Sample records for wheat d-genome progenitor

  1. A 4-gigabase physical map unlocks the structure and evolution of the complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong Q.; You, Frank M.; Deal, Karin R.; Ma, Yaqin; Hu, Yuqin; Huo, Naxin; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jirui; Chen, Shiyong; Jorgensen, Chad M.; Zhang, Yong; McGuire, Patrick E.; Pasternak, Shiran; Stein, Joshua C.; Ware, Doreen; Kramer, Melissa; McCombie, W. Richard; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Martis, Mihaela M.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Sehgal, Sunish K.; Li, Wanlong; Gill, Bikram S.; Bevan, Michael W.; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Weining, Song; Lazo, Gerard R.; Anderson, Olin D.; Dvorak, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The current limitations in genome sequencing technology require the construction of physical maps for high-quality draft sequences of large plant genomes, such as that of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor. To construct a physical map of the Ae. tauschii genome, we fingerprinted 461,706 bacterial artificial chromosome clones, assembled contigs, designed a 10K Ae. tauschii Infinium SNP array, constructed a 7,185-marker genetic map, and anchored on the map contigs totaling 4.03 Gb. Using whole genome shotgun reads, we extended the SNP marker sequences and found 17,093 genes and gene fragments. We showed that collinearity of the Ae. tauschii genes with Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum decreased with phylogenetic distance and that structural genome evolution rates have been high across all investigated lineages in subfamily Pooideae, including that of Brachypodieae. We obtained additional information about the evolution of the seven Triticeae chromosomes from 12 ancestral chromosomes and uncovered a pattern of centromere inactivation accompanying nested chromosome insertions in grasses. We showed that the density of noncollinear genes along the Ae. tauschii chromosomes positively correlates with recombination rates, suggested a cause, and showed that new genes, exemplified by disease resistance genes, are preferentially located in high-recombination chromosome regions. PMID:23610408

  2. Sequence polymorphism in polyploid wheat and their d-genome diploid ancestor.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Katherine S; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans S; Akhunov, Eduard; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Wolters, Petra; Powell, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Sequencing was used to investigate the origin of the D genome of the allopolyploid species Triticum aestivum and Aegilops cylindrica. A 247-bp region of the wheat D-genome Xwye838 locus, encoding ADP-glucopyrophosphorylase, and a 326-bp region of the wheat D-genome Gss locus, encoding granule-bound starch synthase, were sequenced in a total 564 lines of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum, genome AABBDD) involving all its subspecies and 203 lines of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. In Ae. tauschii, two SNP variants were detected at the Xwye838 locus and 11 haplotypes at the Gss locus. Two haplotypes with contrasting frequencies were found at each locus in wheat. Both wheat Xwye838 variants, but only one of the Gss haplotypes seen in wheat, were found among the Ae. tauschii lines. The other wheat Gss haplotype was not found in either Ae. tauschii or 70 lines of tetraploid Ae. cylindrica (genomes CCDD), which is known to hybridize with wheat. It is concluded that both T. aestivum and Ae. cylindrica originated recurrently, with at least two genetically distinct progenitors contributing to the formation of the D genome in both species. PMID:15238542

  3. Sequence polymorphism in polyploid wheat and their d-genome diploid ancestor.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Katherine S; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans S; Akhunov, Eduard; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Wolters, Petra; Powell, Wayne

    2004-06-01

    Sequencing was used to investigate the origin of the D genome of the allopolyploid species Triticum aestivum and Aegilops cylindrica. A 247-bp region of the wheat D-genome Xwye838 locus, encoding ADP-glucopyrophosphorylase, and a 326-bp region of the wheat D-genome Gss locus, encoding granule-bound starch synthase, were sequenced in a total 564 lines of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum, genome AABBDD) involving all its subspecies and 203 lines of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. In Ae. tauschii, two SNP variants were detected at the Xwye838 locus and 11 haplotypes at the Gss locus. Two haplotypes with contrasting frequencies were found at each locus in wheat. Both wheat Xwye838 variants, but only one of the Gss haplotypes seen in wheat, were found among the Ae. tauschii lines. The other wheat Gss haplotype was not found in either Ae. tauschii or 70 lines of tetraploid Ae. cylindrica (genomes CCDD), which is known to hybridize with wheat. It is concluded that both T. aestivum and Ae. cylindrica originated recurrently, with at least two genetically distinct progenitors contributing to the formation of the D genome in both species. PMID:15238542

  4. Sequence Polymorphism in Polyploid Wheat and Their D-Genome Diploid Ancestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine S. Caldwell; Jan Dvorak; Evans S. Lagudah; Eduard Akhunov; Ming-Cheng Luo; Petra Wolters; Wayne Powell

    2004-01-01

    Sequencing was used to investigate the origin of the D genome of the allopolyploid species Triticum aestivum and Aegilops cylindrica. A 247-bp region of the wheat D-genome Xwye838 locus, encoding ADP- glucopyrophosphorylase, and a 326-bp region of the wheat D-genome Gss locus, encoding granule-bound starch synthase, were sequenced in a total 564 lines of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum, genome AABBDD)

  5. The wheat D-genome HMW-glutenin locus: BAC sequencing, gene distribution, and retrotransposon clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. D. Anderson; C. Rausch; O. Moullet; E. S. Lagudah

    2003-01-01

    .   A bacterial-artificial-chromosome (BAC) clone from the genome of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome ancestor of hexaploid bread wheat, was sequenced and the presence of the two paralogous x- and y-type high-molecular-weight\\u000a (HMW) glutenin genes of the Glu-D1 locus was confirmed. These two genes occur in the same orientation, are 51,893 bp apart, and the separating DNA includes\\u000a a 31,000-bp cluster of

  6. Spontaneous and Divergent Hexaploid Triticales Derived from Common Wheat × Rye by Complete Elimination of D-Genome Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changyou; Ji, Wanquan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale. Methodology/Principal Findings Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L.) × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L.) were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales. Conclusion This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, “genome shock” was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced. PMID:25781330

  7. Introgression of wheat DNA markers from A, B and D genomes in early generation progeny of Aegilops cylindrica Host  ×  Triticum aestivum L. hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Schoenenberger; F. Felber; D. Savova-Bianchi; R. Guadagnuolo

    2005-01-01

    Introgression from allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) to allotetraploid jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host, CCDD) can take place in areas where the two species grow in sympatry and hybridize. Wheat and Ae. cylindrica share the D genome, issued from the common diploid ancestor Aegilops tauschii Coss. It has been proposed that the A and B genome of bread wheat

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci for abscisic acid responsiveness in the D-genome of hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Iehisa, Julio C M; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Yokota, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Takumi, Shigeo

    2014-06-15

    In crop species such as wheat, abiotic stresses and preharvest sprouting reduce grain yield and quality. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in abiotic stress tolerance and seed dormancy. In previous studies, we evaluated ABA responsiveness of 67 Aegilops tauschii accessions and their synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, finding wide variation that was due to the D-genome. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed using an F2 population derived from crosses of highly ABA-responsive and less-responsive synthetic wheat lines. A significant QTL was detected on chromosome 6D, in a similar location to that reported for ABA responsiveness using recombinant inbred lines derived from common wheat cultivars Mironovskaya 808 and Chinese Spring. A comparative map and physiological and expression analyses of the 6D QTL suggested that this locus involved in line differences among wheat synthetics is different from that involved in cultivar differences in common wheat. The common wheat 6D QTL was found to affect seed dormancy and the regulation of cold-responsive/late embryogenesis abundant genes during dehydration. However, in synthetic wheat, we failed to detect any association of ABA responsiveness with abiotic stress tolerance or seed dormancy, at least under our experimental conditions. Development of near-isogenic lines will be important for functional analyses of the synthetic wheat 6D QTL. PMID:24877675

  9. Introgression of wheat DNA markers from A, B and D genomes in early generation progeny of Aegilops cylindrica Host x Triticum aestivum L. hybrids.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, N; Felber, F; Savova-Bianchi, D; Guadagnuolo, R

    2005-11-01

    Introgression from allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) to allotetraploid jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host, CCDD) can take place in areas where the two species grow in sympatry and hybridize. Wheat and Ae. cylindrica share the D genome, issued from the common diploid ancestor Aegilops tauschii Coss. It has been proposed that the A and B genome of bread wheat are secure places to insert transgenes to avoid their introgression into Ae. cylindrica because during meiosis in pentaploid hybrids, A and B genome chromosomes form univalents and tend to be eliminated whereas recombination takes place only in D genome chromosomes. Wheat random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments, detected in intergeneric hybrids and introgressed to the first backcross generation with Ae. cylindrica as the recurrent parent and having a euploid Ae. cylindrica chromosome number or one supernumerary chromosome, were assigned to wheat chromosomes using Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic wheat lines. Introgressed fragments were not limited to the D genome of wheat, but specific fragments of A and B genomes were also present in the BC1. Their presence indicates that DNA from any of the wheat genomes can introgress into Ae. cylindrica. Successfully located RAPD fragments were then converted into highly specific and easy-to-use sequence characterised amplified regions (SCARs) through sequencing and primer design. Subsequently these markers were used to characterise introgression of wheat DNA into a BC1S1 family. Implications for risk assessment of genetically modified wheat are discussed. PMID:16133306

  10. Introgression of stem rust resistance genes SrTA10187 and SrTA10171 from Aegilops tauschii to wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diploid progenitor of the wheat D genome, Aegilops tauschii, has provided a wealth of genes for resistance to many diseases and insect pests of wheat. Ae. tauschii is a readily accessible pool of genes for wheat breeding as genes can be transferred to elite wheat cultivars though direct hybridi...

  11. Endosperm tolerance of paternal aneuploidy allows radiation hybrid mapping of the wheat D-genome and a measure of ? ray-induced chromosome breaks.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Gunn, Hilary L; Lopez, Kasandra; Iqbal, M Javed; Kianian, Shahryar F; Leonard, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Physical mapping and genome sequencing are underway for the ?17 Gb wheat genome. Physical mapping methods independent of meiotic recombination, such as radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, will aid precise anchoring of BAC contigs in the large regions of suppressed recombination in Triticeae genomes. Reports of endosperm development following pollination with irradiated pollen at dosages that cause embryo abortion prompted us to investigate endosperm as a potential source of RH mapping germplasm. Here, we report a novel approach to construct RH based physical maps of all seven D-genome chromosomes of the hexaploid wheat 'Chinese Spring', simultaneously. An 81-member subset of endosperm samples derived from 20-Gy irradiated pollen was genotyped for deletions, and 737 markers were mapped on seven D-genome chromosomes. Analysis of well-defined regions of six chromosomes suggested a map resolution of ?830 kb could be achieved; this estimate was validated with assays of markers from a sequenced contig. We estimate that the panel contains ?6,000 deletion bins for D-genome chromosomes and will require ?18,000 markers for high resolution mapping. Map-based deletion estimates revealed a majority of 1-20 Mb interstitial deletions suggesting mutagenic repair of double-strand breaks in pollen provides a useful resource for RH mapping and map based cloning studies. PMID:23144983

  12. Reaction of selected accessions of Aegilops tauschii to wheat blast, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat pathotype of M. oryzae is not known to occur outside of South America. To prepare for possible introduction into the U.S., it is important to search for sources of resistance including resistance in relatives of wheat. Ten accessions of the D genome progenitor of wheat, Ae. tauschii, and t...

  13. The 5S rRNA gene sequence variation in wheats and some polyploid wheat progenitors (Poaceae: Triticeae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard R. Baum; L. Grant Bailey

    2001-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced 115 repeat units of the 5S rDNA genes and spacers from wheat (Triticum) and the polyploid wheat progenitor, Aegilops, and analyzed them together with sequences available in GenBank® (National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI, NLM, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA). We were able to assort the sequences into nine orthologous groups which we call unit classes.

  14. Intraspecific sequence comparisons reveal similar rates of non-collinear gene insertion in the B and D genomes of bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polyploidization is considered one of the main mechanisms of plant genome evolution. The presence of multiple copies of the same gene reduces selection pressure and permits sub-functionalization and neo-functionalization leading to plant diversification, adaptation and speciation. In bread wheat, polyploidization and the prevalence of transposable elements resulted in massive gene duplication and movement. As a result, the number of genes which are non-collinear to genomes of related species seems markedly increased in wheat. Results We used new-generation sequencing (NGS) to generate sequence of a Mb-sized region from wheat chromosome arm 3DS. Sequence assembly of 24 BAC clones resulted in two scaffolds of 1,264,820 and 333,768 bases. The sequence was annotated and compared to the homoeologous region on wheat chromosome 3B and orthologous loci of Brachypodium distachyon and rice. Among 39 coding sequences in the 3DS scaffolds, 32 have a homoeolog on chromosome 3B. In contrast, only fifteen and fourteen orthologs were identified in the corresponding regions in rice and Brachypodium, respectively. Interestingly, five pseudogenes were identified among the non-collinear coding sequences at the 3B locus, while none was found at the 3DS locus. Conclusion Direct comparison of two Mb-sized regions of the B and D genomes of bread wheat revealed similar rates of non-collinear gene insertion in both genomes with a majority of gene duplications occurring before their divergence. Relatively low proportion of pseudogenes was identified among non-collinear coding sequences. Our data suggest that the pseudogenes did not originate from insertion of non-functional copies, but were formed later during the evolution of hexaploid wheat. Some evidence was found for gene erosion along the B genome locus. PMID:22935214

  15. Identification and genetic characterization of an Aegilops tauschii ortholog of the wheat leaf rust disease resistance gene Lr1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Qing Ling; Jiwen Qiu; Ravi P. Singh; Beat Keller

    2004-01-01

    Aegilops tauschii (goat grass) is the progenitor of the D genome in hexaploid bread wheat. We have screened more than 200 Ae. tauschii accessions for resistance against leaf rust ( Puccinia triticina) isolates, which are avirulent on the leaf rust resistance gene Lr1. Approximately 3.5% of the Ae. tauschii accessions displayed the same low infection type as the tester line Thatcher

  16. Phylogenetic Relationships and Intraspecific Variation of D-Genome Aegilops L. as Revealed by RAPD Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Goryunova; E. Z. Kochieva; N. N. Chikida; V. A. Pukhalskyi

    2004-01-01

    RAPD analysis was carried out to study the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of polyploid Aegilops species, which contain the D genome as a component of the alloploid genome, and diploid Aegilops tauschii, which is a putative donor of the D genome for common wheat. In total, 74 accessions of six D-genome Aegilops species were examined. The highest intraspecific variation

  17. Map-based analysis of the tenacious glume gene Tg-B1 of wild emmer and its role in wheat domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of wheat was instrumental in spawning the civilization of humankind, and it occurred through genetic mutations that gave rise to types with non-fragile rachises, soft glumes, and free-threshing seed. The Tg-D1 gene on chromosome 2D of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of ...

  18. Molecular analysis of the D-genome of the Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, A L; Gill, B S

    1987-01-01

    The chromosome of three tetraploid Aegilops L. species containing the D-genome were analyzed by in situ hybridization with a repeated DNA sequence clone pAS1 isolated from Aegilops squarrosa and observed to be D-genome specific. This sequence is found on all seven D-genome chromosome pairs of A. squarrosa and hexaploid wheat. Two distinct D-genome patterns were observed in the tetraploid species. The D-genome of A. cylindrica was similar to hexaploid wheat. Seven pairs of chromosomes having large amounts and numerous sites of the sequence were observed. Five chromosome pairs with fewer and smaller sites of the repetitive sequence were observed in the D-genomes of A. crassa and A. ventricosa. In addition to these major repeated sequence differences, chromosomal modifications appear to have occurred between T. aestivum and A. cylindrica and between A. crassa and A. ventricosa resulting in changes with respect to location of the sequence between the respective species. D-genome divergence with respect to pAS1 sequence appears to have occurred at least in two forms, one characterized by the changes in amount of repetitive sequence and the second by changes in location of the sequence. PMID:24240999

  19. Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor aegilops tauschii accession AL8/78

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A high quality reference sequence can provide a complete catalog of genes of a species, the regulatory elements that control their structure and function provide the basis for understanding the role of genes in evolution and development. However, development of a high quality referenc...

  20. Exploring the origin of the D genome of oat by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaomei; Zhang, Haiqin; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Zhou, Yonghong

    2014-09-01

    Further understanding of the origin of cultivated oat would accelerate its genetic improvement. In particular, it would be useful to clarify which diploid progenitor contributed the D genome of this allohexaploid species. In this study, we demonstrate that the landmarks produced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of species of Avena using probes derived from Avena sativa can be used to explore the origin of the D genome. Selected sets of probes were hybridized in several sequential experiments performed on exactly the same chromosome spreads, with multiple probes of cytological preparations. Probes pITS and A3-19 showed there might be a similar distribution of pITS between the Ac and D genomes. These results indicated that the Ac genome is closely related to the D genome, and that Avena canariensis (AcAc) could be the D-genome donor of cultivated oat. PMID:25478818

  1. Recent emergence of the wheat Lr34 multi-pathogen resistance: insights from haplotype analysis in wheat, rice, sorghum and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Krattinger, Simon G; Jordan, David R; Mace, Emma S; Raghavan, Chitra; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Keller, Beat; Lagudah, Evans S

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous sequence changes and the selection of beneficial mutations are driving forces of gene diversification and key factors of evolution. In highly dynamic co-evolutionary processes such as plant-pathogen interactions, the plant's ability to rapidly adapt to newly emerging pathogens is paramount. The hexaploid wheat gene Lr34, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, confers durable field resistance against four fungal diseases. Despite its extensive use in breeding and agriculture, no increase in virulence towards Lr34 has been described over the last century. The wheat genepool contains two predominant Lr34 alleles of which only one confers disease resistance. The two alleles, located on chromosome 7DS, differ by only two exon-polymorphisms. Putatively functional homoeologs and orthologs of Lr34 are found on the B-genome of wheat and in rice and sorghum, but not in maize, barley and Brachypodium. In this study we present a detailed haplotype analysis of homoeologous and orthologous Lr34 genes in genetically and geographically diverse selections of wheat, rice and sorghum accessions. We found that the resistant Lr34 haplotype is unique to the wheat D-genome and is not found in the B-genome of wheat or in rice and sorghum. Furthermore, we only found the susceptible Lr34 allele in a set of 252 Ae. tauschii genotypes, the progenitor of the wheat D-genome. These data provide compelling evidence that the Lr34 multi-pathogen resistance is the result of recent gene diversification occurring after the formation of hexaploid wheat about 8,000 years ago. PMID:23117720

  2. Synteny perturbations between wheat homoeologous chromosomes caused by locus duplications and

    E-print Network

    Gill, Kulvinder

    Synteny perturbations between wheat homoeologous chromosomes caused by locus duplications- gous chromosomes of the wheat A, B, and D genomes, in relation to both bin position on the centromere were lower than those between the A and D genome homoeologues. These differences among the wheat

  3. [Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific variation of D-genome Aegilops L. as revealed by RAPD analysis].

    PubMed

    Goriunova, S V; Kochieva, E Z; Chikida, N N; Pukhal'ski?, V A

    2004-05-01

    RAPD analysis was carried out to study the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of polyploid Aegilops species, which contain the D genome as a component of the alloploid genome, and diploid Aegilops tauschii, which is a putative donor of the D genome for common wheat. In total, 74 accessions of six D-genome Aegilops species were examined. The highest intraspecific variation (0.03-0.21) was observed for Ae. tauschii. Intraspecific distances between accessions ranged 0.007-0.067 in Ae. cylindrica, 0.017-0.047 in Ae. vavilovii, and 0.00-0.053 in Ae. juvenalis. Likewise, Ae. ventricosa and Ae. crassa showed low intraspecific polymorphism. The among-accession difference in alloploid Ae. ventricosa (genome DvNv) was similar to that of one parental species, Ae. uniaristata (N), and substantially lower than in the other parent, Ae. tauschii (D). The among-accession difference in Ae. cylindrica (CcDc) was considerably lower than in either parent, Ae. tauschii (D) or Ae. caudata (C). With the exception of Ae. cylindrica, all D-genome species--Ae. tauschii (D), Ae. ventricosa (DvNv), Ae. crassa (XcrDcrl and XcrDcrlDcr2), Ae. juvenalis (XjDjUj), and Ae. vavilovii (XvaDvaSva)--formed a single polymorphic cluster, which was distinct from clusters of other species. The only exception, Ae. cylindrica, did not group with the other D-genome species, but clustered with Ae. caudata (C), a donor of the C genome. The cluster of these two species was clearly distinct from the cluster of the other D-genome species and close to a cluster of Ae. umbellulata (genome U) and Ae. ovata (genome UgMg). Thus, RAPD analysis for the first time was used to estimate and to compare the interpopulation polymorphism and to establish the phylogenetic relationships of all diploid and alloploid D-genome Aegilops species. PMID:15272562

  4. Tandemly Duplicated Safener-Induced Glutathione S-Transferase Genes from Triticum tauschii Contribute to Genome- and Organ-Specific Expression in Hexaploid Wheat1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fangxiu; Lagudah, Evans S.; Moose, Stephen P.; Riechers, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene expression was examined in several Triticum species, differing in genome constitution and ploidy level, to determine genome contribution to GST expression in cultivated, hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Two tandemly duplicated tau class GST genes (TtGSTU1 and TtGSTU2) were isolated from a single bacterial artificial chromosome clone in a library constructed from the diploid wheat and D genome progenitor to cultivated wheat, Triticum tauschii. The genes are very similar in genomic structure and their encoded proteins are 95% identical. Gene-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed differential transcript accumulation of TtGSTU1 and TtGSTU2 in roots and shoots. Expression of both genes was induced by herbicide safeners, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and abscisic acid, in the shoots of T. tauschii; however, expression of TtGSTU1 was always higher than TtGSTU2. In untreated seedlings, TtGSTU1 was expressed in both shoots and roots, whereas TtGSTU2 expression was only detected in roots. RNA gel-blot analysis of ditelosomic, aneuploid lines that are deficient for 6AS, 6BS, or 6DS chromosome arms of cultivated, hexaploid bread wheat showed differential genome contribution to safener-induced GST expression in shoots compared with roots. The GST genes from the D genome of hexaploid wheat contribute most to safener-induced expression in the shoots, whereas GSTs from the B and D genomes contribute to safener-induced expression in the roots. PMID:12226515

  5. Development of simple sequence repeat markers specific for the Lr34 resistance region of wheat using sequence information from rice and Aegilops tauschii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eligio Bossolini; Simon G. Krattinger; Beat Keller

    2006-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) originated about 8,000 years ago from the hybridization of tetraploid wheat with diploid Aegilops tauschii Coss. containing the D-genome. Thus, the bread wheat D-genome is evolutionary young and shows a low degree of polymorphism in the bread wheat gene pool. To increase marker density around the durable leaf rust resistance gene Lr34 located on chromosome 7DS,

  6. mRNA and Small RNA Transcriptomes Reveal Insights into Dynamic Homoeolog Regulation of Allopolyploid Heterosis in Nascent Hexaploid Wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Aili; Liu, Dengcai; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Xubo; Hao, Ming; Geng, Shuaifeng; Yan, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Lianquan; Wu, Junyan; Yin, Lingjie; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wu, Liang; Zheng, Youliang; Mao, Long

    2014-05-16

    Nascent allohexaploid wheat may represent the initial genetic state of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), which arose as a hybrid between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD) and by chromosome doubling and outcompeted its parents in growth vigor and adaptability. To better understand the molecular basis for this success, we performed mRNA and small RNA transcriptome analyses in nascent allohexaploid wheat and its following generations, their progenitors, and the natural allohexaploid cultivar Chinese Spring, with the assistance of recently published A and D genome sequences. We found that nonadditively expressed protein-coding genes were rare but relevant to growth vigor. Moreover, a high proportion of protein-coding genes exhibited parental expression level dominance, with genes for which the total homoeolog expression level in the progeny was similar to that in T. turgidum potentially participating in development and those with similar expression to that in Ae. tauschii involved in adaptation. In addition, a high proportion of microRNAs showed nonadditive expression upon polyploidization, potentially leading to differential expression of important target genes. Furthermore, increased small interfering RNA density was observed for transposable element-associated D homoeologs in the allohexaploid progeny, which may account for biased repression of D homoeologs. Together, our data provide insights into small RNA-mediated dynamic homoeolog regulation mechanisms that may contribute to heterosis in nascent hexaploid wheat. PMID:24838975

  7. Map-based analysis of the tenacious glume gene Tg-B1 of wild emmer and its role in wheat domestication.

    PubMed

    Faris, Justin D; Zhang, Zengcui; Chao, Shiaoman

    2014-06-01

    The domestication of wheat was instrumental in spawning the civilization of humankind, and it occurred through genetic mutations that gave rise to types with non-fragile rachises, soft glumes, and free-threshing seed. Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides), the tetraploid AB-genome progenitor of domesticated wheat has genes that confer tenacious glumes (Tg) that underwent genetic mutations to give rise to free-threshing wheat. Here, we evaluated disomic substitution lines involving chromosomes 2A and 2B of wild emmer accessions substituted for homologous chromosomes in tetraploid and hexaploid backgrounds. The results suggested that both chromosomes 2A and 2B of wild emmer possess genes that inhibit threshability. A population of recombinant inbred lines derived from the tetraploid durum wheat variety Langdon crossed with a Langdon - T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides accession PI 481521 chromosome 2B disomic substitution line was used to develop a genetic linkage map of 2B, evaluate the genetics of threshability, and map the gene derived from PI 481521 that inhibited threshability. A 2BS linkage map comprised of 58 markers was developed, and markers delineated the gene to a 2.3 cM interval. Comparative analysis with maps containing the tenacious glume gene Tg-D1 on chromosome arm 2 DS from Aegilops tauschii, the D genome progenitor of hexaploid wheat, revealed that the gene inhibiting threshability in wild emmer was homoeologous to Tg-D1 and therefore designated Tg-B1. Comparative analysis with rice and Brachypodium distachyon indicated a high level of divergence and poorly conserved colinearity, particularly near the Tg-B1 locus. These results provide a foundation for further studies involving Tg-B1, which, together with Tg-D1, had profound influences on wheat domestication. PMID:24657062

  8. Identification of transposons, retroelements, and a gene family predominantly expressed in floral tissues in chromosome 3DS of the hexaploid wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Ryan; Baumann, Ute; Sutton, Tim; Gumaelius, Luke; Wolters, Petra; Tingey, Scott; Able, Jason A; Langridge, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A multigene family expressed during early floral development was identified on the short arm of wheat chromosome 3D in the region of the Ph2 locus, a locus controlling homoeologous chromosome pairing in allohexaploid wheat. Physical, genetic and molecular characterisation of the Wheat Meiosis 1 (WM1) gene family identified seven members that localised within a region of 173-kb. WM1 gene family members were sequenced and they encode mainly type Ia plasma membrane-anchored leucine rich repeat-like receptor proteins. In situ expression profiling suggests the gene family is predominantly expressed in floral tissue. In addition to the WM1 gene family, a number of other genes, gene fragments and pseudogenes were identified. It has been predicted that there is approximately one gene every 19-kb and that this region of the wheat genome contains 23 repetitive elements including BARE-1 and Wis2-1 like sequences. Nearly 50% of the repetitive elements identified were similar to known transposons from the CACTA superfamily. Ty1-copia, Ty3-gypsy and Athila LTR retroelements were also prevalent within the region. The WM1 gene cluster is present on 3DS and on barley 3HS but missing from the A and B genomes of hexaploid wheat. This suggests either recent generation of the cluster or specific deletion of the cluster during wheat polyploidisation. The evolutionary significance of the cluster, its possible roles in disease response or floral and early meiotic development and its location at or near the Ph2 locus are discussed. PMID:16534632

  9. Endothelial progenitors.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Elvira; Castelli, Germana; Testa, Ugo

    2014-04-01

    The studies carried out during the last two decades have represented a great effort in trying to identify and define cell populations endowed with the phenotypic and functional properties of endothelial progenitors. From these studies a scenario now emerges indicating that in the blood there are very rare endothelial progenitor cells, called endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) or late outgrowth endothelial cells, not originated from bone marrow, capable of generating phenotypically and functionally competent endothelial cells, capable to be incorporated in vivo into growing vessels. ECFCs are present in the circulation as well as cells resident in the vascular endothelial intima. In addition to these progenitors, there are some hematopoietic progenitor cells capable of generating a monocytic cell progeny exerting a pro-angiogenic activity in vivo, but unable to be directly incorporated into growing vessels. These cells exert a pro-angiogenic effect in vivo through a paracrine mechanism based on the secretion of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:24332583

  10. Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Single Resistance Locus in a Crop-Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21, present in modern varieties of hexaploid wheat, originated in goatgrass Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D genome donor of wheat. The goatgrass donor was collected in Iran where it grows as a weed in wheat fields as part of the native agricultural ecosystem. In order to ...

  11. Synthetic hexaploids: Harnessing species of the primary gene pool for wheat improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of genetic diversity into elite wheat cultivars has long been recognized as a means of improving wheat productivity and securing the global wheat supply. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) recreated from its two progenitor species, the tetraploid, Triticum turgidum and its diploid wild r...

  12. Phylogeny and genetic diversity of D -genome species of Aegilops and Triticum (Triticeae, Poaceae) from Iran based on microsatellites, ITS, and trn LF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Firouzeh Bordbar; Mohammad Reza Rahiminejad; Hojjatollah Saeidi; Frank R. Blattner

    2011-01-01

    Cereal species of the grass tribe Triticeae are economically important and provide staple food for large parts of the human\\u000a population. The Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia harbors high genetic and morphological diversity of these species. In this\\u000a study, we analyzed genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among D genome-bearing species of the wheat relatives of the genus Aegilops from Iran

  13. The cytological and genetic characterisation of doubled haploid lines derived from triticale×wheat hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Z. Tao; J. W. Snape; H. Hu

    1991-01-01

    Anther culture, when applied to hexaploid triticale×wheat hybrids, offers the opportunity to re-assort wheat D genome and rye R genome chromosomes into homozygous doubled haploid lines in a single generation. The characterisation of such lines is the first step in their utilisation in wheat improvement. Two lines, M24 and M25 from the cross of ‘Beagle’בKedong 58’, and one line, M27,

  14. Ecogeography, genetic diversity, and breeding value of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Korn ex Asch. & Graebn.) Thell.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Körn ex Asch. & Graebn.) Thell. is the allotetraploid (2n=4x=28; genome BBAA) progenitor of cultivated wheat. It is fully compatible with the tetraploid (BBAA) durum wheat (Triticum durum), and can be crossed with the hexaploid (2n=6x=42; BBAADD) wheat (Triticu...

  15. Two Homoeologous Wheat Genes Confer Sensitivity to a Single Host-Selective Toxin and Susceptibility to Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogen Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple host-selective toxins that interact with corresponding wheat sensitivity genes in an inverse gene-for-gene manner to cause the disease Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) in wheat. Here, we screened accessions of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor...

  16. The impact of Ty3-gypsy group LTR retrotransposons Fatima on B-genome specificity of polyploid wheats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) are a rapidly evolving fraction of the eukaryotic genomes and the main contributors to genome plasticity and divergence. Recently, occupation of the A- and D-genomes of allopolyploid wheat by specific TE families was demonstrated. Here, we investigated the impact of the well-represented family of gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, Fatima, on B-genome divergence of allopolyploid wheat using the fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) method and phylogenetic analysis. Results FISH analysis of a BAC clone (BAC_2383A24) initially screened with Spelt1 repeats demonstrated its predominant localisation to chromosomes of the B-genome and its putative diploid progenitor Aegilops speltoides in hexaploid (genomic formula, BBAADD) and tetraploid (genomic formula, BBAA) wheats as well as their diploid progenitors. Analysis of the complete BAC_2383A24 nucleotide sequence (113 605 bp) demonstrated that it contains 55.6% TEs, 0.9% subtelomeric tandem repeats (Spelt1), and five genes. LTR retrotransposons are predominant, representing 50.7% of the total nucleotide sequence. Three elements of the gypsy LTR retrotransposon family Fatima make up 47.2% of all the LTR retrotransposons in this BAC. In situ hybridisation of the Fatima_2383A24-3 subclone suggests that individual representatives of the Fatima family contribute to the majority of the B-genome specific FISH pattern for BAC_2383A24. Phylogenetic analysis of various Fatima elements available from databases in combination with the data on their insertion dates demonstrated that the Fatima elements fall into several groups. One of these groups, containing Fatima_2383A24-3, is more specific to the B-genome and proliferated around 0.5-2.5 MYA, prior to allopolyploid wheat formation. Conclusion The B-genome specificity of the gypsy-like Fatima, as determined by FISH, is explained to a great degree by the appearance of a genome-specific element within this family for Ae. speltoides. Moreover, its proliferation mainly occurred in this diploid species before it entered into allopolyploidy. Most likely, this scenario of emergence and proliferation of the genome-specific variants of retroelements, mainly in the diploid species, is characteristic of the evolution of all three genomes of hexaploid wheat. PMID:21635794

  17. Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM The small grains improvement effort at Texas Agri techniques. The College Station center focuses on wheat and oats for the South Texas and Blacklands regions of Texas, while the Amarillo center develops wheat and triticale lines for the Texas High Plains

  18. Genetic diversity of wild emmer wheat in Israel and Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nevo; A. Beiles

    1989-01-01

    Allozyme variation in the tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of all cultivated wheats, was studied for the proteins encoded by 42 gene loci in 1815 plants representing 37 populations - 33 from Israel and 4 from Turkey - sampled in 33 localities from 1979 to 1987. The results showed that: (a) 6 loci (14%) were monomorphic in

  19. Simultaneous transfer, introgression and genomic localization of genes for resistance to stem rust race TTKSK Ug99 from Aegilops tauschii to wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat production is currently threatened by widely virulent races of the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, that are part of the TTKSK (also known as ‘Ug99’) race group. The diploid D genome donor species Aegilops tauschii (2n=2x=14, DD) is a readily accessible source of resis...

  20. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information content fingerprinting: a distal region of wheat chromosome 3DS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of wheat. We report the use of the Ae. tauschii, the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome, for the construction of t...

  1. Genetic Variation of Seed Dormancy in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat-Derived Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), has very strong seed dormancy and genes controlling the trait may be used in breeding programs to manipulate germinability of improved cultivars. Thus, this research was conducted to initiate a project to identify dormancy genes fro...

  2. The use of wheat aneuploids for the chromosomal assignment of microsatellite loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Plaschke; A. Börner; K. Wendehake; M. W. Ganal; M. S. Röder

    1996-01-01

    The chromosomal assignment of 64 PCR-amplified microsatellite loci and 29 additional fragments amplified by the same primer pairs is described for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). The distribution over the different chromosomes and chromosome arms appears to be random. The highest proportion of microsatellite loci is found on the B genome, followed by the A and D genome. About half of

  3. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Thomas; Sandve, Simen R; Heier, Lise; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Wulff, Brande B H; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D genome through homoploid hybrid speciation 1 to 2 million years later. Our findings imply that the present-day bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid speciation (homoploid and polyploid) and lay the foundation for a new framework for understanding the wheat genome as a multilevel phylogenetic mosaic. PMID:25035499

  4. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  5. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  6. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID:25837893

  7. Variation in susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among wild and domesticated wheat.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID:25837893

  8. Quanah Wheat.

    E-print Network

    Atkins, Irvin Milburn

    1951-01-01

    laboratories show that it is satisfactory for the production of bakery flour. BULLETIN 734 IAY 1951 I. M. ATKINS* W INTER WHEAT is grown in Texas on more than five million acres annually and is one of the most important cash crops. Approximately half... Milling and baking characteristics are of major consideration in the development of a new wheat variety, since it must fit into the needs of the trade. Wheat that will make !good bakery flour is in greatest demand because commercial bakeries now supply...

  9. The Major Threshability Genes Soft Glume (sog) and Tenacious Glume (Tg), of Diploid and Polyploid Wheat, Trace Their Origin to Independent Mutations at Non-Orthologous Loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threshability is an important crop domestication trait. The wild wheat progenitors have tough glumes enveloping the floret that make spikes difficult to thresh, whereas cultivated wheats have soft glumes and are free-threshing. In hexaploid wheat, the glume tenacity gene Tg along with the major dome...

