show the following four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: types II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. The growth abnormalities in the triploid hybrids could act as postzygotic hybridization barriers to prevent formation of hexaploid wheat. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report on the geographical and phylogenetic distribution of Ae. tauschii accessions inducing the hybrid growth abnormalities and showed that they are widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Molecular and cytological characterization of the type III necrosis phenotype was performed. The hybrid abnormality causing accessions were widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes such as pathogenesis-related genes were highly up-regulated in the type III necrosis lines. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that cell death occurred accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species in leaves undergoing type III necrosis. The reduction of photosynthetic activity occurred prior to the appearance of necrotic symptoms on the leaves exhibiting hybrid necrosis. Conclusions/Significance Taking these results together strongly suggests that an autoimmune response might be triggered by intergenomic incompatibility between the tetraploid wheat and Ae. tauschii genomes in type III necrosis, and that genetically programmed cell death could be regarded as a hypersensitive response-like cell death similar to that observed in Arabidopsis intraspecific and Nicotiana interspecific hybrids. Only Ae. tauschii accessions without such inhibiting factors could be candidates for the D-genome donor for the present hexaploid wheat. PMID:20593003

Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Hosogi, Naoki; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

2010-01-01

123

21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour and mechanically working the sticky mass to separate the wheat gluten from the starch and other flour components. Vital gluten is dried gluten that has retained its...

2010-04-01

124

21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour and mechanically working the sticky mass to separate the wheat gluten from the starch and other flour components. Vital gluten is dried gluten that has retained its elastic properties. (b) The...

2011-04-01

125

The lineage commitment of haemopoietic progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipotent haemopoietic progenitor cells appear to be ‘primed’ for commitment by co-expression of a multiplicity of genes characteristic of different lineages. Lineage commitment proceeds as the consolidation of a distinct pattern of gene expression out of this milieu.

Michael A Cross; Tariq Enver

1997-01-01

126

Registration of ‘Guymon’ Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

green-up, heading date, test weight, grain yield, wheat protein content, kernel hardness, and kernel size. Subsequent genera- tions were advanced by bulk-selfi ng in the fi eld. Minimal rogu- ing of slightly taller variants was performed each year until 2004 despite this line being F 2 -derived. With an initial frequency of 1.5% red kernels, seed from the 2003 harvest

B. F. Carver; R. M. Hunger; J. T. Edwards; P. Rayas-Duarte; A. R. Klatt; D. R. Porter; B. W. Seabourn; G.-H. Bai; F. E. Dowell; L.-L. Yan; B. C. Martin

2008-01-01

127

Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of ?-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow–derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow–derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

Yeager, Michael E.; Frid, Maria G.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

2011-01-01

128

The epigenetic progenitor origin of human cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is widely perceived as a heterogeneous group of disorders with markedly different biological properties, which are caused by a series of clonally selected genetic changes in key tumour-suppressor genes and oncogenes. However, recent data suggest that cancer has a fundamentally common basis that is grounded in a polyclonal epigenetic disruption of stem\\/progenitor cells, mediated by 'tumour-progenitor genes'. Furthermore, tumour

Rolf Ohlsson; Steven Henikoff; Andrew P. Feinberg

2006-01-01

129

Basics of Stem and Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will define key terms and introduce important basic information about the fundamental building blocks of the\\u000a entire text: the stem and progenitor cells. After a brief discussion of terminology central to the field, we will explore\\u000a the various stem and progenitor cells including bone marrow-derived cell populations, specific niche-derived cell populations,\\u000a as well as special situations such as

Matthew T. Harting

130

Vascular disease: a new progenitor biology.  

PubMed

Vascular disease is primarily the result of atherosclerosis which affects all layers of the adult vessel wall. Our understanding of atherosclerosis has evolved over the past three decades; from initial hypotheses based on lipid deposition and fibrocellular proliferation within the intima of the vessel wall to a more complex interplay between conventional risk factors, inflammation and the immune system implicating pan-vascular biologic processes. More recently circulating progenitor cells have been shown to possess diverse differentiation capacity within the remodelling vessel wall. Current investigation of atherosclerosis therefore encompasses an expanding field of biological science; from molecular genetics, classical vascular biology, and immunology to stem cell biology and vasculogenesis. However, a decade after their initial description, scientists still know little about the proximate relationship between vascular progenitor cells and atherosclerosis progression or stability. In recent years, the discovery of progenitor cells of myeloid origin has offered the exciting prospect of merging classical concepts of myeloid cell biology in atherosclerosis with evolving concepts of myeloid cell plasticity and endothelial / smooth muscle cells differentiation within the injured vessel wall. In this context, early stage atherosclerosis associated with vascular injury may involve neovascularisation and re-endothelialisation in which a significant contribution comes from bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells. For this review, emphasis will be on endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPC) and putative myeloid precursors. PMID:17266614

Metharom, Pat; Caplice, Noel M

2007-01-01

131

THE MAS WHEAT PROJECT: IMPACT OF GENOMICS ON WHEAT BREEDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2001 twelve wheat breeding center and research laboratories formed a consortium designed to increase the use of marker assisted selection (MAS) in public wheat breeding programs. The strategy of the project is to introgress by backcrossing more than 23 disease resistance genes and 21 quality-rela...

132

The homoeologous genes encoding chalcone-flavanone isomerase in Triticum aestivum L.: structural characterization and expression in different parts of wheat plant.  

PubMed

Chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHI; EC 5.5.1.6.) participates in the early step of flavonoid biosynthesis, related to plant adaptive and protective responses to environmental stress. The bread wheat genomic sequences encoding CHI were isolated, sequenced and mapped to the terminal segment of the long arms of chromosomes 5A, 5B and 5D. The loss of the final Chi intron and junction of the two last exons was found in the wheat A, B and D genomes compared to the Chi sequences of most other plant species. Each of the three diploid genomes of hexaploid wheat encodes functional CHI; however, transcription of the three homoeologous genes is not always co-regulated. In particular, the three genes demonstrated different response to salinity in roots: Chi-D1 was up-regulated, Chi-A1 responds medially, whereas Chi-B1 was not activated at all. The observed variation in transcriptional activity between the Chi homoeologs is in a good agreement with structural diversification of their promoter sequences. In addition, the correlation between Chi transcription and anthocyanin pigmentation in different parts of wheat plant has been studied. The regulatory genes controlling anthocyanin pigmentation of culm and pericarp modulated transcription of the Chi genes. However, in other organs, there was no strong relation between tissue pigmentation and the transcription of the Chi genes, suggesting complex regulation of the Chi expression in most parts of wheat plant. PMID:24480448

Shoeva, Olesya Y; Khlestkina, Elena K; Berges, Helene; Salina, Elena A

2014-04-01

133

Evolution of new disease specificity at a simple resistance locus in a crop-weed complex: reconstitution of the Lr21 gene in wheat.  

PubMed

The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were identified. Lr21 was found to be a chimera of H1 and H2, which were found only in wheat. We attempted to reconstitute a functional Lr21 allele by crossing the cultivars Fielder (H1) and Wichita (H2). Rust inoculation of 5876 F(2) progeny revealed a single resistant plant that proved to carry the H1H2 haplotype, a result attributed to intragenic recombination. These findings reflect how plants balance the penalty and the necessity of a resistance gene and suggest that plants can reuse "dead" alleles to generate new disease-resistance specificity, leading to a "death-recycle" model of plant-resistance gene evolution at simple loci. We suggest that selection pressure in crop-weed complexes contributes to this process. PMID:19364806

Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C; Gill, Bikram

2009-06-01

134

Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a CC-NBS-LRR Encoding Gene Assigned on Chromosome 7B of Wheat  

PubMed Central

Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR). In this study, we isolated a CC-NBS-LRR gene locating on chromosome 7B from durum wheat variety Italy 363, and designated it TdRGA-7Ba. Its open reading frame was 4014 bp, encoding a 1337 amino acid protein with a complete NBS domain and 18 LRR repeats, sharing 44.7% identity with the PM3B protein. TdRGA-7Ba expression was continuously seen at low levels and was highest in leaves. TdRGA-7Ba has another allele TdRGA-7Bb with a 4 bp deletion at position +1892 in other cultivars of tetraploid wheat. In Ae. speltoides, as a B genome progenitor, both TdRGA-7Ba and TdRGA-7Bb were detected. In all six species of hexaploid wheats (AABBDD), only TdRGA-7Bb existed. Phylogenic analysis showed that all TdRGA-7Bb type genes were grouped in one sub-branch. We speculate that TdRGA-7Bb was derived from a TdRGA-7Ba mutation, and it happened in Ae. speltoides. Both types of TdRGA-7B participated in tetraploid wheat formation. However, only the TdRGA-7Bb was retained in hexaploid wheat. PMID:23887654

Gong, Caiyan; Cao, Shuanghe; Fan, Renchun; Wei, Bo; Chen, Guiping; Wang, Xianping; Li, Yiwen; Zhang, Xiangqi

2013-01-01

135

Registration of 'Bill Brown' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

136

Registration of 'Bill Brown' wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

137

Registration of 'Thunder CL' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Thunder CL' (Reg. No. CV- , PI XXXXXX) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2008 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

138

Wheat Surplus and its Cause  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE comment made by Prof. Piaggio in NATURE of March 21, upon the address by Sir Arthur Eddington, cites the famous prophecy by Sir William Crookes, made near the end of the last century, as to the probable wheat supply in the future, say thirty years from the time of his address. The comment indicates that the present wheat surplus

L. R. Waldron

1931-01-01

139

Varietal Trials Results Wheat, Hard Red Winter  

E-print Network

Varietal Trials Results Wheat, Hard Red Winter 47 Winter wheat varieties were compared in trial plots at Crookston, Lamberton, Roseau and St. Paul. Wheat varieties were grown in replicated plots. These winter wheat trials are not designed for crop (species) compar- isons because the various crops are grown

Thomas, David D.

140

Identifying progenitors of core-collapse supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observations of massive stars - before they explode - provide a model free identification of SN progenitors. Such studies require the combination of a deep, high-resolution image of the SN location, serendipitously obtained before it exploded, with a precise localization of the SN (after it exploded) to enable us to select the correct progenitor from among the stars in the pre-explosion SN images. After decades of effort, only eight SN progenitors have so far been detected (6 during the last 4 years). Once or twice a year a SN is discovered in an area previously observed by HST. Many of these rare opportunities were lost, though, lacking precise SN localization from post-explosion high-quality imaging. The few recent identifications were mainly based on repeat HST post-explosion imaging for this purpose. A better alternative for SN localization is now provided by laser-guide-star assisted adaptive optics systems (LGS-AO), as we have initially demonstrated using the Keck LGS system. Here, we propose to continue our successful program (first data obtained during August 2007) to use NIRI+ALTAIR in LGS mode to localize nearby SNe and identify their progenitors. A minimal Gemini allocation (1 hour) leveraged by superb archival HST data will provide exciting results, and improve our chances not to lose any of the few rare SNe for which direct progenitor detection is possible. With each additional progenitor identified and studied, we move closer to a robust mapping of specific progenitors to each SN class, a key to understand the physics of these powerful cosmic explosions.

Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas; Fox, Derek

2008-02-01

141

Progenitors of Core-Collapse Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae is a fundamental component in understanding the explosions. The recent progress in finding such stars is reviewed. The minimum initial mass that can produce a supernova (SN) has converged to 8 ± 1 M from direct detections of red supergiant progenitors of II-P SNe and the most massive white dwarf progenitors, although this value is model dependent. It appears that most type Ibc SNe arise from moderate mass interacting binaries. The highly energetic, broad-lined Ic SNe are likely produced by massive, Wolf-Rayet progenitors. There is some evidence to suggest that the majority of massive stars above 20 M may collapse quietly to black holes and that the explosions remain undetected. The recent discovery of a class of ultrabright type II SNe and the direct detection of some progenitor stars bearing luminous blue variable characteristics suggest some very massive stars do produce highly energetic explosions. The physical mechanism is under debate, and these SNe pose a challenge to stellar evolutionary theory.

Smartt, Stephen J.

2009-09-01

142

Wheat curl mite resistance: interactions of mite feeding with wheat streak mosaic virus infection.  

PubMed

The majority of plant viruses are dependent on arthropod vectors for spread between plants. Wheat streak mosaic virus (family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus, WSMV) is transmitted by the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, and this virus and vector cause extensive yield losses in most major wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-growing regions of the world. Many cultivars in use are susceptible to this vector-virus complex, and yield losses of 10-99% have been documented. wheat curl mite resistance genes have been identified in goat grass, Aegilops tauschii (Coss) Schmal., and transferred to hexaploid wheat, but very few varieties contain effectively wheat curl mite resistance, due to virulent wheat curl mite populations. However, wheat curl mite resistance remains an effective strategy to reduce losses due to WSMV. The goal of our project was to identify the most effective, reproducible, and rapid method for assessing wheat curl mite resistance. We also wanted to determine whether mite resistance is affected by WSMV infection, because the pathogen and pest commonly occur together. Single and group wheat curl mite infestations produced similar amounts of leaf rolling and folding on wheat curl mite-susceptible wheat varieties that were independent of initial wheat curl mite infestation. This finding will allow accurate, efficient, large-scale screening of wheat germplasm for wheat curl mite resistance by infesting plants with sections of wheat leaf tissue containing mixed stages of wheat curl mite. The wheat curl mite-resistant breeding line 'OK05312' displayed antibiosis (reduced wheat curl mite population development). The effect of WSMV infection on wheat curl mite reproduction was genotype-dependent. Mite populations increased on infected wheat curl mite- and WSMV-susceptible plants compared with uninfected plants, but WSMV infection had no significant effect on wheat curl mite populations on resistant plants. OK05312 is a strong source of wheat curl mite resistance for wheat breeding programs. PMID:21882710

Murugan, M; Sotelo Cardona, P; Duraimurugan, P; Whitfield, A E; Schneweis, D; Starkey, S; Smith, C M

2011-08-01

143

Drought Tolerance in Wheat  

PubMed Central

Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

2013-01-01

144

Cytokinin Oxidase from Wheat  

PubMed Central

As part of the study of the possible role(s) of CBF-1, a cytokinin-binding protein abundant in wheat embryo, a cytokinin oxidase was found in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germ and partially purified by conventional purification techniques and high performance chromatofocusing. This preparation catalyzes conversion of N6-(?2-isopentenyl)adenosine to adenosine at a Vmax of 0.4 nanomol per milligram protein per minute at 30°C and pH 7.5, the Km being 0.3 micromolar. This high affinity and the apparent molecular weight of 40,000 estimated by high performance gel permeation on a Spherogel TSK-3000 SW column indicate that this enzyme is different from other cytokinin oxidases previously reported. Oxygen is required for the reaction, as for other cytokinin oxidases already described. N6-(?2-isopentenyl)adenine and zeatin riboside are also degraded, but N6-(?2-isopentenyl)adenosine-5?-monophosphate is apparently not a substrate. Benzyladenine is degraded, but to a small extent, and it inhibits slightly the degradation of N6-(?2-isopentenyl)adenosine. The degradation of N6-(?2-isopentenyl)adenosine is strongly inhibited by diphenylurea and its highly active derivative N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N?-phenylurea. PMID:16666895

Laloue, Michel; Fox, J. Eugene

1989-01-01

145

Neuropeptides: Developmental Signals in Placode Progenitor Formation  

PubMed Central

Summary Few families of signaling factors have been implicated in the control of development. Here, we identify the neuropeptides nociceptin and somatostatin, a neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine hormone, as a class of developmental signals in both chick and zebrafish. We show that signals from the anterior mesendoderm are required for the formation of anterior placode progenitors, with one of the signals being somatostatin. Somatostatin controls ectodermal expression of nociceptin, and both peptides regulate Pax6 in lens and olfactory progenitors. Consequently, loss of somatostatin and nociceptin signaling leads to severe reduction of lens formation. Our findings not only uncover these neuropeptides as developmental signals but also identify a long-sought-after mechanism that initiates Pax6 in placode progenitors and may explain the ancient evolutionary origin of neuropeptides, predating a complex nervous system. PMID:23906067

Lleras-Forero, Laura; Tambalo, Monica; Christophorou, Nicolas; Chambers, David; Houart, Corinne; Streit, Andrea

2013-01-01

146

The Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae  

E-print Network

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) occur in both old, passive galaxies and active, star-forming galaxies. This fact, coupled with the strong dependence of SN Ia rate on star formation rate, suggests that SNe Ia form from stars with a wide range of ages. Here we show that the rate of SN Ia explosions is about 1% of the stellar death rate, independent of star formation history. The dependence of SN Ia rate on star formation rate implies a delay time distribution proportional to t^{-0.5+-0.2}. The single degenerate channel for SNe Ia can be made to match the observed SN Ia rate -- SFR relation, but only if white dwarfs are converted to SNe Ia with uniform efficiency of ~1%, independent of mass. Since low-mass progenitors are expected to have lower conversion efficiencies than high mass progenitors, we conclude that some other progenitor scenario must be invoked to explain some, or perhaps all, SNe Ia.

Christopher J. Pritchet; D. Andrew Howell; Mark Sullivan

2008-06-23

147

Close Binary Progenitors of Hypernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a new plausible mechanism of supernova explosions specific to close binary systems. The starting point is the common envelope phase in the evolution of a binary consisting of a red super giant and a neutron star. As the neutron star spirals towards the center of its companion it spins up via disk accretion. Depending on the specific angular momentum of gas captured by the neutron star via the Bondi-Hoyle mechanism, it may reach millisecond periods either when it is still inside the common envelope or after it has merged with the companion core. The high accretion rate may result in strong differential rotation of the neutron star and generation of a magnetar-strength magnetic field. The magnetar wind can blow away the common envelope if its magnetic field is as strong as 1015 G, and can destroy the entire companion if it is as strong as 1016 G. The total explosion energy can be comparable to the rotational energy of a millisecond pulsar and reach 1052 erg. The result is an unusual type-II supernova with very high luminosity during the plateau phase, followed by a sharp drop in brightness and a steep light-curve tail. The remnant is either a solitary magnetar or a close binary involving a Wolf-Rayet star and a magnetar. When this Wolf-Rayet star explodes this will be a third supernovae explosion in the same binary. A particularly interesting version of the binary progenitor involves merger of a red super giant star with an ultra-compact companion, neutron star or black hole. In the case if a strong magnetic field is not generated on the surface of a neutron star then it will collapse to a black hole. After that we expect the formation of a very long-lived accretion disk around the black hole. The Blandford-Znajek driven jet from this black hole may drive not only hypernovae explosion but produce a bright X-ray transient event on a time scale of 104 s.

Barkov, Maxim V.

148

THE AGES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS  

SciTech Connect

Using light curves and host galaxy spectra of 101 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with redshift z {approx}< 0.3 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Supernova Survey (SDSS-SN), we derive the SN Ia rate as a function of progenitor age (the delay time distribution, DTD). We use the VESPA stellar population synthesis algorithm to analyze the SDSS spectra of all galaxies in the field searched by SDSS-SN, giving us a reference sample of 77,000 galaxies for our SN Ia hosts. Our method does not assume any a priori shape for the DTD and is therefore minimally parametric. We present the DTD in physical units for high-stretch (luminous, slow declining) and low-stretch (subluminous, fast declining) supernovae in three progenitor age bins. We find strong evidence of two progenitor channels: one that produces high-stretch SNe Ia {approx}<400 Myr after the birth of the progenitor system, and one that produces low-stretch SNe Ia with a delay {approx}>2.4 Gyr. We find that each channel contributes roughly half of the Type Ia rate in our reference sample. We also construct the average spectra of high-stretch and low-stretch SN Ia host galaxies, and find that the difference of these spectra looks like a main-sequence B star with nebular emission lines indicative of star formation. This supports our finding that there are two populations of SNe Ia, and indicates that the progenitors of high-stretch supernovae are at the least associated with very recent star formation in the last few tens of Myr. Our results provide valuable constraints for models of Type Ia progenitors and may help improve the calibration of SNe Ia as standard candles.

Brandt, Timothy D.; Aubourg, Eric; Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tojeiro, Rita [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Heavens, Alan [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9-3HJ (United Kingdom); Jimenez, Raul [ICREA and Institute for Sciences of the Cosmos (ICCUB), University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

2010-09-15

149

On the progenitors of white dwarfs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In view of the direct observational evidence presented here, the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae in as many as 80 percent of all cases; secondary progenitors being other postasymptotic giant branch objects, to the extent of nearly 20 percent, and posthorizontal branch objects insufficiently massive to climb the asymptotic giant branch, with about 0.7 percent. The combined birth rate of these objects, at 2-3 x 10 to the -12th/cu pc per year, is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs.

Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.

1985-01-01

150

Resident mesenchymal progenitors of articular cartilage.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage has poor capacity of self-renewal and repair. Insufficient number and activity of resident mesenchymal (connective tissue) progenitors is likely one of the underlying reasons. Chondroprogenitors reside not only in the superficial zone of articular cartilage but also in other zones of articular cartilage and in the neighboring tissues, including perichondrium (groove of Ranvier), synovium and fat pad. These cells may respond to injury and contribute to articular cartilage healing. In addition, marrow stromal cells can migrate through subchondral bone when articular cartilage is damaged. We should develop drugs and methods that correctly stimulate resident progenitors for improvement of repair and inhibition of degenerative changes in articular cartilage. PMID:25179676

Candela, Maria Elena; Yasuhara, Rika; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

2014-10-01

151

Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A  

PubMed Central

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the ‘decoration’ of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. PMID:24813060

Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Šimková, Hana; Šafá?, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus FX; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2014-01-01

152

Theor Appl Genet (1999) 99: 16}26 Springer-Verlag 1999 E. V. Boyko ' K. S. Gill ' L. Mickelson-Young  

E-print Network

Theor Appl Genet (1999) 99: 16}26 Springer-Verlag 1999 E. V. Boyko ' K. S. Gill ' L. Mickelson. Lapitan ' B. S. Gill A high-density genetic linkage map of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor. Gill ( ) Wheat Genetics Resource Center and Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University

Gill, Kulvinder

153

Introduction Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) are multipotent  

E-print Network

Introduction Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) are multipotent cells, derived from various adult by the expression of a number of cell surface markers [35]. Based on their clonogenic and multipotent, chondroblasts, and adipocytes. A large body of data suggested MPCs as a promising candidate cell type applicable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

The Progenitors of Subluminous Type Ia Supernovae  

E-print Network

We find that spectroscopically peculiar subluminous SNe Ia come from an old population. Of the sixteen subluminous SNe Ia known, ten are found in E/S0 galaxies, and the remainder are found in early-type spirals. The probability that this is a chance occurrence is only 0.2%. The finding that subluminous SNe Ia are associated with an older stellar population indicates that for a sufficiently large lookback time (already accessible in current high redshift searches) they will not be found. Due to a scarcity in old populations, hydrogen and helium main sequence stars and He red giant stars that undergo Roche lobe overflow are unlikely to be the progenitors of subluminous SNe Ia. Earlier findings that overluminous SNe Ia (dM15(B) < 0.95) come from a young progenitor population are confirmed. The fact that subluminous SNe Ia and overluminous SNe Ia come from different progenitor populations and also have different properties is a prediction of the CO white dwarf merger progenitor scenario.

D. Andrew Howell

2001-05-15

155

Plastic-adherent progenitor cells in mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cell collections.  

PubMed

The use of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) to reconstitute hematopoiesis after high-dose chemoradiotherapy is now commonplace in the treatment of malignancies. Attempts to characterize these cells have concentrated primarily on their phenotype and their content of clonogenic colony-forming cells (CFC). We have used a plastic-adherent delta (P delta) assay system to evaluate the quantity and quality of more primitive cells in addition to the conventional measurements of CFC and CD34-positive cells. The leukapheresis products from 20 patients mobilized using cyclophosphamide (Cy) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were examined for progenitor cell content. The mean number of mononuclear cells (MNC), colony-forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), and CD34-positive cells from two leukaphereses per patients were 7.9 x 10(8)/kg, 47.3 x 10(4)/kg, and 10.5 x 10(6)/kg, respectively. The mean number of P delta progenitors was 9.3 x 10(4)/kg. Limiting dilution analyses showed the frequency of P delta progenitors in PBPC to be between 1 and 5.3 per 10(5) MNC and that each P delta progenitor has the proliferative capability to generate an overall mean of 4.5 CFU-GM. Of the 20 patients, 16 underwent autografting with PBPC alone. Fifteen patients engrafted neutrophils and platelets within 16 days. One patient had delayed engraftment associated with inadequate etoposide clearance. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between numbers of CFU-GM and CD34 positivity. The numbers of plastic-adherent P delta progenitor cells did not correlate with CFU-GM or CD34-positive cells. We conclude that the plastic-adherent P delta progenitor cell assay is capable of measuring primitive hematopoietic cells and that it may be useful for the investigation of primitive progenitors in PBPC harvests. PMID:8541535

Scott, M A; Apperley, J F; Jestice, H K; Bloxham, D M; Marcus, R E; Gordon, M Y

1995-12-15

156

Peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilisation alters myeloid, but not erythroid, progenitor cell self-renewal kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplantation of progenitor cells which have been mobilised into the bloodstream (PBPC) following the administration of G-CSF results in more rapid neutrophil recovery than transplantation of bone marrow (BM). The reasons for the accelerated neutrophil engraftment are not clear, but would be explained by increased self-replication of myeloid progenitor cells (CFU-GM). We have used a CFU-GM replating assay to investigate

SB Marley; JL Lewis; B Zheng; RJ Davidson; JG Davis; C McDonald; FQB Alenzi; JM Goldman; MY Gordon

2001-01-01

157

SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31  

SciTech Connect

Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (M{sub ZAMS}) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the M{sub ZAMS} from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of {approx}2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) ({alpha} = -2.35). In particular, we find values of {alpha} outside the range -2.7 {>=} {alpha} {>=} -4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of M{sub Max} > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a minimum mass for core collapse between 7.0 and 7.8 M{sub Sun }.

Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington Seattle, Box 351580, WA 98195 (United States); Murphy, Jeremiah W. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: zachjenn@uw.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States)

2012-12-10

158

Isolation and sequence analysis of the wheat B genome subtelomeric DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Telomeric and subtelomeric regions are essential for genome stability and regular chromosome replication. In this work, we have characterized the wheat BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones containing Spelt1 and Spelt52 sequences, which belong to the subtelomeric repeats of the B/G genomes of wheats and Aegilops species from the section Sitopsis. Results The BAC library from Triticum aestivum cv. Renan was screened using Spelt1 and Spelt52 as probes. Nine positive clones were isolated; of them, clone 2050O8 was localized mainly to the distal parts of wheat chromosomes by in situ hybridization. The distribution of the other clones indicated the presence of different types of repetitive sequences in BACs. Use of different approaches allowed us to prove that seven of the nine isolated clones belonged to the subtelomeric chromosomal regions. Clone 2050O8 was sequenced and its sequence of 119 737 bp was annotated. It is composed of 33% transposable elements (TEs), 8.2% Spelt52 (namely, the subfamily Spelt52.2) and five non-TE-related genes. DNA transposons are predominant, making up 24.6% of the entire BAC clone, whereas retroelements account for 8.4% of the clone length. The full-length CACTA transposon Caspar covers 11 666 bp, encoding a transposase and CTG-2 proteins, and this transposon accounts for 40% of the DNA transposons. The in situ hybridization data for 2050O8 derived subclones in combination with the BLAST search against wheat mapped ESTs (expressed sequence tags) suggest that clone 2050O8 is located in the terminal bin 4BL-10 (0.95-1.0). Additionally, four of the predicted 2050O8 genes showed significant homology to four putative orthologous rice genes in the distal part of rice chromosome 3S and confirm the synteny to wheat 4BL. Conclusion Satellite DNA sequences from the subtelomeric regions of diploid wheat progenitor can be used for selecting the BAC clones from the corresponding regions of hexaploid wheat chromosomes. It has been demonstrated for the first time that Spelt52 sequences were involved in the evolution of terminal regions of common wheat chromosomes. Our research provides new insights into the microcollinearity in the terminal regions of wheat chromosomes 4BL and rice chromosome 3S. PMID:19732459

Salina, Elena A; Sergeeva, Ekaterina M; Adonina, Irina G; Shcherban, Andrey B; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Belcram, Harry; Huneau, Cecile; Chalhoub, Boulos

2009-01-01

159

SURVIVAL OF WHEAT CURL MITES ON DIFFERENT SOURCES OF RESISTANCE IN WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat yield is limited by wheat streak mosaic virus which is vectored by the wheat curl mite (WCM) Aceria tosicheilla (Keifer).Host resistance to WCM has reduced losses. This study evaluated the effectiveness of resistance in wheat to WCM collected from various locations in the Great Plains. Collect...

160

Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important  

E-print Network

Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Challenges Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important part of the economy in the Texas Rolling Plains region. Wheat and stocker cattle business decisions are impacted by a variety of issues, including cattle and wheat prices, animal health, weather

161

COMPARISON OF THREE CEREALS : WHEAT, MAIZE, BARLEY AND MAIZE-BARLEY, MAIZE-WHEAT MIXTURES  

E-print Network

SUMMARY COMPARISON OF THREE CEREALS : WHEAT, MAIZE, BARLEY AND MAIZE-BARLEY, MAIZE-WHEAT MIXTURES IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS The purpose of our experiment was to compare the feeding value of maize, wheat and barley and of maize-wheat, maize-barley mixtures (at two levels : 2/3-1/3- r/3-2/3) in the rations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal  

PubMed Central

Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

2010-01-01

163

Heritable, de novo resistance to leaf rust and other novel traits in selfed descendants of wheat responding to inoculation with wheat streak mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Stable resistance to infection with Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) can be evolved de novo in selfing bread wheat lines subjected to cycles of WSMV inoculation and selection of best-performing plants or tillers. To learn whether this phenomenon might be applied to evolve resistance de novo to pathogens unrelated to WSMV, we examined the responses to leaf rust of succeeding generations of the rust- and WSMV-susceptible cultivar 'Lakin' following WSMV inoculation and derived rust-resistant sublines. After three cycles of the iterative protocol five plants, in contrast to all others, expressed resistance to leaf and stripe rust. A subset of descendant sublines of one of these, 'R1', heritably and uniformly expressed the new trait of resistance to leaf rust. Such sublines, into which no genes from a known source of resistance had been introgressed, conferred resistance to progeny of crosses with susceptible parents. The F1 populations produced from crosses between, respectively, susceptible and resistant 'Lakin' sublines 4-3-3 and 4-12-3 were not all uniform in their response to seedling inoculation with race TDBG. In seedling tests against TDBG and MKPS races the F2s from F1 populations that were uniformly resistant had 3?1 ratios of resistant to susceptible individuals but the F2s from susceptible F1 progenitors were uniformly susceptible. True-breeding lines derived from resistant individuals in F2 populations were resistant to natural stripe and leaf rust inoculum in the field, while the 'Lakin' progenitor was susceptible. The next generation of six of the 'Lakin'-derived lines exhibited moderate to strong de novo resistance to stem rust races TPMK, QFCS and RKQQ in seedling tests while the 'Lakin' progenitor was susceptible. These apparently epigenetic effects in response to virus infection may help researchers fashion a new tool that expands the range of genetic resources already available in adapted germplasm. PMID:24497941

Seifers, Dallas L; Haber, Steve; Martin, Terry J; McCallum, Brent D

2014-01-01

164

New therapy targeting differential androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer stem/progenitor vs. non-stem/progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to systematically suppress/reduce androgens binding to the androgen receptor (AR) has been the standard therapy for prostate cancer (PCa); yet, most of ADT eventually fails leading to the recurrence of castration resistant PCa. Here, we found that the PCa patients who received ADT had increased PCa stem/progenitor cell population. The addition of the anti-androgen, Casodex®, or AR-siRNA in various PCa cells led to increased stem/progenitor cells, whereas, in contrast, the addition of functional AR led to decreased stem/progenitor cell population but increased non-stem/progenitor cell population, suggesting that AR functions differentially in PCa stem/progenitor vs. non-stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, the current ADT might result in an undesired expansion of PCa stem/progenitor cell population, which explains why this therapy fails. Using various human PCa cell lines and three different mouse models, we concluded that targeting PCa non-stem/progenitor cells with AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9® and targeting PCa stem/progenitor cells with 5-azathioprine and ?-tocotrienol resulted in a significant suppression of the tumors at the castration resistant stage. This suggests that a combinational therapy that simultaneously targets both stem/progenitor and non-stem/progenitor cells will lead to better therapeutic efficacy and may become a new therapy to battle the PCa before and after castration resistant stages. PMID:22831834

Lee, Soo Ok; Ma, Zhifang; Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Luo, Jie; Lin, Tzu-Hua; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Yamashita, Shinichi; Liang, Liang; Tian, Jing; Li, Lei; Jiang, Qi; Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Niu, Yuanjie; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Chawnshang

2013-01-01

165

Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2009 Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirteen hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2009 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red ...

