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1

A 4-gigabase physical map unlocks the structure and evolution of the complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current limitations in genome sequencing technology require the construction of physical maps for high-quality draft sequences of large plant genomes, such as that of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor. To construct a physical map of the Ae. tauschii genome, we fingerprinted 461,70...

2

Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii  

PubMed Central

Background Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb), highly repetitive (>80%) and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of recombination in certain regions of the chromosomes, genetic mapping, which uses recombination frequency to map marker loci, alone is not sufficient to develop high quality marker scaffolds for a sequence ready physical map. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, which uses radiation induced chromosomal breaks, has proven to be a successful approach for developing marker scaffolds for sequence assembly in animal systems. Here, the development and characterization of a RH panel for the mapping of D-genome of wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii is reported. Results Radiation dosages of 350 and 450 Gy were optimized for seed irradiation of a synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat with the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78. The surviving plants after irradiation were crossed to durum wheat (AABB), to produce pentaploid RH1s (AABBD), which allows the simultaneous mapping of the whole D-genome. A panel of 1,510 RH1 plants was obtained, of which 592 plants were generated from the mature RH1 seeds, and 918 plants were rescued through embryo culture due to poor germination (<3%) of mature RH1 seeds. This panel showed a homogenous marker loss (2.1%) after screening with SSR markers uniformly covering all the D-genome chromosomes. Different marker systems mostly detected different lines with deletions. Using markers covering known distances, the mapping resolution of this RH panel was estimated to be <140kb. Analysis of only 16 RH lines carrying deletions on chromosome 2D resulted in a physical map with cM/cR ratio of 1:5.2 and 15 distinct bins. Additionally, with this small set of lines, almost all the tested ESTs could be mapped. A set of 399 most informative RH lines with an average deletion frequency of ~10% were identified for developing high density marker scaffolds of the D-genome. Conclusions The RH panel reported here is the first developed for any wild ancestor of a major cultivated plant species. The results provided insight into various aspects of RH mapping in plants, including the genetically effective cell number for wheat (for the first time) and the potential implementation of this technique in other plant species. This RH panel will be an invaluable resource for mapping gene based markers, developing a complete marker scaffold for the whole genome sequence assembly, fine mapping of markers and functional characterization of genes and gene networks present on the D-genome. PMID:23127207

2012-01-01

3

Sequence polymorphism in polyploid wheat and their d-genome diploid ancestor.  

PubMed Central

Sequencing was used to investigate the origin of the D genome of the allopolyploid species Triticum aestivum and Aegilops cylindrica. A 247-bp region of the wheat D-genome Xwye838 locus, encoding ADP-glucopyrophosphorylase, and a 326-bp region of the wheat D-genome Gss locus, encoding granule-bound starch synthase, were sequenced in a total 564 lines of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum, genome AABBDD) involving all its subspecies and 203 lines of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. In Ae. tauschii, two SNP variants were detected at the Xwye838 locus and 11 haplotypes at the Gss locus. Two haplotypes with contrasting frequencies were found at each locus in wheat. Both wheat Xwye838 variants, but only one of the Gss haplotypes seen in wheat, were found among the Ae. tauschii lines. The other wheat Gss haplotype was not found in either Ae. tauschii or 70 lines of tetraploid Ae. cylindrica (genomes CCDD), which is known to hybridize with wheat. It is concluded that both T. aestivum and Ae. cylindrica originated recurrently, with at least two genetically distinct progenitors contributing to the formation of the D genome in both species. PMID:15238542

Caldwell, Katherine S; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans S; Akhunov, Eduard; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Wolters, Petra; Powell, Wayne

2004-01-01

4

Retention of D genome chromosomes in pentaploid wheat crosses  

PubMed Central

The transfer of genes between Triticum aestivum (hexaploid bread wheat) and T. turgidum (tetraploid durum wheat) holds considerable potential for genetic improvement of both these closely related species. Five different T. aestivum/T. turgidum ssp. durum crosses were investigated using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to determine the inheritance of parental A, B and D genome material in subsequent generations derived from these crosses. The proportions of A, B and D chromosomal segments inherited from the hexaploid parent were found to vary significantly among individual crosses. F2 populations retained widely varying quantities of D genome material, ranging from 99% to none. The relative inheritance of bread wheat and durum alleles in the A and B genomes of derived lines also varied among the crosses. Within any one cross, progeny without D chromosomes in general had significantly more A and B genome durum alleles than lines retaining D chromosomes. The ability to select for and manipulate this non-random segregation in bread wheat/durum crosses will assist in efficient backcrossing of selected characters into the recurrent durum or hexaploid genotype of choice. This study illustrates the utility of DArT markers in the study of inter-specific crosses to commercial crop species. PMID:21427754

Martin, A; Simpfendorfer, S; Hare, R A; Eberhard, F S; Sutherland, M W

2011-01-01

5

Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling grain size and shape in the D genome of synthetic hexaploid wheat lines  

PubMed Central

Synthetic hexaploid wheat is an effective genetic resource for transferring agronomically important genes from Aegilops tauschii to common wheat. Wide variation in grain size and shape, one of the main targets for wheat breeding, has been observed among Ae. tauschii accessions. To identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for grain size and shape variation in the wheat D genome under a hexaploid genetic background, six parameters related to grain size and shape were measured using SmartGrain digital image software and QTL analysis was conducted using four F2 mapping populations of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In total, 18 QTLs for the six parameters were found on five of the seven D-genome chromosomes. The identified QTLs significantly contributed to the variation in grain size and shape among the synthetic wheat lines, implying that the D-genome QTLs might be at least partly functional in hexaploid wheat. Thus, synthetic wheat lines with diverse D genomes from Ae. tauschii are useful resources for the identification of agronomically important loci that function in hexaploid wheat. PMID:24399915

Okamoto, Yuki; Nguyen, Anh T.; Yoshioka, Motohiro; Iehisa, Julio C.M.; Takumi, Shigeo

2013-01-01

6

Draft genome of the wheat A-genome progenitor Triticum urartu.  

PubMed

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world. However, the complex polyploid nature of its genome makes genetic and functional analyses extremely challenging. The A?genome, as a basic genome of bread wheat and other polyploid wheats, for example, T. turgidum (AABB), T. timopheevii (AAGG) and T. zhukovskyi (AAGGA(m)A(m)), is central to wheat evolution, domestication and genetic improvement. The progenitor species of the A?genome is the diploid wild einkorn wheat T.?urartu, which resembles cultivated wheat more extensively than do Aegilops speltoides (the ancestor of the B genome) and Ae. tauschii (the donor of the D genome), especially in the morphology and development of spike and seed. Here we present the generation, assembly and analysis of a whole-genome shotgun draft sequence of the T.?urartu genome. We identified protein-coding gene models, performed genome structure analyses and assessed its utility for analysing agronomically important genes and for developing molecular markers. Our T.?urartu genome assembly provides a diploid reference for analysis of polyploid wheat genomes and is a valuable resource for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:23535596

Ling, Hong-Qing; Zhao, Shancen; Liu, Dongcheng; Wang, Junyi; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Chi; Fan, Huajie; Li, Dong; Dong, Lingli; Tao, Yong; Gao, Chuan; Wu, Huilan; Li, Yiwen; Cui, Yan; Guo, Xiaosen; Zheng, Shusong; Wang, Biao; Yu, Kang; Liang, Qinsi; Yang, Wenlong; Lou, Xueyuan; Chen, Jie; Feng, Mingji; Jian, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaofei; Luo, Guangbin; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Junjie; Wang, Zhaobao; Sha, Yuhui; Zhang, Bairu; Wu, Huajun; Tang, Dingzhong; Shen, Qianhua; Xue, Pengya; Zou, Shenhao; Wang, Xiujie; Liu, Xin; Wang, Famin; Yang, Yanping; An, Xueli; Dong, Zhenying; Zhang, Kunpu; Zhang, Xiangqi; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Dvorak, Jan; Tong, Yiping; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Wang, Jun

2013-04-01

7

Spontaneous and Divergent Hexaploid Triticales Derived from Common Wheat × Rye by Complete Elimination of D-Genome Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale. Methodology/Principal Findings Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L.) × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L.) were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales. Conclusion This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, “genome shock” was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced. PMID:25781330

Wang, Changyou; Ji, Wanquan

2015-01-01

8

[Evolution study of wheat (Tritium aestivum L.) A, B and D genome based on DNA sequence similarity].  

PubMed

Tritium aestivum L., and its four potential origin species T. urartu T., T. monococcum L., Ae. squarrosa L. and T. dicoccum S., were amplified with MWG913, a STS marker located in 1H chromosome of barley. Those products are cloned and sequenced. By the discrepancies of these sequences, we have obtained some evidences about the origin of wheat A, B, D genomes at molecular level. The results showed that the studied sequence in A genomes of Tritium aestivum L. was identical with that of T. urartu T., T. monococcum L. and T. dicoccum S.; that in D genome of Tritium aestivum L. was as same as that of Ae. squarrosa L.; that in B genome of Tritium aestivum L. differed from that of T. dicoccum S. in 0.61%. The results also suggested that A, B and D genome have the different evolution speed. PMID:11480175

Yu, B L; Huang, Z F; Zhou, W J; Zhang, W J

2001-01-01

9

Alpha-gliadin genes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat contain different sets of celiac disease epitopes  

PubMed Central

Background Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important staple food. However, wheat gluten proteins cause celiac disease (CD) in 0.5 to 1% of the general population. Among these proteins, the ?-gliadins contain several peptides that are associated to the disease. Results We obtained 230 distinct ?-gliadin gene sequences from severaldiploid wheat species representing the ancestral A, B, and D genomes of the hexaploid bread wheat. The large majority of these sequences (87%) contained an internal stop codon. All ?-gliadin sequences could be distinguished according to the genome of origin on the basis of sequence similarity, of the average length of the polyglutamine repeats, and of the differences in the presence of four peptides that have been identified as T cell stimulatory epitopes in CD patients through binding to HLA-DQ2/8. By sequence similarity, ?-gliadins from the public database of hexaploid T. aestivum could be assigned directly to chromosome 6A, 6B, or 6D. T. monococcum (A genome) sequences, as well as those from chromosome 6A of bread wheat, almost invariably contained epitope glia-?9 and glia-?20, but never the intact epitopes glia-? and glia-?2. A number of sequences from T. speltoides, as well as a number of sequences fromchromosome 6B of bread wheat, did not contain any of the four T cell epitopes screened for. The sequences from T. tauschii (D genome), as well as those from chromosome 6D of bread wheat, were found to contain all of these T cell epitopes in variable combinations per gene. The differences in epitope composition resulted mainly from point mutations. These substitutions appeared to be genome specific. Conclusion Our analysis shows that ?-gliadin sequences from the three genomes of bread wheat form distinct groups. The four known T cell stimulatory epitopes are distributed non-randomly across the sequences, indicating that the three genomes contribute differently to epitope content. A systematic analysis of all known epitopes in gliadins and glutenins will lead to better understanding of the differences in toxicity among wheat varieties. On the basis of such insight, breeding strategies can be designed to generate less toxic varieties of wheat which may be tolerated by at least part of the CD patient population. PMID:16403227

van Herpen, Teun WJM; Goryunova, Svetlana V; van der Schoot, Johanna; Mitreva, Makedonka; Salentijn, Elma; Vorst, Oscar; Schenk, Martijn F; van Veelen, Peter A; Koning, Frits; van Soest, Loek JM; Vosman, Ben; Bosch, Dirk; Hamer, Rob J; Gilissen, Luud JWJ; Smulders, Marinus JM

2006-01-01

10

Introgression of stem rust resistance genes SrTA10187 and SrTA10171 from Aegilops tauschii to wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diploid progenitor of the wheat D genome, Aegilops tauschii, has provided a wealth of genes for resistance to many diseases and insect pests of wheat. Ae. tauschii is a readily accessible pool of genes for wheat breeding as genes can be transferred to elite wheat cultivars though direct hybridi...

11

Highly recombinogenic regions at seed storage protein loci on chromosome 1DS of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of wheat.  

PubMed Central

A detailed RFLP map was constructed of the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 1D of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid D-genome donor species of hexaploid wheat. Ae. tauschii was used to overcome some of the limitations commonly associated with molecular studies of wheat such as low levels of DNA polymorphism. Detection of multiple loci by most RFLP probes suggests that gene duplication events have occurred throughout this chromosomal region. Large DNA fragments isolated from a BAC library of Ae. tauschii were used to determine the relationship between physical and genetic distance at seed storage protein loci located at the distal end of chromosome 1DS. Highly recombinogenic regions were identified where the ratio of physical to genetic distance was estimated to be <20 kb/cM. These results are discussed in relation to the genome-wide estimate of the relationship between physical and genetic distance. PMID:10790409

Spielmeyer, W; Moullet, O; Laroche, A; Lagudah, E S

2000-01-01

12

Intraspecific sequence comparisons reveal similar rates of non-collinear gene insertion in the B and D genomes of bread wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Polyploidization is considered one of the main mechanisms of plant genome evolution. The presence of multiple copies of the same gene reduces selection pressure and permits sub-functionalization and neo-functionalization leading to plant diversification, adaptation and speciation. In bread wheat, polyploidization and the prevalence of transposable elements resulted in massive gene duplication and movement. As a result, the number of genes which are non-collinear to genomes of related species seems markedly increased in wheat. Results We used new-generation sequencing (NGS) to generate sequence of a Mb-sized region from wheat chromosome arm 3DS. Sequence assembly of 24 BAC clones resulted in two scaffolds of 1,264,820 and 333,768 bases. The sequence was annotated and compared to the homoeologous region on wheat chromosome 3B and orthologous loci of Brachypodium distachyon and rice. Among 39 coding sequences in the 3DS scaffolds, 32 have a homoeolog on chromosome 3B. In contrast, only fifteen and fourteen orthologs were identified in the corresponding regions in rice and Brachypodium, respectively. Interestingly, five pseudogenes were identified among the non-collinear coding sequences at the 3B locus, while none was found at the 3DS locus. Conclusion Direct comparison of two Mb-sized regions of the B and D genomes of bread wheat revealed similar rates of non-collinear gene insertion in both genomes with a majority of gene duplications occurring before their divergence. Relatively low proportion of pseudogenes was identified among non-collinear coding sequences. Our data suggest that the pseudogenes did not originate from insertion of non-functional copies, but were formed later during the evolution of hexaploid wheat. Some evidence was found for gene erosion along the B genome locus. PMID:22935214

2012-01-01

13

Dynamic evolution of NBS-LRR genes in bread wheat and its progenitors.  

PubMed

Extensive studies have focused on the largest class of disease resistance genes (nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat, NBS-LRR) in various plants. However, no research on the dynamic evolution of these genes in domesticated species and their progenitors has been reported. Recently published genome sequences of bread wheat and its two ancestors provide a good opportunity for comparing NBS-encoding genes between ancestors and their progeny. Over 2000 NBS-encoding genes have been identified in bread wheat, which is the largest number having been reported so far. Compared with other grass species, its two progenitors also contained more NBS-encoding genes, indicating that there was an expansion of these genes in their common ancestor. Interestingly, the inherited relationships of NBS-LRR genes among the bread wheat and its two progenitors were ambiguous and only 3 % single-copy orthologues retained gene order in three-way genome comparisons of the three genomes. Lots of NBS-encoding genes present in the either ancestor could not be found in the bread wheat. These results indicated that NBS-LRR genes in bread wheat might have evolved rapidly through a rapid loss of ancestor genes. PMID:25475390

Gu, Longjiang; Si, Weina; Zhao, Lina; Yang, Sihai; Zhang, Xiaohui

2015-04-01

14

Discovery of High-Confidence Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms from Large-Scale De Novo Analysis of Leaf Transcripts of Aegilops tauschii, A Wild Wheat Progenitor  

PubMed Central

Construction of high-resolution genetic maps is important for genetic and genomic research, as well as for molecular breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the predominant class of genetic variation and can be used as molecular markers. Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of common wheat, is considered a valuable genetic resource for wheat improvement. Our previous study implied that Ae. tauschii accessions can be genealogically divided into two major lineages. In this study, the transcriptome of two Ae. tauschii accessions from each lineage, lineage 1 (L1) and 2 (L2), was sequenced, yielding 9435 SNPs and 739 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels) after de novo assembly of the reads. Based on 36 contig sequences, 31 SNPs and six indels were validated on 20 diverse Ae. tauschii accessions. Because almost all of the SNP markers were polymorphic between L1 and L2, and the D-genome donor of common wheat is presumed to belong to L2, these markers are available for D-genome typing in crosses between common wheat varieties and L1-derived synthetic wheat. Due to the conserved synteny between wheat and barley chromosomes, the high-density expressed sequence tag barley map and the hypothetical gene order in barley can be applied to develop markers on target chromosomal regions in wheat. PMID:23125207

Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Shimizu, Akifumi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Nasuda, Shuhei; Takumi, Shigeo

2012-01-01

15

Variability in wheat based on low-copy DNA sequence comparisons.  

PubMed

The chromosomes of the B genome of hexaploid wheat (AABBDD) do not pair completely with those of any of the diploid species with genomes similar to B. Various biochemical and molecular analyses have suggested that each of the five diploid species in section Sitopsis of Triticum are ancestral to B. These observations have led to the hypothesis that the B genome may be polyphyletic, descending from more than one diploid ancestor. This hypothesis may account for differences between the wheat B genome and the diploids and also for variability that currently exists among different wheat accessions. In this study, we cloned and compared nucleotide sequences for three low-copy DNA fragments from the B and D genomes of several wheat accessions and from diploid relatives of the B and D genomes. Our results suggested that the amount of DNA sequence variability in wheat is low, although somewhat more variability existed in the B genome than in the D genome. The B genome of wheat was significantly diverged from all the Sitopsis diploid species, and Triticum speltoides was closer to B than to other members of this section. The D genome of wheat was very similar to that of its progenitor, Triticum tauschii. No evidence for a polyphyletic origin of the B genome was found. A more parsimonious hypothesis is that the wheat B genome diverged from its diploid ancestor after the original hybridization event occurred. PMID:8537004

Talbert, L E; Blake, N K; Storlie, E W; Lavin, M

1995-10-01

16

THE EFFECT OF D-GENOME SUBSTITUTIONS ON AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND END-USE QUALITY OF 'PRESTO' TRITICALE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hexaploid triticale (2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) and wheat (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) differ in their R and D genomes. An unanswered question is whether introgressions of the D-genome chromatin could improve triticale. For example, in hexaploid wheat, the endosperm storage proteins, which determine bread-maki...

17

[Comparative genetic analysis of diploid naked wheat Triticum sinskajae and the progenitor T. monococcum accession].  

PubMed

The inheritance of several morphological and biochemical traits was studied in diploid (2n = 2x = 14) naked wheat Triticum sinskajae. The electrophoretic pattern of storage proteins (gliadins) of T. sinskajae differed only in two components from the pattern of T. monococcum accession k-20970, in a population of which T. sinskajae had been discovered. Analysis of biochemical polymorphisms revealed a difference between T. monococcum k-20970 and T. sinskajae in a slow 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase region but not in the other eight enzyme systems examined. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nuclear Acc-1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) gene revealed a 46-bp deletion from intron 11 in T. monococcum k-20970 but not in T. sinskajae. This difference was not regarded as species-specific in view of the intraspecific polymorphism of the Acc-1 locus in T. monococcum. A monogenic control was demonstrated for the spring growth habit of T. sinskajae, and the monogenic control of the specific T. sinskajae ear shape was verified. The T. sinskajae ear shape is controlled by a recessive gene, while the T. monococcum ear shape is controlled by a dominant gene. The T. sinskajae ear shape, nakedness, soft glume, aristate glume, and the oblique brachium of the outer glume proved to be linked. The set of E. sin-skajae diagnostic characters is determined by a single (possibly, regulatory) gene or a set of closely linked genes. The two other genes specific to T. sinskajae-awnS, determining the awnlessness, and fig, determining the nonfissile inner (flower) glume--are, respectively, 1.35 +/- 0.98 and 3.34 +/- 1.54% of crossing over away from the mom gene, which determines the T. sinskajae ear shape. PMID:18186188

Goncharov, N P; Kondratenko, E Ia; Bannikova, S V; Konovalov, A A; Golovnina, K A

2007-11-01

18

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND CHROMOSOME-SPECIFIC TRAP MARKER DEVELOPMENT FOR LANGDON DURUM D-GENOME DISOMIC SUBSTITUTION LINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Langdon (LDN) durum D-genome disomic substitution (LDN-DS) lines, where a pair of ‘Chinese Spring’ (CS) D-genome chromosomes substitute for a corresponding homoeologous A- or B-genome chromosome pair of LDN, have been widely used for determining chromosomal locations of genes in tetraploid wheat. T...

19

Exploring the origin of the D genome of oat by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Further understanding of the origin of cultivated oat would accelerate its genetic improvement. In particular, it would be useful to clarify which diploid progenitor contributed the D genome of this allohexaploid species. In this study, we demonstrate that the landmarks produced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of species of Avena using probes derived from Avena sativa can be used to explore the origin of the D genome. Selected sets of probes were hybridized in several sequential experiments performed on exactly the same chromosome spreads, with multiple probes of cytological preparations. Probes pITS and A3-19 showed there might be a similar distribution of pITS between the Ac and D genomes. These results indicated that the Ac genome is closely related to the D genome, and that Avena canariensis (AcAc) could be the D-genome donor of cultivated oat. PMID:25478818

Luo, Xiaomei; Zhang, Haiqin; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Zhou, Yonghong

2014-09-01

20

Molecular Basis of Evolutionary Events That Shaped the Hardness Locus in Diploid and Polyploid Wheat Species (Triticum and Aegilops)W?  

PubMed Central

The Hardness (Ha) locus controls grain hardness in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its relatives (Triticum and Aegilops species) and represents a classical example of a trait whose variation arose from gene loss after polyploidization. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of the evolutionary events observed at this locus by comparing corresponding sequences of diploid, tertraploid, and hexaploid wheat species (Triticum and Aegilops). Genomic rearrangements, such as transposable element insertions, genomic deletions, duplications, and inversions, were shown to constitute the major differences when the same genomes (i.e., the A, B, or D genomes) were compared between species of different ploidy levels. The comparative analysis allowed us to determine the extent and sequences of the rearranged regions as well as rearrangement breakpoints and sequence motifs at their boundaries, which suggest rearrangement by illegitimate recombination. Among these genomic rearrangements, the previously reported Pina and Pinb genes loss from the Ha locus of polyploid wheat species was caused by a large genomic deletion that probably occurred independently in the A and B genomes. Moreover, the Ha locus in the D genome of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum) is 29 kb smaller than in the D genome of its diploid progenitor Ae. tauschii, principally because of transposable element insertions and two large deletions caused by illegitimate recombination. Our data suggest that illegitimate DNA recombination, leading to various genomic rearrangements, constitutes one of the major evolutionary mechanisms in wheat species. PMID:15749759

Chantret, Nathalie; Salse, Jérôme; Sabot, François; Rahman, Sadequr; Bellec, Arnaud; Laubin, Bastien; Dubois, Ivan; Dossat, Carole; Sourdille, Pierre; Joudrier, Philippe; Gautier, Marie-Françoise; Cattolico, Laurence; Beckert, Michel; Aubourg, Sébastien; Weissenbach, Jean; Caboche, Michel; Bernard, Michel; Leroy, Philippe; Chalhoub, Boulos

2005-01-01

21

HMW and LMW glutenin alleles among putative tetraploid and hexaploid European spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) progenitors.  

PubMed

The allelic compositions of high- and low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenins (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) among European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.) and related hexaploid and tetraploid Triticum species were investigated by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). A total of seven novel glutenin alleles (designated A1a*, B1d*, B1g*, B1f*, B1j*, D1a* at Glu-1 and A3h at the Glu-3 loci, respectively) in European spelt wheat were detected by SDS-PAGE, which were confirmed further by employing A-PAGE and CE methods. Particularly, two HMW-GS alleles, Glu-B1d* coding the subunits 6.1 and 22.1, and Glu-B1f* coding the subunits 13 and 22*, were found to occur in European spelt with frequencies of 32.34% and 5.11%, respectively. These two alleles were present in cultivated emmer (Triticum dicoccum), but they were not observed in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The allele Glu-B1g* coding for 13* and 19* subunits found in spelt wheat was also detected in club wheat (Triticum compactum L.). Additionally, two alleles coding for LMW-GS, Glu-A3h and Glu-B3d, occurred with high frequencies in spelt, club and cultivated emmer wheat, whereas these were not found or present with very low frequencies in bread wheat. Our results strongly support the secondary origin hypothesis, namely European spelt wheat originated from hybridization between cultivated emmer and club wheat. This is also confirmed experimentally by the artificial synthesis of spelt through crossing between old European emmer wheat, T. dicoccum and club wheat, T. compactum. PMID:13679994

Yan, Y; Hsam, S L K; Yu, J Z; Jiang, Y; Ohtsuka, I; Zeller, F J

2003-11-01

22

Duplication and partitioning in evolution and function of homoeologous Q loci governing domestication characters in polyploid wheat  

PubMed Central

The Q gene encodes an AP2-like transcription factor that played an important role in domestication of polyploid wheat. The chromosome 5A Q alleles (5AQ and 5Aq) have been well studied, but much less is known about the q alleles on wheat homoeologous chromosomes 5B (5Bq) and 5D (5Dq). We investigated the organization, evolution, and function of the Q/q homoeoalleles in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Q/q gene sequences are highly conserved within and among the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, the A and B genomes of tetraploid wheat, and the A, S, and D genomes of the diploid progenitors, but the intergenic regions of the Q/q locus are highly divergent among homoeologous genomes. Duplication of the q gene 5.8 Mya was likely followed by selective loss of one of the copies from the A genome progenitor and the other copy from the B, D, and S genomes. A recent V329-to-I mutation in the A lineage is correlated with the Q phenotype. The 5Bq homoeoalleles became a pseudogene after allotetraploidization. Expression analysis indicated that the homoeoalleles are coregulated in a complex manner. Combined phenotypic and expression analysis indicated that, whereas 5AQ plays a major role in conferring domestication-related traits, 5Dq contributes directly and 5Bq indirectly to suppression of the speltoid phenotype. The evolution of the Q/q loci in polyploid wheat resulted in the hyperfunctionalization of 5AQ, pseudogenization of 5Bq, and subfunctionalization of 5Dq, all contributing to the domestication traits. PMID:22042872

Zhang, Zengcui; Belcram, Harry; Gornicki, Piotr; Charles, Mathieu; Just, Jérémy; Huneau, Cécile; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Couloux, Arnaud; Samain, Sylvie; Gill, Bikram S.; Rasmussen, Jack B.; Barbe, Valérie; Faris, Justin D.; Chalhoub, Boulos

2011-01-01

23

Characterization of three VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3-like (VIL) homologs in wild wheat, Aegilops tauschii Coss.  

PubMed

Control of flowering time is an adaptive trait of plants for different growth habitats. A vernalization requirement is a major genetic component determining wheat flowering time. Arabidopsis VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3) and VIN3-like 1 (VIL1) play critical roles in the vernalization pathway of flowering, and three wheat VIL homologs are upregulated by vernalization in einkorn wheat. To study the relationship between vernalization and wheat VIL homologs in Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of common wheat, we isolated three cDNAs orthologous to the einkorn wheat VIL genes. The three Ae. tauschii VIL genes showed many single nucleotide polymorphisms including non-synonymous substitutions relative to the einkorn orthologs. In addition, high rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions were revealed by intraspecific variation analysis of the AetVIL sequences, suggesting adaptive evolution at the AetVIL loci. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was conducted to examine the time course of expression of the VIL genes during vernalization. Of the three AetVIL genes, AetVIL2 was upregulated after one week of low-temperature treatment, and its expression pattern was distinct for winter and spring habit accessions. These observations strongly suggest that AetVIL2 is associated with the vernalization-responsive pathway in Ae. tauschii. PMID:22568701

Koyama, Kayoko; Hatano, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Jun; Takumi, Shigeo

2012-04-01

24

Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole genome shotgun sequencing  

PubMed Central

Summary Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20% of the calories consumed by mankind. We sequenced its large and challenging 17 Gb hexaploid genome using 454 pyrosequencing and compared this with the sequences of diploid ancestral and progenitor genomes. Between 94,000-96,000 genes were identified, and two-thirds were assigned to the A, B and D genomes. High-resolution synteny maps identified many small disruptions to conserved gene order. We show the hexaploid genome is highly dynamic, with significant loss of gene family members upon polyploidization and domestication, and an abundance of gene fragments. Several classes of genes involved in energy harvesting, metabolism and growth are among expanded gene families that could be associated with crop productivity. Our analyses, coupled with the identification of extensive genetic variation, provide a new resource for accelerating gene discovery and improving this major crop. PMID:23192148

Brenchley, Rachel; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Barker, Gary L.A.; D’Amore, Rosalinda; Allen, Alexandra M.; McKenzie, Neil; Kramer, Melissa; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; Kay, Suzanne; Waite, Darren; Trick, Martin; Bancroft, Ian; Gu, Yong; Huo, Naxin; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Sehgal, Sunish; Kianian, Sharyar; Gill, Bikram; Anderson, Olin; Kersey, Paul; Dvorak, Jan; McCombie, Richard; Hall, Anthony; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Edwards, Keith J.; Bevan, Michael W.; Hall, Neil

2012-01-01

25

mRNA and Small RNA Transcriptomes Reveal Insights into Dynamic Homoeolog Regulation of Allopolyploid Heterosis in Nascent Hexaploid Wheat.  