  10. Agricultural Genotyping RAPiD Genomics is a DNA genotyping and genetic data analysis company providing tools for

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Agricultural Genotyping RAPiD Genomics is a DNA genotyping and genetic data analysis company or animal even before the seed germinates or the animal is born. The system developed by RAPiD Genomics in parallel, at a cost of several hundred dollars per sample. RAPiD Genomics has short- ened this process

  11. D genome doners for Aegilops cylindrica (CCDD) and Triticum aestivum (AABBDD) deduced from esterase isozyme analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Y

    1981-01-01

    Putative D genome donors for Aegilops cylindrica (2n = 28, CCDD) and Triticum aestivum (2n = 42, AABBDD) were studied with the isoelectric focusing patterns of esterase isozymes. 103 strains of Ae. cylindrica were uniform in their isozyme pattern. 30 strains of the putative parent, Ae. caudata, showed no zymogram variation, whereas the other parent, Ae. squarrosa, comprised 3 phenotypes. Natural Ae. cylindrica had an isozyme pattern which corresponded to a mixture of esterases from Ae. caudata and type 3 Ae. squarrosa. Therefore, it is concluded that the D genome donor of Ae. cylindrica is derived from type 3 Ae. squarrosa. These results suggest that Ae. cylindrica originated with a single amphiploidy event, and the C and D genomes have remained remarkably constant regarding esterase isozyme composition.On the other hand, T. aestivum comprised three zymogram phenotypes. These phenotypes contain bands which can be ascribed to the D genome of type 2 Ae. squarrosa. These results suggest that the D genome of Ae. cylindrica differs from that of T. aestivum. Evolution of the AB and D genomes of T. aestivum is indicated by the zymogram polymorphism. The origin of Ae. cylindrica is possibly more recent than that of T. aestivum. PMID:24276583

  12. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mergoum; P. K. Singh; J. A. Anderson; R. J. Peña; R. P. Singh; S. S. Xu; J. K. Ransom

    Wheat (various species of the genus Triticum) is a grass originating from the Levant area of the Middle East. However, only hexaploid common wheat (Triticum eastivum), and tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) are presently cultivated worldwide. Not only is wheat an important crop today, it may well have influenced human history.\\u000a Wheat was a key factor enabling the

  13. GENES ENCODING PLASTID ACETYL-COA CARBOXYLASE AND 3-PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE OF THE TRITICUM/AEGILOPS COMPLEX AND THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF POLYPLOID WHEAT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The classic wheat evolutionary history is one of adaptive radiation of the diploid Triticum/Aegilops species (A, S, D) , genome convergence and divergence of the tetraploid (T. turgidum AABB, and T. timopheevii AAAGG) and hexaploid (T. aestivum, AABBDD) species. The objective of this study was to a...

  14. Wheat Diseases Atlas.

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Barley Yellow Dwarf (Virus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Wheat Streak Mosaic (Virus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IO Wheat (Soilborne) Mosaic (Virus) . . . . . . . . . . . IO STEM AND HEAD DISEASES .............. II Glume Blotch... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 Yellow Berry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 Storage Molds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I6 HERBICIDE INJURY TO WHEAT . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Low Fertility...

  15. Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

  16. Human megakaryocytic progenitor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Kanz; G. W. Löhr; A. A. Fauser

    1987-01-01

    Summary Megakaryocytopoiesis represents one of several differentiation pathways that hematopoietic stem cells may enter. Cells representing intermediate stages of differentiation between pluripotent stem cells and maturing megakaryocytes are called megakaryocytic progenitor cells. They are identified in human bone marrow and peripheral blood by their ability to proliferate in culture (colony forming unit-megakaryocyte, CFU-M); at some point they lose the capacity

  17. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Garmy-Susini; J A Varner

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis research investigates the formation of new blood vessels in wound healing, tumour growth and embryonic development. Circulating, bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were first described 8 years ago, yet the exact nature of these endothelial precursor cells remains unclear. The contributions of circulating EPCs to angiogenesis in tumours, ischaemic injury and other diseases as well as their usefulness

  18. D genome doners for Aegilops cylindrica (CCDD) and Triticum aestivum (AABBDD) deduced from esterase isozyme analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nakai

    1981-01-01

    Putative D genome donors for Aegilops cylindrica (2n = 28, CCDD) and Triticum aestivum (2n = 42, AABBDD) were studied with the isoelectric focusing patterns of esterase isozymes. 103 strains of Ae. cylindrica were uniform in their isozyme pattern. 30 strains of the putative parent, Ae. caudata, showed no zymogram variation, whereas the other parent, Ae. squarrosa, comprised 3 phenotypes.

  19. The diploid D genome cottons (Gossypium spp.) of the new world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diploid D genome cottons (Gossypium spp.) of the New World are part of a great reservoir of important genes for improving fiber quality, pest and disease resistance, and drought and salt tolerance in the modern cultivated Upland/Acala (G. hirsutum) and Pima [also known as Sea Island or Egyptian ...

  20. Single-copy genes define a conserved order between rice and wheat for understanding differences caused by duplication, deletion, and transposition of genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagendra K. Singh; Vivek Dalal; Kamlesh Batra; Binay K. Singh; G. Chitra; Archana Singh; Irfan A. Ghazi; Mahavir Yadav; Awadhesh Pandit; Rekha Dixit; Pradeep K. Singh; Harvinder Singh; Kirpa R. Koundal; Kishor Gaikwad; Trilochan Mohapatra; Tilak R. Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The high-quality rice genome sequence is serving as a reference for comparative genome analysis in crop plants, especially cereals. However, early comparisons with bread wheat showed complex patterns of conserved synteny (gene content) and colinearity (gene order). Here, we show the presence of ancient duplicated segments in the progenitor of wheat, which were first identified in the rice genome. We

  1. Wild emmer: genetic resources, gene mapping and potential for wheat improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weilong Xie; Eviatar Nevo

    2008-01-01

    Wild emmer, Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of cultivated wheat, harbors rich genetic resources for wheat improvement. They include many agronomic traits\\u000a such as abiotic stress tolerances (salt, drought and heat), biotic stress tolerances (powdery mildew, rusts, and Fusarium\\u000a head blight), grain protein quality and quantity, and micronutrient concentrations (Zn, Fe, and Mn). In this review, we summarize\\u000a (1) traits and

  2. Effects of Deletions of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Alleles on Dough Properties and Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality 

    E-print Network

    Tuncil, Yunus

    2012-10-19

    .............................................. 51 6 Effect of deletions and variations in high molecular weight glutenin allelic composition on tortilla deformation modulus ................................. 56 7 Effect of deletions and variations in high molecular weight glutenin allelic... of wheat cultivars with optimum gluten functionality for tortillas. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1) Determine the effect of deletions at different HMW -GS alleles at homologous loci on A, B, and D genomes, on dough properties 3 2) Evaluate the tortilla...

  3. The major threshability genes soft glume ( sog ) and tenacious glume ( Tg ), of diploid and polyploid wheat, trace their origin to independent mutations at non-orthologous loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shilpa Sood; Vasu Kuraparthy; Guihua Bai; Bikram S. Gill

    2009-01-01

    Threshability is an important crop domestication trait. The wild wheat progenitors have tough glumes enveloping the floret\\u000a that make spikes difficult to thresh, whereas cultivated wheats have soft glumes and are free-threshing. In hexaploid wheat,\\u000a the glume tenacity gene Tg along with the major domestication locus Q control threshability. The Q gene was isolated recently and found to be a

  4. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-Yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat - related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits. PMID:26053312

  5. Wheat grass selection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Wang (USDA; ARS)

    2006-09-25

    The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

  6. Processing Wheat for Food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson on wheat processing, including an introduction to the five kinds of wheat grown in the US and the anatomy of wheat. The module then moves through the six steps in wheat processing: cleaning, conditioning, blending, breaking, sieving, and reducing. Each step is animated to help students visualize the process. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

  7. Genetic diversity of the D-genome in T. aestivum and Aegilops species using SSR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Naghavi; M. J. Aghaei; A. R. Taleei; M. Omidi; J. Mozafari; M. E. Hassani

    2009-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), highly dispersed nucleotide sequences in genomes, were used for germplasm analysis and estimation\\u000a of the genetic relationship of the D-genome among 52 accessions of T. aestivum (AABBDD), Ae. tauschii (DtDt), Ae. cylindrica (CCDcDc) and Ae. crassa (MMDcr1Dcr1), collected from 13 different sites in Iran. A set of 21 microsatellite primers, from various locations on the seven

  8. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

  9. Wheat Stripe Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter on wheat stripe rust in a book entitled “Wheat: Science and Trade”. The chapter provides an overview on various aspects of wheat stripe rust and control, including distribution and epidemiology; origin and historical importance; taxonomy, lifecycle, and host range; genetic variati...

  10. Development of simple sequence repeat markers specific for the Lr34 resistance region of wheat using sequence information from rice and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Bossolini, Eligio; Krattinger, Simon G; Keller, Beat

    2006-10-01

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) originated about 8,000 years ago from the hybridization of tetraploid wheat with diploid Aegilops tauschii Coss. containing the D-genome. Thus, the bread wheat D-genome is evolutionary young and shows a low degree of polymorphism in the bread wheat gene pool. To increase marker density around the durable leaf rust resistance gene Lr34 located on chromosome 7DS, we used molecular information from the orthologous region in rice. Wheat expressed sequence tags (wESTs) were identified by homology with the rice genes in the interval of interest, but were monomorphic in the 'Arina' x 'Forno' mapping population. To derive new polymorphic markers, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones representing a total physical size of approximately 1 Mb and belonging to four contigs were isolated from Ae. tauschii by hybridization screening with wheat ESTs. Several BAC clones were low-pass sequenced, resulting in a total of approximately 560 kb of sequence. Ten microsatellite sequences were found, and three of them were polymorphic in our population and were genetically mapped close to Lr34. Comparative analysis of marker order revealed a large inversion between the rice genome and the wheat D-genome. The SWM10 microsatellite is closely linked to Lr34 and has the same allele in the three independent sources of Lr34: 'Frontana', 'Chinese Spring', and 'Forno', as well in most of the genotypes containing Lr34. Therefore, SWM10 is a highly useful marker to assist selection for Lr34 in breeding programs worldwide. PMID:16896711

  11. Production and identification of wheat-Agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yang; Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Weihua; Li, Chunye; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Wang, Yandong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Lihui

    2010-07-01

    The narrow genetic background of wheat is the primary factor that has restricted the improvement of crop yield in recent years. The kernel number per spike is the most important factor of the many potential characteristics that determine wheat yield. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, has the characteristics of superior numbers of florets and kernels per spike, which are controlled by chromosome 6P. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and substitution lines were used as bridge materials to produce wheat-A. cristatum 6P translocation lines induced by gametocidal chromosomes and irradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that the frequency of translocation induced by gametocidal chromosomes was 5.08%, which was higher than the frequency of irradiated hybrids (2.78%) and irradiated pollen (2.12%). The fluorescence in situ hybridization results of the translocation lines showed that A. cristatum chromosome 6P could be translocated to wheat ABD genome, and the recombination frequency was A genome > B genome > D genome. The alien A. cristatum chromosome 6P was translocated to wheat homoeologous groups 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6. We obtained abundant translocation lines that possessed whole-arm, terminal, segmental and intercalary translocations. Three 6PS-specific and four 6PL-specific markers will be useful to rapidly identify and trace the translocated fragments. The different wheat-A. cristatum 6P translocation lines obtained in this study can provide basic materials for analyzing the alien genes carried by chromosome 6P. The translocation line WAT33-1-3 and introgression lines WAI37-2 and WAI41-1, which had significant characteristics of multikernel (high numbers of kernels per spike), could be utilized as novel germplasms for high-yield wheat breeding. PMID:20490543

  12. Asymmetric epigenetic modification and elimination of rDNA sequences by polyploidization in wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiang; Han, Fangpu

    2014-11-01

    rRNA genes consist of long tandem repeats clustered on chromosomes, and their products are important functional components of the ribosome. In common wheat (Triticum aestivum), rDNA loci from the A and D genomes were largely lost during the evolutionary process. This biased DNA elimination may be related to asymmetric transcription and epigenetic modifications caused by the polyploid formation. Here, we observed both sets of parental nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) were expressed after hybridization, but asymmetric silencing of one parental NOR was immediately induced by chromosome doubling, and reversing the ploidy status could not reactivate silenced NORs. Furthermore, increased CHG and CHH DNA methylation on promoters was accompanied by asymmetric silencing of NORs. Enrichment of H3K27me3 and H3K9me2 modifications was also observed to be a direct response to increased DNA methylation and transcriptional inactivation of NOR loci. Both A and D genome NOR loci with these modifications started to disappear in the S4 generation and were completely eliminated by the S7 generation in synthetic tetraploid wheat. Our results indicated that asymmetric epigenetic modification and elimination of rDNA sequences between different donor genomes may lead to stable allopolyploid wheat with increased differentiation and diversity. PMID:25415973

  13. Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Mervin C.

    2012-01-01

    Human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been generally defined as circulating cells that express a variety of cell surface markers similar to those expressed by vascular endothelial cells, adhere to endothelium at sites of hypoxia/ischemia, and participate in new vessel formation. Although no specific marker for an EPC has been identified, a panel of markers has been consistently used as a surrogate marker for cells displaying the vascular regenerative properties of the putative EPC. However, it is now clear that a host of hematopoietic and vascular endothelial subsets display the same panel of antigens and can only be discriminated by an extensive gene expression analysis or use of a variety of functional assays that are not often applied. This article reviews our current understanding of the many cell subsets that constitute the term EPC and provides a concluding perspective as to the various roles played by these circulating or resident cells in vessel repair and regeneration in human subjects. PMID:22762017

  14. Genome differentiation in Aegilops . 3. Evolution of the D-genome cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Badaeva; A. V. Amosova; O. V. Muravenko; T. E. Samatadze; N. N. Chikida; A. V. Zelenin; B. Friebe; B. S. Gill

    2002-01-01

    .  ?Six polyploid Aegilops species containing the D genome were studied by C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using clones pTa71\\u000a (18S-5.8S-26S rDNA), pTa794 (5S rDNA), and pAs1 (non-coding repetitive DNA sequence) as probes. The C-banding and pAs1-FISH\\u000a patterns of Ae. cylindrica chromosomes were identical to those of the parental species. However, inactivation of the NOR on chromosome 5D with

  15. Wheat Pasture Poisoning. 

    E-print Network

    Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

    1956-01-01

    Tech Field Laboratory near Panhandle by personnel of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas Technological College and the U. S. Department of Agriculture on wheat pasture poisoning. The condition known as wheat pasture poisoning occurs primarily... serum of normal cows was compared with the serum of cows affected with wheat pasture poisoning, a decrease in inarganic phos- phate, total and diffusible calcium, magnesium and the albumin-globulin ratio was found in the cases. The total serum protein...

  16. Wheat Evolution: Dough Washing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

    2012-01-01

    In this activity (page 5), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by washing different types of dough with water and comparing the results. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

  17. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum) from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA) SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST) at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM). Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and among populations. The higher extent of LD in the wheat D-genome versus the A- and B-genomes likely reflects the episodes of recent introgression and population bottleneck accompanying the origin of hexaploid wheat. The assessment of LD and population structure in this assembled panel of diverse lines provides critical information for the development of genetic resources for genome-wide association mapping of agronomically important traits in wheat. PMID:21190581

  18. Molecular analysis, cytogenetics and fertility of introgression lines from transgenic wheat to Aegilops cylindrica host.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, Nicola; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Küpfer, Philippe; Felber, François

    2006-12-01

    Natural hybridization and backcrossing between Aegilops cylindrica and Triticum aestivum can lead to introgression of wheat DNA into the wild species. Hybrids between Ae. cylindrica and wheat lines bearing herbicide resistance (bar), reporter (gus), fungal disease resistance (kp4), and increased insect tolerance (gna) transgenes were produced by pollination of emasculated Ae. cylindrica plants. F1 hybrids were backcrossed to Ae. cylindrica under open-pollination conditions, and first backcrosses were selfed using pollen bags. Female fertility of F1 ranged from 0.03 to 0.6%. Eighteen percent of the sown BC1s germinated and flowered. Chromosome numbers ranged from 30 to 84 and several of the plants bore wheat-specific sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) and the bar gene. Self fertility in two BC1 plants was 0.16 and 5.21%, and the others were completely self-sterile. Among 19 BC1S1 individuals one plant was transgenic, had 43 chromosomes, contained the bar gene, and survived glufosinate treatments. The other BC1S1 plants had between 28 and 31 chromosomes, and several of them carried SCARs specific to wheat A and D genomes. Fertility of these plants was higher under open-pollination conditions than by selfing and did not necessarily correlate with even or euploid chromosome number. Some individuals having supernumerary wheat chromosomes recovered full fertility. PMID:17028347

  19. Molecular Analysis, Cytogenetics and Fertility of Introgression Lines From Transgenic Wheat to Aegilops cylindrica Host

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, Nicola; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Küpfer, Philippe; Felber, François

    2006-01-01

    Natural hybridization and backcrossing between Aegilops cylindrica and Triticum aestivum can lead to introgression of wheat DNA into the wild species. Hybrids between Ae. cylindrica and wheat lines bearing herbicide resistance (bar), reporter (gus), fungal disease resistance (kp4), and increased insect tolerance (gna) transgenes were produced by pollination of emasculated Ae. cylindrica plants. F1 hybrids were backcrossed to Ae. cylindrica under open-pollination conditions, and first backcrosses were selfed using pollen bags. Female fertility of F1 ranged from 0.03 to 0.6%. Eighteen percent of the sown BC1s germinated and flowered. Chromosome numbers ranged from 30 to 84 and several of the plants bore wheat-specific sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) and the bar gene. Self fertility in two BC1 plants was 0.16 and 5.21%, and the others were completely self-sterile. Among 19 BC1S1 individuals one plant was transgenic, had 43 chromosomes, contained the bar gene, and survived glufosinate treatments. The other BC1S1 plants had between 28 and 31 chromosomes, and several of them carried SCARs specific to wheat A and D genomes. Fertility of these plants was higher under open-pollination conditions than by selfing and did not necessarily correlate with even or euploid chromosome number. Some individuals having supernumerary wheat chromosomes recovered full fertility. PMID:17028347

  20. Functional characterisation of wheat Pgip genes reveals their involvement in the local response to wounding.

    PubMed

    Janni, M; Bozzini, T; Moscetti, I; Volpi, C; D'Ovidio, R

    2013-11-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genome AABBDD) genome contains one Pgip gene per genome. Tapgip1 (B genome) and Tapgip2 (D genome) are expressed in all tissues, whereas Tapgip3 (A genome) is inactive because of a long terminal repeat, Copia retrotransposon insertion within the coding region. To verify whether Tapgip1 and Tapgip2 encode active PGIPs and are involved in the wheat defence response, we expressed them transiently and analysed their expression under stress conditions. Neither TaPGIP1 nor TaPGIP2 showed inhibition activity in vitro against fungal polygalacturonases. Moreover, a wheat genotype (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) lacking active homologues of Tapgip1 or Tapgip2 possesses PGIP activity. At transcript level, Tapgip1 and Tapgip2 were both up-regulated after fungal infection and strongly induced following wounding. This latter result has been confirmed in transgenic wheat plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under control of the 5'-flanking region of Tdpgip1, a homologue of Tapgip1 with an identical sequence. Strong and transient GUS staining was mainly restricted to the damaged tissues and was not observed in adjacent tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that Tapgips and their homologues are involved in the wheat defence response by acting at the site of the lesion caused by pathogen infection. PMID:23574379

  1. REGISTRATION OF 'TRIBUTE' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Tribute’ (Reg. no. CV-958, PI 632689) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed and released May 2002 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Tribute is broadly adapted and has performed well over most of the soft red winter wheat production regions in the U.S.A. and Can...

  2. Registration of 'Ripper' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

  3. Registration of 'Antero' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

  4. Agrometeorology and Wheat Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

  5. Registration of 'Snowmass' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Snowmass’ (Reg. No. CV-1050, PI 658597) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in July 2009 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

  6. Registration of ‘Yellowstone’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Yellowstone' hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station and released in September 2005. Yellowstone was released for its high yield potential and broad adaptation to Montana winter wheat production environments. Yellowstone was named in...

  7. Introgression of an imidazolinone-resistance gene from winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) into jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    PubMed

    Perez-Jones, Alejandro; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Hansen, Jennifer L; Zemetra, Robert S

    2006-12-01

    Imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is being commercialized in the USA. This technology allows wheat growers to selectively control jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host), a weed that is especially problematic because of its close genetic relationship with wheat. However, the potential movement of the imidazolinone-resistance gene from winter wheat to jointed goatgrass is a concern. Winter wheat and jointed goatgrass have the D genome in common and can hybridize and backcross under natural field conditions. Since the imidazolinone-resistance gene (Imi1) is located on the D genome, it is possible for resistance to be transferred to jointed goatgrass via hybridization and backcrossing. To study the potential for gene movement, BC(2)S(2) plants were produced artificially using imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat (cv. FS-4) as the female parent and a native jointed goatgrass collection as the male recurrent parent. FS-4, the jointed goatgrass collection, and 18 randomly selected BC(2)S(2) populations were treated with imazamox. The percentage of survival was 100% for the FS-4, 0% for the jointed goatgrass collection and 6 BC(2)S(2) populations, 40% or less for 2 BC(2)S(2) populations, and 50% or greater for the remaining 10 BC(2)S(2) populations. Chromosome counts in BC(2)S(3) plants showed a restoration of the chromosome number of jointed goatgrass, with four out of four plants examined having 28 chromosomes. Sequencing of AHASL1D in BC(2)S(3) plants derived from BC(2)S(2)-6 revealed the sexual transmission of Imi1 from FS-4 to jointed goatgrass. Imi1 conferred resistance to the imidazolinone herbicide imazamox, as shown by the in vitro assay for acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity. PMID:17058103

  8. The pattern of zygotene and pachytene pairing in allotetraploid Aegilops species sharing the D genome.

    PubMed

    Cuñado, N; García, M J; Callejas, S; Fernández, A; Santos, J L

    1996-11-01

    Chromosome pairing behaviour of the allotetraploid Aegilops species sharing the D genome, Ae. crassa (DDMM), Ae. cylindrica (DDCC) and Ae. ventricosa (DDNN), was analyzed by electron microscopy in surfacespread prophase-I nuclei. Synaptonemal-complex analysis at zygotene and pachytene revealed that synapsis in the allotetraploids was mostly between homologous chromosomes, although a few multivalents were also formed. Only homologous bivalents were observed at metaphase-I. It is concluded that the mechanism controlling bivalent formation in these species acts mainly at zygotene by restricting pairing to homologous chromosomes, but also acts at pachytene by preventing chiasma formation in homoeologous associations. These observations are discussed in relation to mechanisms of diploidization of polyploid meiosis. PMID:24162499

  9. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tetsuo

    2014-09-01

    Human endometrium regenerates and regresses with each menstrual cycle under hormonal control throughout a woman's reproductive life. The cyclical regeneration and remodeling potentials allude to the existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium. There is increasing evidence that human endometrium contains small numbers of stem-like cells capable of self-renewal, multiple differentiation and tissue reconstitution. Although the precise identity of endometrial stem/progenitor cells remains elusive, these cells are thought to play pivotal role(s) in the physiological remodeling and regeneration of the human endometrium and also in the pathogenesis of endometrium-associated diseases, such as endometriosis. PMID:25160689

  10. Wheat Evolution: Sedimentation Testing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

    2012-01-01

    In this activity (p.8-9 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by conducting sedimentation tests on different flours. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant. Note: Sedimentation test can also be done using SDS detergent and lactic acid instead of soap and vinegar.

  11. Wheat Evolution: Dough Rising

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

    2012-01-01

    In this activity (p.6-7 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by creating dough from different flours, observing the samples of dough as they rise, and then baking the dough. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

  12. Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends

    E-print Network

    Huybers, Peter

    Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends Marena Lin and Peter Huybers Department decomposition of wheat yields 5 4.1 U.S. county-level wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2 French departmental wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5

  13. Wheat Diseases Atlas. 

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ........................ . DISSEMINATION OF WHEAT DISEASES ... . ROOT DISEASES ......................... . Root, Crown and Foot Rots ............... . Plant Parasitic Nematodes ................ . Seedling Diseases... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOLIAGE DISEASES ..................... . 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 Rusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leaf Rust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Stem Rust...

  14. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... have tre- mendous reproductive capability, enabling large populations to build. The mite is most active during warm weather, with temperatures of 75-80 degrees F optimum for reproduction. Mites require a living grass host to survive the summer; sum...

  15. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  16. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the information…

  17. Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunwu; Zhao, Long; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Zongze; Wang, Huan; Wen, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunyu; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

    2014-08-12

    Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na(+) retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na(+) removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat. PMID:25074914

  18. High-Resolution Radiation Hybrid Map of Wheat Chromosome 1D

    PubMed Central

    Kalavacharla, Venu; Hossain, Khwaja; Gu, Yong; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Vales, M. Isabel; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L.; Maan, Shivcharan S.; Kianian, Shahryar F.

    2006-01-01

    Physical mapping methods that do not rely on meiotic recombination are necessary for complex polyploid genomes such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This need is due to the uneven distribution of recombination and significant variation in genetic to physical distance ratios. One method that has proven valuable in a number of nonplant and plant systems is radiation hybrid (RH) mapping. This work presents, for the first time, a high-resolution radiation hybrid map of wheat chromosome 1D (D genome) in a tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L., AB genomes) background. An RH panel of 87 lines was used to map 378 molecular markers, which detected 2312 chromosome breaks. The total map distance ranged from ?3,341 cR35,000 for five major linkage groups to 11,773 cR35,000 for a comprehensive map. The mapping resolution was estimated to be ?199 kb/break and provided the starting point for BAC contig alignment. To date, this is the highest resolution that has been obtained by plant RH mapping and serves as a first step for the development of RH resources in wheat. PMID:16624903

  19. Agropyron elongatum chromatin localization on the wheat chromosomes in an introgression line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin

    2005-05-01

    The introgressed small-chromosome segment of Agropyron elongatum (Host.) Neviski (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp.) in F5 line II-1-3 of somatic hybrid between common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and A. elongatum was localized by sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and karyotype data. Karyotype analysis offered basic data of arm ratios and relative lengths of 21 pairs of chromosomes in parent wheat Jinan177 and hybrid II-1-3. Using special high repetitive sequences pSc119.2 and pAs1 for FISH, the entire B- and D-genome chromosomes were detected. The FISH pattern of hybrid II-1-3 was the same as that of parent wheat. GISH using whole genomic DNA from A. elongatum as probe determined the alien chromatin. Sequential GISH and FISH, in combination with some of the karyotype data, localized the small chromosome segments of A. elongatum on the specific sites of wheat chromosomes 2AL, 1BL, 5BS, 1DL, 2DL and 6DS. FISH with probe OPF-03(1296) from randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) detected E-genome chromatin of A. elongatum, which existed in all of the small chromosome segments introgressed. Microsatellite primers characteristic for the chromosome arms above were used to check the localization and reveal the genetic identity. These methods are complementary and provide comprehensive information about the genomic constitution of the hybrid. The relationship between hybrid traits and alien chromatin was discussed. PMID:15616822

  20. Insects which challenge global wheat production: Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter on Russian wheat aphid, (Diuraphis noxia (Mord.)), is one of several that addresses significant pests in the book entitled, Wheat Science and Trade. The chapter gives a detailed account of the history of the Russian wheat aphid as global pest, and its biology, ecology and managemen...

  1. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  2. Nucleotide diversity maps reveal variation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A genome-wide assessment of nucleotide diversity in a polyploid species must minimize the inclusion of homoeologous sequences into diversity estimates and reliably allocate individual haplotypes into their respective genomes. The same requirements complicate the development and deployment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in polyploid species. We report here a strategy that satisfies these requirements and deploy it in the sequencing of genes in cultivated hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) and wild tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genomes AABB) from the putative site of wheat domestication in Turkey. Data are used to assess the distribution of diversity among and within wheat genomes and to develop a panel of SNP markers for polyploid wheat. Results Nucleotide diversity was estimated in 2114 wheat genes and was similar between the A and B genomes and reduced in the D genome. Within a genome, diversity was diminished on some chromosomes. Low diversity was always accompanied by an excess of rare alleles. A total of 5,471 SNPs was discovered in 1791 wheat genes. Totals of 1,271, 1,218, and 2,203 SNPs were discovered in 488, 463, and 641 genes of wheat putative diploid ancestors, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides, and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A public database containing genome-specific primers, SNPs, and other information was constructed. A total of 987 genes with nucleotide diversity estimated in one or more of the wheat genomes was placed on an Ae. tauschii genetic map, and the map was superimposed on wheat deletion-bin maps. The agreement between the maps was assessed. Conclusions In a young polyploid, exemplified by T. aestivum, ancestral species are the primary source of genetic diversity. Low effective recombination due to self-pollination and a genetic mechanism precluding homoeologous chromosome pairing during polyploid meiosis can lead to the loss of diversity from large chromosomal regions. The net effect of these factors in T. aestivum is large variation in diversity among genomes and chromosomes, which impacts the development of SNP markers and their practical utility. Accumulation of new mutations in older polyploid species, such as wild emmer, results in increased diversity and its more uniform distribution across the genome. PMID:21156062

  3. Lr34 multi-pathogen resistance ABC transporter: molecular analysis of homoeologous and orthologous genes in hexaploid wheat and other grass species.

    PubMed

    Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans S; Wicker, Thomas; Risk, Joanna M; Ashton, Anthony R; Selter, Liselotte L; Matsumoto, Takashi; Keller, Beat

    2011-02-01

    The Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) disease resistance gene Lr34 confers durable, race non-specific protection against three fungal pathogens, and has been a highly relevant gene for wheat breeding since the green revolution. Lr34, located on chromosome 7D, encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. Both wheat cultivars with and without Lr34-based resistance encode a putatively functional protein that differ by only two amino acid polymorphisms. In this study, we focused on the identification and characterization of homoeologous and orthologous Lr34 genes in hexaploid wheat and other grasses. In hexaploid wheat we found an expressed and putatively functional Lr34 homoeolog located on chromosome 4A, designated Lr34-B. Another homoeologous Lr34 copy, located on chromosome 7A, was disrupted by the insertion of repetitive elements. Protein sequences of LR34-B and LR34 were 97% identical. Orthologous Lr34 genes were detected in the genomes of Oryza sativa (rice) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Zea mays (maize), Brachypodium distachyon and Hordeum vulgare (barley) lacked Lr34 orthologs, indicating independent deletion of this particular ABC transporter. Lr34 was part of a gene-rich island on the wheat D genome. We found gene colinearity on the homoeologous A and B genomes of hexaploid wheat, but little microcolinearity in other grasses. The homoeologous LR34-B protein and the orthologs from rice and sorghum have the susceptible haplotype for the two critical polymorphisms distinguishing the LR34 proteins from susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. We conclude that the particular Lr34-haplotype found in resistant wheat cultivars is unique. It probably resulted from functional gene diversification that occurred after the polyploidization event that was at the origin of cultivated bread wheat. PMID:21265893

  4. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    PubMed Central

    Borrill, Philippa; Connorton, James M.; Balk, Janneke; Miller, Anthony J.; Sanders, Dale; Uauy, Cristobal

    2014-01-01

    Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat. PMID:24600464

  5. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S

    2015-04-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M-6 M) selected previously on the basis of grain filling characteristics. Check wheat cultivars- PBW-343 (a popular bread wheat cultivar for irrigated environments) and C-306 (widely adapted variety for rain-fed agriculture) were also included in this set. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for the content of water soluble carbohydrates, activity of acid invertase and alkaline invertase. Acc 7079 was found to be a very efficient mobilizer of water soluble carbohydrates (236.43 mg g(-1) peduncle DW) when averaged over irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Acid invertase activity revealed marked genotypic differences between wild and cultivated wheats. Alkaline invertase activity was highest in Acc 7079 when pooled across both the environments. On the whole, acc 7079 qualifies as a suitable donor for enhancing tolerance of bread wheat to terminal drought. The association of physio-biochemical differences observed with grain filling attributes on one hand and molecular markers on the other could be of use in improving wheat for water stress conditions. PMID:25964711

  6. Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

  7. Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 1 cup strawberries, chopped 2 wheat flour 1/2 cup brown sugar, packed 1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda Directions 1. Heat oven to 400º bowl mix together whole wheat flour, brown sugar and baking soda. Mix well. 5. Add strawberry mixture

  8. A Microsatellite Map of Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion S. Roder; Victor Korzun; Katja Wendehake; Jens Plaschke; Marie-Helene Tixier; Philippe Leroy; Martin W. Ganal

    Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) is one of the world's most important crop plants and displays a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism. We report the development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers using procedures optimized for the large wheat genome. The isolation of microsatellite-containing clones from hypomethylated regions of the wheat genome increased the proportion of useful

  9. NAD-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase in wheats (Triticum L.) and goatgrasses (Aegilops L.): evolutionary genetics.