166

Disease Update in Wheat Gaylon Morgan  

E-print Network

Disease Update in Wheat Gaylon Morgan State Extension Small Grains Specialist March 3, 2005 There are three major foliar leaf diseases that commonly occur in Texas wheat fields, including Leaf Rust, Stripe of Powdery Mildew that occurred in 2004. Factors to Consider for Managing Foliar Diseases in Wheat: 1

Mukhtar, Saqib

167

Wheat Production Under Alternative Production Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier study [1, pp. 407-415] it was assumed that a linear production function would be the best to depict the relationship between wheat production and explanatory variables in the Punjab. After a careful scrutiny, four of the explanatory variables, viz., area under Mexican Wheat varieties, area under local wheat, fertilizer application and rainfall, were employed to explain variations

M. GHAFFAR CHAUDHRY; A. R. KEMAL

1974-01-01

168

HEDONIC PRICE ESTIMATION FOR KANSAS WHEAT CHARACTERISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hedonic price model is applied to a cross-sectional time-series data set of Kansas wheat characteristics. Results indicate that prices received by wheat producers reflect the presence of conventional quality characteristics of wheat and also milling and dough characteristics. Furthermore, the results indicate that the alternative sets of characteristics exhibit quality information that is, to some degree, independent of one

Juan Andres Espinosa; Barry K. Goodwin

1991-01-01

169

Rust-Resistant Wheats for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALL the three rusts of wheat occur in India. It has been shown that in the plains of India the severe summer heat kills the rust spores and that the wheat crop is infected anew each season by spores blown down from the hills, where wheat is cultivated up to an altitude of about 9,000 ft. above sea-level. The barberry,

K. C. Mehta; B. P. Pal

1940-01-01

170

Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90-99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

2012-12-03

171

Tissue-specific expression and localization of safener-induced glutathione S -transferase proteins in Triticum tauschii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) gene expression was examined in the coleoptile and new leaf tissue of etiolated shoots of the diploid wheat species Triticum tauschii (Coss.) Schmal., which is considered to be a progenitor and the D-genome donor to cultivated, hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. GST expression (mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity with a herbicide substrate) in these

Dean E. Riechers; Qin Zhang; Fangxiu Xu; Kevin C. Vaughn

2003-01-01

172

Multipotent hematopoietic progenitors divide asymmetrically to create progenitors of the lymphomyeloid and erythromyeloid lineages.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can self-renew and create committed progenitors, a process supposed to involve asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs). Previously, we had linked the kinetics of CD133 expression with ACDs but failed to detect asymmetric segregation of classical CD133 epitopes on fixed, mitotic HSPCs. Now, by using a novel anti-CD133 antibody (HC7), we confirmed the occurrence of asymmetric CD133 segregation on paraformaldehyde-fixed and living HSPCs. After showing that HC7 binding does not recognizably affect biological features of human HSPCs, we studied ACDs in different HSPC subtypes and determined the developmental potential of arising daughter cells at the single-cell level. Approximately 70% of the HSPCs of the multipotent progenitor (MPP) fraction studied performed ACDs, and about 25% generated lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP) as wells as erythromyeloid progenitor (EMP) daughter cells. Since MPPs hardly created daughter cells maintaining MPP characteristics, our data suggest that under conventional culture conditions, ACDs are lineage instructive rather than self-renewing. PMID:25448068

Görgens, André; Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Möllmann, Michael; Krawczyk, Adalbert; Dürig, Jan; Hanenberg, Helmut; Horn, Peter A; Giebel, Bernd

2014-12-01

173

Multipotent Hematopoietic Progenitors Divide Asymmetrically to Create Progenitors of the Lymphomyeloid and Erythromyeloid Lineages  

PubMed Central

Summary Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can self-renew and create committed progenitors, a process supposed to involve asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs). Previously, we had linked the kinetics of CD133 expression with ACDs but failed to detect asymmetric segregation of classical CD133 epitopes on fixed, mitotic HSPCs. Now, by using a novel anti-CD133 antibody (HC7), we confirmed the occurrence of asymmetric CD133 segregation on paraformaldehyde-fixed and living HSPCs. After showing that HC7 binding does not recognizably affect biological features of human HSPCs, we studied ACDs in different HSPC subtypes and determined the developmental potential of arising daughter cells at the single-cell level. Approximately 70% of the HSPCs of the multipotent progenitor (MPP) fraction studied performed ACDs, and about 25% generated lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP) as wells as erythromyeloid progenitor (EMP) daughter cells. Since MPPs hardly created daughter cells maintaining MPP characteristics, our data suggest that under conventional culture conditions, ACDs are lineage instructive rather than self-renewing. PMID:25448068

Görgens, André; Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Möllmann, Michael; Krawczyk, Adalbert; Dürig, Jan; Hanenberg, Helmut; Horn, Peter A.; Giebel, Bernd

2014-01-01

174

On the progenitors of white dwarfs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs.

Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.

1985-01-01

175

Constraints on the Massive Supernova Progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generally-accepted scheme distinguishes two main classes of supernovae (SNe): Ia resulting from the old stellar population (deflagration of a white dwarf in close binary systems), and SNe of type II and Ib/c whose ancestors are young massive stars (died in a core-collapse explosion). Concerning the latter, there are suggestions that the SNe II are connected to early B stars, and SNe Ib/c to isolated O or Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. However, little or no effort was made to further separate SNe Ib from Ic. We have used assumed SN rates for different SN types in spiral galaxies in an attempt to perform this task. If the isolated progenitor hypothesis is correct, our analysis indicates that SNe Ib result from stars of main-sequence mass 23 M? ? M ? 30 M?, while the progenitors of SNe Ic are more massive stars with M ˜ 30 M?. Alternatively, if the majority of SNe Ib/c appear in close binary systems (CBs) then they would result from the same progenitor population as most of the SNe II, i.e. early B stars with initial masses of order M ˜ 10 M?. Future observations of SNe at high-redshift (z) and their rate will provide us with unique information on SN progenitors and the star-formation history of galaxies. At higher-z (deeper in the cosmic past), we expect to see the lack of type Ia events, i.e. the dominance of core-collapse SNe. Better understanding of the stripped-envelope SNe (Ib/c), and their potential use as distance indicators at high-z, would therefore be of great practical importance.

Arbutina, Bojan

176

Transcriptional Regulation of Heart Valve Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and normal function of the heart valves requires complex interactions among signaling molecules, transcription\\u000a factors and structural proteins that are tightly regulated in time and space. Here we review the roles of critical transcription\\u000a factors that are required for specific aspects of normal valve development. The early progenitors of the heart valves are\\u000a localized in endocardial cushions that

Santanu Chakraborty; Michelle D. Combs; Katherine E. Yutzey

2010-01-01

177

The interface between glial progenitors and gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian brain and spinal cord contain heterogeneous populations of cycling, immature cells. These include cells with\\u000a stem cell-like properties as well as progenitors in various stages of early glial differentiation. This latter population\\u000a is distributed widely throughout gray and white matter and numerically represents an extremely large cell pool. In this review,\\u000a we discuss the possibility that the glial

Peter Canoll; James E. Goldman

2008-01-01

178

Intracellular Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial progenitors  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is generally viewed as an extracellular pathogen. We have analyzed the tropism of H. pylori clinical isolates in a gnotobiotic transgenic mouse model of human chronic atrophic gastritis, a preneoplastic condition. These mice lack acid-producing parietal cells and have an amplified population of dividing gastric epithelial progenitors (GEPs) that express NeuAc?2,3Gal?1,4-glycans recognized by H. pylori adhesins. Scanning confocal and transmission electron microscopic studies of stomachs that had been colonized for 1 month or 1 year revealed intracellular bacterial collections (IBCs) in a small subset of multi- and oligopotential epithelial progenitors. Transmission electron microscopic and multilabel immunohistochemical analyses disclosed bacteria with several morphotypes, including spiral-shaped, in the cytoplasm and endosomes. Several stages in IBC evolution were documented, from a few solitary bacteria to consolidated populations in dividing and nondividing GEPs, to microorganisms traversing breaches in the GEP plasma cell membrane. IBC formation was not a unique feature of H. pylori strains isolated from patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. The notion that adult mammalian epithelial progenitors can function as a repository for H. pylori broadens the view of host habitats available to this and perhaps other pathogens. PMID:15795379

Oh, Jung D.; Karam, Sherif M.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

2005-01-01

179

Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines  

PubMed Central

Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) (AABBDD). Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the ?-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS) resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ?-gliadin, ?-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS) removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties. PMID:19351412

van den Broeck, Hetty C; van Herpen, Teun WJM; Schuit, Cees; Salentijn, Elma MJ; Dekking, Liesbeth; Bosch, Dirk; Hamer, Rob J; Smulders, Marinus JM; Gilissen, Ludovicus JWJ; van der Meer, Ingrid M

2009-01-01

180

Identifying variation in resistance to the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, between different ancestral and modern wheat species  

PubMed Central

Background Ancestral wheat relatives are important sources of genetic diversity for the introduction of novel traits for the improvement of modern bread wheat. In this study the aim was to assess the susceptibility of 34 accessions of the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (A genome) to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), the causal agent of take-all disease. The second aim was to explore the susceptibility of tetraploid wheat (T. durum) and the B genome progenitor species Aegilops speltoides to Ggt. Results Field trials, conducted over 5 years, identified seven T. monococcum accessions with a good level of resistance to take-all when exposed to natural inoculum under UK field conditions. All other accessions were highly susceptible or did not exhibit a consistent phenotype across years. DArT marker genotyping revealed that whole genome diversity was not closely related to resistance to take-all within T. monococcum, suggesting that multiple genetic sources of resistance may exist within the species. In contrast the tetraploid wheat cultivars and Ae. speltoides were all highly susceptible to the disease, including those with known elevated levels of benzoxazinoids. Conclusions The diploid wheat species T. monococcum may provide a genetic source of resistance to take-all disease that could be utilised to improve the performance of T. aestivum in high disease risk situations. This represents an extremely valuable resource to achieve economic and sustainable genetic control of this root disease. PMID:25084989

2014-01-01

181

De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Analyses of Gene Expression during Photomorphogenesis in Diploid Wheat Triticum monococcum  

PubMed Central

Background Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (accession G3116) and the domesticated spring wheat T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (accession DV92) by generating de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data derived from both etiolated and green seedlings. Principal Findings The de novo transcriptome assemblies of DV92 and G3116 represent 120,911 and 117,969 transcripts, respectively. We successfully mapped ?90% of these transcripts from each accession to barley and ?95% of the transcripts to T. urartu genomes. However, only ?77% transcripts mapped to the annotated barley genes and ?85% transcripts mapped to the annotated T. urartu genes. Differential gene expression analyses revealed 22% more light up-regulated and 35% more light down-regulated transcripts in the G3116 transcriptome compared to DV92. The DV92 and G3116 mRNA sequence reads aligned against the reference barley genome led to the identification of ?500,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and ?22,000 simple sequence repeat (SSR) sites. Conclusions De novo transcriptome assemblies of two accessions of the diploid wheat T. monococcum provide new empirical transcriptome references for improving Triticeae genome annotations, and insights into transcriptional programming during photomorphogenesis. The SNP and SSR sites identified in our analysis provide additional resources for the development of molecular markers. PMID:24821410

Naithani, Sushma; Sullivan, Chris; Preece, Justin; Tiwari, Vijay K.; Elser, Justin; Leonard, Jeffrey M.; Sage, Abigail; Gresham, Cathy; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; McCarthy, Fiona; Kersey, Paul; Lazo, Gerard R.; Jaiswal, Pankaj

2014-01-01

182

Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few topics in cardiovascular research have generated as much promise and controversy as that of using stem cells or progenitor\\u000a cells to improve cardiovascular function. The first section of this chapter will discuss general principles of stem and progenitor\\u000a cell biology and therapy. The second section will illustrate these principles with specific stem and progenitor cell types\\u000a used or proposed

Jalees Rehman; Keith L. March

183

Wheat Rusts in the United States in 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2007 90% of wheat stem rust races were QFC and 10% were RCRS Both races are relatively avirulent to wheat cultiars grown in the U.S. Wheat stem rust occurred in scattered locations on research plots of susceptible wheat cultivars in 2007, and did not cause yield loss. Wheat leaf rust was widespr...

184

Diseases Which Challenge Global Wheat Production - The Cereal Rusts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rusts of wheat are common and widespread diseases in the US and throughout the world. Wheat rusts have been important throughout the history of wheat cultivation and are currently important diseases that are responsible for regularly occurring yield losses in wheat. The wheat rust fungi are obli...

185

Stem and progenitor cell systems in liver development and regeneration.  

PubMed

The liver comprises two stem/progenitor cell systems: fetal and adult liver stem/progenitor cells. Fetal hepatic progenitor cells, derived from foregut endoderm, differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes during liver development. Adult hepatic progenitor cells contribute to regeneration after severe and chronic liver injuries. However, the characteristics of these somatic hepatic stem/progenitor cells remain unknown. Culture systems that can be used to analyze these cells were recently established and hepatic stem/progenitor cell-specific surface markers including delta-like 1 homolog (DLK), cluster of differentiation (CD) 13, CD133, and LIV2 were identified. Cells purified using antibodies against these markers proliferate for an extended period and differentiate into mature cells both in vitro and in vivo. Methods to force the differentiation of human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into hepatic progenitor cells have been recently established. We demonstrated that the CD13(+) CD133(+) fraction of human iPS-derived cells contained numerous hepatic progenitor-like cells. These analyses of hepatic stem/progenitor cells derived from somatic tissues and pluripotent stem cells will contribute to the development of new therapies for severe liver diseases. PMID:24773763

Kamiya, Akihide; Inagaki, Yutaka

2015-01-01

186

Nutritional regulation of stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Stem cells and their progenitors are maintained within a microenvironment, termed the niche, through local cell-cell communication. Systemic signals originating outside the niche also affect stem cell and progenitor behavior. This review summarizes studies that pertain to nutritional effects on stem and progenitor cell maintenance and proliferation in Drosophila. Multiple tissue types are discussed that utilize the insulin-related signaling pathway to convey nutritional information either directly to these progenitors or via other cell types within the niche. The concept of systemic control of these cell types is not limited to Drosophila and may be functional in vertebrate systems, including mammals. PMID:24255094

Shim, Jiwon; Gururaja-Rao, Shubha; Banerjee, Utpal

2013-01-01

187

Registration of ‘Faller’ Spring Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Faller’ (Reg. No. CV-1026, PI 648350) hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at North Dakota State University(NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES). Faller was derived from the ND2857/ND2814 cross made at NDSU in fall 1997. ND2857 ...

188

Registration of ‘USG 3555’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘USG 3555’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI 654454) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. USG 3555 was derived from the cross VA94-52-60 / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ (PI 583739 PVPO) // ’USG 3209’ (PI 617055 PVPO) and was t...

189

Mechanistic analysis of wheat chlorophyllase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyllase catalyzes the initial step in the degradation of chlorophyll and plays a key role in leaf senescence and fruit ripening. Here, we report the cloning of chlorophyllase from Triticum aestivum (wheat) and provide a detailed mechanistic analysis of the enzyme. Purification of recombinant chlorophyllase from an Escherichia coli expression system indicates that the enzyme functions as a dimeric protein.

Kiani A. J. Arkus; Edgar B. Cahoon; Joseph M. Jez

2005-01-01

190

REGISTRATION OF 'OK 101' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Ok101' is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS, and released in March 2001, in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. Motivation for its release was a unique combination of high tolerance to acidic soil, bro...

191

Registration of TAM401 wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'TAM 401', a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivar (PI658500) with experimental designation TX03M1096, was developed and released by Texas AgriLife Research in 2008. TAM 401 is an F4 derived line from the cross 'Mason' (PI 594044)/'Jagger' (PI593688). TAM 401 is an early maturing apic...

192

Registration of ‘Ok102’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ok102’ (Reg. no. CV-941, PI 632635) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. and the USDA-ARS. Ok102 was released in March 2002, primarily on the basis of its resistance to several foliar diseases, excellent milling quality, and desi...

193

REGISTRATION OF 'OK102' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Ok102' is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS. Ok102 was released in March 2002, primarily based on its resistance to several foliar diseases, excellent milling quality, and desirable dough st...

194

Registration of 'TAM 113' wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘TAM 113’ (Reg. No. CV-1081, PI 666125), a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar with experimental designation TX02A0252, was developed and released by Texas AgriLife Research in 2010. TAM 113 is an F5–derived line from the cross TX90V6313/TX94V3724 made at Vernon, TX in 1995. Both T...

195

Progenitor endothelial cell involvement in Alzheimer's disease  

SciTech Connect

There is compelling evidence that endothelial cells of the brain and periphery are dysfunctional in Alzheimer's Disease. There is evidence for a fundamental defect in, or abnormal aging of, endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis. The possibility that endothelial cell defects are a primary cause for Alzheimer's Disease or other dementias can be researched by molecular and cell biology studies as well as cell trafficking studies using recently demonstrated molecular imaging methods. The evidence for abnormal endothelial function and the methods to explore this hypothesis are presented.

Budinger, Thomas F.

2003-05-01

196

The Type Ia Supernovae Progenitor Problem: Searching for Progenitors in the Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most active areas of current astrophysical research is the search for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Understanding the nature(s) of the progenitors is crucial if we are to use these supernovae to conduct high-precision measurements of the history of cosmic expansion, because in order to confirm them as standardizable candles we need to understand the mechanism by which they are produced. Type Ia supernovae occur when carbon/oxygen white dwarfs explode, having gained mass either by accretion from a companion or by merging with another white dwarf. The white dwarfs in all Type Ia progenitors must go through a stage of high-rate accretion and possibly of nuclear burning. They should then be detectable as bright objects, with luminosities as high as a few times 1038 erg s-1. Furthermore, whatever the correct model(s), more than 1000 bright progenitors (and other systems that may be equally bright but in which the white dwarf does not reach the critical mass) are expected in the Milky Way. We are conducting a comprehensive search through archived data to identify unusual bright sources that may correspond to white dwarfs accreting at high rates. A significant fraction of the progenitors may appear as x-ray sources that are either supersoft or quasisoft some of the time. We have therefore searched the ROSAT, Chandra, and XMM databases to identify all such soft sources in the Milky Way that are detectable from Earth. We report on our results and their implications.

Birchall, Alexander; Di Stefano, R.; Primini, F.; Scalzo, R.

2013-01-01

197

Genome-wide association mapping for seedling and adult plant resistance to stripe rust in synthetic hexaploid wheat.  

PubMed

Use of genetic diversity from related wild and domesticated species has made a significant contribution to improving wheat productivity. Synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) exhibit natural genetic variation for resistance and/or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Stripe rust caused by (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici; Pst), is an important disease of wheat worldwide. To characterise loci conferring resistance to stripe rust in SHWs, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a panel of 181 SHWs using the wheat 9 K SNP iSelect array. The SHWs were evaluated for their response to the prevailing races of Pst at the seedling and adult plant stages, the latter in replicated field trials at two sites in Ethiopia in 2011. About 28% of the SHWs exhibited immunity at the seedling stage while 56% and 83% were resistant to Pst at the adult plant stage at Meraro and Arsi Robe, respectively. A total of 27 SNPs in nine genomic regions (1 BS, 2 AS, 2 BL, 3 BL, 3 DL, 5A, 5 BL, 6DS and 7A) were linked with resistance to Pst at the seedling stage, while 38 SNPs on 18 genomic regions were associated with resistance at the adult plant stage. Six genomic regions were commonly detected at both locations using a mixed linear model corrected for population structure, kinship relatedness and adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). The loci on chromosome regions 1 AS, 3 DL, 6 DS and 7 AL appeared to be novel QTL; our results confirm that resynthesized wheat involving its progenitor species is a rich source of new stripe (yellow) rust resistance that may be useful in choosing SHWs and incorporating diverse yellow rust (YR) resistance loci into locally adapted wheat cultivars. PMID:25153126

Zegeye, Habtemariam; Rasheed, Awais; Makdis, Farid; Badebo, Ayele; Ogbonnaya, Francis C

2014-01-01

198

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Seedling and Adult Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat  

PubMed Central

Use of genetic diversity from related wild and domesticated species has made a significant contribution to improving wheat productivity. Synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) exhibit natural genetic variation for resistance and/or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Stripe rust caused by (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici; Pst), is an important disease of wheat worldwide. To characterise loci conferring resistance to stripe rust in SHWs, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a panel of 181 SHWs using the wheat 9K SNP iSelect array. The SHWs were evaluated for their response to the prevailing races of Pst at the seedling and adult plant stages, the latter in replicated field trials at two sites in Ethiopia in 2011. About 28% of the SHWs exhibited immunity at the seedling stage while 56% and 83% were resistant to Pst at the adult plant stage at Meraro and Arsi Robe, respectively. A total of 27 SNPs in nine genomic regions (1BS, 2AS, 2BL, 3BL, 3DL, 5A, 5BL, 6DS and 7A) were linked with resistance to Pst at the seedling stage, while 38 SNPs on 18 genomic regions were associated with resistance at the adult plant stage. Six genomic regions were commonly detected at both locations using a mixed linear model corrected for population structure, kinship relatedness and adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). The loci on chromosome regions 1AS, 3DL, 6DS and 7AL appeared to be novel QTL; our results confirm that resynthesized wheat involving its progenitor species is a rich source of new stripe (yellow) rust resistance that may be useful in choosing SHWs and incorporating diverse yellow rust (YR) resistance loci into locally adapted wheat cultivars. PMID:25153126

Makdis, Farid; Badebo, Ayele; Ogbonnaya, Francis C.

2014-01-01

199

Intrinsic karyotype stability and gene copy number variations may have laid the foundation for tetraploid wheat formation  

PubMed Central

Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication is recurrent in plant evolution, yet only a small fraction of whole-genome duplications has led to successful speciation. A major challenge in the establishment of nascent polyploids is sustained karyotype instability, which compromises fitness. The three putative diploid progenitors of bread wheat, with AA, SS (S ? B), and DD genomes occurred sympatrically, and their cross-fertilization in different combinations may have resulted in fertile allotetraploids with various genomic constitutions. However, only SSAA or closely related genome combinations have led to the speciation of tetraploid wheats like Triticum turgidum and Triticum timopheevii. We analyzed early generations of four newly synthesized allotetraploid wheats with genome compositions SshSshAmAm, SlSlAA, SbSbDD, and AADD by combined fluorescence and genomic in situ hybridization-based karyotyping. Results of karyotype analyses showed that although SshSshAmAm and SlSlAA are characterized by immediate and persistent karyotype stability, massive aneuploidy and extensive chromosome restructuring are associated with SbSbDD and AADD in which parental subgenomes showed markedly different propensities for chromosome gain/loss and rearrangements. Although compensating aneuploidy and reciprocal translocation between homeologs prevailed, reproductive fitness was substantially compromised due to chromosome instability. Strikingly, localized genomic changes in repetitive DNA and copy-number variations in gene homologs occurred in both chromosome stable lines, SshSshAmAm and SlSlAA. Our data demonstrated that immediate and persistent karyotype stability is intrinsic to newly formed allotetraploid wheat with genome combinations analogous to natural tetraploid wheats. This property, coupled with rapid gene copy-number variations, may have laid the foundation of tetraploid wheat establishment. PMID:24218593

Zhang, Huakun; Bian, Yao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Rustgi, Sachin; Zhang, Bangjiao; Xu, Chunming; Li, Ning; Qi, Bao; Han, Fangpu; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

2013-01-01

200

Influence of volunteer wheat plant condition on movement of the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella, in winter wheat.  

PubMed

The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is the vector of wheat streak mosaic virus and high plains virus which cause significant crop loss in winter wheat throughout the western Great Plains. Volunteer wheat emerging before harvest, as a result of severe hail, is the primary source of mites and virus that infect fall-planted winter wheat. Wind-borne movement of the WCM is of key importance in the spread and infection of the virus complex. Significant movement of WCM from wheat has been thought to be closely tied to the senescence or deterioration of the host. Results from field and greenhouse studies indicated that movement from un-vernalized winter wheat was not closely associated with the deterioration of the wheat host. Greenhouse studies showed no correlation between WCM movement and plant condition, but there was a highly significant relationship between WCM movement and mite population on the host plant. Field studies did not demonstrate increased movement associated with deteriorating un-vernalized winter wheat. However, healthier hosts which were able to support a larger population of mites were associated with increased movement. The main influence on the level of mite movement relates to the size of the source population and not the condition of the host plant, but plant condition appears to be a factor in limiting the increase of the WCM population. PMID:14974690

Thomas, John A; Hein, Gary L

2003-01-01

201

WHEAT RUSTS IN THE UNITED STATES IN 2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stem rust caused little damage to wheat in the U.S. in 2004. Wheat leaf rust caused an estimated loss of 30 million bushels of wheat in the U.S. in 2004. Losses to leaf rust were 4.7% in Texas and 1.0% total for winter wheat and 10.0% for spring wheat in Minnesota and 1.9% total for spring wheat. T...

202

Cellcell interaction networks regulate blood stem and progenitor cell fate  

E-print Network

Cell­cell interaction networks regulate blood stem and progenitor cell fate Daniel C Kirouac1 a novel mathematical model of blood stem cell development incorporating cell-level kinetic parameters. Through integrated in silico and experimental analyses, we show that blood stem and progenitor cell fate

Zandstra, Peter W.

203

Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Vascular Function, and Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to atherogenesis by inducing endothelial-cell injury and dysfunction. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow have a role in ongoing endothelial repair and that impaired mobilization or depletion of these cells contributes to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease progression. methods We measured the number of colony-forming units of endothelial progenitor cells in

Jonathan M. Hill; Gloria Zalos; Julian P. J. Halcox; William H. Schenke; Myron A. Waclawiw; Arshed A. Quyyumi; Toren Finkel

2009-01-01

204

Differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells to dopaminergic neurons.  

PubMed

The differentiation of dopamine-producing neurons from chromaffin progenitors might represent a new valuable source for replacement therapies in Parkinson's disease. However, characterization of their differentiation potential is an important prerequisite for efficient engraftment. Based on our previous studies on isolation and characterization of chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenals, this study investigates their potential to produce dopaminergic neurons and means to enhance their dopaminergic differentiation. Chromaffin progenitors grown in sphere culture showed an increased expression of nestin and Mash1, indicating an increase of the progenitor subset. Proneurogenic culture conditions induced the differentiation into neurons positive for neural markers ?-III-tubulin, MAP2, and TH accompanied by a decrease of Mash1 and nestin. Furthermore, Notch2 expression decreased concomitantly with a downregulation of downstream effectors Hes1 and Hes5 responsible for self-renewal and proliferation maintenance of progenitor cells. Chromaffin progenitor-derived neurons secreted dopamine upon stimulation by potassium. Strikingly, treatment of differentiating cells with retinoic and ascorbic acid resulted in a twofold increase of dopamine secretion while norepinephrine and epinephrine were decreased. Initiation of dopamine synthesis and neural maturation is controlled by Pitx3 and Nurr1. Both Pitx3 and Nurr1 were identified in differentiating chromaffin progenitors. Along with the gained dopaminergic function, electrophysiology revealed features of mature neurons, such as sodium channels and the capability to fire multiple action potentials. In summary, this study elucidates the capacity of chromaffin progenitor cells to generate functional dopaminergic neurons, indicating their potential use in cell replacement therapies. PMID:22507143

Vukicevic, Vladimir; Schmid, Janine; Hermann, Andreas; Lange, Sven; Qin, Nan; Gebauer, Linda; Chunk, Kuei-Fang; Ravens, Ursula; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Storch, Alexander; Ader, Marius; Bornstein, Stefan R; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

2012-01-01

205

Isolation and Developmental Characterization of Cerebral Cortical Multipotent Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipotent neural progenitor species present within developing and adult periventricular generative zones can give rise to all of the major cellular elements of the brain. Although lineage specification during development has been thought to be restricted to these generative zones, we have utilized quantitative immunoselection techniques to isolate an enriched population of multipotent neural progenitor cells that express polysialylated neural

Ronen Marmur; Peter C Mabie; Solen Gokhan; Qingbin Song; John A Kessler; Mark F Mehler

1998-01-01

206

Impairment of circulating endothelial progenitors in Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pathological angiogenesis represents a critical issue in the progression of many diseases. Down syndrome is postulated to be a systemic anti-angiogenesis disease model, possibly due to increased expression of anti-angiogenic regulators on chromosome 21. The aim of our study was to elucidate some features of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the context of this syndrome. METHODS: Circulating endothelial progenitors

Valerio Costa; Linda Sommese; Amelia Casamassimi; Roberta Colicchio; Claudia Angelini; Valentina Marchesano; Lara Milone; Bartolomeo Farzati; Alfonso Giovane; Carmela Fiorito; Monica Rienzo; Marco Picardi; Bice Avallone; Massimiliano Marco Corsi; Berardo Sarubbi; Raffaele Calabrò; Paola Salvatore; Alfredo Ciccodicola; Claudio Napoli

2010-01-01

207

The Role of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Tumour Vasculogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the biological behaviour of endothelial progenitor cells and their role and significance in tumour vasculogenesis. Data Sources: The data in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for the relevant articles in English published from March, 1997, to March, 2008. The search terms were ‘endothelial progenitor cells’ (EPCs) and ‘neoplasm’. Articles about the biological behaviour of

Yi-tao Ding; Shant Kumar; De-cai Yu

2008-01-01

208

Retinal progenitor cells can produce restricted subsets of horizontal cells  

E-print Network

Retinal progenitor cells can produce restricted subsets of horizontal cells S. B. Rompani and C. L cells have been shown to be multipotent through- out development. Similarly, many other structures of the developing central nervous system have been found to contain multipotent progenitor cells. Previous lineage

Tabin, Cliff

209

Novel variants of HMW glutenin subunits from Aegilops section Sitopsis species in relation to evolution and wheat breeding  

PubMed Central

Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), encoded by the genes at Glu-1 loci in wheat and its related species, are significant in the determination of grain processing quality. However, the diversity and variations of HMW-GSs are relatively low in bread wheat. More interests are now focused on wheat wild relatives in Triticeae. The genus Aegilops represents an important germplasm for novel HWM-GSs and other useful genes for wheat genetic improvement. Results Six novel Glu-1 alleles and HMW-GSs were identified and characterized from three species of Aegilops section Sitopsis (S genome). Both open reading frames (ORFs) and promoter regions of these Glu-1 alleles were sequenced and characterized. The ORFs of Sitopsis Glu-1 genes are approximately 2.9?kb and 2.3?kb for x-type and y-type subunits, respectively. Although the primary structures of Sitopsis HMW-GSs are similar to those of previously reported ones, all six x-type or y-type subunits have the large fragment insertions. Our comparative analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences verified that Aegilops section Sitopsis species encode novel HMW-GSs with their molecular weights larger than almost all other known HMW-GSs. The Glu-1 promoter sequences share the high homology among S genome. Our phylogenetic analyses by both network and NJ tree indicated that there is a close phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of x-type and y-type subunit between S and D genome. Conclusions The large molecular weight of HMW-GSs from S genome is a unique feature identified in this study. Such large subunits are resulted from the duplications of repetitive domains in Sitopsis HMW-GSs. The unequal crossover events are the most likely mechanism of variations in glutenin subunits. The S genome-encoded subunits, 1Dx2.2 and 1Dx2.2* have independent origins, although they share similar evolutionary mechanism. As HMW-GSs play a key role in wheat baking quality, these large Sitopsis glutenin subunits can be used as special genetic resources for wheat quality improvement. PMID:22646663

2012-01-01

210

Endothelial Progenitor Cells Enter the Aging Arena  

PubMed Central

Age is a significant risk factor for the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Although pharmacological treatments, including statins and anti-hypertensive drugs, have improved the prognosis for patients with cardiovascular disease, it remains a leading cause of mortality in those aged 65?years and over. Furthermore, given the increased life expectancy of the population in developed countries, there is a clear need for alternative treatment strategies. Consequently, the relationship between aging and progenitor cell-mediated repair is of great interest. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an integral role in the cellular repair mechanisms for endothelial regeneration and maintenance. However, EPCs are subject to age-associated changes that diminish their number in circulation and function, thereby enhancing vascular disease risk. A great deal of research is aimed at developing strategies to harness the regenerative capacity of these cells. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the cells termed “EPCs,” examine the impact of age on EPC-mediated repair and identify therapeutic targets with potential for attenuating the age-related decline in vascular health via beneficial actions on EPCs. PMID:22363299

Williamson, K.; Stringer, S. E.; Alexander, M. Y.

2012-01-01

211

The structural organisation of the gene encoding class II starch synthase of wheat and barley and the evolution of the genes encoding starch synthases in plants.  