PubMed

Nascent allohexaploid wheat may represent the initial genetic state of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), which arose as a hybrid between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD) and by chromosome doubling and outcompeted its parents in growth vigor and adaptability. To better understand the molecular basis for this success, we performed mRNA and small RNA transcriptome analyses in nascent allohexaploid wheat and its following generations, their progenitors, and the natural allohexaploid cultivar Chinese Spring, with the assistance of recently published A and D genome sequences. We found that nonadditively expressed protein-coding genes were rare but relevant to growth vigor. Moreover, a high proportion of protein-coding genes exhibited parental expression level dominance, with genes for which the total homoeolog expression level in the progeny was similar to that in T. turgidum potentially participating in development and those with similar expression to that in Ae. tauschii involved in adaptation. In addition, a high proportion of microRNAs showed nonadditive expression upon polyploidization, potentially leading to differential expression of important target genes. Furthermore, increased small interfering RNA density was observed for transposable element-associated D homoeologs in the allohexaploid progeny, which may account for biased repression of D homoeologs. Together, our data provide insights into small RNA-mediated dynamic homoeolog regulation mechanisms that may contribute to heterosis in nascent hexaploid wheat. PMID:24838975

Li, Aili; Liu, Dengcai; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Xubo; Hao, Ming; Geng, Shuaifeng; Yan, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Lianquan; Wu, Junyan; Yin, Lingjie; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wu, Liang; Zheng, Youliang; Mao, Long

2014-05-16

26

Map-based analysis of the tenacious glume gene Tg-B1 of wild emmer and its role in wheat domestication.  

PubMed

The domestication of wheat was instrumental in spawning the civilization of humankind, and it occurred through genetic mutations that gave rise to types with non-fragile rachises, soft glumes, and free-threshing seed. Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides), the tetraploid AB-genome progenitor of domesticated wheat has genes that confer tenacious glumes (Tg) that underwent genetic mutations to give rise to free-threshing wheat. Here, we evaluated disomic substitution lines involving chromosomes 2A and 2B of wild emmer accessions substituted for homologous chromosomes in tetraploid and hexaploid backgrounds. The results suggested that both chromosomes 2A and 2B of wild emmer possess genes that inhibit threshability. A population of recombinant inbred lines derived from the tetraploid durum wheat variety Langdon crossed with a Langdon - T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides accession PI 481521 chromosome 2B disomic substitution line was used to develop a genetic linkage map of 2B, evaluate the genetics of threshability, and map the gene derived from PI 481521 that inhibited threshability. A 2BS linkage map comprised of 58 markers was developed, and markers delineated the gene to a 2.3 cM interval. Comparative analysis with maps containing the tenacious glume gene Tg-D1 on chromosome arm 2 DS from Aegilops tauschii, the D genome progenitor of hexaploid wheat, revealed that the gene inhibiting threshability in wild emmer was homoeologous to Tg-D1 and therefore designated Tg-B1. Comparative analysis with rice and Brachypodium distachyon indicated a high level of divergence and poorly conserved colinearity, particularly near the Tg-B1 locus. These results provide a foundation for further studies involving Tg-B1, which, together with Tg-D1, had profound influences on wheat domestication. PMID:24657062

Faris, Justin D; Zhang, Zengcui; Chao, Shiaoman

2014-06-01

27

A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii)  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. Results A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo hybridization probes, agarose based fingerprints and 'high information content fingerprinting' (HICF). A total of 13,662 BAC-end sequences and 2,828 DNA probes were used in genetically anchoring 1585 contigs to a cotton consensus genetic map, and 370 and 438 contigs, respectively to Arabidopsis thaliana (AT) and Vitis vinifera (VV) whole genome sequences. Conclusion Several lines of evidence suggest that the G. raimondii genome is comprised of two qualitatively different components. Much of the gene rich component is aligned to the Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera genomes and shows promise for utilizing translational genomic approaches in understanding this important genome and its resident genes. The integrated genetic-physical map is of value both in assembling and validating a planned reference sequence. PMID:20569427

2010-01-01

28

Coverage and consistency: bioinformatics aspects of the analysis of multirun iTRAQ experiments with wheat leaves.  

PubMed

The hexaploid genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is large (17 Gb) and repetitive, and this has delayed full sequencing and annotation of the genome, which is a prerequisite for effective quantitative proteomics analysis. Aware of these constraints we investigated the most effective approaches for shotgun proteomic analyses of bread wheat that would support large-scale quantitative comparisons using iTRAQ reagents. We used a data set that was generated by two-dimensional LC-MS of iTRAQ labeled peptides from wheat leaves. The main items considered in this study were the choice of sequence database for matching LC-MS data, the consistency of identification when multiple LC-MS runs were acquired, and the options for downstream functional analysis to generate useful insight. For peptide identification we examined the extensive NCBInr plant database, a smaller composite cereals database, the Brachypodium distachyon model plant genome, the EST-based SuperWheat database, as well as the genome sequence from the recently sequenced D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii. While the most spectra were assigned by using the SuperWheat database, this extremely large database could not be readily manipulated for the robust protein grouping that is required for large-scale, multirun quantitative experiments. We demonstrated a pragmatic alternative of using the composite cereals database for peptide spectra matching. The stochastic aspect of protein grouping across LC-MS runs was investigated using the smaller composite cereals database where we found that attaching the Brachypodium best BLAST hit reduced this problem. Further, assigning quantitation to the best Brachypodium locus yielded promising results enabling integration with existing downstream data mining and functional analysis tools. Our study demonstrated viable approaches for quantitative proteomics analysis of bread wheat samples and shows how these approaches could be similarly adopted for analysis of other organisms with unsequenced or incompletely sequenced genomes. PMID:24015675

Pascovici, Dana; Gardiner, Donald M; Song, Xiaomin; Breen, Edmond; Solomon, Peter S; Keighley, Tim; Molloy, Mark P

2013-11-01

29

mRNA and Small RNA Transcriptomes Reveal Insights into Dynamic Homoeolog Regulation of Allopolyploid Heterosis in Nascent Hexaploid Wheat[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Nascent allohexaploid wheat may represent the initial genetic state of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), which arose as a hybrid between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD) and by chromosome doubling and outcompeted its parents in growth vigor and adaptability. To better understand the molecular basis for this success, we performed mRNA and small RNA transcriptome analyses in nascent allohexaploid wheat and its following generations, their progenitors, and the natural allohexaploid cultivar Chinese Spring, with the assistance of recently published A and D genome sequences. We found that nonadditively expressed protein-coding genes were rare but relevant to growth vigor. Moreover, a high proportion of protein-coding genes exhibited parental expression level dominance, with genes for which the total homoeolog expression level in the progeny was similar to that in T. turgidum potentially participating in development and those with similar expression to that in Ae. tauschii involved in adaptation. In addition, a high proportion of microRNAs showed nonadditive expression upon polyploidization, potentially leading to differential expression of important target genes. Furthermore, increased small interfering RNA density was observed for transposable element–associated D homoeologs in the allohexaploid progeny, which may account for biased repression of D homoeologs. Together, our data provide insights into small RNA–mediated dynamic homoeolog regulation mechanisms that may contribute to heterosis in nascent hexaploid wheat. PMID:24838975

Li, Aili; Liu, Dengcai; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Xubo; Hao, Ming; Geng, Shuaifeng; Yan, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Lianquan; Wu, Junyan; Yin, Lingjie; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wu, Liang; Zheng, Youliang; Mao, Long

2014-01-01

30

Field evaluation of emmer wheat-derived synthetic hexaploid wheat for resistance to Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae).  

PubMed

Broadening the genetic base for resistance to Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae), in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is desirable. To date, identified Russian wheat aphid resistance genes are either located to the D chromosomes or to rye translocation of wheat, and resistance derived from the A or B genomes of tetraploid Triticum spp. would therefore be highly beneficial. Fifty-eight synthetic hexaploid wheat, derived from interspecific crosses of Triticum dicoccum Schrank. and Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmal. and their parents were evaluated for resistance to Russian wheat aphid under field conditions. Plots infested with aphids were compared with plots protected with insecticides. The T. dicoccum parents were highly resistant to Russian wheat aphids, whereas the Ae. tauschii parents were susceptible. Resistance levels observed in the synthetic hexaploids were slightly below the levels of their T. dicoccum parents when a visual damage scale was used. but no major resistance suppression was observed among the synthetics. Russian wheat aphid infestation on average reduced plant height and kernel weight at harvest in the synthetic hexaploids and the T. dicoccum parents by 3-4%, whereas the susceptible control 'Seri M82' suffered losses of above 20%. Because resistance in the synthetic hexaploid wheat is derived from their T. dicoccum parent, resistance gene(s) must be located on the A and/or B genomes. They must therefore be different from previously identified Russian wheat aphid resistance genes, which have all been located on the D genome of wheat or on translocated segments. PMID:15279292

Lage, J; Skovmand, B; Andersen, S B

2004-06-01

31

Hulled wheats: Origin, nutritional value and future prospects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild and domesticated hulled (or non-free threshing) wheat species are among the most ancient cereals of the Fertile Crescent and the Mediterranean Region. They include wild emmer, the progenitor of most cultivated wheat species; wild and domesticated einkorn; and domesticated emmer and spelt wheat....

32

Synthetic hexaploids: Harnessing species of the primary gene pool for wheat improvement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of genetic diversity into elite wheat cultivars has long been recognized as a means of improving wheat productivity and securing the global wheat supply. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) recreated from its two progenitor species, the tetraploid, Triticum turgidum and its diploid wild r...

33

Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Single Resistance Locus in a Crop-Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21, present in modern varieties of hexaploid wheat, originated in goatgrass Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D genome donor of wheat. The goatgrass donor was collected in Iran where it grows as a weed in wheat fields as part of the native agricultural ecosystem. In order to ...

34

Genetic diversity in conventional and synthetic wheats with drought and salinity tolerance based on AFLP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic diversity, among fourteen drought and twenty-seven salinity tolerant conventional and synthetic wheat (Triticum sp.) accessions containing different sources of the D genome, was assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The wheat accessions were analyzed with 20 EcoRI/Mse...

35

New insights into the origin of the B genome of hexaploid wheat: Evolutionary relationships at the SPA genomic region with the S genome of the diploid relative Aegilops speltoides  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies suggested that the diploid ancestor of the B genome of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species belongs to the Sitopsis section, having Aegilops speltoides (SS, 2n = 14) as the closest identified relative. However molecular relationships based on genomic sequence comparison, including both coding and non-coding DNA, have never been investigated. In an attempt to clarify these relationships, we compared, in this study, sequences of the Storage Protein Activator (SPA) locus region of the S genome of Ae. speltoides (2n = 14) to that of the A, B and D genomes co-resident in the hexaploid wheat species (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD, 2n = 42). Results Four BAC clones, spanning the SPA locus of respectively the A, B, D and S genomes, were isolated and sequenced. Orthologous genomic regions were identified as delimited by shared non-transposable elements and non-coding sequences surrounding the SPA gene and correspond to 35 268, 22 739, 43 397 and 53 919 bp for the A, B, D and S genomes, respectively. Sequence length discrepancies within and outside the SPA orthologous regions are the result of non-shared transposable elements (TE) insertions, all of which inserted after the progenitors of the four genomes divergence. Conclusion On the basis of conserved sequence length as well as identity of the shared non-TE regions and the SPA coding sequence, Ae speltoides appears to be more evolutionary related to the B genome of T. aestivum than the A and D genomes. However, the differential insertions of TEs, none of which are conserved between the two genomes led to the conclusion that the S genome of Ae. speltoides has diverged very early from the progenitor of the B genome which remains to be identified. PMID:19032732

Salse, Jérome; Chagué, Véronique; Bolot, Stéphanie; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Huneau, Cécile; Pont, Caroline; Belcram, Harry; Couloux, Arnaud; Gardais, Soazic; Evrard, Aurélie; Segurens, Béatrice; Charles, Mathieu; Ravel, Catherine; Samain, Sylvie; Charmet, Gilles; Boudet, Nathalie; Chalhoub, Boulos

2008-01-01

36

Ecogeography, genetic diversity, and breeding value of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Korn ex Asch. & Graebn.) Thell.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Körn ex Asch. & Graebn.) Thell. is the allotetraploid (2n=4x=28; genome BBAA) progenitor of cultivated wheat. It is fully compatible with the tetraploid (BBAA) durum wheat (Triticum durum), and can be crossed with the hexaploid (2n=6x=42; BBAADD) wheat (Triticu...

37

Comparative sequence analysis of the Phytochrome C gene and its upstream region in allohexaploid wheat reveals new data  

E-print Network

in the wheat genome. Several conserved non-coding sequences were also identified that may represent functional and D copies. The discrepancy in evolutionary age of the wheat genomes estimated using sequences from and D genomes between 2.5 and 4.5 Mya (Huang et al., 2002b). Plant Molecular Biology (2005) 58:625­641 �

Doust, Andrew

38

Quantification of genetic relationships among A genomes of wheats.  

PubMed

The genetic relationships of A genomes of Triticum urartu (Au) and Triticum monococcum (Am) in polyploid wheats are explored and quantified by AFLP fingerprinting. Forty-one accessions of A-genome diploid wheats, 3 of AG-genome wheats, 19 of AB-genome wheats, 15 of ABD-genome wheats, and 1 of the D-genome donor Ae. tauschii have been analysed. Based on 7 AFLP primer combinations, 423 bands were identified as potentially A genome specific. The bands were reduced to 239 by eliminating those present in autoradiograms of Ae. tauschii, bands interpreted as common to all wheat genomes. Neighbour-joining analysis separates T. urartu from T. monococcum. Triticum urartu has the closest relationship to polyploid wheats. Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. turgidum subsp. durum lines are included in tightly linked clusters. The hexaploid spelts occupy positions in the phylogenetic tree intermediate between bread wheats and T. turgidum. The AG-genome accessions cluster in a position quite distant from both diploid and other polyploid wheats. The estimates of similarity between A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats indicate that, compared with Am, Au has around 20% higher similarity to the genomes of polyploid wheats. Triticum timo pheevii AG genome is molecularly equidistant from those of Au and Am wheats. PMID:16699549

Brandolini, A; Vaccino, P; Boggini, G; Ozkan, H; Kilian, B; Salamini, F

2006-04-01

39

[Inheritance of awn absence in tetraploid wheat species].  

PubMed

Awn absence was shown to be inherited as a dominant character in the tetraploid wheat species Triticum dicoccum (Schrank) Schuebl. and T. durum Desf. but as a recessive one in T. aethiopicum Jakubz. The monogenic control of the character was demonstrated for all studied species. In accessions of emmer and durum wheat, the character is controlled by the dominant gene B1, located on chromosome 5A, and in Ethiopian wheat, by a recessive gene, which we designated as awn. The recessive awn gene was localized on chromosome 3B of T. aethiopicum with the use of D-genome disomic substitution lines of cultivar Langdon. PMID:12760259

Goncharov, N P; Mitina, R L; Anfilova, N A

2003-04-01

40

Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM  

E-print Network

Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM The small grains improvement effort at Texas Agri techniques. The College Station center focuses on wheat and oats for the South Texas and Blacklands regions of Texas, while the Amarillo center develops wheat and triticale lines for the Texas High Plains

41

De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Analyses of Gene Expression during Photomorphogenesis in Diploid Wheat Triticum monococcum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triticum monococcum (2n), a close ancestor of the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, was used as a model to study components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. Constructed were genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. mo...

42

Wheat Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ...

43

Simultaneous transfer, introgression and genomic localization of genes for resistance to stem rust race TTKSK Ug99 from Aegilops tauschii to wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat production is currently threatened by widely virulent races of the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, that are part of the TTKSK (also known as ‘Ug99’) race group. The diploid D genome donor species Aegilops tauschii (2n=2x=14, DD) is a readily accessible source of resis...

44

Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information content fingerprinting: a distal region of wheat chromosome 3DS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of wheat. We report the use of the Ae. tauschii, the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome, for the construction of t...

45

Genetic Variation of Seed Dormancy in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat-Derived Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), has very strong seed dormancy and genes controlling the trait may be used in breeding programs to manipulate germinability of improved cultivars. Thus, this research was conducted to initiate a project to identify dormancy genes fro...

46

Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat.  

PubMed

The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D genome through homoploid hybrid speciation 1 to 2 million years later. Our findings imply that the present-day bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid speciation (homoploid and polyploid) and lay the foundation for a new framework for understanding the wheat genome as a multilevel phylogenetic mosaic. PMID:25035499

Marcussen, Thomas; Sandve, Simen R; Heier, Lise; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Wulff, Brande B H; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

2014-07-18

47

Eat Wheat!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

48

Wheat Newsletter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

49

Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat  

PubMed Central

We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID:25837893

Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

2015-01-01

50

Agricultural Genotyping RAPiD Genomics is a DNA genotyping and genetic data analysis company providing tools for  

E-print Network

Agricultural Genotyping RAPiD Genomics is a DNA genotyping and genetic data analysis company or animal even before the seed germinates or the animal is born. The system developed by RAPiD Genomics in parallel, at a cost of several hundred dollars per sample. RAPiD Genomics has short- ened this process

Jawitz, James W.

51

Wheat: The Whole Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

52

Rapid linkage disequilibrium decay in the Lr10 gene in wild emmer wheat ( Triticum dicoccoides ) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Recombination is a key evolutionary factor enhancing diversity. However, the effect of recombination on diversity in inbreeding\\u000a species is expected to be low. To estimate this effect, recombination and diversity patterns of Lr10 gene were studied in natural populations of the inbreeder species, wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides). Wild emmer wheat is the progenitor of most cultivated wheats and it

Hanan Sela; Caroline Loutre; Beat Keller; Alan Schulman; Eviatar Nevo; Abraham Korol; Tzion Fahima

2011-01-01

53

Winter and Specialty Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat is the most widely grown crop in the world. Winter wheat is primarily common wheat (2n = 6x = 42) which has extensive germplasm resources that are used in breeding, often for disease and insect resistance. Though\\u000a wheat can be used as a forage crop and its grain for animal feed, the primary uses of common wheat are to

P. Baenziger; R. Graybosch; D. Van Sanford; W. Berzonsky

54

GENES ENCODING PLASTID ACETYL-COA CARBOXYLASE AND 3-PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE OF THE TRITICUM/AEGILOPS COMPLEX AND THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF POLYPLOID WHEAT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The classic wheat evolutionary history is one of adaptive radiation of the diploid Triticum/Aegilops species (A, S, D) , genome convergence and divergence of the tetraploid (T. turgidum AABB, and T. timopheevii AAAGG) and hexaploid (T. aestivum, AABBDD) species. The objective of this study was to a...

55

Nitrate reductases in hexaploid and tetraploid wheats and Aegilops.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase activity (NR activity), protein content (NR protein) and polypeptides were compared in shoots of Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare (L.) cv Fidel (bread wheat, AABBDD genome), Triticum dicoccum cv Vernal (AABB genome), Aegilops squarrosa var. strangulata (DD genome) and the amphiploid 365 (AABBDD genome), produced by crossing T. dicoccum cv Vernal and Ae. squarrosa var. strangulata. Constitutive NR protein and activity were found in shoots of all seedlings grown without nitrate, with the highest activity in the bread wheat. The inducible NR protein and activity developed upon the addition of nitrate. A 116-K polypeptide was identified as the main component of the NR from the bread wheat, while a faint, sometimes discernable 94-K band appeared on Western blots. Only one NR polypeptide could be identified in Ae. squarrosa -the 94 K. An intermediary situation was observed with the tetraploid T. dicoccum and the amphiploid: The 94-K polypeptide was the only one separated from NR of seedlings grown in the absence of nitrate. The 116-K polypeptide appeared after the addition of nitrate. The intensity of its band on the gel increased with the duration of the nitrate treatment. When comparing Ae. squarrosa and T. dicoccum, the constitutive isozyme (94-K polypeptide) was found in the D as well as in the AB genomes, while the inducible NR (116-K polypeptide) was absent from the D genome. Addition of the D genome into the AB genome slightly reinforced the expression of the inducible form (AB genome expression) in the amphiploid wheat. We postulate that the inducible form of NR in the bread wheat resulted from an evolutionary selection pressure favoured by cultivation. PMID:24226112

Ouhmidou, B; Cauderon, Y; Cherel, I; Champigny, M L

1990-01-01

56

Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

57

Quanah Wheat.  

E-print Network

is sufficiently winter-hardy for the recommended area of the Roll- ing Plains and Central Texas, but should not be grown outsick these areas. Quanah is similar to Comanche in milling and baking charac- t eristics. Tests by commercial and institutional... in other states. Development Quanah wheat was developed from a complex cross in which the first generations of two hybrids were crossed. The parentage was (Comanche x Honor-Forward, Cornell 501e-1-28, F,) x (Med- iterranean-Hope, 41-33-1-513 x Comanche...

Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1951-01-01

58

Progenitor Cell Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A critical aspect of cell and tissue engineering is the design of non-cellular constructs that closely interact with cells\\u000a to provide the necessary conditions for intended function. Properties such as surface chemistry, mechanical strength, porosity,\\u000a and rates of degradation are important elements of a cellular support system and can deeply influence the fate of progenitor\\u000a cells. To achieve the goal

Kevin R. Aroom; Brijesh S. Gill

59

Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in Elite Chinese Winter Wheat Investigated with SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

To ascertain genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among a representative collection of Chinese winter wheat cultivars and lines, 90 winter wheat accessions were analyzed with 269 SSR markers distributed throughout the wheat genome. A total of 1,358 alleles were detected, with 2 to 10 alleles per locus and a mean genetic richness of 5.05. The average genetic diversity index was 0.60, with values ranging from 0.05 to 0.86. Of the three genomes of wheat, ANOVA revealed that the B genome had the highest genetic diversity (0.63) and the D genome the lowest (0.56); significant differences were observed between these two genomes (P<0.01). The 90 Chinese winter wheat accessions could be divided into three subgroups based on STRUCTURE, UPGMA cluster and principal coordinate analyses. The population structure derived from STRUCTURE clustering was positively correlated to some extent with geographic eco-type. LD analysis revealed that there was a shorter LD decay distance in Chinese winter wheat compared with other wheat germplasm collections. The maximum LD decay distance, estimated by curvilinear regression, was 17.4 cM (r2>0.1), with a whole genome LD decay distance of approximately 2.2 cM (r2>0.1, P<0.001). Evidence from genetic diversity analyses suggest that wheat germplasm from other countries should be introduced into Chinese winter wheat and distant hybridization should be adopted to create new wheat germplasm with increased genetic diversity. The results of this study should provide valuable information for future association mapping using this Chinese winter wheat collection. PMID:22957076

Chen, Xiaojie; Min, Donghong; Yasir, Tauqeer Ahmad; Hu, Yin-Gang

2012-01-01

60

Wheat grass selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

Richard Wang (USDA; ARS)

2006-09-25

61

Wheat Diseases Atlas.  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I4 OTHER WHEAT PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I4 Frost and Winter Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I4 Cold Wind Scorch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 Color Banding... to wheat producers over the state on whose farms demonstrations have been conducted and pic tures for this publication were made. WhEAT DisEASES ATLAs Norman L. McCoy and Robert W Berry* INTRODUCTION Wheat diseases have caused untold human suffer ing...

McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

1982-01-01

62

Processing Wheat for Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson on wheat processing, including an introduction to the five kinds of wheat grown in the US and the anatomy of wheat. The module then moves through the six steps in wheat processing: cleaning, conditioning, blending, breaking, sieving, and reducing. Each step is animated to help students visualize the process. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

63

Wheat Stripe Rust  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a chapter on wheat stripe rust in a book entitled “Wheat: Science and Trade”. The chapter provides an overview on various aspects of wheat stripe rust and control, including distribution and epidemiology; origin and historical importance; taxonomy, lifecycle, and host range; genetic variati...

64

Genetic analysis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication  

PubMed Central

Wheat is undoubtedly one of the world's major food sources since the dawn of Near Eastern agriculture and up to the present day. Morphological, physiological, and genetic modifications involved in domestication and subsequent evolution under domestication were investigated in a tetraploid recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between durum wheat and its immediate progenitor wild emmer wheat. Experimental data were used to test previous assumptions regarding a protracted domestication process. The brittle rachis (Br) spike, thought to be a primary characteristic of domestication, was mapped to chromosome 2A as a single gene, suggesting, in light of previously reported Br loci (homoeologous group 3), a complex genetic model involved in spike brittleness. Twenty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring threshability and yield components (kernel size and number of kernels per spike) were mapped. The large number of QTLs detected in this and other studies suggests that following domestication, wheat evolutionary processes involved many genomic changes. The Br gene did not show either genetic (co-localization with QTLs) or phenotypic association with threshability or yield components, suggesting independence of the respective loci. It is argued here that changes in spike threshability and agronomic traits (e.g. yield and its components) are the outcome of plant evolution under domestication, rather than the result of a protracted domestication process. Revealing the genomic basis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication, and clarifying their inter-relationships, will improve our understanding of wheat biology and contribute to further crop improvement. PMID:21778183

Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B.; Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua

2011-01-01

65

Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Cardiovascular Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow are believed to support the in- tegrity of the vascular endothelium. The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells correlate inversely with cardiovascular risk factors, but the prognostic value asso- ciated with circulating endothelial progenitor cells has not been defined. methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells positive for CD34 and kinase

Nikos Werner; Sonja Kosiol; Tobias Schiegl

2005-01-01

66

Cash Wheat in a Wheat-Ryegrass Grazing System.  

E-print Network

~-~ash Wheat ? Ina B~1452 November 1983 t Wheat--Ryegrass Grazing System ~ THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION / Neville P. Clarke, Director / The Texas A&M University System / College Station, 'l"exas SUMMARY Wheat is an important...

Nelson, L.R.; Rouquette, F.M. Jr.; Randel, R.D.

1983-01-01

67

Production and identification of wheat-Agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines.  

PubMed

The narrow genetic background of wheat is the primary factor that has restricted the improvement of crop yield in recent years. The kernel number per spike is the most important factor of the many potential characteristics that determine wheat yield. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, has the characteristics of superior numbers of florets and kernels per spike, which are controlled by chromosome 6P. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and substitution lines were used as bridge materials to produce wheat-A. cristatum 6P translocation lines induced by gametocidal chromosomes and irradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that the frequency of translocation induced by gametocidal chromosomes was 5.08%, which was higher than the frequency of irradiated hybrids (2.78%) and irradiated pollen (2.12%). The fluorescence in situ hybridization results of the translocation lines showed that A. cristatum chromosome 6P could be translocated to wheat ABD genome, and the recombination frequency was A genome > B genome > D genome. The alien A. cristatum chromosome 6P was translocated to wheat homoeologous groups 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6. We obtained abundant translocation lines that possessed whole-arm, terminal, segmental and intercalary translocations. Three 6PS-specific and four 6PL-specific markers will be useful to rapidly identify and trace the translocated fragments. The different wheat-A. cristatum 6P translocation lines obtained in this study can provide basic materials for analyzing the alien genes carried by chromosome 6P. The translocation line WAT33-1-3 and introgression lines WAI37-2 and WAI41-1, which had significant characteristics of multikernel (high numbers of kernels per spike), could be utilized as novel germplasms for high-yield wheat breeding. PMID:20490543

Luan, Yang; Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Weihua; Li, Chunye; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Wang, Yandong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Lihui

2010-07-01

68

Circulating Progenitor Cells and Scleroderma  

PubMed Central

Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is a disease of unknown origins that involves tissue ischemia and fibrosis in the skin and internal organs such as the lungs. The tissue ischemia is due to a lack of functional blood vessels and an inability to form new blood vessels. Bone marrow–derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells play a key role in blood vessel repair and neovascularization. Scleroderma patients appear to have defects in the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. Scleroderma patients also develop fibrotic lesions, possibly as the result of tissue ischemia. Fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes that differentiate from a different pool of bone marrow–derived circulating progenitor cells seem to be involved in this process. Manipulating the production, function, and differentiation of circulating progenitor cells represents an exciting new possibility for treating scleroderma. PMID:18638425

2010-01-01

69

Short, natural, and extended photoperiod response in BC2F4 lines of bread wheat with different photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) alleles.  