    PubMed

    Jaaska, V

    1984-04-01

    Evolutionary electrophoretic variation of a NAD-specific aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase, AADH-E, in wheat and goatgrass species is described and discussed in comparison with a NAD-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-A) and a NADP-dependent AADH-B studied previously. Cultivated tetraploid emmer wheats (T. turgidum s. l.) and hexaploid bread wheats (T. aestivum s. l.) are all fixed for a heterozygous triplet, E(0.58)/E(0.64). The slowest isoenzyme, E(0.58), is controlled by a homoeoallelic gene on the chromosome arm 6AL of T. aestivum cv. 'Chinese Spring' and is inherent in all diploid wheats, T. monococcum s. Str., T. boeoticum s. l. and T. urartu. The fastest isoenzyme, E(0.64), is presumably controlled by the B- and D-genome homoeoalleles of the bread wheat and is the commonest alloenzyme of diploid goat-grasses, including Ae. speltaides and Ae. tauschii. The tetraploid T. timopheevii s. str. has a particular heterozygous triplet E(0.56)/E(0.71), whereas the hexaploid T. zhukovskyi exhibited polymorphism with electromorphs characteristic of T. timopheevii and T. monococcum. Wild tetraploid wheats, T. dicoccoides and T. araraticum, showed partially homologous intraspecific variation of AADH-E with heterozygous triplets E(0.58)/E(0.64) (the commonest), E(0.58)/E(0.71), E(0.45)/E(0.58), E(0.48)/E(0.58) and E(0.56)/E(0.58) recorded. Polyploid goatgrasses of the D-genome group, excepting Ae. cylindrica, are fixed for the common triplet E(0.58)/E(0.64). Ae. cylindrica and polyploid goatgrasses of the C(u)-genome group, excepting Ae. kotschyi, are homozygous for E(0.64). Ae. kotschyi is exceptional, showing fixed heterozygosity for both AADH-E and ADH-A with unique triplets E(0.56)/E(0.64) and A(0.49)/A(0.56). PMID:24258843

  10. Identification and characterization of more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs across the group 7 chromosomes of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Micha? T; Lee, Hong Ching; Berkman, Paul J; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Visendi, Paul; Ruperao, Pradeep; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Zander, Manuel; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a major international crop, our understanding of the wheat genome is relatively poor due to its large size and complexity. To gain a greater understanding of wheat genome diversity, we have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms between 16 Australian bread wheat varieties. Whole-genome shotgun Illumina paired read sequence data were mapped to the draft assemblies of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D to identify more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs. SNP density varied between the three genomes, with much greater density observed on the A and B genomes than the D genome. This variation may be a result of substantial gene flow from the tetraploid Triticum turgidum, which possesses A and B genomes, during early co-cultivation of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. In addition, we examined SNP density variation along the chromosome syntenic builds and identified genes in low-density regions which may have been selected during domestication and breeding. This study highlights the impact of evolution and breeding on the bread wheat genome and provides a substantial resource for trait association and crop improvement. All SNP data are publically available on a generic genome browser GBrowse at www.wheatgenome.info. PMID:25147022

  11. AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: II. Genetic analysis of seedling and field resistance against leaf rust in a wheat advanced backcross population

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Ali Ahmad; Kunert, Antje; Lind, Volker; Léon, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to localize exotic quantitative trait locus (QTL) alleles for the improvement of leaf rust (P.triticina) resistance in an advanced backcross (AB) population, B22, which is derived from a cross between the winter wheat cultivar Batis (Triticumaestivum) and the synthetic wheat accession Syn022L. The latter was developed from hybridization of T.turgidum ssp. dicoccoides and T.tauschii. Altogether, 250 BC2F3 lines of B22 were assessed for seedling resistance against the leaf rust isolate 77WxR under controlled conditions. In addition, field resistance against leaf rust was evaluated by assessing symptom severity under natural infestation across multiple environments. Simultaneously, population B22 was genotyped with a total of 97 SSR markers, distributed over the wheat A, B and D genomes. The phenotype and genotype data were subjected to QTL analysis by applying a 3-factorial mixed model analysis of variance including the marker genotype as a fixed effect and the environments, the lines and the marker by environment interactions as random effects. The QTL analysis revealed six putative QTLs for seedling resistance and seven for field resistance. For seedling resistance, the effects of exotic QTL alleles improved resistance at all detected loci. The maximum decrease of disease symptoms (?46.3%) was associated with marker locus Xbarc149 on chromosome 1D. For field resistance, two loci had stable main effects across environments and five loci exhibited marker by environment interaction effects. The strongest effects were detected at marker locus Xbarc149 on chromosome 1D, at which the exotic allele decreased seedling symptoms by 46.3% and field symptoms by 43.6%, respectively. Some of the detected QTLs co-localized with known resistance genes, while others appear to be as novel resistance loci. Our findings indicate, that the exotic wheat accession Syn022L may be useful for the improvement of leaf rust resistance in cultivated wheat. PMID:18338154

  12. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J

    2006-01-25

    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic. PMID:16417290

  13. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  14. Genome constraint through sexual reproduction: application of 4D-Genomics in reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Horne, Steven D; Abdallah, Batoul Y; Stevens, Joshua B; Liu, Guo; Ye, Karen J; Bremer, Steven W; Heng, Henry H Q

    2013-06-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies have been used to achieve pregnancies since the first successful test tube baby was born in 1978. Infertile couples are at an increased risk for multiple miscarriages and the application of current protocols are associated with high first-trimester miscarriage rates. Among the contributing factors of these higher rates is a high incidence of fetal aneuploidy. Numerous studies support that protocols including ovulation-induction, sperm cryostorage, density-gradient centrifugation, and embryo culture can induce genome instability, but the general mechanism is less clear. Application of the genome theory and 4D-Genomics recently led to the establishment of a new paradigm for sexual reproduction; sex primarily constrains genome integrity that defines the biological system rather than just providing genetic diversity at the gene level. We therefore propose that application of assisted reproductive technologies can bypass this sexual reproduction filter as well as potentially induce additional system instability. We have previously demonstrated that a single-cell resolution genomic approach, such as spectral karyotyping to trace stochastic genome level alterations, is effective for pre- and post-natal analysis. We propose that monitoring overall genome alteration at the karyotype level alongside the application of assisted reproductive technologies will improve the efficacy of the techniques while limiting stress-induced genome instability. The development of more single-cell based cytogenomic technologies are needed in order to better understand the system dynamics associated with infertility and the potential impact that assisted reproductive technologies have on genome instability. Importantly, this approach will be useful in studying the potential for diseases to arise as a result of bypassing the filter of sexual reproduction. PMID:23294443

  15. Use of wild relatives to improve salt tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Colmer, Timothy D; Flowers, Timothy J; Munns, Rana

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable variability in salt tolerance amongst members of the Triticeae, with the tribe even containing a number of halophytes. This is a review of what is known of the differences in salt tolerance of selected species in this tribe of grasses, and the potential to use wild species to improve salt tolerance in wheat. Most investigators have concentrated on differences in ion accumulation in leaves, describing a desirable phenotype with low leaf Na+ concentration and a high K+/Na+ ratio. Little information is available on other traits (such as "tissue tolerance" of accumulated Na+ and Cl-) that might also contribute to salt tolerance. The sources of Na+ "exclusion" amongst the various genomes that make up tetraploid (AABB) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum), hexaploid (AABBDD) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum), and wild relatives (e.g. Aegilops spp., Thinopyrum spp., Elytrigia elongata syn. Lophopyrum elongatum, Hordeum spp.) are described. The halophytes display a capacity for Na+ "exclusion", and in some cases Cl- "exclusion", even at relatively high salinity. Significantly, it is possible to hybridize several wild species in the Triticeae with durum and bread wheat. Progenitors have been used to make synthetic hexaploids. Halophytic relatives, such as tall wheatgrass spp., have been used to produce amphiploids, disomic chromosome addition and substitution lines, and recombinant lines in wheat. Examples of improved Na+ "exclusion" and enhanced salt tolerance in various derivatives from these various hybridization programmes are given. As several sources of improved Na+ "exclusion" are now known to reside on different chromosomes in various genomes of species in the Triticeae, further work to identify the underlying mechanisms and then to pyramid the controlling genes for the various traits, that could act additively or even synergistically, might enable substantial gains in salt tolerance to be achieved. PMID:16513812

  16. Registration of 'Juniper' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Juniper’ (PI 639951) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in February 2006. Juniper, named for the town of Juniper, Idaho, was released for its superior yield and quality compared with previous full stature hard red...

  17. Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-1041, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ and was tested under the experimental number VA02W-370. J...

  18. Registration of ‘Shirley’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Shirley’ (Reg. No. CV-1039, PI 656753) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), developed and tested as VA03W-409 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2008. Shirley was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25/‘Coker 9835’//VA96-54-234. Shirley is wid...

  19. Wheat Production in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Merkle, O. G.; Lahr, K. A.; Gilmore, E. C.

    1970-01-01

    half of the Tesr; acreage. The acreages of varieties and percent- age of the State total, by research testing area.;. are given in Table 7. Tascosa now occupie: TABLE 7. ACREAGES AND PERCENT OF TOTAL FOR WHEAT VARIETIES GROWN IN TEXAS IN 1968' I...

  20. Registration of Colter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colter’ (Reg. No. CV-1099, PI 670156) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Stations in September 2013. Colter was derived from the cross MT9982*2/BZ9W96-895. MT9982 is a sib selection of 'Yellowstone', and BZ9W96-895 is an unr...

  1. Registration of ‘Judee’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Judee’ (Reg. No. CV-1084, PI 665227) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2011. Judee has the pedigree ‘Vanguard’/‘Norstar’//‘Judith’ dwarf selection/3/‘NuHorizon’. Judee was developed using a modif...

  2. Registration of ‘Alice’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Alice’ (Reg. No. CV-1023, PI 644223) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2006 to seed producers by the developing institution and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station. Alice was selected from the cr...

  3. Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’ (PI 612958)/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ (PI 590941 PVPO) and was tested under the experim...

  4. Registration of 'Chesapeake' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Chesapeake’ (Reg. No. CV-1011, PI 643935) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. Ches...

  5. Registration of ‘Shirley’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Shirley’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Shirley was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25 / ‘Coker 9835’ (PI 548846 PVPO) // VA96-54-234. Shirley is widely adapted ...

  6. Registration of Camelot Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Camelot ' (PI 653832) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2008. In addition to researchers at the releasing institutions, USDA-ARS researchers at Manhattan, KS, and St. Paul, MN, ...

  7. Registration of ‘Darrell’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Darrell’ (Reg. No. CV-1024, PI 644224) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the South Dakota State University–Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2006 to seed producers by the South Dakota State University–Agricultural Experiment Station and the University of Ne...

  8. Registration of ‘MDM’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘MDM’ (J980628, WA007936) hard white winter wheat (HWW) (Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-XXX, PI 634716) was released in 2005 by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University (WSU) in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. MDM is a semi dwarf cultivar adapted to the low- to intermediat...

  9. REGISTRATION OF 'BAUERMEISTER' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Bauermeister' (J981107, WA007939) hard red winter wheat (HRW)(Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-XXX, PI 634717) was released in 2005 by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University (WSU) in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. Bauermeister is a semidwarf cultivar adapted to the low- ...

  10. REGISTRATION OF GOODSTREAK WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goodstreak¿ (Reg. No. Cv- , PI ) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2000 by the developing institutions and the Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station. Goodstreak was re...

  11. Registration of ‘Bearpaw’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bearpaw’ (Reg. No. CV-1083, PI 665228) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2011. Bearpaw is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of five crosses made to the same F1 male sterile parent in ...

  12. Registration of 'Guymon' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Guymon' (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 643133) is a hard white (HW) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed and released cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2005. It is recommended for grain-only and dual-purpose production systems in an area of the so...

  13. REGISTRATION OF 'HATCHER' WHEAT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hatcher (Reg. no. CV-971, PI 638512) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released to seed producers in August 2004. Hatcher was released based on its resistance to the original North American biotype, designated as Biotype 1...

  14. REGISTRATION OF 'DELIVER' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Deliver’ (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 639232) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was released to certified seed growers with permission of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2004. Deliver, an awnletted cultivar, was named for its unique and competitive abil...

  15. Registration of "Merl" Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

  16. Registration of 'Otto' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to strawbreaker foot rot (caused by Oculimacula yallundae Crous & W. Gams and O. acuformis Crous & W. Gams) and to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) are important traits for winter wheat cultivars produced in the Pacifi Northwest region of the Uni...

  17. Wheat Breeding Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

  18. Registration of ‘5205’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘5205’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Cultivar 5205 was derived from the three-way cross Pioneer Brand ‘2684’ (PI 566923 PVPO) / VA93-54-185 // ’Pocahontas’ ...

  19. Registration of ‘Brick’ Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Glover; J. C. Rudd; R. N. Devkota; R. G. Hall; Y. Jin; L. E. Osborne; J. A. Ingemansen; J. R. Rickertsen; D. D. Baltensperger; G. A. Hareland

    2010-01-01

    Alice' (Reg. No. CV-1023, PI 644223) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2006 to seed producers by the developing institution and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station. Alice was selected from the cross 'Abilene' (PI 511307)\\/'Karl' (PI 527480) made in 1992 at Brookings, SD. Alice was selected as

  20. REGISTRATION OF ‘CHOPTANK’ WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Choptank’ (Reg. no. CV-976, PI 639724) is a soft red winter wheat (triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Natural Resource Sciences and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2...

  1. Registration of ‘3434’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 3434 (Reg. No. CV-1040, PI 656754) developed and tested as VA03W-434 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Cultivar 3434 was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’/‘Coker 9835’//VA96W-270. Cultivar 34...

  2. REGISTRATION OF 'GLENN' WHEAT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glenn (Reg. no. CV- , PI 639273), is a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed at North Dakota State university and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in July 2005. Glenn was released because it combines a very high level of resistance to Fusarium head bli...

  3. REGISTRATION OF 'JERRY' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Jerry' is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the USDA-ARS and released in 2001. Jerry was tested as ND9257 and is an F3-derived line from the cross 'Roughrider'/ND7571//'Arapahoe' made in 1987 by...

  4. Registration of ‘Decade’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Decade’ (Reg. No. CV-1058, PI 660291) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released jointly by the Montana and North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Stations in 2010. The name “Decade” denotes the extended time period (1997–2010) during which the Montana State Univers...

  5. Registration of Warhorse wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Warhorse' (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

  6. Registration of ‘Warhorse’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Warhorse’ (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

  7. Registration of ‘Colter’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Colter’ (Reg. No. CV-1099, PI 670156) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Stations in September 2013. Colter was derived from the cross MT9982*2/BZ9W96-895. MT9982 is a sib selection of ‘Yellowstone’, and BZ9W96-895 is an un...

  8. On the Progenitors of Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, A.; Woosley, S. E.

    2003-04-01

    We study the evolution of stars that may be the progenitors of common (long-soft) GRBs. Bare rotating helium stars, presumed to have lost their envelopes due to winds or companions, are followed from central helium ignition to iron core collapse. Including realistic estimates of angular momentum transport [1] by non-magnetic processes and mass loss, one is still able to create a collapsed object at the end with sufficient angular momentum to form a centrifugally supported disk, i.e., to drive a collapsar engine. However, inclusion of current estimates of magnetic torques [2] results in too little angular momentum for collapsars.

  9. Endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fuyong; Zhou, Jun; Gong, Ren; Huang, Xiao; Pansuria, Meghana; Virtue, Anthony; Li, Xinyuan; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in the maintenance of endothelial homoeostasis and in the process of new vessel formation. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that atherosclerosis is associated with reduced numbers and dysfunction of EPCs; and that medications alone are able to partially reverse the impairment of EPCs in patients with atherosclerosis. Therefore, novel EPC-based therapies may provide enhancement in restoring EPCs’ population and improvement of vascular function. Here, for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis, we provide a comprehensive overview on EPC characteristics, phenotypes, and the signaling pathways underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis. PMID:22652782

  10. Endothelial progenitor cells for cancer gene therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K-M Debatin; J Wei; C Beltinger

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are promising for cancer therapy because they specifically target tumors. They have the capacity to home to, invade, migrate within and incorporate into tumor structures. They are easily expanded and can be armed with therapeutic payloads protected within the progenitor cells. Once in the tumor, armed EPCs can be triggered to induce cell death in surrounding

  11. Culture studies of human pluripotent hemopoietic progenitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Messner; A. A. Fauser

    1980-01-01

    Conclusions Culture conditions are described that promote the growth of human pluripotent hemopoietic progenitors and facilitate their quantitation. These primitive cells form mixed colonies that may contain all elements of myeloid differentiation, including granulocytes, erythroblasts, megakaryocytes, and macrophages. Some mixed colonies contain, in addition to mature progeny, early progenitors that can be identified by their ability to form secondary hemopoietic

  12. Characterization and expression analysis of WOX5 genes from wheat and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Ma, Jian; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Quan-Zhi; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Wang, Chang-Shui; Cao, Xue; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2014-03-01

    The WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) gene family plays an important role in coordinating gene transcription in the early phases of embryogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized WOX5 from common wheat and its relatives Triticum monococcum, Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops searsii, Aegilops sharonensis, Aegilops longissima, Aegilops bicornis, Aegilops tauschii, and Triticum turgidum. The size of the characterized WOX5 alleles ranged from 1029 to 1038 bp and encompassed the complete open reading frame (ORF) as well as 5' upstream and 3' downstream sequences. Domain prediction analysis showed that the putative primary structures of wheat WOX5 protein include the highly conserved homeodomain besides the WUS-box domain and the EAR-like domain, which is/are present in some members of the WOX protein family. The full-length ORF was subcloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET30a, and an approximate 26-kDa protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells with IPTG induction. The WOX5 genes from wheat-related species exhibit a similar structure to and high sequence similarity with WOX5 genes from common wheat. The degree of divergence and phylogenetic tree analysis among WOX5 alleles suggested the existence of three homoeologous copies in the A, B, or D genome of common wheat. Quantitative PCR results showed that TaWOX5 was primarily expressed in the root and calli induced by auxin and cytokinin, indicating that TaWOX5 may play a role related to root formation or development and is associated with hormone regulation in somatic embryogenesis. PMID:24368329

  13. Pulpal progenitors and dentin repair.

    PubMed

    Harichane, Y; Hirata, A; Dimitrova-Nakov, S; Granja, I; Goldberg, A; Kellermann, O; Poliard, A

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are present in the dental pulp. They have been shown to contribute to dentin-like tissue formation in vitro and to participate in bone repair after a mandibular lesion. However, their capacity to contribute efficiently to reparative dentin formation after pulp lesion has never been explored. After pulp exposure, we have identified proliferative cells within 3 zones. In the crown, zone I is near the cavity, and zone II corresponds to the isthmus between the mesial and central pulp. In the root, zone III, near the apex, at a distance from the inflammatory site, contains mitotic stromal cells which may represent a source of progenitor cells. Stem-cell-based strategies are promising treatments for tissue injury in dentistry. Our experiments focused on (1) location of stem cells induced to leave their quiescent state early after pulp injury and (2) implantation of pulp progenitors, a substitute for classic endodontic treatments, paving the way for pulp stem-cell-based therapies. PMID:21677084

  14. Analysis of intraspecies diversity in wheat and barley genomes identifies breakpoints of ancient haplotypes and provides insight into the structure of diploid and hexaploid triticeae gene pools.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Thomas; Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans S; Komatsuda, Takao; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Matsumoto, Takashi; Cloutier, Sylvie; Reiser, Laurenz; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Perovic, Dragan; Stein, Nils; Keller, Beat

    2009-01-01

    A large number of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties have evolved in agricultural ecosystems since domestication. Because of the large, repetitive genomes of these Triticeae crops, sequence information is limited and molecular differences between modern varieties are poorly understood. To study intraspecies genomic diversity, we compared large genomic sequences at the Lr34 locus of the wheat varieties Chinese Spring, Renan, and Glenlea, and diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii. Additionally, we compared the barley loci Vrs1 and Rym4 of the varieties Morex, Cebada Capa, and Haruna Nijo. Molecular dating showed that the wheat D genome haplotypes diverged only a few thousand years ago, while some barley and Ae. tauschii haplotypes diverged more than 500,000 years ago. This suggests gene flow from wild barley relatives after domestication, whereas this was rare or absent in the D genome of hexaploid wheat. In some segments, the compared haplotypes were very similar to each other, but for two varieties each at the Rym4 and Lr34 loci, sequence conservation showed a breakpoint that separates a highly conserved from a less conserved segment. We interpret this as recombination breakpoints of two ancient haplotypes, indicating that the Triticeae genomes are a heterogeneous and variable mosaic of haplotype fragments. Analysis of insertions and deletions showed that large events caused by transposable element insertions, illegitimate recombination, or unequal crossing over were relatively rare. Most insertions and deletions were small and caused by template slippage in short homopolymers of only a few base pairs in size. Such frequent polymorphisms could be exploited for future molecular marker development. PMID:19011002

  15. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that TaER could be exploitable for manipulating important agronomical traits in wheat improvement. PMID:26047019

  16. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    . Infected wheat plants normally are stunted, with leaves mottled and streaked in green-yellow, parallel and discontinuous patterns (Fig. 1). This disease?s negative impact varies from year to year depending on its severity and distribution...; in the Southern Great Plains states, crop losses due to WSMV exceed $30 million in some years but are in- significant in others. High Plains Virus High Plains Virus (HPV), occasionally called High Plains Disease, is a relatively new virus identified...

  17. Genomics of Wheat Domestication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Pozzi; Francesco Salamini

    The review covers several issues concerning the state of molecular knowledge of the effects induced by domestication and breeding\\u000a on the wheat crop. Genes at the root of the domestication syndrome are currently the focus of an active research which frequently\\u000a uses comparative genomics approaches. Conclusions drawn on available data indicate that the domestication syndrome is originated\\u000a by “sudden” genetic

  18. History and current status of wheat miRNAs using next-generation sequencing and their roles in development and stress.

    PubMed

    Budak, Hikmet; Khan, Zaeema; Kantar, Melda

    2015-05-01

    As small molecules that aid in posttranscriptional silencing, microRNA (miRNA) discovery and characterization have vastly benefited from the recent development and widespread application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Several miRNAs were identified through sequencing of constructed small RNA libraries, whereas others were predicted by in silico methods using the recently accumulating sequence data. NGS was a major breakthrough in efforts to sequence and dissect the genomes of plants, including bread wheat and its progenitors, which have large, repetitive and complex genomes. Availability of survey sequences of wheat whole genome and its individual chromosomes enabled researchers to predict and assess wheat miRNAs both in the subgenomic and whole genome levels. Moreover, small RNA construction and sequencing-based studies identified several putative development- and stress-related wheat miRNAs, revealing their differential expression patterns in specific developmental stages and/or in response to stress conditions. With the vast amount of wheat miRNAs identified in recent years, we are approaching to an overall knowledge on the wheat miRNA repertoire. In the following years, more comprehensive research in relation to miRNA conservation or divergence across wheat and its close relatives or progenitors should be performed. Results may serve valuable in understanding both the significant roles of species-specific miRNAs and also provide us information in relation to the dynamics between miRNAs and evolution in wheat. Furthermore, putative development- or stress-related miRNAs identified should be subjected to further functional analysis, which may be valuable in efforts to develop wheat with better resistance and/or yield. PMID:24962995

  19. GRB progenitors at low metallicities

    E-print Network

    R. Hirschi; G. Meynet; A. Maeder

    2006-10-10

    We calculated pre-supernova evolution models of single rotating massive stars. These models reproduce observations during the early stages of the evolution very well, in particular Wolf--Rayet (WR) populations and ratio between type II and type Ib,c supernovae at different metallicities (Z). Using these models we found the following results concerning long and soft gamma--ray burst (GRB) progenitors: - GRBs coming from WO--type (SNIc) WR stars are only produced at low Z (LMC or lower). - The upper metallicity limit for GRBs is reduced to Z ~ 0.004 (SMC) when the effects of magnetic fields are included. - GRBs are predicted from the second (and probably the first) stellar generation onwards.

  20. The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias-Rosa, N.

    2013-05-01

    The type Ib/c SNe are those explosions which come from massive star populations, but lack hydrogen and helium. These have been proposed to originate in the explosions of massive Wolf-Rayet stars, and we should easily be able to detect the very luminous, young progenitors if they exist. However, there has not been any detection of progenitors so far. I present the study of two extinguished Type Ic SNe 2003jg and 2004cc. In both cases there is no clear evidence of a direct detection of their progenitors in deep pre-explosion images. Upper limits derived by inserting artificial stars of known brightness at random positions around the progenitor positions (M_v>-8.8 and M_v>-9 magnitudes for the progenitors of SN 2003jg and SN 2004cc, respectively) are brighter than those expected for a massive WC (Wolf-Rayet, carbon-rich) or WO (Wolf-Rayet, oxygen-rich) (e.g., approximately between -3 and -6 in the LMC). Therefore, this is perhaps further evidence that the most massive stars may give rise to black-holes forming SNe, or it is an undetected, compact massive star hidden by a thick dust lane. However the extinction toward these SNe is currently one of the largest known. Even if these results do not directly reveal the nature of the type Ic SN progenitors, they can help to characterize the dusty environment which surrounded the progenitor of the stripped-envelope CC-SNe.

  1. Progenitor cell therapy for heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Christine; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2009-11-01

    Many cell types are currently being studied as potential sources of cardiomyocytes for cell transplantation therapy to repair and regenerate damaged myocardium. The question remains as to which progenitor cell represents the best candidate. Bone marrow-derived cells and endothelial progenitor cells have been tested in clinical studies. These cells are safe, but their cardiogenic potential is controversial. The functional benefits observed are probably due to enhanced angiogenesis, reduced ventricular remodeling, or to cytokine-mediated effects that promote the survival of endogenous cells. Human embryonic stem cells represent an unlimited source of cardiomyocytes due to their great differentiation potential, but each step of differentiation must be tightly controlled due to the high risk of teratoma formation. These cells, however, confront ethical barriers and there is a risk of graft rejection. These last two problems can be avoided by using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), which can be autologously derived, but the high risk of teratoma formation remains. Cardiac progenitor cells have the advantage of being cardiac committed, but important questions remain unanswered, such as what is the best marker to identify and isolate these cells? To date the different markers used to identify adult cardiac progenitor cells also recognize progenitor cells that are outside the heart. Thus, it cannot be determined whether the cardiac progenitor cells identified in the adult heart represent resident cells present since fetal life or extracardiac cells that colonized the heart after cardiac injury. Developmental studies have identified markers of multipotent progenitors, but it is unknown whether these markers are specific for adult progenitors when expressed in the adult myocardium. Cardiac regeneration is dependent on the stability of the cells transplanted into the host myocardium and on the electromechanical coupling with the endogenous cells. Finally, the promotion of endogenous regenerative processes by mobilizing endogenous progenitors represents a complementary approach to cell transplantation therapy. PMID:19747911

  2. Molecular organization and comparative analysis of chromosome 5B of the wild wheat ancestor Triticum dicoccoides

    PubMed Central

    Ani Akpinar, Bala; Yuce, Meral; Lucas, Stuart; Vrána, Jan; Burešová, Veronika; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is the wild relative of Triticum turgidum, the progenitor of durum and bread wheat, and maintains a rich allelic diversity among its wild populations. The lack of adequate genetic and genomic resources, however, restricts its exploitation in wheat improvement. Here, we report next-generation sequencing of the flow-sorted chromosome 5B of T. dicoccoides to shed light into its genome structure, function and organization by exploring the repetitive elements, protein-encoding genes and putative microRNA and tRNA coding sequences. Comparative analyses with its counterparts in modern and wild wheats suggest clues into the B-genome evolution. Syntenic relationships of chromosome 5B with the model grasses can facilitate further efforts for fine-mapping of traits of interest. Mapping of 5B sequences onto the root transcriptomes of two additional T. dicoccoides genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerances, revealed several thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 584 shared polymorphisms on 228 transcripts were specific to the drought-tolerant genotype. To our knowledge, this study presents the largest genomics resource currently available for T. dicoccoides, which, we believe, will encourage the exploitation of its genetic and genomic potential for wheat improvement to meet the increasing demand to feed the world. PMID:26084265

  3. Molecular organization and comparative analysis of chromosome 5B of the wild wheat ancestor Triticum dicoccoides.

    PubMed

    Ani Akpinar, Bala; Yuce, Meral; Lucas, Stuart; Vrána, Jan; Burešová, Veronika; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is the wild relative of Triticum turgidum, the progenitor of durum and bread wheat, and maintains a rich allelic diversity among its wild populations. The lack of adequate genetic and genomic resources, however, restricts its exploitation in wheat improvement. Here, we report next-generation sequencing of the flow-sorted chromosome 5B of T. dicoccoides to shed light into its genome structure, function and organization by exploring the repetitive elements, protein-encoding genes and putative microRNA and tRNA coding sequences. Comparative analyses with its counterparts in modern and wild wheats suggest clues into the B-genome evolution. Syntenic relationships of chromosome 5B with the model grasses can facilitate further efforts for fine-mapping of traits of interest. Mapping of 5B sequences onto the root transcriptomes of two additional T. dicoccoides genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerances, revealed several thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 584 shared polymorphisms on 228 transcripts were specific to the drought-tolerant genotype. To our knowledge, this study presents the largest genomics resource currently available for T. dicoccoides, which, we believe, will encourage the exploitation of its genetic and genomic potential for wheat improvement to meet the increasing demand to feed the world. PMID:26084265

  4. New broad-spectrum resistance to septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Tabib Ghaffary, S Mahmod; Faris, Justin D; Friesen, Timothy L; Visser, Richard G F; van der Lee, Theo A J; Robert, Olivier; Kema, Gert H J

    2012-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global set of 20 isolates and discovered exceptionally broad STB resistance in SHs. Subsequent development and analyses of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between the SH M3 and the highly susceptible bread wheat cv. Kulm revealed two novel resistance loci on chromosomes 3D and 5A. The 3D resistance was expressed in the seedling and adult plant stages, and it controlled necrosis (N) and pycnidia (P) development as well as the latency periods of these parameters. This locus, which is closely linked to the microsatellite marker Xgwm494, was tentatively designated Stb16q and explained from 41 to 71% of the phenotypic variation at seedling stage and 28-31% in mature plants. The resistance locus on chromosome 5A was specifically expressed in the adult plant stage, associated with SSR marker Xhbg247, explained 12-32% of the variation in disease, was designated Stb17, and is the first unambiguously identified and named QTL for adult plant resistance to M. graminicola. Our results confirm that common wheat progenitors might be a rich source of new Stb resistance genes/QTLs that can be deployed in commercial breeding programs. PMID:21912855

  5. Progenitor genealogy in the developing cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Laguesse, Sophie; Peyre, Elise; Nguyen, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian cerebral cortex is characterized by a complex histological organization that reflects the spatio-temporal stratifications of related stem and neural progenitor cells, which are responsible for the generation of distinct glial and neuronal subtypes during development. Some work has been done to shed light on the existing filiations between these progenitors as well as their respective contribution to cortical neurogenesis. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current views of progenitor hierarchy and relationship in the developing cortex and to further discuss future research directions that would help us to understand the molecular and cellular regulating mechanisms involved in cerebral corticogenesis. PMID:25141969

  6. Progenitor's Signatures in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiotellis, A.; Kosenko, D.; Schure, K. M.; Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The remnants of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can provide important clues about their progenitor histories. We discuss two well-observed supernova remnants (SNRs) that are believed to have resulted from SNe Ia, and use various tools to shed light on the possible progenitor histories. We find that Kepler's SNR is consistent with a symbiotic binary progenitor consisting of a white dwarf and an AGB star. Our hydrosimulations can reproduce the observed kinematic and morphological properties. For Tycho's remnant we use the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum and kinematics to show that the ejecta has likely interacted with dense circumstellar gas.

  7. Evolution of new disease specificity at a simple resistance locus in a crop-weed complex: reconstitution of the Lr21 gene in wheat.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C; Gill, Bikram

    2009-06-01

    The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were identified. Lr21 was found to be a chimera of H1 and H2, which were found only in wheat. We attempted to reconstitute a functional Lr21 allele by crossing the cultivars Fielder (H1) and Wichita (H2). Rust inoculation of 5876 F(2) progeny revealed a single resistant plant that proved to carry the H1H2 haplotype, a result attributed to intragenic recombination. These findings reflect how plants balance the penalty and the necessity of a resistance gene and suggest that plants can reuse "dead" alleles to generate new disease-resistance specificity, leading to a "death-recycle" model of plant-resistance gene evolution at simple loci. We suggest that selection pressure in crop-weed complexes contributes to this process. PMID:19364806

  8. Mapping a gene conferring resistance to Wheat yellow mosaic virus in European winter wheat cultivar `Ibis'

    E-print Network

    Murray, Timothy D.

    Mapping a gene conferring resistance to Wheat yellow mosaic virus in European winter wheat cultivar Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract Wheat yellow mosaic, caused by Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV), is one of the most devastating soil-borne diseases of winter wheat (Trit- icum aestivum L

  9. Registration of Vision 40 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential exists to develop and market hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the eastern United States, where a majority of the mills, bakeries, and consumers reside. The primary objective of this study was to develop adapted and competitive hard winter wheat cultivars possessing high-valu...

  10. Registration of 'Bill Brown' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

  11. Registration of 'Thunder CL' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Thunder CL' (Reg. No. CV- , PI XXXXXX) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2008 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

  12. SNP and haplotype identification of the wheat monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Wei, Yu-Ming; Yan, Ze-Hong; Zheng, You-Liang

    2008-11-01

    Seventy-three gene sequences encoding monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitors were characterized from cultivated wheat "Chinese Spring", group 6 nullisomic-tetrasomic lines of "Chinese Spring" and diploid putative progenitors of common wheat. The monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitors from the different sources shared very high homology (99.54%). The different alpha-amylase inhibitors, which were determined by the 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of their gene sequences, were investigated. A total of 15 haplotypes were defined by sequence alignment, among which 9 haplotypes were found with only one single sequence sample. Haplotype H02 was found to be the main haplotype occurring in 83 WMAI sequence samples, followed by haplotype H11. The median-joining network for the 15 haplotypes of monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitor gene sequences from hexaploid wheats was star like, and at least two subclusters emerged. Furthermore evidence of homologous recombination was found between the haplotypes. The relationship between nucleotide substitutions and the amino acid changes in WMAI of hexaploid wheats was summarized. It was clear that only five polymorphic sites in the nucleotide sequence of WMAI resulted in amino acid variations, and that should be the reason for different structure and function of inhibitors. However, little evidence could be found that there were WMAI genes in the A genome of hexaploid wheat, whereas it could conclude from our results that the A genome diploid wheat had WMAI genes. The overall information on the monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitors from wheat and Aegilops strongly support the view that these inhibitors have evolved from a common ancestral gene through duplication and mutation. PMID:18060568

  13. Varietal Trials Results Wheat, Hard Red Winter

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Varietal Trials Results Wheat, Hard Red Winter 47 Winter wheat varieties were compared in trial plots at Crookston, Lamberton, Roseau and St. Paul. Wheat varieties were grown in replicated plots. These winter wheat trials are not designed for crop (species) compar- isons because the various crops are grown

  14. BREEDING WHEAT FOR RESISTANCE TO INSECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-plant resistance plays an important role in the management of the insect pests of wheat (Triticum sp.). Five pests, Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia), wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana), greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) and the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus s...

  15. Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, Michael E.; Frid, Maria G.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of ?-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow–derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow–derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

  16. Basics of Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew T. Harting

    \\u000a This chapter will define key terms and introduce important basic information about the fundamental building blocks of the\\u000a entire text: the stem and progenitor cells. After a brief discussion of terminology central to the field, we will explore\\u000a the various stem and progenitor cells including bone marrow-derived cell populations, specific niche-derived cell populations,\\u000a as well as special situations such as

  17. Purification and Culture of Erythroid Progenitor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hua Dai; Amittha Wickrema; Sanford B Krantz

    Purified cells can be utilized for studies involving growth factor regulated development of erythroid progenitor cells. For\\u000a example, Fig. 4 demonstrates the expression pattern of ?-globin and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA during\\u000a differentiation of highly purified human erythroid progenitors. Studies have been performed to delineate the expression of\\u000a Epo receptor mRNA and the roles of each of the growth

  18. Identifying progenitors of core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas; Fox, Derek; Green, Yoav

    2010-08-01

    Observations of massive stars - before they explode - provide direct identification of SN progenitors. Such studies require the combination of a deep, high-resolution image of the SN location, serendipitously obtained before it exploded, with a precise localization of the SN (after it exploded) to enable us to select the correct progenitor from among the stars in the pre-explosion SN images. After decades of effort, only nine SN progenitors have so far been detected (6 during the last 5 years). About twice a year a nearby SN is discovered in an area previously observed by HST. The few recent identifications were mainly based on repeat HST post-explosion imaging for this purpose. A better alternative for SN localization is now provided by laser-guide-star assisted adaptive optics systems (LGS-AO), as we have initially demonstrated using the Keck LGS system. Here, we propose to continue our successful program (2006-2009) to use NIRI+ALTAIR in LGS mode to localize nearby SNe and identify their progenitors. A minimal Gemini allocation (1 hour) leveraged by superb archival HST data will provide exciting results. With each additional progenitor identified and studied, we move closer to a robust mapping of specific progenitors to each SN class, a key to understanding the physics of these powerful cosmic explosions.

  19. Wheat Production in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Lahr, Keith; Merkle, Owen G.; Futrell, M. C.

    1960-01-01

    susceptible to stem rust but usually es- capes damage because of its early maturity. Vermillion is a sister strain of Knox wheat. Its yield record is equal to that of Knox and re- cently has been introduced to the State by com- mercial seedsmen... are satisfactory but Concho and Tascosa may be damaged seriously by the !+usts. Vermillion, Knox and Frisco are moder- ately resistant to leaf rust and also may escape damage because of their earliness. AREA 4 Area 4 of Central Texas differs from area 3...

  20. Seasonal Dynamics of Cereal Aphids on Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) Susceptible and Resistant Wheats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J. Schotzko; Nilsa A. Bosque-Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1997 and 1998 to evaluate the impact of resistance to Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), on the cereal aphid complex in wheat. Two spring wheats were planted: the variety \\

  1. Endothelial progenitor cells: Quo Vadis?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Matthew R.; Yoder, Mervin C.