PubMed

Wheat and barley contain at least four classes of starch synthases in the endosperm, granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) and starch synthases I, II and III (SSI, SSII, SSIII). In this work, SSII in barley is shown to be associated with the starch granule by using antibodies. A cDNA from barley encoding SSII and the genes for SSII from barley and Aegilops tauschii ( A. tauschii, the D genome donor to wheat) are characterised. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and PCR were used to localise the wheat SSII gene to the short arm of chromosome 7, showing synteny with the location of the rice SSII gene to the short arm of chromosome 6. Comparison of the genes encoding SSII of A. tauschii, barley and Arabidopsis showed a conserved exon-intron structure although the size of the introns varied considerably. Extending such comparison between the genes encoding starch synthases (GBSSI, SSI, SSII and SSIII) from A. tauschii and Arabidopsis showed that the exon-intron structures are essentially conserved. Separate and distinct genes for the individual starch synthases therefore existed before the separation of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. PMID:12590345

Li, Zhongyi; Sun, Fei; Xu, Shoumin; Chu, Xiusheng; Mukai, Y; Yamamoto, M; Ali, Shahjahan; Rampling, Lynette; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew K

2003-03-01

212

Wheat puroindolines interact to form friabilin and control wheat grain hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat grain is sold based upon several physiochemical characteristics, one of the most important being grain texture. Grain texture in wheat directly affects many end use qualities such as milling yield, break flour yield, and starch damage. The hardness (Ha) locus located on the short arm of chromosome 5D is known to control grain hardness in wheat. This locus contains

A. C. Hogg; T. Sripo; B. Beecher; J. M. Martin; M. J. Giroux

2004-01-01

213

Isolation and characterization of wheat-rye recombinants involving chromosome arm 1DS of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introgression of genetic material from alien species is assuming increased importance in wheat breeding programs. One example is the translocation of the short arm of rye chromosome 1 (1RS) onto homoeologous wheat chromosomes, which confers disease resistance and increased yield on wheat. However, this translocation is also associated with dough quality defects. To break the linkage between the desirable

P. M. Rogowsky; F. L. Y. Guidet; P. Langridge; K. W. Shepherd; R. M. D. Koebner

1991-01-01

214

Tolerance of wheat to Russian wheat aphids: Nitrogen fertilization reduces yield loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nitrogen nutrition and Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko) infestation on morphology and grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was studied in growth chamber experiments. Plants were grown with nutrient solution containing 100, 50, 10, or 0 percent of the normal complement of nitrogen. Plants were infested with eight apterous adult Russian wheat aphids at the

Walter E. Riedell

1990-01-01

215

Grain and vegetative biomass reduction by the Russian wheat aphid in winter wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a severe pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), other small grains, and grasses. Although the Russian wheat aphid is a significant pest of small grains, its feeding effects on grain yield and vegetative biomass in ...

216

Association Analysis of Soft Wheat Quality Traits in Eastern US Soft Winter Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soft wheat quality is highly heritable, is controlled by multiple loci, and has been mapped in a number of bi-parental crosses. We extended the mapping information on soft wheat quality by using association analysis between genetic markers and quality phenotyping in 192 soft winter wheat cultivars ...

217

Resistance among U.S. wheat Triticum aestivum cultivars to the wheat pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of blast on several graminaceous plants. The M. oryzae population causing wheat blast has not been found outside South America. U.S. wheat production is at risk to this pathogen if introduced and established. Proactive testing of US wheat cultivars for their re...

218

Safeguarding world wheat and barley production against Russian wheat aphid: An international pre-breeding initiative  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of wheat and barley throughout the World. This aphid, although is not yet present in Australia, is extremely damaging with up to 70% yield loses in wheat and barley producing lands, causing significant financia...

219

Immunocytochemical localization of wheat germ agglutinin in wheat  

PubMed Central

Immunocytological techniques were developed to localize the plant lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), in the tissues and cells of wheat plants. In a previous study we demonstrated with a radioimmunoassay that the lectin is present in wheat embryos and adult plants both in the roots and at the base of the stem. We have now found, using rhodamine, peroxidase, and ferritin-labeled secondary antibodies, that WGA is located in cells and tissues that establish direct contact with the soil during germination and growth of the plant In the embryo, WGA is found in the surface layer of the radicle, the first adventitious roots, the coleoptile, and the scutellum. Although found throughout the coleorhiza and epiblast, it is at its highest levels within the cells at the surface of these organs. In adult plants, WGA is located only in the caps and tips of adventitious roots. Reaction product for WGA was not visualized in embryonic or adult leaves or in other tissues of adult plants. At the subcellular level, WGA is located at the periphery of protein bodies, within electron-translucent regions of the cytoplasm, and at the cell wall-protoplast interface. Since WGA is found at potential infection sites and is known to have fungicidal properties, it may function in the defense against fungal pathogens. PMID:7045136

1982-01-01

220

Temporal Fate Specification and Neural Progenitor Competence During Development  

PubMed Central

The vast diversity of neurons and glia of the central nervous system is generated from a small, heterogeneous population of progenitors that undergo transcriptional changes during development to sequentially specify distinct cell fates. Guided by cell intrinsic and temporal extrinsic cues, invertebrate and mammalian neural progenitors carefully regulate when and how many of each cell type is produced to form functional neural circuits. Emerging evidence indicates that neural progenitors also undergo changes in global chromatin architecture, thereby restricting the duration a particular temporal cue can act. Thus, studies of temporal identity specification and progenitor competence can provide insight into how we may use neural progenitors to more effectively generate specific cell types for brain repair. PMID:24400340

Kohwi, Minoree; Doe, Chris Q.

2014-01-01

221

Constraining fast radio burst progenitors with gravitational lensing  

E-print Network

Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are new transient radio sources discovered recently. Because of the angular resolution restriction in radio surveys, no optical counter part has been identified yet so it is hard to determine the progenitor of FRBs. In this paper we propose to use radio lensing survey to constrain FRB progenitors. We show that, different types of progenitors lead to different probabilities for a FRB to be gravitationally lensed by dark matter halos in foreground galaxies, since different type progenitors result in different redshift distributions of FRBs. For example, the redshift distribution of FRBs arising from double stars shifts toward lower redshift than of the FRBs arising from single stars, because double stars and single stars have different evolution timescales. With detailed calculations, we predict that the FRB sample size for producing one lensing event varies significantly for different FRB progenitor models. We argue that this fact can be used to distinguish different FRB models and als...

Li, Chun-Yu

2014-01-01

222

Constraints on Type Ib/c and GRB Progenitors  

E-print Network

Although there is strong support for the collapsar engine as the power source of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we still do not definitively know the progenitor of these explosions. Here we review the current set of progenitor scenarios for long-duration GRBs and the observational constraints on these scenarios. Examining these, we find that single-star models cannot be the only progenitor for long-duration GRBs. Several binary progenitors can match the solid observational constraints and also have the potential to match the trends we are currently seeing in the observations. Type Ib/c supernovae are also likely to be produced primarily in binaries; we discuss the relationship between the progenitors of these explosions and those of the long-duration GRBs.

C. L. Fryer; P. A. Mazzali; J. Prochaska; E. Cappellaro; A. Panaitescu; E. Berger; M. van Putten; E. P. J. van den Heuvel; P. Young; A. Hungerford; G. Rockefeller; S. -C. Yoon; P. Podsiadlowski; K. Nomoto; R. Chevalier; B. Schmidt; S. Kulkarni

2007-02-13

223

Mathematical modeling supports substantial mouse neural progenitor cell death  

PubMed Central

Background Existing quantitative models of mouse cerebral cortical development are not fully constrained by experimental data. Results Here, we use simple difference equations to model neural progenitor cell fate decisions, incorporating intermediate progenitor cells and initially low rates of neural progenitor cell death. Also, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to investigate possible uncertainty in the fraction of cells that divide, differentiate, and die at each cell cycle. Conclusion We demonstrate that uniformly low-level neural progenitor cell death, as concluded in previous models, is incompatible with normal mouse cortical development. Levels of neural progenitor cell death up to and exceeding 50% are compatible with normal cortical development and may operate to prevent forebrain overgrowth as observed following cell death attenuation, as occurs in caspase 3-null mutant mice. PMID:19602274

McConnell, Michael J; MacMillan, Hugh R; Chun, Jerold

2009-01-01

224

Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality  

PubMed Central

Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism). PMID:24883389

Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

2014-01-01

225

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-10-01

226

A unique wheat disease resistance-like gene governs effector-triggered susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogens  

PubMed Central

Plant disease resistance is often conferred by genes with nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) or serine/threonine protein kinase (S/TPK) domains. Much less is known about mechanisms of susceptibility, particularly to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. The pathogens that cause the diseases tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch on wheat produce effectors (host-selective toxins) that induce susceptibility in wheat lines harboring corresponding toxin sensitivity genes. The effector ToxA is produced by both pathogens, and sensitivity to ToxA is governed by the Tsn1 gene on wheat chromosome arm 5BL. Here, we report the cloning of Tsn1, which was found to have disease resistance gene-like features, including S/TPK and NBS-LRR domains. Mutagenesis revealed that all three domains are required for ToxA sensitivity, and hence disease susceptibility. Tsn1 is unique to ToxA-sensitive genotypes, and insensitive genotypes are null. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Tsn1 arose in the B-genome diploid progenitor of polyploid wheat through a gene-fusion event that gave rise to its unique structure. Although Tsn1 is necessary to mediate ToxA recognition, yeast two-hybrid experiments suggested that the Tsn1 protein does not interact directly with ToxA. Tsn1 transcription is tightly regulated by the circadian clock and light, providing further evidence that Tsn1-ToxA interactions are associated with photosynthesis pathways. This work suggests that these necrotrophic pathogens may thrive by subverting the resistance mechanisms acquired by plants to combat other pathogens. PMID:20624958

Faris, Justin D.; Zhang, Zengcui; Lu, Huangjun; Lu, Shunwen; Reddy, Leela; Cloutier, Sylvie; Fellers, John P.; Meinhardt, Steven W.; Rasmussen, Jack B.; Xu, Steven S.; Oliver, Richard P.; Simons, Kristin J.; Friesen, Timothy L.

2010-01-01

227

Threshing efficiency as an incentive for rapid domestication of emmer wheat  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The harvesting method of wild and cultivated cereals has long been recognized as an important factor in the emergence of domesticated non-shattering ear genotypes. This study aimed to quantify the effects of spike brittleness and threshability on threshing time and efficiency in emmer wheat, and to evaluate the implications of post-harvest processes on domestication of cereals in the Near East. Methods A diverse collection of tetraploid wheat genotypes, consisting of Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides – the wild progenitor of domesticated wheat – traditional landraces, modern cultivars (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and 150 recombinant (wild × modern) inbred lines, was used in replicated controlled threshing experiments to quantify the effects of spike brittleness and threshability on threshing time and efficiency. Key Results The transition from a brittle hulled wild phenotype to non-brittle hulled phenotype (landraces) was associated with an approx. 30 % reduction in threshing time, whereas the transition from the latter to non-brittle free-threshing cultivars was associated with an approx. 85 % reduction in threshing time. Similar trends were obtained with groups of recombinant inbred lines showing extreme phenotypes of brittleness and threshability. Conclusions In tetraploid wheat, both non-brittle spike and free-threshing are labour-saving traits that increase the efficiency of post-harvest processing, which could have been an incentive for rapid domestication of the Near Eastern cereals, thus refuting the recently proposed hypothesis regarding extra labour associated with the domesticated phenotype (non-brittle spike) and its presumed role in extending the domestication episode time frame. PMID:23884398

Tzarfati, Raanan; Saranga, Yehoshua; Barak, Vered; Gopher, Avi; Korol, Abraham B.; Abbo, Shahal

2013-01-01

228

PCR assays for the identification of rare recombination types from VP1 to 3D genomic region of vaccine derived poliovirus strains.  

PubMed

Poliomyelitis has been effectively controlled by the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) or trivalent live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Since 1964, the use of OPV in mass vaccinations has resulted in drastic reductions of the number of poliomyelitis cases caused by wild-type polioviruses. However, the characterization of OPV derivatives with increased neurovirulence, constituted a real problem with respect to OPV safety. Mutations at attenuating sites of the genome and recombination events between Sabin strains of the trivalent OPV vaccine have been correlated with the loss of the attenuated phenotype of OPV strains and the acquisition of traits characteristic of wild polioviruses. In consequence, early detection and characterization of recombinant evolved derivatives of vaccine strains is highly important. In this report, ten PCR assays are described which allow for the identification of rare recombination events located in VP1, 2A, 2C, 3A, 3C and 3D genomic regions and predominant recombination events located in 2C and 3D genomic regions of OPV derivatives. These assays could be readily implemented in diagnostics laboratories lacking sequencing facilities as a first approach for the early detection and characterization of recombinant OPV derivatives. PMID:24315968

Dimitriou, T G; Pliaka, V; Kyriakopoulou, Z; Ruether, I G A; Tsakogiannis, D; Fountoucidou, P; Gartzonika, C; Levidiotou-Stefanou, S; Markoulatos, P

2014-08-01

229

Redefining endothelial progenitor cells via clonal analysis and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell principals  

PubMed Central

The limited vessel-forming capacity of infused endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into patients with cardiovascular dysfunction may be related to a misunderstanding of the biologic potential of the cells. EPCs are generally identified by cell surface antigen expression or counting in a commercially available kit that identifies “endothelial cell colony-forming units” (CFU-ECs). However, the origin, proliferative potential, and differentiation capacity of CFU-ECs is controversial. In contrast, other EPCs with blood vessel-forming ability, termed endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), have been isolated from human peripheral blood. We compared the function of CFU-ECs and ECFCs and determined that CFU-ECs are derived from the hematopoietic system using progenitor assays, and analysis of donor cells from polycythemia vera patients harboring a Janus kinase 2 V617F mutation in hematopoietic stem cell clones. Further, CFU-ECs possess myeloid progenitor cell activity, differentiate into phagocytic macrophages, and fail to form perfused vessels in vivo. In contrast, ECFCs are clonally distinct from CFU-ECs, display robust proliferative potential, and form perfused vessels in vivo. Thus, these studies establish that CFU-ECs are not EPCs and the role of these cells in angiogenesis must be re-examined prior to further clinical trials, whereas ECFCs may serve as a potential therapy for vascular regeneration. PMID:17053059

Mead, Laura E.; Prater, Daniel; Krier, Theresa R.; Mroueh, Karim N.; Li, Fang; Krasich, Rachel; Temm, Constance J.; Prchal, Josef T.

2007-01-01

230

Galaxies, their satellites and progenitors: chemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a model that combines N-body cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters and a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation (SAG: Semi-analytical galaxies; Lagos, Cora & Padilla, 2008) in order to study the properties of galaxy progenitors, using the information provided by their stellar haloes, and surviving satellites at redshift z = 0. We model the formation of stellar haloes by considering tidal stripping events acting on the satellite galaxies before the mergers occur, being able to follow their mass, luminosity and chemical properties. We find that the satellite galaxies have lower metal- licities than the stellar haloes of central galaxies for a given host DM halo mass, as has been already noted by Lagos, Padilla & Cora (2009), using a different approach.

Gargiulo, I.; Cora, S. A.; Padilla, N. D.

231

PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.  

SciTech Connect

Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to stem cell imaging is proposed to circumvent the major limitation of in vitro radiolabeling – the eventual radiolabel decay. Stable transduction of stem cells in vitro would allow for the selection of high quality stem cells with optimal functional parameters of the transduced reporter systems. The use of a long-lived radioisotope 124I to label a highly specific reporter gene probe will allow for ex vivo labeling of stem cells and their imaging immediately after injection and during the following next week. The use of short-lived radioisotopes (i.e., 18F) to label highly specific reporter gene probes will allow repetitive PET imaging for the assessment of to stem cell migration, targeting, differentiation, and long-term viability of stem cell-derived tissues. Qualifications of the research team and resources. An established research team of experts in various disciplines has been assembled at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) over the past two years including the PI, senior co-investigators and collaborators. The participants of this team are recognized internationally to be among the leaders in their corresponding fields of research and clinical medicine. The resources at MDACC are exceptionally well developed and have been recently reinforced by the installation of a microPET and microSPECT/CT cameras, and a 7T MRI system for high resolution animal imaging; and by integrating a synthetic chemistry core for the development and production of precursors for radiolabeling.

Gelovani, Juri G.

2008-05-13

232

Labeling primitive myeloid progenitor cells in Xenopus.  

PubMed

In Xenopus the first blood cells to differentiate in the embryo are the primitive myeloid lineages, which arise from the anterior ventral blood islands during the neurula stages. Primitive myeloid cells (PMCs) will give rise to the embryonic pool of neutrophils and macrophages, a highly migratory population of cells with various functions during development and tissue repair. Understanding the development and behavior of PMCs depends on our ability to label, manipulate, and image these cells. Xenopus embryos have several advantages in the study of PMCs, including a well-established fate map and the possibility of performing transplants in order to label these cells. In addition, Xenopus embryos are easy to manipulate and their external development and transparency at the tadpole stages make them amenable to imaging techniques. Here we describe two methods for labeling primitive myeloid progenitor cells during early Xenopus development. PMID:22914938

Costa, Ricardo; Chen, Yaoyao; Paredes, Roberto; Amaya, Enrique

2012-01-01

233

New approaches to SNe Ia progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are a major tool in cosmology and play a key role in the chemical evolution of galaxies, the nature of their progenitor systems (apart from the fact that they must content at least one white dwarf, that explodes) remains largely unknown. In the last decade, considerable efforts have been made, both observationally and theoretically, to solve this problem. Observations have, however, revealed a previously unsuspected variety of events, ranging from very underluminous outbursts to clearly overluminous ones, and spanning a range well outside the peak luminosity-decline rate of the light curve relationship, used to make calibrated candles of the SNe Ia. On the theoretical side, new explosion scenarios, such as violent mergings of pairs of white dwarfs, have been explored. We review those recent developments, emphasizing the new observational findings, but also trying to tie them to the different scenarios and explosion mechanisms proposed thus far.

Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar

2014-10-01

234

Genetic Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium in Chinese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Revealed by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and fifty bread wheat lines, mainly Chinese mini core accessions, were assayed for polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on 512 whole-genome microsatellite loci representing a mean marker density of 5.1 cM. A total of 6,724 alleles ranging from 1 to 49 per locus were identified in all collections. The mean PIC value was 0.650, ranging from 0 to 0.965. Population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that landraces and modern varieties were two relatively independent genetic sub-groups. Landraces had a higher allelic diversity than modern varieties with respect to both genomes and chromosomes in terms of total number of alleles and allelic richness. 3,833 (57.0%) and 2,788 (41.5%) rare alleles with frequencies of <5% were found in the landrace and modern variety gene pools, respectively, indicating greater numbers of rare variants, or likely new alleles, in landraces. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that A genome had the largest genetic differentiation and D genome the lowest. In contrast to genetic diversity, modern varieties displayed a wider average LD decay across the whole genome for locus pairs with r2>0.05 (P<0.001) than the landraces. Mean LD decay distance for the landraces at the whole genome level was <5 cM, while a higher LD decay distance of 5–10 cM in modern varieties. LD decay distances were also somewhat different for each of the 21 chromosomes, being higher for most of the chromosomes in modern varieties (<5?25 cM) compared to landraces (<5?15 cM), presumably indicating the influences of domestication and breeding. This study facilitates predicting the marker density required to effectively associate genotypes with traits in Chinese wheat genetic resources. PMID:21365016

Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Ge, Hongmei; Dong, Yuchen; Zhang, Xueyong

2011-01-01

235

The dynamics of murine mammary stem/progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The stem/progenitor cells in the murine mammary gland are a highly dynamic population of cells that are responsible for ductal elongation in puberty, homeostasis maintenance in adult, and lobulo-alveolar genesis during pregnancy. In recent years understanding the epithelial cell hierarchy within the mammary gland is becoming particularly important as these different stem/progenitor cells were perceived to be the cells of origin for various subtypes of breast cancer. Although significant advances have been made in enrichment and isolation of stem/progenitor cells by combinations of antibodies against cell surface proteins together with flow cytometry, and in identification of stem/progenitor cells with multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal using mammary fat pad reconstitution assay and in vivo genetic labeling technique, a clear understanding of how these different stem/progenitors are orchestrated in the mammary gland is still lacking. Here we discuss the different in vivo and in vitro methods currently available for stem/progenitor identification, their associated caveats, and a possible new hierarchy model to reconcile various putative stem/progenitor cell populations identified by different research groups.

DONG, Qiaoxiang; SUN, Lu-Zhe

2014-01-01

236

A COMPREHENSIVE PROGENITOR MODEL FOR SNe Ia  

SciTech Connect

Although the nature of the progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear, the single-degenerate (SD) channel for the progenitor is currently accepted, in which a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) accretes hydrogen-rich material from its companion, increases its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit, and then explodes as an SN Ia. The companion may be a main sequence or a slightly evolved star (WD + MS), or a red giant star (WD + RG). Incorporating the effect of mass stripping and accretion-disk instability on the evolution of the WD binary, we carried out binary stellar evolution calculations for more than 1600 close WD binaries. As a result, the initial parameter spaces for SNe Ia are presented in an orbital period-secondary mass (log P{sub i}, M {sup i}{sub 2}) plane. We confirmed that in a WD + MS system, the initial companion leading to SNe Ia may have mass from 1 M{sub sun} to 5 M{sub sun}. The initial WD mass for SNe Ia from WD + MS channel is as low as 0.565 M{sub sun}, while the lowest WD mass from the WD + RG channel is 1.0 M{sub sun}. Adopting the above results, we studied the birth rate of SNe Ia via a binary population synthesis approach. We found that the Galactic SNe Ia birth rate from SD model is (2.55-2.9) x 10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} (including WD + He star channel), which is slightly smaller than that from observation. If a single starburst is assumed, the distribution of the delay time of SNe Ia from the SD model may be a weak bimodality, where WD + He channel contributes to SNe Ia with delay time shorter than 10{sup 8} yr and WD + RG channel to those with age longer than 6 Gyr.

Meng, X.; Yang, W., E-mail: xiangcunmeng@hotmail.co [School of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China)

2010-02-20

237

Production of fuel ethanol from wheat straw  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat straw contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. The pretreatment of wheat straw is essential prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Research needs to be carried out to develop an efficient pretreatment method which can greatly help enzyme...

238

TRACKING WHEAT RUST ON A CONTINENTAL SCALE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rusts of wheat are important fungal plant pathogens that can be wind disseminated for thousands of kilometers across continents and oceans. Rusts are obligate parasites that interact with resistance genes in wheat in a gene-for-gene manner. New races of rust develop by mutation and selection for...

239

Functional dissection of wheat disease resistance pathways  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat is an essential component of human food supply. We are working to identify genes that mediate resistance to the most significant pathogens of wheat, so that ultimately, we can engineer improved disease resistance. We are employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to test if candidate gene...

240

Using transcriptomics to understand the wheat genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important food crop in the world, and transcriptomics studies of this crop promise to reveal the expression dynamics of genes that control many agriculturally important traits. In this review of wheat transcriptomics research, the current status of transcript...

241

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH SURFACE TREATMENT FOR STORED WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diatomaceous earth (DE) can be used as a surface treatment in stored wheat to control pest infestations. However, it is not known how the thickness of the DE-treated wheat layer or grain temperature impacts effectiveness. When adult Rhizopertha dominica (F.), lesser grain borers, were released in e...

242

IMPROVING WHEAT QUALITY CONSISTENCY BY DENSITY SEGREGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The end-use quality of grain crops can vary significantly within a given field. Research was conducted in northeastern Oregon to determine the amount of wheat quality variability due to landscape position and if improvements in the consistency of wheat quality delivered at the farm gate could be ma...

243

Biodegradability of wheat gluten based bioplastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large variety of wheat gluten based bioplastics, which were plasticized with glycerol, were subjected to biodegradation. The materials covered the total range available for the biochemical control parameter Fi, which expresses the percentage of aggregated proteins. This quantity can be related to the density of covalent crosslinks in the wheat gluten network, which are induced by technological treatments. The

Sandra Domenek; Pierre Feuilloley; Jean Gratraud; Marie-Hélène Morel; Stéphane Guilbert

2004-01-01

244

[The nutritive value of wheat germ floc].  

PubMed

The experimental investigation of the food value of wheat germ floc included the study of their chemical composition, biological value, and assimilability of the protein. Basing on the results obtained the authors have made a conclusion on the high food value of wheat germ floc and on their promising use as enriching additives to varying foodstuffs. PMID:2399684

Safronova, A M; Vysotski?, V G; Narodetskaia, R V; Trushina, E N; Sandakova, G K; Kolkunova, G K

1990-01-01

245

Response of wheat to sulfur fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coker 747 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown on Keo silt loam (coarse?silty, mixed, thermic Dystric Fluventic Entrochrepts) with four S sources applied at various rates for two years. The innate S level of this soil was not adequate for optimum grain yield; therefore, additional S significantly increased grain yield and S concentration and decreased N\\/S ratios in wheat tissue.

Richard J. Mahler; Richard L. Maples

1986-01-01

246

Sequencing of Chloroplast Genomes from Wheat, Barley, Rye and Their Relatives Provides a Detailed Insight into the Evolution of the Triticeae Tribe  

PubMed Central

Using Roche/454 technology, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes of 12 Triticeae species, including bread wheat, barley and rye, as well as the diploid progenitors and relatives of bread wheat Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii. Two wild tetraploid taxa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata, were also included. Additionally, we incorporated wild Einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum and its domesticated form T. monococcum and two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) genotypes. Chloroplast genomes were used for overall sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis and dating of divergence times. We estimate that barley diverged from rye and wheat approximately 8–9 million years ago (MYA). The genome donors of hexaploid wheat diverged between 2.1–2.9 MYA, while rye diverged from Triticum aestivum approximately 3–4 MYA, more recently than previously estimated. Interestingly, the A genome taxa T. boeoticum and T. urartu were estimated to have diverged approximately 570,000 years ago. As these two have a reproductive barrier, the divergence time estimate also provides an upper limit for the time required for the formation of a species boundary between the two. Furthermore, we conclusively show that the chloroplast genome of hexaploid wheat was contributed by the B genome donor and that this unknown species diverged from Ae. speltoides about 980,000 years ago. Additionally, sequence alignments identified a translocation of a chloroplast segment to the nuclear genome which is specific to the rye/wheat lineage. We propose the presented phylogeny and divergence time estimates as a reference framework for future studies on Triticeae. PMID:24614886

Middleton, Christopher P.; Senerchia, Natacha; Stein, Nils; Akhunov, Eduard D.; Keller, Beat

2014-01-01

247

Dynamics of the evolution of orthologous and paralogous portions of a complex locus region in two genomes of allopolyploid wheat.  

PubMed

Two overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the B genome of the tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum were identified, each of which contains one of the two high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin genes, comprising the complex Glu-B1 locus. The complete sequence (285 506 bp of DNA) of this chromosomal region was determined. The two paralogous x-type ( Glu-1-1 ) and y-type ( Glu-1-2 ) HMW-glutenin genes of the complex Glu-B1 locus were found to be separated by ca. 168 000 bp instead of the 51 000 bp separation previously reported for the orthologous Glu-D1 locus of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat. This difference in intergene spacing is due almost entirely to be the insertion of clusters of nested retrotransposons. Otherwise, the orientation and order of the HMW glutenins and adjacent genes were identical in the two genomes. A comparison of these orthologous regions indicates modes and patterns of sequence divergence, with implications for the overall Triticeae genome structure and evolution. A duplicate globulin gene, found 5' of each HMW-glutenin gene, assists to tentatively define the original duplication event leading to the paralogous x- and y-type HMW-glutenin genes. The intergenic regions of the two loci are composed of different patterns and classes of retrotransposons, indicating that insertion times of these retroelements were after the divergence of the two wheat genomes. In addition, a putative receptor kinase gene near the y-type HMW-glutenin gene at the Glu-B1 locus is likely active as it matches recently reported ESTs from germinating barley endosperm. The presence of four genes represented only in the Triticeae endosperm ESTs suggests an endosperm-specific chromosome domain. PMID:15159634

Kong, Xiu-Ying; Gu, Yong Qiang; You, Frank M; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Anderson, Olin D

2004-01-01

248

Plant breeding Bread wheat x Agrotricum crosses as a source  

E-print Network

Plant breeding Bread wheat x Agrotricum crosses as a source of immunity and resistance to the PAV). Through a process of selection for BYDV resistance and threshable phenotypes with wheat-like seeds, wheat numbers were also ob- tained. The low frequency of expression of immunity in the bread wheat background

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Laboratory milling method for whole grain soft wheat flour evaluation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whole grain wheat products are a growing portion of the foods marked in North America, yet few standard methods exist to evaluate whole grain wheat flour. This study evaluated two flour milling systems to produce whole grain soft wheat flour for a standard soft wheat product, a wire-cut cookie. A...

250

Genetic Diversity In Abiotic Stress Tolerances Among Wheat Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Landraces and close related species of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) offer a vast reservoir of genetic resources for wheat improvement to production on abiotic stressed soils. In order to utilize the wheat landrace and close relative gene pools, the evaluation of wheat landrace and close r...

251

Limiting mycotoxins in stored wheat.  

PubMed

The quality of harvested wheat grain can deteriorate markedly during the post-harvest management stages. Biotic factors, such as grain type and ripeness, coupled with the prevailing abiotic factors, such as water content and temperature, and also preservative concentration will influence the safe storage life and the level of contamination with mycotoxins. These mycotoxins include deoxynivalenol (DON) produced pre-harvest and zearalenone (ZEA) produced post-harvest by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae, respectively, ochratoxin (OTA) produced by Penicillium verrucosum post-harvest in cool damp northern European climates, and perhaps T-2 and HT-2 toxins produced by Fusarium langsethiae. This review presents recent data on the relationship between dry matter losses caused by F. graminearum under different environmental regimes (water activities, temperatures) and the level of contamination with DON. This is important as poor post-harvest drying and storage management may exacerbate DON contamination already present pre-harvest. It is thus critical to relate the environmental factors in stored wheat grain during storage, especially of intergranular relative humidity (RH) and temperature, to safe storage periods without spoilage or risk from increased DON contamination. The growth/no growth and DON/no DON (F. graminearum) and OTA/no toxin production (P. verrucosum) have been used to build a model with a simple interface to link temperature and RH values to the potential risk level which may allow growth or toxin production. This paper also considers the use of modified atmospheres, preservatives and biocontrol to minimise DON and OTA in moist wheat grain. These approaches together with clear monitoring criteria and hygiene could contribute to better post-harvest management of stored temperate cereals and ensure that mycotoxin contamination is minimised during this key phase in the food/feed chain. PMID:20455159

Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David; Mylona, Kalliopi; Lambert, Ronald J W

2010-05-01

252

Mechanistic analysis of wheat chlorophyllase.  

PubMed

Chlorophyllase catalyzes the initial step in the degradation of chlorophyll and plays a key role in leaf senescence and fruit ripening. Here, we report the cloning of chlorophyllase from Triticum aestivum (wheat) and provide a detailed mechanistic analysis of the enzyme. Purification of recombinant chlorophyllase from an Escherichia coli expression system indicates that the enzyme functions as a dimeric protein. Wheat chlorophyllase hydrolyzed the phytol moiety from chlorophyll (k(cat) = 566 min(-1); K(m) = 63 microM) and was active over a broad temperature range (10-75 degrees C). In addition, the enzyme displays carboxylesterase activity toward p-nitrophenyl (PNP)-butyrate, PNP-decanoate, and PNP-palmitate. The pH-dependence of the reaction showed the involvement of an active site residue with a pK(a) of approximately 6.5 for both k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) with chlorophyll, PNP-butyrate, and PNP-decanoate. Using these substrates, solvent kinetic isotope effects ranging from 1.5 to 1.9 and from 1.4 to 1.9 on k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m), respectively, were observed. Proton inventory experiments suggest the transfer of a single proton in the rate-limiting step. Our analysis of wheat chlorophyllase indicates that the enzyme uses a charge-relay mechanism similar to other carboxylesterases for catalysis. Understanding the activity and mechanism of chlorophyllase provides insight on the biological and chemical control of senescence in plants and lays the groundwork for biotechnological improvement of this enzyme. PMID:15913540

Arkus, Kiani A J; Cahoon, Edgar B; Jez, Joseph M

2005-06-15

253

Winter wheat cultivars with temperature sensitive resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus do not recover from early season infections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus, all vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer, frequently cause devastating losses to winter wheat production throughout the central and western Great Plains. Resistant 'Mace' and 'RonL' are commercially ...

254

Quantification of yield loss caused by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus in winter wheat under field conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) infect winter wheat in the Great Plains region of the United States. The two viruses are transmitted by wheat curl mites, which also transmit High Plains virus. In a field study conducted in 2011 and 2012, winter wheat cultivars Mi...

255

Hessian Fly in Texas Wheat  

E-print Network

, early-planted wheat and other host grasses. Because they resemble flax seed, puparia often are referred to as the pest?s ?flaxseed? stage. Puparia also can become part of soil-surface organic residue from infested seedlings killed by the larvae... by larval feeding. Infested tillers are less than half the size of uninfested, healthy ones. Figure 8 shows a four-tillered seed- ling with one tiller dwarfed as a result of larval infestation. Stunted tillers, particularly those found on younger plants...

Morgan, Gaylon; Sansone, Chris; Knutson, Allen E.

2005-07-01

256

Segmentation and tracking of neural progenitor cells in  

E-print Network

Segmentation and tracking of neural progenitor cells in microscopic image sequences John Christian and Mathematical Modelling Building 321, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Phone +45 45253351, Fax +45 45882673

257

TSLP is involved in expansion of early thymocyte progenitors  

PubMed Central

Background Thymic stromal derived lymphopoietin (TSLP) is preferentially and highly expressed in the thymus, but its function in T cell development is not clear. Results We report here that TSLP, independently or in combination with IL-7, enhances thymopoiesis in the murine fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC) model. Furthermore, TSLP preferentially increases the number and proliferation of the (DN1 and DN2) pro-T progenitor cells, and FTOC lobes from TSLP receptor-null mice show a decreased number of these cells. Finally, DN1-DN2 cells expanded with TSLP in vitro are functional T progenitors that are able to differentiate into mature T cells in fetal or adult thymus organs. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that TSLP plays an important role in expansion of thymocyte progenitors and may be of value for expanding T progenitor cells in vitro. PMID:17640367

Jiang, Qi; Coffield, V McNeil; Kondo, Motonari; Su, Lishan

2007-01-01

258

Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Regulators of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells  

E-print Network

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood homeostasis and are the functional units of bone marrow transplantation. To improve the molecular understanding of HSCs and their proximal progenitors, we performed transcriptome ...