PubMed

Flowering is a critical period in the life cycle of flowering plant species, resulting in an irreversible commitment of significant resources. Wheat is photoperiod sensitive, flowering only when daylength surpasses a critical length; however, photoperiod insensitivity (PI) has been selected by plant breeders for >40 years to enhance yield in certain environments. Control of flowering time has been greatly facilitated by the development of molecular markers for the Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) homeoloci, on the group 2 chromosomes. In the current study, an allelic series of BC2F4 lines in the winter wheat cultivars 'Robigus' and 'Alchemy' was developed to elucidate the influence on flowering of eight gene variants from the B- and D-genomes of bread wheat and the A-genome of durum wheat. Allele effects were tested in short, natural, and extended photoperiods in the field and controlled environments. Across genetic background and treatment, the D-genome PI allele, Ppd-D1a, had a more potent effect on reducing flowering time than Ppd-B1a. However, there was significant donor allele effect for both Ppd-D1a and Ppd-B1a, suggesting the presence of linked modifier genes and/or additional sources of latent sensitivity. Development of Ppd-A1a BC2F4 lines derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat provided an opportunity to compare directly the flowering time effect of the A-genome allele from durum with the B- and D-genome variants from bread wheat for the first time. Analyses indicated that the reducing effect of Ppd-A1a is comparable with that of Ppd-D1a, confirming it as a useful alternative source of PI. PMID:23420880

Bentley, A R; Horsnell, R; Werner, C P; Turner, A S; Rose, G A; Bedard, C; Howell, P; Wilhelm, E P; Mackay, I J; Howells, R M; Greenland, A; Laurie, D A; Gosman, N

2013-04-01

70

Wheat Evolution: Dough Washing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 5), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by washing different types of dough with water and comparing the results. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

2012-01-01

71

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

Figure 1. Leaves infected with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus. Picture from KSU Department of Plant Pathology web-site. Figure 2. Wheat plant infected with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and High Plains Virus. Picture was provided by Dr. Charlie Rush, Plant....edu/Agriculture/Entomology/entfacts/fldcrops/ef117. htm ? Compendium of Wheat Diseases, Wiese. American Phy- topathological Society. 1987. Produced by AgriLife Communications and Marketing, Texas A&M System Extension publications can be found on the Web at: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Visit...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

72

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in wheat. II. Linkage maps of the RFLP sites in common wheat.  

PubMed

Sixty-six F2 plants from the cross, Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (abbrev. CS) x T. spelta var. duhamelianum (Spelta), exhibiting the greatest number of RFLPs among eight common wheats, were analyzed for their RFLP genotypes using genomic DNA clones of CS as probes. In total, 204 RFLP loci were identified and their linkage relationships established. By nulli-tetrasomic analyses, all linkage groups were assigned to one another of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, the carrier chromosomes of 228 non-RFLP loci were identified. The linkage maps of these RFLP loci have a total size of 1800 cM and exceed those of the classical genes in both size and locus number. Twenty loci show distorted segregation, four of which are clustered on chromosome 4A and three on the 2D chromosome. The CS alleles on 4A exhibit preferential transmission, while those on 2D exhibit depressed transmission, compared with Spelta alleles. This suggests the influence of gametic factors in those regions. RFLP loci are much fewer in the D genome than in the A and B genomes, but the numbers of non-RFLP loci are nearly the same in these three genomes. This suggests that Spelta wheat originated from a hybridization between T. dicoccum (spelt emmer) and T. aestivum. PMID:1685660

Liu, Y G; Tsunewaki, K

1991-10-01

73

Types and Rates of Sequence Evolution at the High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Locus in Hexaploid Wheat and Its Ancestral Genomes  

PubMed Central

The Glu-1 locus, encoding the high-molecular-weight glutenin protein subunits, controls bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and represents a recently evolved region unique to Triticeae genomes. To understand the molecular evolution of this locus region, three orthologous Glu-1 regions from the three subgenomes of a single hexaploid wheat species were sequenced, totaling 729 kb of sequence. Comparing each Glu-1 region with its corresponding homologous region from the D genome of diploid wheat, Aegilops tauschii, and the A and B genomes of tetraploid wheat, Triticum turgidum, revealed that, in addition to the conservation of microsynteny in the genic regions, sequences in the intergenic regions, composed of blocks of nested retroelements, are also generally conserved, although a few nonshared retroelements that differentiate the homologous Glu-1 regions were detected in each pair of the A and D genomes. Analysis of the indel frequency and the rate of nucleotide substitution, which represent the most frequent types of sequence changes in the Glu-1 regions, demonstrated that the two A genomes are significantly more divergent than the two B genomes, further supporting the hypothesis that hexaploid wheat may have more than one tetraploid ancestor. PMID:17028342

Gu, Yong Qiang; Salse, Jérôme; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Dupin, Adeline; Crossman, Curt; Lazo, Gerard R.; Huo, Naxin; Belcram, Harry; Ravel, Catherine; Charmet, Gilles; Charles, Mathieu; Anderson, Olin D.; Chalhoub, Boulos

2006-01-01

74

Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum) from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA) SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST) at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM). Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and among populations. The higher extent of LD in the wheat D-genome versus the A- and B-genomes likely reflects the episodes of recent introgression and population bottleneck accompanying the origin of hexaploid wheat. The assessment of LD and population structure in this assembled panel of diverse lines provides critical information for the development of genetic resources for genome-wide association mapping of agronomically important traits in wheat. PMID:21190581

2010-01-01

75

Registration of "Brick" Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) [caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe; telomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch, is a major constraint to spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. The objective of this research was to release a hard red spring wheat (HRSW) cultivar with enhanced FHB resistance....

76

Registration of "Select" Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, Schwabe [telomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch]), is a major constraint on the production of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The objective of this research was to release a hard red spring wheat (HRSW) cultivar with enhanced level...

77

REGISTRATION OF 'TRIBUTE' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Tribute’ (Reg. no. CV-958, PI 632689) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed and released May 2002 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Tribute is broadly adapted and has performed well over most of the soft red winter wheat production regions in the U.S.A. and Can...

78

Registration of 'Snowmass' wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Snowmass’ (Reg. No. CV-1050, PI 658597) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in July 2009 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

79

Registration of ‘Ripper’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

80

Registration of ‘Kelse’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hard red spring (HRS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain must have high grain protein concentration (GPC) to maximize market value. The objective of this research was to develop a HRS wheat cultivar with high GPC and durable resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici), a ...

81

Registration of 'Antero' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

82

Wheat: Science and Trade  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

83

REGISTRATION OF 'MCCORMICK' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘McCormick’ (Reg. no. CV-959, PI 632691) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed and released May 2002 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. McCormick wheat was named in tribute of Robert Hall of Walnut Grove in Rockbridge County, VA, and his sons, including Cyrus Hal...

84

REGISTRATION OF 'HALLAM' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Hallam’ (PI 638790) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2005 by the developing institutions. Hallam was released primarily for its superior adaptation to rainfed wheat pr...

85

Molecular analysis, cytogenetics and fertility of introgression lines from transgenic wheat to Aegilops cylindrica host.  

PubMed

Natural hybridization and backcrossing between Aegilops cylindrica and Triticum aestivum can lead to introgression of wheat DNA into the wild species. Hybrids between Ae. cylindrica and wheat lines bearing herbicide resistance (bar), reporter (gus), fungal disease resistance (kp4), and increased insect tolerance (gna) transgenes were produced by pollination of emasculated Ae. cylindrica plants. F1 hybrids were backcrossed to Ae. cylindrica under open-pollination conditions, and first backcrosses were selfed using pollen bags. Female fertility of F1 ranged from 0.03 to 0.6%. Eighteen percent of the sown BC1s germinated and flowered. Chromosome numbers ranged from 30 to 84 and several of the plants bore wheat-specific sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) and the bar gene. Self fertility in two BC1 plants was 0.16 and 5.21%, and the others were completely self-sterile. Among 19 BC1S1 individuals one plant was transgenic, had 43 chromosomes, contained the bar gene, and survived glufosinate treatments. The other BC1S1 plants had between 28 and 31 chromosomes, and several of them carried SCARs specific to wheat A and D genomes. Fertility of these plants was higher under open-pollination conditions than by selfing and did not necessarily correlate with even or euploid chromosome number. Some individuals having supernumerary wheat chromosomes recovered full fertility. PMID:17028347

Schoenenberger, Nicola; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Küpfer, Philippe; Felber, François

2006-12-01

86

In vitro culture of stress erythroid progenitors identifies distinct progenitor populations and analogous human progenitors.  

PubMed

Tissue hypoxia induces a systemic response designed to increase oxygen delivery to tissues. One component of this response is increased erythropoiesis. Steady-state erythropoiesis is primarily homeostatic, producing new erythrocytes to replace old erythrocytes removed from circulation by the spleen. In response to anemia, the situation is different. New erythrocytes must be rapidly made to increase hemoglobin levels. At these times, stress erythropoiesis predominates. Stress erythropoiesis is best characterized in the mouse, where it is extramedullary and utilizes progenitors and signals that are distinct from steady-state erythropoiesis. In this report, we use an in vitro culture system that recapitulates the in vivo development of stress erythroid progenitors. We identify cell-surface markers that delineate a series of stress erythroid progenitors with increasing maturity. In addition, we use this in vitro culture system to expand human stress erythroid progenitor cells that express analogous cell-surface markers. Consistent with previous suggestions that human stress erythropoiesis is similar to fetal erythropoiesis, we demonstrate that human stress erythroid progenitors express fetal hemoglobin upon differentiation. These data demonstrate that similar to murine bone marrow, human bone marrow contains cells that can generate BMP4-dependent stress erythroid burst-forming units when cultured under stress erythropoiesis conditions. PMID:25608563

Xiang, Jie; Wu, Dai-Chen; Chen, Yuanting; Paulson, Robert F

2015-03-12

87

Whole Wheat Pizza Dough Ingredients  

E-print Network

Whole Wheat Pizza Dough Ingredients: 1 cup flour, white, for breads 1 cup whole wheat flour 1. Blend yeast with flour mixture. Add hot water; stir to form dough. 3. Add enough whole wheat flour whole wheat flour on the kneading surface; turn out dough onto floured surface; knead to form stiff

Liskiewicz, Maciej

88

Genetic and Epigenetic Alteration among Three Homoeologous Genes of a Class E MADS Box Gene in Hexaploid Wheat[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a hexaploid species with A, B, and D ancestral genomes. Most bread wheat genes are present in the genome as triplicated homoeologous genes (homoeologs) derived from the ancestral species. Here, we report that both genetic and epigenetic alterations have occurred in the homoeologs of a wheat class E MADS box gene. Two class E genes are identified in wheat, wheat SEPALLATA (WSEP) and wheat LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (WLHS1), which are homologs of Os MADS45 and Os MADS1 in rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. The three wheat homoeologs of WSEP showed similar genomic structures and expression profiles. By contrast, the three homoeologs of WLHS1 showed genetic and epigenetic alterations. The A genome WLHS1 homoeolog (WLHS1-A) had a structural alteration that contained a large novel sequence in place of the K domain sequence. A yeast two-hybrid analysis and a transgenic experiment indicated that the WLHS1-A protein had no apparent function. The B and D genome homoeologs, WLHS1-B and WLHS1-D, respectively, had an intact MADS box gene structure, but WLHS1-B was predominantly silenced by cytosine methylation. Consequently, of the three WLHS1 homoeologs, only WLHS1-D functions in hexaploid wheat. This is a situation where three homoeologs are differentially regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:17586655

Shitsukawa, Naoki; Tahira, Chikako; Kassai, Ken-ichiro; Hirabayashi, Chizuru; Shimizu, Tomoaki; Takumi, Shigeo; Mochida, Keiichi; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Murai, Koji

2007-01-01

89

Neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivation of neural progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (ES) cells is of value both in the study of early human neurogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for neural transplantation therapy. Here we report the generation of enriched and expandable preparations of proliferating neural progenitors from human ES cells. The neural progenitors could

Pavel Itsykson; Tikva Turetsky; Martin F. Pera; Etti Reinhartz; Anna Itzik; Tamir Ben-Hur; Benjamin E. Reubinoff

2001-01-01

90

Mass loss and supernova progenitors  

E-print Network

We first discuss the mass range of type IIP SN progenitors and how the upper and lower limits impose interesting constraints on stellar evolution. Then we discuss the possible implications of two SNe, 2002ap and 2006jc, for Wolf-Rayet star mass-loss rates and long Gamma-ray bursts.

John Eldridge

2007-11-16

91

Wheat Evolution: Sedimentation Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.8-9 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by conducting sedimentation tests on different flours. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant. Note: Sedimentation test can also be done using SDS detergent and lactic acid instead of soap and vinegar.

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

2012-01-01

92

Wheat Evolution: Dough Rising  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.6-7 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by creating dough from different flours, observing the samples of dough as they rise, and then baking the dough. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

2012-01-01

93

Genetic relationships and diversity among Tibetan wheat, common wheat and European spelt wheat revealed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endemic hexaploid wheat found in Tibet, China was taxonomically classified as a subspecies in common wheat, i.e. Triticum\\u000a aestivum ssp. tibetanum. Seven accessions of the Tibetan wheat, 22 cultivars of common wheat and 17 lines of spelt wheat were\\u000a used for RAPD analysis to study the genetic relationships of the Tibetan wheat with common wheat and spelt wheat, and

Qixin Sun; Zhongfu Ni; Zhiyong Liu; Jianwei Gao; Tiecheng Huang

1998-01-01

94

Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends  

E-print Network

Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends Marena Lin and Peter Huybers Department decomposition of wheat yields 5 4.1 U.S. county-level wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2 French departmental wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5

Huybers, Peter

95

Comparison of the genetic structure of populations of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides , from Israel and Turkey revealed by AFLP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic variation in several Israeli and Turkish populations of wild emmer\\u000a wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, the progenitor of most domesticated wheat. Single spikes were collected in 2002 from 60 plants that grew in six different\\u000a habitats in Ammiad, northeastern Israel (8–12 plants from each habitat), and in 1998 from 56

O. Ozbek; E. Millet; Y. Anikster; O. Arslan; M. Feldman

2007-01-01

96

Wheat Pasture Poisoning.  

E-print Network

the time the first symptoms develop until the animal passes into the comatose condi- ;ion. If treatment is not begun before coma, there ir little chance of recovery. While wheat pasture poisoning has been re- yrted in dry cows, heifers and sheep, we... used gave definite positive tests. It is felt, however, that further work of this nature might be of value. TREATMENT OF CASES During the period covered by these studies, the basic treatment for wheat pasture poisoning has been the intravenous...

Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

1956-01-01

97

Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the information…

Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

98

Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat  

PubMed Central

Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K+ Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na+ retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na+ removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat. PMID:25074914

Yang, Chunwu; Zhao, Long; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Zongze; Wang, Huan; Wen, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunyu; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

2014-01-01

99

Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat.  

PubMed

Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na(+) retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na(+) removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat. PMID:25074914

Yang, Chunwu; Zhao, Long; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Zongze; Wang, Huan; Wen, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunyu; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

2014-08-12

100

Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Vasculogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Postnatal vasculogenesis is considered to be involved in neovascularization of adult tissues, because bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were isolated from circulating mononuclear cells in peripheral blood and were shown to incorporate into sites of physiological and pathological neovascularization and to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. EPCs might have an attractive potential therapeutic application for cardiovascular ischemic diseases as a novel cell-based strategy mainly via a vasculogenesis mechanism.

Satoshi Murasawa (Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation/RIKEN Department of Regenerative Medicine and Research)

2005-02-01

101

PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

2012-05-01

102

New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

103

Insects which challenge global wheat production: Russian wheat aphid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The book chapter on Russian wheat aphid, (Diuraphis noxia (Mord.)), is one of several that addresses significant pests in the book entitled, Wheat Science and Trade. The chapter gives a detailed account of the history of the Russian wheat aphid as global pest, and its biology, ecology and managemen...

104

High-resolution radiation hybrid map of wheat chromosome 1D.  

PubMed

Physical mapping methods that do not rely on meiotic recombination are necessary for complex polyploid genomes such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This need is due to the uneven distribution of recombination and significant variation in genetic to physical distance ratios. One method that has proven valuable in a number of nonplant and plant systems is radiation hybrid (RH) mapping. This work presents, for the first time, a high-resolution radiation hybrid map of wheat chromosome 1D (D genome) in a tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L., AB genomes) background. An RH panel of 87 lines was used to map 378 molecular markers, which detected 2312 chromosome breaks. The total map distance ranged from approximately 3,341 cR(35,000) for five major linkage groups to 11,773 cR(35,000) for a comprehensive map. The mapping resolution was estimated to be approximately 199 kb/break and provided the starting point for BAC contig alignment. To date, this is the highest resolution that has been obtained by plant RH mapping and serves as a first step for the development of RH resources in wheat. PMID:16624903

Kalavacharla, Venu; Hossain, Khwaja; Gu, Yong; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Vales, M Isabel; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L; Maan, Shivcharan S; Kianian, Shahryar F

2006-06-01

105

High-Resolution Radiation Hybrid Map of Wheat Chromosome 1D  

PubMed Central

Physical mapping methods that do not rely on meiotic recombination are necessary for complex polyploid genomes such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This need is due to the uneven distribution of recombination and significant variation in genetic to physical distance ratios. One method that has proven valuable in a number of nonplant and plant systems is radiation hybrid (RH) mapping. This work presents, for the first time, a high-resolution radiation hybrid map of wheat chromosome 1D (D genome) in a tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L., AB genomes) background. An RH panel of 87 lines was used to map 378 molecular markers, which detected 2312 chromosome breaks. The total map distance ranged from ?3,341 cR35,000 for five major linkage groups to 11,773 cR35,000 for a comprehensive map. The mapping resolution was estimated to be ?199 kb/break and provided the starting point for BAC contig alignment. To date, this is the highest resolution that has been obtained by plant RH mapping and serves as a first step for the development of RH resources in wheat. PMID:16624903

Kalavacharla, Venu; Hossain, Khwaja; Gu, Yong; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Vales, M. Isabel; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L.; Maan, Shivcharan S.; Kianian, Shahryar F.

2006-01-01

106

Nucleotide diversity maps reveal variation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background A genome-wide assessment of nucleotide diversity in a polyploid species must minimize the inclusion of homoeologous sequences into diversity estimates and reliably allocate individual haplotypes into their respective genomes. The same requirements complicate the development and deployment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in polyploid species. We report here a strategy that satisfies these requirements and deploy it in the sequencing of genes in cultivated hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) and wild tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genomes AABB) from the putative site of wheat domestication in Turkey. Data are used to assess the distribution of diversity among and within wheat genomes and to develop a panel of SNP markers for polyploid wheat. Results Nucleotide diversity was estimated in 2114 wheat genes and was similar between the A and B genomes and reduced in the D genome. Within a genome, diversity was diminished on some chromosomes. Low diversity was always accompanied by an excess of rare alleles. A total of 5,471 SNPs was discovered in 1791 wheat genes. Totals of 1,271, 1,218, and 2,203 SNPs were discovered in 488, 463, and 641 genes of wheat putative diploid ancestors, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides, and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A public database containing genome-specific primers, SNPs, and other information was constructed. A total of 987 genes with nucleotide diversity estimated in one or more of the wheat genomes was placed on an Ae. tauschii genetic map, and the map was superimposed on wheat deletion-bin maps. The agreement between the maps was assessed. Conclusions In a young polyploid, exemplified by T. aestivum, ancestral species are the primary source of genetic diversity. Low effective recombination due to self-pollination and a genetic mechanism precluding homoeologous chromosome pairing during polyploid meiosis can lead to the loss of diversity from large chromosomal regions. The net effect of these factors in T. aestivum is large variation in diversity among genomes and chromosomes, which impacts the development of SNP markers and their practical utility. Accumulation of new mutations in older polyploid species, such as wild emmer, results in increased diversity and its more uniform distribution across the genome. PMID:21156062

2010-01-01

107

Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients  

E-print Network

Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 1 cup strawberries, chopped 2 wheat flour 1/2 cup brown sugar, packed 1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda Directions 1. Heat oven to 400º bowl mix together whole wheat flour, brown sugar and baking soda. Mix well. 5. Add strawberry mixture

Liskiewicz, Maciej

108

A Microsatellite Map of Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) is one of the world's most important crop plants and displays a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism. We report the development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers using procedures optimized for the large wheat genome. The isolation of microsatellite-containing clones from hypomethylated regions of the wheat genome increased the proportion of useful

Marion S. Roder; Victor Korzun; Katja Wendehake; Jens Plaschke; Marie-Helene Tixier; Philippe Leroy; Martin W. Ganal

109

Lr34 multi-pathogen resistance ABC transporter: molecular analysis of homoeologous and orthologous genes in hexaploid wheat and other grass species.  

PubMed

The Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) disease resistance gene Lr34 confers durable, race non-specific protection against three fungal pathogens, and has been a highly relevant gene for wheat breeding since the green revolution. Lr34, located on chromosome 7D, encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. Both wheat cultivars with and without Lr34-based resistance encode a putatively functional protein that differ by only two amino acid polymorphisms. In this study, we focused on the identification and characterization of homoeologous and orthologous Lr34 genes in hexaploid wheat and other grasses. In hexaploid wheat we found an expressed and putatively functional Lr34 homoeolog located on chromosome 4A, designated Lr34-B. Another homoeologous Lr34 copy, located on chromosome 7A, was disrupted by the insertion of repetitive elements. Protein sequences of LR34-B and LR34 were 97% identical. Orthologous Lr34 genes were detected in the genomes of Oryza sativa (rice) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Zea mays (maize), Brachypodium distachyon and Hordeum vulgare (barley) lacked Lr34 orthologs, indicating independent deletion of this particular ABC transporter. Lr34 was part of a gene-rich island on the wheat D genome. We found gene colinearity on the homoeologous A and B genomes of hexaploid wheat, but little microcolinearity in other grasses. The homoeologous LR34-B protein and the orthologs from rice and sorghum have the susceptible haplotype for the two critical polymorphisms distinguishing the LR34 proteins from susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. We conclude that the particular Lr34-haplotype found in resistant wheat cultivars is unique. It probably resulted from functional gene diversification that occurred after the polyploidization event that was at the origin of cultivated bread wheat. PMID:21265893

Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans S; Wicker, Thomas; Risk, Joanna M; Ashton, Anthony R; Selter, Liselotte L; Matsumoto, Takashi; Keller, Beat

2011-02-01

110

Identification and validation of a major quantitative trait locus for slow-rusting resistance to stripe rust in wheat.  

PubMed

Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks (Pst), is one of the most important wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) diseases and causes significant yield losses. A recombinant inbred (RI) population derived from a cross between Yanzhan 1 and Xichang 76-9 cultivars was evaluated for resistance to wheat stripe rust strain CYR32 at both the seedling and adult plant stages. Four resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in this population, in which the major one, designated as Yrq1, was mapped on chromosome 2DS. The strategy of using the Brachypodium distachyon genome, wheat expressed sequence tags and a draft DNA sequences (scaffolds) of the D-genome (Aegilops tauschii Coss.) for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was successfully used to identify 147 SSRs in hexaploid wheat. Of the 19 polymorphic SSRs in the RI population, 17 SSRs were mapped in the homeologous group 2 chromosomes near Yrq1 region and eight SSRs were genetically mapped in the 2.7 cM region of Yrq1, providing abundant DNA markers for fine-mapping of Yrq1 and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding program. The effectiveness of Yrq1 was validated in an independent population, indicating that this resistance QTL can be successfully transferred into a susceptible cultivar for improvement of stripe rust resistance. PMID:22349012

Cao, Xiaohua; Zhou, Jianghong; Gong, Xiaoping; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; Qi, Xiaoquan

2012-05-01

111

A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability. PMID:23134614

2012-01-01

112

Endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in the maintenance of endothelial homoeostasis and in the process of new vessel formation. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that atherosclerosis is associated with reduced numbers and dysfunction of EPCs; and that medications alone are able to partially reverse the impairment of EPCs in patients with atherosclerosis. Therefore, novel EPC-based therapies may provide enhancement in restoring EPCs’ population and improvement of vascular function. Here, for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis, we provide a comprehensive overview on EPC characteristics, phenotypes, and the signaling pathways underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis. PMID:22652782

Du, Fuyong; Zhou, Jun; Gong, Ren; Huang, Xiao; Pansuria, Meghana; Virtue, Anthony; Li, Xinyuan; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

2012-01-01

113

Biolistics Transformation of Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

114

Characteristics of spelt wheat products and nutritional value of spelt wheat-based bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spelt wheat cultivars (cv.) Hercule, Rouquin and Ostro, grown in the Alpine region of Italy, were compared to the common wheat cv. Manital and durum wheat Grazia for protein, ash and dietary fibre contents. The spelt wheat cultivars studied had higher contents of soluble dietary fibre and protein than the standard wheat or the durum wheat. In the bread of

G. Bonafaccia; V. Galli; R. Francisci; V. Mair; V. Skrabanja; I. Kreft

2000-01-01

115

DERIVED DEMAND FOR WHEAT BY CLASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To quantify price responsiveness and economic substitutability among wheat classes, derived demand functions were specified from a normalized quadratic profit function. Own-price and cross-price elasticities were estimated for hard red winter, hard red spring, soft wheat (combined red and white), and durum wheat. In general, soft wheat varieties were less responsive to their own price than were hard wheat varieties.

Justin J. Terry; Thomas L. Marsh

2000-01-01

116

Neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivation of neural progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (ES) cells is of value both in the study of early human neurogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for neural transplantation therapy. Here we report the generation of enriched and expandable preparations of proliferating neural prog- enitors from human ES cells. The neural progenitors

Benjamin E. Reubinoff; Pavel Itsykson; Tikva Turetsky; Martin F. Pera; Etti Reinhartz; Anna Itzik; Tamir Ben-Hur

2000-01-01

117

REGISTRATION OF ‘LOUISE’ WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Louise’ soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-987, PI 634865) was developed and jointly released in August 2005 by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University in cooperation with the Agricultural Experiment Stations (AESs) of the University of Idaho and Ore...

118

Wheat Breeding Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

119

Registration of 'Tiger' wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

120

REGISTRATION OF 'GLENN' WHEAT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Glenn (Reg. no. CV- , PI 639273), is a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed at North Dakota State university and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in July 2005. Glenn was released because it combines a very high level of resistance to Fusarium head bli...

121

Wheat Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

............-- .......................................................... Stem Rust ?I: ......................................................... Stripe Rust 2 I Q ..... .............................................. Septoria .. 1:) ............................................... Powdery Mildew 2,) n - - I Smuts... AREA I11 : The Blackland Prairie, Grand Prairie, East and West Cross Timbers and Northeast Texas Timberlands are all included in this reasearch area, Extension Districts 4 and 5, where about 8 percent of the state wheat acre- age is grown...

Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Merkle, O. G.; Lahr, K. A.; Gilmore, E. C.

1970-01-01

122

REGISTRATION OF 'EDNURANCE' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Endurance’ is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was released to certified seed growers with permission of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS in 2004. Its name derives from the unique ability to endure and recover from extended and intensive grazing in a...

123

Registration of ‘Endurance’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Endurance’ (Reg. No. CV-994, PI 639233) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was released to certified seed growers with permission of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS in 2004. Its name derives from the unique ability to endure and recover from extended and inte...

124

Registration of ‘Ambassador’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Ambassador" soft white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released August 20, 2007, in an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Ambassador was selected from the cross of Pioneer Brand 27...

125

Modelling Wheat Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In wheat, a shorter pre-anthesis phase is often associated with increased grain protein content (GPC) but decreased grain yield. Cultivar differences in pre-anthesis development are mainly determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness per se. This research examines w...

126

Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’ (PI 612958)/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ (PI 590941 PVPO) and was tested under the experim...

127

REGISTRATION OF 'DELIVER' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Deliver’ (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 639232) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was released to certified seed growers with permission of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2004. Deliver, an awnletted cultivar, was named for its unique and competitive abil...

128

Registration of 'Guymon' wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Guymon' (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 643133) is a hard white (HW) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed and released cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2005. It is recommended for grain-only and dual-purpose production systems in an area of the so...

129

REGISTRATION OF 'INTRADA' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Intrada' is a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, and the USDA-ARS, and released in September, 2000, in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. Intrada was released for its high yield...

130

Registration of ‘Shirley’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Shirley’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Shirley was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25 / ‘Coker 9835’ (PI 548846 PVPO) // VA96-54-234. Shirley is widely adapted ...