    2012-01-01

    The term endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) was coined to refer to circulating cells that displayed the ability to display cell surface antigens similar to endothelial cells in vitro, to circulate and lodge in areas of ischemia or vascular injury, and to facilitate the repair of damaged blood vessels or augment development of new vessels as needed by a tissue. More than 10 years after the first report, the term EPC is used to refer to a host of circulating cells that display some or all of the qualities indicated above, however, essentially all of the cells are now known to be members of the hematopoietic lineage. The exception is a rare viable circulating endothelial cell with clonal proliferative potential that displays the ability to spontaneously form inosculating human blood vessels upon implantation into immunodeficient murine host tissues. This paper will review the current lineage relationships among all the cells called EPC and will propose that the term EPC be retired and that each of the circulating cell subsets be referred to according to the terms already existent for each subset. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited". PMID:20673769

  2. Drought tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  3. Complementation of sugary-1 Phenotype in Rice Endosperm with the Wheat Isoamylase1 Gene Supports a Direct Role for Isoamylase1 in Amylopectin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Akiko; Rahman, Sadequr; Utsumi, Yoshinori; Li, Zhongyi; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Maki; Ugaki, Masashi; Harada, Kyuya; Satoh, Hikaru; Konik-Rose, Christine; Morell, Matthew; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2005-01-01

    To examine the role of isoamylase1 (ISA1) in amylopectin biosynthesis in plants, a genomic DNA fragment from Aegilops tauschii was introduced into the ISA1-deficient rice (Oryza sativa) sugary-1 mutant line EM914, in which endosperm starch is completely replaced by phytoglycogen. A. tauschii is the D genome donor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), and the introduced fragment effectively included the gene for ISA1 for wheat (TaISA1) that was encoded on the D genome. In TaISA1-expressing rice endosperm, phytoglycogen synthesis was substantially replaced by starch synthesis, leaving only residual levels of phytoglycogen. The levels of residual phytoglycogen present were inversely proportional to the expression level of the TaISA1 protein, although the level of pullulanase that had been reduced in EM914 was restored to the same level as that in the wild type. Small but significant differences were found in the amylopectin chain-length distribution, gelatinization temperatures, and A-type x-ray diffraction patterns of the starches from lines expressing TaISA1 when compared with wild-type rice starch, although in the first two parameters, the effect was proportional to the expression level of TaISA. The impact of expression levels of ISA1 on starch structure and properties provides support for the view that ISA1 is directly involved in the synthesis of amylopectin. PMID:15618430

  4. Whole Wheat Pizza Dough Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    /4 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon sugar 1 package yeast, quick rise 2/3 cup hot water 1 tablespoon olive oil. Blend yeast with flour mixture. Add hot water; stir to form dough. 3. Add enough whole wheat flour

  5. Co-ordinate regulation of cytokinin gene family members during flag leaf and reproductive development in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As the global population continues to expand, increasing yield in bread wheat is of critical importance as 20% of the world’s food supply is sourced from this cereal. Several recent studies of the molecular basis of grain yield indicate that the cytokinins are a key factor in determining grain yield. In this study, cytokinin gene family members in bread wheat were isolated from four multigene families which regulate cytokinin synthesis and metabolism, the isopentenyl transferases (IPT), cytokinin oxidases (CKX), zeatin O-glucosyltransferases (ZOG), and ?-glucosidases (GLU). As bread wheat is hexaploid, each gene family is also likely to be represented on the A, B and D genomes. By using a novel strategy of qRT-PCR with locus-specific primers shared among the three homoeologues of each family member, detailed expression profiles are provided of family members of these multigene families expressed during leaf, spike and seed development. Results The expression patterns of individual members of the IPT, CKX, ZOG, and GLU multigene families in wheat are shown to be tissue- and developmentally-specific. For instance, TaIPT2 and TaCKX1 were the most highly expressed family members during early seed development, with relative expression levels of up to 90- and 900-fold higher, respectively, than those in the lowest expressed samples. The expression of two cis-ZOG genes was sharply increased in older leaves, while an extremely high mRNA level of TaGLU1-1 was detected in young leaves. Conclusions Key genes with tissue- and developmentally-specific expression have been identified which would be prime targets for genetic manipulation towards yield improvement in bread wheat breeding programmes, utilising TILLING and MAS strategies. PMID:22672647

  6. [Cytogenetic analysis of hybrids resistant to yellow rust and powdery mildew obtained by crossing common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) with wheat of the Timopheevi group (AtAtGG)].

    PubMed

    Badaeva, E D; Prokof'eva, Z D; Bilinskaia, E N; Obolenkova, L A; Solomatin, D A; Zelenin, A V; Pukhal'ski?, V A

    2000-12-01

    The karyotypes of 47 hybrid lines obtained from crosses of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Rodina and line 353) with Triticum timopheevii Zhuk, (AtAtGG) and related species T. militinae Zhuk. et Migusch. (AtAtGG) and T. kiharae Dorof. et Migusch. (AtAtGGDsqDsq) were analyzed by C-banding. Most lines were resistant to yellow rust and powdery mildew. The introgression of alien genetic material to the common wheat genome was realized via substitutions of complete At-, G-, and D-genome chromosomes, chromosome arms, or their fragments. The pattern of chromosome substitutions in resistant lines differed from that in introgressive hybrids selected for other traits. Substitutions of chromosomes 6G, 2At, 2G, and 5G were revealed in 31, 23, 18, and 13 lines, respectively. Substitutions of chromosomes 4G-, 4At, and 6At were not observed. In 15 lines, a 5BS. 5BL-5GL translocation was identified. High frequency of substitutions of chromosomes 2At, 2G, 5G, and 6G indicate that they may carry the resistance genes and that they are closely related to the respective homoeologous chromosomes of common wheat that determines their high compensation ability. PMID:11190474

  7. Genetic Diversity and Grain Protein Composition of Tetraploid Wheat

    E-print Network

    Genetic Diversity and Grain Protein Composition of Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum durum Desf wheat and kernels of durum wheat #12;Genetic diversity and grain protein composition of tetraploid wheat in landraces of tetraploid wheat germplasm collected from major wheat-producing regions of Ethiopia were

  8. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  9. Applications of Suits spectral model to wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Canopy reflectance calculations for a spring type Mexican wheat, Penjamo, are compared with published data on Scout winter wheat. Good agreement exists between model calculations and experimental data in the spectral range, 500 nm to 750 nm, suggesting that the model parameters for wheat can be applied to different cultivars of wheat in the same growth stage. Wheat canopy reflectance is dependent upon surface soil type and this dependency is examined with the Suits' spectral model. In this particular growth stage wheat reflectance is shown to be nearly independent of soil reflectance in the visible wavelengths and progressively dependent at longer wavelengths in the infrared.

  10. Analysis of Intraspecies Diversity in Wheat and Barley Genomes Identifies Breakpoints of Ancient Haplotypes and Provides Insight into the Structure of Diploid and Hexaploid Triticeae Gene Pools1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Wicker, Thomas; Krattinger, Simon G.; Lagudah, Evans S.; Komatsuda, Takao; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Matsumoto, Takashi; Cloutier, Sylvie; Reiser, Laurenz; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Perovic, Dragan; Stein, Nils; Keller, Beat

    2009-01-01

    A large number of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties have evolved in agricultural ecosystems since domestication. Because of the large, repetitive genomes of these Triticeae crops, sequence information is limited and molecular differences between modern varieties are poorly understood. To study intraspecies genomic diversity, we compared large genomic sequences at the Lr34 locus of the wheat varieties Chinese Spring, Renan, and Glenlea, and diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii. Additionally, we compared the barley loci Vrs1 and Rym4 of the varieties Morex, Cebada Capa, and Haruna Nijo. Molecular dating showed that the wheat D genome haplotypes diverged only a few thousand years ago, while some barley and Ae. tauschii haplotypes diverged more than 500,000 years ago. This suggests gene flow from wild barley relatives after domestication, whereas this was rare or absent in the D genome of hexaploid wheat. In some segments, the compared haplotypes were very similar to each other, but for two varieties each at the Rym4 and Lr34 loci, sequence conservation showed a breakpoint that separates a highly conserved from a less conserved segment. We interpret this as recombination breakpoints of two ancient haplotypes, indicating that the Triticeae genomes are a heterogeneous and variable mosaic of haplotype fragments. Analysis of insertions and deletions showed that large events caused by transposable element insertions, illegitimate recombination, or unequal crossing over were relatively rare. Most insertions and deletions were small and caused by template slippage in short homopolymers of only a few base pairs in size. Such frequent polymorphisms could be exploited for future molecular marker development. PMID:19011002

  11. Theor Appl Genet (1999) 99: 16}26 Springer-Verlag 1999 E. V. Boyko ' K. S. Gill ' L. Mickelson-Young

    E-print Network

    Gill, Kulvinder

    1999-01-01

    Theor Appl Genet (1999) 99: 16}26 Springer-Verlag 1999 E. V. Boyko ' K. S. Gill ' L. Mickelson. Lapitan ' B. S. Gill A high-density genetic linkage map of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor. Gill ( ) Wheat Genetics Resource Center and Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University

  12. Circulating and tissue resident endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Basile, David P.; Yoder, Mervin C.

    2014-01-01

    Progenitor cells for the endothelial lineage have been widely investigated for more than a decade, but continue to be controversial since no unique identifying marker has yet been identified. This review will begin with a discussion of the basic tenets originally proposed for proof that a cell displays properties of an endothelial progenitor cell. We then provide an overview of the methods for putative endothelial progenitor cell derivation, expansion, and enumeration. This discussion includes consideration of cells that are present in the circulation as well as cells resident in the vascular endothelial intima. Finally, we provide some suggested changes in nomenclature that would greatly clarify and demystify the cellular elements involved in vascular repair. PMID:23794280

  13. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Poay Sian Sabrina; Poh, Kian Keong

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vasculogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk factors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evaluate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome. PMID:25126384

  14. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Poay Sian Sabrina; Poh, Kian Keong

    2014-07-26

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vasculogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk factors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evaluate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome. PMID:25126384

  15. Derivation of high-purity oligodendroglial progenitors.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Maya N; Nistor, Gabriel; Keirstead, Hans S

    2009-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cells that play a critical role in supporting the central nervous system (CNS), in particular insulating axons within the CNS by wrapping them with a myelin sheath, thereby enabling saltatory conduction. They are lost, and myelin damaged - demyelination - in a wide variety of neurological disorders. Replacing depleted cell types within demyelinated areas, however, has been shown experimentally to achieve remyelination and so help restore function. One method to produce oligodendrocytes for cellular replacement therapies is through the use of progenitor or stem cells. The ability to differentiate progenitor or stem cells into high-purity fates not only permits the generation of specific cells for transplantation therapies, but also provides powerful tools for studying cellular mechanisms of development. This chapter outlines methods of generating high-purity OPCs from multipotent neonatal progenitor or human embryonic stem cells. PMID:19378196

  16. Preferential elimination of chromosome 1D from homoeologous group-1 alien addition lines in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Garg, Monika; Elamein, Hala M M; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2007-10-01

    Alien chromosome addition lines are useful genetic material for studying the effect of an individual chromosome in the same genetic background. However, addition lines are sometimes unstable and tend to lose the alien chromosome in subsequent generations. In this study, we report preferential removal of chromosome 1D rather than the alien chromosome from homoeologous group-1 addition lines. The Agropyron intermedium chromosome 1Agi (1E) addition line, created in the background of 'Vilmorin 27', showed loss of a part of chromosome 1D, thereby losing its HMW glutenin locus. Even in the case of Aegilops longissima and Ae. peregrina, the genomes of which are closer to the B genome than D genome, chromosome 1D was lost from chromosome 1Sl and 1Sv addition lines in cv. 'Chinese Spring' rather than chromosome 1B during transfer from one generation to another. A similar observation was also observed in the case of a chromosome 1E disomic addition line of Ag. elongatum and alloplasmic common wheat line with Ag. intermedium ssp. trichophorum cytoplasm. The reason for this strange observation is thought to lie in the history of wheat evolution, the size of chromosome 1D compared to 1A and 1B, or differing pollen competition abilities. PMID:17991995

  17. Isolation and sequence analysis of the wheat B genome subtelomeric DNA

    PubMed Central

    Salina, Elena A; Sergeeva, Ekaterina M; Adonina, Irina G; Shcherban, Andrey B; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Belcram, Harry; Huneau, Cecile; Chalhoub, Boulos

    2009-01-01

    Background Telomeric and subtelomeric regions are essential for genome stability and regular chromosome replication. In this work, we have characterized the wheat BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones containing Spelt1 and Spelt52 sequences, which belong to the subtelomeric repeats of the B/G genomes of wheats and Aegilops species from the section Sitopsis. Results The BAC library from Triticum aestivum cv. Renan was screened using Spelt1 and Spelt52 as probes. Nine positive clones were isolated; of them, clone 2050O8 was localized mainly to the distal parts of wheat chromosomes by in situ hybridization. The distribution of the other clones indicated the presence of different types of repetitive sequences in BACs. Use of different approaches allowed us to prove that seven of the nine isolated clones belonged to the subtelomeric chromosomal regions. Clone 2050O8 was sequenced and its sequence of 119 737 bp was annotated. It is composed of 33% transposable elements (TEs), 8.2% Spelt52 (namely, the subfamily Spelt52.2) and five non-TE-related genes. DNA transposons are predominant, making up 24.6% of the entire BAC clone, whereas retroelements account for 8.4% of the clone length. The full-length CACTA transposon Caspar covers 11 666 bp, encoding a transposase and CTG-2 proteins, and this transposon accounts for 40% of the DNA transposons. The in situ hybridization data for 2050O8 derived subclones in combination with the BLAST search against wheat mapped ESTs (expressed sequence tags) suggest that clone 2050O8 is located in the terminal bin 4BL-10 (0.95-1.0). Additionally, four of the predicted 2050O8 genes showed significant homology to four putative orthologous rice genes in the distal part of rice chromosome 3S and confirm the synteny to wheat 4BL. Conclusion Satellite DNA sequences from the subtelomeric regions of diploid wheat progenitor can be used for selecting the BAC clones from the corresponding regions of hexaploid wheat chromosomes. It has been demonstrated for the first time that Spelt52 sequences were involved in the evolution of terminal regions of common wheat chromosomes. Our research provides new insights into the microcollinearity in the terminal regions of wheat chromosomes 4BL and rice chromosome 3S. PMID:19732459

  18. Brachyury establishes the embryonic mesodermal progenitor niche

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Benjamin L.; Kimelman, David

    2010-01-01

    Formation of the early vertebrate embryo depends on a Brachyury/Wnt autoregulatory loop within the posterior mesodermal progenitors. We show that exogenous retinoic acid (RA), which dramatically truncates the embryo, represses expression of the zebrafish brachyury ortholog no tail (ntl), causing a failure to sustain the loop. We found that Ntl functions normally to protect the autoregulatory loop from endogenous RA by directly activating cyp26a1 expression. Thus, the embryonic mesodermal progenitors uniquely establish their own niche—with Brachyury being essential for creating a domain of high Wnt and low RA signaling—rather than having a niche created by separate support cells. PMID:21159819

  19. Reflectance characteristics of Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) stress and abundance in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko)) infests wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and other small grains and grasses. Russian wheat aphid infestations are unpredictable in time and space. In favorable conditions, Russian wheat aphid feeding can result in heavy...

  20. Registration of `Bauermeister' Wheat `Bauermeister' (J981107, WA007939) hard red winter wheat

    E-print Network

    Murray, Timothy D.

    Registration of `Bauermeister' Wheat `Bauermeister' (J981107, WA007939) hard red winter wheat (HRW cultivar adapted to the low- to intermediate-rainfall (, 460 mm average annual precipitation) HRW wheat, and excellent quality attributes. Bauermeister is named in honor of Dale and Dan Bauermeister, wheat producers

  1. Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important

    E-print Network

    Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Challenges Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important part of the economy in the Texas Rolling Plains region. Wheat and stocker cattle business decisions are impacted by a variety of issues, including cattle and wheat prices, animal health, weather

  2. Multiplication of soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) in wheat roots infected by a soil

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Multiplication of soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) in wheat roots infected by a soil carrying SBWMV and wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) Djabbar HARIRI, Michel COURTILLOT Pascal ZAOUI, Hervé winter wheat cultivars were infected in the field or in a growth chamber with an inoculum consisting

  3. EVALUATION OF DURUM SPRING WHEAT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WHEAT STEM SAWFLY (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, is the primary arthropod pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, in the Northern Great Plains. Rotation to non-host crops should decrease infestation of susceptible spring or winter wheats. Information is unavailable on wheat stem sawfly infestation potentia...

  4. SURVIVAL OF WHEAT CURL MITES ON DIFFERENT SOURCES OF RESISTANCE IN WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat yield is limited by wheat streak mosaic virus which is vectored by the wheat curl mite (WCM) Aceria tosicheilla (Keifer).Host resistance to WCM has reduced losses. This study evaluated the effectiveness of resistance in wheat to WCM collected from various locations in the Great Plains. Collect...

  5. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

  6. CD133 + hepatic stellate cells are progenitor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Kordes; Iris Sawitza; Alexis Müller-Marbach; Niloofar Ale-Agha; Verena Keitel; Hanne Klonowski-Stumpe; Dieter Häussinger

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play an important role in the development of liver fibrosis. Here, we report that HSC express the stem\\/progenitor cell marker CD133 and exhibit properties of progenitor cells. CD133+ HSC of rats were selected by specific antibodies and magnetic cell sorting. Selected cells displayed typical markers of HSC, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), and monocytes. In cell culture,

  7. Quality (End-Use) Improvement in Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Peña; R. Trethowan; W. H. Pfeiffer; M. Van Ginkel

    2002-01-01

    Wheat provides nutrients and the raw materials for industrialized food production. Recent global economic trends and increases in urban population growth have led to an increased demand for wheat-based convenience foods (fast, ready-to-eat, frozen foods, etc.) and for new wheat-based products. These factors have resulted in a greater emphasis than ever on the end-use quality of wheat. This paper reviews

  8. Wheat Curl Mite and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Spread from Volunteer Wheat Figure 2. Spectral profiles at three points identified in Figure

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Wheat Curl Mite and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Spread from Volunteer Wheat Figure 2. Spectral Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) (apeters@calmit.unl.edu) Background: Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is the most severe disease of winter wheat in the Great Plains. Estimates indicate WSM causes an average loss

  9. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in rheumatic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne C. Verhaar; Peter E. Westerweel

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatic disease is characterized by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, which contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can restore dysfunctional endothelium and thereby protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The number and function of EPCs are, however, affected in rheumatic diseases such as psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis. Rheumatic disease

  10. Prehypertension and endothelial progenitor cell function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O J MacEneaney; C A DeSouza; B R Weil; E J Kushner; G P Van Guilder; M L Mestek; J J Greiner; B L Stauffer

    2011-01-01

    Prehypertension is associated with significant damage to the coronary vasculature and increased rates of adverse cardiovascular events. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical to vascular repair and the formation of new blood vessels. We tested the hypothesis that prehypertension is associated with EPC dysfunction. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 83 middle-aged and older adults (51 male and 32

  11. Real Time Imaging of Human Progenitor Neurogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Keenan; Aaron D. Nelson; Jeffrey R. Grinager; Jarett C. Thelen; Clive N. Svendsen

    2010-01-01

    Human neural progenitors are increasingly being employed in drug screens and emerging cell therapies targeted towards neurological disorders where neurogenesis is thought to play a key role including developmental disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression. Key to the success of these applications is understanding the mechanisms by which neurons arise. Our understanding of development can provide some guidance but since little

  12. Working hypothesis to redefine endothelial progenitor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D N Prater; J Case; D A Ingram; M C Yoder

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, postnatal vasculogenesis has been purported to be an important mechanism for neoangiogenesis via bone marrow (BM)-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Based on this paradigm, EPCs have been extensively studied as biomarkers to assess severity of cardiovascular disease and as a cell-based therapy for several human cardiovascular disorders. In the majority of studies to date, EPCs were identified

  13. In vivo Identification of Periodontal Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roguljic, H.; Matthews, B.G.; Yang, W.; Cvija, H.; Mina, M.; Kalajzic, I.

    2013-01-01

    The periodontal ligament contains progenitor cells; however, their identity and differentiation potential in vivo remain poorly characterized. Previous results have suggested that periodontal tissue progenitors reside in perivascular areas. Therefore, we utilized a lineage-tracing approach to identify and track periodontal progenitor cells from the perivascular region in vivo. We used an alpha-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) promoter-driven and tamoxifen-inducible Cre system (?SMACreERT2) that, in combination with a reporter mouse line (Ai9), permanently labels a cell population, termed ‘SMA9’. To trace the differentiation of SMA9-labeled cells into osteoblasts/cementoblasts, we utilized a Col2.3GFP transgene, while expression of Scleraxis-GFP was used to follow differentiation into periodontal ligament fibroblasts during normal tissue formation and remodeling following injury. In uninjured three-week-old SMA9 mice, tamoxifen labeled a small population of cells in the periodontal ligament that expanded over time, particularly in the apical region of the root. By 17 days and 7 weeks after labeling, some SMA9-labeled cells expressed markers indicating differentiation into mature lineages, including cementocytes. Following injury, SMA9 cells expanded, and differentiated into cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. SMA9-labeled cells represent a source of progenitors that can give rise to mature osteoblasts, cementoblasts, and fibroblasts within the periodontium. PMID:23735585

  14. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Chronic Renal Insufficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Herbrig; Frank Pistrosch; Sarah Foerster; Peter Gross

    2006-01-01

    There is growing evidence for a role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the repair of damaged endothelium. It remains unclear which cell populations are most useful for clinical trials. Administration of drugs increasing EPC numbers and\\/or improving functional properties seems attractive. Further basic research is necessary to understand the mechanisms of mobilization, differentiation and homing of EPC in general

  15. The progenitors of subluminous type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D. Andrew

    2001-02-01

    We find that spectroscopically peculiar subluminous SNe Ia come from an old population. Of the thirteen subluminous SNe Ia known, nine are found in E/S0 galaxies, and the remainder are found in early-type spirals. The probability that this is a chance occurrence is only 0.1%. The finding that subluminous SNe Ia are associated with an older stellar population indicates that for a sufficiently large lookback time (already accessible in current high redshift searches) they will not be found. Due to a scarcity in old populations, hydrogen and helium main sequence stars and He red giant stars that undergo Roche lobe overflow are unlikely to be the progenitors of subluminous SNe Ia. Earlier findings that overluminous SNe Ia (DELTA m{sub 15} (B) < 0.94) come from a young progenitor population are confirmed. The fact that subluminous SNe Ia and overluminous SNe Ia come from different progenitor populations and also have different properties is a prediction of the CO white dwarf merger progenitor scenario.

  16. The value of wheat landraces (Editorial)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether man was domesticated by wheat, or wheat was domesticated by man is but two faces of the same coin; both incidents marked a turning point in human history and led to the emergence of human civilization in the Fertile Crescent of the Old World. The complex history of wheat domestication from i...

  17. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2008 Crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2008 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red Sp...

  18. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  19. CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Kestrel winter wheat

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Kestrel winter wheat D. B. Fowler Crop Development Centre, University 17 December 1996, accepted 12 August 1997. Fowler, D. B. 1997. CDC Kestrel winter wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 77: 673­675. CDC Kestrel is a lodging-resistant, high-yielding, semidwarf winter wheat

  20. CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Clair winter wheat

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Clair winter wheat D. B. Fowler Crop Development Centre, University 17 December 1996, accepted 12 August 1997. Fowler, D. B. 1997. CDC Clair winter wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 77: 669­671. CDC Clair is a high-yielding, strong-strawed, semi- dwarf winter wheat (Triticum

  1. Wheat Proteins Improve Cryopreservation of Rat Hepatocytes

    E-print Network

    Sarhan, Fathey

    ARTICLE Wheat Proteins Improve Cryopreservation of Rat Hepatocytes Me´lanie Grondin, Francine Hamel demonstrated that a crude wheat extract protects rat hepatocytes during cryo- preservation and could provide by using wheat extracts that are partially purified by either ammonium sulphate or acetone precipitation

  2. Disease Update in Wheat Gaylon Morgan

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Disease Update in Wheat Gaylon Morgan State Extension Small Grains Specialist March 3, 2005 There are three major foliar leaf diseases that commonly occur in Texas wheat fields, including Leaf Rust, Stripe of Powdery Mildew that occurred in 2004. Factors to Consider for Managing Foliar Diseases in Wheat: 1

  3. HEDONIC PRICE ESTIMATION FOR KANSAS WHEAT CHARACTERISTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Andres Espinosa; Barry K. Goodwin

    1991-01-01

    A hedonic price model is applied to a cross-sectional time-series data set of Kansas wheat characteristics. Results indicate that prices received by wheat producers reflect the presence of conventional quality characteristics of wheat and also milling and dough characteristics. Furthermore, the results indicate that the alternative sets of characteristics exhibit quality information that is, to some degree, independent of one

  4. Origin and spread of wheat in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John R.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Xinying; Zhao, Keliang; Sun, Nan; Atahan, Pia

    2013-07-01

    Wheat was added as a new crop to the existing millet and rice based agricultural systems of China. Here we present 35 radiocarbon ages from wheat seeds collected from 18 sites between western (Xinjiang Province) and eastern (Henan Province) China. The earliest wheat ages cluster around 2100-1800 BCE in northern China's Hexi corridor of Gansu Province, where millet was already a well-established crop. Wheat first appears in Xinjiang and Henan about 300-400 years later, and perhaps a little earlier than this in Xinjiang, and we hypothesize that the likely route of wheat into China was via Russia through Gansu.

  5. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited – tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. Results We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. Conclusions SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat. PMID:24885044

  6. Identifying variation in resistance to the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, between different ancestral and modern wheat species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ancestral wheat relatives are important sources of genetic diversity for the introduction of novel traits for the improvement of modern bread wheat. In this study the aim was to assess the susceptibility of 34 accessions of the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (A genome) to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), the causal agent of take-all disease. The second aim was to explore the susceptibility of tetraploid wheat (T. durum) and the B genome progenitor species Aegilops speltoides to Ggt. Results Field trials, conducted over 5 years, identified seven T. monococcum accessions with a good level of resistance to take-all when exposed to natural inoculum under UK field conditions. All other accessions were highly susceptible or did not exhibit a consistent phenotype across years. DArT marker genotyping revealed that whole genome diversity was not closely related to resistance to take-all within T. monococcum, suggesting that multiple genetic sources of resistance may exist within the species. In contrast the tetraploid wheat cultivars and Ae. speltoides were all highly susceptible to the disease, including those with known elevated levels of benzoxazinoids. Conclusions The diploid wheat species T. monococcum may provide a genetic source of resistance to take-all disease that could be utilised to improve the performance of T. aestivum in high disease risk situations. This represents an extremely valuable resource to achieve economic and sustainable genetic control of this root disease. PMID:25084989

  7. Microchimerism, Dendritic Cell Progenitors and Transplantation Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Angus W.; Lu, Lina; Murase, Noriko; Demetris, Anthony J.; Rao, Abdul S.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of multilineage donor leukocyte microchimerism in allograft recipients up to three decades after organ transplantation implies the migration and survival of donor stem cells within the host. It has been postulated that in chimeric graft recipients, reciprocal modulation of immune responsiveness between donor and recipient leukocytes may lead, eventually, to the induction of mutual immunologic nonreactivity (tolerance). A prominent donor leukocyte, both in human organ transplant recipients and in animals, has invariably been the bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC). These cells have been classically perceived as the most potent antigen-presenting cells but evidence also exists for their tolerogenicity. The liver, despite its comparatively heavy leukocyte content, is the whole organ that is most capable of inducing tolerance. We have observed that DC progenitors propagated from normal mouse liver in response to GM-CSF express only low levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen and little or no cell surface B7 family T cell costimulatory molecules. They fail to activate resting naive allogeneic T cells. When injected into normal allogeneic recipients, these DC progenitors migrate to T-dependent areas of host lymphoid tissue, where some at least upregulate cell surface MHC class II. These donor-derived cells persist indefinitely, recapitulating the behavior pattern of donor leukocytes after the successful transplantation of all whole organs, but most dramatically after the orthotopic (replacement) engraftment of the liver. A key finding is that in mice, progeny of these donor-derived DC progenitors can be propagated ex vivo from the bone marrow and other lymphoid tissues of nonimmunosuppressed spontaneously tolerant liver allograft recipients. In humans, donor DC can also be grown from the blood of organ allograft recipients whose organ-source chimerism is augmented with donor bone marrow infusion. DC progenitors cannot, however, be propagated from the lymphoid tissue of nonimmunosuppressed cardiac-allografted mice that reject their grafts. These findings are congruent with the possibility that bidirectional leukoeyte migration and donor cell chimerism play key roles in acquired transplantation tolerance. Although the cell interactions are undoubtedly complex, a discrete role can be identified for DC under well-defined experimental conditions. Bone marrow-derived DC progenitors (MHC class II+, B7-1dim, B7-2?) induce alloantigen-specific hyporesponsiveness (anergy) in naive T cells in vitro. Moreover, costimulatory molecule-deficient DC progenitors administered systemically prolong the survival of mouse heart or pancreatic islet allografts. How the regulation of donor DC phenotype and function relates to the balance between the immunogenicity and tolerogenicity of organ allografts remains to be determined. PMID:8590864

  8. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Analyses of Gene Expression during Photomorphogenesis in Diploid Wheat Triticum monococcum

    PubMed Central

    Naithani, Sushma; Sullivan, Chris; Preece, Justin; Tiwari, Vijay K.; Elser, Justin; Leonard, Jeffrey M.; Sage, Abigail; Gresham, Cathy; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; McCarthy, Fiona; Kersey, Paul; Lazo, Gerard R.; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Background Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (accession G3116) and the domesticated spring wheat T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (accession DV92) by generating de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data derived from both etiolated and green seedlings. Principal Findings The de novo transcriptome assemblies of DV92 and G3116 represent 120,911 and 117,969 transcripts, respectively. We successfully mapped ?90% of these transcripts from each accession to barley and ?95% of the transcripts to T. urartu genomes. However, only ?77% transcripts mapped to the annotated barley genes and ?85% transcripts mapped to the annotated T. urartu genes. Differential gene expression analyses revealed 22% more light up-regulated and 35% more light down-regulated transcripts in the G3116 transcriptome compared to DV92. The DV92 and G3116 mRNA sequence reads aligned against the reference barley genome led to the identification of ?500,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and ?22,000 simple sequence repeat (SSR) sites. Conclusions De novo transcriptome assemblies of two accessions of the diploid wheat T. monococcum provide new empirical transcriptome references for improving Triticeae genome annotations, and insights into transcriptional programming during photomorphogenesis. The SNP and SSR sites identified in our analysis provide additional resources for the development of molecular markers. PMID:24821410

  9. Diseases Which Challenge Global Wheat Production - The Cereal Rusts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rusts of wheat are common and widespread diseases in the US and throughout the world. Wheat rusts have been important throughout the history of wheat cultivation and are currently important diseases that are responsible for regularly occurring yield losses in wheat. The wheat rust fungi are obli...

  10. Attitudes towards the Canadian Wheat Board monopoly in Saskatchewan

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Attitudes towards the Canadian Wheat Board monopoly in Saskatchewan: A research brief December 2011 to eliminate the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB)'s monopoly on the selling of all wheat, durum and barley produced' or `oppose' the Canadian Wheat Board's monopoly on selling prairie wheat, durum and barley, or do you have

  11. Wheat Rusts in the United States in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007 90% of wheat stem rust races were QFC and 10% were RCRS Both races are relatively avirulent to wheat cultiars grown in the U.S. Wheat stem rust occurred in scattered locations on research plots of susceptible wheat cultivars in 2007, and did not cause yield loss. Wheat leaf rust was widespr...

  12. POPULATION SYNTHESIS AND GAMMA RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. FREYER

    2000-12-11

    Population synthesis studies of binaries are always limited by a myriad of uncertainties from the poorly understood effects of binary mass transfer and common envelope evolution to the many uncertainties that still remain in stellar evolution. But the importance of these uncertainties depends both upon the objects being studied and the questions asked about these objects. Here I review the most critical uncertainties in the population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors. With a better understanding of these uncertainties, binary population synthesis can become a powerful tool in understanding, and constraining, gamma-ray burst models. In turn, as gamma-ray bursts become more important as cosmological probes, binary population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors becomes an important tool in cosmology.

  13. Prostate epithelial stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Xin, Li

    2014-01-01

    The classic androgen ablation and replacement experiment demonstrates that prostate epithelia possess extensive regenerative capacities and implies the existence of the prostate stem/progenitor cells. These cells may serve as the cells of origin for prostate cancer and their intrinsic property may dictate the clinical behaviors of the resulting diseases. Therefore, detailed characterization of these cells will potentially benefit disease prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we describe several major in vitro and in vivo approaches that have been employed in the studies of the prostate stem cell activities, summarize the major progress that has been made during the last two decades regarding the identity of prostate stem/progenitor cells and their niches, and discuss some remaining outstanding questions in the field. PMID:25374923

  14. Systems Mapping for Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linghua; Shen, Yong; Jiang, Libo; Yin, Danni; Guo, Jingxin; Zheng, Hui; Sun, Hao; Wu, Rongling; Guo, Yunqian

    2015-01-01

    Cells with the same genotype growing under the same conditions can show different phenotypes, which is known as “population heterogeneity”. The heterogeneity of hematopoietic progenitor cells has an effect on their differentiation potential and lineage choices. However, the genetic mechanisms governing population heterogeneity remain unclear. Here, we present a statistical model for mapping the quantitative trait locus (QTL) that affects hematopoietic cell heterogeneity. This strategy, termed systems mapping, integrates a system of differential equations into the framework for systems mapping, allowing hypotheses regarding the interplay between genetic actions and cell heterogeneity to be tested. A simulation approach based on cell heterogeneity dynamics has been designed to test the statistical properties of the model. This model not only considers the traditional QTLs, but also indicates the methylated QTLs that can illustrate non-genetic individual differences. It has significant implications for probing the molecular, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of hematopoietic progenitor cell heterogeneity. PMID:25970338

  15. Multipotent hematopoietic progenitors divide asymmetrically to create progenitors of the lymphomyeloid and erythromyeloid lineages.

    PubMed

    Görgens, André; Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Möllmann, Michael; Krawczyk, Adalbert; Dürig, Jan; Hanenberg, Helmut; Horn, Peter A; Giebel, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can self-renew and create committed progenitors, a process supposed to involve asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs). Previously, we had linked the kinetics of CD133 expression with ACDs but failed to detect asymmetric segregation of classical CD133 epitopes on fixed, mitotic HSPCs. Now, by using a novel anti-CD133 antibody (HC7), we confirmed the occurrence of asymmetric CD133 segregation on paraformaldehyde-fixed and living HSPCs. After showing that HC7 binding does not recognizably affect biological features of human HSPCs, we studied ACDs in different HSPC subtypes and determined the developmental potential of arising daughter cells at the single-cell level. Approximately 70% of the HSPCs of the multipotent progenitor (MPP) fraction studied performed ACDs, and about 25% generated lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP) as wells as erythromyeloid progenitor (EMP) daughter cells. Since MPPs hardly created daughter cells maintaining MPP characteristics, our data suggest that under conventional culture conditions, ACDs are lineage instructive rather than self-renewing. PMID:25448068

  16. Registration of ‘WB3768’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘WB3768’ (Reg. No. CV-1100, PI 670158) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. An exclusive license for commercialization of WB3768 was granted to Monsanto. WB3768 is of unknown pedigree, derived from...

  17. Registration of ‘UI SRG’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with high yield, desirable end-use quality, and resistance to prevalent diseases are the major goals for the breeding programs in the Pacifi c Northwest region of the United States and the world. ‘UI SRG’ (Reg. No. CV-1066, PI 660546) hard red winter...

  18. REGISTRATION OF 'INFINITY CL' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Infinity CL’ (Reg. No. Cv- ) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS, and released in 2005 by the developing institutions. Infinity CL contains a patented gene owned by BASF Corporation. In...

  19. Registration of TAM401 wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'TAM 401', a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivar (PI658500) with experimental designation TX03M1096, was developed and released by Texas AgriLife Research in 2008. TAM 401 is an F4 derived line from the cross 'Mason' (PI 594044)/'Jagger' (PI593688). TAM 401 is an early maturing apic...

  20. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  1. Registration of 'TAM 113' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘TAM 113’ (Reg. No. CV-1081, PI 666125), a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar with experimental designation TX02A0252, was developed and released by Texas AgriLife Research in 2010. TAM 113 is an F5–derived line from the cross TX90V6313/TX94V3724 made at Vernon, TX in 1995. Both T...

  2. Registration of 'Clara CL' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Clara CL’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2011. Clara CL carries one Clearfield gene and has the tolerance to imazamox herbicide. Clara CL wa...

  3. Registration of Vision 30 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Vision 30’ (Reg. No. CV-1062, PI 661153) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and tested as VA06HRW-49 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2010. Vision 30 was derived from the cross 92PAN1#33/VA97W-414. Vision 30 is high yielding, awned,...

  4. Registration of ‘UI Winchester’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘UI Winchester’ (PI 642362) hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in July 2009. UI Winchester was released for its improved stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici) resistance combined with resistance to ...

  5. Adapting wheat to uncertain future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Stratonovitch, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    This study describes integration of climate change projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble with the LARS-WG weather generator, which delivers an attractive option for downscaling of large-scale climate projections from global climate models (GCMs) to local-scale climate scenarios for impact assessments. A subset of 18 GCMs from the CMIP5 ensemble and 2 RCPs, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, were integrated with LARS-WG. Climate sensitivity indexes for temperature and precipitation were computed for all GCMs and for 21 regions in the world. For computationally demanding impact assessments, where it is not practical to explore all possible combinations of GCM × RCP, climate sensitivity indexes could be used to select a subset of GCMs from CMIP5 with contrasting climate sensitivity. This would allow to quantify uncertainty in impacts resulting from the CMIP5 ensemble by conducting fewer simulation experiments. As an example, an in silico design of wheat ideotype optimised for future climate scenarios in Europe was described. Two contrasting GCMs were selected for the analysis, "hot" HadGEM2-ES and "cool" GISS-E2-R-CC, along with 2 RCPs. Despite large uncertainty in climate projections, several wheat traits were identified as beneficial for the high-yielding wheat ideotypes that could be used as targets for wheat improvement by breeders.