Gazit, Roi

259

Neurobiology of Disease Oligodendroglial Progenitor Cell Therapy Limits  

E-print Network

, 20133 Milano, Italy This work describes the first successful oligodendrocyte-based cell therapy (MLD). We found that oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) engrafted and survived into adulthood when, and survived as proteolipid protein- and MBP-positive postmitotic myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs

Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

260

Progenitor-derived Oligodendrocyte Culture System from Human Fetal Brain  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of human neural progenitors into neuronal and glial cell types offers a model to study and compare molecular regulation of neural cell lineage development. In vitro expansion of neural progenitors from fetal CNS tissue has been well characterized. Despite the identification and isolation of glial progenitors from adult human sub-cortical white matter and development of various culture conditions to direct differentiation of fetal neural progenitors into myelin producing oligodendrocytes, acquiring sufficient human oligodendrocytes for in vitro experimentation remains difficult. Differentiation of galactocerebroside+ (GalC) and O4+ oligodendrocyte precursor or progenitor cells (OPC) from neural precursor cells has been reported using second trimester fetal brain. However, these cells do not proliferate in the absence of support cells including astrocytes and neurons, and are lost quickly over time in culture. The need remains for a culture system to produce cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage suitable for in vitro experimentation. Culture of primary human oligodendrocytes could, for example, be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of neurotropic infectious agents like the human polyomavirus, JCV, that in vivo infects those cells. These cultured cells could also provide models of other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Primary, human fetal brain-derived, multipotential neural progenitor cells proliferate in vitro while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into neurons (progenitor-derived neurons, PDN) and astrocytes (progenitor-derived astrocytes, PDA) This study shows that neural progenitors can be induced to differentiate through many of the stages of oligodendrocytic lineage development (progenitor-derived oligodendrocytes, PDO). We culture neural progenitor cells in DMEM-F12 serum-free media supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-AA), Sonic hedgehog (Shh), neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3), N-2 and triiodothyronine (T3). The cultured cells are passaged at 2.5e6 cells per 75cm flasks approximately every seven days. Using these conditions, the majority of the cells in culture maintain a morphology characterized by few processes and express markers of pre-oligodendrocyte cells, such as A2B5 and O-4. When we remove the four growth factors (GF) (bFGF, PDGF-AA, Shh, NT-3) and add conditioned media from PDN, the cells start to acquire more processes and express markers specific of oligodendrocyte differentiation, such as GalC and myelin basic protein (MBP). We performed phenotypic characterization using multicolor flow cytometry to identify unique markers of oligodendrocyte. PMID:23288248

Monaco, Maria Chiara G.; Maric, Dragan; Bandeian, Alexandra; Leibovitch, Emily; Yang, Wan; Major, Eugene O.

2012-01-01

261

Genetic Analysis of Lrp5 Function in Osteoblast Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (Lrp)-5 regulates osteoblast proliferation and bone formation through\\u000a its expression in duodenum by modifying the gut serotonin–bone endocrine axis. However, its direct role, if any, in osteoblast\\u000a progenitor cells has not been studied thus far. Here, we show that mice with a Dermo1-Cre-mediated disruption of Lrp5 in osteoblast progenitor cells have normal embryonic skeletogenesis and

Vijay K. Yadav; Henrique Pierotti Arantes; Elizabete Ribeiro Barros; Marise Lazaretti-Castro; Patricia Ducy

2010-01-01

262

Cyclin D2 controls B cell progenitor numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclin D2 affects B cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo. It is rate-limiting for B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent proliferation of B cells, and cyclin D2\\/ mice lack CD5(B1) B lymphocytes. We show here that the bone marrow (BM) of cyclin D2\\/ mice contains half the num- bers of Sca1B220 B cell progenitors but nor- mal levels of Sca1 progenitor cells

Azim Mohamedali; Ines Soeiro; Nicholas C. Lea; Janet Glassford; Lolita Banerji; Ghulam J. Mufti; Eric W.-F. Lam; N. Shaun; B. Thomas

2003-01-01

263

Reprogramming diabetic stem or progenitor cells for treating diabetic complications  

Cancer.gov

Bone marrow-derived stem or progenitor cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to be effective for repairing cardiovascular disease. However, recent studies have shown that autologous cells derived from diabetic patients are not as effective as those from non-diabetic or healthy volunteers. As many cardiovascular disease patients who are candidate for cell therapy have diabetes as co-morbid condition, new measures are required to reverse their dysfunction.

264

Dissecting the Molecular Relationship Among Various Cardiogenic Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

Rationale Multiple progenitors derived from the heart and bone marrow have been utilized for cardiac repair. Despite this, not much is known about the molecular identity and relationship among these progenitors. To develop a robust stem cell therapy for the heart, it is critical to understand the molecular identity of the multiple ‘cardiogenic progenitor cells’ (CPCs). This study is the first report of high throughput transcriptional profiling of CPCs carried out on an identical platform. Method and Results Microarray based transcriptional profiling was carried out for three cardiac (ckit+, Sca1+, side population) and two bone marrow (ckit+ , mesenchymal stem cell) progenitors, obtained from age- and sex-matched wild type C57BL/6 mice. Analysis indicated that cardiac-derived ckit+ population was very distinct from Sca1+ and SP cells in the downregulation of genes encoding for cell-cell and matrix adhesion proteins, and in the upregulation of developmental genes. Significant enrichment of transcripts involved in DNA replication and repair was observed in bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitors. The BM ckit+ cells appeared to have the least correlation with the other progenitors, with enrichment of immature neutrophil specific molecules. Conclusion Our study indicates that cardiac ckit+ cells represent the most primitive population in the rodent heart. Primitive cells of cardiac versus BM origin differ significantly with respect to stemness and cardiac lineage-specific genes, and molecules involved in DNA replication and repair. The detailed molecular profile of progenitors reported here will serve as a useful reference to determine the molecular identity of progenitors used in future preclinical and clinical studies PMID:23463815

Dey, Devaveena; Han, Leng; Bauer, Michael; Sanada, Fumihiro; Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; Hosoda, Toru; Unno, Kazumasa; De Almeida, Patricia; Leri, Annarosa; Wu, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

265

Viral disruption of olfactory progenitors is exacerbated in allergic mice.  

PubMed

Upper airway viral infection in patients with airway allergy often exacerbates olfactory dysfunction, but the mechanism for this exacerbation remains unclear. Here, we examined the effects of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, in the presence or absence of airway allergy, on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their progenitors in mice. Immunohistological analyses revealed that cockroach allergen (CRA)-induced airway allergy alone did not affect the number of OMP(+) mature ORNs and SOX2(+) ORN progenitors. Intranasal RSV line 19 infection in allergy-free mice resulted in a transient decrease in SOX2(+) ORN progenitors without affecting OMP(+) ORNs. In contrast, the RSV-induced decrease in SOX2(+) ORN progenitors was exacerbated and prolonged in allergic mice, which resulted in eventual loss of OMP(+) ORNs. In the allergic mice, reduction of RSV in the olfactory epithelium was delayed as compared with allergy-free mice. These results suggest that ORN progenitors were impaired by RSV infection and that airway allergy exacerbated damage to ORN progenitors by reducing viral clearance. PMID:24998164

Ueha, R; Mukherjee, S; Ueha, S; de Almeida Nagata, D E; Sakamoto, T; Kondo, K; Yamasoba, T; Lukacs, N W; Kunkel, S L

2014-09-01

266

How Low Can They Go? Detecting low luminosity supernova progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While we now discover thousands of supernovae {SNe} per year, in the history of astronomy a little more than a dozen SN progenitors have been identified, and all of these have been from Type II SNe. This dearth is largely due to the fact that the progenitors are destroyed in the SN, and so to study them one must have fortuitously taken data on them prior to their explosion. However, the fault may also partially lie with the methods employed to search for progenitors.In the past, searches have generally relied on looking at the location of a SNe in an archival image to see if a noticeable point source is at the right location. This method requires that the background field of the galaxy be relatively uniform, and if one wants an accurate estimate of the progenitor mangitude, that the star was not in an association or binary. Here we propose to take WFC3 images several years post explosion so that we can subtract them from archival WFPC2 images. We show that we can do this with extraordinary fidelity. We will apply this method to a well-chosen sample of three Type II SNe and two Type Ibc SNe, which lie on messy galaxy fields that may have camouflaged the presence of a progenitor. This method has the potential to detect or substantially deepen the limits on the progenitors of these objects, which already appear too faint for theoretical models.

Fruchter, Andrew

2013-10-01

267

Constraining fast radio burst progenitors with gravitational lensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are new transient radio sources discovered recently. Because of the angular resolution restriction in radio surveys, no optical counter part has been identified yet so it is hard to determine the progenitor of FRBs. In this paper we propose to use radio lensing survey to constrain FRB progenitors. We show that, different types of progenitors lead to different probabilities for a FRB to be gravitationally lensed by dark matter halos in foreground galaxies, since different type progenitors result in different redshift distributions of FRBs. For example, the redshift distribution of FRBs arising from double stars shifts toward lower redshift than of the FRBs arising from single stars, because double stars and single stars have different evolution timescales. With detailed calculations, we predict that the FRB sample size for producing one lensing event varies significantly for different FRB progenitor models. We argue that this fact can be used to distinguish different FRB models and also discuss the practical possibility of using lensing observation in radio surveys to constrain FRB progenitors.

Li, ChunYu; Li, LiXin

2014-07-01

268

Progenitor mass of the type IIP supernova 2005cs  

E-print Network

The progenitor mass of type IIP supernova can be determined from either hydrodynamic modeling of the event or pre-explosion observations. To compare these approaches, we determine parameters of the sub-luminous supernova 2005cs and estimate its progenitor mass. We compute the hydrodynamic models of the supernova to describe its light curves and expansion velocity data. We estimate a presupernova mass of 17.3 Msun, an explosion energy of 4.1x10^{50} erg, a presupernova radius of 600 Rsun, and a radioactive Ni-56 mass of 0.0082 Msun. The derived progenitor mass of SN 2005cs is 18.2 Msun, which is in-between those of low-luminosity and normal type IIP supernovae. The obtained progenitor mass of SN 2005cs is higher than derived from pre-explosion images. The masses of four type IIP supernovae estimated by means of hydrodynamic modeling are systematically higher than the average progenitor mass for the 9-25 Msun mass range. This result, if confirmed for a larger sample, would imply that a serious revision of the present-day view on the progenitors of type IIP supernovae is required.

V. P. Utrobin; N. N. Chugai

2008-09-22

269

Development of sprouted wheat based probiotic beverage.  

PubMed

Present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) for development of wheat based probiotic beverage and to optimize the proportion of different ingredients viz. sprouted wheat flour, sprouted wheat bran, oat and stabilizer using response surface methodology. Acidity, pH and probiotic count of samples prepared with L. acidophilus NCDC-14 was higher than that of L. acidophilus NCDC-16 culture. Being more compatible, L. acidophilus NCDC-14 was selected for this study. Acidity (in terms of lactic acid), pH and probiotic count of the different samples ranged from 0.21 to 0.45 %, 4.0 to 4.9, and 8.30 to 10.95 log10 cfu?mL(-1), respectively. Probiotic count increased with increasing amount of sprouted wheat and oat. Optimized levels for sprouted wheat flour, oat, wheat bran and guar gum were 7.86, 5.42, 1.42 and 0.6 g, respectively per 100 mL of water. Optimized probiotic beverage provided 13.19 % total solids, 1.19 % protein, 0.33 % fat, 0.10 % ash, 0.42 % crude fibre, 1.45 mg iron, calcium 15.74 mg, 11.56 % carbohydrates, 54 kcal calories and 10.43 log10 cfu?mL(-1) probiotic count. Thus, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-14 can be used for development of potentially probiotic beverage with sprouted wheat and oat. PMID:25477662

Sharma, Monika; Mridula, D; Gupta, R K

2014-12-01

270

Micromilling enhances iron bioaccessibility from wholegrain wheat.  

PubMed

Cereals constitute important sources of iron in human diet; however, much of the iron in wheat is lost during processing for the production of white flour. This study employed novel food processing techniques to increase the bioaccessibility of naturally occurring iron in wheat. Iron was localized in wheat by Perl's Prussian blue staining. Soluble iron from digested wheat flour was measured by a ferrozine spectrophotometric assay. Iron bioaccessibility was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Light microscopy revealed that iron in wheat was encapsulated in cells of the aleurone layer and remained intact after in vivo digestion and passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The solubility of iron in wholegrain wheat and in purified wheat aleurone increased significantly after enzymatic digestion with Driselase, and following mechanical disruption using micromilling. Furthermore, following in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, iron bioaccessibility, measured as ferritin formation in Caco-2 cells, from micromilled aleurone flour was significantly higher (52%) than from whole aleurone flour. Taken together our data show that disruption of aleurone cell walls could increase iron bioaccessibility. Micromilled aleurone could provide an alternative strategy for iron fortification of cereal products. PMID:25380143

Latunde-Dada, G O; Li, X; Parodi, A; Edwards, C H; Ellis, P R; Sharp, P A

2014-11-19

271

Sequence variability in three wheat germ agglutinin isolectins: Products of multiple genes in polyploid wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three highly homologous wheat germ isolectins (95–97%) are distinct gene products in hexaploid wheat. The amino acid sequences of two of these [wheat germ agglutinin 1 (WGA1) and 2 (WGA2)] are compared with sequence date derived from a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone for the third isolection (WGA3). This comparison includes three corrections to earlier amino acid sequences data of

Christine S. Wright; Natasha Raikhel

1989-01-01

272

Rates and Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae  

E-print Network

The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, SNe Ia exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in SNe Ia. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) has been designed to discover hundreds of SNe Ia in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of SNe Ia. This dissertation presents a new method for analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a SN Ia rate from $z\\sim0.01$--0.1 of $r_V = 4.26 (+1.39 -1.93) (+0.10 - 0.10)$ SNe Ia/yr/Mpc$^3$ from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of SNe Ia.

William Michael Wood-Vasey

2005-05-30

273

Cardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

In recent years, cell transplantation has drawn tremendous interest as a novel approach to preserving or even restoring contractile function to infarcted hearts. A typical human infarct involves the loss of approximately one billion cardiomyocytes, and so many investigators have sought to identify endogenous or exogenous stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into committed cardiomyocytes and repopulate lost myocardium. As a result of these efforts, dozens of stem cell types have been reported to have cardiac potential. These include pluripotent embryonic stem cells as well various adult stem cells resident in compartments including bone marrow, peripheral tissues, and the heart itself. Some of these cardiogenic progenitors have been reported to contribute replacement muscle through endogenous reparative processes or via cell transplantation in preclinical cardiac injury models. However, considerable disagreement exists regarding the efficiency and even the reality of cardiac differentiation by many of these stem cell types, making these issues a continuing source of controversy in the field. In this review, we consider approaches to cell fate mapping and establishing the cardiac phenotype, as well as the current state of the evidence for the cardiogenic and regenerative potential of the major candidate stem cell types. PMID:18988903

Reinecke, Hans; Minami, Elina; Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Laflamme, Michael A.

2009-01-01

274

Oxidative Stress Impairs Endothelial Progenitor Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Abstract Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in adult human peripheral blood were identified in 1997. Since their original identification, EPCs have been extensively studied as biomarkers to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease in human subjects and as a potential cell therapeutic for vascular regeneration. EPCs are exposed to oxidative stress during vascular injury as residents of blood vessel walls or as circulating cells homing to sites of neovascularization. Given the links between oxidative injury, endothelial cell dysfunction, and vascular disease, recent investigation has focused on the responses of EPCs to oxidant stress and the molecular mechanisms that control redox regulation in these specialized cells. In this review, we discuss the various cell and flow-cytometric techniques used to define and isolate EPCs from circulating blood and the current human and mouse genetic data, which offer insights into redox control in EPC biology and angiogenesis. Finally, we review how EPC responses to oxidant stress may be a critical determinant in maintaining the integrity and function of the cardiovascular system and how perturbations of redox control in EPCs may lead to various human diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10, 1895–1907. PMID:18627346

Case, Jamie; Ingram, David A.

2008-01-01

275

Young star clusters: Progenitors of globular clusters!?  

E-print Network

Star cluster formation is a major mode of star formation in the extreme conditions of interacting galaxies and violent starbursts. Young clusters are observed to form in a variety of such galaxies, a substantial number resembling the progenitors of globular clusters in mass and size, but with significantly enhanced metallicity. From studies of the metal-poor and metal-rich star cluster populations of galaxies, we can therefore learn about the violent star formation history of these galaxies, and eventually about galaxy formation and evolution. We present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of our GALEV code, with special emphasis on the gaseous emission of presently forming star clusters, and a new tool to compare extensive model grids with multi-color broad-band observations to determine individual cluster masses, metallicities, ages and extinction values independently. First results for young star clusters in the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569 are presented. The mass distributions determined for the young clusters give valuable input to dynamical star cluster system evolution models, regarding survival and destruction of clusters. We plan to investigate an age sequence of galaxy mergers to see dynamical destruction effects in process.

P. Anders; U. Fritze--v. Alvensleben; R. de Grijs

2003-09-04

276

Pre-Harvest Sprouting in Wheat  

E-print Network

). Once wheat seed has reached harvest maturity, it will begin to germinate when exposed to adequate moisture and tempera- tures. For wheat at a harvest-ripe stage (Feekes 11.4 or Zadock 92), any extended period of wet weather can cause pre... appear green. Sprouting in Wheat Growers should question suitability of grain for seed if germination or pre-harvest sprouting has occurred. Grains with split seed coats or exposed roots or shoots should not be kept for seed. Low test weight...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

277

Genome-wide association for grain morphology in synthetic hexaploid wheats using digital imaging analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Grain size and shape greatly influence grain weight which ultimately enhances grain yield in wheat. Digital imaging (DI) based phenomic characterization can capture the three dimensional variation in grain size and shape than has hitherto been possible. In this study, we report the results from using digital imaging of grain size and shape to understand the relationship among different components of this trait, their contribution to enhance grain weight, and to identify genomic regions (QTLs) controlling grain morphology using genome wide association mapping with high density diversity array technology (DArT) and allele-specific markers. Results Significant positive correlations were observed between grain weight and grain size measurements such as grain length (r?=?0.43), width, thickness (r?=?0.64) and factor from density (FFD) (r?=?0.69). A total of 231 synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) were grouped into five different sub-clusters by Bayesian structure analysis using unlinked DArT markers. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was observed among DArT loci?>?10 cM distance and approximately 28% marker pairs were in significant LD. In total, 197 loci over 60 chromosomal regions and 79 loci over 31 chromosomal regions were associated with grain morphology by genome wide analysis using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches, respectively. They were mainly distributed on homoeologous group 2, 3, 6 and 7 chromosomes. Twenty eight marker-trait associations (MTAs) on the D genome chromosomes 2D, 3D and 6D may carry novel alleles with potential to enhance grain weight due to the use of untapped wild accessions of Aegilops tauschii. Statistical simulations showed that favorable alleles for thousand kernel weight (TKW), grain length, width and thickness have additive genetic effects. Allelic variations for known genes controlling grain size and weight, viz. TaCwi-2A, TaSus-2B, TaCKX6-3D and TaGw2-6A, were also associated with TKW, grain width and thickness. In silico functional analysis predicted a range of biological functions for 32 DArT loci and receptor like kinase, known to affect plant development, appeared to be common protein family encoded by several loci responsible for grain size and shape. Conclusion Conclusively, we demonstrated the application and integration of multiple approaches including high throughput phenotyping using DI, genome wide association studies (GWAS) and in silico functional analysis of candidate loci to analyze target traits, and identify candidate genomic regions underlying these traits. These approaches provided great opportunity to understand the breeding value of SHWs for improving grain weight and enhanced our deep understanding on molecular genetics of grain weight in wheat. PMID:24884376

2014-01-01

278

Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management  

PubMed Central

Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control. PMID:24065979

Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

2013-01-01

279

Domestication of Pulses in the Old World: Legumes were companions of wheat and barley when agriculture began in the Near East.  

PubMed

This article reviews the available information on the place of origin and time of domestication of the cultivated pea (Pisum sativum), lentil (Lens culinaris), broad bean (Vicia faba), bitter vetch (V. ervilia), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum). On the basis of (i) an examination and evaluation of archeological remains and (ii) an identification of the wild progenitors and delimitation of their geographic distribution, it was concluded that pea and lentil should be regarded as founder crops of Old World Neolithic agriculture. Most probably they were domesticated, in the Near East, simultaneously with wheats and barley (certainly not later than the sixth millennium B.C.). Bitter vetch shows a similar mode of origin. The evidence on the broad bean and the chickpea is much more fragmentary and the wild progenitors of these legumes are yet not satisfactorily identified. But also these two pulses emerge as important food elements in Bronze Age cultures of the Near East and Europe. PMID:17737521

Zohary, D; Hopf, M

1973-11-30

280

Chromosome arm-specific BAC end sequences permit comparative analysis of homoeologous chromosomes and genomes of polyploid wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Bread wheat, one of the world’s staple food crops, has the largest, highly repetitive and polyploid genome among the cereal crops. The wheat genome holds the key to crop genetic improvement against challenges such as climate change, environmental degradation, and water scarcity. To unravel the complex wheat genome, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) is pursuing a chromosome- and chromosome arm-based approach to physical mapping and sequencing. Here we report on the use of a BAC library made from flow-sorted telosomic chromosome 3A short arm (t3AS) for marker development and analysis of sequence composition and comparative evolution of homoeologous genomes of hexaploid wheat. Results The end-sequencing of 9,984 random BACs from a chromosome arm 3AS-specific library (TaaCsp3AShA) generated 11,014,359?bp of high quality sequence from 17,591 BAC-ends with an average length of 626?bp. The sequence represents 3.2% of t3AS with an average DNA sequence read every 19?kb. Overall, 79% of the sequence consisted of repetitive elements, 1.38% as coding regions (estimated 2,850 genes) and another 19% of unknown origin. Comparative sequence analysis suggested that 70-77% of the genes present in both 3A and 3B were syntenic with model species. Among the transposable elements, gypsy/sabrina (12.4%) was the most abundant repeat and was significantly more frequent in 3A compared to homoeologous chromosome 3B. Twenty novel repetitive sequences were also identified using de novo repeat identification. BESs were screened to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR) and transposable element junctions. A total of 1,057 SSRs were identified with a density of one per 10.4?kb, and 7,928 junctions between transposable elements (TE) and other sequences were identified with a density of one per 1.39?kb. With the objective of enhancing the marker density of chromosome 3AS, oligonucleotide primers were successfully designed from 758 SSRs and 695 Insertion Site Based Polymorphisms (ISBPs). Of the 96 ISBP primer pairs tested, 28 (29%) were 3A-specific and compared to 17 (18%) for 96 SSRs. Conclusion This work reports on the use of wheat chromosome arm 3AS-specific BAC library for the targeted generation of sequence data from a particular region of the huge genome of wheat. A large quantity of sequences were generated from the A genome of hexaploid wheat for comparative genome analysis with homoeologous B and D genomes and other model grass genomes. Hundreds of molecular markers were developed from the 3AS arm-specific sequences; these and other sequences will be useful in gene discovery and physical mapping. PMID:22559868

2012-01-01

281

Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 °C to 32 °C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was consistently more accurate in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, regardless of the input information used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each °C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time.

Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Rötter, R. P.; Lobell, D. B.; Cammarano, D.; Kimball, B. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Wall, G. W.; White, J. W.; Reynolds, M. P.; Alderman, P. D.; Prasad, P. V. V.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Anothai, J.; Basso, B.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, A. J.; de Sanctis, G.; Doltra, J.; Fereres, E.; Garcia-Vila, M.; Gayler, S.; Hoogenboom, G.; Hunt, L. A.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Jabloun, M.; Jones, C. D.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Koehler, A.-K.; Müller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.; Olesen, J. E.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Eyshi Rezaei, E.; Ruane, A. C.; Semenov, M. A.; Shcherbak, I.; Stöckle, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Thorburn, P. J.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wallach, D.; Wolf, J.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, Y.

2015-02-01

282

Texas Wheat Flows and Transportation Modes, 1975.  

E-print Network

The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station J. E. Miller, Director, College Station, Texas The Texas A&M University System 8-1179 August 1977 2 CONTENTS SUMMARy... ..... . ......... . ........... . . . ..... .. . . . . ... ...... . ... . ... . .. . . 2 INTRODUCTION .. . . . .. . ......... .. . .. ..... . ...... . .. . ........... . .... . ... 3 METHODOLOGY ......... . .................. . ..... ..... .... . .... . ........ 3 TEXAS WHEAT PRODUCTION...

Fuller, Stephen; Paggi, Mechel; Engler, Dwayne

1977-01-01

283

Gene loss, silencing and activation in a newly synthesized wheat allotetraploid.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the events that affect gene structure and expression in the early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat. The transcriptome response was studied by analyzing 3072 transcripts in the first generation of a synthetic allotetraploid (genome S(l)S(l)A(m)A(m)), which resembles tetraploid wheat (genome BBAA), and in its two diploid progenitors Aegilops sharonensis (S(l)S(l)) and Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (A(m)A(m)). The expression of 60 out of 3072 transcripts was reproducibly altered in the allotetraploid: 48 transcripts disappeared and 12 were activated. Transcript disappearance was caused by gene silencing or by gene loss. Gene silencing affected one or both homeologous loci and was associated in part with cytosine methylation. Gene loss or methylation had occurred already in the F(1) intergeneric hybrid or in the allotetraploid, depending on the locus. The silenced/lost genes included rRNA genes and genes involved in metabolism, disease resistance, and cell cycle regulation. The activated genes with a known function were all retroelements. These findings show that wide hybridization and chromosome doubling affect gene expression via genetic and epigenetic alterations immediately upon allopolyploid formation. These events contribute to the genetic diploidization of newly formed allopolyploids. PMID:11973318

Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A

2002-01-01

284

Gene loss, silencing and activation in a newly synthesized wheat allotetraploid.  

PubMed

We analyzed the events that affect gene structure and expression in the early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat. The transcriptome response was studied by analyzing 3072 transcripts in the first generation of a synthetic allotetraploid (genome S(l)S(l)A(m)A(m)), which resembles tetraploid wheat (genome BBAA), and in its two diploid progenitors Aegilops sharonensis (S(l)S(l)) and Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (A(m)A(m)). The expression of 60 out of 3072 transcripts was reproducibly altered in the allotetraploid: 48 transcripts disappeared and 12 were activated. Transcript disappearance was caused by gene silencing or by gene loss. Gene silencing affected one or both homeologous loci and was associated in part with cytosine methylation. Gene loss or methylation had occurred already in the F(1) intergeneric hybrid or in the allotetraploid, depending on the locus. The silenced/lost genes included rRNA genes and genes involved in metabolism, disease resistance, and cell cycle regulation. The activated genes with a known function were all retroelements. These findings show that wide hybridization and chromosome doubling affect gene expression via genetic and epigenetic alterations immediately upon allopolyploid formation. These events contribute to the genetic diploidization of newly formed allopolyploids. PMID:11973318

Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A

2002-04-01

285

Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans  

E-print Network

Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Expected yield per acre2 119 127 39 62 23 149 159 49 70 29 capable of producing corn and soybeans with yields about 20% higher than average soils. Low productivity

286

Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Patients with DR may irreversibly lose sight as a result of the development of diabetic macular edema (DME) and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR); retinal blood vessel dysfunction and degeneration plays an essential role in their pathogenesis. Although new treatments have been recently introduced for DME, including intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGFs) and steroids, a high proportion of patients (~40–50%) do not respond to these therapies. Furthermore, for people with PDR, laser photocoagulation remains a mainstay therapy despite this being an inherently destructive procedure. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a low-frequency population of circulating cells known to be recruited to sites of vessel damage and tissue ischemia where they promote vascular healing and re-perfusion. A growing body of evidence suggests that the number and function of EPCs are altered in patients with varying degrees of diabetes duration, metabolic control, and in the presence or absence of DR. Although there are no clear-cut outcomes from these clinical studies, there is mounting evidence that some EPC sub-types may be involved in the pathogenesis of DR and may also serve as biomarkers for disease progression and stratification. Moreover, some EPC sub-types have considerable potential as therapeutic modalities for DME and PDR in the context of cell therapy. This study presents basic clinical concepts of DR and combines this with a general insight on EPCs and their relation to future directions in understanding and treating this important diabetic complication. PMID:24782825

Lois, Noemi; McCarter, Rachel V.; O’Neill, Christina; Medina, Reinhold J.; Stitt, Alan W.

2014-01-01

287

MY Camelopardalis, a very massive merger progenitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The early-type binary MY Cam belongs to the young open cluster Alicante 1, embedded in Cam OB3. Aims: MY Cam consists of two early-O type main-sequence stars and shows a photometric modulation suggesting an orbital period slightly above one day. We intend to confirm this orbital period and derive orbital and stellar parameters. Methods: Timing analysis of a very exhaustive (4607 points) light curve indicates a period of 1.1754514 ± 0.0000015 d. High-resolution spectra and the cross-correlation technique implemented in the todcor program were used to derive radial velocities and obtain the corresponding radial velocity curves for MY Cam. Modelling with the stellar atmosphere code fastwind was used to obtain stellar parameters and create templates for cross-correlation. Stellar and orbital parameters were derived using the Wilson-Devinney code, such that a complete solution to the binary system could be described. Results: The determined masses of the primary and secondary stars in MY Cam are 37.7 ± 1.6 and 31.6 ± 1.4M?, respectively. The corresponding temperatures, derived from the model atmosphere fit, are 42 000 and 39 000 K, with the more massive component being hotter. Both stars are overfilling their Roche lobes, sharing a common envelope. Conclusions: MY Cam contains the most massive dwarf O-type stars found so far in an eclipsing binary. Both components are still on the main sequence, and probably not far from the zero-age main sequence. The system is a likely merger progenitor, owing to its very short period. Tables 1 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgPhotometric data (Table 2) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A110

Lorenzo, J.; Negueruela, I.; Baker, A. K. F. Val; García, M.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Pastor, P.; Méndez Majuelos, M.

2014-12-01

288

Endothelial progenitor cells and integrins: adhesive needs  

PubMed Central

In the last decade there have been multiple studies concerning the contribution of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to new vessel formation in different physiological and pathological settings. The process by which EPCs contribute to new vessel formation in adults is termed postnatal vasculogenesis and occurs via four inter-related steps. They must respond to chemoattractant signals and mobilize from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood; home in on sites of new vessel formation; invade and migrate at the same sites; and differentiate into mature endothelial cells (ECs) and/or regulate pre-existing ECs via paracrine or juxtacrine signals. During these four steps, EPCs interact with different physiological compartments, namely bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels and homing tissues. The success of each step depends on the ability of EPCs to interact, adapt and respond to multiple molecular cues. The present review summarizes the interactions between integrins expressed by EPCs and their ligands: extracellular matrix components and cell surface proteins present at sites of postnatal vasculogenesis. The data summarized here indicate that integrins represent a major molecular determinant of EPC function, with different integrin subunits regulating different steps of EPC biology. Specifically, integrin ?4?1 is a key regulator of EPC retention and/or mobilization from the bone marrow, while integrins ?5?1, ?6?1, ?v?3 and ?v?5 are major determinants of EPC homing, invasion, differentiation and paracrine factor production. ?2 integrins are the major regulators of EPC transendothelial migration. The relevance of integrins in EPC biology is also demonstrated by many studies that use extracellular matrix-based scaffolds as a clinical tool to improve the vasculogenic functions of EPCs. We propose that targeted and tissue-specific manipulation of EPC integrin-mediated interactions may be crucial to further improve the usage of this cell population as a relevant clinical agent. PMID:22410175

2012-01-01

289

Wheat Production in the Panhandle of Texas.  

E-print Network

is cooperative between the Soil Conservation Service of the U. S. Department of Agri- culture and the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, small grain work in the Panhandle was transferred to the Amarillo station. The development of our present wheat... them- selves with high quality seed at a minimum cost. 20 BULLETIN 750, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION RATE AND DATE OF SEEDING Thirty pounds of seed per acre is the most common and probably the optimum rate of seeding wheat in the Panhandle...

Whitfield, Charles J. (Charles James); Atkins, Irvin Milburn; Porter, Kenneth B.