131

Registration of ‘MDM’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘MDM’ (J980628, WA007936) hard white winter wheat (HWW) (Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-XXX, PI 634716) was released in 2005 by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University (WSU) in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. MDM is a semi dwarf cultivar adapted to the low- to intermediat...

132

REGISTRATION OF 'BAUERMEISTER' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Bauermeister' (J981107, WA007939) hard red winter wheat (HRW)(Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-XXX, PI 634717) was released in 2005 by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University (WSU) in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. Bauermeister is a semidwarf cultivar adapted to the low- ...

133

Registration of ‘3434’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 3434 (Reg. No. CV-1040, PI 656754) developed and tested as VA03W-434 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Cultivar 3434 was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’/‘Coker 9835’//VA96W-270. Cultivar 34...

134

Registration of "Merl" Wheat.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

135

Registration of ‘Coral’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Coral’ soft white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008, via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Coral was selected from the cross MSU D3913 / MSU D0331 made i...

136

Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-1041, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ and was tested under the experimental number VA02W-370. J...

137

Registration of ‘5205’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘5205’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Cultivar 5205 was derived from the three-way cross Pioneer Brand ‘2684’ (PI 566923 PVPO) / VA93-54-185 // ’Pocahontas’ ...

138

Registration of Camelot Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Camelot ' (PI 653832) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2008. In addition to researchers at the releasing institutions, USDA-ARS researchers at Manhattan, KS, and St. Paul, MN, ...

139

Registration of 'Juniper' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Juniper’ (PI 639951) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in February 2006. Juniper, named for the town of Juniper, Idaho, was released for its superior yield and quality compared with previous full stature hard red...

140

Wheat Germ DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from wheat germ using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

141

Registration of ‘Decade’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Decade’ (Reg. No. CV-1058, PI 660291) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released jointly by the Montana and North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Stations in 2010. The name “Decade” denotes the extended time period (1997–2010) during which the Montana State Univers...

142

Registration of ‘Bearpaw’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Bearpaw’ (Reg. No. CV-1083, PI 665228) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2011. Bearpaw is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of five crosses made to the same F1 male sterile parent in ...

143

Registration of 'Chesapeake' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Chesapeake’ (Reg. No. CV-1011, PI 643935) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. Ches...

144

REGISTRATION OF ‘CHOPTANK’ WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Choptank’ (Reg. no. CV-976, PI 639724) is a soft red winter wheat (triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Natural Resource Sciences and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2...

145

Registration of ‘Shirley’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Shirley’ (Reg. No. CV-1039, PI 656753) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), developed and tested as VA03W-409 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2008. Shirley was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25/‘Coker 9835’//VA96-54-234. Shirley is wid...

146

Haplotype Variation of Glu-D1 Locus and the Origin of Glu-D1d Allele Conferring Superior End-Use Qualities in Common Wheat  

PubMed Central

In higher plants, seed storage proteins (SSPs) are frequently expressed from complex gene families, and allelic variation of SSP genes often affects the quality traits of crops. In common wheat, the Glu-D1 locus, encoding 1Dx and 1Dy SSPs, has multiple alleles. The Glu-D1d allele frequently confers superior end-use qualities to commercial wheat varieties. Here, we studied the haplotype structure of Glu-D1 genomic region and the origin of Glu-D1d. Using seven diagnostic DNA markers, 12 Glu-D1 haplotypes were detected among common wheat, European spelt wheat (T. spelta, a primitive hexaploid relative of common wheat), and Aegilops tauschii (the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat). By comparatively analyzing Glu-D1 haplotypes and their associated 1Dx and 1Dy genes, we deduce that the haplotype carrying Glu-D1d was likely differentiated in the ancestral hexaploid wheat around 10,000 years ago, and was subsequently transmitted to domesticated common wheat and T. spelta. A group of relatively ancient Glu-D1 haplotypes was discovered in Ae. tauschii, which may serve for the evolution of other haplotypes. Moreover, a number of new Glu-D1d variants were found in T. spelta. The main steps in Glu-D1d differentiation are proposed. The implications of our work for enhancing the utility of Glu-D1d in wheat quality improvement and studying the SSP alleles in other crop species are discussed. PMID:24098671

Li, Yiwen; Zhang, Kunpu; Lou, Haijuan; An, Xueli; Dong, Lingli; Gu, Yong Qiang; Anderson, Olin D.; Liu, Xin; Qin, Huanju; Wang, Daowen

2013-01-01

147

The interface between glial progenitors and gliomas  

PubMed Central

The mammalian brain and spinal cord contain heterogeneous populations of cycling, immature cells. These include cells with stem cell-like properties as well as progenitors in various stages of early glial differentiation. This latter population is distributed widely throughout gray and white matter and numerically represents an extremely large cell pool. In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glial progenitors that populate the adult CNS are one source of gliomas. Indeed, the marker phenotypes, morphologies, and migratory properties of cells in gliomas strongly resemble glial progenitors in many ways. We review briefly some salient features of normal glial development and then examine the similarities and differences between normal progenitors and cells in gliomas, focusing on the phenotypic plasticity of glial progenitors and the responses to growth factors in promoting proliferation and migration of normal and glioma cells, and discussing known mutational changes in gliomas in the context of how these might affect the proliferative and migratory behaviors of progenitors. Finally, we will discuss the “cancer stem cell” hypothesis in light of the possibility that glial progenitors can generate gliomas. PMID:18784926

Canoll, Peter

2009-01-01

148

Molecular characterization of vernalization loci VRN1 in wild and cultivated wheats  

PubMed Central

Background Variability of the VRN1 promoter region of the unique collection of spring polyploid and wild diploid wheat species together with diploid goatgrasses (donor of B and D genomes of polyploid wheats) were investigated. Accessions of wild diploid (T. boeoticum, T. urartu) and tetraploid (T. araraticum, T. timopheevii) species were studied for the first time. Results Sequence analysis indicated great variability in the region from -62 to -221 nucleotide positions of the VRN1 promoter region. Different indels were found within this region in spring wheats. It was shown that VRN1 promoter region of B and G genome can also contain damages such as the insertion of the transposable element. Some transcription factor recognition sites including hybrid C/G-box for TaFDL2 protein known as the VRN1 gene upregulator were predicted inside the variable region. It was shown that deletions leading to promoter damage occurred in diploid and polyploid species independently. DNA transposon insertions first occurred in polyploid species. At the same time, the duplication of the promoter region was observed in A genomes of polyploid species. Conclusions We can conclude that supposed molecular mechanism of the VRN1 gene activating in cultivated diploid wheat species T. monococcum is common also for wild T. boeoticum and was inherited by T. monococcum. The spring polyploids are not related in their origin to spring diploids. The spring T. urartu and goatgrass accessions have another mechanism of flowering activation that is not connected with indels in VRN1 promoter region. All obtained data may be useful for detailed insight into origin of spring wheat forms in evolution and domestication process. PMID:20699006

2010-01-01

149

Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jamestown' (Reg. No. CV-1041, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross 'Roane'\\/Pioneer Brand '2691' and was tested under the experimental number VA02W-370. Jamestown is an early heading, awned, short-stature, semidwarf (Rht2) cultivar possessing resistance to the predominant insect and

C. A. Griffey; W. E. Thomason; R. M. Pitman; B. R. Beahm; J. J. Paling; J. Chen; J. K. Fanelli; J. C. Kenner; D. W. Dunaway; W. S. Brooks; M. E. Vaughn; E. G. Hokanson; H. D. Behl; R. A. Corbin; M. D. Hall; S. Liu; J. T. Custis; C. M. Waldenmaier; D. E. Starner; S. A. Gulick; S. R. Ashburn; D. L. Whitt; H. E. Bockelman; E. J. Souza; G. L. Brown-Guedira; J. A. Kolmer; D. L. Long; Y. Jin; X. Chen; S. E. Cambron

2010-01-01

150

Genomics of Wheat Domestication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review covers several issues concerning the state of molecular knowledge of the effects induced by domestication and breeding\\u000a on the wheat crop. Genes at the root of the domestication syndrome are currently the focus of an active research which frequently\\u000a uses comparative genomics approaches. Conclusions drawn on available data indicate that the domestication syndrome is originated\\u000a by “sudden” genetic

Carlo Pozzi; Francesco Salamini

151

Studies on the nutraceuticals composition of wheat derived oils wheat bran oil and wheat germ oil.  

PubMed

Fat-soluble nutraceuticals of cereals are known for number of disease preventive activities. Hence wheat bran oil (WBO) and wheat germ oil (WGO) were extracted from wheat bran and germ which yielded 3.35 % and 7.35 % of oil, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (64 %, 61.2 %) respectively. Both oils contained tocopherols and carotenoids, which were higher in wheat germ oil (273 mg/100 g, 12.23 mg/100 g) than wheat bran oil (190 mg/100 g, 2.21 mg/100 g). Steryl ferulates were also present in both the oils, but their content was eight-fold higher in WBO than in WGO. Three major steryl ferulates identified by HPLC were campesteryl ferulate and sitostenyl ferulate, campestanyl ferulate and ?-sitosteryl ferulate as in ?-oryzanol and another ferulate, viz., sitostanyl ferulate. A strong IC50 value of 7.5 mg/mL and 21.6 mg/mL DPPH free radicals scavenging for wheat germ oil for wheat bran oil was observed. NMR ((13)C and (1)H) profile explored the evidence of distribution of antioxidant molecules in the unsaponifiable matter of wheat derived oil. Since oils rich in PUFA and minor components are required for the normal physiological activities, blending such oils with other edible oils of the diet in wheat growing countries like India may be useful to provide health benefits. PMID:25694731

Kumar, G Suresh; Krishna, A G Gopala

2015-02-01

152

On the Progenitor of Supernova 1987A  

E-print Network

A previously unpublished ultralow-dispersion spectrum of Sanduleak -69 202, the stellar progenitor of SN 1987A, is presented and the uncertain presupernova evolution of Sanduleak -69 202 is discussed.

M. Parthasarathy; David Branch; E. Baron; David J. Jeffery

2006-11-01

153

New broad-spectrum resistance to septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat.  

PubMed

Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global set of 20 isolates and discovered exceptionally broad STB resistance in SHs. Subsequent development and analyses of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between the SH M3 and the highly susceptible bread wheat cv. Kulm revealed two novel resistance loci on chromosomes 3D and 5A. The 3D resistance was expressed in the seedling and adult plant stages, and it controlled necrosis (N) and pycnidia (P) development as well as the latency periods of these parameters. This locus, which is closely linked to the microsatellite marker Xgwm494, was tentatively designated Stb16q and explained from 41 to 71% of the phenotypic variation at seedling stage and 28-31% in mature plants. The resistance locus on chromosome 5A was specifically expressed in the adult plant stage, associated with SSR marker Xhbg247, explained 12-32% of the variation in disease, was designated Stb17, and is the first unambiguously identified and named QTL for adult plant resistance to M. graminicola. Our results confirm that common wheat progenitors might be a rich source of new Stb resistance genes/QTLs that can be deployed in commercial breeding programs. PMID:21912855

Tabib Ghaffary, S Mahmod; Faris, Justin D; Friesen, Timothy L; Visser, Richard G F; van der Lee, Theo A J; Robert, Olivier; Kema, Gert H J

2012-01-01

154

The epigenetic progenitor origin of human cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is widely perceived as a heterogeneous group of disorders with markedly different biological properties, which are caused by a series of clonally selected genetic changes in key tumour-suppressor genes and oncogenes. However, recent data suggest that cancer has a fundamentally common basis that is grounded in a polyclonal epigenetic disruption of stem\\/progenitor cells, mediated by 'tumour-progenitor genes'. Furthermore, tumour

Rolf Ohlsson; Steven Henikoff; Andrew P. Feinberg

2006-01-01

155

Basics of Stem and Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will define key terms and introduce important basic information about the fundamental building blocks of the\\u000a entire text: the stem and progenitor cells. After a brief discussion of terminology central to the field, we will explore\\u000a the various stem and progenitor cells including bone marrow-derived cell populations, specific niche-derived cell populations,\\u000a as well as special situations such as

Matthew T. Harting

156

Genetic Regulation of Thymocyte Progenitor Aging  

PubMed Central

The number of T cell progenitors is significantly reduced in the involuted thymus, and the growth and developmental potential of the few cells that are present is severely attenuated. This review provides an overview of how aging affects T cell precursors before and following entry into the thymus and discusses the age related genetic changes that may occur in them. Finally, interventions that rejuvenate thymopoiesis in the elderly by targeting T cell progenitors are discussed. PMID:22559986

Berent-Maoz, Beata; Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Dorshkind, Kenneth

2012-01-01

157

Identifying progenitors of core-collapse supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of massive stars - before they explode - provide direct identification of SN progenitors. Such studies require the combination of a deep, high-resolution image of the SN location, serendipitously obtained before it exploded, with a precise localization of the SN (after it exploded) to enable us to select the correct progenitor from among the stars in the pre-explosion SN images. After decades of effort, only nine SN progenitors have so far been detected (6 during the last 5 years). About twice a year a nearby SN is discovered in an area previously observed by HST. The few recent identifications were mainly based on repeat HST post-explosion imaging for this purpose. A better alternative for SN localization is now provided by laser-guide-star assisted adaptive optics systems (LGS-AO), as we have initially demonstrated using the Keck LGS system. Here, we propose to continue our successful program (2006-2009) to use NIRI+ALTAIR in LGS mode to localize nearby SNe and identify their progenitors. A minimal Gemini allocation (1 hour) leveraged by superb archival HST data will provide exciting results. With each additional progenitor identified and studied, we move closer to a robust mapping of specific progenitors to each SN class, a key to understanding the physics of these powerful cosmic explosions.

Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas; Fox, Derek; Green, Yoav

2010-08-01

158

Progenitors of Core-Collapse Supernovae  

E-print Network

The progenitors of core-collapse supernovae are stars with an initial mass greater than about 8M(sun). Understanding the evolution of these stars is necessary to comprehend the evolution and differences between supernovae. We have constructed new and unique opacity tables to increase model accuracy during the latest stages of stellar evolution. We have investigated how initial mass, initial composition and mass loss affects the progenitors and their populations. There are many prescriptions for mass loss. Different research groups use their preferred rates. We have compared 12 different prescriptions and determined which provides the best fit to observations. We use our preferred mass-loss scheme to make suggestions as to the source of the differences between supernova types from our progenitor models. Binary evolution is considered in order to search for low luminosity SN progenitors and progenitor types not possible from single stars. Removal of the hydrogen envelope is more common and we find quite different hydrogen deficient SN progenitors. We discuss the implications of our binary models for ultra-luminous X-ray sources and gamma-ray bursts. We present an estimation of the mass distribution for black holes at various metallcities showing that massive black holes are not formed until very low metallicities. Finally we combine the single star and binary results to determine their relative populations and compare to observations. However it is not possible to draw many firm conclusions because of the uncertainty in observations to date.

John J. Eldridge

2005-02-02

159

Registration of 'Thunder CL' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Thunder CL' (Reg. No. CV- , PI XXXXXX) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2008 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

160

Wheat landraces: A mini review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers developed and utilized diverse wheat landraces to meet the complexity of a multitude of spatio-temporal, agro-ecological systems and to provide reliable sustenance and a sustainable food source to local communities. The genetic structure of wheat landraces is an evolutionary approach to surv...

161

Wheat Surplus and its Cause  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE comment made by Prof. Piaggio in NATURE of March 21, upon the address by Sir Arthur Eddington, cites the famous prophecy by Sir William Crookes, made near the end of the last century, as to the probable wheat supply in the future, say thirty years from the time of his address. The comment indicates that the present wheat surplus

L. R. Waldron

1931-01-01

162

Registration of Vision 40 Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential exists to develop and market hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the eastern United States, where a majority of the mills, bakeries, and consumers reside. The primary objective of this study was to develop adapted and competitive hard winter wheat cultivars possessing high-valu...

163

Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a CC-NBS-LRR Encoding Gene Assigned on Chromosome 7B of Wheat  

PubMed Central

Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR). In this study, we isolated a CC-NBS-LRR gene locating on chromosome 7B from durum wheat variety Italy 363, and designated it TdRGA-7Ba. Its open reading frame was 4014 bp, encoding a 1337 amino acid protein with a complete NBS domain and 18 LRR repeats, sharing 44.7% identity with the PM3B protein. TdRGA-7Ba expression was continuously seen at low levels and was highest in leaves. TdRGA-7Ba has another allele TdRGA-7Bb with a 4 bp deletion at position +1892 in other cultivars of tetraploid wheat. In Ae. speltoides, as a B genome progenitor, both TdRGA-7Ba and TdRGA-7Bb were detected. In all six species of hexaploid wheats (AABBDD), only TdRGA-7Bb existed. Phylogenic analysis showed that all TdRGA-7Bb type genes were grouped in one sub-branch. We speculate that TdRGA-7Bb was derived from a TdRGA-7Ba mutation, and it happened in Ae. speltoides. Both types of TdRGA-7B participated in tetraploid wheat formation. However, only the TdRGA-7Bb was retained in hexaploid wheat. PMID:23887654

Gong, Caiyan; Cao, Shuanghe; Fan, Renchun; Wei, Bo; Chen, Guiping; Wang, Xianping; Li, Yiwen; Zhang, Xiangqi

2013-01-01

164

Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Simple Resistance Locus in a Crop–Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat  

PubMed Central

The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were identified. Lr21 was found to be a chimera of H1 and H2, which were found only in wheat. We attempted to reconstitute a functional Lr21 allele by crossing the cultivars Fielder (H1) and Wichita (H2). Rust inoculation of 5876 F2 progeny revealed a single resistant plant that proved to carry the H1H2 haplotype, a result attributed to intragenic recombination. These findings reflect how plants balance the penalty and the necessity of a resistance gene and suggest that plants can reuse “dead” alleles to generate new disease-resistance specificity, leading to a “death–recycle” model of plant-resistance gene evolution at simple loci. We suggest that selection pressure in crop–weed complexes contributes to this process. PMID:19364806

Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C.; Gill, Bikram

2009-01-01

165

The homoeologous genes encoding chalcone-flavanone isomerase in Triticum aestivum L.: structural characterization and expression in different parts of wheat plant.  

PubMed

Chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHI; EC 5.5.1.6.) participates in the early step of flavonoid biosynthesis, related to plant adaptive and protective responses to environmental stress. The bread wheat genomic sequences encoding CHI were isolated, sequenced and mapped to the terminal segment of the long arms of chromosomes 5A, 5B and 5D. The loss of the final Chi intron and junction of the two last exons was found in the wheat A, B and D genomes compared to the Chi sequences of most other plant species. Each of the three diploid genomes of hexaploid wheat encodes functional CHI; however, transcription of the three homoeologous genes is not always co-regulated. In particular, the three genes demonstrated different response to salinity in roots: Chi-D1 was up-regulated, Chi-A1 responds medially, whereas Chi-B1 was not activated at all. The observed variation in transcriptional activity between the Chi homoeologs is in a good agreement with structural diversification of their promoter sequences. In addition, the correlation between Chi transcription and anthocyanin pigmentation in different parts of wheat plant has been studied. The regulatory genes controlling anthocyanin pigmentation of culm and pericarp modulated transcription of the Chi genes. However, in other organs, there was no strong relation between tissue pigmentation and the transcription of the Chi genes, suggesting complex regulation of the Chi expression in most parts of wheat plant. PMID:24480448

Shoeva, Olesya Y; Khlestkina, Elena K; Berges, Helene; Salina, Elena A

2014-04-01

166

Evolution of new disease specificity at a simple resistance locus in a crop-weed complex: reconstitution of the Lr21 gene in wheat.  

PubMed

The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were identified. Lr21 was found to be a chimera of H1 and H2, which were found only in wheat. We attempted to reconstitute a functional Lr21 allele by crossing the cultivars Fielder (H1) and Wichita (H2). Rust inoculation of 5876 F(2) progeny revealed a single resistant plant that proved to carry the H1H2 haplotype, a result attributed to intragenic recombination. These findings reflect how plants balance the penalty and the necessity of a resistance gene and suggest that plants can reuse "dead" alleles to generate new disease-resistance specificity, leading to a "death-recycle" model of plant-resistance gene evolution at simple loci. We suggest that selection pressure in crop-weed complexes contributes to this process. PMID:19364806

Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C; Gill, Bikram

2009-06-01

167

BREEDING WHEAT FOR RESISTANCE TO INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host-plant resistance plays an important role in the management of the insect pests of wheat (Triticum sp.). Five pests, Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia), wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana), greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) and the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus s...

168

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2012-04-01

169

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2014-04-01

170

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2011-04-01

171

Varietal Trials Results Wheat, Hard Red Winter  

E-print Network

Varietal Trials Results Wheat, Hard Red Winter 47 Winter wheat varieties were compared in trial plots at Crookston, Lamberton, Roseau and St. Paul. Wheat varieties were grown in replicated plots. These winter wheat trials are not designed for crop (species) compar- isons because the various crops are grown

Thomas, David D.

172

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2010-04-01

173

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2013-04-01

174

21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No...8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat...

2010-04-01

175

HARD RED SPRING WHEAT - 2001 CROP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA/ARS Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory evaluated 16 cultivars of hard red spring (HRS) wheat from the 2001 crop for kernel and milling properties, and subsequently shipped flour (and/or wheat) to overseas cooperators through arrangements made by US Wheat Associates (USW) for...

176

Influence of volunteer wheat plant condition on movement of the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella , in winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is the vector of wheat streak mosaic virus and high plains virus which cause significant crop loss in winter wheat\\u000a throughout the western Great Plains. Volunteer wheat emerging before harvest, as a result of severe hail, is the primary source\\u000a of mites and virus that infect fall-planted winter wheat. Wind-borne movement of

John A. Thomas; Gary L. Hein

2003-01-01

177

Using genic sequence capture in combination with a syntenic pseudo genome to map a deletion mutant in a wheat species.  

PubMed

Mapping-by-sequencing analyses have largely required a complete reference sequence and employed whole genome re-sequencing. In species such as wheat, no finished genome reference sequence is available. Additionally, because of its large genome size (17 Gb), re-sequencing at sufficient depth of coverage is not practical. Here, we extend the utility of mapping by sequencing, developing a bespoke pipeline and algorithm to map an early-flowering locus in einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.) that is closely related to the bread wheat genome A progenitor. We have developed a genomic enrichment approach using the gene-rich regions of hexaploid bread wheat to design a 110-Mbp NimbleGen SeqCap EZ in solution capture probe set, representing the majority of genes in wheat. Here, we use the capture probe set to enrich and sequence an F2 mapping population of the mutant. The mutant locus was identified in T. monococcum, which lacks a complete genome reference sequence, by mapping the enriched data set onto pseudo-chromosomes derived from the capture probe target sequence, with a long-range order of genes based on synteny of wheat with Brachypodium distachyon. Using this approach we are able to map the region and identify a set of deleted genes within the interval. PMID:25205592

Gardiner, Laura-Jayne; Gawro?ski, Piotr; Olohan, Lisa; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hall, Neil; Hall, Anthony

2014-12-01

178

The Progenitors and Lifetimes of Planetary Nebula  

E-print Network

Planetary Nebulae (PNe) are amongst the most spectacular objects produced by stellar evolution, but the exact identity of their progenitors has never been established for a large and homogeneous observational sample. We investigate the relationship between PNe and their stellar progenitors in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) through the statistical comparison between a highly complete spectroscopic catalog of PNe and the spatially resolved age distribution of the underlying stellar populations. We find that most PN progenitors in the LMC have main-sequence lifetimes in a narrow range between 5 and 8 Gyr, which corresponds to masses between 1.2 and 1.0 M$_{\\odot}$, and produce PNe that last $26^{+6}_{-7}$~kyr on average. We tentatively detect a second population of PN progenitors, with main-sequence lifetimes between 35 and 800~Myr, i.e., masses between 8.2 and 2.1 M$_{\\odot}$, and average PN lifetimes of $11^{+6}_{-7}$ kyr. These two distinct and disjoint populations of progenitors strongly suggest the existe...

Badenes, Carles; Ciardullo, Robin

2015-01-01

179

7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat (T. compactum Host.), and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) and not more than 10...

2014-01-01

180

7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat (T. compactum Host.), and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) and not more than 10...

2012-01-01

181

7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat (T. compactum Host.), and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) and not more than 10...

2010-01-01

182

7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat (T. compactum Host.), and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) and not more than 10...

2013-01-01

183

7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat (T. compactum Host.), and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) and not more than 10...

2011-01-01

184

Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vasculogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk factors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evaluate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome. PMID:25126384

Lee, Poay Sian Sabrina; Poh, Kian Keong

2014-01-01

185

Circulating progenitor cells in chronic lung disease.  

PubMed

Tissue regeneration and repair are fundamental both to recovery of the lung from injury and to the pathology of many chronic lung diseases. There are two potential sources for the adult progenitor cells that participate in this reparative process: resident lung progenitors and bone marrow-derived circulating cells. Bone marrow-derived cells, in particular, have been shown to give rise to airway and alveolar epithelial cells, as well as lung mesenchymal cells. Emerging data have linked specific chemokine ligand-receptor interactions to the recruitment of these cells to the lung and has implicated these cells in chronic lung disorders such as asthma and interstitial lung diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the biology of adult circulating progenitors as related to lung disease. PMID:20477275

Mehrad, Borna; Keane, Michael P; Gomperts, Brigitte N; Strieter, Robert M

2007-08-01

186

Transient nuclear Prospero induces neural progenitor quiescence.  

PubMed

Stem cells can self-renew, differentiate, or enter quiescence. Understanding how stem cells switch between these states is highly relevant for stem cell-based therapeutics. Drosophila neural progenitors (neuroblasts) have been an excellent model for studying self-renewal and differentiation, but quiescence remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that when neuroblasts enter quiescence, the differentiation factor Prospero is transiently detected in the neuroblast nucleus, followed by the establishment of a unique molecular profile lacking most progenitor and differentiation markers. The pulse of low level nuclear Prospero precedes entry into neuroblast quiescence even when the timing of quiescence is advanced or delayed by changing temporal identity factors. Furthermore, loss of Prospero prevents entry into quiescence, whereas a pulse of low level nuclear Prospero can drive proliferating larval neuroblasts into quiescence. We propose that Prospero levels distinguish three progenitor fates: absent for self-renewal, low for quiescence, and high for differentiation. PMID:25354199

Lai, Sen-Lin; Doe, Chris Q

2014-01-01

187

Syntenic Relationships between the U and M Genomes of Aegilops, Wheat and the Model Species Brachypodium and Rice as Revealed by COS Markers  

PubMed Central

Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS) markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat–Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization. PMID:23940651

Molnár, István; Šimková, Hana; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Goram, Richard; Cseh, András; Vrána, Jan; Farkas, András; Doležel, Jaroslav; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Griffiths, Simon

2013-01-01

188

THE AGES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS  

SciTech Connect

Using light curves and host galaxy spectra of 101 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with redshift z {approx}< 0.3 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Supernova Survey (SDSS-SN), we derive the SN Ia rate as a function of progenitor age (the delay time distribution, DTD). We use the VESPA stellar population synthesis algorithm to analyze the SDSS spectra of all galaxies in the field searched by SDSS-SN, giving us a reference sample of 77,000 galaxies for our SN Ia hosts. Our method does not assume any a priori shape for the DTD and is therefore minimally parametric. We present the DTD in physical units for high-stretch (luminous, slow declining) and low-stretch (subluminous, fast declining) supernovae in three progenitor age bins. We find strong evidence of two progenitor channels: one that produces high-stretch SNe Ia {approx}<400 Myr after the birth of the progenitor system, and one that produces low-stretch SNe Ia with a delay {approx}>2.4 Gyr. We find that each channel contributes roughly half of the Type Ia rate in our reference sample. We also construct the average spectra of high-stretch and low-stretch SN Ia host galaxies, and find that the difference of these spectra looks like a main-sequence B star with nebular emission lines indicative of star formation. This supports our finding that there are two populations of SNe Ia, and indicates that the progenitors of high-stretch supernovae are at the least associated with very recent star formation in the last few tens of Myr. Our results provide valuable constraints for models of Type Ia progenitors and may help improve the calibration of SNe Ia as standard candles.

Brandt, Timothy D.; Aubourg, Eric; Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tojeiro, Rita [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Heavens, Alan [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9-3HJ (United Kingdom); Jimenez, Raul [ICREA and Institute for Sciences of the Cosmos (ICCUB), University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

2010-09-15

189

Individual Retinal Progenitor Cells Display Extensive Heterogeneity of Gene Expression  

E-print Network

Individual Retinal Progenitor Cells Display Extensive Heterogeneity of Gene Expression Jeffrey M processes undoubtedly depend at least in part upon variations among the gene expression programs among progenitor cells of a particular tissue. Here, we used comprehensive gene expression profiling

Tabin, Cliff

190

X inactivation and progenitor cancer cells.  