  6. Registration of ‘Ok101’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ok101’ (Reg. no. CV-932, PI 631493) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS, and released in March 2001. Ok101 was released for its high tolerance to acidic soil, broad adaptation to both dual-purpose...

  7. REGISTRATION OF 'OK BULLET' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘OK Bullet’ is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES), USDA-ARS, and the Texas AES and released by the Oklahoma AES and the USDA-ARS in 2005. OK Bullet is recommended for grain-only and dual-purpose production systems t...

  8. Registration of 'NE01643' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NE01643 is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2007 by the developing institutions and the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. NE01643 will be marketed under the na...

  9. Registration of ‘Ok102’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ok102’ (Reg. no. CV-941, PI 632635) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. and the USDA-ARS. Ok102 was released in March 2002, primarily on the basis of its resistance to several foliar diseases, excellent milling quality, and desi...

  10. Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells: Mechanisms and Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R. Murrow; Arshed A. Quyyumi

    \\u000a Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are defined as a population of bone marrow-derived monocytes that migrate to sites of vascular\\u000a injury and participate in new blood vessel formation, either by proliferation or by paracrine mechanisms. In circulation,\\u000a these cells are thought to bear certain cell surface markers such as CD34, CD133, and VEGFR2 that permit enumeration by flow\\u000a cytometry. While the

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of Heart Valve Progenitor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santanu Chakraborty; Michelle D. Combs; Katherine E. Yutzey

    2010-01-01

    The development and normal function of the heart valves requires complex interactions among signaling molecules, transcription\\u000a factors and structural proteins that are tightly regulated in time and space. Here we review the roles of critical transcription\\u000a factors that are required for specific aspects of normal valve development. The early progenitors of the heart valves are\\u000a localized in endocardial cushions that

  12. Progenitor Cell Transplantation for Retinal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. Klassen

    Diseases of the retina frequently result in permanent visual impairment. One strategy for recovering lost function is to replace\\u000a retinal neurons lost to the disease process, while another is to protect these neurons from dying in the first place. Retinal\\u000a progenitor cell transplantation is an experimental approach that has relevance to both strategies and holds promise as a potential\\u000a therapeutic

  13. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  14. EVOLUTION OF PROGENITORS FOR ELECTRON CAPTURE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi, E-mail: ktakahashi@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: umeda@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yoshida@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We provide progenitor models for electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) with detailed evolutionary calculation. We include minor electron capture nuclei using a large nuclear reaction network with updated reaction rates. For electron capture, the Coulomb correction of rates is treated and the contribution from neutron-rich isotopes is taken into account in each nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) composition. We calculate the evolution of the most massive super asymptotic giant branch stars and show that these stars undergo off-center carbon burning and form ONe cores at the center. These cores become heavier up to the critical mass of 1.367 M{sub Sun} and keep contracting even after the initiation of O+Ne deflagration. Inclusion of minor electron capture nuclei causes convective URCA cooling during the contraction phase, but the effect on the progenitor evolution is small. On the other hand, electron capture by neutron-rich isotopes in the NSE region has a more significant effect. We discuss the uniqueness of the critical core mass for ECSNe and the effect of wind mass loss on the plausibility of our models for ECSN progenitors.

  15. WheatGenome.info: an integrated database and portal for wheat genome information.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao; Berkman, Paul J; Lorenc, Michal Tadeusz; Duran, Chris; Smits, Lars; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Edwards, David

    2012-02-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important crop plants, globally providing staple food for a large proportion of the human population. However, improvement of this crop has been limited due to its large and complex genome. Advances in genomics are supporting wheat crop improvement. We provide a variety of web-based systems hosting wheat genome and genomic data to support wheat research and crop improvement. WheatGenome.info is an integrated database resource which includes multiple web-based applications. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second-generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This system includes links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/. PMID:22009731

  16. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139...Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the class of food...

  17. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139...Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the class of food...

  18. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139...Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the class of food...

  19. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139...Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the class of food...

  20. Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalees Rehman; Keith L. March

    Few topics in cardiovascular research have generated as much promise and controversy as that of using stem cells or progenitor\\u000a cells to improve cardiovascular function. The first section of this chapter will discuss general principles of stem and progenitor\\u000a cell biology and therapy. The second section will illustrate these principles with specific stem and progenitor cell types\\u000a used or proposed

  1. Wheat Variety and Barley Malt Properties: Influence on Haze Intensity and Foam Stability of Wheat Beer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofie A. Depraetere; Filip Delvaux; Stefan Coghe; Freddy R. Delvaux

    J. Inst. Brew. 110(3), 200-206, 2004 Laboratory wheat beers were brewed with different wheat va- rieties of different protein content (8.7-14.4%) and with five dif- ferent barley malts, varying in degree of modification (soluble protein: 3.9-6.9%). In a first series of experiments, it was in- vestigated whether wheat positively influences the foam stabil- ity, a major characteristic of wheat beers.

  2. Novel variants of HMW glutenin subunits from Aegilops section Sitopsis species in relation to evolution and wheat breeding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), encoded by the genes at Glu-1 loci in wheat and its related species, are significant in the determination of grain processing quality. However, the diversity and variations of HMW-GSs are relatively low in bread wheat. More interests are now focused on wheat wild relatives in Triticeae. The genus Aegilops represents an important germplasm for novel HWM-GSs and other useful genes for wheat genetic improvement. Results Six novel Glu-1 alleles and HMW-GSs were identified and characterized from three species of Aegilops section Sitopsis (S genome). Both open reading frames (ORFs) and promoter regions of these Glu-1 alleles were sequenced and characterized. The ORFs of Sitopsis Glu-1 genes are approximately 2.9?kb and 2.3?kb for x-type and y-type subunits, respectively. Although the primary structures of Sitopsis HMW-GSs are similar to those of previously reported ones, all six x-type or y-type subunits have the large fragment insertions. Our comparative analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences verified that Aegilops section Sitopsis species encode novel HMW-GSs with their molecular weights larger than almost all other known HMW-GSs. The Glu-1 promoter sequences share the high homology among S genome. Our phylogenetic analyses by both network and NJ tree indicated that there is a close phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of x-type and y-type subunit between S and D genome. Conclusions The large molecular weight of HMW-GSs from S genome is a unique feature identified in this study. Such large subunits are resulted from the duplications of repetitive domains in Sitopsis HMW-GSs. The unequal crossover events are the most likely mechanism of variations in glutenin subunits. The S genome-encoded subunits, 1Dx2.2 and 1Dx2.2* have independent origins, although they share similar evolutionary mechanism. As HMW-GSs play a key role in wheat baking quality, these large Sitopsis glutenin subunits can be used as special genetic resources for wheat quality improvement. PMID:22646663

  3. A Chromosome Bin Map of 16,000 Expressed Sequence Tag Loci and Distribution of Genes Among the Three Genomes of Polyploid Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Qi, L. L.; Echalier, B.; Chao, S.; Lazo, G. R.; Butler, G. E.; Anderson, O. D.; Akhunov, E. D.; Dvo?ák, J.; Linkiewicz, A. M.; Ratnasiri, A.; Dubcovsky, J.; Bermudez-Kandianis, C. E.; Greene, R. A.; Kantety, R.; La Rota, C. M.; Munkvold, J. D.; Sorrells, S. F.; Sorrells, M. E.; Dilbirligi, M.; Sidhu, D.; Erayman, M.; Randhawa, H. S.; Sandhu, D.; Bondareva, S. N.; Gill, K. S.; Mahmoud, A. A.; Ma, X.-F.; Miftahudin; Gustafson, J. P.; Conley, E. J.; Nduati, V.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. L.; Anderson, J. A.; Peng, J. H.; Lapitan, N. L. V.; Hossain, K. G.; Kalavacharla, V.; Kianian, S. F.; Pathan, M. S.; Zhang, D. S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Choi, D.-W.; Fenton, R. D.; Close, T. J.; McGuire, P. E.; Qualset, C. O.; Gill, B. S.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the huge size of the common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) genome of 17,300 Mb, sequencing and mapping of the expressed portion is a logical first step for gene discovery. Here we report mapping of 7104 expressed sequence tag (EST) unigenes by Southern hybridization into a chromosome bin map using a set of wheat aneuploids and deletion stocks. Each EST detected a mean of 4.8 restriction fragments and 2.8 loci. More loci were mapped in the B genome (5774) than in the A (5173) or D (5146) genomes. The EST density was significantly higher for the D genome than for the A or B. In general, EST density increased relative to the physical distance from the centromere. The majority of EST-dense regions are in the distal parts of chromosomes. Most of the agronomically important genes are located in EST-dense regions. The chromosome bin map of ESTs is a unique resource for SNP analysis, comparative mapping, structural and functional analysis, and polyploid evolution, as well as providing a framework for constructing a sequence-ready, BAC-contig map of the wheat genome. PMID:15514046

  4. A chromosome bin map of 16,000 expressed sequence tag loci and distribution of genes among the three genomes of polyploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Echalier, B; Chao, S; Lazo, G R; Butler, G E; Anderson, O D; Akhunov, E D; Dvorák, J; Linkiewicz, A M; Ratnasiri, A; Dubcovsky, J; Bermudez-Kandianis, C E; Greene, R A; Kantety, R; La Rota, C M; Munkvold, J D; Sorrells, S F; Sorrells, M E; Dilbirligi, M; Sidhu, D; Erayman, M; Randhawa, H S; Sandhu, D; Bondareva, S N; Gill, K S; Mahmoud, A A; Ma, X-F; Miftahudin; Gustafson, J P; Conley, E J; Nduati, V; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J L; Anderson, J A; Peng, J H; Lapitan, N L V; Hossain, K G; Kalavacharla, V; Kianian, S F; Pathan, M S; Zhang, D S; Nguyen, H T; Choi, D-W; Fenton, R D; Close, T J; McGuire, P E; Qualset, C O; Gill, B S

    2004-10-01

    Because of the huge size of the common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) genome of 17,300 Mb, sequencing and mapping of the expressed portion is a logical first step for gene discovery. Here we report mapping of 7104 expressed sequence tag (EST) unigenes by Southern hybridization into a chromosome bin map using a set of wheat aneuploids and deletion stocks. Each EST detected a mean of 4.8 restriction fragments and 2.8 loci. More loci were mapped in the B genome (5774) than in the A (5173) or D (5146) genomes. The EST density was significantly higher for the D genome than for the A or B. In general, EST density increased relative to the physical distance from the centromere. The majority of EST-dense regions are in the distal parts of chromosomes. Most of the agronomically important genes are located in EST-dense regions. The chromosome bin map of ESTs is a unique resource for SNP analysis, comparative mapping, structural and functional analysis, and polyploid evolution, as well as providing a framework for constructing a sequence-ready, BAC-contig map of the wheat genome. PMID:15514046

  5. Grain and vegetative biomass reduction by the Russian wheat aphid in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a severe pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), other small grains, and grasses. Although the Russian wheat aphid is a significant pest of small grains, its feeding effects on grain yield and vegetative biomass in ...

  6. Spatially discriminating Russian wheat aphid induced plant stress from other wheat stressing factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) is a major pest of winter wheat and barley in the United States. RWA induces stress to the wheat crop by damaging plant foliage, lowering the greenness of plants, and affecting productivity. Multispectral remote sensing is effective at dete...

  7. Resistance among U.S. wheat Triticum aestivum cultivars to the wheat pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of blast on several graminaceous plants. The M. oryzae population causing wheat blast has not been found outside South America. U.S. wheat production is at risk to this pathogen if introduced and established. Proactive testing of US wheat cultivars for their re...

  8. Effects of protein in wheat flour on retrogradation of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Xijun, Lian; Junjie, Guo; Danli, Wang; Lin, Li; Jiaran, Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins were isolated from wheat flour and the effects of those proteins on retrogradation of wheat starch were investigated. The results showed that only glutenins retarded retrogradation of wheat starch and other 3 proteins promoted it. The results of IR spectra proved that no S-S linkage formed during retrogradation of wheat starch blended with wheat proteins. Combination of wheat starch and globulins or gliadins through glucosidic bonds hindered the hydrolysis of wheat starch by ?-amylase. The melting peak temperatures of retrograded wheat starch attached to different proteins were 128.46, 126.14, 132.03, 121.65, and 134.84 °C for the control with no protein, albumins, glutenins, globulins, gliadins groups, respectively, and there was no second melting temperature for albumins group. Interaction of wheat proteins and starch in retrograded wheat starch greatly decreased the endothermic enthalpy (?H) of retrograded wheat starch. Retrograded wheat starch bound to gliadins might be a new kind of resistant starch based on glycosidic bond between starch and protein. PMID:25048342

  9. Population divergence in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina is correlated with wheat evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M; Rodrigue, N; Kolmer, J

    2014-01-01

    Co-evolution of fungal pathogens with their host species during the domestication of modern crop varieties has likely affected the current genetic divergence of pathogen populations. The objective of this study was to determine if the evolutionary history of the obligate rust pathogen on wheat, Puccinia triticina, is correlated with adaptation to hosts with different ploidy levels. Sequence data from 15 loci with different levels of polymorphism were generated. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, Bayesian, maximum likelihood) showed the clear initial divergence of P. triticina isolates collected from Aegilops speltoides (the likely B genome donor of modern wheat) in Israel from the other isolates that were collected from tetraploid (AB genomes) durum wheat and hexaploid (ABD genomes) common wheat. Coalescence-based genealogy samplers also indicated that P. triticina on A. speltoides, diverged initially, followed by P. triticina isolates from durum wheat in Ethiopia and then by isolates from common wheat. Isolates of P. triticina found worldwide on cultivated durum wheat were the most recently coalesced and formed a clade nested within the isolates from common wheat. By a relative time scale, the divergence of P. triticinia as delimited by host specificity appears very recent. Significant reciprocal gene flow between isolates from common wheat and isolates from durum wheat that are found worldwide was detected, in addition to gene flow from isolates on common wheat to isolates on durum wheat in Ethiopia. PMID:24301080

  10. Partial Support for Winter Wheat Laboratory Marker-Assisted-Selection Program Phil Bruckner, Winter Wheat Breeder

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Partial Support for Winter Wheat Laboratory Marker-Assisted-Selection Program Phil Bruckner, Winter Wheat Breeder Project Description Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is an established plant breeding with limited technological capabilities such as ours. The MSU winter wheat program conducted a laboratory MAS

  11. Relationship between Russian wheat aphid abundance and edaphic and topographic characteristics of wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study explores the spatial relationship between Russian wheat aphid population density and variation in edaphic or topographic factors within wheat fields. Multiple regression analysis was applied to data collected from six wheat fields located in three States, Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska....

  12. Wheat puroindolines interact to form friabilin and control wheat grain hardness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Hogg; T. Sripo; B. Beecher; J. M. Martin; M. J. Giroux

    2004-01-01

    Wheat grain is sold based upon several physiochemical characteristics, one of the most important being grain texture. Grain texture in wheat directly affects many end use qualities such as milling yield, break flour yield, and starch damage. The hardness (Ha) locus located on the short arm of chromosome 5D is known to control grain hardness in wheat. This locus contains

  13. Population divergence in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina is correlated with wheat evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Rodrigue, N; Kolmer, J

    2014-04-01

    Co-evolution of fungal pathogens with their host species during the domestication of modern crop varieties has likely affected the current genetic divergence of pathogen populations. The objective of this study was to determine if the evolutionary history of the obligate rust pathogen on wheat, Puccinia triticina, is correlated with adaptation to hosts with different ploidy levels. Sequence data from 15 loci with different levels of polymorphism were generated. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, Bayesian, maximum likelihood) showed the clear initial divergence of P. triticina isolates collected from Aegilops speltoides (the likely B genome donor of modern wheat) in Israel from the other isolates that were collected from tetraploid (AB genomes) durum wheat and hexaploid (ABD genomes) common wheat. Coalescence-based genealogy samplers also indicated that P. triticina on A. speltoides, diverged initially, followed by P. triticina isolates from durum wheat in Ethiopia and then by isolates from common wheat. Isolates of P. triticina found worldwide on cultivated durum wheat were the most recently coalesced and formed a clade nested within the isolates from common wheat. By a relative time scale, the divergence of P. triticinia as delimited by host specificity appears very recent. Significant reciprocal gene flow between isolates from common wheat and isolates from durum wheat that are found worldwide was detected, in addition to gene flow from isolates on common wheat to isolates on durum wheat in Ethiopia. PMID:24301080

  14. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (H...

  15. Modification of Extensigraph Dough Preparation Method Developed for Wheat Breeding Lines and Commercial Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics - resistance to extension and extensibility, are very important wheat flour quality traits for the milling and baking industries, and for new wheat varietal selection in wheat breeding programs. Current available techniques or test methods, such as the AACCI extens...

  16. Association Analysis of Soft Wheat Quality Traits in Eastern US Soft Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft wheat quality is highly heritable, is controlled by multiple loci, and has been mapped in a number of bi-parental crosses. We extended the mapping information on soft wheat quality by using association analysis between genetic markers and quality phenotyping in 192 soft winter wheat cultivars ...

  17. Morphological spike diversity of Omani wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Al Khanjari; A. A. Filatenko; K. Hammer; A. Buerkert

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the diversity of field crops in Oman. The objective of this study therefore was to characterize wheat\\u000a accessions from this country using individual spikes collected from different wheat cultivation areas. The phenotypic assessment\\u000a of 15 qualitative and 17 quantitative characters showed variations among Omani wheat landraces. The standardized phenotypic\\u000a diversity index (H?) was with 0.66 higher

  18. Wheat Production in the Panhandle of Texas.

    E-print Network

    Whitfield, Charles J. (Charles James); Atkins, Irvin Milburn; Porter, Kenneth B.

    1952-01-01

    , Triumph and Wichita. Crop rotations, stubble mulch farming, the use of good seed, planting at the right time, proper management of graz- ing, and the control of weeds, diseases and pests in wheat, will give more stable wheat production. Wheat may... be resistant to diseases, lodging and shattering, be adapted to the harvesting methods employed, and have good milling and baking char- acteristics. Modern methods of developing new varieties consist usu- ally of crossing the best adapted commercial...

  19. Wheat breeding for end-product use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bushuk

    1998-01-01

    High grain yield is the primary objective of most wheat breeding programs around the world. In some countries, for example\\u000a Australia and Canada, a new wheat cultivar must meet a prescribed level of quality before it can be registered for commercial\\u000a production. For most traditional uses, wheat quality derives mainly from two interrelated characteristics: grain hardness\\u000a and protein content. Grain

  20. LACIE: Wheat yield models for the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative model determining the relationship between weather conditions and wheat yield in the U.S.S.R. was studied to provide early reliable forecasts on the size of the U.S.S.R. wheat harvest. Separate models are developed for spring wheat and for winter. Differences in yield potential and responses to stress conditions and cultural improvements necessitate models for each class.

  1. Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism). PMID:24883389

  2. Redefining endothelial progenitor cells via clonal analysis and hematopoietic stem\\/progenitor cell principals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mervin C. Yoder; Laura E. Mead; Daniel Prater; Theresa R. Krier; Karim N. Mroueh; Fang Li; Rachel Krasich; Constance J. Temm; Josef T. Prchal; David A. Ingram

    2007-01-01

    The limited vessel-forming capacity of infused endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into patients with cardiovascular dysfunction may be related to a misunder- standing of the biologic potential of the cells. EPCs are generally identified by cell surface antigen expression or counting in a commercially available kit that identi- fies \\

  3. Wheat and Barley Genome Sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kellye Eversole; Andreas Graner; Nils Stein

    A high quality reference genome sequence is a prerequisite resource for accessing any gene, driving genomics-based approaches\\u000a to systems biology, and for efficient exploitation of natural and induced genetic diversity of an organism. Wheat and barley\\u000a possess genomes of a size that was long presumed to be not amenable for whole genome sequencing. So far, only limited genomic\\u000a sequencing of

  4. Winter wheat and summer shade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artru, S.; Garre, S.; Lassois, L.; Dupraz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it's potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium.

  5. Structural analysis of wheat stems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt D. Hamman; Richard L. Williamson; Eric D. Steffler; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-01-01

    Design and development of improved harvesting, preprocessing, and bulk handling systems for biomass requires knowledge of\\u000a the biomechanical properties and structural characteristics of crop residue. Structural analysis of wheat stem cross-sections\\u000a was performed using the theory of composites and finite element analysis techniques. Representative geometries of the stem’s\\u000a structural components including the hypoderm, ground tissue, and vascular bundles were established

  6. Structural Analysis of Wheat Stems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt D. Hamman; Richard L. Williamson; Eric D. Steffler; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Peter A. Pryfogle

    Design and development of improved harvesting, preprocessing, and bulk handling systems for biomass requires knowledge of\\u000a the biomechanical properties and structural characteristics of crop residue. Structural analysis of wheat stem cross-sections\\u000a was performed using the theory of composites and finite element analysis techniques. Representative geometries of the stem’s\\u000a structural components including the hypoderm, ground tissue, and vascular bundles were established

  7. Recreating kidney progenitors from pluripotent cells.

    PubMed

    Takasato, Minoru; Maier, Barbara; Little, Melissa H

    2014-04-01

    Access to human pluripotent cells theoretically provides a renewable source of cells that can give rise to any required cell type for use in cellular therapy or bioengineering. However, successfully directing this differentiation remains challenging for most desired endpoints cell type, including renal cells. This challenge is compounded by the difficulty in identifying the required cell type in vitro and the multitude of renal cell types required to build a kidney. Here we review our understanding of how the embryo goes about specifying the cells of the kidney and the progress to date in adapting this knowledge for the recreation of nephron progenitors and their mature derivatives from pluripotent cells. PMID:24026757

  8. The Type Ia Supernovae Progenitor Problem: Searching for Progenitors in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchall, Alexander; Di Stefano, R.; Primini, F.; Scalzo, R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most active areas of current astrophysical research is the search for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Understanding the nature(s) of the progenitors is crucial if we are to use these supernovae to conduct high-precision measurements of the history of cosmic expansion, because in order to confirm them as standardizable candles we need to understand the mechanism by which they are produced. Type Ia supernovae occur when carbon/oxygen white dwarfs explode, having gained mass either by accretion from a companion or by merging with another white dwarf. The white dwarfs in all Type Ia progenitors must go through a stage of high-rate accretion and possibly of nuclear burning. They should then be detectable as bright objects, with luminosities as high as a few times 1038 erg s-1. Furthermore, whatever the correct model(s), more than 1000 bright progenitors (and other systems that may be equally bright but in which the white dwarf does not reach the critical mass) are expected in the Milky Way. We are conducting a comprehensive search through archived data to identify unusual bright sources that may correspond to white dwarfs accreting at high rates. A significant fraction of the progenitors may appear as x-ray sources that are either supersoft or quasisoft some of the time. We have therefore searched the ROSAT, Chandra, and XMM databases to identify all such soft sources in the Milky Way that are detectable from Earth. We report on our results and their implications.

  9. Threshing efficiency as an incentive for rapid domestication of emmer wheat

    PubMed Central

    Tzarfati, Raanan; Saranga, Yehoshua; Barak, Vered; Gopher, Avi; Korol, Abraham B.; Abbo, Shahal

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The harvesting method of wild and cultivated cereals has long been recognized as an important factor in the emergence of domesticated non-shattering ear genotypes. This study aimed to quantify the effects of spike brittleness and threshability on threshing time and efficiency in emmer wheat, and to evaluate the implications of post-harvest processes on domestication of cereals in the Near East. Methods A diverse collection of tetraploid wheat genotypes, consisting of Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides – the wild progenitor of domesticated wheat – traditional landraces, modern cultivars (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and 150 recombinant (wild × modern) inbred lines, was used in replicated controlled threshing experiments to quantify the effects of spike brittleness and threshability on threshing time and efficiency. Key Results The transition from a brittle hulled wild phenotype to non-brittle hulled phenotype (landraces) was associated with an approx. 30 % reduction in threshing time, whereas the transition from the latter to non-brittle free-threshing cultivars was associated with an approx. 85 % reduction in threshing time. Similar trends were obtained with groups of recombinant inbred lines showing extreme phenotypes of brittleness and threshability. Conclusions In tetraploid wheat, both non-brittle spike and free-threshing are labour-saving traits that increase the efficiency of post-harvest processing, which could have been an incentive for rapid domestication of the Near Eastern cereals, thus refuting the recently proposed hypothesis regarding extra labour associated with the domesticated phenotype (non-brittle spike) and its presumed role in extending the domestication episode time frame. PMID:23884398

  10. Estrogen and progesterone together expand murine endometrial epithelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, DM; Cheng, D; Schafenacker, AM; Paik, DY; Goldstein, AS; Witte, ON; Jaroszewicz, A; Pellegrini, M; Memarzadeh, S

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous with massive shifts in reproductive hormones, the uterus and its lining the endometrium expand to accommodate a growing fetus during pregnancy. In the absence of an embryo the endometrium, composed of epithelium and stroma, undergoes numerous hormonally regulated cycles of breakdown and regeneration. The hormonally mediated regenerative capacity of the endometrium suggests that signals that govern the growth of endometrial progenitors must be regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Here we report an antigenic profile for isolation of mouse endometrial epithelial progenitors. These cells are EpCAM+CD44+ITGA6hiThy1?PECAM1?PTPRC?Ter119?, comprise a minor subpopulation of total endometrial epithelia and possess a gene expression profile that is unique and different from other cells of the endometrium. The epithelial progenitors of the endometrium could regenerate in vivo, undergo multi-lineage differentiation and proliferate. We show that the number of endometrial epithelial progenitors is regulated by reproductive hormones. Co-administration of estrogen and progesterone dramatically expanded the endometrial epithelial progenitor cell pool. This effect was not observed when estrogen or progesterone was administered alone. Despite the remarkable sensitivity to hormonal signals, endometrial epithelial progenitors do not express estrogen or progesterone receptors. Therefore their hormonal regulation must be mediated through paracrine signals resulting from binding of steroid hormones to the progenitor cell niche. Discovery of signaling defects in endometrial epithelial progenitors or their niche can lead to development of better therapies in diseases of the endometrium. PMID:23341289

  11. Impairment of circulating endothelial progenitors in Down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerio Costa; Linda Sommese; Amelia Casamassimi; Roberta Colicchio; Claudia Angelini; Valentina Marchesano; Lara Milone; Bartolomeo Farzati; Alfonso Giovane; Carmela Fiorito; Monica Rienzo; Marco Picardi; Bice Avallone; Massimiliano Marco Corsi; Berardo Sarubbi; Raffaele Calabrò; Paola Salvatore; Alfredo Ciccodicola; Claudio Napoli

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological angiogenesis represents a critical issue in the progression of many diseases. Down syndrome is postulated to be a systemic anti-angiogenesis disease model, possibly due to increased expression of anti-angiogenic regulators on chromosome 21. The aim of our study was to elucidate some features of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the context of this syndrome. METHODS: Circulating endothelial progenitors

  12. Binary models for the progenitor of SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. J. L.; Joss, P. C.; Podsiadlowski, PH.; Rappaport, S.

    1989-01-01

    Binary models are used to examine the possibility that the progenitor of SN 1987 is a component of a binary system. Certain ranges of parameter space in which binary evolution produces progenitors that are applicable to models of SN 1987A are considered. The proposed binary models are capable of making definite predictions that can be checked against observations.

  13. Estrogen and progesterone together expand murine endometrial epithelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Deanna M; Cheng, Donghui; Schafenacker, Amanda M; Paik, Daniel Y; Goldstein, Andrew S; Witte, Owen N; Jaroszewicz, Artur; Pellegrini, Matteo; Memarzadeh, Sanaz

    2013-04-01

    Synchronous with massive shifts in reproductive hormones, the uterus and its lining the endometrium expand to accommodate a growing fetus during pregnancy. In the absence of an embryo the endometrium, composed of epithelium and stroma, undergoes numerous hormonally regulated cycles of breakdown and regeneration. The hormonally mediated regenerative capacity of the endometrium suggests that signals that govern the growth of endometrial progenitors must be regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Here, we report an antigenic profile for isolation of mouse endometrial epithelial progenitors. These cells are EpCAM(+) CD44(+) ITGA6(hi) Thy1(-) PECAM1(-) PTPRC(-) Ter119(-), comprise a minor subpopulation of total endometrial epithelia and possess a gene expression profile that is unique and different from other cells of the endometrium. The epithelial progenitors of the endometrium could regenerate in vivo, undergo multilineage differentiation and proliferate. We show that the number of endometrial epithelial progenitors is regulated by reproductive hormones. Coadministration of estrogen and progesterone dramatically expanded the endometrial epithelial progenitor cell pool. This effect was not observed when estrogen or progesterone was administered alone. Despite the remarkable sensitivity to hormonal signals, endometrial epithelial progenitors do not express estrogen or progesterone receptors. Therefore, their hormonal regulation must be mediated through paracrine signals resulting from binding of steroid hormones to the progenitor cell niche. Discovery of signaling defects in endometrial epithelial progenitors or their niche can lead to development of better therapies in diseases of the endometrium. PMID:23341289

  14. Temporal control of neural progenitors: TGF-? switches the clock forward.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Pierre; Cayouette, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about how vertebrate neural progenitors in a given spatial domain change their identity over time. In this issue of Neuron, Dias et al. (2014) discover that hindbrain progenitors switch their output in response to TGF-? signaling. PMID:25475182

  15. Endothelial progenitor cells: from senescence to rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Goligorsky, Michael S

    2014-07-01

    Discovered more than 15 years ago, endothelial progenitor cells attract both basic and translational researchers. It has become clear that they represent a heterogeneous population of endothelial colony-forming cells, early or late outgrowth endothelial cells, or blood outgrowth endothelial cells, each characterized by differing proliferative and regenerative capacity. Scattered within the vascular wall, these cells participate in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis and support regeneration of epithelial cells. There is growing evidence that this cell population is impaired during the course of chronic cardiovascular and kidney disease when it undergoes premature senescence and loss of specialized functions. Senescence-associated secretory products released by such cells can affect the neighboring cells and further exacerbate their regenerative capacity. For these reasons, adoptive transfer of endothelial progenitor cells is being used in more than 150 ongoing clinical trials of diverse cardiovascular diseases. Attempts to rejuvenate this cell population either ex vivo or in situ are emerging. The progress in this field is paramount to regenerate the injured kidney. PMID:25217265

  16. Clonogenic assay of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Haruchika; Asahara, Takayuki

    2013-05-01

    In stem cell biology, CD34+ or CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to two types of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) colonies: primitive and definitive EPC-colony forming units (primitive EPC-CFU and definitive EPC-CFU), which can be morphologically defined. Based on their morphology, an evaluation of the number or the ratio of each EPC colony constitutes the Endothelial Progenitor Cell Clonogenic Forming Assay (EPC-CFA), a novel assay to quantify the differentiation of colony forming EPCs. This assay system allows us to practically evaluate the vasculogenic potential of primary or cultured stem cell populations, i.e., mononuclear cells or fractionated stem cells (CD34+ or CD133+ cells) in peripheral blood, bone marrow, or umbilical cord blood. EPC-CFA can be used not only for basic research in vascular biology but also for evaluating the vascular reparative activity of patients with cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes the underlying concepts and significance of the EPC-CFA in vascular biology. PMID:23375595

  17. Expansion of cord blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Querol, S; Capmany, G; Cancelas, J A; García, J

    1998-06-01

    Cord blood (CB) provides an alternative source of stem cells for transplantation, although in a considerable number of cases CB transplantation is followed by long periods of aplasia. Ex vivo expansion has the capacity to generate large amounts of progenitors, and it has been proposed that expanded cells might be beneficial in overcoming these long periods of aplasia. We describe the biological characteristics of cord blood compared to other sources of stem cells (BM and PB), and report the effects of FLT3-L and MIP-1alpha when added to a combination of SCF, IL-3 and IL-6 in pre-clinical short-term, serum-free expansion cultures of CB-derived CD34+ cells. After 6 days, this culture system was able to generate considerable expansion rates in the committed compartment (between 8.16- and 17.26-fold for CFU-GM, and 21.58- and 36.53-fold for the BFU-E/CFU-Mix), and the CD34+ population (between 11.25- and 25.42-fold). Moreover, this culture system was also able to maintain the week 5 CAFC population, particularly when both FLT3-L and MIP-1alpha were present (91% of the input level). Thus, we have described a pre-clinical protocol for ex vivo expansion of CB CD34+ cells in a short-term, static, serum-free system, where a high generation of committed progenitor cells is achieved together with CAFC maintenance. PMID:9712502

  18. Temporal patterning of neural progenitors in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Chen, Zhenqing; Desplan, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila has recently become a powerful model system to understand the mechanisms of temporal patterning of neural progenitors called neuroblasts (NBs). Two different temporal sequences of transcription factors (TFs) have been found to be sequentially expressed in NBs of two different systems: the Hunchback, Krüppel, Pdm1/Pdm2, Castor, and Grainyhead sequence in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord; and the Homothorax, Klumpfuss, Eyeless, Sloppy-paired, Dichaete, and Tailless sequence that patterns medulla NBs. In addition, the intermediate neural progenitors of type II NB lineages are patterned by a different sequence: Dichaete, Grainyhead, and Eyeless. These three examples suggest that temporal patterning of neural precursors by sequences of TFs is a common theme to generate neural diversity. Cross-regulations, including negative feedback regulation and positive feedforward regulation among the temporal factors, can facilitate the progression of the sequence. However, there are many remaining questions to understand the mechanism of temporal transitions. The temporal sequence progression is intimately linked to the progressive restriction of NB competence, and eventually determines the end of neurogenesis. Temporal identity has to be integrated with spatial identity information, as well as with the Notch-dependent binary fate choices, in order to generate specific neuron fates. PMID:23962839

  19. The progenitors of supernovae Type Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Silvia

    2014-09-01

    Despite the significance of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. SNeIa are generally thought to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs). The canonical scenarios involve white dwarfs reaching the Chandrasekhar mass, either by accretion from a non-degenerate companion (single-degenerate channel, SD) or by a merger of two CO WDs (double-degenerate channel, DD). The study of SNeIa progenitors is a very active field of research for binary population synthesis (BPS) studies. The strength of the BPS approach is to study the effect of uncertainties in binary evolution on the macroscopic properties of a binary population, in order to constrain binary evolutionary processes. I will discuss the expected SNeIa rate from the BPS approach and the uncertainties in their progenitor evolution, and compare with current observations. I will also discuss the results of the POPCORN project in which four BPS codes were compared to better understand the differences in the predicted SNeIa rate of the SD channel. The goal of this project is to investigate whether differences in the simulated populations are due to numerical effects or whether they can be explained by differences in the input physics. I will show which assumptions in BPS codes affect the results most and hence should be studied in more detail.

  20. Identification and isolation of adult liver stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Hepatoblasts are considered to be liver stem/progenitor cells in the fetus because they propagate and differentiate into two types of liver epithelial cells, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In adults, oval cells that emerge in severely injured liver are considered facultative hepatic stem/progenitor cells. However, the nature of oval cells has remained unclear for long time due to the lack of a method to isolate them. It has also been unclear whether liver stem/progenitor cells exist in normal adult liver. Recently, we and others have successfully identified oval cells and adult liver stem/progenitor cells. Here, we describe the identification and isolation of mouse liver stem/progenitor cells by utilizing antibodies against specific cell surface marker molecules. PMID:22167637

  1. Alternative Dryland Cropping Systems to Wheat Fallow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat-summer fallow (W-F) in the Central Great Plains of the U.S.A. is not a long-term sustainable dryland system due to a high potential for erosion and associated soil degradation. Utilizing no-till and more intensive cropping we have developed several alternative rotations to wheat fallow....