1952-01-01

290

Recurrent Deletions of Puroindoline Genes at the Grain Hardness Locus in Four Independent Lineages of Polyploid Wheat1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Polyploidy is known to induce numerous genetic and epigenetic changes but little is known about their physiological bases. In wheat, grain texture is mainly determined by the Hardness (Ha) locus consisting of genes Puroindoline a (Pina) and b (Pinb). These genes are conserved in diploid progenitors but were deleted from the A and B genomes of tetraploid Triticum turgidum (AB). We now report the recurrent deletions of Pina-Pinb in other lineages of polyploid wheat. We analyzed the Ha haplotype structure in 90 diploid and 300 polyploid accessions of Triticum and Aegilops spp. Pin genes were conserved in all diploid species and deletion haplotypes were detected in all polyploid Triticum and most of the polyploid Aegilops spp. Two Pina-Pinb deletion haplotypes were found in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum; ABD). Pina and Pinb were eliminated from the G genome, but maintained in the A genome of tetraploid Triticum timopheevii (AG). Subsequently, Pina and Pinb were deleted from the A genome but retained in the Am genome of hexaploid Triticum zhukovskyi (AmAG). Comparison of deletion breakpoints demonstrated that the Pina-Pinb deletion occurred independently and recurrently in the four polyploid wheat species. The implications of Pina-Pinb deletions for polyploid-driven evolution of gene and genome and its possible physiological significance are discussed. PMID:18024553

Li, Wanlong; Huang, Li; Gill, Bikram S.

2008-01-01

291

SUPERNOVA 2008bk AND ITS RED SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR  

SciTech Connect

We have obtained limited photometric and spectroscopic data for supernova (SN) 2008bk in NGC 7793, primarily at {approx}> 150 days after explosion. We find that it is a Type II-Plateau (II-P) SN that most closely resembles the low-luminosity SN 1999br in NGC 4900. Given the overall similarity between the observed light curves and colors of SNe 2008bk and 1999br, we infer that the total visual extinction to SN 2008bk (A{sub V} = 0.065 mag) must be almost entirely due to the Galactic foreground, similar to what has been assumed for SN 1999br. We confirm the identification of the putative red supergiant (RSG) progenitor star of the SN in high-quality g'r'i' images we had obtained in 2007 at the Gemini-South 8 m telescope. Little ambiguity exists in this progenitor identification, qualifying it as the best example to date, next to the identification of the star Sk -69 Degree-Sign 202 as the progenitor of SN 1987A. From a combination of photometry of the Gemini images with that of archival, pre-SN, Very Large Telescope JHK{sub s} images, we derive an accurate observed spectral energy distribution (SED) for the progenitor. We find from nebular strong-intensity emission-line indices for several H II regions near the SN that the metallicity in the environment is likely subsolar (Z Almost-Equal-To 0.6 Z{sub Sun }). The observed SED of the star agrees quite well with synthetic SEDs obtained from model RSG atmospheres with effective temperature T{sub eff} = 3600 {+-} 50 K. We find, therefore, that the star had a bolometric luminosity with respect to the Sun of log (L{sub bol}/L{sub Sun} ) = 4.57 {+-} 0.06 and radius R{sub *} = 496 {+-} 34 R{sub Sun} at {approx}6 months prior to explosion. Comparing the progenitor's properties with theoretical massive-star evolutionary models, we conclude that the RSG progenitor had an initial mass in the range of 8-8.5 M{sub Sun }. This mass is consistent with, albeit at the low end of, the inferred range of initial masses for SN II-P progenitors. It is also consistent with the estimated upper limit on the initial mass of the progenitor of SN 1999br, and it agrees with the low initial masses found for the RSG progenitors of other low-luminosity SNe II-P.

Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Elias-Rosa, Nancy [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, Mailcode 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Davidge, Tim J., E-mail: vandyk@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: tim.davidge@nrc.ca [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada); and others

2012-01-15

292

Biodegradation of wheat straw by Pleurotus ostreatus.  

PubMed

Wheat straw pretreated with chemicals as well as hot water was subjected to degradation by edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses component of both chemically as well as hot water treated wheat straw was degraded by the fungus and in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body of the mushroom was produced. Biodegradation of wheat straw in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During vegetative growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the wheat straw decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated wheat straw supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency (BE) of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrate. Degradation of the hot water treated wheat straw was better and faster than chemically treated substrate. PMID:25535709

Pandey, V K; Singh, M P

2014-01-01

293

THE PROGENITOR MASS OF THE MAGNETAR SGR1900+14  

SciTech Connect

Magnetars are young neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (B approx> 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} G). How these fields relate to the properties of their progenitor stars is not yet clearly established. However, from the few objects associated with young clusters it has been possible to estimate the initial masses of the progenitors, with results indicating that a very massive progenitor star (M {sub prog}> 40 M odot) is required to produce a magnetar. Here, we present adaptive-optics assisted Keck/NIRC2 imaging and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy of the cluster associated with the magnetar SGR 1900+14, and report that the initial progenitor star mass of the magnetar was a factor of 2 lower than this limit, M {sub prog} = 17 +- 2 M odot. Our result presents a strong challenge to the concept that magnetars can only result from very massive progenitors. Instead, we favor a mechanism which is dependent on more than just initial stellar mass for the production of these extreme magnetic fields, such as the 'fossil-field' model or a process involving close binary evolution.

Davies, Ben [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Figer, Don F.; Trombley, Christine [Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Wachter, Stefanie [Spitzer Science Center, 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2009-12-10

294

Observational Clues to the Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are important distance indicators, element factories, cosmic-ray accelerators, kinetic-energy sources in galaxy evolution, and end points of stellar binary evolution. It has long been clear that a SN Ia must be the runaway thermonuclear explosion of a degenerate carbon-oxygen stellar core, most likely a white dwarf (WD). However, the specific progenitor systems of SNe Ia, and the processes that lead to their ignition, have not been identified. Two broad classes of progenitor binary systems have long been considered: single-degenerate (SD), in which a WD gains mass from a nondegenerate star; and double-degenerate (DD), involving the merger of two WDs. New theoretical work has enriched these possibilities with some interesting updates and variants. We review the significant recent observational progress in addressing the progenitor problem. We consider clues that have emerged from the observed properties of the various proposed progenitor populations, from studies of SN Ia sites—pre- and postexplosion—from analysis of the explosions themselves and from the measurement of event rates. The recent nearby and well-studied event, SN 2011fe, has been particularly revealing. The observational results are not yet conclusive and sometimes prone to competing theoretical interpretations. Nevertheless, it appears that DD progenitors, long considered the underdog option, could be behind some, if not all, SNe Ia. We point to some directions that may lead to future progress.

Maoz, Dan; Mannucci, Filippo; Nelemans, Gijs

2014-08-01

295

Simultaneous characterization of progenitor cell compartments in adult human liver.  

PubMed

The human liver is a complex tissue consisting of epithelial, endothelial, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal elements that probably derive from multiple lineage-committed progenitors, but no comprehensive study aimed at identifying and characterizing intrahepatic precursors has yet been published. Cell suspensions for this study were obtained by enzymatic digestion of liver specimens taken from 20 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 multiorgan donors. Stem and progenitor cells were first isolated, amplified, and characterized ex vivo according to previously validated methods, and then optimized flow cytometry was used to assess their relative frequencies and characterize their immunophenotypes in the clinical specimens. Stem and progenitor cells committed to hematopoietic, endothelial, epithelial, and mesenchymal lineages were clearly identifiable in livers from both healthy and diseased subjects. Within the mononuclear liver cell compartment, epithelial progenitors [epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)(+)/CD49f(+)/CD29(+)/CD45(-)] accounted for 2.7-3.5% whereas hematopoietic (CD34(+)/CD45(+)), endothelial [vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (KDR)(+)/CD146(+)/CD45(-)], and mesenchymal [CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD90 (Thy-1)(+)/CD45 (-)] stem cells and progenitors accounted for smaller fractions (0.02-0.6%). The patients' livers had higher percentages of hematopoietic and endothelial precursors than those of the donors. In conclusion, we identified and characterized precursors committed to four different lineages in adult human liver. We also optimized a flow cytometry approach that will be useful in exploring the contribution of these cells to the pathogenesis of liver disease. PMID:19960544

Porretti, Laura; Cattaneo, Alessandra; Colombo, Federico; Lopa, Raffaella; Rossi, Giorgio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Bertolini, Francesco; Rebulla, Paolo; Prati, Daniele

2010-01-01

296

Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing of Russian wheat aphid injury to wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a severe pest of wheat in the High Plains region of the United States. Remote sensing could be effective for detecting RWA infestations for pest management decision-making purposes. We evaluated an airborne multi-spectral remote sensing system for its ability to di...

297

Sheep Grazing Effect on Dryland Soil Properties and Wheat Yield in the Wheat-Fallow System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing during fallow is an effective method of controlling weeds and pests in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system. Little is known about the effect of sheep grazing on dryland soil properties and wheat yield. We evaluated the effects of fallow management for weed co...

298

Solid-Stemmed Wheat Does Not Affect Overwintering Mortality of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus  

PubMed Central

The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America. Host plant resistance in the form of solid-stemmed wheat cultivars is the main control strategy for C. cinctus. This study investigated the effect of novel and traditional solid wheat hosts on the overwintering mortality and cold-hardiness of C. cinctus. Field conditions from 2003–2005 showed that overwintering mortality in various wheat cultivars averaged 8% and was not related to the type of wheat cultivar. Similarly, supercooling points (-22° C) were not influenced by wheat host type. C. cintus are cold-hardy; up to 80% survive 10 days at -20° C and 10% survive 40 days. Its overwintering microhabitat near the crown area of the plant is well insulated for temperatures above -10° C and remains ? 20° C above ambient minima. These data suggest that winter mortality is a minor factor in the population dynamics of wheat stem sawfly, and despite clear detrimental effects on larval weight and adult fitness, solid-stemmed cultivars do not reduce the ability of larvae to survive winters. PMID:22235942

Cárcamo, Héctor A.; Beres, Brian L.; Herle, Carolyn E.; McLean, Hugh; McGinne, Sean

2011-01-01

299

Solid-stemmed wheat does not affect overwintering mortality of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus.  

PubMed

The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America. Host plant resistance in the form of solid-stemmed wheat cultivars is the main control strategy for C. cinctus. This study investigated the effect of novel and traditional solid wheat hosts on the overwintering mortality and cold-hardiness of C. cinctus. Field conditions from 2003-2005 showed that overwintering mortality in various wheat cultivars averaged 8% and was not related to the type of wheat cultivar. Similarly, supercooling points (-22° C) were not influenced by wheat host type. C. cintus are cold-hardy; up to 80% survive 10 days at -20° C and 10% survive 40 days. Its overwintering microhabitat near the crown area of the plant is well insulated for temperatures above -10° C and remains ~ 20° C above ambient minima. These data suggest that winter mortality is a minor factor in the population dynamics of wheat stem sawfly, and despite clear detrimental effects on larval weight and adult fitness, solid-stemmed cultivars do not reduce the ability of larvae to survive winters. PMID:22235942

Cárcamo, Héctor A; Beres, Brian L; Herle, Carolyn E; McLean, Hugh; McGinne, Sean

2011-01-01

300

[Wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis possibly sensitized by the hydrolyzed wheat proteins in a facial cleansing soap].  

PubMed

There are increasing cases of wheat dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) with transcutaneous or transmucosal sensitization. Hydrolyzed wheat included in a certain brand of soap was identified as a cause of sensitization. The useful clues to detect this disorder consist of the patient's past usage of a soap containing hydrolyzed wheat, the appearance of cutaneous or mucosal symptoms after the intake of wheat or washing with this soap, and a high level of specific IgE for wheat gluten. Because hydrolyzed wheat is used as an additive in a wide variety of cosmetics, we should pay careful attention to the ingredients of cosmetics when observing WDEIA. PMID:22428462

Kobayashi, Miwa; Okura, Risa; Yoshioka, Haruna; Hiromasa, Kana; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nakamura, Motonobu

2012-03-01

301

Wnt2 regulates progenitor proliferation in the developing ventral midbrain.  

PubMed

Wnts are secreted, lipidated proteins that regulate multiple aspects of brain development, including dopaminergic neuron development. In this study, we perform the first purification and signaling analysis of Wnt2 and define the function of Wnt2 in ventral midbrain precursor cultures, as well as in Wnt2-null mice in vivo. We found that purified Wnt2 induces the phosphorylation of both Lrp5/6 and Dvl-2/3, and activates beta-catenin in SN4741 dopaminergic cells. Moreover, purified Wnt2 increases progenitor proliferation, and the number of dopaminergic neurons in ventral midbrain precursor cultures. In agreement with these findings, analysis of the ventral midbrain of developing Wnt2-null mice revealed a decrease in progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis that lead to a decrease in the number of postmitotic precursors and dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, our observations identify Wnt2 as a novel regulator of dopaminergic progenitors and dopaminergic neuron development. PMID:20018874

Sousa, Kyle M; Villaescusa, J Carlos; Cajanek, Lukas; Ondr, Jennifer K; Castelo-Branco, Goncalo; Hofstra, Wytske; Bryja, Vitezslav; Palmberg, Carina; Bergman, Tomas; Wainwright, Brandon; Lang, Richard A; Arenas, Ernest

2010-03-01

302

Wnt2 Regulates Progenitor Proliferation in the Developing Ventral Midbrain*  

PubMed Central

Wnts are secreted, lipidated proteins that regulate multiple aspects of brain development, including dopaminergic neuron development. In this study, we perform the first purification and signaling analysis of Wnt2 and define the function of Wnt2 in ventral midbrain precursor cultures, as well as in Wnt2-null mice in vivo. We found that purified Wnt2 induces the phosphorylation of both Lrp5/6 and Dvl-2/3, and activates ?-catenin in SN4741 dopaminergic cells. Moreover, purified Wnt2 increases progenitor proliferation, and the number of dopaminergic neurons in ventral midbrain precursor cultures. In agreement with these findings, analysis of the ventral midbrain of developing Wnt2-null mice revealed a decrease in progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis that lead to a decrease in the number of postmitotic precursors and dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, our observations identify Wnt2 as a novel regulator of dopaminergic progenitors and dopaminergic neuron development. PMID:20018874

Sousa, Kyle M.; Villaescusa, J. Carlos; Cajanek, Lukas; Ondr, Jennifer K.; Castelo-Branco, Goncalo; Hofstra, Wytske; Bryja, Vitezslav; Palmberg, Carina; Bergman, Tomas; Wainwright, Brandon; Lang, Richard A.; Arenas, Ernest

2010-01-01

303

Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into retinal progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from fetal umbilical cord. Cells were cultured in serum-free neural stem cell-conditioned medium or neural stem cell-conditioned medium supplemented with Dkk-1, a Wnt/? catenin pathway antagonist, and LeftyA, a Nodal signaling pathway antagonist to induce differentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Inverted microscopy showed that after induction, the spindle-shaped or fibroblast-like Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells changed into bulbous cells with numerous processes. Immunofluorescent cytochemical ing and reverse-transcription PCR showed positive expression of retinal progenitor cell markers, Pax6 and Rx, as well as weakly down-regulated nestin expression. These results demonstrate that Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating into retinal progenitor cells in vitro. PMID:25206475

Hu, Ying; Liang, Jun; Cui, Hongping; Wang, Xinmei; Rong, Hua; Shao, Bin; Cui, Hao

2013-01-01

304

Glial Progenitors as Targets for Transformation in Glioma  

PubMed Central

Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and arises throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent focus on stem-like glioma cells has implicated neural stem cells (NSCs), a minor precursor population restricted to germinal zones, as a potential source of gliomas. In this review, we will focus on the relationship between oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), the largest population of cycling glial progenitors in the postnatal brain, and gliomas. Recent studies suggest that OPCs can give rise to gliomas. Furthermore, signaling pathways often associated with NSCs also play key roles during OPC lineage development. Recent advances suggesting that gliomas can undergo a switch from progenitor- to stem-like phenotype after therapy, implicating that an OPC-origin is more likely than previously recognized. Future in-depth studies of OPC biology may shed light on the etiology of OPC-derived gliomas and reveal new therapeutic avenues. PMID:24889528

Ilkanizadeh, Shirin; Lau, Jasmine; Huang, Miller; Foster, Daniel J.; Wong, Robyn; Frantz, Aaron; Wang, Susan; Weiss, William A.; Persson, Anders I.

2014-01-01

305

Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae  

SciTech Connect

The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a Type Ia supernova rate from z {approx} 0.01-0.1 of r{sub V} = 4.26{sub -1.93 -0.10}{sup +1.39 +0.10} h{sup 3} x 10{sup -4} SNe Ia/yr/Mpc{sup 3} from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

Wood-Vasey, William Michael

2004-08-16

306

New Types of Wheat Chromosomal Structural Variations in Derivatives of Wheat-Rye Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background Chromosomal rearrangements induced by wheat-rye hybridization is a very well investigated research topic. However, the structural alterations of wheat chromosomes in wheat-rye hybrids are seldom reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Octoploid triticale lines were derived from common wheat Triticum. aestivum L. ‘Mianyang11’×rye Secale cereale L. ‘Kustro’. Some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with ‘Mianyang11’ and common wheat T. aestivum L. ‘Chuannong27’ followed by self-fertilization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1 and rye genomic DNA as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A, 6A, 1B, 2B, 6B, 7B, 1D, 3D and 7D were observed. 5AL arm carrying intercalary Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1 or both Oligo-pSc119.2-1 and Oligo-pTa535-1 signals, 6AS, 1BS and 1DL arms containing terminal Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal, 6BS and 3DS arms without terminal Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal, 7BS without subtelomeric Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal and 7DL with intercalary Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal have been observed. However, these changed wheat chromosomes have not been detected in ‘Mianyang11’ and Chuannong 27. The altered 5A, 6A, 7B and 7D chromosomes in this study have not been reported and represent several new karyotype structures of common wheat chromosomes. Conclusions/Significance These rearranged wheat chromosomes in the present study afford some new genetic variations for wheat breeding program and are valuable materials for studying the biological function of tandem repetitive DNA sequences. PMID:25302962

Chen, Lei; Wang, Yangyang; Ren, Zhenglong; Fu, Shulan

2014-01-01

307

Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell mechanisms in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by variable cytopenias and ineffective hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors in MDS have not been extensively characterized. We transplanted purified human HSCs from MDS samples into immunodeficient mice and show that HSCs are the disease-initiating cells in MDS. We identify a recurrent loss of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in the bone marrow of low risk MDS patients that can distinguish low risk MDS from clinical mimics, thus providing a simple diagnostic tool. The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. We propose that MDS HSCs compete with normal HSCs in the patients by increasing their frequency at the expense of normal hematopoiesis, that the loss of MDS myeloid progenitors by programmed cell death and programmed cell removal are, in part, responsible for the cytopenias, and that up-regulation of the "don't eat me" signal CD47 on MDS myeloid progenitors is an important transition step leading from low risk MDS to high risk MDS and, possibly, to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23388639

Pang, Wendy W; Pluvinage, John V; Price, Elizabeth A; Sridhar, Kunju; Arber, Daniel A; Greenberg, Peter L; Schrier, Stanley L; Park, Christopher Y; Weissman, Irving L

2013-02-19

308

Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell mechanisms in myelodysplastic syndromes  

PubMed Central

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by variable cytopenias and ineffective hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors in MDS have not been extensively characterized. We transplanted purified human HSCs from MDS samples into immunodeficient mice and show that HSCs are the disease-initiating cells in MDS. We identify a recurrent loss of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in the bone marrow of low risk MDS patients that can distinguish low risk MDS from clinical mimics, thus providing a simple diagnostic tool. The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. We propose that MDS HSCs compete with normal HSCs in the patients by increasing their frequency at the expense of normal hematopoiesis, that the loss of MDS myeloid progenitors by programmed cell death and programmed cell removal are, in part, responsible for the cytopenias, and that up-regulation of the “don’t eat me” signal CD47 on MDS myeloid progenitors is an important transition step leading from low risk MDS to high risk MDS and, possibly, to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23388639

Pang, Wendy W.; Pluvinage, John V.; Price, Elizabeth A.; Sridhar, Kunju; Arber, Daniel A.; Greenberg, Peter L.; Schrier, Stanley L.; Park, Christopher Y.; Weissman, Irving L.

2013-01-01

309

Role of galectin-3 in liver progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation   

E-print Network

Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) respond to hepatic injury when hepatocyte division is impaired in chronic or severe injury. The LPCs are intimately surrounded by myofibroblasts, macrophages and laminin, thus constituting a potential progenitor cell...

Hsieh, Wei-Chen

2011-07-05

310

Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats  

E-print Network

Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats depending on nitrogen ­ In a field experiment, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grew with the infesting weed wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Hepatic progenitor cells express SerpinB3  

PubMed Central

Background In the setting of liver injury hepatic progenitor cells are activated, counterbalancing the inhibited regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes. Chronic activation of this compartment may give rise to a subset of liver tumours with poor prognosis. SerpinB3, a serpin over-expressed in injured liver and in primary liver cancer, has been shown to induce apoptosis resistance, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and to increase TGF-beta and Myc expression. Aim of the present study was to explore the presence of SerpinB3 in hepatic progenitor cells in human livers and in a mouse model of liver stem/progenitor cell activation. Hepatic progenitor cells were analysed in foetal and adult livers at protein and transcriptional levels. To induce experimental activation of the liver stem/progenitor compartment, C57BL/6J mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide plus D-galactosamine and were sacrificed at different time points. Liver cDNA was amplified using specific primers for mouse-homologous SerpinB3 isoforms and automatically sequenced. Results The presence of SerpinB3 in the progenitor cell compartment was detected in sorted human foetal and adult epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) positive liver cells. By immunohistochemistry SerpinB3 was found in human cirrhotic livers in portal areas with progenitor cell activation showing ductular proliferation. CK-7, CK-19, EpCAM and CD-90 positive cell were also positive for SerpinB3. In the animal model, time course analysis in liver specimens revealed a progressive increase of SerpinB3 and a parallel decrease of activated caspase 3, which was barely detectable at 20 hours. Transcription analysis confirmed the presence of SerpinB3-homologous only in the liver of injured mice and sequence analysis proved its belonging to mouse Serpinb3b. Conclusion SerpinB3 is highly expressed in hepatic stem/progenitor cell compartment of both foetal and adult livers. PMID:24517394

2014-01-01

312

ON IDENTIFYING THE PROGENITORS OF Type Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

We propose two new means of identifying the main class of progenitors of Type Ia supernovae-single or double degenerate: (1) if the range of supernova properties is significantly determined by the range of viewing angles of non-spherically symmetric explosions, then the nature of the correlation between polarization and another property (for example, the velocity gradient) can be used to determine the geometry of the asymmetry and hence the nature of the progenitor, and (2) in the double- but not in the single-degenerate case, the range in the observed properties (e.g., velocity gradients) is likely to increase with the amount of carbon seen in the ejecta.

Livio, Mario; Pringle, J. E., E-mail: mlivio@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2011-10-10

313

Subventricular zone progenitors in time and space: generating neuronal diversity  

PubMed Central

The adult mammalian brain harbors a population of cells around their lateral ventricles capable of giving rise to new neurons throughout life. The so-called subventricular zone (SVZ) is a heterogeneous germinative niche in regard to the neuronal types it generates. SVZ progenitors give rise to different olfactory bulb (OB) interneuron types in accordance to their position along the ventricles. Here, I review data showing the difference between progenitors located along different parts of the SVZ axes and ages. I also discuss possible mechanisms for the origin of this diversity. PMID:25565967

Sequerra, Eduardo B.

2014-01-01

314

Possible Progenitor of Special Supernova Type Detected  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, scientists have reported the possible detection of a binary star system that was later destroyed in a supernova explosion. The new method they used provides great future promise for finding the detailed origin of these important cosmic events. In an article appearing in the February 14th issue of the journal Nature, Rasmus Voss of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany and Gijs Nelemans of Radboud University in the Netherlands searched Chandra images for evidence of a much sought after, but as yet unobserved binary system - one that was about to go supernova. Near the position of a recently detected supernova, they discovered an object in Chandra images taken more than four years before the explosion. Optical image of SN 2007on Optical image of SN 2007on The supernova, known as SN 2007on, was identified as a Type Ia supernova. Astronomers generally agree that Type Ia supernovas are produced by the explosion of a white dwarf star in a binary star system. However, the exact configuration and trigger for the explosion is unclear. Is the explosion caused by a collision between two white dwarfs, or because a white dwarf became unstable by pulling too much material off a companion star? Answering such questions is a high priority because Type Ia supernovas are major sources of iron in the Universe. Also, because of their nearly uniform intrinsic brightness, Type Ia supernova are used as important tools by scientists to study the nature of dark energy and other cosmological issues. People Who Read This Also Read... Oldest Known Objects Are Surprisingly Immature Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Discovery of Most Recent Supernova in Our Galaxy Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking "Right now these supernovas are used as black boxes to measure distances and derive the rate of expansion of the universe," said Nelemans. "What we're trying to do is look inside the box." If the supernova explosion is caused by material being pulled off a companion star onto the white dwarf, fusion of this material on the surface of the star should heat the star and produce a strong source of X-radiation prior to the explosion. Once the supernova explosion occurs, the white dwarf is expected to be completely destroyed and then would be undetectable in X-rays. In the merger scenario, the intensity of X-ray emission prior to the explosion is expected to be much weaker. Based on the detection of a fairly strong X-ray source at approximately the position of SN 2007on 4 years before the explosion, Voss and Nelemans conclude that the data support the scenario where matter is pulled off a companion star. The small number of X-ray sources in the field implies that there is only a small chance of an unrelated source being so close by coincidence. Also, the X-ray source has similar properties to those expected for fusion on a white dwarf, unlike most X-ray sources in the sky. However, in follow-up studies, Voss, Nelemans and colleagues Gijs Roelofs (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.) and Cees Bassa (McGill University, Canada) used higher-quality optical images to better determine the supernova's position. This work, which is not yet published, shows a small, but significant difference in the measured positions of the supernova and the X-ray source, suggesting the source may not be the progenitor. Follow-up Chandra observations hint that the X-ray object has disappeared, but further observations are needed to finally decide whether the source was the progenitor or not. The team is also applying this new method to other supernovas and has high hopes that they will eventually succeed in identifying the elusive cause of at least some of these explosions. "We're very excited about opening up a new way of studying supernovas, even though we're not sure that we've seen this particular stellar bomb before it exploded," said Gijs Roelofs. "We're very confident that we'll learn a lot more about these important supernovas in the future.&

2008-04-01

315

The control of ryegrass in wheat with Bay SSH-0860  

E-print Network

are not uncommon in winter wheat. Cheat (Bromus secalinus L. ) and wild oat (Avena fatua L. ) have long been a problem in major wheat producing areas such as Oklahoma and Kansas. Heavy infestations are attributed to the accumulation of seed reserves in the soil... to dockage at the elevator because of cheat (Bromus ~s . ) seed contamination of wheat grain. Similar dockage occurs if ryegrass seed are present. Ryegrass usually matures later than wheat, thus delaying harvest or in- creasing moisture content...

Vaculin, Paul Dean

1983-01-01

316

Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of wheat straw with enzyme treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) of wheat straw with enzyme treatment was studied. Instead of direct enzyme pretreatment\\u000a on wheat straw, an alternative treatment method was used, in which coarse pulps from refiner defibrated wheat straw rather\\u000a than wheat straw were pretreated with a crude enzyme containing mainly xylanase, then impregnated with alkaline H2O2 solution and further refined. The optimum

Jian Zhao; Xuezhi Li; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

2004-01-01

317

Notch signaling controls the generation and differentiation of early T lineage progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signaling by the transmembrane receptor Notch is critical for T lineage development, but progenitor subsets that first receive Notch signals have not been defined. Here we identify an immature subset of early T lineage progenitors (ETPs) in the thymus that expressed the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt3 and had preserved B lineage potential at low progenitor frequency. Notch signaling was active

Arivazhagan Sambandam; Ivan Maillard; Valerie P Zediak; Lanwei Xu; Rachel M Gerstein; Jon C Aster; Warren S Pear; Avinash Bhandoola

2005-01-01

318

Transcription factor Olig2 defines subpopulations of retinal progenitor cells biased toward specific  

E-print Network

that retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) are multipotent throughout development, and expression- profiling studies and amacrine cell inter- neurons. These data indicate that the multipotent progenitor pool is made upTranscription factor Olig2 defines subpopulations of retinal progenitor cells biased toward

Cepko, Connie

319

Molecular Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Sublineage Development from Human Hematopoietic Progenitor\\/Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro differentiation models of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor\\/stem cells have contributed significantly to our current understanding of dendritic cell (DC) development. DC sublineages seem to arise from common progenitors with monocytic cells. These progenitors seem to respond to instructive signals from cytokine receptors and steroids to follow defined sublineage differentiation pathways. Transcriptional processes involved in the regulation of lineage

Herbert Strobl

2003-01-01

320

The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair  

E-print Network

The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair Xiaoming Liu1 and John F epithelial stem/progenitor cells of the proximal airways. As in the case of other adult stem cell niches and mobilize stem/progenitor cells, in the setting of normal cellular turnover or injury. Aberrant

Engelhardt, John F.

321

Regeneration of Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons after Ischemic Brain Injury by Recruitment of Endogenous Neural Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult brain is extremely vulnerable to various insults. The recent discovery of neural progenitors in adult mammals, however, raises the possibility of repairing damaged tissue by recruiting their latent regenerative potential. Here we show that activation of endogenous progenitors leads to massive regeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after ischemic brain injury. Endogenous progenitors proliferate in response to ischemia and

Hirofumi Nakatomi; Toshihiko Kuriu; Shigeo Okabe; Shin-ichi Yamamoto; Osamu Hatano; Nobutaka Kawahara; Akira Tamura; Takaaki Kirino; Masato Nakafuku

2002-01-01

322

Identification of insect damaged wheat kernels using transmittance images  

E-print Network

Identification of insect damaged wheat kernels using transmittance images Z. Cataltepe, A. Enis Cetin and T. Pearson Transmittance images of wheat kernels are used to classify insect damaged to obtain the images shown in Fig. 1. The insect damaged kernel images were taken from wheat infested

Cataltepe, Zehra

323

Fusarium head blight: distribution in wheat in Latvia.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat has, in recent years, been a very important worldwide disease in intensive growing of cereal. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of FHB in wheat in Latvia and to identify the Fusarium species involved. This paper describes the distribution of Fusarium species that were isolated from samples representing winter and spring wheat varieties in Latvia, identified both by the classical morphological analyses of J. Leslie and B. Summerell (2006) and by PCR. The FHB incidence range in winter wheat was 1-20%, in spring wheat was 1-42%. The most significant factor affecting the incidence of fusarial head blight in wheat in Latvia was heightened temperature at the time of an thesis of wheat. In winter wheat 9 Fusarium species caused FHB: F. culmorum, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. poae, F. oxysporum, F. cerealis, F. sporotrichoides and F. verticillioides were identified by morphological characterization, and 5 were confirmed by PCR-analysis. After experience of 5 years, it can be concluded that the most frequent in winter wheat were F. poae and F. culmorum. In spring wheat from F. culmorum was dominant among 8 Fusarium species. Among 13 varieties of spring wheat, three were sensitive ('Chamsin', 'W 166', 'Azurite') and one was resistant ('Granny') to FHB in conditions of high natural infection in 2009. The monitoring surveys demonstrate a significant presence of FHB in spring wheat in conditions of heightened temperature at the time of flowering in Latvia. PMID:21534469

Treikale, O; Priekule, I; Javoisha, B; Lazareva, L

2010-01-01

324

Control of stripe rusts of wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW) using trap plots and through field surveys during the 2006 growing season. Through collaborators in other states, stripe rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the US. In 2006, wheat stripe rust occurred in...

325

Mixed Nitrogen Nutrition and Productivity of Wheat Grown in Hydroponics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to study the effects of nitrogen (N) supplied as either mixtures of NOa and NH. or as all NOa on the final yield of spring wheat. Two separate greenhouse experiments evaluated the durum spring wheat (Triticum durum L.) cultivar 'Inbar' in 1986, and the hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestu'um L.) cultivar' Len' in

J. A. HEBERER

326

Evidence indicates that -A PREMIX OF FPC & WHEAT FLOUR  

E-print Network

Evidence indicates that - A PREMIX OF FPC & WHEAT FLOUR CAN BE MADE & TRANSPORTED Virginia D of wheat flour and fish protein concentrate (FPC) would tend to separate during the agitation of a mechanical shaker. Mixtures of 90% wheat flour and 10% FPC were placed on a shaker for 168 hours. Despite

327

Wheat Variety Identification Using MALDI-TOF M Znamirowski1  

E-print Network

Wheat Variety Identification Using MALDI-TOF M Znamirowski1 , R G Dworschak1 , K Preston2 , K G Laboratory, Canadian Grain Comission Winnipeg, Canada The Canadian system of grading wheat and other grains. For this initial evaluation, 16 varieties of wheat from four different classes were examined. We have also analyzed

Ens, Werner

328

Wheat rusts in the United States in 2011  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) was found in Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, Minnesota, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan in 2011. Nationally, wheat only incurred a trace loss due to wheat stem rust. Race QFCS was the most...

329

ESTIMATION OF HEAT DAMAGE IN HARD RED WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat damage occurs during the artifical drying of newly harvested wheat or at high storage temperatures. Wheat proteins can be denatured by kernel heat damage during storage or during wheat milling process. Protein denaturation limits their functional (visco eleastic) properties in flour dough and...