PubMed

In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing. PMID:24212802

Agrelo, Ruben

2011-01-01

191

Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A  

PubMed Central

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the ‘decoration’ of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. PMID:24813060

Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Šimková, Hana; Šafá?, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus FX; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2014-01-01

192

Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A.  

PubMed

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the 'decoration' of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. PMID:24813060

Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Simková, Hana; Safá?, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2014-07-01

193

Hessian Fly in Texas Wheat  

E-print Network

Gaylon Morgan, State Extension Small Grains Specialist Chris Sansone, Extension Entomologist Allen Knutson, Extension Entomologist Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System H essian Fly In Texas Wheat E-350 07/05 The Hessian fly...

Morgan, Gaylon; Sansone, Chris; Knutson, Allen E.

2005-07-01

194

WheatBlog .05b  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the increasing interest in developing personal weblogs and online journals, many users may find the WheatBlog device quite enticing. The application is designed to maintain any number of blog and news pages on personal sites, and will certainly assist users in keeping track of various developments on any variety of such related endeavors. WheatBlog .05b is compatible with all operating systems.

195

Brazil wheat yield covariance model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

1984-01-01

196

Individual Retinal Progenitor Cells Display Extensive Heterogeneity of Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of complex tissues requires that mitotic progenitor cells integrate information from the environment. The highly varied outcomes of such integration processes undoubtedly depend at least in part upon variations among the gene expression programs of individual progenitor cells. To date, there has not been a comprehensive examination of these differences among progenitor cells of a particular tissue. Here,

Jeffrey M. Trimarchi; Michael B. Stadler; Constance L. Cepko; Patrick Callaerts

2008-01-01

197

p63 and Brg1 control developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin remodelling at the epidermal differentiation complex locus in epidermal progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Chromatin structural states and their remodelling, including higher-order chromatin folding and three-dimensional (3D) genome organisation, play an important role in the control of gene expression. The role of 3D genome organisation in the control and execution of lineage-specific transcription programmes during the development and differentiation of multipotent stem cells into specialised cell types remains poorly understood. Here, we show that substantial remodelling of the higher-order chromatin structure of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), a keratinocyte lineage-specific gene locus on mouse chromosome 3, occurs during epidermal morphogenesis. During epidermal development, the locus relocates away from the nuclear periphery towards the nuclear interior into a compartment enriched in SC35-positive nuclear speckles. Relocation of the EDC locus occurs prior to the full activation of EDC genes involved in controlling terminal keratinocyte differentiation and is a lineage-specific, developmentally regulated event controlled by transcription factor p63, a master regulator of epidermal development. We also show that, in epidermal progenitor cells, p63 directly regulates the expression of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller Brg1, which binds to distinct domains within the EDC and is required for relocation of the EDC towards the nuclear interior. Furthermore, Brg1 also regulates gene expression within the EDC locus during epidermal morphogenesis. Thus, p63 and its direct target Brg1 play an essential role in remodelling the higher-order chromatin structure of the EDC and in the specific positioning of this locus within the landscape of the 3D nuclear space, as required for the efficient expression of EDC genes in epidermal progenitor cells during skin development. PMID:24346698

Mardaryev, Andrei N; Gdula, Michal R; Yarker, Joanne L; Emelianov, Vladimir U; Emelianov, Vladimir N; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Sharov, Andrey A; Sharova, Tatyana Y; Scarpa, Julie A; Joffe, Boris; Solovei, Irina; Chambon, Pierre; Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Fessing, Michael Y

2014-01-01

198

p63 and Brg1 control developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin remodelling at the epidermal differentiation complex locus in epidermal progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Chromatin structural states and their remodelling, including higher-order chromatin folding and three-dimensional (3D) genome organisation, play an important role in the control of gene expression. The role of 3D genome organisation in the control and execution of lineage-specific transcription programmes during the development and differentiation of multipotent stem cells into specialised cell types remains poorly understood. Here, we show that substantial remodelling of the higher-order chromatin structure of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), a keratinocyte lineage-specific gene locus on mouse chromosome 3, occurs during epidermal morphogenesis. During epidermal development, the locus relocates away from the nuclear periphery towards the nuclear interior into a compartment enriched in SC35-positive nuclear speckles. Relocation of the EDC locus occurs prior to the full activation of EDC genes involved in controlling terminal keratinocyte differentiation and is a lineage-specific, developmentally regulated event controlled by transcription factor p63, a master regulator of epidermal development. We also show that, in epidermal progenitor cells, p63 directly regulates the expression of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller Brg1, which binds to distinct domains within the EDC and is required for relocation of the EDC towards the nuclear interior. Furthermore, Brg1 also regulates gene expression within the EDC locus during epidermal morphogenesis. Thus, p63 and its direct target Brg1 play an essential role in remodelling the higher-order chromatin structure of the EDC and in the specific positioning of this locus within the landscape of the 3D nuclear space, as required for the efficient expression of EDC genes in epidermal progenitor cells during skin development. PMID:24346698

Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Gdula, Michal R.; Yarker, Joanne L.; Emelianov, Vladimir N.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Sharov, Andrey A.; Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Scarpa, Julie A.; Chambon, Pierre; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Fessing, Michael Y.

2014-01-01

199

Nucleotide diversity and molecular evolution of the WAG-2 gene in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L) and its relatives  

PubMed Central

In this work, we examined the genetic diversity and evolution of the WAG-2 gene based on new WAG-2 alleles isolated from wheat and its relatives. Only single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and no insertions and deletions (indels) were found in exon sequences of WAG-2 from different species. More SNPs and indels occurred in introns than in exons. For exons, exons+introns and introns, the nucleotide polymorphism ? decreased from diploid and tetraploid genotypes to hexaploid genotypes. This finding indicated that the diversity of WAG-2 in diploids was greater than in hexaploids because of the strong selection pressure on the latter. All dn/ds ratios were < 1.0, indicating that WAG-2 belongs to a conserved gene affected by negative selection. Thirty-nine of the 57 particular SNPs and eight of the 10 indels were detected in diploid species. The degree of divergence in intron length among WAG-2 clones and phylogenetic tree topology suggested the existence of three homoeologs in the A, B or D genome of common wheat. Wheat AG-like genes were divided into WAG-1 and WAG-2 clades. The latter clade contained WAG-2, OsMADS3 and ZMM2 genes, indicating functional homoeology among them. PMID:22215965

Wei, Shuhong; Peng, Zhengsong; Zhou, Yonghong; Yang, Zaijun; Wu, Kai; Ouyang, Zhongming

2011-01-01

200

Gamma-Ray Burst Environments and Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Likely progenitors for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the mergers of compact objects or the explosions of massive stars. These two cases have distinctive environments for the GRB afterglow: the compact object explosions occur in the interstellar medium (ISM) and those of massive stars occur in the preburst stellar wind. We calculate the expected afterglow for a burst in a Wolf-Rayet

Roger A. Chevalier; Zhi-Yun Li

1999-01-01

201

Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in rheumatic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheumatic disease is characterized by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, which contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can restore dysfunctional endothelium and thereby protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The number and function of EPCs are, however, affected in rheumatic diseases such as psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis. Rheumatic disease

Marianne C. Verhaar; Peter E. Westerweel

2009-01-01

202

Theor Appl Genet (1999) 99: 16}26 Springer-Verlag 1999 E. V. Boyko ' K. S. Gill ' L. Mickelson-Young  

E-print Network

Theor Appl Genet (1999) 99: 16}26 Springer-Verlag 1999 E. V. Boyko ' K. S. Gill ' L. Mickelson. Lapitan ' B. S. Gill A high-density genetic linkage map of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor. Gill ( ) Wheat Genetics Resource Center and Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University

Gill, Kulvinder

1999-01-01

203

SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31  

SciTech Connect

Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (M{sub ZAMS}) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the M{sub ZAMS} from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of {approx}2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) ({alpha} = -2.35). In particular, we find values of {alpha} outside the range -2.7 {>=} {alpha} {>=} -4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of M{sub Max} > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a minimum mass for core collapse between 7.0 and 7.8 M{sub Sun }.

Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington Seattle, Box 351580, WA 98195 (United States); Murphy, Jeremiah W. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: zachjenn@uw.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States)

2012-12-10

204

Preferential elimination of chromosome 1D from homoeologous group-1 alien addition lines in hexaploid wheat.  

PubMed

Alien chromosome addition lines are useful genetic material for studying the effect of an individual chromosome in the same genetic background. However, addition lines are sometimes unstable and tend to lose the alien chromosome in subsequent generations. In this study, we report preferential removal of chromosome 1D rather than the alien chromosome from homoeologous group-1 addition lines. The Agropyron intermedium chromosome 1Agi (1E) addition line, created in the background of 'Vilmorin 27', showed loss of a part of chromosome 1D, thereby losing its HMW glutenin locus. Even in the case of Aegilops longissima and Ae. peregrina, the genomes of which are closer to the B genome than D genome, chromosome 1D was lost from chromosome 1Sl and 1Sv addition lines in cv. 'Chinese Spring' rather than chromosome 1B during transfer from one generation to another. A similar observation was also observed in the case of a chromosome 1E disomic addition line of Ag. elongatum and alloplasmic common wheat line with Ag. intermedium ssp. trichophorum cytoplasm. The reason for this strange observation is thought to lie in the history of wheat evolution, the size of chromosome 1D compared to 1A and 1B, or differing pollen competition abilities. PMID:17991995

Garg, Monika; Elamein, Hala M M; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

2007-10-01

205

Multiplication of soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) in wheat roots infected by a soil  

E-print Network

Multiplication of soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) in wheat roots infected by a soil carrying SBWMV and wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) Djabbar HARIRI, Michel COURTILLOT Pascal ZAOUI, Hervé winter wheat cultivars were infected in the field or in a growth chamber with an inoculum consisting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important  

E-print Network

Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Challenges Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important part of the economy in the Texas Rolling Plains region. Wheat and stocker cattle business decisions are impacted by a variety of issues, including cattle and wheat prices, animal health, weather

207

Registration of `Bauermeister' Wheat `Bauermeister' (J981107, WA007939) hard red winter wheat  

E-print Network

Registration of `Bauermeister' Wheat `Bauermeister' (J981107, WA007939) hard red winter wheat (HRW cultivar adapted to the low- to intermediate-rainfall (, 460 mm average annual precipitation) HRW wheat, and excellent quality attributes. Bauermeister is named in honor of Dale and Dan Bauermeister, wheat producers

Murray, Timothy D.

208

EVALUATION OF DURUM SPRING WHEAT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WHEAT STEM SAWFLY (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, is the primary arthropod pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, in the Northern Great Plains. Rotation to non-host crops should decrease infestation of susceptible spring or winter wheats. Information is unavailable on wheat stem sawfly infestation potentia...

209

Reflectance characteristics of Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) stress and abundance in winter wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko)) infests wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and other small grains and grasses. Russian wheat aphid infestations are unpredictable in time and space. In favorable conditions, Russian wheat aphid feeding can result in heavy...

210

Temporal spread of wheat dwarf virus and mature plant resistance in winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat dwarf is a potentially severe disease of winter wheat. The causal agent is wheat dwarf virus (WDV), a geminivirus transmitted by the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus. Field surveys of WDV incidence and vector occurrence were conducted for 4 years in winter wheat fields in central Sweden. The objective was to estimate the extent of primary spread of WDV in autumn,

Mats Lindblad; Roland Sigvald

2004-01-01

211

Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal  

PubMed Central

Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

2010-01-01

212

Quality (End-Use) Improvement in Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat provides nutrients and the raw materials for industrialized food production. Recent global economic trends and increases in urban population growth have led to an increased demand for wheat-based convenience foods (fast, ready-to-eat, frozen foods, etc.) and for new wheat-based products. These factors have resulted in a greater emphasis than ever on the end-use quality of wheat. This paper reviews

R. J. Peña; R. Trethowan; W. H. Pfeiffer; M. Van Ginkel

2002-01-01

213

Origin of hemopoietic stromal progenitor cells in chimeras  

SciTech Connect

Intravenously injected bone marrow cells do not participate in the regeneration of hemopoietic stromal progenitors in irradiated mice, nor in the curetted parts of the recipient's marrow. The hemopoietic stromal progenitors in allogeneic chimeras are of recipient origin. The adherent cell layer (ACL) of long-term cultures of allogeneic chimera bone marrow contains only recipient hemopoietic stromal progenitors. However, in ectopic hemopoietic foci produced by marrow implantation under the renal capsule and repopulated by the recipient hemopoietic cells after irradiation and reconstitution by syngeneic hemopoietic cells, the stromal progenitors were of implant donor origin, as were stromal progenitors of the ACL in long-term cultures of hemopoietic cells from ectopic foci. Our results confirm that the stromal and hemopoietic progenitors differ in origin and that hemopoietic stromal progenitors are not transplantable by the intravenous route in mice.

Chertkov, J.L.; Drize, N.J.; Gurevitch, O.A.; Samoylova, R.S.

1985-12-01

214

The relationship between wheat self-sufficiency and national wheat trade policy  

E-print Network

is to be empha- sized, however, that neither hypothesis makes any assertion as to cause; prediction is the goal, and thus association is of import). The measure of wheat self-sufficiency ut'lized is the ratio of net wheat imports to domestic wheat consumption... into a wheat self-sufficiency taxonomy. Categories are import dependent, im- port oriented, self-sufficient, export oriented, and export de- pendent, each hypothesized as being associated with different wheat trade policies. The hypothesized elements...

Maurer, Alan Borman

1980-01-01

215

Wheat Curl Mite and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Spread from Volunteer Wheat Figure 2. Spectral profiles at three points identified in Figure  

E-print Network

Wheat Curl Mite and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Spread from Volunteer Wheat Figure 2. Spectral Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) (apeters@calmit.unl.edu) Background: Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is the most severe disease of winter wheat in the Great Plains. Estimates indicate WSM causes an average loss

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

216

Heritable, de novo resistance to leaf rust and other novel traits in selfed descendants of wheat responding to inoculation with wheat streak mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Stable resistance to infection with Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) can be evolved de novo in selfing bread wheat lines subjected to cycles of WSMV inoculation and selection of best-performing plants or tillers. To learn whether this phenomenon might be applied to evolve resistance de novo to pathogens unrelated to WSMV, we examined the responses to leaf rust of succeeding generations of the rust- and WSMV-susceptible cultivar 'Lakin' following WSMV inoculation and derived rust-resistant sublines. After three cycles of the iterative protocol five plants, in contrast to all others, expressed resistance to leaf and stripe rust. A subset of descendant sublines of one of these, 'R1', heritably and uniformly expressed the new trait of resistance to leaf rust. Such sublines, into which no genes from a known source of resistance had been introgressed, conferred resistance to progeny of crosses with susceptible parents. The F1 populations produced from crosses between, respectively, susceptible and resistant 'Lakin' sublines 4-3-3 and 4-12-3 were not all uniform in their response to seedling inoculation with race TDBG. In seedling tests against TDBG and MKPS races the F2s from F1 populations that were uniformly resistant had 3?1 ratios of resistant to susceptible individuals but the F2s from susceptible F1 progenitors were uniformly susceptible. True-breeding lines derived from resistant individuals in F2 populations were resistant to natural stripe and leaf rust inoculum in the field, while the 'Lakin' progenitor was susceptible. The next generation of six of the 'Lakin'-derived lines exhibited moderate to strong de novo resistance to stem rust races TPMK, QFCS and RKQQ in seedling tests while the 'Lakin' progenitor was susceptible. These apparently epigenetic effects in response to virus infection may help researchers fashion a new tool that expands the range of genetic resources already available in adapted germplasm. PMID:24497941

Seifers, Dallas L; Haber, Steve; Martin, Terry J; McCallum, Brent D

2014-01-01

217

Heritable, De Novo Resistance to Leaf Rust and Other Novel Traits in Selfed Descendants of Wheat Responding to Inoculation with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

PubMed Central

Stable resistance to infection with Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) can be evolved de novo in selfing bread wheat lines subjected to cycles of WSMV inoculation and selection of best-performing plants or tillers. To learn whether this phenomenon might be applied to evolve resistance de novo to pathogens unrelated to WSMV, we examined the responses to leaf rust of succeeding generations of the rust- and WSMV-susceptible cultivar ‘Lakin’ following WSMV inoculation and derived rust-resistant sublines. After three cycles of the iterative protocol five plants, in contrast to all others, expressed resistance to leaf and stripe rust. A subset of descendant sublines of one of these, ‘R1’, heritably and uniformly expressed the new trait of resistance to leaf rust. Such sublines, into which no genes from a known source of resistance had been introgressed, conferred resistance to progeny of crosses with susceptible parents. The F1 populations produced from crosses between, respectively, susceptible and resistant ‘Lakin’ sublines 4-3-3 and 4-12-3 were not all uniform in their response to seedling inoculation with race TDBG. In seedling tests against TDBG and MKPS races the F2s from F1 populations that were uniformly resistant had 3?1 ratios of resistant to susceptible individuals but the F2s from susceptible F1 progenitors were uniformly susceptible. True-breeding lines derived from resistant individuals in F2 populations were resistant to natural stripe and leaf rust inoculum in the field, while the ‘Lakin’ progenitor was susceptible. The next generation of six of the ‘Lakin’-derived lines exhibited moderate to strong de novo resistance to stem rust races TPMK, QFCS and RKQQ in seedling tests while the ‘Lakin’ progenitor was susceptible. These apparently epigenetic effects in response to virus infection may help researchers fashion a new tool that expands the range of genetic resources already available in adapted germplasm. PMID:24497941

Seifers, Dallas L.; Haber, Steve; Martin, Terry J.; McCallum, Brent D.

2014-01-01

218

Resistance in spelt wheat to yellow rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories on the origin and dissemination of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) are evaluated. Recent information on resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici) and variation for gliadin patterns in spelt wheat accessions originating from Iran and Europe is superimposed on literature reports concerning the origin, status and dissemination of spelt wheat. The data support the

Gert H. J. Kema

1992-01-01

219

Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

220

Original article Wheat gluten feed in diets  

E-print Network

Original article Wheat gluten feed in diets for intensive bull beef production * LO Fiems, CV; The use of wheat gluten feed in concentrate diets for beef bulls has been investigated in 3 experiments. Sugar-beet pulp was replaced by 15% wheat gluten feed in the first experiment and by 15, 30 or 45

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting...

2011-04-01

222

Disease Update in Wheat Gaylon Morgan  

E-print Network

Disease Update in Wheat Gaylon Morgan State Extension Small Grains Specialist March 3, 2005 There are three major foliar leaf diseases that commonly occur in Texas wheat fields, including Leaf Rust, Stripe of Powdery Mildew that occurred in 2004. Factors to Consider for Managing Foliar Diseases in Wheat: 1

Mukhtar, Saqib

223

21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting...

2010-04-01

224

21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting...

2012-04-01

225

21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting...

2014-04-01

226

21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting...

2013-04-01

227

Registration of 'UI Stone' spring wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) is an important wheat class being used in domestic and international markets, especially in Idaho and Pacific Northwest (PNW). The objective of this study was to develop a SWS wheat cultivar with high grain yield, desirable end-use quality, and resistanc...

228

Climate change: Can wheat beat the heat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change could strongly affect the wheat crop that accounts for 21% of food and 200 million hectares of farmland worldwide. This article reviews some of the approaches for addressing the expected effects that climate change may likely inflict on wheat in some of the most important wheat growing areas, namely germplasm adaptation, system management, and mitigation. Future climate scenarios

Rodomiro Ortiz; Kenneth D. Sayre; Bram Govaerts; Raj Gupta; G. V. Subbarao; Tomohiro Ban; David Hodson; John M. Dixon; J. Iván Ortiz-Monasterio; Matthew Reynolds

2008-01-01

229

THERMO-FORMED WHEAT GLUTEN PROTEIN BIOPOLYMERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat gluten is a protein platform chemical potentially available in large quantitites that would exceed current food use markets. Thermoforming is one alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten to polymeric forms. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reduct...

230

CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Kestrel winter wheat  

E-print Network

of the Canada Western Red Winter Wheat class. Key words: Triticum aestivum L., cultivar description, wheat (BAROC). Mots clés: Triticum aestivum L., description de cultivar, blé (d'automne) CDC Kestrel is a high-yielding, semidward winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was developed at the Crop Development Centre, University

Saskatchewan, University of

231

A Whole-Genome DNA Marker Map for Cotton Based on the D-Genome Sequence of Gossypium raimondii L.  

PubMed Central

We constructed a very-high-density, whole-genome marker map (WGMM) for cotton by using 18,597 DNA markers corresponding to 48,958 loci that were aligned to both a consensus genetic map and a reference genome sequence. The WGMM has a density of one locus per 15.6 kb, or an average of 1.3 loci per gene. The WGMM was anchored by the use of colinear markers to a detailed genetic map, providing recombinational information. Mapped markers occurred at relatively greater physical densities in distal chromosomal regions and lower physical densities in the central regions, with all 1 Mb bins having at least nine markers. Hotspots for quantitative trait loci and resistance gene analog clusters were aligned to the map and DNA markers identified for targeting of these regions of high practical importance. Based on the cotton D genome reference sequence, the locations of chromosome structural rearrangements plotted on the map facilitate its translation to other Gossypium genome types. The WGMM is a versatile genetic map for marker assisted breeding, fine mapping and cloning of genes and quantitative trait loci, developing new genetic markers and maps, genome-wide association mapping, and genome evolution studies. PMID:23979945

Wang, Zining; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Xiyin; Tan, Xu; Guo, Hui; Paterson, Andrew H.

2013-01-01

232

Embryoless Wheat Grain  

PubMed Central

Yorkstar wheat, grown in New York State, has a high percentage (10-11) of grains without embryos. The embryoless grains have viable aleurone layers and show no sign of injury. These grains are able to support ?-amylase synthesis only in the presence of gibberellin A3 (GA3). In the absence of GA3 some protein synthesis occurs in embryoless grains during the early hours of soaking, indicating that such activity occurs prior to and independent of GA3 induction of ?-amylase. The level of ?-amylase on a dry weight basis is the same in embryoless and normal grains and decreases with time of soaking. In the presence of GA3, ?-amylase decreases at a slower rate. Isoenzymes of ?-amylase from GA3-treated embryoless and normal grains show quantitative as well as qualitative differences. Cycloheximide (60 ?g/ml) completely inhibits the synthesis of ?-amylase by embryoless grains. Of the RNA synthesis inhibitors, actinomycin D (60 ?g/ml) was ineffective while 6-methylpurine (60 ?g/ml) gave 65% inhibition without decreasing the number of isoenzymes. Images PMID:16658386

Khan, Anwar A.; Verbeek, Rita; Waters, Earl C.; van Onckelen, Henry A.

1973-01-01

233

Floral Transformation of Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

234

New therapy targeting differential androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer stem/progenitor vs. non-stem/progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to systematically suppress/reduce androgens binding to the androgen receptor (AR) has been the standard therapy for prostate cancer (PCa); yet, most of ADT eventually fails leading to the recurrence of castration resistant PCa. Here, we found that the PCa patients who received ADT had increased PCa stem/progenitor cell population. The addition of the anti-androgen, Casodex®, or AR-siRNA in various PCa cells led to increased stem/progenitor cells, whereas, in contrast, the addition of functional AR led to decreased stem/progenitor cell population but increased non-stem/progenitor cell population, suggesting that AR functions differentially in PCa stem/progenitor vs. non-stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, the current ADT might result in an undesired expansion of PCa stem/progenitor cell population, which explains why this therapy fails. Using various human PCa cell lines and three different mouse models, we concluded that targeting PCa non-stem/progenitor cells with AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9® and targeting PCa stem/progenitor cells with 5-azathioprine and ?-tocotrienol resulted in a significant suppression of the tumors at the castration resistant stage. This suggests that a combinational therapy that simultaneously targets both stem/progenitor and non-stem/progenitor cells will lead to better therapeutic efficacy and may become a new therapy to battle the PCa before and after castration resistant stages. PMID:22831834

Lee, Soo Ok; Ma, Zhifang; Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Luo, Jie; Lin, Tzu-Hua; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Yamashita, Shinichi; Liang, Liang; Tian, Jing; Li, Lei; Jiang, Qi; Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Niu, Yuanjie; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Chawnshang

2013-01-01

235

Enteric neural progenitors are more efficient than brain-derived progenitors at generating neurons in the colon.  

PubMed

Gut motility disorders can result from an absent, damaged, or dysfunctional enteric nervous system (ENS). Cell therapy is an exciting prospect to treat these enteric neuropathies and restore gut motility. Previous studies have examined a variety of sources of stem/progenitor cells, but the ability of different sources of cells to generate enteric neurons has not been directly compared. It is important to identify the source of stem/progenitor cells that is best at colonizing the bowel and generating neurons following transplantation. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and ENS progenitors to colonize the colon and differentiate into neurons. Genetically labeled CNS- and ENS-derived progenitors were cocultured with aneural explants of embryonic mouse colon for 1 or 2.5 wk to assess their migratory, proliferative, and differentiation capacities, and survival, in the embryonic gut environment. Both progenitor cell populations were transplanted in the postnatal colon of mice in vivo for 4 wk before they were analyzed for migration and differentiation using immunohistochemistry. ENS-derived progenitors migrated further than CNS-derived cells in both embryonic and postnatal gut environments. ENS-derived progenitors also gave rise to more neurons than their CNS-derived counterparts. Furthermore, neurons derived from ENS progenitors clustered together in ganglia, whereas CNS-derived neurons were mostly solitary. We conclude that, within the gut environment, ENS-derived progenitors show superior migration, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation compared with CNS progenitors. PMID:25125684

Findlay, Quan; Yap, Kiryu K; Bergner, Annette J; Young, Heather M; Stamp, Lincon A

2014-10-01

236

Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90-99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

2012-12-03

237

Prostate epithelial stem and progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The classic androgen ablation and replacement experiment demonstrates that prostate epithelia possess extensive regenerative capacities and implies the existence of the prostate stem/progenitor cells. These cells may serve as the cells of origin for prostate cancer and their intrinsic property may dictate the clinical behaviors of the resulting diseases. Therefore, detailed characterization of these cells will potentially benefit disease prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we describe several major in vitro and in vivo approaches that have been employed in the studies of the prostate stem cell activities, summarize the major progress that has been made during the last two decades regarding the identity of prostate stem/progenitor cells and their niches, and discuss some remaining outstanding questions in the field. PMID:25374923

Kwon, Oh-Joon; Xin, Li

2014-01-01

238

Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase in wheat leaves  

SciTech Connect

Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) was found in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Cheyenne (CI 8885)) leaves both by activity assays and by the protein blot method. The specific activity of the wheat enzyme is comparable to that of PPDK from maize leaves. Of the total soluble protein in wheat leaves, about 0.05% was PPDK, comparable to the amount in the immature wheat seed and about 1/70th the amount found in mesophyll cells of maize. Immunoprecipitation of wheat PPDK with maize enzyme antiserum indicates partial identity, and the apparent subunit molecular weight is the same based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Aoyagi, K.; Bassham, J.A.

1983-01-01

239

Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited – tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers  

PubMed Central

Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. Results We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. Conclusions SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat. PMID:24885044

2014-01-01

240

Multipotent Hematopoietic Progenitors Divide Asymmetrically to Create Progenitors of the Lymphomyeloid and Erythromyeloid Lineages  

PubMed Central

Summary Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can self-renew and create committed progenitors, a process supposed to involve asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs). Previously, we had linked the kinetics of CD133 expression with ACDs but failed to detect asymmetric segregation of classical CD133 epitopes on fixed, mitotic HSPCs. Now, by using a novel anti-CD133 antibody (HC7), we confirmed the occurrence of asymmetric CD133 segregation on paraformaldehyde-fixed and living HSPCs. After showing that HC7 binding does not recognizably affect biological features of human HSPCs, we studied ACDs in different HSPC subtypes and determined the developmental potential of arising daughter cells at the single-cell level. Approximately 70% of the HSPCs of the multipotent progenitor (MPP) fraction studied performed ACDs, and about 25% generated lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP) as wells as erythromyeloid progenitor (EMP) daughter cells. Since MPPs hardly created daughter cells maintaining MPP characteristics, our data suggest that under conventional culture conditions, ACDs are lineage instructive rather than self-renewing. PMID:25448068

Görgens, André; Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Möllmann, Michael; Krawczyk, Adalbert; Dürig, Jan; Hanenberg, Helmut; Horn, Peter A.; Giebel, Bernd

2014-01-01

241

A Somitic Compartment of Tendon Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that the tendons associated with the axial skeleton derive from a heretofore unappreciated, fourth compartment of the somites. Scleraxis (Scx), a bHLH transcription factor, marks this somitic tendon progenitor population at its inception, and is continuously expressed through differentiation into the mature tendons. Two earlier-formed somitic compartments, the sclerotome and myotome, interact to establish this fourth Scx-positive compartment.