  2. WHEAT ALLERGY & INTOLERENCE; RECENT UPDATES AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Batool, Rizwana; Aziz, Mahwash; Ahmed, Waqas

    2013-09-01

    Abstract The current review article highlights the complicacies associated with communities relying on wheat as their dietary staple. Although, wheat is an important source of nutrients but is also linked with allergenic responses in genetically susceptible subjects. The wheat proteins especially ?-amylase inhibitors, ?-5 gliadins, prolamins, non-prolamin, glucoprotein and profilins are of significance importance. The allergenic responses are further categorized into IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions. Conjugation and degranulation of the IgEs with the allergens results in release of several mediators. In contrary, non-IgE-mediated wheat allergy depends on immune complexes formed by food and food antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. As results, different diseases tend to occur on the completion of these reactions i.e. celiac disease (CD), baker's asthma, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis (AD) and urticaria. This instant article highlighted the concept of food allergy with special reference to wheat. The models are developed that are included in this article showing the wheat allergen, their possible routes, impact on human health, and indeed possible remedies. The article would provide the basic information for the researchers, common man, and allied stakeholders to cater the issue in details. However, the issue needs the attention of the researchers as there is a need to clarify the issues of wheat allergy and wheat intolerance. PMID:24915366

  3. Wheat Leaf Rust Caused by Puccinia triticina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores as long as the host remains healthy. Urediniospores can be wind-disseminated hundreds of kilometers and may result in wheat leaf rust e...

  4. TRACKING WHEAT RUST ON A CONTINENTAL SCALE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rusts of wheat are important fungal plant pathogens that can be wind disseminated for thousands of kilometers across continents and oceans. Rusts are obligate parasites that interact with resistance genes in wheat in a gene-for-gene manner. New races of rust develop by mutation and selection for...

  5. Registration of STARS 0601W wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    STARS 0601W (PI 643399) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm developed cooperatively by the Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Stillwater, Oklahoma, and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station. STARS 0601W is resistant ...

  6. SOIL-BORNE WHEAT MOSAIC VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus is widely distributed in most temperate wheat growing regions of the world. It can cause significant yield loss although due to the transient symptoms that disappear as temperatures increase, the disease is often mistaken for a nutrient deficiency. The virus has many ...

  7. Sunflower phytochemicals adversely affect wheat yield.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Tehmina; Bajwa, Rukhsana

    2010-05-01

    Various researchers have reported the weedicidal potential of sunflower when used as incorporation, mulch or aqueous extract without noticing its effect on crop. This study was planned to investigate the harmful effects of sunflower phytochemicals on wheat varieties. Early laboratory experiments were performed on four wheat varieties, i.e. Inqlab-91, Punjab-96, Pasban-90 and Uqab-2000. The aqueous extract of three sunflower varieties tested against wheat varieties significantly decreased biomass of wheat seedlings, especially at concentrations of 40% and 50%. However, wheat variety Punjab-96 resisted the most, which was selected for further trials. This detrimental effect was also noticed in pot trials, the extent of which varied with the age of the wheat seedlings and number of sprays. Three early sprays with one week intervals showed maximum losses to the crop plant. The study suggests the use of sunflower extracts for the management of weeds that emerge 3-4 weeks after wheat seedlings. However, the study discourages the use of sunflower mulch or incorporation in wheat fields for weed management. PMID:20461628

  8. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH SURFACE TREATMENT FOR STORED WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) can be used as a surface treatment in stored wheat to control pest infestations. However, it is not known how the thickness of the DE-treated wheat layer or grain temperature impacts effectiveness. When adult Rhizopertha dominica (F.), lesser grain borers, were released in e...

  9. Genetics of tan spot resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tan spot is a devastating foliar disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Much has been learned during the past two decades regarding the genetics of wheat-P. tritici-repentis interactions. Research has shown that the fungus produces at least three ho...

  10. Optimal Hedging Ratio for Pakistan's Wheat Imports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TARIQ ALI; SARFRAZ HASSAN; KHALID MUSHTAQ; KHUDA BAKHSH

    In this paper, optimal hedging ratio is calculated for Pakistan's wheat imports from USA. Price risk faced by various market participants is estimated. Slope coefficient from OLS regression is used to calculate optimal hedging ratio (OHR). Results indicate that FOB and CIF prices of wheat are significantly volatile and need proper management of associated risk. While optimal hedging ratio of

  11. IMPACT OF OZONE ON WINTER WHEAT YIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wheat is one of the more important agricultural crops in the USA, and the major production areas may be subjected to potentially damaging concentrations of ozone (O3). Since no information was available regarding the O3 sensitivity of winter wheat cultivars grown in the Midwest, ...

  12. Current status of wide hybridization in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Sharma; B. S. Gill

    1983-01-01

    Current status of wide hybridization in wheat is considered in the light of the number of hybrids produced, the number of genes transferred to commercial cultivars and their use in world wide agricuture. Some original results are presented and results of other authors are compiled to provide update information regarding wide crosses in wheat. Barriers to wide hybridization and progress

  13. Selecting wheat varieties for tortilla production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour tortillas are the second most consumed bread product behind white pan bread. Manufactured tortillas are formulated with highly viscoelastic hard red wheat flours selected and grown for bread making. However, the inherent properties of the bread making flours require costly reducing agent...

  14. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Foster; John Oestreich

    1993-01-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of

  15. GLIADIN ALLELES IN WHEAT: IDENTIFICATION AND APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaploid or common bread wheat (2n=42) is a self-pollinated crop, with three genomes designated A, B and D, each composed of seven chromosome pairs. Each Gli locus encodes a group (or block) of gliadin electrophoretic components. Analysis of progenies from crosses between different wheat cultivar...

  16. Agronomic Performance of Low Phytic Acid Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) genotypes of wheat are one approach to improving the nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the concentration of phytic acid in the aleurone layer, thus reducing the chelation of nutritionally important minerals and improving the bioavailability of phosphorus. Field studies ...

  17. Specificity of a Rust Resistance Suppressor on 7DL in the Spring Wheat Cultivar Canthatch.

    PubMed

    Talajoor, Mina; Jin, Yue; Wan, Anmin; Chen, Xianming; Bhavani, Sridhar; Tabe, Linda; Lagudah, Evans; Huang, Li

    2015-04-01

    The spring wheat 'Canthatch' has been shown to suppress stem rust resistance genes in the background due to the presence of a suppressor gene located on the long arm of chromosome 7D. However, it is unclear whether the suppressor also suppresses resistance genes against leaf rust and stripe rust. In this study, we investigated the specificity of the resistance suppression. To determine whether the suppression is genome origin specific, chromosome location specific, or rust species or race specific, we introduced 11 known rust resistance genes into the Canthatch background, including resistance to leaf, stripe, or stem rusts, originating from A, B, or D genomes and located on different chromosome homologous groups. F1 plants of each cross were tested with the corresponding rust race, and the infection types were scored and compared with the parents. Our results show that the Canthatch 7DL suppressor only suppressed stem rust resistance genes derived from either the A or B genome, and the pattern of the suppression is gene specific and independent of chromosomal location. PMID:25870922

  18. Wheat quality evaluation methods to predict wheat flour tortilla production

    E-print Network

    Sullins, Barbie Denise

    1997-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: R ph D. Waniska (Co- hair of Co mittee) Lloyd W. Roo (Co-Chair of Co ittee) H Imeida-Dominguez (Mem r) Ronald L. Richter (Member) Al B. W er, Jr. (Chair, Food... from Chemically-Treated Flours 143 XIV LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page Commercial Millers Providing Flour Samples 29 Chemical Treatments Given to Unbleached/Bleached Wheat Flours 30 Dough Smoothness Scores 33 IV Dough Softness Scores 33 V Dough...

  19. Sequencing of chloroplast genomes from wheat, barley, rye and their relatives provides a detailed insight into the evolution of the Triticeae tribe.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Christopher P; Senerchia, Natacha; Stein, Nils; Akhunov, Eduard D; Keller, Beat; Wicker, Thomas; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Using Roche/454 technology, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes of 12 Triticeae species, including bread wheat, barley and rye, as well as the diploid progenitors and relatives of bread wheat Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii. Two wild tetraploid taxa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata, were also included. Additionally, we incorporated wild Einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum and its domesticated form T. monococcum and two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) genotypes. Chloroplast genomes were used for overall sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis and dating of divergence times. We estimate that barley diverged from rye and wheat approximately 8-9 million years ago (MYA). The genome donors of hexaploid wheat diverged between 2.1-2.9 MYA, while rye diverged from Triticum aestivum approximately 3-4 MYA, more recently than previously estimated. Interestingly, the A genome taxa T. boeoticum and T. urartu were estimated to have diverged approximately 570,000 years ago. As these two have a reproductive barrier, the divergence time estimate also provides an upper limit for the time required for the formation of a species boundary between the two. Furthermore, we conclusively show that the chloroplast genome of hexaploid wheat was contributed by the B genome donor and that this unknown species diverged from Ae. speltoides about 980,000 years ago. Additionally, sequence alignments identified a translocation of a chloroplast segment to the nuclear genome which is specific to the rye/wheat lineage. We propose the presented phylogeny and divergence time estimates as a reference framework for future studies on Triticeae. PMID:24614886

  20. Sequencing of Chloroplast Genomes from Wheat, Barley, Rye and Their Relatives Provides a Detailed Insight into the Evolution of the Triticeae Tribe

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Christopher P.; Senerchia, Natacha; Stein, Nils; Akhunov, Eduard D.; Keller, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Using Roche/454 technology, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes of 12 Triticeae species, including bread wheat, barley and rye, as well as the diploid progenitors and relatives of bread wheat Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii. Two wild tetraploid taxa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata, were also included. Additionally, we incorporated wild Einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum and its domesticated form T. monococcum and two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) genotypes. Chloroplast genomes were used for overall sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis and dating of divergence times. We estimate that barley diverged from rye and wheat approximately 8–9 million years ago (MYA). The genome donors of hexaploid wheat diverged between 2.1–2.9 MYA, while rye diverged from Triticum aestivum approximately 3–4 MYA, more recently than previously estimated. Interestingly, the A genome taxa T. boeoticum and T. urartu were estimated to have diverged approximately 570,000 years ago. As these two have a reproductive barrier, the divergence time estimate also provides an upper limit for the time required for the formation of a species boundary between the two. Furthermore, we conclusively show that the chloroplast genome of hexaploid wheat was contributed by the B genome donor and that this unknown species diverged from Ae. speltoides about 980,000 years ago. Additionally, sequence alignments identified a translocation of a chloroplast segment to the nuclear genome which is specific to the rye/wheat lineage. We propose the presented phylogeny and divergence time estimates as a reference framework for future studies on Triticeae. PMID:24614886

  1. Introduction Wheat development is affected by nutrients, water, light,

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Introduction Wheat development is affected by nutrients, water, light, and other factors/harvest schedule. Wheat moves through a predictable sequence of develop- ment based upon environmental variables in wheat is jointing or when the first node is noticeable. Wheat at jointing could be thriving and have

  2. College of Agricultural Sciences Calvin & Merle Smith Wheat Research

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    College of Agricultural Sciences Calvin & Merle Smith Wheat Research Endowment Fund Application PURPOSE The Calvin & Merle Smith Wheat Research Endowment Fund supports a student's work on an OSU wheat of Agricultural Sciences and related fields who are working on OSU wheat research projects. Funds may be used

  3. Plant breeding Bread wheat x Agrotricum crosses as a source

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant breeding Bread wheat x Agrotricum crosses as a source of immunity and resistance to the PAV). Through a process of selection for BYDV resistance and threshable phenotypes with wheat-like seeds, wheat numbers were also ob- tained. The low frequency of expression of immunity in the bread wheat background

  4. Grain hardness: a major determinant of Wheat Quality (A Review)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat quality is a complex term and depends upon intended use for specific products. The major determinants of wheat quality are grain hardness, protein content and gluten strength. Endosperm texture in wheat is the single most important and defining quality characteristic, which determines wheat cl...

  5. Phospholipase A2 activity during cold acclimation of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4; PLA2) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown tissue from plants undergoing cold acclimation and/or chilling stress was investigated in a moderately cold tolerant winter wheat, a spring wheat, and a poorly cold tolerant winter wheat. Activity levels were inv...

  6. 98 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Genetic Variation of Wheat streak mosaic virus

    E-print Network

    Murray, Timothy D.

    98 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Virology Genetic Variation of Wheat streak mosaic virus in the United States, T. D. 2013. Genetic variation of Wheat streak mosaic virus in the United States Pacific Northwest. Phytopathol- ogy 103:98-104. Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), the cause of wheat streak mosaic

  7. Identification of insect damaged wheat kernels using transmittance images

    E-print Network

    Cataltepe, Zehra

    Identification of insect damaged wheat kernels using transmittance images Z. Cataltepe, A. Enis Cetin and T. Pearson Transmittance images of wheat kernels are used to classify insect damaged and undamaged wheat kernels. The histogram of pixel intensities of the wheat images were used as the features

  8. REQUEST FOR SUPPORT OF REGISTRATION OF 99SPELT9Z CROP KIND: Wheat TYPE: Spring Spelt wheat

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    REQUEST FOR SUPPORT OF REGISTRATION OF 99SPELT9Z CROP KIND: Wheat TYPE: Spring Spelt wheat PROPOSER. Seed of the Common winter spelt wheat parent was purchased from a retail outlet. When sown was subsequently evaluated in local yield tests (1999 and 2000; SY=8) in and in the Private Spring Spelt Wheat Test

  9. Identification of Solid-Stem Winter Wheat Lines with Enhanced Winter Hardiness Phil Bruckner, Winter Wheat Breeder

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Identification of Solid-Stem Winter Wheat Lines with Enhanced Winter Hardiness Phil Bruckner, Winter Wheat Breeder Project Description Montana winter wheat producers planted 2.45 million acres in 2009, 60% of which was grown in the North Central District. The leading winter wheat cultivar over

  10. Winter wheat cultivars with temperature sensitive resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus do not recover from early season infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus, all vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer, frequently cause devastating losses to winter wheat production throughout the central and western Great Plains. Resistant 'Mace' and 'RonL' are commercially ...

  11. EVALUATION OF DURUM SPRING WHEAT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WHEAT STEM SAWFLY (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE)INFESTATION OF SPRING DURUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, is the primary arthropod pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, in the Northern Great Plains. Rotation to non-host crops should decrease infestation of susceptible spring or winter wheats. Information is unavailable on wheat stem sawfly infestation potentia...

  12. Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease, is present in Ohio wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat, was found in wheat fields in three western counties in Ohio: Auglaize, Miami, and Paulding. WMoV nucleoprotein sequence was identified from Illumina deep sequencing of RNA collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic wheat s...

  13. Weed Control Recommendations in Wheat 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon; Baumann, Paul A.; Baughman, Todd; Bean, Brent W.

    2008-06-05

    rocket, wild radish. Annual weeds: small. Perennial weeds: at bud stage but before wheat boot stage. After 4-leaf stage up to boot stage; high rate after tiller to early boot stage. Late-season application for control of perennial weeds must.... Feekes scale for the growth and development of cereals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10.1 10.5 11 one tillering tillers leaf leaf first node second last leaf ligule in head flowering shoot begins formed sheaths sheaths of stem node just of last ?boot? visible...

  14. The Progenitor of SN 1987A. [IUE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, G.

    1988-01-01

    Spatially resolved IUE spectra (1150 to 2000 A) taken at the position of SN 1987A in March 1987 show that the 12th mag B3 I star Sk -69 deg 202 disappeared. Only the fainter companion stars (Star 2 and Star 3) are present near the site of the supernova. It is concluded that Sk -69 deg 202 exploded to produce SN 1987A. The known characteristics of Sk -69 deg 202 are consistent with the interpretation that the progenitor was a relatively compact star, having a high-velocity low-density stellar wind prior to the outburst. Recent IUE spectra of SN 1987A (May 1988) show no evidence that Sk -69 deg 202 still exists inside the expanding ejecta.

  15. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Geft, Dael; Schwartzenberg, Shmuel; George, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    The role of vascular endothelium in cardiovascular disorders is well recognized. Mature endothelial cells contribute to the repair of endothelial injury, but only with a limited capacity. This has led to growing interest and further investigation into circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and their role in vascular healing, repair and postnatal neovascularization. Recent studies have shown that EPCs are affected both in number and function by several cardiovascular risk factors as well as various cardiovascular disease states. Here, we aim to provide an overview of EPCs in humans, from methods of assessment to quantification and functional properties in numerous cardiovascular conditions. In addition, we hope to offer some perspective on the potential diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of EPCs. PMID:18793114

  16. Galaxies, their satellites and progenitors: chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, I.; Cora, S. A.; Padilla, N. D.

    We use a model that combines N-body cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters and a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation (SAG: Semi-analytical galaxies; Lagos, Cora & Padilla, 2008) in order to study the properties of galaxy progenitors, using the information provided by their stellar haloes, and surviving satellites at redshift z = 0. We model the formation of stellar haloes by considering tidal stripping events acting on the satellite galaxies before the mergers occur, being able to follow their mass, luminosity and chemical properties. We find that the satellite galaxies have lower metal- licities than the stellar haloes of central galaxies for a given host DM halo mass, as has been already noted by Lagos, Padilla & Cora (2009), using a different approach.

  17. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to stem cell imaging is proposed to circumvent the major limitation of in vitro radiolabeling – the eventual radiolabel decay. Stable transduction of stem cells in vitro would allow for the selection of high quality stem cells with optimal functional parameters of the transduced reporter systems. The use of a long-lived radioisotope 124I to label a highly specific reporter gene probe will allow for ex vivo labeling of stem cells and their imaging immediately after injection and during the following next week. The use of short-lived radioisotopes (i.e., 18F) to label highly specific reporter gene probes will allow repetitive PET imaging for the assessment of to stem cell migration, targeting, differentiation, and long-term viability of stem cell-derived tissues. Qualifications of the research team and resources. An established research team of experts in various disciplines has been assembled at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) over the past two years including the PI, senior co-investigators and collaborators. The participants of this team are recognized internationally to be among the leaders in their corresponding fields of research and clinical medicine. The resources at MDACC are exceptionally well developed and have been recently reinforced by the installation of a microPET and microSPECT/CT cameras, and a 7T MRI system for high resolution animal imaging; and by integrating a synthetic chemistry core for the development and production of precursors for radiolabeling.

  18. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (principal investigators)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  19. Development of sprouted wheat based probiotic beverage.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Mridula, D; Gupta, R K

    2014-12-01

    Present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) for development of wheat based probiotic beverage and to optimize the proportion of different ingredients viz. sprouted wheat flour, sprouted wheat bran, oat and stabilizer using response surface methodology. Acidity, pH and probiotic count of samples prepared with L. acidophilus NCDC-14 was higher than that of L. acidophilus NCDC-16 culture. Being more compatible, L. acidophilus NCDC-14 was selected for this study. Acidity (in terms of lactic acid), pH and probiotic count of the different samples ranged from 0.21 to 0.45 %, 4.0 to 4.9, and 8.30 to 10.95 log10 cfu?mL(-1), respectively. Probiotic count increased with increasing amount of sprouted wheat and oat. Optimized levels for sprouted wheat flour, oat, wheat bran and guar gum were 7.86, 5.42, 1.42 and 0.6 g, respectively per 100 mL of water. Optimized probiotic beverage provided 13.19 % total solids, 1.19 % protein, 0.33 % fat, 0.10 % ash, 0.42 % crude fibre, 1.45 mg iron, calcium 15.74 mg, 11.56 % carbohydrates, 54 kcal calories and 10.43 log10 cfu?mL(-1) probiotic count. Thus, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-14 can be used for development of potentially probiotic beverage with sprouted wheat and oat. PMID:25477662

  20. Chromosome pairing of individual genomes in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), its progenitors, and hybrids with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).

    PubMed

    Kopecký, D; Bartos, J; Zwierzykowski, Z; Dolezel, J

    2009-01-01

    A diploid-like pairing system prevents meiotic irregularities and improves the efficiency of gamete production in allopolyploid species. While the nature of the system is known in some polyploid crops including wheat, little is known about the control of chromosome pairing in polyploid fescues (Festuca spp.). In this work we studied chromosome pairing in allohexaploid F. arundinacea, its progenitors F. pratensis and F. glaucescens, and two intergeneric hybrids Lolium multiflorum (2x) x F. arundinacea (6x) and L. multiflorum (4x) x F. glaucescens (4x). The use of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) permitted the analysis of homoeologous chromosome pairing and recombination of different genomes involved. We detected a diploid-like pairing system in polyploid fescues F. arundinacea and F. glaucescens, the latter being one of the progenitors of F. arundinacea. The pairing control system was absent in the second progenitor F. pratensis. Detailed analysis of intergeneric hybrids confirmed the presumed haploinsufficiency of the fescue system, which resulted in homoeologous pairing between all component genomes. This indicates that introgression of any specific chromosome segment from one genome to another is possible in all genome combinations. Our results not only contribute to the quest to discover the nature of the system controlling chromosome pairing in polyploid fescues, but may also have serious implications for design of hybrid breeding schemes in forage grasses. PMID:19420930

  1. Microencapsulation of wheat germ oil.

    PubMed

    Yazicioglu, Basak; Sahin, Serpil; Sumnu, Gulum

    2015-06-01

    Wheat germ oil (WGO) is beneficial for health since it is a rich source of omega-3, omega-6 and tocopherol. However, as it contains polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is prone to oxidation. The aim of this study was to encapsulate wheat germ oil and determine the effects of core to coating ratio, coating materials ratio and ultrasonication time on particle size distribution of emulsions and encapsulation efficiency (EE) and surface morphology of capsules. Maltodextrin (MD) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) at different ratios (3:1, 2:2, 1:3) were used as coating materials. Total solid content of samples was 40 % (w/w). Five core to coating ratios (1:8, 1:4, 1:2, 3:4, 1:1) were tried. Ultrasound was used at 320 W and 20 kHz for 2, 5, 10 min to obtain emulsions. Then, emulsions were freeze dried to obtain microcapsules. It was observed that, increasing WPC ratio in the coating resulted in higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size. Microcapsules prepared with MD:WPC ratio of 1:3 were found to have higher EE (74.35-89.62 %). Increase in oil load led to decrease in EE. Thus 1:8 core to coating ratio gave better results. Increasing ultrasonication time also had a positive effect on encapsulation efficiency. PMID:26028741

  2. Genome-wide association for grain morphology in synthetic hexaploid wheats using digital imaging analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grain size and shape greatly influence grain weight which ultimately enhances grain yield in wheat. Digital imaging (DI) based phenomic characterization can capture the three dimensional variation in grain size and shape than has hitherto been possible. In this study, we report the results from using digital imaging of grain size and shape to understand the relationship among different components of this trait, their contribution to enhance grain weight, and to identify genomic regions (QTLs) controlling grain morphology using genome wide association mapping with high density diversity array technology (DArT) and allele-specific markers. Results Significant positive correlations were observed between grain weight and grain size measurements such as grain length (r?=?0.43), width, thickness (r?=?0.64) and factor from density (FFD) (r?=?0.69). A total of 231 synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) were grouped into five different sub-clusters by Bayesian structure analysis using unlinked DArT markers. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was observed among DArT loci?>?10 cM distance and approximately 28% marker pairs were in significant LD. In total, 197 loci over 60 chromosomal regions and 79 loci over 31 chromosomal regions were associated with grain morphology by genome wide analysis using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches, respectively. They were mainly distributed on homoeologous group 2, 3, 6 and 7 chromosomes. Twenty eight marker-trait associations (MTAs) on the D genome chromosomes 2D, 3D and 6D may carry novel alleles with potential to enhance grain weight due to the use of untapped wild accessions of Aegilops tauschii. Statistical simulations showed that favorable alleles for thousand kernel weight (TKW), grain length, width and thickness have additive genetic effects. Allelic variations for known genes controlling grain size and weight, viz. TaCwi-2A, TaSus-2B, TaCKX6-3D and TaGw2-6A, were also associated with TKW, grain width and thickness. In silico functional analysis predicted a range of biological functions for 32 DArT loci and receptor like kinase, known to affect plant development, appeared to be common protein family encoded by several loci responsible for grain size and shape. Conclusion Conclusively, we demonstrated the application and integration of multiple approaches including high throughput phenotyping using DI, genome wide association studies (GWAS) and in silico functional analysis of candidate loci to analyze target traits, and identify candidate genomic regions underlying these traits. These approaches provided great opportunity to understand the breeding value of SHWs for improving grain weight and enhanced our deep understanding on molecular genetics of grain weight in wheat. PMID:24884376

  3. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management

    PubMed Central

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control. PMID:24065979

  4. 7 CFR 782.15 - Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. 782...Program § 782.15 Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. ...consumption and resale of Canadian-produced wheat, form FSA-751, Wheat Consumption...

  5. 7 CFR 782.15 - Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. 782...Program § 782.15 Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. ...consumption and resale of Canadian-produced wheat, form FSA-751, Wheat Consumption...

  6. 7 CFR 782.15 - Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. 782...Program § 782.15 Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. ...consumption and resale of Canadian-produced wheat, form FSA-751, Wheat Consumption...

  7. 7 CFR 782.15 - Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. 782...Program § 782.15 Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. ...consumption and resale of Canadian-produced wheat, form FSA-751, Wheat Consumption...

  8. 7 CFR 782.15 - Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. 782...Program § 782.15 Filing FSA-751, Wheat Consumption and Resale Report. ...consumption and resale of Canadian-produced wheat, form FSA-751, Wheat Consumption...

  9. Stromal-epithelial crosstalk regulates kidney progenitor cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amrita; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Karner, Courtney M.; Xin, Mei; Lum, Lawrence; Chen, Chuo; Olson, Eric N.; Perantoni, Alan O.; Carroll, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Current models suggest that the fate of the kidney epithelial progenitors is solely regulated by signals from the adjacent ureteric bud. The bud provides signals that regulate the survival, renewal and differentiation of these cells. Recent data suggest that Wnt9b, a ureteric bud-derived factor, is sufficient for both progenitor cell renewal and differentiation. How the same molecule induces two seemingly contradictory processes is unknown. Here, we show that signals from the stromal fibroblasts cooperate with Wnt9b to promote differentiation of the progenitors. The atypical cadherin Fat4 encodes at least part of this stromal signal. Our data support a model whereby proper kidney size/function is regulated by balancing opposing signals from the ureteric bud and stroma to promote renewal and differentiation of the nehron progenitors. PMID:23974041

  10. Segmentation and tracking of neural progenitor cells in

    E-print Network

    Segmentation and tracking of neural progenitor cells in microscopic image sequences John Christian and Mathematical Modelling Building 321, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Phone +45 45253351, Fax +45 45882673

  11. Neurobiology of Disease Oligodendroglial Progenitor Cell Therapy Limits

    E-print Network

    Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

    , 20133 Milano, Italy This work describes the first successful oligodendrocyte-based cell therapy (MLD). We found that oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) engrafted and survived into adulthood when, and survived as proteolipid protein- and MBP-positive postmitotic myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs

  12. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Regulators of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    E-print Network

    Gazit, Roi

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood homeostasis and are the functional units of bone marrow transplantation. To improve the molecular understanding of HSCs and their proximal progenitors, we performed transcriptome ...

  13. Double degenerates from the supernova Ia progenitor survey (SPY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Karl; R. Napiwotzki; U. Heber; T. Lisker; G. Nelemans; N. Christlieb; D. Reimers

    2002-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of double degenerate (DD) white dwarfs\\u000afrom the Supernovae Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY). Orbital parameters of four\\u000asystems, including a massive short period system, are presented.

  14. Double degenerates from the supernova Ia progenitor survey (SPY)

    E-print Network

    C. Karl; R. Napiwotzki; U. Heber; T. Lisker; G. Nelemans; N. Christlieb; D. Reimers

    2002-09-30

    We report on follow-up observations of double degenerate (DD) white dwarfs from the Supernovae Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY). Orbital parameters of four systems, including a massive short period system, are presented.

  15. Origin of monocytes and macrophages in a committed progenitor.

    PubMed

    Hettinger, Jan; Richards, David M; Hansson, Jenny; Barra, Melanie M; Joschko, Ann-Cathrin; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Feuerer, Markus

    2013-08-01

    Monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are developmentally related regulators of the immune system that share the monocyte-macrophage DC progenitor (MDP) as a common precursor. Unlike differentiation into DCs, the distal pathways for differentiation into monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are not fully elucidated. We have now demonstrated the existence of a clonogenic, monocyte- and macrophage-restricted progenitor cell derived from the MDP. This progenitor was a Ly6C(+) proliferating cell present in the bone marrow and spleen that generated the major monocyte subsets and macrophages, but not DCs or neutrophils. By in-depth quantitative proteomics, we characterized changes in the proteome during monocyte differentiation, which provided insight into the molecular principles of developing monocytes, such as their functional maturation. Thus, we found that monocytes and macrophages were renewed independently of DCs from a committed progenitor. PMID:23812096

  16. Effect of wheat, legume and legume enriched wheat residue and nitrogen application on soil fertility under rice-wheat cropping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SN Sharma

    2004-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted for two crop years of 1997?–?98 and 1998?–?99 at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effect of wheat, legume and legume enriched wheat residue (WR) on soil fertility under the rice-wheat cropping system. A rice-wheat cropping system without incorporation of residue depleted organic C over initial level by 0.061%, kjeldahl-N by

  17. Progenitor-derived Oligodendrocyte Culture System from Human Fetal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Maria Chiara G.; Maric, Dragan; Bandeian, Alexandra; Leibovitch, Emily; Yang, Wan; Major, Eugene O.

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of human neural progenitors into neuronal and glial cell types offers a model to study and compare molecular regulation of neural cell lineage development. In vitro expansion of neural progenitors from fetal CNS tissue has been well characterized. Despite the identification and isolation of glial progenitors from adult human sub-cortical white matter and development of various culture conditions to direct differentiation of fetal neural progenitors into myelin producing oligodendrocytes, acquiring sufficient human oligodendrocytes for in vitro experimentation remains difficult. Differentiation of galactocerebroside+ (GalC) and O4+ oligodendrocyte precursor or progenitor cells (OPC) from neural precursor cells has been reported using second trimester fetal brain. However, these cells do not proliferate in the absence of support cells including astrocytes and neurons, and are lost quickly over time in culture. The need remains for a culture system to produce cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage suitable for in vitro experimentation. Culture of primary human oligodendrocytes could, for example, be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of neurotropic infectious agents like the human polyomavirus, JCV, that in vivo infects those cells. These cultured cells could also provide models of other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Primary, human fetal brain-derived, multipotential neural progenitor cells proliferate in vitro while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into neurons (progenitor-derived neurons, PDN) and astrocytes (progenitor-derived astrocytes, PDA) This study shows that neural progenitors can be induced to differentiate through many of the stages of oligodendrocytic lineage development (progenitor-derived oligodendrocytes, PDO). We culture neural progenitor cells in DMEM-F12 serum-free media supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-AA), Sonic hedgehog (Shh), neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3), N-2 and triiodothyronine (T3). The cultured cells are passaged at 2.5e6 cells per 75cm flasks approximately every seven days. Using these conditions, the majority of the cells in culture maintain a morphology characterized by few processes and express markers of pre-oligodendrocyte cells, such as A2B5 and O-4. When we remove the four growth factors (GF) (bFGF, PDGF-AA, Shh, NT-3) and add conditioned media from PDN, the cells start to acquire more processes and express markers specific of oligodendrocyte differentiation, such as GalC and myelin basic protein (MBP). We performed phenotypic characterization using multicolor flow cytometry to identify unique markers of oligodendrocyte. PMID:23288248

  18. The Role of Progenitor Cells in Lung Disease Prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen L. Burnham; Susan Majka; Marc Moss

    \\u000a The number of investigations related to the role of stem and progenitor cells in lung repair has grown exponentially in recent\\u000a years. Bone-marrow-derived cells, including stem cells and progenitors, have emerged as candidate markers to prognosticate\\u000a outcomes during pulmonary disease. The relationship of these cells to prognosis has provided clues regarding the pathophysiologic\\u000a characteristics of pulmonary disease, and direction for

  19. Dentin Regeneration Using Deciduous Pulp Stem\\/Progenitor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zheng; X. Y. Wang; Y. M. Wang; X. Y. Liu; C. M. Zhang; B. X. Hou; S. L. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Reparative dentin formation is essential for maintaining the integrity of dentin structure during disease or trauma. In this study, we investigated stem\\/progenitor cell-based tissue engineering for dentin regeneration in a large animal model. Porcine deciduous pulp stem\\/progenitor cells (PDPSCs) were mixed with a beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffold for dentin regeneration. Different concentrations of PDPSCs were tested to determine the optimal

  20. Testing the Quality of Wheat Products

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2010-06-30

    This interactive activity adapted from Montana State University shows how various wheat products used in the food industry are tested to make sure they have the desired physical and nutritional characteristics.

  1. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  2. mTOR inhibition induces endothelial progenitor cell death.

    PubMed

    Miriuka, S G; Rao, V; Peterson, M; Tumiati, L; Delgado, D H; Mohan, R; Ramzy, D; Stewart, D; Ross, H J; Waddell, T K

    2006-09-01

    Immunosuppressants are necessary to prevent graft rejection after solid organ transplantation. However, they are also known to have significant side effects, including endothelial toxicity. Endothelial progenitor cells originate in the bone marrow and are recognized by their angiogenic and endothelial reparative properties. The effects of the immunosuppressants cyclosporine A (CyA), tacrolimus and rapamycin were analyzed on endothelial progenitor-like cells. Rapamycin induced rapid cell death, even at concentrations much lower than those used clinically, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cultured to favor outgrowth of endothelial progenitors. Cyclosporine A and tacrolimus had no significant effects at clinical concentrations. The effect of rapamycin was specific to endothelial progenitor cells, in particular to the early stages of differentiation, as a lesser effect was observed in late outgrowth endothelial progenitors, mature aortic endothelial cells, and macrophages derived from the same PBMCs. The mechanism of cell death appeared to be apoptosis; however, its induction was probably multifactorial and did not depend on caspase or cathepsin activation. In conclusion, rapamycin induces endothelial progenitor cell death, possibly because it blocks survival signals given by growth factors critically required by these cells. PMID:16796720

  3. How Low Can They Go? Detecting low luminosity supernova progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchter, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    While we now discover thousands of supernovae {SNe} per year, in the history of astronomy a little more than a dozen SN progenitors have been identified, and all of these have been from Type II SNe. This dearth is largely due to the fact that the progenitors are destroyed in the SN, and so to study them one must have fortuitously taken data on them prior to their explosion. However, the fault may also partially lie with the methods employed to search for progenitors.In the past, searches have generally relied on looking at the location of a SNe in an archival image to see if a noticeable point source is at the right location. This method requires that the background field of the galaxy be relatively uniform, and if one wants an accurate estimate of the progenitor mangitude, that the star was not in an association or binary. Here we propose to take WFC3 images several years post explosion so that we can subtract them from archival WFPC2 images. We show that we can do this with extraordinary fidelity. We will apply this method to a well-chosen sample of three Type II SNe and two Type Ibc SNe, which lie on messy galaxy fields that may have camouflaged the presence of a progenitor. This method has the potential to detect or substantially deepen the limits on the progenitors of these objects, which already appear too faint for theoretical models.

  4. Harnessing endogenous stem/progenitor cells for tendon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang H; Lee, Francis Y; Tarafder, Solaiman; Kao, Kristy; Jun, Yena; Yang, Guodong; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-07-01

    Current stem cell-based strategies for tissue regeneration involve ex vivo manipulation of these cells to confer features of the desired progenitor population. Recently, the concept that endogenous stem/progenitor cells could be used for regenerating tissues has emerged as a promising approach that potentially overcomes the obstacles related to cell transplantation. Here we applied this strategy for the regeneration of injured tendons in a rat model. First, we identified a rare fraction of tendon cells that was positive for the known tendon stem cell marker CD146 and exhibited clonogenic capacity, as well as multilineage differentiation ability. These tendon-resident CD146+ stem/progenitor cells were selectively enriched by connective tissue growth factor delivery (CTGF delivery) in the early phase of tendon healing, followed by tenogenic differentiation in the later phase. The time-controlled proliferation and differentiation of CD146+ stem/progenitor cells by CTGF delivery successfully led to tendon regeneration with densely aligned collagen fibers, normal level of cellularity, and functional restoration. Using siRNA knockdown to evaluate factors involved in tendon generation, we demonstrated that the FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway regulates CTGF-induced proliferation and differentiation of CD146+ stem/progenitor cells. Together, our findings support the use of endogenous stem/progenitor cells as a strategy for tendon regeneration without cell transplantation and suggest this approach warrants exploration in other tissues. PMID:26053662

  5. LINKING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND THEIR RESULTING EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Hamuy, Mario [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Shields, Gregory A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Sternberg, Assaf, E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2012-06-20

    Comparing the ejecta velocities at maximum brightness and narrow circumstellar/interstellar Na D absorption line profiles of a sample of 23 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we determine that the properties of SN Ia progenitor systems and explosions are intimately connected. As demonstrated by Sternberg et al., half of all SNe Ia with detectable Na D absorption at the host-galaxy redshift in high-resolution spectroscopy have Na D line profiles with significant blueshifted absorption relative to the strongest absorption component, which indicates that a large fraction of SN Ia progenitor systems have strong outflows. In this study, we find that SNe Ia with blueshifted circumstellar/interstellar absorption systematically have higher ejecta velocities and redder colors at maximum brightness relative to the rest of the SN Ia population. This result is robust at a 98.9%-99.8% confidence level, providing the first link between the progenitor systems and properties of the explosion. This finding is further evidence that the outflow scenario is the correct interpretation of the blueshifted Na D absorption, adding additional confirmation that some SNe Ia are produced from a single-degenerate progenitor channel. An additional implication is that either SN Ia progenitor systems have highly asymmetric outflows that are also aligned with the SN explosion or SNe Ia come from a variety of progenitor systems where SNe Ia from systems with strong outflows tend to have more kinetic energy per unit mass than those from systems with weak or no outflows.