330

THREE-DIMENSION VISUALIZATION FOR PRIMARY WHEAT DISEASES BASED ON  

E-print Network

wheat and maize optimal fertilization expert system of Yucheng county on Huanghuai Plain; NanjingTHREE-DIMENSION VISUALIZATION FOR PRIMARY WHEAT DISEASES BASED ON SIMULATION MODEL Li Shijuan impact factors for main wheat diseases of stripe rust, leaf rust, stem rust, head blight and powdery

Boyer, Edmond

331

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw was made of the chemical com- position, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and fractionated into pulp

Xue-Jun PanYoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

332

Mapping QTL for Soft Wheat Quality in Multiple Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soft wheat is used to make a wide variety of products and thus variation for quality parameters is important to breed soft wheat cultivars suitable for different uses. Breeders need more knowledge about the genetics of soft wheat quality and systems for marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS is best...

333

Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change  

PubMed Central

Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

Semenov, M.A.; Stratonovitch, P.; Alghabari, F.; Gooding, M.J.

2014-01-01

334

Type Ia supernovae: explosions and progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernovae are the brightest explosions in the universe. Supernovae in our Galaxy, rare and happening only every few centuries, have probably been observed since the beginnings of mankind. At first they were interpreted as religious omens but in the last half millennium they have increasingly been used to study the cosmos and our place in it. Tycho Brahe deduced from his observations of the famous supernova in 1572, that the stars, in contrast to the widely believe Aristotelian doctrine, were not immutable. More than 400 years after Tycho made his paradigm changing discovery using SN 1572, and some 60 years after supernovae had been identified as distant dying stars, two teams changed the view of the world again using supernovae. The found that the Universe was accelerating in its expansion, a conclusion that could most easily be explained if more than 70% of the Universe was some previously un-identified form of matter now often referred to as `Dark Energy'. Beyond their prominent role as tools to gauge our place in the Universe, supernovae themselves have been studied well over the past 75 years. We now know that there are two main physical causes of these cataclysmic events. One of these channels is the collapse of the core of a massive star. The observationally motivated classes Type II, Type Ib and Type Ic have been attributed to these events. This thesis, however is dedicated to the second group of supernovae, the thermonuclear explosions of degenerate carbon and oxygen rich material and lacking hydrogen - called Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). White dwarf stars are formed at the end of a typical star's life when nuclear burning ceases in the core, the outer envelope is ejected, with the degenerate core typically cooling for eternity. Theory predicts that such stars will self ignite when close to 1.38 Msun (called the Chandrasekhar Mass). Most stars however leave white dwarfs with 0.6 Msun, and no star leaves a remnant as heavy as 1.38 M! sun, which suggests that they somehow need to acquire mass if they are to explode as SN Ia. Currently there are two major scenarios for this mass acquisition. In the favoured single degenerate scenario the white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star which is much younger in its evolutionary state. The less favoured double degenerate scenario sees the merger of two white dwarfs (with a total combined mass of more than 1.38 Msun). This thesis has tried to answer the question about the mass acquisition in two ways. First the single degenerate scenario predicts a surviving companion post-explosion. We undertook an observational campaign to find this companion in two ancient supernovae (SN 1572 and SN 1006). Secondly, we have extended an existing code to extract the elemental and energy yields of SNe Ia spectra by automating spectra fitting to specific SNe Ia. This type of analysis, in turn, help diagnose to which of the two major progenitor scenarios is right.

Kerzendorf, Wolfgang Eitel

2011-08-01

335

Isolation, promoter analysis and expression profile of Dreb2 in response to drought stress in wheat ancestors.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses, constraining crop production seriously. The dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) are important plant-specific transcription factors that respond to various abiotic stresses and consequently induce abiotic stress-related genes that impart stress endurance in plants. Wild species are naturally exposed to various abiotic stresses and potentially harbor suitable alleles through natural selection. In this study we isolated and characterized Dreb2 from Triticum urartu (GenBank: KF731664), Aegilops speltoides (GenBank: KF731665) and Aegilops tauschii (GenBank: KF731663), the A, B and D genome ancestors of bread wheat, respectively. Analysis of over 1.3 kb upstream region of the gene revealed the presence of several conserved cis-acting regulatory elements including ABA-responsive elements, low temperature responsive elements, and several light and environmental signaling related motifs potentially vindicate Dreb2 responses to environmental signals. Moreover, the gene exhibited an alternative splicing, conserved among orthologous genes in grasses, and produced a non-functional isoform due to splicing in an exon resulted frame-shift creating an early stop codon before the functional domain. The expression analysis of Dreb2 under normal and different levels of dehydration stress conditions indicated that the two active spliced isoforms are upregulated when the plant exposed to drought stress whereas the non-functional isoform is downregulated in severe drought. PMID:25017054

Tavakol, Elahe; Sardaro, Maria Luisa Savo; Shariati, J Vahid; Rossini, Laura; Porceddu, Enrico

2014-10-01

336

?4 Integrin signaling induces expansion of prostate tumor progenitors  

PubMed Central

The contextual signals that regulate the expansion of prostate tumor progenitor cells are poorly defined. We found that a significant fraction of advanced human prostate cancers and castration-resistant metastases express high levels of the ?4 integrin, which binds to laminin-5. Targeted deletion of the signaling domain of ?4 inhibited prostate tumor growth and progression in response to loss of p53 and Rb function in a mouse model of prostate cancer (PB-TAg mice). Additionally, it suppressed Pten loss-driven prostate tumorigenesis in tissue recombination experiments. We traced this defect back to an inability of signaling-defective ?4 to sustain self-renewal of putative cancer stem cells in vitro and proliferation of transit-amplifying cells in vivo. Mechanistic studies indicated that mutant ?4 fails to promote transactivation of ErbB2 and c-Met in prostate tumor progenitor cells and human cancer cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of ErbB2 and c-Met reduced the ability of prostate tumor progenitor cells to undergo self-renewal in vitro. Finally, we found that ?4 is often coexpressed with c-Met and ErbB2 in human prostate cancers and that combined pharmacological inhibition of these receptor tyrosine kinases exerts antitumor activity in a mouse xenograft model. These findings indicate that the ?4 integrin promotes prostate tumorigenesis by amplifying ErbB2 and c-Met signaling in tumor progenitor cells. PMID:23348745

Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Otero, Javier; Chen, Yu; Kim, Young-Mi; Koutcher, Jason A.; Satagopan, Jaya; Reuter, Victor; Carver, Brett; de Stanchina, Elisa; Enomoto, Katsuhiko; Greenberg, Norman M.; Scardino, Peter T.; Scher, Howard I.; Sawyers, Charles L.; Giancotti, Filippo G.

2013-01-01

337

[Research and clinical applications regarding endothelial progenitor cell transplantation].  

PubMed

Endothelial injury or dysfunction leads to multiple cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are precursor cells of endothelial cells, including the early endothelial progenitor cells and the late endothelial progenitor cells. These two EPC types have different function and surface markers. EPC in this article mainly means late endothelial progenitors which could grow into endothelial cloning and form vessels in vivo. Late EPCs can express CD133, CD31, KDR, CD144, CD34 etc, take in low density lipoprotein, bind with ulex europaeus lectin 1 and form blood vessels in vitro and in vivo. EPCs not only participate in new blood vessels formation, but also are closely related to the repair of damaged endothelium. Many studies confirm that the transplanted EPCs are able to be mobilized to vascular injury location and repair the damaged endothelial cells thus promote new blood vessel formation, which provides a promising strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and ischemic diseases. PMID:25432379

Tan, Kefang; Sun, Xuan

2014-11-01

338

Expression of cytokines by multipotent neural progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work with mammalian neural stem cells has highlighted the role of cytokine signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of these multipotent cells. While the responsiveness of neural progenitors to exogenously applied growth factors has been demonstrated in vivo as well as in vitro, little attention has been given to the production of cytokines by these cells. Here we use

Henry J. Klassen; Karen L. Imfeld; Ivan I. Kirov; LeiQian Tai; Fred H. Gage; Michael J. Young; Monique A. Berman

2003-01-01

339

Regulates Cell Cycle Withdrawal of Late Multipotent Progenitor Cells  

E-print Network

p27Kip1 Regulates Cell Cycle Withdrawal of Late Multipotent Progenitor Cells in the Mammalian, Washington 98104 The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein, p27Kip1 , is necessary for the timing of cell cell types. In vitro analyses show that p27Kip1 accumulation in retinal cells correlates with cell

Reh, Thomas A.

340

Adult Spinal Cord Radial Glia Display a Unique Progenitor Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Radial glia (RG) are primarily embryonic neuroglial progenitors that express Brain Lipid Binding Protein (Blbp a.k.a. Fabp7) and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (Gfap). We used these transcripts to demarcate the distribution of spinal cord radial glia (SCRG) and screen for SCRG gene expression in the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas (ASCA). We reveal that neonatal and adult SCRG are anchored in a non-ventricular niche at the spinal cord (SC) pial boundary, and express a “signature” subset of 122 genes, many of which are shared with “classic” neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and SC central canal (CC). A core expressed gene set shared between SCRG and progenitors of the SVZ and CC is particularly enriched in genes associated with human disease. Visualizing SCRG in a Fabp7-EGFP reporter mouse reveals an extensive population of SCRG that extend processes around the SC boundary and inwardly (through) the SC white matter (WM), whose abundance increases in a gradient from cervical to lumbar SC. Confocal analysis of multiple NSC-enriched proteins reveals that postnatal SCRG are a discrete and heterogeneous potential progenitor population that become activated by multiple SC lesions, and that CC progenitors are also more heterogeneous than previously appreciated. Gene ontology analysis highlights potentially unique regulatory pathways that may be further manipulated in SCRG to enhance repair in the context of injury and SC disease. PMID:21931744

Kennedy, Timothy E.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram; Glattfelder, Katie J.; Dalley, Rachel A.; Puchalski, Ralph B.; Jones, Allan R.; Roskams, A. Jane

2011-01-01

341

Repair of injured proximal tubule does not involve specialized progenitors  

PubMed Central

Recently we have established that the kidney tubular epithelium is repaired by surviving epithelial cells. It is not known, however, whether a population of intratubular adult progenitor cells are responsible for this epithelial repair after acute kidney injury. In this study, we used an unbiased DNA analog-based approach that does not rely on candidate markers to track multiple rounds of cell division in vivo. In the proximal tubule, robust thymidine analog incorporation was observed postinjury. Cell division was stochastic and enriched among cells that were injured and dedifferentiated. There was no evidence for the presence of a population of specialized progenitors that repeatedly divide in response to injury. Instead, these results indicate that after injury, new epithelial cells arise from self-duplication of surviving cells, most of which are injured. Because the renal papilla contains DNA label-retaining cells and has been proposed as a stem cell niche, we examined the proliferative behavior of these putative progenitors after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although label-retaining cells in the renal papilla diminished with time after ischemia-reperfusion injury, they neither proliferated nor migrated to the outer medulla or cortex. Thus, nonlethally injured cells repopulate the kidney epithelium after injury in the absence of any specialized progenitor cell population. PMID:21576461

Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Czerniak, Suzanne; DiRocco, Derek P.; Hasnain, Wirasat; Cheema, Rabia; Bonventre, Joseph V.

2011-01-01

342

Myeloid cells stimulate their progenitors in an emergency.  

PubMed

The nature and functions of cells creating hematopoietic niches during inflammation remain incompletely understood. In this issue of Immunity, Kwak et al. (2015) reveal that myeloid cell-produced reactive oxygen species stimulate proliferation of myeloid progenitors establishing an additional mechanism to regulate hematopoiesis. PMID:25607454

Sugiyama, Tatsuki; Nagasawa, Takashi

2015-01-20

343

In vitro pancreas organogenesis from dispersed mouse embryonic progenitors.  

PubMed

The pancreas is an essential organ that regulates glucose homeostasis and secretes digestive enzymes. Research on pancreas embryogenesis has led to the development of protocols to produce pancreatic cells from stem cells (1). The whole embryonic organ can be cultured at multiple stages of development (2-4). These culture methods have been useful to test drugs and to image developmental processes. However the expansion of the organ is very limited and morphogenesis is not faithfully recapitulated since the organ flattens. We propose three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions that enable the efficient expansion of dissociated mouse embryonic pancreatic progenitors. By manipulating the composition of the culture medium it is possible to generate either hollow spheres, mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors expanding in their initial state, or, complex organoids which progress to more mature expanding progenitors and differentiate into endocrine, acinar and ductal cells and which spontaneously self-organize to resemble the embryonic pancreas. We show here that the in vitro process recapitulates many aspects of natural pancreas development. This culture system is suitable to investigate how cells cooperate to form an organ by reducing its initial complexity to few progenitors. It is a model that reproduces the 3D architecture of the pancreas and that is therefore useful to study morphogenesis, including polarization of epithelial structures and branching. It is also appropriate to assess the response to mechanical cues of the niche such as stiffness and the effects on cell´s tensegrity. PMID:25079453

Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Figueiredo-Larsen, Manuel; Grapin-Botton, Anne

2014-01-01

344

Viral Packaging and Transduction of Adult Hippocampal Neural Progenitors  

E-print Network

Peltier and David V. Schaffer Abstract Genetic manipulation of adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells, Viral transduction, Viral production/purification, Infection Genetic manipulation of adult hippocampal+Business Media, LLC 2010 #12;104 Peltier and Schaffer Viral production begins when "helper plasmids" expressing

Schaffer, David V.

345

A red clover stand that was frost seeded into wheat. Using red clover as a cover crop in wheat  

E-print Network

better when frost seeded into well fertilized wheat fields. Benefits of red clover A red clover coverA red clover stand that was frost seeded into wheat. Using red clover as a cover crop in wheat Dan. Canadian-grown mammoth clover does not tolerate the increased shading and competition from well fertilized

346

Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B). However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related

Camille Rustenholz; Pete E Hedley; Jenny Morris; Frédéric Choulet; Catherine Feuillet; Robbie Waugh; Etienne Paux

2010-01-01

347

Molecular characterization of cultured adult human liver progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Hepatic progenitor cells hold great promise as a self-renewing cell source for cell-based regenerative therapies as well as in vitro pharmacological testing. There is a fundamental need to identify and characterize these cells with respect to discriminative marker genes especially those encoding cell surface proteins, which can be utilized for the identification and isolation of these progenitor cells. In this study, comparative global gene expression profiling was performed with two epithelial cell types isolated from human livers that showed progenitor characteristics (type 1 and 2 cells), two human embryonic stem cell lines H1 and H9, and with primary human hepatocytes. The analysis revealed that the transcriptome of type 1 cells is more similar to that of human embryonic stem cells than to that of human hepatocytes. Among the list of genes expressed in type 1 cells are cadherins (CDH3), tight junction proteins (CLDN4), receptors (DDR1), integrins (ITGB4), cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM/TACSTD1), cell surface proteins (CD133/PROM1, ANXA3, and CD24), and a gene encoding the multidrug resistance protein MRP4/ABCC4. Finally, we were able to localize type 1 progenitor cells in Canals of Hering and in cells of ductular reactions within sections of normal and diseased human liver using ANXA3 and CLDN4 antibodies. Our study confirms the progenitor identity of type 1 cells and identifies novel markers that could be used for further studies on their characteristics and isolation using marker-based cell sorting strategies. PMID:19874131

Jozefczuk, Justyna; Stachelscheid, Harald; Chavez, Lukas; Herwig, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Zeilinger, Katrin; Gerlach, Joerg C; Adjaye, James

2010-10-01

348

Heterogeneity of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in adult human brain  

PubMed Central

Objective Remyelination in multiple sclerosis has been attributed to the presence of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in brain parenchyma. However, the precise identity of these progenitors is poorly defined. Here, we characterized populations of OPCs in the adult human brain and examined their myelination capacity and profile of miRNAs. Comparisons were made with fetal OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes. Methods We isolated human adult and fetal (early-to-mid second trimester) OPCs from surgically resected brain tissues using O4-, A2B5-, and MOG-directed fluorescence activated cell sorting and transplanted them into dysmyelinated shiverer slices to examine their myelination capacity. We used qRT-PCR to analyze expression of selective miRNAs implicated in OPC biology. Results Three subsets of putative OPCs were identified in adult brains: (1) A2B5(+), (2) O4low, and (3) A2B5(+)O4highMOG(+) progenitors. In comparison, fetal brains contained (1) A2B5(+), (2) O4(+), and (3) A2B5(+)O4(+) progenitors, but no MOG(+) cells. We demonstrate that like fetal OPCs, adult OPCs have the capacity to ensheathe cerebellar axons. However, adult OPCs exhibit low to undetectable expression of miRNAs that were highly expressed in O4-expressing fetal OPCs. Adult OPCs also express different miRNAs compared to mature oligodendrocytes. Interpretation We conclude that phenotypically distinct subsets of OPCs are present in adult human brain and these OPCs show differential miRNA expression compared to fetal OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes. These suggest that remyelination in adult brain may involve multiple populations of progenitors within the brain and that OPC differentiation in adulthood may be differentially regulated compared to development.

Leong, Soo Yuen; Rao, Vijayaraghava T S; Bin, Jenea M; Gris, Pavel; Sangaralingam, Mugundhine; Kennedy, Timothy E; Antel, Jack P

2014-01-01

349

Gain of Olig2 function in oligodendrocyte progenitors promotes remyelination.  

PubMed

The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig2 is a key determinant for the specification of neural precursor cells into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. However, the functional role of Olig2 in oligodendrocyte migration and differentiation remains elusive both during developmental myelination and under demyelinating conditions of the adult central nervous system. To decipher Olig2 functions, we generated transgenic mice (TetOlig2:Sox10(rtTA/+)) overexpressing Olig2 in Sox10(+) oligodendroglial cells in a doxycycline inducible manner. We show that Olig2 overexpression increases the generation of differentiated oligodendrocytes, leading to precocious myelination of the central nervous system. Unexpectedly, we found that gain of Olig2 function in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells enhances their migration rate. To determine whether Olig2 overexpression in adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells promotes oligodendrocyte regeneration for myelin repair, we induced lysophosphatidylcholine demyelination in the corpus callosum of TetOlig2:Sox10(rtTA/+) and control mice. We found that Olig2 overexpression enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and remyelination. To assess the relevance of these findings in demyelinating diseases, we also examined OLIG2 expression in multiple sclerosis lesions. We demonstrate that OLIG2 displays a differential expression pattern in multiple sclerosis lesions that correlates with lesion activity. Strikingly, OLIG2 was predominantly detected in NOGO-A(+) (now known as RTN4-A) maturing oligodendrocytes, which prevailed in active lesion borders, rather than chronic silent and shadow plaques. Taken together, our data provide proof of principle indicating that OLIG2 overexpression in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells might be a possible therapeutic mechanism for enhancing myelin repair. PMID:25564492

Wegener, Amélie; Deboux, Cyrille; Bachelin, Corinne; Frah, Magali; Kerninon, Christophe; Seilhean, Danielle; Weider, Matthias; Wegner, Michael; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim

2015-01-01

350

UPDATE ON THE CETUS POLAR STREAM AND ITS PROGENITOR  

SciTech Connect

We trace the Cetus Polar Stream (CPS) with blue horizontal branch and red giant stars from Data Release 8 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a larger data set than was available previously, we are able to refine the measured distance and velocity to this tidal debris star stream in the south Galactic cap. Assuming that the tidal debris traces the progenitor's orbit, we fit an orbit to the CPS and find that the stream is confined between ?24 and 36 kpc on a rather polar orbit inclined 87° to the Galactic plane. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.20, and the period is ?700 Myr. If we instead matched N-body simulations to the observed tidal debris, these orbital parameters would change by 10% or less. The CPS stars travel in the opposite direction to those from the Sagittarius tidal stream in the same region of the sky. Through N-body models of satellites on the best-fitting orbit, and assuming that mass follows light, we show that the stream width, line-of-sight depth, and velocity dispersion imply a progenitor of ?> 10{sup 8} M{sub ?}. However, the density of stars along the stream requires either a disruption time on the order of one orbit or a stellar population that is more centrally concentrated than the dark matter. We suggest that an ultrafaint dwarf galaxy progenitor could reproduce a large stream width and velocity dispersion without requiring a very recent deflection of the progenitor into its current orbit. We find that most Cetus stars have metallicities of –2.5 < [Fe/H] <–2.0, similar to the observed metallicities of the ultrafaint dwarfs. Our simulations suggest that the parameters of the dwarf galaxy progenitors, including their dark matter content, could be constrained by observations of their tidal tails through comparison of the debris with N-body simulations.

Yam, William; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Dumas, Julie; O'Malley, Erin; Newby, Matthew; Martin, Charles, E-mail: carlij@rpi.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

2013-10-20

351

[Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].  

PubMed

Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies. PMID:24088542

Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Pawe?; Ho?ysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Bar?, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

2013-01-01

352

Tendon proper- and peritenon-derived progenitor cells have unique tenogenic properties  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multipotent progenitor populations exist within the tendon proper and peritenon of the Achilles tendon. Progenitor populations derived from the tendon proper and peritenon are enriched with distinct cell types that are distinguished by expression of markers of tendon and vascular or pericyte origins, respectively. The objective of this study was to discern the unique tenogenic properties of tendon proper- and peritenon-derived progenitors within an in vitro model. We hypothesized that progenitors from each region contribute differently to tendon formation; thus, when incorporated into a regenerative model, progenitors from each region will respond uniquely. Moreover, we hypothesized that cell populations like progenitors were capable of stimulating tenogenic differentiation, so we generated conditioned media from these cell types to analyze their stimulatory potentials. Methods Isolated progenitors were seeded within fibrinogen/thrombin gel-based constructs with or without supplementation with recombinant growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF5). Early and late in culture, gene expression of differentiation markers and matrix assembly genes was analyzed. Tendon construct ultrastructure was also compared after 45 days. Moreover, conditioned media from tendon proper-derived progenitors, peritenon-derived progenitors, or tenocytes was applied to each of the three cell types to determine paracrine stimulatory effects of the factors secreted from each of the respective cell types. Results The cell orientation, extracellular domain and fibril organization of constructs were comparable to embryonic tendon. The tendon proper-derived progenitors produced a more tendon-like construct than the peritenon-derived progenitors. Seeded tendon proper-derived progenitors expressed greater levels of tenogenic markers and matrix assembly genes, relative to peritenon-derived progenitors. However, GDF5 supplementation improved expression of matrix assembly genes in peritenon progenitors and structurally led to increased mean fibril diameters. It also was found that peritenon-derived progenitors secrete factor(s) stimulatory to tenocytes and tendon proper progenitors. Conclusions Data demonstrate that, relative to peritenon-derived progenitors, tendon proper progenitors have greater potential for forming functional tendon-like tissue. Furthermore, factors secreted by peritenon-derived progenitors suggest a trophic role for this cell type as well. Thus, these findings highlight the synergistic potential of including these progenitor populations in restorative tendon engineering strategies. PMID:25005797

2014-01-01

353

Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Large area LANDSAT yield estimates were generated. These results were compared with estimates computed using a meteorological yield model (CCEA). Both of these estimates were compared with Kansas Crop and Livestock Reporting Service (KCLRS) estimates of yield, in an attempt to assess the relative and absolute accuracy of the LANDSAT and CCEA estimates. Results were inconclusive. A large area direct wheat prediction procedure was implemented. Initial results have produced a wheat production estimate comparable with the KCLRS estimate.

Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. E. (principal investigators); Rice, D. P.; Bresnahan, P. A.

1977-01-01

354

How fast was wild wheat domesticated?  

PubMed

Prehistoric cultivation of wild wheat in the Fertile Crescent led to the selection of mutants with indehiscent (nonshattering) ears, which evolved into modern domestic wheat. Previous estimates suggested that this transformation was rapid, but our analyses of archaeological plant remains demonstrate that indehiscent domesticates were slow to appear, emerging approximately 9500 years before the present, and that dehiscent (shattering) forms were still common in cultivated fields approximately 7500 years before the present. Slow domestication implies that after cultivation began, wild cereals may have remained unchanged for a long period, supporting claims that agriculture originated in the Near East approximately 10,500 years before the present. PMID:16574859

Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Willcox, George

2006-03-31

355

Consumer liking of refined and whole wheat breads.  

PubMed

Preference for refined bread is often cited as a reason for the relatively low consumption of whole wheat bread; only a few studies, however, have examined consumer preferences between refined and whole wheat breads, and the results of these studies are inconclusive. Our objective was to determine if refined wheat bread is preferred to whole wheat bread. We hypothesized that people would prefer refined wheat bread. We conducted a taste test with 89 people. They rated their liking of 9 different breads chosen to represent several comparisons between equivalent refined and whole wheat breads. The participants also rated the intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and completed a questionnaire about their bread preferences and purchasing habits. We classified the participants by their bread preference and their PROP taster status, and then examined the liking patterns of these subgroups. People preferred refined bread to whole wheat bread when both were made using equivalent ingredients and procedures. They liked the commercial samples of refined and whole wheat breads equally well. When people were classified by their bread preference, those who preferred refined bread liked the refined bread better in all comparisons. PROP nontasters liked all refined and whole wheat breads equally. Sensory preferences are a barrier to whole wheat bread consumption, but ingredient or processing modifications can improve liking of whole wheat bread to the level of refined bread. PMID:17995660

Bakke, A; Vickers, Z

2007-09-01

356

Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.  

PubMed

The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

2013-09-01

357

FRIZZY PANICLE Drives Supernumerary Spikelets in Bread Wheat.  

PubMed

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) inflorescences, or spikes, are characteristically unbranched and normally bear one spikelet per rachis node. Wheat mutants on which supernumerary spikelets (SSs) develop are particularly useful resources for work towards understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying wheat inflorescence architecture and, ultimately, yield components. Here, we report the characterization of genetically unrelated mutants leading to the identification of the wheat FRIZZY PANICLE (FZP) gene, encoding a member of the APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor transcription factor family, which drives the SS trait in bread wheat. Structural and functional characterization of the three wheat FZP homoeologous genes (WFZP) revealed that coding mutations of WFZP-D cause the SS phenotype, with the most severe effect when WFZP-D lesions are combined with a frameshift mutation in WFZP-A. We provide WFZP-based resources that may be useful for genetic manipulations with the aim of improving bread wheat yield by increasing grain number. PMID:25398545

Dobrovolskaya, Oxana; Pont, Caroline; Sibout, Richard; Martinek, Petr; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Murat, Florent; Chosson, Audrey; Watanabe, Nobuyoshi; Prat, Elisa; Gautier, Nadine; Gautier, Véronique; Poncet, Charles; Orlov, Yuriy L; Krasnikov, Alexander A; Bergès, Hélène; Salina, Elena; Laikova, Lyudmila; Salse, Jerome

2015-01-01

358

The effects of added wheat proteins on processing and quality of wheat flour tortillas  

E-print Network

Specific proteins improve quality of flour for breadmaking but protein composition in tortilla flour has not been investigated. Selected wheat protein fractions can separately modify dough resistance and extensibility. This may yield tortillas...

Pascut, Simina

2002-01-01

359

PROGENITOR-EXPLOSION CONNECTION AND REMNANT BIRTH MASSES FOR NEUTRINO-DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE OF IRON-CORE PROGENITORS  

SciTech Connect

We perform hydrodynamic supernova (SN) simulations in spherical symmetry for over 100 single stars of solar metallicity to explore the progenitor-explosion and progenitor-remnant connections established by the neutrino-driven mechanism. We use an approximative treatment of neutrino transport and replace the high-density interior of the neutron star (NS) by an inner boundary condition based on an analytic proto-NS core-cooling model, whose free parameters are chosen such that explosion energy, nickel production, and energy release by the compact remnant of progenitors around 20 M{sub Sun} are compatible with SN 1987A. Thus, we are able to simulate the accretion phase, initiation of the explosion, subsequent neutrino-driven wind phase for 15-20 s, and the further evolution of the blast wave for hours to days until fallback is completed. Our results challenge long-standing paradigms. We find that remnant mass, launch time, and properties of the explosion depend strongly on the stellar structure and exhibit large variability even in narrow intervals of the progenitors' zero-age main-sequence mass. While all progenitors with masses below {approx}15 M{sub Sun} yield NSs, black hole (BH) as well as NS formation is possible for more massive stars, where partial loss of the hydrogen envelope leads to weak reverse shocks and weak fallback. Our NS baryonic masses of {approx}1.2-2.0 M{sub Sun} and BH masses >6 M{sub Sun} are compatible with a possible lack of low-mass BHs in the empirical distribution. Neutrino heating accounts for SN energies between some 10{sup 50} erg and {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg but can hardly explain more energetic explosions and nickel masses higher than 0.1-0.2 M{sub Sun }. These seem to require an alternative SN mechanism.

Ugliano, Marcella; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Arcones, Almudena [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 2, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

2012-09-20

360

SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEATS CAN EXPAND THE RANGE OF PUROINDOLINE HAPLOTYPES AND KERNEL TEXTURE IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The kernel softness of wheat is limited by the sole,‘wild-type’ puroindoline gene sequences contributed by wheat’s wild ancestor. Greater genetic variability in the puroindoline genes may expand the range of kernel texture in wheat. “Synthetic” wheats provide greater and direct access to the wild a...

361

THE WINDOW OF RISK FOR EMIGRATION OF WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS VARIES WITH HOST ERADICATION METHOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella, the vector of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), often survives the summer on volunteer wheat (Triticum aestivum) and may disperse from this 'green bridge' in fall to newly-planted winter wheat. Because some methods for managing volunteer wheat do not dir...

362

Reproduction and development of Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 on crested wheatgrass, intermediate wheatgrass, and susceptible and resistant wheat.  

PubMed

The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is an economically important pest of small grains. Since its introduction into North America in 2003, Russian wheat aphid Biotype 2 has been found to be virulent to all commercially available winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., cultivars. Our goal was to examine differences in Russian wheat aphid reproduction and development on a variety of plant hosts to gain information about 1) potential alternate host refuges, 2) selective host pressures on Russian wheat aphid genetic variation, and 3) general population dynamics of Russian wheat aphid Biotype 2. We studied host quality of two wheatgrasses (crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn., and intermediate wheatgrass, Agropyron intermedium [Host] Beauvoir) and two types of winter wheat (T. aestivum, one Biotype 2 susceptible wheat, 'Custer' and one biotype 2 resistant wheat, STARS02RWA2414-11). The susceptible wheat had the highest intrinsic rate of increase, greatest longevity and greatest fecundity of the four host studied. Crested wheatgrass and the resistant wheat showed similar growth rates. Intermediate wheatgrass had the lowest intrinsic rate of increase and lowest fecundity of all tested hosts. PMID:18459422

Merrill, Scott C; Peairs, Frank B; Miller, Hayley R; Randolph, Terri L; Rudolph, Jeff B; Talmich, Emili E

2008-04-01

363

Impact of wheat-Leymus racemosus added chromosomes on wheat adaptation and tolerance to heat stress  

PubMed Central

Adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high temperatures could be improved by introducing alien genes from wild relatives. We evaluated the responses of wheat-Leymus racemosus chromosome introgression lines to high temperature to determine their potentiality for developing improved wheat cultivars. Introgression lines and their parent Chinese Spring were evaluated in a growth chamber at the seedling stage and in the field at the reproductive stage in two heat-stressed environments in Sudan. Optimum and late planting were used to ensure exposure of the plants to heat stress at the reproductive stage. The results revealed the impact of several Leymus chromosomes in improving wheat adaptation and tolerance to heat. Three lines possessed enhanced adaptation, whereas two showed high heat tolerance. Two addition lines showed a large number of kernels per spike, while one possessed high yield potential. Grain yield was correlated negatively with the heat susceptibility index, days to heading and maturity and positively with kernel number per spike and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride assay under late planting. The findings suggest that these genetic stocks could be used as a bridge to introduce the valuable Leymus traits into a superior wheat genetic background, thus helping maximize wheat yield in heat-stressed environments. PMID:24757384

Mohammed, Yasir Serag Alnor; Tahir, Izzat Sidahmed Ali; Kamal, Nasrein Mohamed; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Ali, Abdelbagi Mukhtar; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

2014-01-01

364

Irradiation Selects for p53-Deficient Hematopoietic Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Identification and characterization of mutations that drive cancer evolution constitute a major focus of cancer research. Consequently, dominant paradigms attribute the tumorigenic effects of carcinogens in general and ionizing radiation in particular to their direct mutagenic action on genetic loci encoding oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. However, the effects of irradiation are not limited to genetic loci that encode oncogenes and tumor suppressors, as irradiation induces a multitude of other changes both in the cells and their microenvironment which could potentially affect the selective effects of some oncogenic mutations. P53 is a key tumor suppressor, the loss of which can provide resistance to multiple genotoxic stimuli, including irradiation. Given that p53 null animals develop T-cell lymphomas with high penetrance and that irradiation dramatically accelerates lymphoma development in p53 heterozygous mice, we hypothesized that increased selection for p53-deficient cells contributes to the causal link between irradiation and induction of lymphoid malignancies. We sought to determine whether ionizing irradiation selects for p53-deficient hematopoietic progenitors in vivo using mouse models. We found that p53 disruption does not provide a clear selective advantage within an unstressed hematopoietic system or in previously irradiated BM allowed to recover from irradiation. In contrast, upon irradiation p53 disruption confers a dramatic selective advantage, leading to long-term expansion of p53-deficient clones and to increased lymphoma development. Selection for cells with disrupted p53 appears to be attributable to several factors: protection from acute irradiation-induced ablation of progenitor cells, prevention of irradiation-induced loss of clonogenic capacity for stem and progenitor cells, improved long-term maintenance of progenitor cell fitness, and the disabling/elimination of competing p53 wild-type progenitors. These studies indicate that the carcinogenic effect of ionizing irradiation can in part be explained by increased selection for cells with p53 disruption, which protects progenitor cells both from immediate elimination and from long-term reductions in fitness following irradiation. PMID:20208998

Marusyk, Andriy; Porter, Christopher C.; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; DeGregori, James

2010-01-01

365

Registration of Anton Hard White Winter Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Anton’ (Reg. No. CV PI 651043) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the USDA-ARS and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and released in December, 2007. "Anton" was selected from the cross WA691213-27/N86L177//‘Platte’. Anton primarily was released for its lo...