Ava E Brent; Ronen Schweitzer; Clifford J Tabin

2003-01-01

242

[Myeloproliferative neoplasms and endothelial progenitor cells].  

PubMed

JAK2V617F is a novel oncogene involved in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and closely related to its vascular complications. Recent researches found the vascular endothelial injury in patients with MPN. It is increasingly being recognized that endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) play an important role in MPN. Here, the pathogenesis of the EPC JAK2V617F mutation and peripheral blood EPC counts in patients with MPN or with vascular complications are reviewed. PMID:25687086

Han, Xue; Wang, Fang; Chen, Ye

2015-01-01

243

On the progenitors of white dwarfs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs.

Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.

1985-01-01

244

Multipotent Progenitor Cells in Regenerative Cardiovascular Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative therapies for heart diseases require the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern the fates and\\u000a differentiation of the diverse muscle and nonmuscle cell lineages that form during heart development. During mouse cardiogenesis,\\u000a the major lineages of the mature heart, cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle, endothelial cells, and cardiac mesenchyme, arise from\\u000a multipotent cardiovascular progenitors expressing the transcription factors Mesp1, Isl1,

Jason T. Lam; Alessandra Moretti; Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz

2009-01-01

245

Transcriptional Regulation of Heart Valve Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and normal function of the heart valves requires complex interactions among signaling molecules, transcription\\u000a factors and structural proteins that are tightly regulated in time and space. Here we review the roles of critical transcription\\u000a factors that are required for specific aspects of normal valve development. The early progenitors of the heart valves are\\u000a localized in endocardial cushions that

Santanu Chakraborty; Michelle D. Combs; Katherine E. Yutzey

2010-01-01

246

Transient nuclear Prospero induces neural progenitor quiescence  

PubMed Central

Stem cells can self-renew, differentiate, or enter quiescence. Understanding how stem cells switch between these states is highly relevant for stem cell-based therapeutics. Drosophila neural progenitors (neuroblasts) have been an excellent model for studying self-renewal and differentiation, but quiescence remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that when neuroblasts enter quiescence, the differentiation factor Prospero is transiently detected in the neuroblast nucleus, followed by the establishment of a unique molecular profile lacking most progenitor and differentiation markers. The pulse of low level nuclear Prospero precedes entry into neuroblast quiescence even when the timing of quiescence is advanced or delayed by changing temporal identity factors. Furthermore, loss of Prospero prevents entry into quiescence, whereas a pulse of low level nuclear Prospero can drive proliferating larval neuroblasts into quiescence. We propose that Prospero levels distinguish three progenitor fates: absent for self-renewal, low for quiescence, and high for differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03363.001 PMID:25354199

Lai, Sen-Lin; Doe, Chris Q

2014-01-01

247

EVOLUTION OF PROGENITORS FOR ELECTRON CAPTURE SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

We provide progenitor models for electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) with detailed evolutionary calculation. We include minor electron capture nuclei using a large nuclear reaction network with updated reaction rates. For electron capture, the Coulomb correction of rates is treated and the contribution from neutron-rich isotopes is taken into account in each nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) composition. We calculate the evolution of the most massive super asymptotic giant branch stars and show that these stars undergo off-center carbon burning and form ONe cores at the center. These cores become heavier up to the critical mass of 1.367 M{sub Sun} and keep contracting even after the initiation of O+Ne deflagration. Inclusion of minor electron capture nuclei causes convective URCA cooling during the contraction phase, but the effect on the progenitor evolution is small. On the other hand, electron capture by neutron-rich isotopes in the NSE region has a more significant effect. We discuss the uniqueness of the critical core mass for ECSNe and the effect of wind mass loss on the plausibility of our models for ECSN progenitors.

Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi, E-mail: ktakahashi@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: umeda@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yoshida@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2013-07-01

248

Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines  

PubMed Central

Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) (AABBDD). Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the ?-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS) resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ?-gliadin, ?-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS) removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties. PMID:19351412

van den Broeck, Hetty C; van Herpen, Teun WJM; Schuit, Cees; Salentijn, Elma MJ; Dekking, Liesbeth; Bosch, Dirk; Hamer, Rob J; Smulders, Marinus JM; Gilissen, Ludovicus JWJ; van der Meer, Ingrid M

2009-01-01

249

Identifying variation in resistance to the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, between different ancestral and modern wheat species  

PubMed Central

Background Ancestral wheat relatives are important sources of genetic diversity for the introduction of novel traits for the improvement of modern bread wheat. In this study the aim was to assess the susceptibility of 34 accessions of the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (A genome) to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), the causal agent of take-all disease. The second aim was to explore the susceptibility of tetraploid wheat (T. durum) and the B genome progenitor species Aegilops speltoides to Ggt. Results Field trials, conducted over 5 years, identified seven T. monococcum accessions with a good level of resistance to take-all when exposed to natural inoculum under UK field conditions. All other accessions were highly susceptible or did not exhibit a consistent phenotype across years. DArT marker genotyping revealed that whole genome diversity was not closely related to resistance to take-all within T. monococcum, suggesting that multiple genetic sources of resistance may exist within the species. In contrast the tetraploid wheat cultivars and Ae. speltoides were all highly susceptible to the disease, including those with known elevated levels of benzoxazinoids. Conclusions The diploid wheat species T. monococcum may provide a genetic source of resistance to take-all disease that could be utilised to improve the performance of T. aestivum in high disease risk situations. This represents an extremely valuable resource to achieve economic and sustainable genetic control of this root disease. PMID:25084989

2014-01-01

250

De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Analyses of Gene Expression during Photomorphogenesis in Diploid Wheat Triticum monococcum  

PubMed Central

Background Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (accession G3116) and the domesticated spring wheat T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (accession DV92) by generating de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data derived from both etiolated and green seedlings. Principal Findings The de novo transcriptome assemblies of DV92 and G3116 represent 120,911 and 117,969 transcripts, respectively. We successfully mapped ?90% of these transcripts from each accession to barley and ?95% of the transcripts to T. urartu genomes. However, only ?77% transcripts mapped to the annotated barley genes and ?85% transcripts mapped to the annotated T. urartu genes. Differential gene expression analyses revealed 22% more light up-regulated and 35% more light down-regulated transcripts in the G3116 transcriptome compared to DV92. The DV92 and G3116 mRNA sequence reads aligned against the reference barley genome led to the identification of ?500,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and ?22,000 simple sequence repeat (SSR) sites. Conclusions De novo transcriptome assemblies of two accessions of the diploid wheat T. monococcum provide new empirical transcriptome references for improving Triticeae genome annotations, and insights into transcriptional programming during photomorphogenesis. The SNP and SSR sites identified in our analysis provide additional resources for the development of molecular markers. PMID:24821410

Naithani, Sushma; Sullivan, Chris; Preece, Justin; Tiwari, Vijay K.; Elser, Justin; Leonard, Jeffrey M.; Sage, Abigail; Gresham, Cathy; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; McCarthy, Fiona; Kersey, Paul; Lazo, Gerard R.; Jaiswal, Pankaj

2014-01-01

251

DIFFERENTIATION AND IMPLICIT PRICES OF U.S. WHEAT EXPORTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation looks at whether the grade determining and official criteria factors identified by the Federal Grain Inspection Service influence the price of wheat for export and, in turn, the competitiveness of United States wheat in the world market. Using data on the transactions price for hard red winter wheat, hard red spring wheat, and soft white wheat and the

Noel D. Uri; Bengt Hyberg

1996-01-01

252

Elasticities for U.S. Wheat Food Use by Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conceptualize wheat for food use as an input into flour production and derive demand functions to quantify price responsiveness and economic substitutability across wheat classes. Cost, price, and substitution elasticities are estimated for hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red wheat, soft white winter, and durum wheat. In general, hard red winter and spring wheat varieties are much

Thomas L. Marsh

2003-01-01

253

Taste and Odor Changes During Fat Rancidity Development in Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Americans are interested in eating foods which are natural and do not contain additives. Storing wheat in the refrigerator\\/freezer or properly drying wheat help prolong the shelf life. Home processed wheat may become rancid before it is consumed because the commercial methods for preserving wheat may not be available in the home. The development of fat rancidity in wheat

L. Hansen; Madeleine S. Rose

1995-01-01

254

Wheat genetics resource center: the first 25 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Wheat Genetics Resource Center, a pioneering center without walls, has served the wheat genetics community for 25 years. The Wheat Genetics Resource Center (WGRC) assembled a working collection of over 11,000 wild wheat relatives and cytogenetic stocks for conservation use in wheat genome analys...

255

RBP-J promotes the maturation of neuronal progenitors.  

PubMed

During brain development, neurons and glias are generated from neural stem cells and more limited intermediate neural progenitors (INPs). Numerous studies have revealed the mechanisms of development of neural stem cells. However, the signaling pathways that govern the development of INPs are largely unknown. The cerebellum is suitable for examining this issue because cerebellar cortical inhibitory neurons such as basket and stellate cells are derived from small Pax2(+) interneuronal progenitors. Here, we show that Sox2(-)/Pax2(+) and Sox2(+)/Pax2(-) progenitors, 2 types of interneuronal progenitors of basket and stellate cells, exist in the cerebellar white matter (WM) and that the former arise from the latter during the first postnatal week. Moreover, RBP-J promotes the neurogenesis of stellate and basket cells by converting Sox2(+)/Pax2(-) interneuronal progenitors to more mature Sox2(-)/Pax2(+) interneuronal progenitors. This study shows a novel RBP-J function that promotes INP differentiation. PMID:21443869

Komine, Okiru; Nagaoka, Mai; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Hoshino, Mikio; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya; Pear, Warren S; Tanaka, Kohichi

2011-06-01

256

Registration of ‘Red Amber’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Red Amber’ (Reg. No.__________ PI _______) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008 in a licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Amber was selected from the cross ‘255...

257

Registration of ‘USG 3555’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘USG 3555’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI 654454) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. USG 3555 was derived from the cross VA94-52-60 / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ (PI 583739 PVPO) // ’USG 3209’ (PI 617055 PVPO) and was t...

258

Registration of ‘UI SRG’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with high yield, desirable end-use quality, and resistance to prevalent diseases are the major goals for the breeding programs in the Pacifi c Northwest region of the United States and the world. ‘UI SRG’ (Reg. No. CV-1066, PI 660546) hard red winter...

259

REGISTRATION OF 'OK BULLET' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘OK Bullet’ is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES), USDA-ARS, and the Texas AES and released by the Oklahoma AES and the USDA-ARS in 2005. OK Bullet is recommended for grain-only and dual-purpose production systems t...

260

Registration of ‘Ok102’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ok102’ (Reg. no. CV-941, PI 632635) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. and the USDA-ARS. Ok102 was released in March 2002, primarily on the basis of its resistance to several foliar diseases, excellent milling quality, and desi...

261

Registration of ‘OK Bullet’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘OK Bullet’ (Reg. No. CV-999, PI 642415) is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES), USDA-ARS, and the Texas AES and released by the Oklahoma AES and the USDA-ARS in 2005. OK Bullet is recommended for grain-only and...

262

REGISTRATION OF 'OK102' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Ok102' is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS. Ok102 was released in March 2002, primarily based on its resistance to several foliar diseases, excellent milling quality, and desirable dough st...

263

Registration of ‘UI Winchester’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘UI Winchester’ (PI 642362) hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in July 2009. UI Winchester was released for its improved stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici) resistance combined with resistance to ...

264

REGISTRATION OF 'OK 101' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Ok101' is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS, and released in March 2001, in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. Motivation for its release was a unique combination of high tolerance to acidic soil, bro...

265

Registration of ‘UI Darwin’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘UI Darwin’ (PI 639953) is a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in February 2006. UI Darwin, named for English naturalist Charles Darwin, was released for selected improvements in bread quality relative to hard white wi...

266

Limiting mycotoxins in stored wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of harvested wheat grain can deteriorate markedly during the post-harvest management stages. Biotic factors, such as grain type and ripeness, coupled with the prevailing abiotic factors, such as water content and temperature, and also preservative concentration will influence the safe storage life and the level of contamination with mycotoxins. These mycotoxins include deoxynivalenol (DON) produced pre-harvest and zearalenone

Naresh Magan; David Aldred; Kalliopi Mylona; Ronald J. W. Lambert

2010-01-01

267

Registration of 'NE01643' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

NE01643 is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2007 by the developing institutions and the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. NE01643 will be marketed under the na...

268

Registration of Vision 30 Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Vision 30’ (Reg. No. CV-1062, PI 661153) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and tested as VA06HRW-49 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2010. Vision 30 was derived from the cross 92PAN1#33/VA97W-414. Vision 30 is high yielding, awned,...

269

Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

270

Registration of ‘Ok101’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ok101’ (Reg. no. CV-932, PI 631493) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS, and released in March 2001. Ok101 was released for its high tolerance to acidic soil, broad adaptation to both dual-purpose...

271

Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

272

WheatGenome.info: an integrated database and portal for wheat genome information.  

PubMed

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important crop plants, globally providing staple food for a large proportion of the human population. However, improvement of this crop has been limited due to its large and complex genome. Advances in genomics are supporting wheat crop improvement. We provide a variety of web-based systems hosting wheat genome and genomic data to support wheat research and crop improvement. WheatGenome.info is an integrated database resource which includes multiple web-based applications. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second-generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This system includes links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/. PMID:22009731

Lai, Kaitao; Berkman, Paul J; Lorenc, Michal Tadeusz; Duran, Chris; Smits, Lars; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Edwards, David

2012-02-01

273

Retinoic acid regulates olfactory progenitor cell fate and differentiation  

E-print Network

neurons, Neuronal differentiation, RALDH, Retinoid signaling, Sensory systems, Stem cellsstem/progenitor cells rapidly engage into the neurogenic pathway, precociously giving rise to differentiating neurons.

2013-01-01

274

Nutritional regulation of stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Stem cells and their progenitors are maintained within a microenvironment, termed the niche, through local cell-cell communication. Systemic signals originating outside the niche also affect stem cell and progenitor behavior. This review summarizes studies that pertain to nutritional effects on stem and progenitor cell maintenance and proliferation in Drosophila. Multiple tissue types are discussed that utilize the insulin-related signaling pathway to convey nutritional information either directly to these progenitors or via other cell types within the niche. The concept of systemic control of these cell types is not limited to Drosophila and may be functional in vertebrate systems, including mammals. PMID:24255094

Shim, Jiwon; Gururaja-Rao, Shubha; Banerjee, Utpal

2013-01-01

275

21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139...Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the class of food...

2010-04-01

276

21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139...Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the class of food...

2014-04-01

277

21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139...Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the class of food...

2011-04-01

278

21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139...Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the class of food...

2012-04-01

279

21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139...Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the class of food...

2013-04-01

280

Study of wheat protein based materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat gluten is a naturally occurring protein polymer. It is produced in abundance by the agricultural industry, is biodegradable and very inexpensive (less than $0.50/lb). It has unique viscoelastic properties, which makes it a promising alternative to synthetic plastics. The unplasticized wheat gluten is, however, brittle. Plasticizers such as glycerol are commonly used to give flexibility to the articles made of wheat gluten but with the penalty of greatly reduced stiffness. Former work showed that the brittleness of wheat gluten can also be improved by modifying it with a tri-thiol additive with no penalty of reduced stiffness. However, the cost of the customer designed tri-thiol additive was very high and it was unlikely to make a cost effective material from such an expensive additive. Here we designed a new, inexpensive thiol additive called SHPVA. It was synthesized from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) through a simple esterification reaction. The mechanical data of the molded wheat gluten/SHPVA material indicated that wheat gluten was toughened by SHPVA. As a control, the wheat gluten/PVA material showed no improvement compared with wheat gluten itself. Several techniques have been used to characterize this novel protein/polymer blend. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) study showed two phases in both wheat gluten/PVA and wheat gluten/SHPVA material. However, scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures indicated that PVA was macroscopically separated from wheat gluten, while wheat gluten/SHPVA had a homogeneous look. The phase image from the atomic force microscope (AFM) gave interesting contrast based on the difference in the mechanical properties of these two phases. The biodegradation behavior of these protein/polymer blends was examined in soil. SHPVA was not degraded in the time period of the experiment. Wheat gluten/SHPVA degraded slower than wheat gluten. We also developed some other interesting material systems based on wheat gluten, including the wheat gluten/basalt composite and wheat gluten/clay composite materials. Their mechanical properties and biodegradation behaviors were determined.

Ye, Peng

281

Type Ia Supernova Progenitors, Cosmology, and Systematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type Ia supernovae have become fundamental tools for cosmology, but their progenitors, explosion mechanism, and dependence on environment remain key problems to be solved to improve their reliability as cosmological distance estimators. In this talk I will present my research into the nature of SN Ia explosions and their environments, and discuss ongoing efforts to understand systematic errors in SN Ia distance measurements. Using SDSS-II SNe, I developed the 2-stretch fitting method for SN Ia light curves. The 2-stretch method allows the rise and decline portions of the light curve to be fit separately, and as a result I discovered that SN Ia light curves with a normal decline rate show a large variation in rise times. This departure from the single stretch model also results in an average rise time of about 17.5 days, 2 days shorter than previously accepted results. While accurate measurements of the rise time do not significantly improve cosmological results, they do improve the estimate of 56-Ni yield, which is an important constraint in theoretical modeling of SN Ia explosions. Using the 2-stretch fitter, I conducted the first search for shock interactions between the exploding white dwarf and a potential companion star in the single degenerate channel. I found no evidence for shocks in an SDSS-II sample of about 100 SNe, and showed using simulations that this rules out shocks above about 9% of peak SN flux. Comparing to theoretical models of single degenerate progenitors, I rule out red giant companions and main sequence stars above 6 solar masses as common companions to SNe Ia. More recent work has focused on the effect of the SN environment, as multiple studies have shown a correlation between host galaxy mass and SN distances. The source of this mass correlation is unknown, but both metallicity and progenitor age are candidate explanations for the observed correlation. I will present new research that attempts to determine the underlying source of the mass correlation. Lastly, I will briefly discuss current host galaxy work in the CANDELS SN Survey. This work aims to understand systematics and progenitors in terms of the potential evolution of SN Ia host galaxies as a function of redshift.

Hayden, Brian

2013-01-01

282

Intrinsic karyotype stability and gene copy number variations may have laid the foundation for tetraploid wheat formation  

PubMed Central

Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication is recurrent in plant evolution, yet only a small fraction of whole-genome duplications has led to successful speciation. A major challenge in the establishment of nascent polyploids is sustained karyotype instability, which compromises fitness. The three putative diploid progenitors of bread wheat, with AA, SS (S ? B), and DD genomes occurred sympatrically, and their cross-fertilization in different combinations may have resulted in fertile allotetraploids with various genomic constitutions. However, only SSAA or closely related genome combinations have led to the speciation of tetraploid wheats like Triticum turgidum and Triticum timopheevii. We analyzed early generations of four newly synthesized allotetraploid wheats with genome compositions SshSshAmAm, SlSlAA, SbSbDD, and AADD by combined fluorescence and genomic in situ hybridization-based karyotyping. Results of karyotype analyses showed that although SshSshAmAm and SlSlAA are characterized by immediate and persistent karyotype stability, massive aneuploidy and extensive chromosome restructuring are associated with SbSbDD and AADD in which parental subgenomes showed markedly different propensities for chromosome gain/loss and rearrangements. Although compensating aneuploidy and reciprocal translocation between homeologs prevailed, reproductive fitness was substantially compromised due to chromosome instability. Strikingly, localized genomic changes in repetitive DNA and copy-number variations in gene homologs occurred in both chromosome stable lines, SshSshAmAm and SlSlAA. Our data demonstrated that immediate and persistent karyotype stability is intrinsic to newly formed allotetraploid wheat with genome combinations analogous to natural tetraploid wheats. This property, coupled with rapid gene copy-number variations, may have laid the foundation of tetraploid wheat establishment. PMID:24218593

Zhang, Huakun; Bian, Yao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Rustgi, Sachin; Zhang, Bangjiao; Xu, Chunming; Li, Ning; Qi, Bao; Han, Fangpu; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

2013-01-01

283

Intrinsic karyotype stability and gene copy number variations may have laid the foundation for tetraploid wheat formation.  

PubMed

Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication is recurrent in plant evolution, yet only a small fraction of whole-genome duplications has led to successful speciation. A major challenge in the establishment of nascent polyploids is sustained karyotype instability, which compromises fitness. The three putative diploid progenitors of bread wheat, with AA, SS (S ? B), and DD genomes occurred sympatrically, and their cross-fertilization in different combinations may have resulted in fertile allotetraploids with various genomic constitutions. However, only SSAA or closely related genome combinations have led to the speciation of tetraploid wheats like Triticum turgidum and Triticum timopheevii. We analyzed early generations of four newly synthesized allotetraploid wheats with genome compositions S(sh)S(sh)A(m)A(m), S(l)S(l)AA, S(b)S(b)DD, and AADD by combined fluorescence and genomic in situ hybridization-based karyotyping. Results of karyotype analyses showed that although S(sh)S(sh)A(m)A(m) and S(l)S(l)AA are characterized by immediate and persistent karyotype stability, massive aneuploidy and extensive chromosome restructuring are associated with S(b)S(b)DD and AADD in which parental subgenomes showed markedly different propensities for chromosome gain/loss and rearrangements. Although compensating aneuploidy and reciprocal translocation between homeologs prevailed, reproductive fitness was substantially compromised due to chromosome instability. Strikingly, localized genomic changes in repetitive DNA and copy-number variations in gene homologs occurred in both chromosome stable lines, S(sh)S(sh)A(m)A(m) and S(l)S(l)AA. Our data demonstrated that immediate and persistent karyotype stability is intrinsic to newly formed allotetraploid wheat with genome combinations analogous to natural tetraploid wheats. This property, coupled with rapid gene copy-number variations, may have laid the foundation of tetraploid wheat establishment. PMID:24218593

Zhang, Huakun; Bian, Yao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Rustgi, Sachin; Zhang, Bangjiao; Xu, Chunming; Li, Ning; Qi, Bao; Han, Fangpu; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

2013-11-26

284

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Seedling and Adult Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat  

PubMed Central

Use of genetic diversity from related wild and domesticated species has made a significant contribution to improving wheat productivity. Synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) exhibit natural genetic variation for resistance and/or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Stripe rust caused by (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici; Pst), is an important disease of wheat worldwide. To characterise loci conferring resistance to stripe rust in SHWs, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a panel of 181 SHWs using the wheat 9K SNP iSelect array. The SHWs were evaluated for their response to the prevailing races of Pst at the seedling and adult plant stages, the latter in replicated field trials at two sites in Ethiopia in 2011. About 28% of the SHWs exhibited immunity at the seedling stage while 56% and 83% were resistant to Pst at the adult plant stage at Meraro and Arsi Robe, respectively. A total of 27 SNPs in nine genomic regions (1BS, 2AS, 2BL, 3BL, 3DL, 5A, 5BL, 6DS and 7A) were linked with resistance to Pst at the seedling stage, while 38 SNPs on 18 genomic regions were associated with resistance at the adult plant stage. Six genomic regions were commonly detected at both locations using a mixed linear model corrected for population structure, kinship relatedness and adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). The loci on chromosome regions 1AS, 3DL, 6DS and 7AL appeared to be novel QTL; our results confirm that resynthesized wheat involving its progenitor species is a rich source of new stripe (yellow) rust resistance that may be useful in choosing SHWs and incorporating diverse yellow rust (YR) resistance loci into locally adapted wheat cultivars. PMID:25153126

Makdis, Farid; Badebo, Ayele; Ogbonnaya, Francis C.

2014-01-01

285

Line differences in Cor/Lea and fructan biosynthesis-related gene transcript accumulation are related to distinct freezing tolerance levels in synthetic wheat hexaploids.  

PubMed

In common wheat, cultivar differences in freezing tolerance are considered to be mainly due to allelic differences at two major loci controlling freezing tolerance. One of the two loci, Fr-2, is coincident with a cluster of genes encoding C-repeat binding factors (CBFs), which induce downstream Cor/Lea genes during cold acclimation. Here, we conducted microarray analysis to study comprehensive changes in gene expression profile under long-term low-temperature (LT) treatment and to identify other LT-responsive genes related to cold acclimation in leaves of seedlings and crown tissues of a synthetic hexaploid wheat line. The microarray analysis revealed marked up-regulation of a number of Cor/Lea genes and fructan biosynthesis-related genes under the long-term LT treatment. For validation of the microarray data, we selected four synthetic wheat lines that contain the A and B genomes from the tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and the diverse D genomes originating from different Aegilops tauschii accessions with distinct levels of freezing tolerance after cold acclimation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed increased transcript levels of the Cor/Lea, CBF, and fructan biosynthesis-related genes in more freezing-tolerant lines than in sensitive lines. After a 14-day LT treatment, a significant difference in fructan accumulation was observed among the four lines. Therefore, the fructan biosynthetic pathway is associated with cold acclimation in development of wheat freezing tolerance and is another pathway related to diversity in freezing tolerance, in addition to the CBF-mediated Cor/Lea expression pathway. PMID:25577733

Yokota, Hirokazu; Iehisa, Julio C M; Shimosaka, Etsuo; Takumi, Shigeo

2015-03-15

286

METHODS FOR ANALYZING POLYMERIC PROTEINS OF WHEAT AND THEIR IMPACT ON WHEAT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The polymeric proteins of wheat have been found correlated to wheat quality attributes such as mixing strength. Because of this improved methods for characterizing these proteins were developed and applied to the study of wheat quality. A rapid method for measuring the amount of insoluble polymeri...

287

Population divergence in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina is correlated with wheat evolution.  

PubMed

Co-evolution of fungal pathogens with their host species during the domestication of modern crop varieties has likely affected the current genetic divergence of pathogen populations. The objective of this study was to determine if the evolutionary history of the obligate rust pathogen on wheat, Puccinia triticina, is correlated with adaptation to hosts with different ploidy levels. Sequence data from 15 loci with different levels of polymorphism were generated. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, Bayesian, maximum likelihood) showed the clear initial divergence of P. triticina isolates collected from Aegilops speltoides (the likely B genome donor of modern wheat) in Israel from the other isolates that were collected from tetraploid (AB genomes) durum wheat and hexaploid (ABD genomes) common wheat. Coalescence-based genealogy samplers also indicated that P. triticina on A. speltoides, diverged initially, followed by P. triticina isolates from durum wheat in Ethiopia and then by isolates from common wheat. Isolates of P. triticina found worldwide on cultivated durum wheat were the most recently coalesced and formed a clade nested within the isolates from common wheat. By a relative time scale, the divergence of P. triticinia as delimited by host specificity appears very recent. Significant reciprocal gene flow between isolates from common wheat and isolates from durum wheat that are found worldwide was detected, in addition to gene flow from isolates on common wheat to isolates on durum wheat in Ethiopia. PMID:24301080

Liu, M; Rodrigue, N; Kolmer, J

2014-04-01

288

Agronomic and Quality Performance of Progeny Lines Derived from Spring Wheat by Durum Wheat Crosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(6):717-721 Hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn) have both been selected for dryland yield potential and high grain protein, although end uses of flour are different. For this study, 14 tetraploid and 10 hexaploid lines were derived from crosses between tetraploid durum wheat and hexaploid

S. P. Lanning; D. Habernicht; J. M. Martin; J. D. Sherman; A. Fischer; L. E. Talbert

2003-01-01

289

Wheat puroindolines interact to form friabilin and control wheat grain hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat grain is sold based upon several physiochemical characteristics, one of the most important being grain texture. Grain texture in wheat directly affects many end use qualities such as milling yield, break flour yield, and starch damage. The hardness (Ha) locus located on the short arm of chromosome 5D is known to control grain hardness in wheat. This locus contains

A. C. Hogg; T. Sripo; B. Beecher; J. M. Martin; M. J. Giroux

2004-01-01

290

Differentiating stress induced by greenbugs and Russian wheat aphids in wheat using remote sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Outbreaks of Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) and Russian wheat aphid appear in the Great Plains almost every year and have had significant economic impacts on wheat yields. Early detection of aphid infestation is a critical part of integrated pest management (IPM) for wheat and sorghum produ...

291

Chromatin Structure of Wheat Breeding Lines Resistant to Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) is an important disease limiting wheat production, however no WSMV resistance effective above 18°C is present within the primary genetic pool of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In contrast, the wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium (2n=6x=42) shows good resistance to WS...

292

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PERENNIAL SMALL GRAINS TO SOILBORNE WHEAT MOSAIC VIRUS AND WHEAT SPINDLE STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An undetermined threat to perennial small grain production is infection by the soilborne viruses, Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) and Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV). We conducted preliminary experiments to assess whether perennial wheat and rye breeding lines were susceptible to SBW...