  6. Analysis of the wheat endosperm transcriptome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie L. Laudencia-Chingcuanco; Boryana S. Stamova; Gerard R. Lazo; Xiangqin Cui; Olin D. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Among the cereals, wheat is the most widely grown geographically and is part of the staple diet in much of the world. Understanding\\u000a how the cereal endosperm develops and functions will help generate better tools to manipulate grain qualities important to\\u000a end-users. We used a genomics approach to identify and characterize genes that are expressed in the wheat endosperm. We

  7. Impact of United States international wheat policy 

    E-print Network

    Richards, Dean

    1977-01-01

    world food security. Wheat importing countries, particularly less developed nations, articulated their desires tor a global grain reserve at the World Food Conference in Rome during December, 197m. Since then, widespread wheat surpluses have created... The Situation and Policies concerning Mheat 5 12 III ' IRPACTS ON NAJOR WORLD ECONORIC SECTORS ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 27 Developing Importing Countries Asia ~ ~ ~ Africa Latin America Developing Importing countries Developed Importing Countries Centrally Planned...

  8. Bioethanol production from ammonia percolated wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minhee Han; Se-Kwon Moon; Yule Kim; Youngran Kim; Bongwoo Chung; Gi-Wook Choi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of ammonia percolation pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production. Ground wheat\\u000a straw at a 10% (w\\/v) loading was pretreated with a 15% (v\\/v) ammonia solution. The experiments were performed at treatment\\u000a temperature of 50?170°C and residence time of 10?150 min. The solids treated with the ammonia solution showed high lignin\\u000a degradation and sugar availability.

  9. Genetics of dietary fibre in bread wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Charmet; U. Masood-Quraishi; C. Ravel; I. Romeuf; F. Balfourier; M. R. Perretant; J. L. Joseph; M. Rakszegi; F. Guillon; P. E. Sado; Z. Bedo; L. Saulnier

    2009-01-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) are major components of cell walls in wheat endosperm. The water-extractable part, WEAX, is considered\\u000a as dietary fibres with health promoting effects. AX exhibit large natural variations in their amount but few studies have\\u000a been carried out on the genetics of WEAX content and structure in bread wheat. We first carried out a “forward” quantitative\\u000a genetic approach, using

  10. Wheat yield forecasts using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Leaf area index and percentage of vegetative cover, two indices of crop yield developed from Landsat multispectral scanning data, are discussed. Studies demonstrate that the Landsat indicators may be as highly correlated with winter wheat yield as estimates based on traditional field sampling methods; in addition, the Landsat indicators may account for variations in individual field yield which are not explainable by meteorological data. A simple technique employing early-season Landsat data to make wheat yield predictions is also considered.

  11. Mapping a resistance gene in wheat cultivar Yangfu 9311 to yellow mosaic virus, using microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihua Liu; Huan Nie; Shibo Wang; Xin Li; Zhentian He; Chenggui Han; Jinrong Wang; Xiulan Chen; Lihui Li; Jialin Yu

    2005-01-01

    Wheat yellow mosaic disease, which is caused by wheat yellow mosaic bymovirus (WYMV) and transmitted by soil-borne fungus, results in severe damage on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China. For development of resistant cultivars to reduce wheat yield losses due to wheat yellow mosaic disease, resistance test and genetic analysis indicated that a single dominant gene in wheat cultivar

  12. Wheat production in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Bubenheim, David

    1987-01-01

    The present optimization study for maximum yield and quality conditions in the lunar or Martian Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS)-based growth of wheat has determined that, for 23-57 g/sq m per day of edible biomass, minimum CELSS size must be of the order of 12-30 sq m/person. About 600 W/sq m of electricity would be consumed by the artificial lighting required; temperature, irradiance, photoperiod, CO2 levels, humidity, and wind velocity are all controlled. A rock wool plant support allows direct seeding, and densities of up to 10,000 plants/sq m. Densities of up to 2000 plants/sq m appear to increase seed yields.

  13. Complementary patterns of gene expression by human oligodendrocyte progenitors and their environment predict determinants of progenitor maintenance and differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fraser J. Sim; Jennifer K. Lang; Ben Waldau; Neeta S. Roy; Theodore E. Schwartz; Webster H. Pilcher; Karen J. Chandross; Sridaran Natesan; Jean E. Merrill; Steven A. Goldmanm

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Glial progenitor cells are abundant in adult human white matter. This study was designed to identify signaling pathways regulating their self-renewal and fate. Methods: We compared the transcriptional profiles of freshly sorted adult human white matter progenitor cells (WMPCs), purified by A2B5-based immunomagnetic sorting, with those of the white matter from which they derived. Results: We identified 132 genes

  14. Glial cell progenitors in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Altenhein, Benjamin

    2015-08-01

    Development and general organization of the nervous system is comparable between insects and vertebrates. Our current knowledge on the formation of neurogenic anlagen and the generation of neural stem cells is deeply influenced by work done in invertebrate model organisms such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. It is the aim of this review to summarize the most important steps in neurogenesis in the Drosophila embryo with a special emphasis on glial cell progenitors and the specification of glial cells. Induction of neurogenic regions during early embryogenesis and determination of neural stem cells are briefly described. Special attention is given to the formation of neural precursors called neuroblasts (NB) and their lineages. NBs divide in a stem cell mode to generate a cell clone of either neurons and/or glial cells. The latter require the activation of the transcription factor glial cells missing (gcm), thus providing a binary switch between neuronal and glial cell fates. Further aspects of glial cell specification and the resulting heterogeneity of the glial population in Drosophila are discussed. GLIA 2015;63:1291-1302. PMID:25779863

  15. Cardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinecke, Hans; Minami, Elina; Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Laflamme, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, cell transplantation has drawn tremendous interest as a novel approach to preserving or even restoring contractile function to infarcted hearts. A typical human infarct involves the loss of approximately one billion cardiomyocytes, and so many investigators have sought to identify endogenous or exogenous stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into committed cardiomyocytes and repopulate lost myocardium. As a result of these efforts, dozens of stem cell types have been reported to have cardiac potential. These include pluripotent embryonic stem cells as well various adult stem cells resident in compartments including bone marrow, peripheral tissues, and the heart itself. Some of these cardiogenic progenitors have been reported to contribute replacement muscle through endogenous reparative processes or via cell transplantation in preclinical cardiac injury models. However, considerable disagreement exists regarding the efficiency and even the reality of cardiac differentiation by many of these stem cell types, making these issues a continuing source of controversy in the field. In this review, we consider approaches to cell fate mapping and establishing the cardiac phenotype, as well as the current state of the evidence for the cardiogenic and regenerative potential of the major candidate stem cell types. PMID:18988903

  16. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; Zheng, Timothy S.; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S.; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Progenitor (“oval”) cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  17. Recurrent Deletions of Puroindoline Genes at the Grain Hardness Locus in Four Independent Lineages of Polyploid Wheat1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanlong; Huang, Li; Gill, Bikram S.

    2008-01-01

    Polyploidy is known to induce numerous genetic and epigenetic changes but little is known about their physiological bases. In wheat, grain texture is mainly determined by the Hardness (Ha) locus consisting of genes Puroindoline a (Pina) and b (Pinb). These genes are conserved in diploid progenitors but were deleted from the A and B genomes of tetraploid Triticum turgidum (AB). We now report the recurrent deletions of Pina-Pinb in other lineages of polyploid wheat. We analyzed the Ha haplotype structure in 90 diploid and 300 polyploid accessions of Triticum and Aegilops spp. Pin genes were conserved in all diploid species and deletion haplotypes were detected in all polyploid Triticum and most of the polyploid Aegilops spp. Two Pina-Pinb deletion haplotypes were found in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum; ABD). Pina and Pinb were eliminated from the G genome, but maintained in the A genome of tetraploid Triticum timopheevii (AG). Subsequently, Pina and Pinb were deleted from the A genome but retained in the Am genome of hexaploid Triticum zhukovskyi (AmAG). Comparison of deletion breakpoints demonstrated that the Pina-Pinb deletion occurred independently and recurrently in the four polyploid wheat species. The implications of Pina-Pinb deletions for polyploid-driven evolution of gene and genome and its possible physiological significance are discussed. PMID:18024553

  18. Evaluating a wheat grazing model for managing wheat grain and beef production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Model evaluation and validation are prerequisite to its successful application. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the ability of the newly developed wheat grazing model to predict fall-winter forage and grain yields of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as well as daily weight gains per st...

  19. Pathogenicity of three isolates of Rhizoctonia sp. from wheat and peanut on hard red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia-induced root diseases can significantly affect wheat and peanut production where these two field crops are grown in rotation. Hence, this study characterized two isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. from wheat [R. cerealis (RC) and R. solani (RSW)] and one from peanut [R. solani (RSP) ] for cul...

  20. REMOTE SENSING OF BARLEY YELLOW DWARF AND WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC DISEASE IN WINTER WHEAT CANOPIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficiency of field monitoring for barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and wheat streak mosaic (WSM) viral diseases would be improved with knowledge of reflected solar radiation from winter wheat crop canopies. Our objective was to characterize canopy spectral reflectance as well as other canopy and yield...

  1. Solid-stemmed wheat does not affect overwintering mortality of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor A; Beres, Brian L; Herle, Carolyn E; McLean, Hugh; McGinne, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America. Host plant resistance in the form of solid-stemmed wheat cultivars is the main control strategy for C. cinctus. This study investigated the effect of novel and traditional solid wheat hosts on the overwintering mortality and cold-hardiness of C. cinctus. Field conditions from 2003-2005 showed that overwintering mortality in various wheat cultivars averaged 8% and was not related to the type of wheat cultivar. Similarly, supercooling points (-22° C) were not influenced by wheat host type. C. cintus are cold-hardy; up to 80% survive 10 days at -20° C and 10% survive 40 days. Its overwintering microhabitat near the crown area of the plant is well insulated for temperatures above -10° C and remains ~ 20° C above ambient minima. These data suggest that winter mortality is a minor factor in the population dynamics of wheat stem sawfly, and despite clear detrimental effects on larval weight and adult fitness, solid-stemmed cultivars do not reduce the ability of larvae to survive winters. PMID:22235942

  2. Resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus in transgenic wheat expressing the viral replicase (NIb) gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elumalai Sivamani; Christopher W. Brey; William E. Dyer; Luther E. Talbert; Rongda Qu

    2000-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Hi-Line) immature embryos were transformed with the replicase gene (NIb) of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) by the biolistic method. Six independent transgenic plant lines were analyzed for transgene expression and for resistance to mechanical inoculation of WSMV at R3 or R4 generation. Four out of the six lines showed various degree of resistance to

  3. Flavor Characterization of Breads Made from Hard Red Winter Wheat and Hard White Winter Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUN-YEN CHANG; EDGAR CHAMBERS

    Cereal Chem. 69(5):556-559 Sensory flavor profiles for white pan bread and whole wheat bread impression than did HRW crust. HRW crumb was sweeter and more made from hard red winter (HRW) or hard white winter (HWW) wheat dairylike than HWW crumb. HWW crumb had a phenoliclike note not were developed by a professionally trained panel. The flavors of crust present

  4. Stable Resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus in wheat mediated by RNAi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is one of the major wheat viruses in the Great Plains of the United States. Cultural practices are the primary method of disease management, though not fully effective. Genetic resistance is available but is temperature sensitive. Alternative approaches to viral res...

  5. Response of Russian wheat aphid resistance in wheat and barley to four Diuraphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diuraphis species native to the United States, D. frequens (Walker), D. mexicana (McVicar Baker) and D. tritici (Gillette), were compared to the invasive species, Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, on sixteen RWA- resistant and susceptible wheat and barley entries to determine the ...

  6. Incidence of Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus in Mixtures of Susceptible and Resistant Wheat Cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djabbar Hariri; Marc Fouchard; Hayat Prud'homme

    2001-01-01

    The multiplication of Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) was studied in mixtures of two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars, one susceptible (Soissons) and the other resistant (Trémie). Two seed mixtures of susceptible and resistant varieties in ratios of 1 : 1 and 1 : 3 and their component pure stands, i.e. each variety grown separately, were grown in a field

  7. Effectiveness of Lacewing Larvae in Reducing Russian Wheat Aphid Populations on Susceptible and Resistant Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Messina; Suzann M. Sorenson

    2001-01-01

    The use of resistant plants may enhance or reduce the ability of natural enemies to control pest insects. We conducted a series of experiments to compare the effectiveness of lacewing larvae, Chrysoperla plorabunda (Fitch), in suppressing populations of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), on susceptible and resistant wheat. Caged plants were inoculated with the same initial density of

  8. Testing and validating the CERES-wheat (Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis-wheat) model in diverse environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otter-Nacke, S.; Godwin, D. C.; Ritchie, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    CERES-Wheat is a computer simulation model of the growth, development, and yield of spring and winter wheat. It was designed to be used in any location throughout the world where wheat can be grown. The model is written in Fortran 77, operates on a daily time stop, and runs on a range of computer systems from microcomputers to mainframes. Two versions of the model were developed: one, CERES-Wheat, assumes nitrogen to be nonlimiting; in the other, CERES-Wheat-N, the effects of nitrogen deficiency are simulated. The report provides the comparisons of simulations and measurements of about 350 wheat data sets collected from throughout the world.

  9. Interleukin-1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Vela, José M; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Arévalo-Martín, Angel; Almazán, Guillermina; Guaza, Carmen

    2002-07-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed during normal CNS development and in inflammatory demyelinating diseases, but remarkably little is known about its effect on oligodendroglial cells. In this study we explored the role of IL-1beta in oligodendrocyte progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes. The effects of IL-1beta were compared to those of IL-1 receptor antagonist, the specific inhibitor of IL-1 activity, since progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes produce IL-1beta and express IL-1 receptors. Unlike other proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha and IFNgamma), IL-1beta was not toxic for oligodendrocyte lineage cells. However, this cytokine inhibited proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in the presence of growth factors (PDGF plus bFGF). This was evidenced by a significant decrease in both cells incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (45%) and total cell numbers (57%) after 6 days of treatment. Interestingly, IL-1beta blocked proliferation at the late progenitor/prooligodendrocyte (O4+) stage but did not affect proliferation of early progenitors (A2B5+). Inhibition of proliferation paralleled with promotion of differentiation, as revealed by the increased percentage of R-mab+ cells (6.7-fold). Moreover, when oligodendrocyte progenitors were allowed to differentiate in the absence of growth factors, treatment with IL-1beta promoted maturation to the MBP+ stage (4.2-fold) and survival of differentiating oligodendrocytes (2.1-fold). Regarding intracellular signaling, IL-1beta activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not the p42/p44 MAPK and, when combined with growth factors, intensified p38 activation but inhibited the growth-factor-induced p42/p44 activation. IL-1beta also induced a time-dependent inhibition of PFGF-Ralpha gene expression. These results support a role for IL-1beta in promoting mitotic arrest and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors as well as maturation and survival of differentiating oligodendrocytes. PMID:12139924

  10. Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats depending on nitrogen ­ In a field experiment, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grew with the infesting weed wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp

  11. Original article Divergent evolution of wheat populations conducted

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Divergent evolution of wheat populations conducted under recurrent selection- ic management programme (DM) were studied in a wheat composite population. The initial population by few traits: plant height, earliness, frequency of bearded plants and susceptibility to powdery mildew

  12. Fas Activation Increases Neural progenitor Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Julia C.; Scharf, Eugene L.; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a sizable amount of research focusing on adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as a therapeutic approach for many neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, little is known about the pathways that govern NPC survival and apoptosis. Fas, a member of the death receptor superfamily, plays a well-characterized role in the immune system, but its function in neural stem cells remains uncertain. Our study focuses on the effects of Fas on NPC survival in vitro. Activation of Fas by recombinant Fas ligand (FasL) did not induce apoptosis in murine NPCs in culture. In fact, both an increase in the amount of viable cells and a decrease in apoptotic and dying cells were observed with FasL treatment. Our data indicate that FasL-mediated adult NPC neuroprotection is characterized by a reduction in apoptosis, but not increased proliferation. Further investigation of this effect revealed that the antiapoptotic effects of FasL are mediated by the up-regulation of Birc3, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP). Conversely, the observed effect is not the result of altered caspase activation or FLIP (Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein) up-regulation, which is known to inhibit caspase-8-mediated cell death in T cells. Our data indicate that murine adult NPCs are resistant to FasL-induced cell death. Activation of Fas increased cell survival by decreasing apoptosis through Birc3 up-regulation. These results describe a novel pathway involved in NPC survival. PMID:19830835

  13. Endothelial progenitor cells in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lois, Noemi; McCarter, Rachel V; O'Neill, Christina; Medina, Reinhold J; Stitt, Alan W

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Patients with DR may irreversibly lose sight as a result of the development of diabetic macular edema (DME) and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR); retinal blood vessel dysfunction and degeneration plays an essential role in their pathogenesis. Although new treatments have been recently introduced for DME, including intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGFs) and steroids, a high proportion of patients (~40-50%) do not respond to these therapies. Furthermore, for people with PDR, laser photocoagulation remains a mainstay therapy despite this being an inherently destructive procedure. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a low-frequency population of circulating cells known to be recruited to sites of vessel damage and tissue ischemia where they promote vascular healing and re-perfusion. A growing body of evidence suggests that the number and function of EPCs are altered in patients with varying degrees of diabetes duration, metabolic control, and in the presence or absence of DR. Although there are no clear-cut outcomes from these clinical studies, there is mounting evidence that some EPC sub-types may be involved in the pathogenesis of DR and may also serve as biomarkers for disease progression and stratification. Moreover, some EPC sub-types have considerable potential as therapeutic modalities for DME and PDR in the context of cell therapy. This study presents basic clinical concepts of DR and combines this with a general insight on EPCs and their relation to future directions in understanding and treating this important diabetic complication. PMID:24782825

  14. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lois, Noemi; McCarter, Rachel V.; O’Neill, Christina; Medina, Reinhold J.; Stitt, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Patients with DR may irreversibly lose sight as a result of the development of diabetic macular edema (DME) and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR); retinal blood vessel dysfunction and degeneration plays an essential role in their pathogenesis. Although new treatments have been recently introduced for DME, including intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGFs) and steroids, a high proportion of patients (~40–50%) do not respond to these therapies. Furthermore, for people with PDR, laser photocoagulation remains a mainstay therapy despite this being an inherently destructive procedure. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a low-frequency population of circulating cells known to be recruited to sites of vessel damage and tissue ischemia where they promote vascular healing and re-perfusion. A growing body of evidence suggests that the number and function of EPCs are altered in patients with varying degrees of diabetes duration, metabolic control, and in the presence or absence of DR. Although there are no clear-cut outcomes from these clinical studies, there is mounting evidence that some EPC sub-types may be involved in the pathogenesis of DR and may also serve as biomarkers for disease progression and stratification. Moreover, some EPC sub-types have considerable potential as therapeutic modalities for DME and PDR in the context of cell therapy. This study presents basic clinical concepts of DR and combines this with a general insight on EPCs and their relation to future directions in understanding and treating this important diabetic complication. PMID:24782825

  15. Binary Merger Progenitors for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Heger, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    The collapsar model, the now leading model for the engine behind gamma-ray bursts and hypernovae, requires that a star collapses to form a black hole surrounded by an accretion disk of high angular momentum material. The current best theoretical stellar models, however, do not retain enough angular momentum in the core of the star to make a centrifugally supported disk. In this paper, we present the first calculations of the helium star/helium star merger progenitors for the collapsar model. These progenitors invoke the merger of two helium cores during the common-envelope inspiral phase of a binary system. We find that in some cases, the merger can produce cores that are rotating 3-10 times faster than single stars. He star/He star gamma-ray burst progenitors have a very different redshift distribution than their single-star gamma-ray burst progenitors, and we discuss how gamma-ray burst observations can constrain these progenitors.

  16. Vascular wall progenitor cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Psaltis, Peter J; Simari, Robert D

    2015-04-10

    The vasculature plays an indispensible role in organ development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis, such that disturbances to it impact greatly on developmental and postnatal health. Although cell turnover in healthy blood vessels is low, it increases considerably under pathological conditions. The principle sources for this phenomenon have long been considered to be the recruitment of cells from the peripheral circulation and the re-entry of mature cells in the vessel wall back into cell cycle. However, recent discoveries have also uncovered the presence of a range of multipotent and lineage-restricted progenitor cells in the mural layers of postnatal blood vessels, possessing high proliferative capacity and potential to generate endothelial, smooth muscle, hematopoietic or mesenchymal cell progeny. In particular, the tunica adventitia has emerged as a progenitor-rich compartment with niche-like characteristics that support and regulate vascular wall progenitor cells. Preliminary data indicate the involvement of some of these vascular wall progenitor cells in vascular disease states, adding weight to the notion that the adventitia is integral to vascular wall pathogenesis, and raising potential implications for clinical therapies. This review discusses the current body of evidence for the existence of vascular wall progenitor cell subpopulations from development to adulthood and addresses the gains made and significant challenges that lie ahead in trying to accurately delineate their identities, origins, regulatory pathways, and relevance to normal vascular structure and function, as well as disease. PMID:25858065

  17. Hepatic stellate cells contribute to progenitor cells and liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kordes, Claus; Sawitza, Iris; Götze, Silke; Herebian, Diran; Häussinger, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Retinoid-storing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have recently been described as a liver-resident mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) population; however, it is not clear whether these cells contribute to liver regeneration or serve as a progenitor cell population with hepatobiliary characteristics. Here, we purified HSCs with retinoid-dependent fluorescence-activated cell sorting from eGFP-expressing rats and transplanted these GFP+ HSCs into wild-type (WT) rats that had undergone partial hepatectomy in the presence of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2AAF) or retrorsine, both of which are injury models that favor stem cell–based liver repair. Transplanted HSCs contributed to liver regeneration in host animals by forming mesenchymal tissue, progenitor cells, hepatocytes, and cholangiocytes and elevated direct bilirubin levels in blood sera of GUNN rats, indicating recovery from the hepatic bilirubin–handling defect in these animals. Transplanted HSCs engrafted within the bone marrow (BM) of host animals, and HSC-derived cells were isolated from BM and successfully retransplanted into new hosts with injured liver. Cultured HSCs transiently adopted an expression profile similar to that of progenitor cells during differentiation into bile acid–synthesizing and –transporting hepatocytes, suggesting that stellate cells represent a source of liver progenitor cells. This concept connects seemingly contradictory studies that favor either progenitor cells or MSCs as important players in stem cell–based liver regeneration. PMID:25401473

  18. Isolation of EpCAM+/CD133? Hepatic Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Pei-Pei; Lee, Mi-Jin; Yu, Goung-Ran; Kim, In-Hee; Cho, Yong-Gon; Kim, Dae-Ghon

    2013-01-01

    Progenitor cell-derived hepatocytes are critical for hepatocyte replenishment. Therefore, we established a line of human hepatic progenitor (HNK1) cells and determined their biological characteristics for experimental and therapeutic applications. HNK1 cells, isolated from human non-cirrhotic liver samples with septal fibrosis, showed high expression of the hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) markers EpCAM, CK7, CK19, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), CD90 (Thy1), and EFNA1. Expression of CD133 was very low. Ductular reactions at the periphery of cirrhotic nodules were immunohistochemically positive for these HPC markers, including EFNA1. Sodium butyrate, a differentiation inducer, induced hepatocyte-like morphological changes in HNK1 cells. It resulted in down-regulation of the hepatic progenitor cell markers EpCAM, CK7, CK19, AFP, and EFNA1 and up-regulation of mature hepatocyte markers, including albumin, CK8, and CK18. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment and a serial passage of HNK1 cells resulted in enhanced albumin secretion, ureagenesis, and CYP enzyme activity, all of which are indicators of differentiation in hepatocytes. However, HNK1 cells at passage 50 did not exhibit anchorage-independent growth capability and caused no tumors in immunodeficient mice, suggesting that they had no spontaneous malignant transformation ability. From this evidence, HNK1 cells were found to be EpCAM+/CD133? hepatic progenitor cells without spontaneous malignant transformation ability. We therefore conclude that HNK1 cells could be useful for experimental and therapeutic applications. PMID:24293012

  19. The Progenitor Mass of the Magnetar SGR1900+14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ben; Figer, Don F.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Trombley, Christine; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wachter, Stefanie

    2009-12-01

    Magnetars are young neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (B gsim 1014-1015 G). How these fields relate to the properties of their progenitor stars is not yet clearly established. However, from the few objects associated with young clusters it has been possible to estimate the initial masses of the progenitors, with results indicating that a very massive progenitor star (M prog> 40 M _{?}) is required to produce a magnetar. Here, we present adaptive-optics assisted Keck/NIRC2 imaging and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy of the cluster associated with the magnetar SGR 1900+14, and report that the initial progenitor star mass of the magnetar was a factor of 2 lower than this limit, M prog = 17 ± 2 M_{?}. Our result presents a strong challenge to the concept that magnetars can only result from very massive progenitors. Instead, we favor a mechanism which is dependent on more than just initial stellar mass for the production of these extreme magnetic fields, such as the "fossil-field" model or a process involving close binary evolution.

  20. NFIX Regulates Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation During Hippocampal Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Yee Hsieh Evelyn; McLeay, Robert C.; Harvey, Tracey J.; Smith, Aaron G.; Barry, Guy; Cato, Kathleen; Plachez, Céline; Little, Erica; Mason, Sharon; Dixon, Chantelle; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Bailey, Timothy L.; Richards, Linda J.; Piper, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have the ability to give rise to neurons and glia in the embryonic, postnatal and adult brain. During development, the program regulating whether these cells divide and self-renew or exit the cell cycle and differentiate is tightly controlled, and imbalances to the normal trajectory of this process can lead to severe functional consequences. However, our understanding of the molecular regulation of these fundamental events remains limited. Moreover, processes underpinning development of the postnatal neurogenic niches within the cortex remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Nuclear factor one X (NFIX) is expressed by neural progenitor cells within the embryonic hippocampus, and that progenitor cell differentiation is delayed within Nfix?/? mice. Moreover, we reveal that the morphology of the dentate gyrus in postnatal Nfix?/? mice is abnormal, with fewer subgranular zone neural progenitor cells being generated in the absence of this transcription factor. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the progenitor cell maintenance factor Sry-related HMG box 9 (SOX9) is upregulated in the hippocampus of Nfix?/? mice and demonstrate that NFIX can repress Sox9 promoter-driven transcription. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that NFIX plays a central role in hippocampal morphogenesis, regulating the formation of neuronal and glial populations within this structure. PMID:23042739

  1. Proteomic analysis of secreted saliva from Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Kurd.) biotypes that differ in virulence to wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diuraphis noxia, Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA), biotypes are classified by their differential virulence to wheat varieties containing resistance genes. RWA salivary proteins, unlike those of most aphid species, cause foliar damage and physiological alterations in plants. A comparative proteomic analys...

  2. Valuing local wheat landraces for agrobiodiversity conservation in Northeast Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Bardsley; Ian Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The perception of farmers, scientists and government officials regarding the conservation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landrace in a Turkish village is examined. Agricultural development and the reasons why the Northeast of Turkey is marginal in terms of wheat production are discussed. The de facto conservation of the local wheat landrace is analyzed in light of stakeholders’ opinions on

  3. Title: Wheat Stem Sawfly in Durum Principal Investigator

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Title: Wheat Stem Sawfly in Durum Principal Investigator: Joyce Eckhoff, Agronomist MSU Eastern.eckhoff@ars.usda.gov Project description: Sawfly larvae overwinter in the crowns of spring wheat and durum. Some durum as compared to spring wheat crowns following harvest. There are currently no solid-stemmed durum varieties

  4. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201 Agriculture...STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of...

  5. Evidence indicates that -A PREMIX OF FPC & WHEAT FLOUR

    E-print Network

    Evidence indicates that - A PREMIX OF FPC & WHEAT FLOUR CAN BE MADE & TRANSPORTED Virginia D of wheat flour and fish protein concentrate (FPC) would tend to separate during the agitation of a mechanical shaker. Mixtures of 90% wheat flour and 10% FPC were placed on a shaker for 168 hours. Despite

  6. 77 FR 23420 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and...proposal to revise the U.S. Standards for Wheat under the U.S. Grain Standards Act...definition of Contrasting classes in Hard White wheat and change the grade limits for...

  7. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a...

  8. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section...Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the class...

  9. Evolution and Balanced Gene Expression of Homoeologs in Polyploid Wheat

    E-print Network

    Gill, Kulvinder

    Evolution and Balanced Gene Expression of Homoeologs in Polyploid Wheat ABSTRACT . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Hexaploid wheat is a relatively young polyploid with its evolution from diploid to tetraploid ~ .5 MYA and from tetraploid to hexaploid only ~10,000 years ago. The wheat genome is large of which only

  10. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and...revising the United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards...classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change will help facilitate...

  11. Wheat Variety Identification Using MALDI-TOF M Znamirowski1

    E-print Network

    Ens, Werner

    Wheat Variety Identification Using MALDI-TOF M Znamirowski1 , R G Dworschak1 , K Preston2 , K G Laboratory, Canadian Grain Comission Winnipeg, Canada The Canadian system of grading wheat and other grains. For this initial evaluation, 16 varieties of wheat from four different classes were examined. We have also analyzed

  12. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the...

  13. PLANT RESISTANCE Photosynthesis and Yield Reductions From Wheat Stem Sawfly

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    PLANT RESISTANCE Photosynthesis and Yield Reductions From Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Interactions With Wheat Solidness, Water Stress, and Phosphorus Deficiency KEVIN J. DELANEY,1 DAVID K. WEAVER. The current study examined causes of variation in the impact of larval stem mining by the wheat stem sawßy

  14. THREE-DIMENSION VISUALIZATION FOR PRIMARY WHEAT DISEASES BASED ON

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    THREE-DIMENSION VISUALIZATION FOR PRIMARY WHEAT DISEASES BASED ON SIMULATION MODEL Li Shijuan impact factors for main wheat diseases of stripe rust, leaf rust, stem rust, head blight and powdery mildew from research material and literature, we designed 3D visualization model for wheat growth

  15. Structure and morphology of cellulose in wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruigang Liu; Hui Yu; Yong Huang

    2005-01-01

    The structure and morphology of cellulose extracted from wheat were studied. It was found that the extraction process is effective and hemicelluloses and lignin can be extracted completely. Cellulose in wheat straw was identified as cellulose I allomorph with low crystallinity and the crystallinity of cellulose from different parts of the wheat straw has little difference. There was no metastable

  16. Wheat mill stream properties for discrete element method modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A discrete phase approach based on individual wheat kernel characteristics is needed to overcome the limitations of previous statistical models and accurately predict the milling behavior of wheat. As a first step to develop a discrete element method (DEM) model for the wheat milling process, this s...

  17. ESTIMATION OF HEAT DAMAGE IN HARD RED WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat damage occurs during the artifical drying of newly harvested wheat or at high storage temperatures. Wheat proteins can be denatured by kernel heat damage during storage or during wheat milling process. Protein denaturation limits their functional (visco eleastic) properties in flour dough and...

  18. Prevalence of Exposure to Hidden\\/Undeclared Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen N. Knoblaugh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Wheat is one of the eight major food allergens in the U.S., and yet few studies have been conducted on wheat as an allergen, possibly because allergic reactions are primarily not life threatening. Exposure to undeclared\\/hidden wheat in food is a concern, not only for those who are allergic, but also to those with celiac disease, because it is

  19. ENDOSPERM STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN WHEAT DURING DRYING OF MATURING CARYOPSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study was conducted on maturing wheat to determine the sequences of events involved during the drying of preripe starchy endosperm. Field-grown hard red winter wheat Karl and soft red winter wheat Clark were harvested at 21 days after flowering (DAF) and ai...

  20. Integrated Pest Management of Wheat Stem Sawfly in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a major wheat pest in North Dakota and the northern Great Plains causing significant yield and quality losses. Damage is caused by larval feeding within the stem. Wheat stem sawfly management includes the selection and use of r...

  1. Freezing tolerance of winter wheat plants frozen in saturated soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat is sown in the autumn and harvested the following summer, necessitating the ability to survive subfreezing temperatures for several months. Autumn months in wheat–growing regions typically experience significant rainfall. Hence, the wheat plants usually are exposed to freezing temperat...

  2. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT QUALITY REPORT: 2000/2001 CROP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially grown cultivars and experimental lines of hard red spring wheat were grown by breeders at cooperative experiment stations throughout the major spring wheat growing regions of the United States. Hard spring wheat was tested for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and baking quality. In 2000...

  3. WHEAT FLOUR PROTEINS AS AFFECTED BY TRANSGLUTAMINASE AND GLUCOSE OXIDASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymes are good tools to modify wheat proteins by creating new bonds between the protein chains. In this study, the effect of the addition of glucose oxidase (GO) and transglutaminase (TG) on the wheat flour proteins is presented. The modification of wheat proteins was determined by analyzing the...

  4. The vanishing wheat landraces of the Fertile Crescent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of wheat landraces constituted a sizable portion of the mega diversity in the Fertile Crescent as a center of origin and of diversity of major crop plants. Following wheat domestication in the Fertile Crescent, early farmers developed diverse wheat landraces, and contributed to the...

  5. Crop diversity on traditional great plains wheat farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the vast majority of cropland in the western Great Plains was either seeded to continuous monoculture wheat or was in a wheat-fallow rotation. The objective of this paper is to determine the combined effects of crop diversity and tillage systems on wheat grain yield and net returns fo...

  6. Characterization of stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar 'Gage'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat because of virulent race Ug99 (TTKSK). Many bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars grown in North America are susceptible to Ug99 or its derivative races ...

  7. Characterization of the wheat mitochondrial orf25 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Bonen; Sharon Bird; Linda Belanger

    1990-01-01

    The wheat mitochondrial orf25 nucleotide sequence of 576 pb has been determined. Its derived protein sequence shares 88% and 75% amino acid identity with those of maize and tobacco mitochondria, respectively. The wheat and tobacco orf25 sequences lack four inserts, of 6 bp to 36 bp, that are present in the maize homologue. The wheat orf25 gene is actively transcribed

  8. A Review of the Book: Wheat Chemistry and Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volume is comprehensive, covering all aspects of wheat cereal chemistry and technology, and adds useful information on wheat production, genetics and genetic manipulation, and breeding. It includes an introductory chapter on wheat and its unique attributes. This chapter is followed by chapters...

  9. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for wheat. 407.17 Section 407.17 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.17 Group risk plan for wheat. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Wheat for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  10. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a...

  11. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for wheat. 407.17 Section 407.17 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.17 Group risk plan for wheat. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Wheat for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  12. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the...

  13. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a...

  14. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the...

  15. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201 Agriculture...STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of...

  16. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the...

  17. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201 Agriculture...STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of...

  18. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a...

  19. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section...Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the class...

  20. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the...

  1. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for wheat. 407.17 Section 407.17 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.17 Group risk plan for wheat. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Wheat for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  2. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for wheat. 407.17 Section 407.17 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.17 Group risk plan for wheat. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Wheat for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  3. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a...

  4. Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin contamination of wheat, a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. A. Snijders

    1990-01-01

    Summary An infection of bread wheat by fusarium head blight contaminates the crop with mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). The toxicity and natural occurrence of these mycotoxins in wheat are reviewed. Based on 8 years data of fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat in the Netherlands, DON contamination of the grain was estimated. Fusarium head blight ratings averaged

  5. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201 Agriculture...STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of...

  6. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section...Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the class...

  7. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section...Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the class...

  8. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201 Agriculture...STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of...