366

Developing Fusarium head blight resistant wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem in wheat and barley around the world. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins that act as virulence factors and cause a reduction in grain quality. Therefore, developing approaches to detoxi...

367

DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY OF HARD RED WINTER WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dielectric properties (components of the complex permittivity relative to free space) of ground hard red winter wheat of 11 to 25 percent moisture content were determined by dielectric spectroscopy measurements with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range...

368

Identification of wheat quality using THz spectrum.  

PubMed

The terahertz (THz) spectra in the range of 0.2-1.6 THz (6.6-52.8 cm-1) of wheat grains with various degrees of deterioration (normal, worm-eaten, moldy, and sprouting wheat grains) were investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to extract feature data according to the cumulative contribution rates; the top four principal components were selected, and then a support vector machine (SVM) method was applied. Several selection kernels (linear, polynomial, and radial basis functions) were applied to identify the four types of wheat grain. The results showed that the materials were identified with an accuracy of nearly 95%. Furthermore, this approach was compared with others (principal component regression, partial least squares regression, and back-propagation neural networks). The comparisons showed that PCA-SVM outperformed the others and also indicated that the proposed method of THz technology combined with PCA-SVM is efficient and feasible for identifying wheat of different qualities. PMID:24921371

Ge, Hongyi; Jiang, Yuying; Xu, Zhaohui; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

2014-05-19

369

Global Change -- What Future for Wheat?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain yield and quality in cereals are often strongly influenced by flowering date. Ecophysiological models of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) simulate the number of days to heading or anthesis by assuming that an intrinsic rate of development is modified by vernalization and photoperiodism. Cul...

370

Flowering time control in European winter wheat  

PubMed Central

Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects. PMID:25346745

Langer, Simon M.; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Würschum, Tobias

2014-01-01

371

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WAXY WINTER WHEATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Waxy grain crops produce endosperm starch lacking amylose and consisting only of amylopectin. Such starch is formed when mutations are present that eliminate the production, or function, of an enzyme known as the granule-bound starch synthase, (GBSS, or the “waxy protein”). Waxy winter wheat...

372

Registration of ‘SY Clearstone 2CL’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘SY Clearstone 2CL’ (Reg. No. CV-1094, PI 668090) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station and released in September 2012 through a marketing agreement with Syngenta Seeds. SY Clearstone 2CL is a two-gene Clearfield backcross-derivativ...

373

Registration of "MSU E5024" wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'MSU E5024' (Reg. No. CV-1077, PI 664078) soft white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by Michigan State University (MSU) AgBioResearch and released in 2011 via exclusive licensing agreements through MSU Technologies. In addition to researchers at MSU, USDA-ARS researchers at the Sof...

374

Nutraceutical and functional scenario of wheat straw.  

PubMed

In the era of nutrition, much focus has been remunerated to functional and nutraceutical foodstuffs. The health endorsing potential of such provisions is attributed to affluent phytochemistry. These dynamic constituents have functional possessions that are imperative for cereal industry. The functional and nutraceutical significance of variety of foods is often accredited to their bioactive molecules. Numerous components have been considered but wheat straw and its diverse components are of prime consideration. In this comprehensive dissertation, efforts are directed to elaborate the functional and nutraceutical importance of wheat straw. Wheat straw is lignocellulosic materials including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It hold various bioactive compounds such as policosanols, phytosterols, phenolics, and triterpenoids, having enormous nutraceutical properties like anti-allergenic, anti-artherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects, antiviral, and anticancer. These compounds are protecting against various ailments like hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, wheat straw has demonstrated successfully, low cost, renewable, versatile, widely distributed, easily available source for the production of biogas, bioethanol, and biohydrogen in biorefineries to enhance the overall effectiveness of biomass consumption in protected and eco-friendly environment. Furthermore, its role in enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of bakery products through reducing the progression of staling and retrogradation is limelight of the article. PMID:23216000

Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Waqas, Khalid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Umair

2013-01-01

375

Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties.  

PubMed

Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%-10.27%, 2.15%-2.55% total fats, 1.72%-1.85% dietary fibers, 77.65x10(-6)-84.25x10(-6) of potassium and 7.70x10(-6)-35.90x10(-6) of sodium ions concentration, 0.24x10(-6)-0.84x10(-6) of phosphorus, 1.44%-2.10% ash, 31.108-43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%-9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes. PMID:17657856

Ikhtiar, Khan; Alam, Zeb

2007-08-01

376

Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties*  

PubMed Central

Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%~10.27%, 2.15%~2.55% total fats, 1.72%~1.85% dietary fibers, 77.65×10?6~84.25×10?6 of potassium and 7.70×10?6~35.90×10?6 of sodium ions concentration, 0.24×10?6~0.84×10?6 of phosphorus, 1.44%~2.10% ash, 31.108~43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%~9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes. PMID:17657856

Ikhtiar, Khan; Alam, Zeb

2007-01-01

377

REGISTRATION OF ID0602 SPRING WHEAT GERMPLASM.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

IDO602 (Reg. no. GP-776, PI 620628) is a short stature, medium maturity hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Stations and released in February 2003 for use in research and crop improvement programs. In 9 site-years of irrigated and rain-fed tri...

378

Winter Wheat Fertilization: Post Ammonium Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The potential for overwinter losses of nitrogen by denitrification and leaching have led to the recommendation that nitrogen fertilization of winter wheat be done using ammonium nitrate broadcast in the spring. However, spring broadcast application of urea can result in significant loss of nitrogen by volatilization and immobilization by surface residues. Since prilled ammonium nitrate is not available for

R. Byron Irvine; Guy Lafond; Randy Kutcher

379

Deoxynivalenol in food prepared from wheat flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium mycotoxin found in wheat, barley, corn and foods prepared from these grains. DON induces variable toxic effects in animals including feed refusal, decreased weight gain, or altered immune function. The effect of DON on human health is not well understood, however,...

380

Virus vector for gene silencing in wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat is one of the major cereal crops consumed world wide. Under the pressure of global food demand, farmers are eager to have disease resistant crops released from breeding programs. Usually it takes many years to breed a useful resistant plant line. In addition to the traditional breeding proc...

381

Registration of ‘Snowglenn’ Winter Durum Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Snowglenn’ (Reg. No. CV-#####, PI ######) winter durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) developed and tested as VA05WD-40 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Snowglenn was derived from the three-way cross N1291-86 / N1439-83 // ‘Alidur’. Snowglenn is a f...

382

Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.  

PubMed

The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordão presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordão and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different concentrations of different metals. The advantages of using INAA are the multielementality, low detection limits and use of solid samples (no need of digestion). PMID:21367605

Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

2011-11-01

383

Iron line in the afterglow: a key to the progenitor  

E-print Network

The discovery of a powerful and transient iron line feature in the X-ray afterglow spectrum of GRB 970508 and GRB 970828, if confirmed, would be a major breakthrough for understanding the nature the progenitor of gamma-ray bursts. We show that a large mass of iron very close to the burster is necessary to produce the emission line. This in itself strongly limits the possible progenitor of the gamma-ray event, suggesting the former explosion of a supernova, as predicted in the Supranova model (Vietri & Stella 1998). The line emission process and the line intensity depend strongly on the age, density and temperature of the remnant. The simultaneous observation of the iron line and of a power-law optical afterglow lasted for one year strongly suggest that the burst emission is isotropic. Recent observations of GRB 990123 are also discussed.

Davide Lazzati; Gabriele Ghisellini; Sergio Campana

1999-06-16

384

Decoding the stellar fossils of the dusty Milky Way progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the metallicity distribution function (MDF) of the Galactic halo and the relative fraction of Carbon-normal and Carbon-rich stars using the semi-analytical code GAMETE. The code reconstructs the hierarchical merger tree of the Milky Way (MW) and follows the star formation history and the metal evolution in individual progenitors, including for the first time the formation and evolution of dust. We predict scaling relations between the dust, metal and gas masses for MW progenitors and compare them with observational data of galaxies at 0 <= z < 6.3. We find that the relative contribution of C-normal and C-enhanced stars to the MDF and its dependence on [Fe/H] allow to discriminate among different Pop III/II transition criteria as well as between different Initial Mass Functions (IMFs) and supernova (SN) yields for Population III stars.

de Bennassuti, M.; Schneider, R.; Valiante, R.; Salvadori, S.

2014-12-01

385

Transcriptional diversity during lineage commitment of human blood progenitors.  

PubMed

Blood cells derive from hematopoietic stem cells through stepwise fating events. To characterize gene expression programs driving lineage choice, we sequenced RNA from eight primary human hematopoietic progenitor populations representing the major myeloid commitment stages and the main lymphoid stage. We identified extensive cell type-specific expression changes: 6711 genes and 10,724 transcripts, enriched in non-protein-coding elements at early stages of differentiation. In addition, we found 7881 novel splice junctions and 2301 differentially used alternative splicing events, enriched in genes involved in regulatory processes. We demonstrated experimentally cell-specific isoform usage, identifying nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) as a regulator of megakaryocyte maturation-the platelet precursor. Our data highlight the complexity of fating events in closely related progenitor populations, the understanding of which is essential for the advancement of transplantation and regenerative medicine. PMID:25258084

Chen, Lu; Kostadima, Myrto; Martens, Joost H A; Canu, Giovanni; Garcia, Sara P; Turro, Ernest; Downes, Kate; Macaulay, Iain C; Bielczyk-Maczynska, Ewa; Coe, Sophia; Farrow, Samantha; Poudel, Pawan; Burden, Frances; Jansen, Sjoert B G; Astle, William J; Attwood, Antony; Bariana, Tadbir; de Bono, Bernard; Breschi, Alessandra; Chambers, John C; Choudry, Fizzah A; Clarke, Laura; Coupland, Paul; van der Ent, Martijn; Erber, Wendy N; Jansen, Joop H; Favier, Rémi; Fenech, Matthew E; Foad, Nicola; Freson, Kathleen; van Geet, Chris; Gomez, Keith; Guigo, Roderic; Hampshire, Daniel; Kelly, Anne M; Kerstens, Hindrik H D; Kooner, Jaspal S; Laffan, Michael; Lentaigne, Claire; Labalette, Charlotte; Martin, Tiphaine; Meacham, Stuart; Mumford, Andrew; Nürnberg, Sylvia; Palumbo, Emilio; van der Reijden, Bert A; Richardson, David; Sammut, Stephen J; Slodkowicz, Greg; Tamuri, Asif U; Vasquez, Louella; Voss, Katrin; Watt, Stephen; Westbury, Sarah; Flicek, Paul; Loos, Remco; Goldman, Nick; Bertone, Paul; Read, Randy J; Richardson, Sylvia; Cvejic, Ana; Soranzo, Nicole; Ouwehand, Willem H; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Frontini, Mattia; Rendon, Augusto

2014-09-26

386

THE POPULATION OF HELIUM-MERGER PROGENITORS: OBSERVATIONAL PREDICTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The helium-merger gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitor is produced by the rapid accretion onto a compact remnant (neutron star or black hole) when it undergoes a common envelope inspiral with its companion's helium core. This merger phase produces a very distinct environment around these outbursts and recent observations suggest that, in some cases, we are detecting the signatures of the past merger in the GRB afterglow. These observations allow us, for the first time, to study the specific features of the helium-merger progenitor. In this paper, we couple population synthesis calculations to our current understanding of GRB engines and common envelope evolution to make observational predictions for the helium-merger GRB population. Many mergers do not produce GRB outbursts and we discuss the implications of these mergers with the broader population of astrophysical transients.

Fryer, Chris L. [CCS Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [CCS Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland)] [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Berger, Edo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thoene, Christina [IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain)] [IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Ellinger, Carola [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, 502 Yates Street, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, 502 Yates Street, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

2013-02-20

387

Progenitors of type Ia supernovae in elliptical galaxies  

SciTech Connect

Although there is a nearly universal agreement that type Ia supernovae are associated with the thermonuclear disruption of a CO white dwarf, the exact nature of their progenitors is still unknown. The single degenerate scenario envisages a white dwarf accreting matter from a non-degenerate companion in a binary system. Nuclear energy of the accreted matter is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation or gives rise to numerous classical nova explosions prior to the supernova event. We show that combined X-ray output of supernova progenitors and statistics of classical novae predicted in the single degenerate scenario are inconsistent with X-ray and optical observations of nearby early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. White dwarfs accreting from a donor star in a binary system and detonating at the Chandrasekhar mass limit can account for no more than {approx}5% of type Ia supernovae observed in old stellar populations.

Gilfanov, M.; Bogdan, A.

2011-09-21

388

Is black-hole ringdown a memory of its progenitor?  

PubMed

We perform an extensive numerical study of coalescing black-hole binaries to understand the gravitational-wave spectrum of quasinormal modes excited in the merged black hole. Remarkably, we find that the masses and spins of the progenitor are clearly encoded in the mode spectrum of the ringdown signal. Some of the mode amplitudes carry the signature of the binary's mass ratio, while others depend critically on the spins. Simulations of precessing binaries suggest that our results carry over to generic systems. Using Bayesian inference, we demonstrate that it is possible to accurately measure the mass ratio and a proper combination of spins even when the binary is itself invisible to a detector. Using a mapping of the binary masses and spins to the final black-hole spin allows us to further extract the spin components of the progenitor. Our results could have tremendous implications for gravitational astronomy by facilitating novel tests of general relativity using merging black holes. PMID:23083233

Kamaretsos, Ioannis; Hannam, Mark; Sathyaprakash, B S

2012-10-01

389

Stem cells, neural progenitors, and engineered stem cells.  

PubMed

Human pluripotent stem cellsHuman pluripotent stem cells (hPSCshPSCs ) have the unique potential to form every cell type in the body. This potential provides opportunities for generating humanhuman progenitorsprogenitors and other differentiated cell types for understanding human developmenthuman development and for use in cell type-specific therapiestherapies . Equally important is the ability to engineer stem cellsstem cells and their derived progenitors to mimic specific diseasedisease models. This chapter will focus on the propagationpropagation and characterization of human neural progenitorshuman neural progenitors (hNPshNPs ) derived from hPSCs with a particular focus on engineering hNPs to generate in vitroin vitro disease modelsdisease models for human neuro-mitochondrial disordersneuro-mitochondrial disorders . We will discuss the methodologies for culturing and characterizing hPSCs and hNPs; and protocols for engineering hNPs by using a novel mitochondrial transfectionmitochondrial transfection technology. PMID:25431071

Rao, Raj R; Iyer, Shilpa

2015-01-01

390

Deterministic progenitor behavior and unitary neuron production in the neocortex  

E-print Network

unexplored. Clonal analysis, through labeling of individual progenitor cells and following their progeny in the developing neocortex in vivo, could provide definitive answers to the ontogeny of neocortical neurons and glia. Indeed, previous clonal... a defined number of neurons. Moreover, they produced deep layer neurons before superficial layer neurons. This unitary or quantal behavior of neuronal production by individual RGPs provides definitive evidence for the ontogeny of neocortical...

Gao, Peng; Postiglione, Maria P.; Krieger, Teresa G.; Hernandez, Luisirene; Wang, Chao; Han, Zhi; Streicher, Carmen; Papusheva, Ekaterina; Insolera, Ryan; Chugh, Kritika; Kodish, Oren; Huang, Kun; Simons, Benjamin D.; Luo, Liqun; Hippenmeyer, Simon; Shi, Song-Hai

2014-01-01

391

Deficient reconstitution of early progenitors after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients maintain normal peripheral blood counts long term, suggesting durable support from engrafted stem cells. In order to investigate late hemopoietic reconstitution at the level of committed and early progenitors (LTC-IC), we studied 64 long-term survivors at a median interval of 6 years (range: 2–20) after allogeneic bone marrow transplant. CFU-GM and BFU-E numbers did not

M Podestà; G Piaggio; F Frassoni; A Pitto; N Mordini; S Bregante; A Valeriani; A Bacigalupo

1997-01-01

392

Lentiviral tracking of vascular differentiation in bone marrow progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lentiviral vectors encoding for identifiable marker genes controlled by lineage-specific promoters can be used to track differentiation of bone marrow progenitors into endothelial cells and\\/or smooth muscle cells. Human VE-Cadherin and Smoothelin-B promoters were cloned into a self-inactivating lentiviral vector (HR-VECad and HR-SMTHB) and used to drive expression of green fluorescent protein (eGFP). These constructs demonstrated specific promoter activity in

Jeffrey Schmeckpeper; Yasuhiro Ikeda; Arun H. S. Kumar; Pat Metharom; Stephen J. Russell; Noel M. Caplice

2009-01-01

393

Mobilization of Stem Cells\\/Progenitor Cells by Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A number of publications have provided evidence that exercise and physical activity are linked to the activation, mobilization,\\u000a and differentiation of various types of stem cells. Exercise may improve organ regeneration and function. This review characterizes\\u000a different stem and progenitor cells and their sources and summarizes mechanisms by which exercise contributes to stem-cell-induced\\u000a regeneration and adaptation in different tissues. The

Patrick Wahl; Wilhelm Bloch

394

Identifying Supernova Progenitors and Constraining the Explosion Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connecting the endpoints of massive star evolution with the various types of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) is ultimately the fundamental puzzle to be explored and solved. We can assemble clues indirectly, e.g., from information about the environments in which stars explode and establish constraints on the evolutionary phases of these stars. However, this is best accomplished through direct identification of the actual star that has exploded in pre-supernova imaging, preferably in more than one photometric band, where color and luminosity for the star can be precisely measured. We can then interpret the star's properties in light of expectations from the latest massive stellar evolutionary models, to attempt to assign an initial mass to the progenitor. So far, this has been done most successfully for SNe II-P, for which we now know that red supergiants in a relatively limited initial mass range are responsible. More recently, we have limited examples of the progenitors of SNe II-L, IIn, and IIb. The progenitors of SNe Ib and Ic, however, have been elusive so far; I will discuss the current status of our knowledge of this particular channel.

Van Dyk, Schuyler D.

2012-09-01

395

New Limits on the Nature of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the question of which progenitor channel can reproduce the observed rate of type Ia supernovae (Sn Ia) remains unresolved. The single degenerate scenario posits that a white dwarf accretes stably from a companion star until reaching the Chandrasekhar mass. This requires that nuclear burning process at least 0.3 solar masses of hydrogen, the resulting energy release from which easily dominates the total luminosity of the WD (while nuclear burning is steady). In elliptical galaxies, measurements of the total observed soft X-ray emission have already placed strong upper limits on how much of this luminosity may be radiated in X-rays, limiting the possible contribution of "supersoft sources" to the Sn Ia rate. However, a population of single degenerate progenitors large enough to reproduce the Sn Ia rate would also easily provide among the dominant sources of ionizing photons, dramatically hardening the local ionizing UV background. This opens a new avenue for constraining the progenitors of Sn Ia, through consideration of the nebular emission now found in many early-type galaxies by large spectroscopic surveys such as SAURON. Modeling the predicted line ratios using the photoionization code MAPPINGS III, and demanding that they be consistent with those observed, allows us to place new constraints on the total contribution of the single degenerate channel to the Sn Ia rate in elliptical galaxies.

Woods, Tyrone; Gilfanov, Marat

2012-09-01

396

Estrogen receptor-? signaling in osteoblast progenitors stimulates cortical bone accrual  

PubMed Central

The detection of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in osteoblasts and osteoclasts over 20 years ago suggested that direct effects of estrogens on both of these cell types are responsible for their beneficial effects on the skeleton, but the role of ER? in osteoblast lineage cells has remained elusive. In addition, estrogen activation of ER? in osteoclasts can only account for the protective effect of estrogens on the cancellous, but not the cortical, bone compartment that represents 80% of the entire skeleton. Here, we deleted ER? at different stages of differentiation in murine osteoblast lineage cells. We found that ER? in osteoblast progenitors expressing Osterix1 (Osx1) potentiates Wnt/?-catenin signaling, thereby increasing proliferation and differentiation of periosteal cells. Further, this signaling pathway was required for optimal cortical bone accrual at the periosteum in mice. Notably, this function did not require estrogens. The osteoblast progenitor ER? mediated a protective effect of estrogens against endocortical, but not cancellous, bone resorption. ER? in mature osteoblasts or osteocytes did not influence cancellous or cortical bone mass. Hence, the ER? in both osteoblast progenitors and osteoclasts functions to optimize bone mass but at distinct bone compartments and in response to different cues. PMID:23221342

Almeida, Maria; Iyer, Srividhya; Martin-Millan, Marta; Bartell, Shoshana M.; Han, Li; Ambrogini, Elena; Onal, Melda; Xiong, Jinhu; Weinstein, Robert S.; Jilka, Robert L.; O’Brien, Charles A.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

2012-01-01

397

Retinoic acid regulates olfactory progenitor cell fate and differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background In order to fulfill their chemosensory function, olfactory neurons are in direct contact with the external environment and are therefore exposed to environmental aggressive factors. Olfaction is maintained through life because, unlike for other sensory neuroepithelia, olfactory neurons have a unique capacity to regenerate after trauma. The mechanisms that control the ontogenesis and regenerative ability of these neurons are not fully understood. Here, we used various experimental approaches in two model systems (chick and mouse) to assess the contribution of retinoic acid signaling in the induction of the olfactory epithelium, the generation and maintenance of progenitor populations, and the ontogenesis and differentiation of olfactory neurons. Results We show that retinoic acid signaling, although dispensable for initial induction of the olfactory placode, plays a key role in neurogenesis within this neuroepithelium. Retinoic acid depletion in the olfactory epithelium, both in chick and mouse models, results in a failure of progenitor cell maintenance and, consequently, differentiation of olfactory neurons is not sustained. Using an explant system, we further show that renewal of olfactory neurons is hindered if the olfactory epithelium is unable to synthesize retinoic acid. Conclusions Our data show that retinoic acid is not a simple placodal inductive signal, but rather controls olfactory neuronal production by regulating the fate of olfactory progenitor cells. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3 (RALDH3) is the key enzyme required to generate retinoic acid within the olfactory epithelium. PMID:23829703

2013-01-01

398

NLRP1 inflammasome activation induces pyroptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Cytopenias are key prognostic indicators of life-threatening infection, contributing to immunosuppression and mortality. Here we define a role for Caspase-1-dependent death, known as pyroptosis, in infection-induced cytopenias by studying inflammasome activation in hematopoietic progenitor cells. The NLRP1a inflammasome is expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and its activation triggers their pyroptotic death. Active NLRP1a induced a lethal systemic inflammatory disease that was driven by Caspase-1 and IL-1? but was independent of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and ameliorated by IL-18. Surprisingly, in the absence of IL-1?-driven inflammation, active NLRP1a triggered pyroptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells resulting in leukopenia in the steady state. During periods of hematopoietic stress induced by chemotherapy or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, active NLRP1a caused prolonged cytopenia, bone marrow hypoplasia and immunosuppression. Conversely, NLRP1-deficient mice showed enhanced recovery from chemotherapy and LCMV infection, demonstrating that NLRP1 acts as a cellular sentinel to alert Caspase-1 to hematopoietic and infectious stress. PMID:23219391

Masters, Seth L.; Gerlic, Motti; Metcalf, Donald; Preston, Simon; Pellegrini, Marc; O’Donnell, Joanne A.; McArthur, Kate; Baldwin, Tracey M.; Chevrier, Stephane; Nowell, Cameron J.; Cengia, Louise H.; Henley, Katya J.; Collinge, Janelle E.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Hilton, Douglas J.; Alexander, Warren S.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Croker, Ben A.

2014-01-01

399

Defining skeletal muscle resident progenitors and their cell fate potentials.  

PubMed

The satellite cell is the major tissue-resident stem cell underlying muscle regeneration; however, multiple non-satellite myogenic progenitors as well as non-myogenic populations that support the muscle regenerative process have been identified. PW1 is expressed in satellite cells as well as in a subset of interstitial cells with myogenic potential termed PICs (PW1+ interstitial cells). Microarray profiling revealed that PICs express a broad range of genes common to mesenchymal stem cells, whereas satellite cells express genes consistent with a committed myogenic progenitor. Isolated PICs from both young and adult muscles can differentiate into smooth and skeletal muscle and fat whereas satellite cells are restricted to a skeletal muscle fate. We demonstrate that the adipogenic potential of PICs corresponds to a subpopulation that expresses platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) and overlaps with the recently described interstitial adipogenic progenitors. By contrast, PICs with myogenic potential do not express PDGFR?. Moreover, we observe a discrete and transient population of juvenile PICs based upon SCA1 expression that disappears by 3 weeks of postnatal development coincident with a switch in the cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying postnatal muscle growth. PMID:23739133

Pannérec, Alice; Formicola, Luigi; Besson, Vanessa; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A

2013-07-01

400

Seeding rate and seed size as management techniques for ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum, Lam) in winter wheat  

E-print Network

Higher seeding rates and larger seed sizes could enhance the competitiveness of wheat with ryegrass. Growth room and field research evaluated the effects of wheat seeding rates and seed size in competition with Italian ryegrass. Winter wheat seeds...

Cook, Casey Lee

2005-08-29

401

Alterations and Abnormal Mitosis of Wheat Chromosomes Induced by Wheat-Rye Monosomic Addition Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. ‘Mianyang11’×rye S. cereale L. ‘Kustro’ and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with ‘Mianyang11’ followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in ‘Mianyang11’. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat. PMID:23936213

Fu, Shulan; Yang, Manyu; Fei, Yunyan; Tan, Feiquan; Ren, Zhenglong; Yan, Benju; Zhang, Huaiyu; Tang, Zongxiang

2013-01-01

402

Potential new sources of wheat curl mite resistance in wheat to prevent the spread of yield-reducing pathogens.  

PubMed

The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae), is a major pest in cropping regions of the world and is recognised as the primary vector of several yield-reducing pathogens, primarily affecting wheat. Management of WCM is complicated due to several aspects of the mite's biology and ecology; however, commercially viable mite resistant wheat varieties may offer practical long-term management options. Unfortunately, mite populations have adapted to previously identified sources of resistance, highlighting the need for further sources of resistance and the value of stacking different resistances to give greater degrees and longevity of control. In this study we assessed the susceptibility of 42 wheat-derived genotypes to mite population growth using a new experimental method that overcomes methodological limitations of previous studies. Experimental wheat lines included a variety of wheat genotypes, related Triticeae species, wheat-alien chromosome amphiploids, and chromosome addition or substitution lines. From these we identify new promising sources of WCM resistance associated with Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. ponticum and Hordeum marinum chromosomes. More specifically we identify group 1J and 5J chromosomes of the L3 and L5 wheat-Th. intermedium addition lines as new sources of resistance that could be exploited to transfer resistance onto homoeologous wheat chromosomes. This study offers new methods for reliable in situ estimations of mite abundance on cereal plants, and new sources of WCM resistance that may assist management of WCM and associated viruses in wheat. PMID:24705793

Richardson, Kelly; Miller, Adam D; Hoffmann, Ary A; Larkin, Philip

2014-09-01

403

Effects of single and double infections of winter wheat by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus on yield determinants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. It is transmitted by wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella Keifer) which also transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Wheat mosaic virus. In a gree...

404

Co-inoculation of wheat with Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus exacerbates loss of fresh and dry matter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus of wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. Information on TriMV’s effect on yield when it infects wheat alone or in combination with Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is scant. In a greenhouse experiment, winter wheat cultivars Mi...

405

Wheat Gray Shorts for the Prevention of Slipped Tendons in Battery Brooder Chicks.  

E-print Network

CHICKS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Rations containing wheat gray shorts milled from hard wheat produced fewer slipped tendons and'more rapid gains than rations containing shorts milled from soft wheat when... fed to chicks ih battery brooders, although the units of feed necessary to pro- duce a unit of gain in live weight were greater for the shorts milled from hard wheat than for the shorts milled from soft wheat. Hard wheat shorts contain larger...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Couch, James Russell

1936-01-01

406

Correlation between total and EDTA\\/DTPA-extractable trace elements in soil and wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat and wheat products are more important sources of energy and nutrients in diets of people in many cultures compared to\\u000a other foods. The daily consumption of wheat is about 200 g\\/d\\/person in Western Europe and North America. On the other hand,\\u000a 400–450 g of wheat and wheat products are consumed daily by average Turkish people. Wheat samples collected from

Oo CANKUR; N. K. Aras; I. Olmez; W. Zhang; W. E. Goodwin; A. Chatt

1999-01-01

407

[Allelopathic effects of companion weed Descurainia sophia on wheat].  

PubMed

By using the techniques of laboratory bioassay, this paper studied the effects of Descurainia sophia extract on the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, root length, shoot height, fresh weight, and dry weight of wheat, and measured the contents of MDA, Chla/Chlb and carotene as well as the karyokinesis index of 5 more sensitive wheat strains. The results showed that D. sophia extract had allelopathic effects on all test wheat strains, though the responses of the strains were significantly different. The test 3 physiological indices of 5 more sensitive wheat strains suggested that the action spot of the allelopathic substances of D. sophia might be the cell membrane of wheat, and the measurement of karyokinesis index indicated that D. sophia extract had inhibitory effects on wheat karyokinesis. PMID:17330486

Yang, Chao; Mu, Xiaoqian

2006-12-01

408

Variation of volatile compounds among wheat varieties and landraces.  

PubMed

Analysis of volatile compounds was performed on 81 wheat varieties and landraces, grown under controlled greenhouse conditions, in order to investigate the possibility of differentiating wheat varieties according to their volatile compound profiles. Volatile compounds from wheat samples were extracted by dynamic headspace extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-two volatile compounds were identified in the wheat samples. Multivariate analysis of the data showed a large diversity in volatile profiles between samples. Differences occurred between samples from Austria compared to British, French and Danish varieties. Landraces were distinguishable from modern varieties and they were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for esters, alcohols, and some furans. Modern varieties were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for terpenes, pyrazines and straight-chained aldehydes. Differences in volatile profiles are demonstrated between wheat samples for the first time, based on variety. These results are significant to plant breeders and commercial users of wheat. PMID:25529715

Starr, G; Petersen, M A; Jespersen, B M; Hansen, Å S

2015-05-01

409

Value addition of traditional wheat flour vermicelli.  

PubMed

Vermicelli is a product prepared by using whole or refined wheat flour. Hard dough is prepared, extruded and dried in the sun. Since wheat flour is deficient in lysine, one of the essential amino acids, the protein quality remains poor. Refining of wheat further reduces nutritional quality. Therefore value addition of vermicelli is of prime importance to improve nutrient content and to save its delicacy. Secondly, use of value added convenient/processed foods can be a solution to the problem of supplementary feeding and under nutrition Gernah et al. (Am J Food Technol 6:404-412, 2011). Three variations of vermicelli were prepared using whole wheat flour (WWF); malted wheat flour (MWF); malted wheat flour, green gram, spinach and sago (MGSS). A spice mix containing powders of tomato, coriander, chillies, turmeric, salt, raw mango powder, black pepper, cloves and asafetida was also prepared. Results revealed that the overall acceptability scores for WWF, MWF and MGSS were 7.3?±?6.13, 6.5?±?0.06 and 8.1?±?0.01 on 9 point hedonic scale. MGSS vermicelli was most acceptable by the panel members than the other counterparts. WWF, MWF and MGSS contained moisture 6.9 to 7.7%, protein 9.3 to 13.5%, fat 1.2-2.7%, ash 2.9 to 5.8%, crude fibre 2.2 to 2.4%, carbohydrates 69.8 to 75.2% and energy 344 to 362 kcal/100 g respectively. MGSS vermicelli was highest in protein content (13.5%) while energy content was high in WWF. MWF vermicelli had highest amount of total (8.91%), reducing (2.41%) and non-reducing sugars (6.57%). Quality of protein was improved by mutual supplementation of amino acid. Regarding minerals, higher contents of sodium (100 mg), calcium (30 mg), iron (5.9 mg), zinc (1.4 mg) were found in MGSS. Vermicelli could be safely stored for 2 months period at room temperature (25-30 °C). PMID:24425987

Mogra, Renu; Midha, Seema

2013-08-01

410

Rai is a new regulator of neural progenitor migration and glioblastoma invasion.  