  9. High speed sorting of Fusarium-damaged wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have found that resistance to Fusarium fungal infection can be inherited in wheat from one generation to another. However, there is not yet available a cost effective method to separate Fusarium-damaged wheat kernels from undamaged kernels so that wheat breeders can take advantage of...

  10. Residue management tactics for corn following spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers are interested in tactics for managing crop residues when growing corn after spring wheat. We compared five systems of managing spring wheat residues: conventional tillage, no-till, strip-till, cover crop (hairy vetch) with no-till, and cover crop with strip-till following spring wheat. ...

  11. Fast Insect Damage Detection in Wheat Kernels Using Transmittance Images

    E-print Network

    Cataltepe, Zehra

    Fast Insect Damage Detection in Wheat Kernels Using Transmittance Images Zehra Cataltepe Siemens and different learn- ing algorithms to classify insect damaged and un-damaged wheat kernels. Using the histogram of the pixels of the wheat images as the feature, and the linear model as the learning algorithm, we achieved

  12. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, M.A.; Stratonovitch, P.; Alghabari, F.; Gooding, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

  13. [Alien chromosomal identification in VE161 wheat].

    PubMed

    Yang, T Z; Ma, X F; Zhang, W J; Yang, C L; Hou, W S; Bie, R L

    2000-01-01

    VE161 wheat which has the function of promotting homoeologous pairing is a male sterile substitution line or a fertile addition line with one pair of alien chromosomes from Agropyron elongatum. The alien chromosome in VE161 wheat was detected by means of techniques of total genomic DNA in situ hybridization, RFLP and double-ditelo chromosomal analysis. The results from in situ hybridization confirmed that the alien chromosome was derived from Agropyron elongatum. The RFLP analysis showed that it belongs to fourth homoeologous group, and the results from double-ditelo chromosomal analysis gave evidence that 4B chromosome was replaced in the substitution line, so it can be concluded that, in VE161 wheat, the alien chromosome would be 4E and the replaced wheat chromosome would be 4B in the substitution line. The reason for the replaced chromosome identified as 7B in a earlier study might be due to the rearrangement occurred in the genome of wheat. PMID:11057049

  14. Genome evolution due to allopolyploidization in wheat.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A

    2012-11-01

    The wheat group has evolved through allopolyploidization, namely, through hybridization among species from the plant genera Aegilops and Triticum followed by genome doubling. This speciation process has been associated with ecogeographical expansion and with domestication. In the past few decades, we have searched for explanations for this impressive success. Our studies attempted to probe the bases for the wide genetic variation characterizing these species, which accounts for their great adaptability and colonizing ability. Central to our work was the investigation of how allopolyploidization alters genome structure and expression. We found in wheat that allopolyploidy accelerated genome evolution in two ways: (1) it triggered rapid genome alterations through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic changes (which we termed "revolutionary" changes), and (2) it facilitated sporadic genomic changes throughout the species' evolution (i.e., evolutionary changes), which are not attainable at the diploid level. Our major findings in natural and synthetic allopolyploid wheat indicate that these alterations have led to the cytological and genetic diploidization of the allopolyploids. These genetic and epigenetic changes reflect the dynamic structural and functional plasticity of the allopolyploid wheat genome. The significance of this plasticity for the successful establishment of wheat allopolyploids, in nature and under domestication, is discussed. PMID:23135324

  15. The use of wheat-alien and Aegilops-rye amphiploids for introgression of genetic material to wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Simonenko; I. I. Motsny; A. L. Sechnyak; M. P. Kulbida

    1998-01-01

    An introduction of genetic material from rye, Aegilops and Elymus into durum and common wheat by crossing the wheat species\\u000a with different amphiploids, has been attempted. Meiotic studies of the hybrids demonstrated that the wheat Elymus sibiricus\\u000a amphiploid contained several (two or three) genes suppressing the activity of the wheat homoeologous pairing control system.\\u000a Somatic chromosome studies of the hybrids

  16. Isolation, promoter analysis and expression profile of Dreb2 in response to drought stress in wheat ancestors.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Elahe; Sardaro, Maria Luisa Savo; Shariati, J Vahid; Rossini, Laura; Porceddu, Enrico

    2014-10-01

    Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses, constraining crop production seriously. The dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) are important plant-specific transcription factors that respond to various abiotic stresses and consequently induce abiotic stress-related genes that impart stress endurance in plants. Wild species are naturally exposed to various abiotic stresses and potentially harbor suitable alleles through natural selection. In this study we isolated and characterized Dreb2 from Triticum urartu (GenBank: KF731664), Aegilops speltoides (GenBank: KF731665) and Aegilops tauschii (GenBank: KF731663), the A, B and D genome ancestors of bread wheat, respectively. Analysis of over 1.3 kb upstream region of the gene revealed the presence of several conserved cis-acting regulatory elements including ABA-responsive elements, low temperature responsive elements, and several light and environmental signaling related motifs potentially vindicate Dreb2 responses to environmental signals. Moreover, the gene exhibited an alternative splicing, conserved among orthologous genes in grasses, and produced a non-functional isoform due to splicing in an exon resulted frame-shift creating an early stop codon before the functional domain. The expression analysis of Dreb2 under normal and different levels of dehydration stress conditions indicated that the two active spliced isoforms are upregulated when the plant exposed to drought stress whereas the non-functional isoform is downregulated in severe drought. PMID:25017054

  17. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Expands the Renal Progenitor Cell Population

    PubMed Central

    de Groh, Eric D.; Swanhart, Lisa M.; Cosentino, Chiara Cianciolo; Jackson, Rachel L.; Dai, Weixiang; Kitchens, Carolyn A.; Day, Billy W.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the first hallmarks of kidney regeneration is the reactivation of genes normally required during organogenesis. Identification of chemicals with the potential to enhance this reactivation could therapeutically promote kidney regeneration. Here, we found that 4-(phenylthio)butanoic acid (PTBA) expanded the expression domains of molecular markers of kidney organogenesis in zebrafish. PTBA exhibits structural and functional similarity to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors 4-phenylbutanoic acid and trichostatin A; treatment with these HDAC inhibitors also expanded the renal progenitor cell population. Analyses in vitro and in vivo confirmed that PTBA functions as an inhibitor of HDAC activity. Furthermore, PTBA-mediated renal progenitor cell expansion required retinoic acid signaling. In summary, these results support a mechanistic link among renal progenitor cells, HDAC, and the retinoid pathway. Whether PTBA holds promise as a therapeutic agent to promote renal regeneration requires further study. PMID:20378823

  18. Neural progenitors, neurogenesis and the evolution of the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Florio, Marta; Huttner, Wieland B

    2014-06-01

    The neocortex is the seat of higher cognitive functions and, in evolutionary terms, is the youngest part of the mammalian brain. Since its origin, the neocortex has expanded in several mammalian lineages, and this is particularly notable in humans. This expansion reflects an increase in the number of neocortical neurons, which is determined during development and primarily reflects the number of neurogenic divisions of distinct classes of neural progenitor cells. Consequently, the evolutionary expansion of the neocortex and the concomitant increase in the numbers of neurons produced during development entail interspecies differences in neural progenitor biology. Here, we review the diversity of neocortical neural progenitors, their interspecies variations and their roles in determining the evolutionary increase in neuron numbers and neocortex size. PMID:24866113

  19. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Inflammation and Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kimberly D.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells contribute to allergic inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines that are generated following allergen challenge can impact the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells leading to increased production of effector cells such as eosinophils and basophils, which are key cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation. Homing of stem cells to the lungs is associated with inflammatory and remodeling changes in asthmatics. Factors that modulate the differentiation and increased migration of stem cells to the site of inflammation in asthma remain to be defined. Stem cells can mature at the site of inflammation in response to inflammatory mediators and other components in the milieu. While the available data suggest that hematopoietic cells traffic to target tissues, the molecular factors underlying in situ differentiation have yet to be specified. Here, we critically evaluate the potential role of hematopoietic progenitors in contributing to the increased immune cell infiltrate in allergic asthma and the factors that drive their differentiation. PMID:24363657

  20. Glial Progenitors as Targets for Transformation in Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ilkanizadeh, Shirin; Lau, Jasmine; Huang, Miller; Foster, Daniel J.; Wong, Robyn; Frantz, Aaron; Wang, Susan; Weiss, William A.; Persson, Anders I.

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and arises throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent focus on stem-like glioma cells has implicated neural stem cells (NSCs), a minor precursor population restricted to germinal zones, as a potential source of gliomas. In this review, we will focus on the relationship between oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), the largest population of cycling glial progenitors in the postnatal brain, and gliomas. Recent studies suggest that OPCs can give rise to gliomas. Furthermore, signaling pathways often associated with NSCs also play key roles during OPC lineage development. Recent advances suggesting that gliomas can undergo a switch from progenitor- to stem-like phenotype after therapy, implicating that an OPC-origin is more likely than previously recognized. Future in-depth studies of OPC biology may shed light on the etiology of OPC-derived gliomas and reveal new therapeutic avenues. PMID:24889528

  1. Searching for the Progenitors of Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2011-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae are important cosmic probes. To understand and eliminate systematic uncertainties, it is important to know the nature and characteristics of their progenitors. I will talk about recent progress that may allow us to search for and identify progenitors within our own Galaxy, using data from wide-field surveys such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, and LSST. We will consider the nuclear-burning phase that is expected to occur in both single-degenerate and double-degenerate models. We will also consider the expected characteristics just prior to explosion in the new class of spin-up/spin-down models. Finally, we will discuss the prospects for finding the progenitors in external galaxies, in light of the fact that most do not appear as x-ray sources, or else have a low duty cycle of x-ray activity.

  2. Bone regeneration: the stem/progenitor cells point of view

    PubMed Central

    Deschaseaux, Frédéric; Pontikoglou, Charalampos; Sensébé, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Abstract After bone injuries, several molecular mechanisms establish bone repair from stem/progenitor cells. Inflammation factors attract regenerative cells which expand and differentiate in order to build up a bone highly similar to that before injury. Bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as skeletal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (EPCs) are at the origin of such reparation mechanisms. However, discrepancies exist about their identities. Although cultured MSCs are extensively described, their in vivo native forms are poorly known. In addition, recent experiments show that several types of EPC exist. We therefore review up-to-date data on the characterization of such stem/progenitor cells and propose a new point of view of their function in bone regeneration. PMID:19840188

  3. Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into retinal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Liang, Jun; Cui, Hongping; Wang, Xinmei; Rong, Hua; Shao, Bin; Cui, Hao

    2013-07-01

    Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from fetal umbilical cord. Cells were cultured in serum-free neural stem cell-conditioned medium or neural stem cell-conditioned medium supplemented with Dkk-1, a Wnt/? catenin pathway antagonist, and LeftyA, a Nodal signaling pathway antagonist to induce differentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Inverted microscopy showed that after induction, the spindle-shaped or fibroblast-like Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells changed into bulbous cells with numerous processes. Immunofluorescent cytochemical ing and reverse-transcription PCR showed positive expression of retinal progenitor cell markers, Pax6 and Rx, as well as weakly down-regulated nestin expression. These results demonstrate that Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating into retinal progenitor cells in vitro. PMID:25206475

  4. AGRONOMIC AND QUALITY EFFECTS IN WINTER WHEAT OF A GENE CONDITIONING RESISTANCE TO WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the western Great Plains of North America. There is no known effective WSMV resistance within the primary gene pool of wheat. However, a resistance gene (Wsm1) has been...

  5. Development and characterization of wheat lines with Sr37 for stem rust resistance derived from wild Timopheev's wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem rust resistance gene Sr37, an effective gene against the newly emerged Ug99 races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in wheat, was originally transferred from wild Timopheev's wheat (Triticum timopheevii Zhuk, AAGG genomes) through a translocation between wheat chromosome 4B and T. timophe...

  6. Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat as a Source of Improvement for Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Jessica Kay

    2012-02-14

    backcrosses to spring wheats show improvement over recurrent parents (del Blanco et al., 2000; Lage et al., 2004a; Mujeeb-Kazi et al., 2008; Villareal et al., 1994) but evidence of the benefits of synthetic backcrosses to winter wheat is meager... of the grain. Resistance to pests such as Russian wheat aphid (Lage et al., 2004a; Lage et al., 2004b), greenbug (Lage et al., 2003) and Hessian fly (Coxand Hatchett, 1994; Friesen et al., 2008; Sardesai et al., 2005), all common biotic stress problems...

  7. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael

    2004-08-16

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a Type Ia supernova rate from z {approx} 0.01-0.1 of r{sub V} = 4.26{sub -1.93 -0.10}{sup +1.39 +0.10} h{sup 3} x 10{sup -4} SNe Ia/yr/Mpc{sup 3} from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Wu, Qi; Feng, Jing; Sun, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women in the general population, and the prevalence is even higher in specific patient groups. OSA is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial injury could be the pivotal determinant in the development of cardiovascular pathology in OSA. Endothelial damage ultimately represents a dynamic balance between the magnitude of injury and the capacity for repair. Bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) within adult peripheral blood present a possible means of vascular maintenance that could home to sites of injury and restore endothelial integrity and normal function. Methods We summarized pathogenetic mechanisms of OSA and searched for available studies on numbers and functions of EPCs in patients with OSA to explore the potential links between the numbers and functions of EPCs and OSA. In particular, we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the effects of OSA on EPCs. Conclusion Intermittent hypoxia cycles and sleep fragmentation are major pathophysiologic characters of OSA. Intermittent hypoxia acts as a trigger of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. Sleep fragmentation is associated with a burst of sympathetic activation and systemic inflammation. In most studies, a reduction in circulating EPCs has emerged. The possible mechanisms underlying the decrease in the number or function of EPCs include prolonged inflammation response, oxidative stress, increased sympathetic activation, physiological adaptive responses of tissue to hypoxia, reduced EPC mobilization, EPC apoptosis, and functional impairment in untreated OSA. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for OSA affects the mobilization, apoptosis, and function of EPCs through preventing intermittent hypoxia episodes, improving sleep quality, and reducing systemic inflammation, oxidative stress levels, and sympathetic overactivation. To improve CPAP adherence, the medical staff should pay attention to making the titration trial a comfortable first CPAP experience for the patients; for example, using the most appropriate ventilators or proper humidification. It is also important to give the patients education and support about CPAP use in the follow-up, especially in the early stage of the treatment. PMID:24204127

  9. Apoptotic lymphocytes induce progenitor cell mobilization after exercise.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-07-15

    There is evidence that apoptotic cells and their components have immunmodulatory properties and signaling function. The present study investigated first whether exercise-induced apoptosis and exercise-induced mobilization of progenitor cells are similarly affected by subjects' training status and, second, whether the appearance of dying cells in the circulation might mobilize progenitor cells. CD1 SWISS mice were subjected to a 10-wk endurance training using free wheel running or served as untrained controls. Mice of both groups performed an intensive exercise test after the training period at a velocity corresponding to 80% maximal oxygen uptake for 30 min. Cells from blood and bone marrow were analyzed, and apoptosis and number of progenitor cells determined via flow cytometry. In a second experiment, apoptotic cells were transferred into recipient mice, and mobilization of progenitor cells was analyzed while vital cells served as controls. In untrained animals, the exhaustive exercise was followed by an enhanced rate of annexin V positive CD3(+) cells in blood and bone marrow (P < 0.05), whereas no increase was found in trained mice. Similarly, exercise mobilized Sca-1(+)/c-kit(+) and Sca-1(+)/Flk(+) cells in untrained (P < 0.05) but not trained mice. Furthermore, application of apoptotic cells and their supernatant mobilized Sca-1(+)/c-kit(+) cells into the blood (P < 0.05), whereas Sca-1(+)/Flk(+) cells were not affected. The present study demonstrated that both lymphocyte apoptosis, as well as mobilization of progenitor cells are similarly related to training status. Furthermore, apoptotic cells seem to induce signals that effectively mobilize hematopoietic progenitor cells. The relevance of this effect for the adaptation to exercise stimuli remains to be shown. PMID:26023229

  10. A Workshop Report on Wheat Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Bikram S.; Appels, Rudi; Botha-Oberholster, Anna-Maria; Buell, C. Robin; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Chalhoub, Boulos; Chumley, Forrest; Dvo?ák, Jan; Iwanaga, Masaru; Keller, Beat; Li, Wanlong; McCombie, W. Richard; Ogihara, Yasunari; Quetier, Francis; Sasaki, Takuji

    2004-01-01

    Sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a wheat genome sequencing workshop was held November 10–11, 2003, in Washington, DC. It brought together 63 scientists of diverse research interests and institutions, including 45 from the United States and 18 from a dozen foreign countries (see list of participants at http://www.ksu.edu/igrow). The objectives of the workshop were to discuss the status of wheat genomics, obtain feedback from ongoing genome sequencing projects, and develop strategies for sequencing the wheat genome. The purpose of this report is to convey the information discussed at the workshop and provide the basis for an ongoing dialogue, bringing forth comments and suggestions from the genetics community. PMID:15514080

  11. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (principal investigators); Rice, D. P.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Objective measurements of percent green wheat cover on May 21 were significantly correlated with yield, as were measurements of green LAI and LANDSAT data. Three data sets from the Finney test site were analyzed from LANDSAT passes on 22 November 1974, 15 April 1975, and 21 May 1975. After mean signal values in each band were computed for each sufficiently large wheat field, the mean values were correlated with the farmer estimates of wheat grain yield in order to assess relative information content. It is clear that the single best spectral temporal band for predicting yield is the 15 April red band (0.6-0.7 microns, band 5), with the 15 April green band (0.5-0.6 microns, band 4) a close second.

  12. Remotely sensing wheat maturation with radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering properties of wheat were studied in the 8-18 GHz band as a function of frequency, polarization, incidence angle, and crop maturity. Supporting ground truth was collected at the time of measurement. The data indicate that the radar backscattering coefficient is sensitive to both radar system parameters and crop characteristics particularly at incidence angles near nadir. Linear regression analyses of the radar backscattering coefficient on both time and plant moisture content result in rather good correlation. Furthermore, by calculating the average time rate of change of the radar backscattering coefficient it is found that it undergoes rapid variations shortly before and after the wheat is harvested. Both of these analyses suggest methods for estimating wheat maturity and for monitoring the progress of harvest.

  13. Redesigning the exploitation of wheat genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C

    2014-10-01

    More than half a million wheat genetic resources are resting in gene banks worldwide. Unlocking their hidden favorable genetic diversity for breeding is pivotal for enhancing grain yield potential, and averting future food shortages. Here, we propose exploiting recent advances in hybrid wheat technology to uncover the masked breeding values of wheat genetic resources. The gathered phenotypic information will enable a targeted choice of accessions with high value for pre-breeding among this plethora of genetic resources. We intend to provoke a paradigm shift in pre-breeding strategies for grain yield, moving away from allele mining toward genome-wide selection to bridge the yield gap between genetic resources and elite breeding pools. PMID:25052155

  14. Genetic structure of Argentinean hexaploid wheat germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Vanzetti, Leonardo S.; Yerkovich, Nadia; Chialvo, Eugenia; Lombardo, Lucio; Vaschetto, Luis; Helguera, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The identification of genetically homogeneous groups of individuals is an ancient issue in population genetics and in the case of crops like wheat, it can be valuable information for breeding programs, genetic mapping and germplasm resources. In this work we determined the genetic structure of a set of 102 Argentinean bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) elite cultivars using 38 biochemical and molecular markers (functional, closely linked to genes and neutral ones) distributed throughout 18 wheat chromosomes. Genetic relationships among these lines were examined using model-based clustering methods. In the analysis three subpopulations were identified which correspond largely to the origin of the germplasm used by the main breeding programs in Argentina. PMID:24130447

  15. Enrichment and terminal differentiation of striated muscle progenitors in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, Ulrich M.; Breitbach, Martin; Sasse, Philipp [Institute of Physiology I, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)] [Institute of Physiology I, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Garbe, Stephan [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Ven, Peter F.M. van der [Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fuerst, Dieter O., E-mail: dfuerst@uni-bonn.de [Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fleischmann, Bernd K., E-mail: bernd.fleischmann@uni-bonn.de [Institute of Physiology I, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2009-10-01

    Enrichment and terminal differentiation of mammalian striated muscle cells is severely hampered by fibroblast overgrowth, de-differentiation and/or lack of functional differentiation. Herein we report a new, reproducible and simple method to enrich and terminally differentiate muscle stem cells and progenitors from mice and humans. We show that a single gamma irradiation of muscle cells induces their massive differentiation into structurally and functionally intact myotubes and cardiomyocytes and that these cells can be kept in culture for many weeks. Similar results are also obtained when treating skeletal muscle-derived stem cells and progenitors with Mitomycin C.

  16. ON IDENTIFYING THE PROGENITORS OF Type Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Livio, Mario; Pringle, J. E., E-mail: mlivio@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-10-10

    We propose two new means of identifying the main class of progenitors of Type Ia supernovae-single or double degenerate: (1) if the range of supernova properties is significantly determined by the range of viewing angles of non-spherically symmetric explosions, then the nature of the correlation between polarization and another property (for example, the velocity gradient) can be used to determine the geometry of the asymmetry and hence the nature of the progenitor, and (2) in the double- but not in the single-degenerate case, the range in the observed properties (e.g., velocity gradients) is likely to increase with the amount of carbon seen in the ejecta.

  17. Drought tolerance in modern and wild wheat.

    PubMed

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Kurtoglu, Kuaybe Yucebilgili

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by "omics" studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  18. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  19. Possible Progenitor of Special Supernova Type Detected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, scientists have reported the possible detection of a binary star system that was later destroyed in a supernova explosion. The new method they used provides great future promise for finding the detailed origin of these important cosmic events. In an article appearing in the February 14th issue of the journal Nature, Rasmus Voss of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany and Gijs Nelemans of Radboud University in the Netherlands searched Chandra images for evidence of a much sought after, but as yet unobserved binary system - one that was about to go supernova. Near the position of a recently detected supernova, they discovered an object in Chandra images taken more than four years before the explosion. Optical image of SN 2007on Optical image of SN 2007on The supernova, known as SN 2007on, was identified as a Type Ia supernova. Astronomers generally agree that Type Ia supernovas are produced by the explosion of a white dwarf star in a binary star system. However, the exact configuration and trigger for the explosion is unclear. Is the explosion caused by a collision between two white dwarfs, or because a white dwarf became unstable by pulling too much material off a companion star? Answering such questions is a high priority because Type Ia supernovas are major sources of iron in the Universe. Also, because of their nearly uniform intrinsic brightness, Type Ia supernova are used as important tools by scientists to study the nature of dark energy and other cosmological issues. People Who Read This Also Read... Oldest Known Objects Are Surprisingly Immature Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Discovery of Most Recent Supernova in Our Galaxy Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking "Right now these supernovas are used as black boxes to measure distances and derive the rate of expansion of the universe," said Nelemans. "What we're trying to do is look inside the box." If the supernova explosion is caused by material being pulled off a companion star onto the white dwarf, fusion of this material on the surface of the star should heat the star and produce a strong source of X-radiation prior to the explosion. Once the supernova explosion occurs, the white dwarf is expected to be completely destroyed and then would be undetectable in X-rays. In the merger scenario, the intensity of X-ray emission prior to the explosion is expected to be much weaker. Based on the detection of a fairly strong X-ray source at approximately the position of SN 2007on 4 years before the explosion, Voss and Nelemans conclude that the data support the scenario where matter is pulled off a companion star. The small number of X-ray sources in the field implies that there is only a small chance of an unrelated source being so close by coincidence. Also, the X-ray source has similar properties to those expected for fusion on a white dwarf, unlike most X-ray sources in the sky. However, in follow-up studies, Voss, Nelemans and colleagues Gijs Roelofs (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.) and Cees Bassa (McGill University, Canada) used higher-quality optical images to better determine the supernova's position. This work, which is not yet published, shows a small, but significant difference in the measured positions of the supernova and the X-ray source, suggesting the source may not be the progenitor. Follow-up Chandra observations hint that the X-ray object has disappeared, but further observations are needed to finally decide whether the source was the progenitor or not. The team is also applying this new method to other supernovas and has high hopes that they will eventually succeed in identifying the elusive cause of at least some of these explosions. "We're very excited about opening up a new way of studying supernovas, even though we're not sure that we've seen this particular stellar bomb before it exploded," said Gijs Roelofs. "We're very confident that we'll learn a lot more about these important supernovas in the future.&

  20. Regeneration of Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons after Ischemic Brain Injury by Recruitment of Endogenous Neural Progenitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Nakatomi; Toshihiko Kuriu; Shigeo Okabe; Shin-ichi Yamamoto; Osamu Hatano; Nobutaka Kawahara; Akira Tamura; Takaaki Kirino; Masato Nakafuku

    2002-01-01

    The adult brain is extremely vulnerable to various insults. The recent discovery of neural progenitors in adult mammals, however, raises the possibility of repairing damaged tissue by recruiting their latent regenerative potential. Here we show that activation of endogenous progenitors leads to massive regeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after ischemic brain injury. Endogenous progenitors proliferate in response to ischemia and

  1. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Schniedermann; Moritz Rennecke; Kerstin Buttler; Georg Richter; Anna-Maria Städtler; Susanne Norgall; Muhammad Badar; Bernhard Barleon; Tobias May; Jörg Wilting; Herbert A Weich

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. RESULTS: In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung

  2. Increased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Are Associated with Survival in Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen L. Burnham; W. Robert Taylor; Arshed A. Quyyumi; Mauricio Rojas; Kenneth L. Brigham; Marc Moss

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Repair of damaged endothelium is important in recovery from acute lung injury. In animal models, bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells differentiate into mature endothelium and assist in repairing damaged vasculature. Objectives: The quantity of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with acute lung injury is unknown. We hypothesize that increased numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells will be associ- ated

  3. The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair Xiaoming Liu1 and John F epithelial stem/progenitor cells of the proximal airways. As in the case of other adult stem cell niches and mobilize stem/progenitor cells, in the setting of normal cellular turnover or injury. Aberrant

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Sublineage Development from Human Hematopoietic Progenitor\\/Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Strobl

    2003-01-01

    In vitro differentiation models of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor\\/stem cells have contributed significantly to our current understanding of dendritic cell (DC) development. DC sublineages seem to arise from common progenitors with monocytic cells. These progenitors seem to respond to instructive signals from cytokine receptors and steroids to follow defined sublineage differentiation pathways. Transcriptional processes involved in the regulation of lineage

  5. The effects of added wheat proteins on processing and quality of wheat flour tortillas 

    E-print Network

    Pascut, Simina

    2002-01-01

    Specific proteins improve quality of flour for breadmaking but protein composition in tortilla flour has not been investigated. Selected wheat protein fractions can separately modify dough resistance and extensibility. This may yield tortillas...

  6. Characterization of ?-gliadin genes from diploid wheats and the comparative analysis with those from polyploid wheats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z.-C. Ma; Y.-M. Wei; Z.-H. Yan; Y.-L. Zheng

    2007-01-01

    To carry out comparative analysis of the ?-gliadin genes on A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats, 8 full-length ?-gliadin\\u000a genes, including 3 functional genes and 5 pseudogenes, were obtained from diploid wheats, among which 2, 2 and 4 ?-gliadin\\u000a genes were isolated from T. urartu, T. monococcum, and T. boeoticum, respectively. The results indicated that higher number of ?-gliadin

  7. 2009 Wheat Variety Trials Conducted in the Texas High Plains Brent Bean 1

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    2009 Wheat Variety Trials Conducted in the Texas High Plains Brent Bean 1 2008-2009 Wheat Crop in Review This year was a disappointment for most wheat farmers in the Texas Panhandle. Drought in the fall wheat suffered due to a lack of fall and winter precipitation. Our old nemesis Russian wheat aphid also

  8. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  9. Lung Function and Skin Prick Test in Wheat Flour Mill Workers in Southwestern Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Sara Kashef

    2012-01-01

    Wheat flour and its derivatives play an important role in the Iranian diet. Immunologic sensitization to work-related inhalation allergens of wheat mediates pulmonary symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of wheat flour dusts on clinical symptoms and lung function at wheat flour miller workers. One hundred and eighteen wheat flour mill workers (114 men, 4 women) were included

  10. In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Broeck van den H. C; Chen Hongbing; Xavier Lacaze; Jean-Claude Dusautoir; Ludovicus Gilissen; J. M. Smulders; Meer van der I. M

    2010-01-01

    Tetraploid wheat (durum wheat) is mainly used for the preparation of pasta. As a result of breeding, thousands of tetraploid wheat varieties exist, but also tetraploid landraces are still maintained and used for local food preparations. Gluten proteins present in wheat can induce celiac disease, a T-cell mediated auto-immune disorder, in genetically predisposed individuals after ingestion. Compared to hexaploid wheat,

  11. Reproduction and development of Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 on crested wheatgrass, intermediate wheatgrass, and susceptible and resistant wheat.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Peairs, Frank B; Miller, Hayley R; Randolph, Terri L; Rudolph, Jeff B; Talmich, Emili E

    2008-04-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is an economically important pest of small grains. Since its introduction into North America in 2003, Russian wheat aphid Biotype 2 has been found to be virulent to all commercially available winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., cultivars. Our goal was to examine differences in Russian wheat aphid reproduction and development on a variety of plant hosts to gain information about 1) potential alternate host refuges, 2) selective host pressures on Russian wheat aphid genetic variation, and 3) general population dynamics of Russian wheat aphid Biotype 2. We studied host quality of two wheatgrasses (crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn., and intermediate wheatgrass, Agropyron intermedium [Host] Beauvoir) and two types of winter wheat (T. aestivum, one Biotype 2 susceptible wheat, 'Custer' and one biotype 2 resistant wheat, STARS02RWA2414-11). The susceptible wheat had the highest intrinsic rate of increase, greatest longevity and greatest fecundity of the four host studied. Crested wheatgrass and the resistant wheat showed similar growth rates. Intermediate wheatgrass had the lowest intrinsic rate of increase and lowest fecundity of all tested hosts. PMID:18459422

  12. Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis sensitized with hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap.

    PubMed

    Chinuki, Yuko; Morita, Eishin

    2012-12-01

    Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ?-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific to recombinant ?-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP), has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ?-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE. PMID:23093796

  13. POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS AT UCLA: Endothelial Cell Progenitors (ECP)

    E-print Network

    Lane, Timothy F.

    progression. This project will use a novel lentiviral gene therapy system to target genes to ECPs and studyPOSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS AT UCLA: Endothelial Cell Progenitors (ECP): Development and function during of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Positions are available in a multidisciplinary cancer oriented research group

  14. Major pol Gene Progenitors in the Evolution of Oncoviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ing-Ming Chiu; Robert Callahan; Steven R. Tronick; Jeffrey Schlom; Stuart A. Aaronson

    1984-01-01

    The genetic relationships among molecularly cloned prototype viruses representing all of the major oncovirus genera were investigated by molecular hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis. One of the major progenitors of the pol genes of such viruses gives rise to mammalian type C viruses and another gives rise to type A, B, D, and avian type C oncoviruses. Evidence of unusual

  15. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Dysfunction and Senescence: Contribution to Oxidative Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Imanishi; Hiroto Tsujioka; Takashi Akasaka

    2008-01-01

    The identification of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has led to a significant paradigm in the field of vascu- lar biology and opened a door to the development of new therapeutic approaches. Based on the current evidence, it ap- pears that EPCs may make both direct contribution to neovascularization and indirectly promote the angiogenic function of local endothelial cells via secretion

  16. Cord blood-derived early outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toyoaki Murohara

    2010-01-01

    The presence of circulating endothelial repopulating cells in the adult human peripheral blood has been proposed since long time ago. In the late 1990s, the putative endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were first identified and reported by Asahara and co-workers. Since then, a number of studies have demonstrated that these cells are derived from bone marrow and induce microvascular vasculogenesis and

  17. Hmga2 regulates self-renewal of retinal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Sowmya; Xia, Xiaohuan; Hegde, Ganapati; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-11-01

    In vertebrate retina, histogenesis occurs over an extended period. To sustain the temporal generation of diverse cell types, retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) must self-renew. However, self-renewal and regulation of RPCs remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that cell-extrinsic factors coordinate with the epigenetic regulator high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (Hmga2) to regulate self-renewal of late retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). We observed that a small subset of RPCs was capable of clonal propagation and retained multipotentiality of parents in the presence of endothelial cells (ECs), known self-renewal regulators in various stem cell niches. The self-renewing effects, also observed in vivo, involve multiple intercellular signaling pathways, engaging Hmga2. As progenitors exhaust during retinal development, expression of Hmga2 progressively decreases. Analyses of Hmga2-expression perturbation, in vitro and in vivo, revealed that Hmga2 functionally helps to mediate cell-extrinsic influences on late-retinal progenitor self-renewal. Our results provide a framework for integrating the diverse intercellular influences elicited by epigenetic regulators for self-renewal in a dynamic stem cell niche: the developing vertebrate retina. PMID:25336737

  18. ?4 Integrin signaling induces expansion of prostate tumor progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Otero, Javier; Chen, Yu; Kim, Young-Mi; Koutcher, Jason A.; Satagopan, Jaya; Reuter, Victor; Carver, Brett; de Stanchina, Elisa; Enomoto, Katsuhiko; Greenberg, Norman M.; Scardino, Peter T.; Scher, Howard I.; Sawyers, Charles L.; Giancotti, Filippo G.

    2013-01-01

    The contextual signals that regulate the expansion of prostate tumor progenitor cells are poorly defined. We found that a significant fraction of advanced human prostate cancers and castration-resistant metastases express high levels of the ?4 integrin, which binds to laminin-5. Targeted deletion of the signaling domain of ?4 inhibited prostate tumor growth and progression in response to loss of p53 and Rb function in a mouse model of prostate cancer (PB-TAg mice). Additionally, it suppressed Pten loss-driven prostate tumorigenesis in tissue recombination experiments. We traced this defect back to an inability of signaling-defective ?4 to sustain self-renewal of putative cancer stem cells in vitro and proliferation of transit-amplifying cells in vivo. Mechanistic studies indicated that mutant ?4 fails to promote transactivation of ErbB2 and c-Met in prostate tumor progenitor cells and human cancer cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of ErbB2 and c-Met reduced the ability of prostate tumor progenitor cells to undergo self-renewal in vitro. Finally, we found that ?4 is often coexpressed with c-Met and ErbB2 in human prostate cancers and that combined pharmacological inhibition of these receptor tyrosine kinases exerts antitumor activity in a mouse xenograft model. These findings indicate that the ?4 integrin promotes prostate tumorigenesis by amplifying ErbB2 and c-Met signaling in tumor progenitor cells. PMID:23348745

  19. Identification and culture of olfactory neural progenitors from GFP mice.

    PubMed

    Othman, M M; Klueber, K M; Roisen, F J

    2003-04-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the best sources for obtaining adult stem cells from the nervous system, because it contains neural progenitors that regenerate continuously throughout life. The OE is accessible through the nasal cavity, which facilitates stem cell harvest for examination and transplantation. The mitotic activity of OE progenitors can be stimulated by intranasal irrigation with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). In the study reported here, we focused on OE from a transgenic mouse line transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Histological examination demonstrated the site of highest yield of OE in the transgenic and wild type littermates. Cultures were established from that site four days in vitro following ZnSO4 exposure. The GFP-derived primary cultures contained a heterogeneous population of fluorescent cells. After 10-12 days, a population of round, mitotically active cells emerged that formed fluorescent neurospheres. The neurosphere forming cells (NSFCs) were collected and subcultured up to four times. The NSFCs were primarily neuronal with only a few cells of glial lineage. Furthermore, the NSFCs were nestin positive and keratin negative, suggesting that they were neural progenitors. The endogenous GFP fluorescence of these cells provides a readily identifiable label that will facilitate their identification following transplantation into nontransfected hosts. They should provide a useful model for evaluating the potential therapeutic utility of OE progenitors in neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma repair. PMID:14533842

  20. Hyaluronan accumulates in demyelinated lesions and inhibits oligodendrocyte progenitor maturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A Back; Therese M F Tuohy; Hanqin Chen; Nicholas Wallingford; Andrew Craig; Jaime Struve; Ning Ling Luo; Fatima Banine; Ying Liu; Ansi Chang; Bruce D Trapp; Mahendra S Rao; Larry S Sherman

    2005-01-01

    Demyelination is the hallmark of numerous neurodegenerative conditions, including multiple sclerosis. Oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs), which normally mature into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes, are typically present around demyelinated lesions but do not remyelinate affected axons. Here, we find that the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan accumulates in demyelinated lesions from individuals with multiple sclerosis and in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. A high molecular weight (HMW)