PubMed

The invasive nature of glioblastoma (GBM) is one important reason for treatment failure. GBM stem/progenitor cells retain the migratory ability of normal neural stem/progenitor cells and infiltrate the brain parenchyma. Here, we identify Rai (ShcC/N-Shc), a member of the family of Shc-like adaptor proteins, as a new regulator of migration of normal and cancer stem/progenitor cells. Rai is expressed in neurogenic areas of the brain and its knockdown impairs progenitor migration to the olfactory bulb. Its expression is retained in GBM stem/progenitor cells where it exerts the same promigratory activity. Rai silencing in cancer stem/progenitor cells isolated from different patients causes significant decrease in cell migration and invasion, both in vitro and in vivo, providing survival benefit. Rai depletion is associated with alteration of multiple-signaling pathways, yet it always leads to reduced expression of proinvasive genes. PMID:22311806

Ortensi, Barbara; Osti, Daniela; Pellegatta, Serena; Pisati, Federica; Brescia, Paola; Fornasari, Lorenzo; Levi, Daniel; Gaetani, Paolo; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Ferri, Anna; Nicolis, Silvia; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Pelicci, Giuliana

2012-05-01

411

Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.  

PubMed

Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system. PMID:24179097

Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

2013-12-01

412

Correction of severe manganese deficiency in wheat with chemical fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Manganese, N and P fertilizers were applied to wheat in field experiments on a soil so deficient in Mn that it caused the wheat to die before heading. Yields of wheat were increased linearly by soil banded Mn to 44.8 kg\\/ha, giving a yield of 3.03 tonnes\\/ha. Yields were increased to a lesser extent by foliar-applied Mn and least

P. B. Hoyt; G. G. S. Myovella

1979-01-01

413

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were\\u000a investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw\\u000a was made of the chemical composition, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and\\u000a fractionated into pulp (cellulose),

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

414

Finding Supernova Ia Progenitors with the Chandra X-ray Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine pre-supernova Chandra images to find X-ray luminosities of type Ia supernova progenitors. At present, we have one possible direct detection and upper limits for the X-ray luminosities of a number of other supernova progenitors. The method has also yielded a possible detection of a X-ray binary Wolf-Rayet system as the progenitor of a type Ib supernova.

Nielsen, Mikkel; Nelemans, Gijs; Voss, Rasmus

2010-12-01

415

Effect of Nitrogen on Rhizobacteria Associated with Wheat Shoot Productivity.  

E-print Network

??The effect of nitrogen fertilizer on rhizobacteria associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum) shoot productivity was determined by using pyrosequencing technique. Easpur Loam soils was treated… (more)

Elghair, Samia Ahmed Ali

2012-01-01

416

Wheat seed proteins regulated by imbibition independent of dormancy status  

PubMed Central

Seed dormancy is an important trait in wheat (Trticum aestivum L.) and it can be released by germination-stimulating treatments such as after-ripening. Previously, we identified proteins specifically associated with after-ripening mediated developmental switches of wheat seeds from the state of dormancy to germination. Here, we report seed proteins that exhibited imbibition induced co-regulation in both dormant and after-ripened seeds of wheat, suggesting that the expression of these specific proteins/protein isoforms is not associated with the maintenance or release of seed dormancy in wheat. PMID:24084602

Park, Seokhoon; Rampitsch, Christof; Humphreys, Gavin D; Ayele, Belay T

2013-01-01

417

Characterization of derivatives from wheat-Thinopyrum wide crosses.  

PubMed

Partial amphiploids are lines that contain 42 (38-42) wheat and 14 (14-18) alien chromosomes. They are derived by backcrossing wheat onto hybrids between wheat and either Thinopyrum intermedium (6x) or Th. ponticum (10x). GISH analysis has shown that, with possibly one exception, the alien genomes (chromosome sets) in partial amphiploids are found to be hybrids i.e. composed of chromosomes from more than one alien genome. The individual partial amphiploids are meiotically stable and nearly perfectly fertile, but hybrids between different lines were characterized by varying numbers of unpaired chromosomes and consequently variable degrees of sterility. Translocated chromosomes involving different Thinopyrum genomes or Thinopyrum and wheat genomes were found in partial amphiploids and consequently in the addition lines derived from them. Partial amphiploids have proven to be an excellent tertiary gene pool for wheat improvement, containing resistance to biotic stresses not present in wheat itself. Resistance to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) have been found in partial amphiploids and addition lines derived from both Th. intermedium and Th. ponticum. Excellent resistance to Fusarium head blight has been found on a Th. intermedium chromosome that had substituted for chromosome 2D in wheat. Genes for resistance to leaf rust and stem rust have already been incorporated into wheat and tagged with molecular markers. PMID:15753597

Fedak, G; Han, F

2005-01-01

418

Isolation of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from wheat.  

PubMed

Evidence for the presence of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from a monocotyledonous cereal is presented. A 40.3-kDa PGIP that was closely associated with the cell wall was acetone-extracted and purified from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves and stems. Wheat PGIP exhibited a highly selective inhibitory activity against endopolygalacturonase (EPG) from various fungi. Of nine EPG tested, wheat PGIP only inhibited EPG from Cochliobolus sativus, a pathogen of the tribe Poaceae. A short N-terminal amino acid sequence of wheat PGIP shows no similarity to any other characterized PGIP. PMID:14601663

Kemp, Gabré; Bergmann, Carl W; Clay, Ron; Van der Westhuizen, Amie J; Pretorius, Zacharias A

2003-11-01

419

Nonstarch polysaccharides in wheat flour wire-cut cookie making.  

PubMed

Nonstarch polysaccharides in wheat flour have significant capacity to affect the processing quality of wheat flour dough and the finished quality of wheat flour products. Most research has focused on the effects of arabinoxylans (AX) in bread making. This study found that water-extractable AX and arabinogalactan peptides can predict variation in pastry wheat quality as captured by the wire-cut cookie model system. The sum of water-extractable AX plus arabinogalactan was highly predictive of cookie spread factor. The combination of cookie spread factor and the ratio of water-extractable arabinose to xylose predicted peak force of the three-point bend test of cookie texture. PMID:18942832

Guttieri, Mary J; Souza, Edward J; Sneller, Clay

2008-11-26

420

Application of laser Mueller-polarimetry to the investigation of healthy and infected by the wheat streak mosaic virus apogee variety wheat grown under simulated microgravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apogee variety wheat plants inoculated by wheat streak mosaic virus isolated by us displaced the reduction under simulated microgravity conditions. We employed the laser Mueller-polarimetry method for the first time to study simulated microgravity effects on healthy and infected by the wheat streak mosaic virus wheat plants. Our results are indicative of the possibility to apply the laser Mueller-polarimetry procedure to the investigation of structural and functional changes in wheat leaves caused by virus infection and clinorotation.

Mishchenko, L. T.; Savenkov, S. M.; Oberemok, Ye. A.

421

The classification and mensuration subsystem. [wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From an operational standpoint, the most significant item the classification and mensuration subsystem (CAMS) had to overcome in providing the acreage component of the wheat production estimates for LACIE was the scope (segment volume processing required). Peak processing requirements per day increased from 16 to 20 for phase 1 with 700 total segments, to 35 to 40 per day for phase 2 with 1700 total segments, to 75 to 80 per day for phase 3 with 3000 total segments. Key issues regarding interrelationships between man and machines were identified during phase 1 using first generation technology. Procedure 1, tested and evaluated during phase 2 and continued through the initial phase 3 processing period for winter wheat, showed the need for software modification, procedures development, and analyst training. CAMS operations are described with emphasis on the training backgrounds of the analysts, the available data, and the labeling logic.

Abotteen, K. M.; Bizzell, R. M. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

422

Endogenous Neural Progenitor Cells as Therapeutic Target After Spinal Cord Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Growing knowledge about the role of neural progenitor cells supports the hope that stem cell-based therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring function in the lesioned central nervous system can be established. Possible therapies for promoting recovery after spinal cord injury include stimulating the formation of neurons and glial cells by endogenous progenitor cells. This article reviews the current knowledge about the nature of adult progenitor cells in the intact and injured spinal cord and summarizes possibilities and limitations of cellular replacement strategies based on manipulations of endogenous spinal cord progenitor cells and their environment.

Franz-Josef Obermair (University of Zurich Neuromorphology)

2008-10-18

423

Neural progenitor cells treated with EPO induce angiogenesis through the production of VEGF  

PubMed Central

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) induces neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Using a coculture system of mouse brain endothelial cells (MBECs) and neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of adult mouse, we investigated the hypothesis that neural progenitor cells treated with rhEPO promote angiogenesis. Treatment of neural progenitor cells with rhEPO significantly increased their expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Selective inhibition of the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways significantly attenuated the rhEPO-induced VEGF expression in neural progenitor cells. The supernatant harvested from neural progenitor cells treated with rhEPO significantly increased the capillary-like tube formation of MBECs. SU1498, a specific VEGF type-2 receptor (VEGFR2) antagonist, abolished the supernatant-enhanced angiogenesis. In addition, coculture of MBECs with neural progenitor cells treated with rhEPO substantially increased VEGFR2 mRNA and protein levels in MBECs. These in vitro results suggest that EPO enhances VEGF secretion in neural progenitor cells through activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and that neural progenitor cells treated with rhEPO upregulate VEGFR2 expression in cerebral endothelial cells, which along with VEGF secreted by neural progenitor cells promotes angiogenesis. PMID:18414495

Wang, Lei; Chopp, Michael; Gregg, Sara R; Zhang, Rui Lan; Teng, Hua; Jiang, Angela; Feng, Yifan; Zhang, Zheng Gang

2014-01-01

424

Airway Epithelial Progenitors Are Region Specific and Show Differential Responses to Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms that regulate regional epithelial cell diversity and pathologic remodeling in airways are poorly understood. We hypothesized that regional differences in cell composition and injury-related tissue remodeling result from the type and composition of local progenitors. We used surface markers and the spatial expression pattern of an SFTPC-GFP transgene to subset epithelial progenitors by airway region. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression ranged from undetectable to high in a proximal-to-distal gradient. GFPhi cells were subdivided by CD24 staining into alveolar (CD24neg) and conducting airway (CD24low) populations. This allowed for the segregation of three types of progenitors displaying distinct clonal behavior in vitro. GFPneg and GFPlow progenitors both yielded lumen containing colonies but displayed transcriptomes reflective of pseudostratified and distal conducting airways, respectively. CD24lowGFPhi progenitors were present in an overlapping distribution with GFPlow progenitors in distal airways, yet expressed lower levels of Sox2 and expanded in culture to yield undifferentiated self-renewing progeny. Colony-forming ability was reduced for each progenitor cell type after in vivo bleomycin exposure, but only CD24lowGFPhi progenitors showed robust expansion during tissue remodeling. These data reveal intrinsic differences in the properties of regional progenitors and suggest that their unique responses to tissue damage drive local tissue remodeling. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:22696116

Chen, Huaiyong; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Brockway, Brian L.; Rackley, Craig R.; Liang, Jiurong; Lee, Joo-Hyeon; Jiang, Dianhua; Noble, Paul W.; Randell, Scott H.; Kim, Carla F.; Stripp, Barry R.

2014-01-01

425

The disappearance of the progenitors of supernovae 1993J and 2003gd.  

PubMed

Using images from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini Telescope, we confirmed the disappearance of the progenitors of two type II supernovae (SNe) and evaluated the presence of other stars associated with them. We found that the progenitor of SN 2003gd, an M-supergiant star, is no longer observed at the SN location and determined its intrinsic brightness using image subtraction techniques. The progenitor of SN 1993J, a K-supergiant star, is also no longer present, but its B-supergiant binary companion is still observed. The disappearance of the progenitors confirms that these two supernovae were produced by red supergiants. PMID:19299586

Maund, Justyn R; Smartt, Stephen J

2009-04-24

426

Derivation of High Purity Neuronal Progenitors from Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

E-print Network

in Cell Transplant Solution (CTS; California Stem Cell,stem/progenitor cells transplanted as neurospheres preferentially differentiate into oligodendrocytes in the adult rat spinal cord. Cell Transplant

2011-01-01

427

Detection of rye DNA in wheat-rye hybrids and wheat translocation stocks using total genomic DNA as a probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total DNA was extracted formSecale cereale L. cv. ‘Petkus’ and labeled with biotin-11-dUPT. Labeled rye DNA and non-labeled wheat DNA in a mixture of 1?1 were used\\u000a as a probe on chromosome preparations of Welsh triticale and Kavkaz wheat, a wheat translocation stock. Hybridization of denatured\\u000a probe and chromosomes took place overnight at 37°C in the presence of 10% (w\\/v)

Hoan T. Le; K. C. Armstrong; Brian Miki

1989-01-01

428

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Thinopyrum intermedium-derived wheat germplasm specifying resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinopyrum intermedium is a promising source of resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), a devastating disease of wheat. Three wheat germplasm\\u000a lines possessing resistance to WSMV, derived from Triticum aestivum?Th. intermedium crosses, are analyzed by C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to determine the amount and location of alien\\u000a chromatin in the transfer lines. Line CI15092 was confirmed

Q. Chen; B. Friebe; R. L. Conner; A. Laroche; J. B. Thomas; B. S. Gill

1998-01-01

429

High-density genetic map of durum wheat × wild emmer wheat based on SSR and DArT markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of tetraploid wheat was constructed based on a cross between durum wheat [Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) MacKey] cultivar Langdon and wild emmer wheat [T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (Körn.) Thell.] accession G18-16. One hundred and fifty-two single-seed descent derived F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were analyzed with a total of 690 loci, including 197 microsatellite and

Zvi Peleg; Yehoshua Saranga; Tatiana Suprunova; Yefim Ronin; Marion S. Röder; Andrzej Kilian; Abraham B. Korol; Tzion Fahima

2008-01-01

430

Protein deamidase from germinating wheat grains.  

PubMed

A new enzyme catalyzing the deamidation of seed storage proteins was found in germinating wheat grains and was partially purified. It also acts on egg lysozyme, horse hemoglobin and reduced RNAse, glutamine and Gly-L-Gln-L-Tyr. No activity was observed when using ovalbumin, serum albumin, RNAse, insulin, asparagine and an asparagine-containing peptide. Only glutaminyl residues appear to be deamidated by this enzyme. It differs from transglutaminase and proved to be a true protein deamidase. PMID:1633850

Vaintraub, I A; Kotova, L V; Shaha, R

1992-05-11

431

SAGE of the developing wheat caryopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the development of the cereal caryopsis holds the future for metabolic engineering in the interests of enhancing global food production. We have developed a Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) data platform to investigate the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) caryopsis. LongSAGE libraries have been constructed at five time-points post-anthesis to coincide with key processes in caryopsis development. More than

Shane McIntosh; Loraine Watson; Peter C Bundock; Allison C Crawford; Jessica F White; Giovanni M Cordeiro; Daniel Barbary; Lee Rooke; Robert J Henry

2007-01-01

432

Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

Dunwell, Jim M.

433

Phytostimulation and biofertilization in wheat by cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria are commonly used for the phytostimulation and biofertilization of agriculture crops due to their nitrogen-fixing\\u000a ability. However, the contribution by their phytohormones has been neglected. This study focuses on the screening of rhizospheric\\u000a and free-living cyanobacteria for in vitro phytohormones production and growth stimulation in wheat. Selected isolates were\\u000a shown to release cytokinin and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by using

Anwar HussainShahida Hasnain; Shahida Hasnain

2011-01-01

434

Karnal Bunt: A Disease of Wheat  

E-print Network

IPM and Extension Specialist in Plant Pathology and Entomology; Professor and Extension Program Leader for Plant Pathology; and Professor, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station; TheTexas A&M University System. Greta Schuster, Joseph Krausz and Charlie... into developing kernels. Masses of black teliospores Sporidial infection of heading wheat Airborne secondary sporidia Primary sporidia germinating on leaf surface Sorus Stomatal opening The life cycle of Karnal bunt fungus. Advanced infection Germinating...

Schuster, Greta; Krausz, Joseph P.; Rush, Charlie

2002-11-20

435

Antioxidative enzymes and the Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistance response in wheat (Triticum aestivum).  

PubMed

A crucial function of antioxidative enzymes is to remove excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be toxic to plant cells. The effect of Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), infestation on the activities of antioxidative enzymes was investigated in the resistant (cv. Tugela DN) and the near-isogenic susceptible (cv. Tugela) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). RWA infestation significantly induced the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase to higher levels in the resistant than in susceptible plants. These findings suggest the involvement of antioxidative enzymes in the RWA-wheat resistance response, which was accompanied by an early oxidative burst. The results are consistent with the role of ROS in the resistance response and the control of their levels to minimise toxic effects. PMID:18426488

Moloi, M J; van der Westhuizen, A J

2008-05-01

436

Wheat Genomics: Present Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with a large genome (16000 Mb) and high proportion (?80%) of repetitive sequences, has been a difficult crop for genomics research. However, the availability of extensive cytogenetics stocks has been an asset, which facilitated significant progress in wheat genomic research in recent years. For instance, fairly dense molecular maps (both genetic and physical maps) and a large set of ESTs allowed genome-wide identification of gene-rich and gene-poor regions as well as QTL including eQTL. The availability of markers associated with major economic traits also allowed development of major programs on marker-assisted selection (MAS) in some countries, and facilitated map-based cloning of a number of genes/QTL. Resources for functional genomics including TILLING and RNA interference (RNAi) along with some new approaches like epigenetics and association mapping are also being successfully used for wheat genomics research. BAC/BIBAC libraries for the subgenome D and some individual chromosomes have also been prepared to facilitate sequencing of gene space. In this brief review, we discuss all these advances in some detail, and also describe briefly the available resources, which can be used for future genomics research in this important crop. PMID:18528518

Gupta, P. K.; Mir, R. R.; Mohan, A.; Kumar, J.

2008-01-01

437

Development of taxon-specific sequences of common wheat for the detection of genetically modified wheat.  

PubMed

Qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems aimed at the specific detection and quantification of common wheat DNA are described. Many countries have issued regulations to label foods that include genetically modified organisms (GMOs). PCR technology is widely recognized as a reliable and useful technique for the qualitative and quantitative detection of GMOs. Detection methods are needed to amplify a target GM gene, and the amplified results should be compared with those of the corresponding taxon-specific reference gene to obtain reliable results. This paper describes the development of a specific DNA sequence in the waxy-D1 gene for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the design of a specific primer pair and TaqMan probe on the waxy-D1 gene for PCR analysis. The primers amplified a product (Wx012) of 102 bp. It is indicated that the Wx012 DNA sequence is specific to common wheat, showing homogeneity in qualitative PCR results and very similar quantification accuracy along 19 distantly related common wheat varieties. In Southern blot and real-time PCR analyses, this sequence showed either a single or a low number of copy genes. In addition, by qualitative and quantitative PCR using wx012 primers and a wx012-T probe, the limits of detection of the common wheat genome were found to be about 15 copies, and the reproducibility was reliable. In consequence, the PCR system using wx012 primers and wx012-T probe is considered to be suitable for use as a common wheat-specific taxon-specific reference gene in DNA analyses, including GMO tests. PMID:16076109

Iida, Mayu; Yamashiro, Satomi; Yamakawa, Hirohito; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Kuribara, Hideo; Kodama, Takashi; Furui, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Hino, Akihiro

2005-08-10

438

Effects of Wheat Bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) Infestation in Preharvest Period on Wheat Technological Quality and Gluten Composition  

PubMed Central

The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75?kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing. PMID:24550692

Torbica, Aleksandra M.; Mastilovi?, Jasna S.; Poji?, Milica M.; Kevrešan, Žarko S.

2014-01-01

439

Neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells: transferrin effects on cell proliferation.  

PubMed

NSC (neural stem cells)/NPC (neural progenitor cells) are multipotent and self-renew throughout adulthood in the SVZ (subventricular zone) of the mammalian CNS (central nervous system). These cells are considered interesting targets for CNS neurodegenerative disorder cell therapies, and understanding their behaviour in vitro is crucial if they are to be cultured prior to transplantation. We cultured the SVZ tissue belonging to newborn rats under the form of NS (neurospheres) to evaluate the effects of Tf (transferrin) on cell proliferation. The NS were heterogeneous in terms of the NSC/NPC markers GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), Nestin and Sox2 and the OL (oligodendrocyte) progenitor markers NG2 (nerve/glia antigen 2) and PDGFR? (platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?). The results of this study indicate that aTf (apoTransferrin) is able to increase cell proliferation of SVZ-derived cells in vitro, and that these effects were mediated at least in part by the TfRc1 (Tf receptor 1). Since OPCs (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells) represent a significant proportion of the proliferating cells in the SVZ-derived primary cultures, we used the immature OL cell line N20.1 to show that Tf was able to augment the proliferation rate of OPC, either by adding aTf to the culture medium or by overexpressing rat Tf in situ. The culture medium supplemented with ferric iron, together with aTf, increased the DNA content, while ferrous iron did not. The present work provides data that could have a potential application in human cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative disease and/or CNS injury that require the use of in vitro amplified NPCs. PMID:23368675

Silvestroff, Lucas; Franco, Paula Gabriela; Pasquini, Juana María

2013-01-01

440

Neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells: transferrin effects on cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

NSC (neural stem cells)/NPC (neural progenitor cells) are multipotent and self-renew throughout adulthood in the SVZ (subventricular zone) of the mammalian CNS (central nervous system). These cells are considered interesting targets for CNS neurodegenerative disorder cell therapies, and understanding their behaviour in vitro is crucial if they are to be cultured prior to transplantation. We cultured the SVZ tissue belonging to newborn rats under the form of NS (neurospheres) to evaluate the effects of Tf (transferrin) on cell proliferation. The NS were heterogeneous in terms of the NSC/NPC markers GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), Nestin and Sox2 and the OL (oligodendrocyte) progenitor markers NG2 (nerve/glia antigen 2) and PDGFR? (platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?). The results of this study indicate that aTf (apoTransferrin) is able to increase cell proliferation of SVZ-derived cells in vitro, and that these effects were mediated at least in part by the TfRc1 (Tf receptor 1). Since OPCs (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells) represent a significant proportion of the proliferating cells in the SVZ-derived primary cultures, we used the immature OL cell line N20.1 to show that Tf was able to augment the proliferation rate of OPC, either by adding aTf to the culture medium or by overexpressing rat Tf in situ. The culture medium supplemented with ferric iron, together with aTf, increased the DNA content, while ferrous iron did not. The present work provides data that could have a potential application in human cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative disease and/or CNS injury that require the use of in vitro amplified NPCs. PMID:23368675

Silvestroff, Lucas; Franco, Paula Gabriela; Pasquini, Juana María

2013-01-01

441

Molecular features of adult mouse small intestinal epithelial progenitors  

PubMed Central

The adult mouse small intestinal epithelium undergoes perpetual regeneration, fueled by a population of multipotential stem cells and oligopotential daughters located at the base of crypts of Lieberkühn. Although the morphologic features of small intestinal epithelial progenitors (SiEPs) are known, their molecular features are poorly defined. Previous impediments to purification and molecular characterization of SiEPs include lack of ex vivo clonigenic assays and the difficulty of physically retrieving them from their niche where they are interspersed between their numerous differentiated Paneth cell daughters. To overcome these obstacles, we used germ-free transgenic mice lacking Paneth cells to obtain a consolidated population of SiEPs with normal proliferative activity. These cells were harvested by laser capture microdissection. Functional genomics analysis identified 163 transcripts enriched in SiEPs compared with Paneth cell-dominated normal crypt base epithelium. The dataset was validated by (i) correlation with the organellar composition of SiEPs versus Paneth cells, (ii) similarities to databases generated from recent mouse hematopoietic and neural stem cell genome anatomy projects, and (iii) laser capture microdissection/real-time quantitative RT-PCR studies of progenitor cell-containing populations retrieved from the small intestines, colons, and stomachs of conventionally raised mice. The SiEP profile has prominent representation of genes involved in c-myc signaling and in the processing, localization, and translation of mRNAs. This dataset, together with our recent analysis of gene expression in the gastric stem cell niche, discloses a set of molecular features shared by adult mouse gut epithelial progenitors. PMID:12552106

Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Mills, Jason C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

2003-01-01

442

Establishment of human trophoblast progenitor cell lines from the chorion  

PubMed Central

Placental trophoblasts are key determinants of in utero development. Mouse trophoblast stem cells (mTSCs), which were first derived over a decade ago, are a powerful cell culture model for studying their self-renewal or differentiation. Our attempts to isolate an equivalent population from the trophectoderm of human blastocysts generated colonies that quickly differentiated in vitro. This finding suggested that the human placenta has another progenitor niche. Here we show that the chorion is one such site. Initially, we immunolocalized pluripotency factors and trophoblast fate determinants in the early-gestation placenta, amnion and chorion. Immunoreactive cells were numerous in the chorion. We isolated these cells and plated them in medium containing FGF and an inhibitor of activin/nodal signaling, which is required for human embryonic SC self-renewal. Colonies of polarized cells with a limited lifespan emerged. Trypsin dissociation yielded continuously self-replicating monolayers. Colonies and monolayers formed the two major human trophoblast lineages—multinucleate syncytiotrophoblasts and invasive cytotrophoblasts (CTBs). Transcriptional profiling experiments revealed the factors associated with the self-renewal or differentiation of human chorionic trophoblast progenitor cells (TBPCs). They included imprinted genes, NR2F1/2, HMGA2 and adhesion molecules that were required for TBPC differentiation. Together, the results of these experiments suggested that the chorion is one source of epithelial CTB progenitors. These findings explain why CTBs of fully formed chorionic villi have a modest mitotic index and identify the chorionic mesoderm as a niche for TBPCs that support placental growth. PMID:21755573

Genbacev, Olga; Donne, Matthew; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Gormley, Matthew; Lamb, Julie; Gilmore, Jacqueline; Larocque, Nicholas; Goldfien, Gabriel; Zdravkovic, Tamara; Fisher, Susan J.

2012-01-01

443

Will Jets Identify the Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae?  

E-print Network

We use the fact that a Type Ia supernova has been serendipitously discovered near the jet of the active galaxy 3C 78 to examine the question of whether jets can enhance accretion onto white dwarfs. One interesting outcome of such a jet-induced accretion process is an enhanced rate of novae in the vicinity of jets. We present results of observations of the jet in M87 which appear to have indeed discovered 11 novae in close proximity to the jet. We show that a confirmation of the relation between jets and novae and Type Ia supernovae can finally identify the elusive progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

Mario Livio; Adam Riess; William Sparks

2002-04-26

444

Massive binaries, Wolf-Rayet stars and supernova progenitors  

E-print Network

Binary stars are important for a full understanding of stellar evolution. We present a summary of how predictions of the relative supernova rates varies between single and binary stars. We also show how the parameter space of different supernova types differs between single and binary stars. We then consider an important question of how to infer a supernova progenitor's properties from pre-explosion imaging and present rescent work of producing synthe tic colours for our stellar models to make a direct comparison with any detections or limits obtained on supernova progentiors from pre-explosion images.

J. J. Eldridge

2006-12-17

445

On the progenitor of SN 2008ax in NGC 4490  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W. Li, University of California, Berkeley (UCB); S. D. Van Dyk, Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology; J.-C. Cuillandre, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Corporation; and A. V. Filippenko, R. J. Foley, R. Chornock, N. Smith, and X. Wang (all UCB), report that they have isolated a possible progenitor for the young type-II SN 2008ax in Hubble Space Telescope images of NGC 4490 (Snapshot program 5446; GO/DD program 9042) taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2).

Li, Weidong

2008-03-01

446

Transcriptional diversity during lineage commitment of human blood progenitors  

E-print Network

Submitted Manuscript: Confidential Title: Transcriptional diversity during lineage commitment of human blood progenitors Authors: Lu Chen1,2,3†, Myrto Kostadima2,4,3†, Joost H.A. Martens5†, Giovanni Canu2,3, Sara P. Garcia2,3, Ernest... Turro2,3, Kate Downes2,3, Iain C. Macaulay7, Ewa Bielczyk-Maczynska2,3, Sophia Coe2,3, Samantha Farrow2, 3, Pawan Poudel2,3, Frances Burden2,3, Sjoert B.G. Jansen2,3, William J. Astle2,3,6, Antony Attwood2,3, Tadbir Bariana8,9, Bernard de Bono10...

Chen, Lu; Kostadima, Myrto; Martens, Joost H.A.; Canu, Giovanni; Garcia, Sara P.; Turro, Ernest; Downes, Kate; Macaulay, Iain C.; Bielczyk-Maczynska, Ewa; Coe, Sophia; Farrow, Samantha; Poudel, Pawan; Burden, Frances; Jansen, Sjoert B.G.; Astle, William J.; Attwood, Antony; Bariana, Tadbir; de Bono, Bernard; Breschi, Alessandra; Chambers, John C.; BRIDGE Consortium; Choudry, Fizzah A.; Clarke, Laura; Coupland, Paul; van der Ent, Martijn; Erber, Wendy N.; Jansen, Joop H.; Favier, Rémi; Fenech, Matthew E.; Foad, Nicola; Freson, Kathleen; van Geet, Chris; Gomez, Keith; Guigo, Roderic; Hampshire, Daniel; Kelly, Anne M.; Kerstens, Hindrik H.D.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Laffan, Michael; Lentaigne, Claire; Labalette, Charlotte; Martin, Tiphaine; Meacham, Stuart; Mumford, Andrew; Nürnberg, Sylvia; Palumbo, Emilio; van der Reijden, Bert A.; Richardson, David; Sammut, Stephen J.; Slodkowicz, Greg; Tamuri, Asif U.; Vasquez, Louella; Voss, Katrin; Watt, Stephen; Westbury, Sarah; Flicek, Paul; Loos, Remco; Goldman, Nick; Bertone, Paul; Read, Randy J.; Richardson, Sylvia; Cvejic, Ana; Soranzo, Nicole; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Frontini, Mattia; Rendon, Augusto

2014-09-26

447

Vascular progenitor cells and diabetes: role in postischemic neovascularisation.  

PubMed

Advances in the field of vascular biology lead to the identification of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and to the development of EPC-based cell therapy to induce new vessel formation in ischemic tissues and to accelerate re-endothelialisation of injured vessels in human and various animals models. However, recent studies have shown that age and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as diabetes, reduce the availability of EPC and impair their function to varying degrees, leading to reduction in postischemic vessel growth. This review focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing EPC-related functions and analyzes the impact of diabetes in this setting. PMID:18358425

Silvestre, J-S

2008-02-01

448

Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence. PMID:25339866

Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R.; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

2014-01-01

449

Genetic Basis for Spontaneous Hybrid Genome Doubling during Allopolyploid Speciation of Common Wheat Shown by Natural Variation Analyses of the Paternal Species  

PubMed Central

The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome), namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome) and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome). An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis showed that (1) production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2) first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3) six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii’s ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated that the genetic mechanisms for hybrid genome doubling could be studied based on the intrinsic natural variation that exists in the parental species. PMID:23950867

Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Nasuda, Shuhei; Ashida, Yasuyo; Nitta, Miyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Takumi, Shigeo; Kawahara, Taihachi

2013-01-01

450

Genetic basis for spontaneous hybrid genome doubling during allopolyploid speciation of common wheat shown by natural variation analyses of the paternal species.  

PubMed

The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome), namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome) and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome). An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis showed that (1) production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2) first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3) six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii's ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated that the genetic mechanisms for hybrid genome doubling could be studied based on the intrinsic natural variation that exists in the parental species. PMID:23950867

Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Nasuda, Shuhei; Ashida, Yasuyo; Nitta, Miyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Takumi, Shigeo; Kawahara, Taihachi

2013-01-01

451

Genetic contributions to yield gains in US wheat, 1980 - 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increases in wheat grain yield (kg harvested per hectare) over time derive from improved agronomic practices, and from enhanced genetic potential of wheat cultivars. Estimation of the rate of genetic improvement over time is important as it allows prediction of whether future grain supplies will me...

452

Raising yield potential in wheat: increasing photosynthesis capacity and efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing wheat yields to help to ensure food security is a major challenge. Meeting this challenge requires a quantum improvement in the yield potential of wheat. Past increases in yield potential have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index not through increased biomass. Further large...

453

Fast Insect Damage Detection in Wheat Kernels Using Transmittance Images  

E-print Network

Fast Insect Damage Detection in Wheat Kernels Using Transmittance Images Zehra Cataltepe Siemens and different learn- ing algorithms to classify insect damaged and un-damaged wheat kernels. Using the histogram if they are put into storage with other kernels. It is important to be able to identify insect damaged kernels so

Cataltepe, Zehra

454

Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of

Mario Houde; Mahdi Belcaid; François Ouellet; Jean Danyluk; Antonio F Monroy; Ani Dryanova; Patrick Gulick; Anne Bergeron; André Laroche; Matthew G Links; Luke MacCarthy; William L Crosby; Fathey Sarhan

2006-01-01

455

HPCE ANALYSES OF GLIADINS IN MACEDONIAN WHEAT VARIETIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat markets and other end-users have begun to demand fast and reproducible methods and techniques for varietal identification. High-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) was used to identify and characterize gliadins from the gluten protein extracts of selected Macedonian wheat varieties (T...

456

Original article Response of five wheat cultivars to early drought  

E-print Network

Original article Response of five wheat cultivars to early drought in the Pampas Nadine BRISSONa ­ Wheat production in the Pampas of Argentina is frequently reduced because of early drought occurring such an early drought and to produce substantial grain yields is still controversial. In this study we have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de