293

Association Analysis of Soft Wheat Quality Traits in Eastern US Soft Winter Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soft wheat quality is highly heritable, is controlled by multiple loci, and has been mapped in a number of bi-parental crosses. We extended the mapping information on soft wheat quality by using association analysis between genetic markers and quality phenotyping in 192 soft winter wheat cultivars ...

294

75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...applied to durum wheat to control Fusarium head blight, commonly known as wheat scab...of fungicide applied to control Fusarium head blight, a wheat disease caused by the...eligible fungicide to control Fusarium head blight on acres certified as planted...

2010-07-20

295

Resistance among U.S. wheat Triticum aestivum cultivars to the wheat pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of blast on several graminaceous plants. The M. oryzae population causing wheat blast has not been found outside South America. U.S. wheat production is at risk to this pathogen if introduced and established. Proactive testing of US wheat cultivars for their re...

296

Domestication evolution, genetics and genomics in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestication of plants and animals is the major factor underlying human civilization and is a gigantic evolutionary experiment\\u000a of adaptation and speciation, generating incipient species. Wheat is one of the most important grain crops in the world, and\\u000a consists mainly of two types: the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) accounting for about 95% of world wheat production, and the tetraploid

Junhua H. Peng; Dongfa Sun; Eviatar Nevo

297

LACIE: Wheat yield models for the USSR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative model determining the relationship between weather conditions and wheat yield in the U.S.S.R. was studied to provide early reliable forecasts on the size of the U.S.S.R. wheat harvest. Separate models are developed for spring wheat and for winter. Differences in yield potential and responses to stress conditions and cultural improvements necessitate models for each class.

Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

1977-01-01

298

Novel variants of HMW glutenin subunits from Aegilops section Sitopsis species in relation to evolution and wheat breeding  

PubMed Central

Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), encoded by the genes at Glu-1 loci in wheat and its related species, are significant in the determination of grain processing quality. However, the diversity and variations of HMW-GSs are relatively low in bread wheat. More interests are now focused on wheat wild relatives in Triticeae. The genus Aegilops represents an important germplasm for novel HWM-GSs and other useful genes for wheat genetic improvement. Results Six novel Glu-1 alleles and HMW-GSs were identified and characterized from three species of Aegilops section Sitopsis (S genome). Both open reading frames (ORFs) and promoter regions of these Glu-1 alleles were sequenced and characterized. The ORFs of Sitopsis Glu-1 genes are approximately 2.9?kb and 2.3?kb for x-type and y-type subunits, respectively. Although the primary structures of Sitopsis HMW-GSs are similar to those of previously reported ones, all six x-type or y-type subunits have the large fragment insertions. Our comparative analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences verified that Aegilops section Sitopsis species encode novel HMW-GSs with their molecular weights larger than almost all other known HMW-GSs. The Glu-1 promoter sequences share the high homology among S genome. Our phylogenetic analyses by both network and NJ tree indicated that there is a close phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of x-type and y-type subunit between S and D genome. Conclusions The large molecular weight of HMW-GSs from S genome is a unique feature identified in this study. Such large subunits are resulted from the duplications of repetitive domains in Sitopsis HMW-GSs. The unequal crossover events are the most likely mechanism of variations in glutenin subunits. The S genome-encoded subunits, 1Dx2.2 and 1Dx2.2* have independent origins, although they share similar evolutionary mechanism. As HMW-GSs play a key role in wheat baking quality, these large Sitopsis glutenin subunits can be used as special genetic resources for wheat quality improvement. PMID:22646663

2012-01-01

299

Direct growth suppression of myeloid bone marrow progenitor cells but not cord blood progenitors by human cytomegalovirus in vitro.  

PubMed

Recently, considerable interest has arisen as to use cord blood (CB) as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogenic transplantation when bone marrow (BM) from a familial HLA-matched donor is not available. Because human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of BM progenitors in vitro, it was important to examine whether similar effect could be observed in HCMV-infected CB cells. Therefore, the effect of HCMV challenge on the proliferation of myeloid progenitors from BM and CB was compared using both mononuclear cells (MNC) and purified CD34+ cells. A clinical isolate of HCMV inhibited the colony formation of myeloid BM progenitors responsive to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF), granulocyte-CSF, macrophage-CSF, interleukin-3 (IL-3) and the combination of IL-3 and stem cell factor (SCF). In contrast, colony growth of CB progenitors was not affected. In addition, HCMV inhibited directly the growth of purified BM CD34+ cells responsive to IL-3 and SCF in single cell assay by 40%, wheras the growth of CD34+ progenitors obtained from CB was not suppressed. The HCMV lower matrix structural protein pp65 and HCMV DNA were detected in both CB and BM CD34+ cells after in vitro challenge. However, neither immediate early (IE)-mRNA nor IE proteins were observed in infected cells. Cell cyclus examination of BM and CB CD34+ cells revealed that 25.7% of BM progenitors were in S + G2/ M phase wheras only 10.7% of the CB progenitors. Thus, a clinical isolate of HCMV directly inhibited the proliferation of myeloid BM progenitors in vitro wheras CB progenitors were not affected. This difference in the susceptibility of CB and BM cells to HCMV may partly be caused by the slow cycling rate of naive CB progenitors compared to BM progenitors at the time of infection. PMID:8839843

Holberg-Petersen, M; Rollag, H; Beck, S; Overli, I; Tjønnfjord, G; Abrahamsen, T G; Degré, M; Hestdal, K

1996-10-01

300

Wheat Versus Milo for Dairy Cows.  

E-print Network

continuously for seven months on a ration containing 40% wheat showed no ill effects from this feeding. They recommended that wheat be crushed or only coarsely ground for feeding to cows since finely-ground wheat has a tendency to form a pasty, gummy mass... that the productive values of wheat and milo were very nearly same. Although the chemical analysis of the two feeds show that at is approximately two per cent higher in crude protein than milo, adjustment in protein was made for this difference in formulating tne...

Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas)

1933-01-01

301

Estrogen and progesterone together expand murine endometrial epithelial progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Synchronous with massive shifts in reproductive hormones, the uterus and its lining the endometrium expand to accommodate a growing fetus during pregnancy. In the absence of an embryo the endometrium, composed of epithelium and stroma, undergoes numerous hormonally regulated cycles of breakdown and regeneration. The hormonally mediated regenerative capacity of the endometrium suggests that signals that govern the growth of endometrial progenitors must be regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Here we report an antigenic profile for isolation of mouse endometrial epithelial progenitors. These cells are EpCAM+CD44+ITGA6hiThy1?PECAM1?PTPRC?Ter119?, comprise a minor subpopulation of total endometrial epithelia and possess a gene expression profile that is unique and different from other cells of the endometrium. The epithelial progenitors of the endometrium could regenerate in vivo, undergo multi-lineage differentiation and proliferate. We show that the number of endometrial epithelial progenitors is regulated by reproductive hormones. Co-administration of estrogen and progesterone dramatically expanded the endometrial epithelial progenitor cell pool. This effect was not observed when estrogen or progesterone was administered alone. Despite the remarkable sensitivity to hormonal signals, endometrial epithelial progenitors do not express estrogen or progesterone receptors. Therefore their hormonal regulation must be mediated through paracrine signals resulting from binding of steroid hormones to the progenitor cell niche. Discovery of signaling defects in endometrial epithelial progenitors or their niche can lead to development of better therapies in diseases of the endometrium. PMID:23341289

Janzen, DM; Cheng, D; Schafenacker, AM; Paik, DY; Goldstein, AS; Witte, ON; Jaroszewicz, A; Pellegrini, M; Memarzadeh, S

2013-01-01

302

Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Vascular Function, and Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to atherogenesis by inducing endothelial-cell injury and dysfunction. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow have a role in ongoing endothelial repair and that impaired mobilization or depletion of these cells contributes to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease progression. methods We measured the number of colony-forming units of endothelial progenitor cells in

Jonathan M. Hill; Gloria Zalos; Julian P. J. Halcox; William H. Schenke; Myron A. Waclawiw; Arshed A. Quyyumi; Toren Finkel

2009-01-01

303

Retinal progenitor cells can produce restricted subsets of horizontal cells  

E-print Network

Retinal progenitor cells can produce restricted subsets of horizontal cells S. B. Rompani and C. L cells have been shown to be multipotent through- out development. Similarly, many other structures of the developing central nervous system have been found to contain multipotent progenitor cells. Previous lineage

Tabin, Cliff

304

Radioprotection of hematopoietic progenitors by low dose amifostine prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Amifostine is a highly efficacious cytoprotectant when administered in vivo at high doses. However, at elevated doses, drug toxicity manifests for general, non-clinical radioprotective purposes. Various strategies have been developed to avoid toxic side-effects: The simplest is reducing the dose. In terms of protecting hematopoietic tissues, where does this effective, non-toxic minimum dose lie? Material and methods C3H/HEN mice were administered varying doses of amifostine (25–100 mg/kg) 30 min prior to cobalt-60 irradiation and euthanized between 4–14 days for blood and bone marrow collection and analyses. Results Under steady-state, amifostine had little effect on bipotential and multi-potential marrow progenitors but marginally suppressed a more primitive, lineage negative progenitor subpopulation. In irradiated animals, prophylactic drug doses greater than 50 mg/kg resulted in significant regeneration of bipotential progenitors, moderate regeneration of multipotential progenitors, but no significant and consistent regeneration of more primitive progenitors. The low amifostine dose (25 mg/kg) failed to elicit consistent and positive, radioprotective actions on any of the progenitor subtypes. Conclusions Radioprotective doses for amifostine appear to lie between 25 and 50 mg/kg. Mature, lineage-restricted progenitors appear to be more responsive to the protective effects of low doses of amifostine than the more primitive, multipotential progenitors. PMID:24597748

Seed, Thomas M.; Inal, Cynthia E.

2014-01-01

305

The GLOBE 3D Genome Platform - towards a novel system-biological paper tool to integrate the huge complexity of genome organization and function.  

PubMed

Genomes are tremendous co-evolutionary holistic systems for molecular storage, processing and fabrication of information. Their system-biological complexity remains, however, still largely mysterious, despite immense sequencing achievements and huge advances in the understanding of the general sequential, three-dimensional and regulatory organization. Here, we present the GLOBE 3D Genome Platform a completely novel grid based virtual "paper" tool and in fact the first system-biological genome browser integrating the holistic complexity of genomes in a single easy comprehensible platform: Based on a detailed study of biophysical and IT requirements, every architectural level from sequence to morphology of one or several genomes can be approached in a real and in a symbolic representation simultaneously and navigated by continuous scale-free zooming within a unique three-dimensional OpenGL and grid driven environment. In principle an unlimited number of multi-dimensional data sets can be visualized, customized in terms of arrangement, shape, colour, and texture etc. as well as accessed and annotated individually or in groups using internal or external data bases/facilities. Any information can be searched and correlated by importing or calculating simple relations in real-time using grid resources. A general correlation and application platform for more complex correlative analysis and a front-end for system-biological simulations both using again the huge capabilities of grid infrastructures is currently under development. Hence, the GLOBE 3D Genome Platform is an example of a grid based approach towards a virtual desktop for genomic work combining the three fundamental distributed resources: i) visual data representation, ii) data access and management, and iii) data analysis and creation. Thus, the GLOBE 3D Genome Platform is the novel system-biology oriented information system urgently needed to access, present, annotate, and to simulate the holistic genome complexity in a unique gateway towards a real understanding, educative presentation and curative manipulation planning of this tremendous evolutionary information grail - genomes. PMID:19593049

Knoch, Tobias A; Lesnussa, Michael; Kepper, Nick; Eussen, Hubert B; Grosveld, Frank G

2009-01-01

306

Nutrient Composition of Spelt Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight samples of spelt wheat from the 1994 crop year were analyzed for macrocomponents (proximates), selected vitamins and minerals, and the first limiting amino acid lysine. They were also immunoassayed for gluten. All spelt samples differed minimally in the content of various nutrients analyzed except lysine; lysine values differed widely and ranged between 1.96 and 3.96 g\\/100 g protein. All

G. S. Ranhotra; J. A. Gelroth; B. K. Glaser; K. J. Lorenz

1996-01-01

307

Wheat and Barley Genome Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high quality reference genome sequence is a prerequisite resource for accessing any gene, driving genomics-based approaches\\u000a to systems biology, and for efficient exploitation of natural and induced genetic diversity of an organism. Wheat and barley\\u000a possess genomes of a size that was long presumed to be not amenable for whole genome sequencing. So far, only limited genomic\\u000a sequencing of

Kellye Eversole; Andreas Graner; Nils Stein

308

Mast cell progenitors: origin, development and migration to tissues.  

PubMed

Mast cells in tissues are developed from mast cell progenitors emerging from the bone marrow in a process highly regulated by transcription factors. Through the advancement of the multicolor flow cytometry technique, the mast cell progenitor population in the mouse has been characterized in terms of surface markers. However, only cell populations with enriched mast cell capability have been described in human. In naïve mice, the peripheral tissues have a constitutive pool of mast cell progenitors. Upon infections in the gut and in allergic inflammation in the lung, the local mast cell progenitor numbers increase tremendously. This review focuses on the origin and development of mast cell progenitors. Furthermore, the evidences for cells and molecules that govern the migration of these cells in mice in vivo are described. PMID:24598075

Dahlin, Joakim S; Hallgren, Jenny

2015-01-01

309

Constraints on Type Ib/c and GRB Progenitors  

E-print Network

Although there is strong support for the collapsar engine as the power source of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we still do not definitively know the progenitor of these explosions. Here we review the current set of progenitor scenarios for long-duration GRBs and the observational constraints on these scenarios. Examining these, we find that single-star models cannot be the only progenitor for long-duration GRBs. Several binary progenitors can match the solid observational constraints and also have the potential to match the trends we are currently seeing in the observations. Type Ib/c supernovae are also likely to be produced primarily in binaries; we discuss the relationship between the progenitors of these explosions and those of the long-duration GRBs.

C. L. Fryer; P. A. Mazzali; J. Prochaska; E. Cappellaro; A. Panaitescu; E. Berger; M. van Putten; E. P. J. van den Heuvel; P. Young; A. Hungerford; G. Rockefeller; S. -C. Yoon; P. Podsiadlowski; K. Nomoto; R. Chevalier; B. Schmidt; S. Kulkarni

2007-02-13

310

The Progenitor of SN 2005cs in the Whirlpool Galaxy  

E-print Network

The progenitor of SN 2005cs, in the galaxy M51, is identified in pre-explosion HST ACS WFC imaging. Differential astrometry, with post-explosion ACS HRC F555W images, permitted the identification of the progenitor with an accuracy of 0.006". The progenitor was detected in the F814W pre-explosion image with I=23.3+/-0.2, but was below the detection thresholds of the F435W and F555W images, with BNIRI on the Gemini-North telescope were taken 2 months prior to explosion, but the progenitor is not clearly detected on these. The upper limits for the JHK magnitudes of the progenitor were J<21.9,H<21.1 and K<20.7. Despite having a detection in only one band, a restrictive spectral energy distribution of the progenitor star can be constructed and a robust case is made that the progenitor was a red supergiant with spectral type between mid-K to late-M. The spectral energy distribution allows a region in the theoretical HR diagram to be determined which must contain the progenitor star. The initial mass of the star is constrained to be M(ZAMS)=9+3/-2 M_solar, which is very similar to the identified progenitor of the type II-P SN 2003gd, and also consistent with upper mass limits placed on five other similar SNe. The upper limit in the deep K-band image is significant in that it allows us to rule out the possibility that the progenitor was a significantly higher mass object enshrouded in a dust cocoon before core-collapse. This is further evidence that the trend for type II-P SNe to arise in low to moderate mass red supergiants is real.

J. R. Maund; S. J. Smartt; I. J. Danziger

2005-09-06

311

IQGAP1 regulates adult neural progenitors in vivo and vascular endothelial growth factor-triggered neural progenitor migration in vitro.  

PubMed

In the germinative zone of the adult rodent brain, neural progenitors migrate into niches delimited by astrocyte processes and differentiate into neuronal precursors. In the present study, we report a modulating role for the scaffolding protein IQGAP1 in neural progenitor migration. We have identified IQGAP1 as a new marker of amplifying neural progenitor and neuronal precursor cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the adult mouse brain. To determine functions for IQGAP1 in neural progenitors, we compared the properties of neural progenitor cells from wild-type and Iqgap1-null mutant mice in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo studies reveal a delay in the transition of de novo neural progenitors into neuronal precursor cells in Iqgap1-null mice. In vitro, we demonstrated that IQGAP1 acts as a downstream effector in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent migratory response of neural progenitors that also impacts on their neuronal differentiation. The Rho-family GTPases cdc42/Rac1 and Lis1 are major partners of IQGAP1 in this migratory process. Finally, astrocytes of the neurogenic SVZ and RMS are shown to express VEGF. We propose that VEGF synthesized by astrocytes could be involved in the guidance of neural progenitors to neurogenic niches and that IQGAP1 is an effector of the VEGF-dependent migratory signal. PMID:17460084

Balenci, Laurent; Saoudi, Yasmina; Grunwald, Didier; Deloulme, Jean Christophe; Bouron, Alexandre; Bernards, André; Baudier, Jacques

2007-04-25

312

A unique wheat disease resistance-like gene governs effector-triggered susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogens  

PubMed Central

Plant disease resistance is often conferred by genes with nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) or serine/threonine protein kinase (S/TPK) domains. Much less is known about mechanisms of susceptibility, particularly to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. The pathogens that cause the diseases tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch on wheat produce effectors (host-selective toxins) that induce susceptibility in wheat lines harboring corresponding toxin sensitivity genes. The effector ToxA is produced by both pathogens, and sensitivity to ToxA is governed by the Tsn1 gene on wheat chromosome arm 5BL. Here, we report the cloning of Tsn1, which was found to have disease resistance gene-like features, including S/TPK and NBS-LRR domains. Mutagenesis revealed that all three domains are required for ToxA sensitivity, and hence disease susceptibility. Tsn1 is unique to ToxA-sensitive genotypes, and insensitive genotypes are null. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Tsn1 arose in the B-genome diploid progenitor of polyploid wheat through a gene-fusion event that gave rise to its unique structure. Although Tsn1 is necessary to mediate ToxA recognition, yeast two-hybrid experiments suggested that the Tsn1 protein does not interact directly with ToxA. Tsn1 transcription is tightly regulated by the circadian clock and light, providing further evidence that Tsn1-ToxA interactions are associated with photosynthesis pathways. This work suggests that these necrotrophic pathogens may thrive by subverting the resistance mechanisms acquired by plants to combat other pathogens. PMID:20624958

Faris, Justin D.; Zhang, Zengcui; Lu, Huangjun; Lu, Shunwen; Reddy, Leela; Cloutier, Sylvie; Fellers, John P.; Meinhardt, Steven W.; Rasmussen, Jack B.; Xu, Steven S.; Oliver, Richard P.; Simons, Kristin J.; Friesen, Timothy L.

2010-01-01

313

Threshing efficiency as an incentive for rapid domestication of emmer wheat  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The harvesting method of wild and cultivated cereals has long been recognized as an important factor in the emergence of domesticated non-shattering ear genotypes. This study aimed to quantify the effects of spike brittleness and threshability on threshing time and efficiency in emmer wheat, and to evaluate the implications of post-harvest processes on domestication of cereals in the Near East. Methods A diverse collection of tetraploid wheat genotypes, consisting of Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides – the wild progenitor of domesticated wheat – traditional landraces, modern cultivars (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and 150 recombinant (wild × modern) inbred lines, was used in replicated controlled threshing experiments to quantify the effects of spike brittleness and threshability on threshing time and efficiency. Key Results The transition from a brittle hulled wild phenotype to non-brittle hulled phenotype (landraces) was associated with an approx. 30 % reduction in threshing time, whereas the transition from the latter to non-brittle free-threshing cultivars was associated with an approx. 85 % reduction in threshing time. Similar trends were obtained with groups of recombinant inbred lines showing extreme phenotypes of brittleness and threshability. Conclusions In tetraploid wheat, both non-brittle spike and free-threshing are labour-saving traits that increase the efficiency of post-harvest processing, which could have been an incentive for rapid domestication of the Near Eastern cereals, thus refuting the recently proposed hypothesis regarding extra labour associated with the domesticated phenotype (non-brittle spike) and its presumed role in extending the domestication episode time frame. PMID:23884398

Tzarfati, Raanan; Saranga, Yehoshua; Barak, Vered; Gopher, Avi; Korol, Abraham B.; Abbo, Shahal

2013-01-01

314

Agronomic Performance of Low Phytic Acid Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low phytic acid (LPA) genotypes of wheat are one approach to improving the nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the concentration of phytic acid in the aleurone layer, thus reducing the chelation of nutritionally important minerals and improving the bioavailability of phosphorus. Field studies ...

315

Using transcriptomics to understand the wheat genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important food crop in the world, and transcriptomics studies of this crop promise to reveal the expression dynamics of genes that control many agriculturally important traits. In this review of wheat transcriptomics research, the current status of transcript...

316

Current status of wide hybridization in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current status of wide hybridization in wheat is considered in the light of the number of hybrids produced, the number of genes transferred to commercial cultivars and their use in world wide agricuture. Some original results are presented and results of other authors are compiled to provide update information regarding wide crosses in wheat. Barriers to wide hybridization and progress

H. C. Sharma; B. S. Gill

1983-01-01

317

IMPACT OF OZONE ON WINTER WHEAT YIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

Wheat is one of the more important agricultural crops in the USA, and the major production areas may be subjected to potentially damaging concentrations of ozone (O3). Since no information was available regarding the O3 sensitivity of winter wheat cultivars grown in the Midwest, ...

318

TRACKING WHEAT RUST ON A CONTINENTAL SCALE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rusts of wheat are important fungal plant pathogens that can be wind disseminated for thousands of kilometers across continents and oceans. Rusts are obligate parasites that interact with resistance genes in wheat in a gene-for-gene manner. New races of rust develop by mutation and selection for...

319

The market valuation of wheat quality characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses whether the grain quality factors used by the Federal Grain Inspection Service of the US Department of Agriculture in determining the quality grades of wheat exported by the USA including test weight, dockage, moisture content, percentage of foreign material, percentage of shrunken and broken kernels, and protein content, are characteristics that influence the price of wheat for export. Using

Noel D. Uri; Bengt Hyberg

1996-01-01

320

Introduction - Wheat Production in the Great Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat is especially important for dryland crop production in the Great Plains where the low precipitation levels and/or high variability in precipitation that characterize the region make production of less drought tolerant crops challenging. In dryland production systems wheat is often grown predo...

321

Functional dissection of wheat disease resistance pathways  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat is an essential component of human food supply. We are working to identify genes that mediate resistance to the most significant pathogens of wheat, so that ultimately, we can engineer improved disease resistance. We are employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to test if candidate gene...

322

Karnal Bunt: A Disease of Wheat  

E-print Network

K arnal bunt (Tilletia indica) is a fungal dis- ease that affects wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The disease is sometimes called partial bunt because only part of the kernel usually is affected. Karnal bunt was first discovered in 1930 in Karnal...

Schuster, Greta; Krausz, Joseph P.; Rush, Charlie

2002-11-20

323

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH SURFACE TREATMENT FOR STORED WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diatomaceous earth (DE) can be used as a surface treatment in stored wheat to control pest infestations. However, it is not known how the thickness of the DE-treated wheat layer or grain temperature impacts effectiveness. When adult Rhizopertha dominica (F.), lesser grain borers, were released in e...

324

GLIADIN ALLELES IN WHEAT: IDENTIFICATION AND APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hexaploid or common bread wheat (2n=42) is a self-pollinated crop, with three genomes designated A, B and D, each composed of seven chromosome pairs. Each Gli locus encodes a group (or block) of gliadin electrophoretic components. Analysis of progenies from crosses between different wheat cultivar...

325

IMPROVING WHEAT QUALITY CONSISTENCY BY DENSITY SEGREGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The end-use quality of grain crops can vary significantly within a given field. Research was conducted in northeastern Oregon to determine the amount of wheat quality variability due to landscape position and if improvements in the consistency of wheat quality delivered at the farm gate could be ma...

326

Chapter 6: Floral Transformation of Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hexaploid wheat is one of the world’s most important staple crops but genetic transformation is still challenging. We are developing a floral transformation protocol for wheat that does not require tissue culture. Several T-DNA transformants have been produced in the high quality, hard red germpla...

327

Registration of STARS 0601W wheat germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

STARS 0601W (PI 643399) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm developed cooperatively by the Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Stillwater, Oklahoma, and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station. STARS 0601W is resistant ...

328

GLIADINS OF COMMON WHEAT: POLYMORPHISMS & GENETICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat gliadins are a highly polymorphic group of seed storage proteins arising from a series of complex genetic loci found on several chromosome arms. Gliadin encoding alleles are numerous, and their frequency differs amongst countries, with wheat cultivars from different countries being easily dist...

329

Russian wheat aphid assembly Accession JOTR00000000  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, is among one of the most destructive species with origins in Central Asia west of the Tian Shan Mountains in northwestern China. It is a significant pest of wheat and barley, expanded its range throughout all cereal production areas of the world, ...

330

Alternaria Blight on Wheat in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternaria blight (Alternaria triticina Prasada and Prabhu) of wheat was first recorded in India in 1924 and has recently achieved prominence due to the susceptibility of Mexican wheats to the fungus. The symptoms of the disease and the conditions under which the plants are most susceptible are described. The disease may be controlled by hot water seed treatment, the use

S. S. Sokhi

1974-01-01

331

CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Clair winter wheat  

E-print Network

of the Canada Western Red Winter Wheat class. Key words: Triticum aestivum L., cultivar description, wheat est un blé d'automne (Triticum aestivum L.) demi-nain à rendement élevé et à paille forte, doté d de l'ouest canadien (BAROC). Mots clés: Triticum aestivum L., description de cultivar, blé (d

Saskatchewan, University of

332

Genes for frost resistance in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat varieties differ in their responses to low temperatures. Geneticstudies on frost resistance in wheat are difficult because the effects arequantitative in nature and thus require precise genetic material andreproducible experimental conditions. The detailed diallel analyses indicatedthat the inheritance of frost resistance is polygenic and mostly additive.Nevertheless, studies using monosomic, ditelosomic and substitution lineshave identified specific chromosomes that carry genes

J. Sutka

2001-01-01

333

Clara Cell: Progenitor for the Bronchiolar Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Clara cells were first described as a morphologically distinct cell type by Kolliker in 1881, but take their name from the seminal study of human and rabbit bronchioles by Max Clara in 1937. Since their discovery, Clara cells have been identified as central players in protecting the airway from environmental exposures. The diverse functions of Clara cells in lung homeostasis include roles in xenobiotic metabolism, immune system regulation, and progenitor cell activity. Recent identification of a sub-population of Clara cells as a bronchiolar tissue-specific stem cell and a potential tumor initiating cell has focused the attention of cell and molecular biologists on the Clara cell and its behavior under normal and disease conditions. PMID:19747565

Reynolds, Susan D.; Malkinson, Alvin M.

2009-01-01

334

PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.  

SciTech Connect

Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to stem cell imaging is proposed to circumvent the major limitation of in vitro radiolabeling – the eventual radiolabel decay. Stable transduction of stem cells in vitro would allow for the selection of high quality stem cells with optimal functional parameters of the transduced reporter systems. The use of a long-lived radioisotope 124I to label a highly specific reporter gene probe will allow for ex vivo labeling of stem cells and their imaging immediately after injection and during the following next week. The use of short-lived radioisotopes (i.e., 18F) to label highly specific reporter gene probes will allow repetitive PET imaging for the assessment of to stem cell migration, targeting, differentiation, and long-term viability of stem cell-derived tissues. Qualifications of the research team and resources. An established research team of experts in various disciplines has been assembled at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) over the past two years including the PI, senior co-investigators and collaborators. The participants of this team are recognized internationally to be among the leaders in their corresponding fields of research and clinical medicine. The resources at MDACC are exceptionally well developed and have been recently reinforced by the installation of a microPET and microSPECT/CT cameras, and a 7T MRI system for high resolution animal imaging; and by integrating a synthetic chemistry core for the development and production of precursors for radiolabeling.

Gelovani, Juri G.

2008-05-13

335

New approaches to SNe Ia progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are a major tool in cosmology and play a key role in the chemical evolution of galaxies, the nature of their progenitor systems (apart from the fact that they must content at least one white dwarf, that explodes) remains largely unknown. In the last decade, considerable efforts have been made, both observationally and theoretically, to solve this problem. Observations have, however, revealed a previously unsuspected variety of events, ranging from very underluminous outbursts to clearly overluminous ones, and spanning a range well outside the peak luminosity-decline rate of the light curve relationship, used to make calibrated candles of the SNe Ia. On the theoretical side, new explosion scenarios, such as violent mergings of pairs of white dwarfs, have been explored. We review those recent developments, emphasizing the new observational findings, but also trying to tie them to the different scenarios and explosion mechanisms proposed thus far.

Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar

2014-10-01

336

Progenitor model of Cosmic Ray knee  

E-print Network

Primary energy spectrum of cosmic rays exhibits a knee at about $3$ PeV where a change in the spectral index occurs. Despite many efforts the origin of such a feature of the spectrum is not satisfactorily solved yet. Here in the framework of hypernova model of galactic cosmic ray origin it is proposed that the steepening of the spectrum beyond the knee may be a consequence of mass distribution of progenitor of cosmic ray source. The proposed model can account all the major observed features about cosmic rays without invoking any fine tuning to match flux or spectra at any energy point. The prediction of the proposed model regarding primary composition scenario beyond the knee is quite different from most of the prevailing models of the knee and thereby can be discriminated from precise experimental measurement of the primary composition.

Bijay, Biplab

2014-01-01

337

A COMPREHENSIVE PROGENITOR MODEL FOR SNe Ia  

SciTech Connect

Although the nature of the progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear, the single-degenerate (SD) channel for the progenitor is currently accepted, in which a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) accretes hydrogen-rich material from its companion, increases its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit, and then explodes as an SN Ia. The companion may be a main sequence or a slightly evolved star (WD + MS), or a red giant star (WD + RG). Incorporating the effect of mass stripping and accretion-disk instability on the evolution of the WD binary, we carried out binary stellar evolution calculations for more than 1600 close WD binaries. As a result, the initial parameter spaces for SNe Ia are presented in an orbital period-secondary mass (log P{sub i}, M {sup i}{sub 2}) plane. We confirmed that in a WD + MS system, the initial companion leading to SNe Ia may have mass from 1 M{sub sun} to 5 M{sub sun}. The initial WD mass for SNe Ia from WD + MS channel is as low as 0.565 M{sub sun}, while the lowest WD mass from the WD + RG channel is 1.0 M{sub sun}. Adopting the above results, we studied the birth rate of SNe Ia via a binary population synthesis approach. We found that the Galactic SNe Ia birth rate from SD model is (2.55-2.9) x 10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} (including WD + He star channel), which is slightly smaller than that from observation. If a single starburst is assumed, the distribution of the delay time of SNe Ia from the SD model may be a weak bimodality, where WD + He channel contributes to SNe Ia with delay time shorter than 10{sup 8} yr and WD + RG channel to those with age longer than 6 Gyr.

Meng, X.; Yang, W., E-mail: xiangcunmeng@hotmail.co [School of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China)

2010-02-20

338

PCR assays for the identification of rare recombination types from VP1 to 3D genomic region of vaccine derived poliovirus strains.  

PubMed

Poliomyelitis has been effectively controlled by the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) or trivalent live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Since 1964, the use of OPV in mass vaccinations has resulted in drastic reductions of the number of poliomyelitis cases caused by wild-type polioviruses. However, the characterization of OPV derivatives with increased neurovirulence, constituted a real problem with respect to OPV safety. Mutations at attenuating sites of the genome and recombination events between Sabin strains of the trivalent OPV vaccine have been correlated with the loss of the attenuated phenotype of OPV strains and the acquisition of traits characteristic of wild polioviruses. In consequence, early detection and characterization of recombinant evolved derivatives of vaccine strains is highly important. In this report, ten PCR assays are described which allow for the identification of rare recombination events located in VP1, 2A, 2C, 3A, 3C and 3D genomic regions and predominant recombination events located in 2C and 3D genomic regions of OPV derivatives. These assays could be readily implemented in diagnostics laboratories lacking sequencing facilities as a first approach for the early detection and characterization of recombinant OPV derivatives. PMID:24315968

Dimitriou, T G; Pliaka, V; Kyriakopoulou, Z; Ruether, I G A; Tsakogiannis, D; Fountoucidou, P; Gartzonika, C; Levidiotou-Stefanou, S; Markoulatos, P

2014-08-01

339

The Progenitor of SN 2005cs in the Whirlpool Galaxy  

E-print Network

The progenitor of SN 2005cs, in the galaxy M51, is identified in pre-explosion HST ACS WFC imaging. Differential astrometry, with post-explosion ACS HRC F330W images, permitted the identification of the progenitor with an accuracy of 0.01". The progenitor was detected in the F814W pre-explosion image with I=23.3+/-0.2, but was below the detection thresholds of the F435W and F555W images, with BNIRI on the the Gemini telescope were taken 2 months prior to explosion, but the progenitor is not clearly detected on these. The upper limits for the JHK magnitudes of the progenitor were J<21.9,H<21.1 and K<20.7. Despite having a detection on only one band, a restrictive spectral energy distribution of the progenitor star can be constructed and a robust case is made that the progenitor was a red supergiant with spectral type betw...

Maund, J R; Danziger, I J

2005-01-01

340

Direct Transcriptional Reprogramming of Adult Cells to Embryonic Nephron Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Direct reprogramming involves the enforced re-expression of key transcription factors to redefine a cellular state. The nephron progenitor population of the embryonic kidney gives rise to all cells within the nephron other than the collecting duct through a mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition, but this population is exhausted around the time of birth. Here, we sought to identify the conditions under which adult proximal tubule cells could be directly transcriptionally reprogrammed to nephron progenitors. Using a combinatorial screen for lineage-instructive transcription factors, we identified a pool of six genes (SIX1, SIX2, OSR1, EYA1, HOXA11, and SNAI2) that activated a network of genes consistent with a cap mesenchyme/nephron progenitor phenotype in the adult proximal tubule (HK2) cell line. Consistent with these reprogrammed cells being nephron progenitors, we observed differential contribution of the reprogrammed population into the Six2+ nephron progenitor fields of an embryonic kidney explant. Dereplication of the pool suggested that SNAI2 can suppress E-CADHERIN, presumably assisting in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required to form nephron progenitors. However, neither TGF?-induced EMT nor SNAI2 overexpression alone was sufficient to create this phenotype, suggesting that additional factors are required. In conclusion, these results suggest that reinitiation of kidney development from a population of adult cells by generating embryonic progenitors may be feasible, opening the way for additional cellular and bioengineering approaches to renal repair and regeneration. PMID:23766537

Hendry, Caroline E.; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M.; Ineson, Jessica; Suhaimi, Norseha; Takasato, Minoru; Rae, Fiona

2013-01-01

341

Reactive Oxygen Species prime Drosophila haematopoietic progenitors for differentiation  

PubMed Central

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), produced during various electron transfer reactions in vivo are generally considered to be deleterious to cells1. In the mammalian haematopoietic system, haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) contain low ROS levels, but unexpectedly, the common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), produce significantly elevated levels of ROS2. The functional significance of this difference in ROS level in the two progenitor types remains unresolved2,3. Here, we show that Drosophila multipotent haematopoietic progenitors which are largely akin to the mammalian myeloid progenitors4 display elevated levels of ROS under in vivo physiological conditions, which is downregulated upon differentiation. Scavenging the ROS from these haematopoietic progenitors using in vivo genetic tools, retards their differentiation into mature blood cells. Conversely, increasing the haematopoietic progenitor ROS beyond their basal level triggers precocious differentiation into all three mature blood cell types found in Drosophila, through a signaling pathway that involves JNK and FoxO activation as well as Polycomb downregulation. We conclude that the developmentally regulated, moderately high ROS level in the progenitor population sensitizes them to differentiation, and establishes a signaling role for ROS in the regulation of haematopoietic cell fate. Our results lead to a model that could be extended to reveal a probable signaling role for ROS in the differentiation of CMPs in mammalian haematopoietic development and oxidative stress response. PMID:19727075

Owusu-Ansah, Edward; Banerjee, Utpal

2009-01-01

342

Sequencing of Chloroplast Genomes from Wheat, Barley, Rye and Their Relatives Provides a Detailed Insight into the Evolution of the Triticeae Tribe  

PubMed Central

Using Roche/454 technology, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes of 12 Triticeae species, including bread wheat, barley and rye, as well as the diploid progenitors and relatives of bread wheat Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii. Two wild tetraploid taxa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata, were also included. Additionally, we incorporated wild Einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum and its domesticated form T. monococcum and two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) genotypes. Chloroplast genomes were used for overall sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis and dating of divergence times. We estimate that barley diverged from rye and wheat approximately 8–9 million years ago (MYA). The genome donors of hexaploid wheat diverged between 2.1–2.9 MYA, while rye diverged from Triticum aestivum approximately 3–4 MYA, more recently than previously estimated. Interestingly, the A genome taxa T. boeoticum and T. urartu were estimated to have diverged approximately 570,000 years ago. As these two have a reproductive barrier, the divergence time estimate also provides an upper limit for the time required for the formation of a species boundary between the two. Furthermore, we conclusively show that the chloroplast genome of hexaploid wheat was contributed by the B genome donor and that this unknown species diverged from Ae. speltoides about 980,000 years ago. Additionally, sequence alignments identified a translocation of a chloroplast segment to the nuclear genome which is specific to the rye/wheat lineage. We propose the presented phylogeny and divergence time estimates as a reference framework for future studies on Triticeae. PMID:24614886

Middleton, Christopher P.; Senerchia, Natacha; Stein, Nils; Akhunov, Eduard D.; Keller, Beat

2014-01-01

343

Sequencing of chloroplast genomes from wheat, barley, rye and their relatives provides a detailed insight into the evolution of the Triticeae tribe.  

PubMed

Using Roche/454 technology, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes of 12 Triticeae species, including bread wheat, barley and rye, as well as the diploid progenitors and relatives of bread wheat Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii. Two wild tetraploid taxa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata, were also included. Additionally, we incorporated wild Einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum and its domesticated form T. monococcum and two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) genotypes. Chloroplast genomes were used for overall sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis and dating of divergence times. We estimate that barley diverged from rye and wheat approximately 8-9 million years ago (MYA). The genome donors of hexaploid wheat diverged between 2.1-2.9 MYA, while rye diverged from Triticum aestivum approximately 3-4 MYA, more recently than previously estimated. Interestingly, the A genome taxa T. boeoticum and T. urartu were estimated to have diverged approximately 570,000 years ago. As these two have a reproductive barrier, the divergence time estimate also provides an upper limit for the time required for the formation of a species boundary between the two. Furthermore, we conclusively show that the chloroplast genome of hexaploid wheat was contributed by the B genome donor and that this unknown species diverged from Ae. speltoides about 980,000 years ago. Additionally, sequence alignments identified a translocation of a chloroplast segment to the nuclear genome which is specific to the rye/wheat lineage. We propose the presented phylogeny and divergence time estimates as a reference framework for future studies on Triticeae. PMID:24614886

Middleton, Christopher P; Senerchia, Natacha; Stein, Nils; Akhunov, Eduard D; Keller, Beat; Wicker, Thomas; Kilian, Benjamin

2014-01-01

344

Phospholipase A2 activity during cold acclimation of wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4; PLA2) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown tissue from plants undergoing cold acclimation and/or chilling stress was investigated in a moderately cold tolerant winter wheat, a spring wheat, and a poorly cold tolerant winter wheat. Activity levels were inv...

345

Glutenin alleles in U.S. Pacific Northwest wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), comprised of the states of Washington, Idaho and Oregon, produces about 8 million metric tonnes of wheat annually. This region is somewhat unique in that it grows winter and spring wheats, hard and soft wheats, white and red-grained wheats, and club and lax-head (‘c...

346

College of Agricultural Sciences Calvin & Merle Smith Wheat Research  

E-print Network

College of Agricultural Sciences Calvin & Merle Smith Wheat Research Endowment Fund Application PURPOSE The Calvin & Merle Smith Wheat Research Endowment Fund supports a student's work on an OSU wheat of Agricultural Sciences and related fields who are working on OSU wheat research projects. Funds may be used

Grünwald, Niklaus J.

347

Plant breeding Bread wheat x Agrotricum crosses as a source  

E-print Network

Plant breeding Bread wheat x Agrotricum crosses as a source of immunity and resistance to the PAV). Through a process of selection for BYDV resistance and threshable phenotypes with wheat-like seeds, wheat numbers were also ob- tained. The low frequency of expression of immunity in the bread wheat background

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

Introduction Wheat development is affected by nutrients, water, light,  

E-print Network

Introduction Wheat development is affected by nutrients, water, light, and other factors/harvest schedule. Wheat moves through a predictable sequence of develop- ment based upon environmental variables in wheat is jointing or when the first node is noticeable. Wheat at jointing could be thriving and have

Liskiewicz, Maciej

349

Economic substitution for US wheat food use by class &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat for food use is conceptualised as an input into flour production and demand is derived from an industry profit function to quantify price responsiveness and economic substitutability across wheat classes. Price and substitution elasticities are estimated for hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red wheat, soft white winter and durum wheat. In general, hard red winter and spring

Thomas L. Marsh

2005-01-01

350

INVERSE DEMAND RELATIONSHIPS FOR WHEAT FOOD USE BY CLASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normalized quadratic input distance system is applied to estimate inverse demand relationships for wheat by class. Semi-nonparametric and Bayesian estimators are used to impose curvature on inputs and outputs. Price flexibilities are estimated for hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red wheat, soft white winter, and durum wheat. Durum wheat is found to be the most price flexible.

Thomas L. Marsh; Allen M. Featherstone

2003-01-01

351

IPMiner: a progenitor gene identifier for influenza A virus  

PubMed Central

Identification of the genetic origin of influenza A viruses will facilitate understanding of the genomic dynamics, evolutionary pathway, and viral fitness of influenza A viruses. The exponential increases of influenza sequences have expanded the coverage of influenza genetic pool, thus potentially reducing the biases for influenza progenitor identification. However, these large amounts of data generate a great challenge in progenitor identification. To increase computational efficiency, IPMiner is developed by integrating complete composition vector for genetic distance calculation and minimum spanning tree algorithm for progenitor identification. IPMiner is available to at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/IPMiner. PMID:21761594

Cai, Zhipeng; Duan, Yueming; Li, Yingshu; Lin, Guohui; Ozden, Mufit; Wan, Xiu-Feng

2011-01-01

352

Phytosterols in wheat genotypes in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen.  

PubMed

The phytosterol contents of 130 winter wheat, 20 spring wheat, 10 durum wheat, 5 spelt, 5 einkorn, and 5 emmer wheat genotypes, grown at the same location in the same year, were analyzed with gas chromatography. Considerable variation was observed in total phytosterol contents in all wheat types. The total sterol contents ranged from 670 to 959 microg/g of dm in winter wheat and from 797 to 949 microg/g of dm in spring wheat. The highest sterol contents were found in spelt, durum wheat, and einkorn wheat. The proportions of the main phytosterols also varied substantially among the different genotypes. The most abundant phytosterol in all wheat genotypes was sitosterol (40-61% of total sterols), whereas the highest variation was seen in total stanols (7-31% of total sterols). The comprehensive data set produced in this study constitutes a valuable basis for plant breeding and selection of phytosterol-rich genotypes. PMID:18921973

Nurmi, Tanja; Nyström, Laura; Edelmann, Minnamari; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Piironen, Vieno

2008-11-12

353

Folate in wheat genotypes in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen.  

PubMed

As part of the diversity screen of the HEALTHGRAIN project, the total folate contents of bread wheat (130 winter and 20 spring wheat genotypes), durum wheat (10 genotypes), earlier cultivated diploid einkorn and tetraploid emmer wheat (5 genotypes of each), and spelt (5 genotypes), grown in the same location in a controlled manner, were determined by a microbiological assay. The total folate contents ranged from 364 to 774 ng/g of dm in winter wheat and from 323 to 741 ng/g of dm in spring wheat, thus showing a marked variation. The highest mean for total folate content was measured in the durum wheat genotypes, whereas the earlier cultivated diploid and tetraploid wheat genotypes and spelt were shown to possess comparable or even higher folate contents than bread wheat. HPLC analysis of selected genotypes showed that 5-formyltetrahydrofolate was the major vitamer. The data provide a basis for breeding wheat genotypes with improved folate content. PMID:18921972

Piironen, Vieno; Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Bedo, Zoltan

2008-11-12

354

Limiting mycotoxins in stored wheat.  

PubMed

The quality of harvested wheat grain can deteriorate markedly during the post-harvest management stages. Biotic factors, such as grain type and ripeness, coupled with the prevailing abiotic factors, such as water content and temperature, and also preservative concentration will influence the safe storage life and the level of contamination with mycotoxins. These mycotoxins include deoxynivalenol (DON) produced pre-harvest and zearalenone (ZEA) produced post-harvest by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae, respectively, ochratoxin (OTA) produced by Penicillium verrucosum post-harvest in cool damp northern European climates, and perhaps T-2 and HT-2 toxins produced by Fusarium langsethiae. This review presents recent data on the relationship between dry matter losses caused by F. graminearum under different environmental regimes (water activities, temperatures) and the level of contamination with DON. This is important as poor post-harvest drying and storage management may exacerbate DON contamination already present pre-harvest. It is thus critical to relate the environmental factors in stored wheat grain during storage, especially of intergranular relative humidity (RH) and temperature, to safe storage periods without spoilage or risk from increased DON contamination. The growth/no growth and DON/no DON (F. graminearum) and OTA/no toxin production (P. verrucosum) have been used to build a model with a simple interface to link temperature and RH values to the potential risk level which may allow growth or toxin production. This paper also considers the use of modified atmospheres, preservatives and biocontrol to minimise DON and OTA in moist wheat grain. These approaches together with clear monitoring criteria and hygiene could contribute to better post-harvest management of stored temperate cereals and ensure that mycotoxin contamination is minimised during this key phase in the food/feed chain. PMID:20455159

Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David; Mylona, Kalliopi; Lambert, Ronald J W

2010-05-01

355

Identification of Solid-Stem Winter Wheat Lines with Enhanced Winter Hardiness Phil Bruckner, Winter Wheat Breeder  

E-print Network

Identification of Solid-Stem Winter Wheat Lines with Enhanced Winter Hardiness Phil Bruckner, Winter Wheat Breeder Project Description Montana winter wheat producers planted 2.45 million acres in 2009, 60% of which was grown in the North Central District. The leading winter wheat cultivar over

Maxwell, Bruce D.

356

Resistance to soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) in durum wheat. H Lapierre 1, HH Lapierre H  

E-print Network

Resistance to soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) in durum wheat. H Lapierre 1, HH Lapierre H cedex; 2 Coopérative de la Franciade, F-41021 Blois, France) Two durum wheat cvs (Seti and Prodigal and a bread wheat cv (Gascogne) resistant to transport of SBWMV from roots to shoots. SBWMV was not detected

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease, is present in Ohio wheat fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat, was found in wheat fields in three western counties in Ohio: Auglaize, Miami, and Paulding. WMoV nucleoprotein sequence was identified from Illumina deep sequencing of RNA collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic wheat s...

358

Quantification of yield loss caused by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus in winter wheat under field conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) infect winter wheat in the Great Plains region of the United States. The two viruses are transmitted by wheat curl mites, which also transmit High Plains virus. In a field study conducted in 2011 and 2012, winter wheat cultivars Mi...

359

Characterisation of epithelial progenitor cells for human and mouse thymus   

E-print Network

will aid in the translation of mouse thmic research to human. the main findings of this thesis are i) that a bipotent thymic epithelial progenitor cell population that contribute to both medullary and cortical epithelial cell compartments exists in vivo...

Farley, Alison

2009-01-01

360

Neurobiology of Disease Oligodendroglial Progenitor Cell Therapy Limits  

E-print Network

, 20133 Milano, Italy This work describes the first successful oligodendrocyte-based cell therapy (MLD). We found that oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) engrafted and survived into adulthood when, and survived as proteolipid protein- and MBP-positive postmitotic myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs

Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

361

Human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells: a short history of nearly everything  

PubMed Central

Abstract The high occurrence of cardiac disease in the Western world has driven clinicians and cardiovascular biologists to look for alternative strategies to treat patients. A challenging approach is the use of stem cells to repair the heart, in itself an inspiring thought. In the past 10 years, stem cells from different sources have been under intense investigation and, as a result, a multitude of studies have been published on the identification, isolation, and characterization, of cardiovascular progenitor cells and repair in different animal models. However, relatively few cardiovascular progenitor populations have been identified in human hearts, including, but not limited to, cardiosphere-derived cells [1], cKit+ human cardiac stem cells [2], Isl1+ cardiovascular progenitors [3], and, in our lab, cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs) [4,5]. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of the past findings and present challenges for future therapeutic potential of CMPCs. PMID:22260290

Vliet, Patrick; Goumans, Marie-José; Doevendans, Pieter A; Sluijter, Joost P G

2012-01-01

362

Sox9 and programming of liver and pancreatic progenitors  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in developmental biology have greatly expanded our understanding of progenitor cell programming and the fundamental roles that Sox9 plays in liver and pancreas organogenesis. In the last 2 years, several studies have dissected the behavior of the Sox9+ duct cells in adult organs, but conflicting results have left unanswered the long-standing question of whether physiologically functioning progenitors exist in adult liver and pancreas. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that duct cells function as progenitors in the tissue restoration process after injury, during which embryonic programs are sometimes reactivated. This article discusses the role of Sox9 in programming liver and pancreatic progenitors as well as controversies in the field. PMID:23635786

Kawaguchi, Yoshiya

2013-01-01

363

TSLP is involved in expansion of early thymocyte progenitors  

PubMed Central

Background Thymic stromal derived lymphopoietin (TSLP) is preferentially and highly expressed in the thymus, but its function in T cell development is not clear. Results We report here that TSLP, independently or in combination with IL-7, enhances thymopoiesis in the murine fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC) model. Furthermore, TSLP preferentially increases the number and proliferation of the (DN1 and DN2) pro-T progenitor cells, and FTOC lobes from TSLP receptor-null mice show a decreased number of these cells. Finally, DN1-DN2 cells expanded with TSLP in vitro are functional T progenitors that are able to differentiate into mature T cells in fetal or adult thymus organs. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that TSLP plays an important role in expansion of thymocyte progenitors and may be of value for expanding T progenitor cells in vitro. PMID:17640367

Jiang, Qi; Coffield, V McNeil; Kondo, Motonari; Su, Lishan

2007-01-01

364

Origin of monocytes and macrophages in a committed progenitor.  

PubMed

Monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are developmentally related regulators of the immune system that share the monocyte-macrophage DC progenitor (MDP) as a common precursor. Unlike differentiation into DCs, the distal pathways for differentiation into monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are not fully elucidated. We have now demonstrated the existence of a clonogenic, monocyte- and macrophage-restricted progenitor cell derived from the MDP. This progenitor was a Ly6C(+) proliferating cell present in the bone marrow and spleen that generated the major monocyte subsets and macrophages, but not DCs or neutrophils. By in-depth quantitative proteomics, we characterized changes in the proteome during monocyte differentiation, which provided insight into the molecular principles of developing monocytes, such as their functional maturation. Thus, we found that monocytes and macrophages were renewed independently of DCs from a committed progenitor. PMID:23812096

Hettinger, Jan; Richards, David M; Hansson, Jenny; Barra, Melanie M; Joschko, Ann-Cathrin; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Feuerer, Markus

2013-08-01

365

Development of sprouted wheat based probiotic beverage.  

PubMed

Present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) for development of wheat based probiotic beverage and to optimize the proportion of different ingredients viz. sprouted wheat flour, sprouted wheat bran, oat and stabilizer using response surface methodology. Acidity, pH and probiotic count of samples prepared with L. acidophilus NCDC-14 was higher than that of L. acidophilus NCDC-16 culture. Being more compatible, L. acidophilus NCDC-14 was selected for this study. Acidity (in terms of lactic acid), pH and probiotic count of the different samples ranged from 0.21 to 0.45 %, 4.0 to 4.9, and 8.30 to 10.95 log10 cfu?mL(-1), respectively. Probiotic count increased with increasing amount of sprouted wheat and oat. Optimized levels for sprouted wheat flour, oat, wheat bran and guar gum were 7.86, 5.42, 1.42 and 0.6 g, respectively per 100 mL of water. Optimized probiotic beverage provided 13.19 % total solids, 1.19 % protein, 0.33 % fat, 0.10 % ash, 0.42 % crude fibre, 1.45 mg iron, calcium 15.74 mg, 11.56 % carbohydrates, 54 kcal calories and 10.43 log10 cfu?mL(-1) probiotic count. Thus, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-14 can be used for development of potentially probiotic beverage with sprouted wheat and oat. PMID:25477662

Sharma, Monika; Mridula, D; Gupta, R K

2014-12-01

366

Separability study of wheat and small grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (principal investigators)

1978-01-01

367

Wheat production in controlled environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions are optimized for maximum yield and quality of wheat to be used in a controlled environment life support system (CELSS) in a Lunar or Martian base or a spacecraft. With yields of 23 to 57 g/sq m/d of edible biomass, a minimum size for a CELSS would be between 12 and 30 sq m per person, utilizing about 600 W/sq m of electrical energy for artificial light. Temperature, irradiance, photoperiod, carbon dioxide levels, humidity, and wind velocity are controlled in growth chambers. Nutrient solutions (adjusted for wheat) are supplied to the roots via a recirculating system that controls pH by adding HNO3 and controlling the NO3/NH4 ratio in solution. A rock-wool plant support allows direct seeding and densities up to 10,000 plants sq m. Densities up to 2000 plants/sq m appear to increase seed yield. Biomass production increases almost linearily with increasing irradiance from 400 to 1700 micromol/sq m/s of photosynthetic photon flux, but the efficiency of light utilization decreases over this range. Photoperiod and temperature both have a profound influence on floral initiation, spikelet formation, stem elongation, and fertilization.

Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Bubenheim, David

1987-01-01

368

Genetic Analysis of Lrp5 Function in Osteoblast Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (Lrp)-5 regulates osteoblast proliferation and bone formation through\\u000a its expression in duodenum by modifying the gut serotonin–bone endocrine axis. However, its direct role, if any, in osteoblast\\u000a progenitor cells has not been studied thus far. Here, we show that mice with a Dermo1-Cre-mediated disruption of Lrp5 in osteoblast progenitor cells have normal embryonic skeletogenesis and

Vijay K. Yadav; Henrique Pierotti Arantes; Elizabete Ribeiro Barros; Marise Lazaretti-Castro; Patricia Ducy

2010-01-01

369

SOX2 Functions to Maintain Neural Progenitor Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural progenitors of the vertebrate CNS are defined by generic cellular characteristics, including their pseudoepithelial morphology and their ability to divide and differentiate. SOXB1 transcription factors, including the three closely related genes Sox1, Sox2, and Sox3, universally mark neural progenitor and stem cells throughout the vertebrate CNS. We show here that constitutive expression of SOX2 inhibits neuronal differentiation and results

Victoria Graham; Jane Khudyakov; Pamela Ellis; Larysa Pevny

2003-01-01

370

Comprehensive methylome map of lineage commitment from haematopoietic progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic modifications must underlie lineage-specific differentiation as terminally differentiated cells express tissue-specific genes, but their DNA sequence is unchanged. Haematopoiesis provides a well-defined model to study epigenetic modifications during cell-fate decisions, as multipotent progenitors (MPPs) differentiate into progressively restricted myeloid or lymphoid progenitors. Although DNA methylation is critical for myeloid versus lymphoid differentiation, as demonstrated by the myeloerythroid bias in

Hong Ji; Lauren I. R. Ehrlich; Jun Seita; Peter Murakami; Akiko Doi; Paul Lindau; Hwajin Lee; Martin J. Aryee; Rafael A. Irizarry; Kitai Kim; Derrick J. Rossi; Matthew A. Inlay; Thomas Serwold; Holger Karsunky; Lena Ho; George Q. Daley; Irving L. Weissman; Andrew P. Feinberg

2010-01-01

371

Constraining Sn Ia Progenitor Scenarios with SNLS Time Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used 3 years of SuperNova Legacy Survey (SNLS) data to constraint the SN Ia progenitor scenarios. We searched for an excess in the early portion of SNLS lightcurves, signature of shocking by a companion, as predicted in Kasen 2010. We find no evidence of such excess and we are able to constrain the contribution of single degenerate systems with a Red Giant donor to the type Ia SN progenitors to less then 10%.

Bianco, Federica; Howell, D. A.; Kasen, D.; Conley, A.; Sullivan, M.; Gonzales-Gaitan, S.

2011-01-01

372

Cyclin D2 controls B cell progenitor numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclin D2 affects B cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo. It is rate-limiting for B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent proliferation of B cells, and cyclin D2\\/ mice lack CD5(B1) B lymphocytes. We show here that the bone marrow (BM) of cyclin D2\\/ mice contains half the num- bers of Sca1B220 B cell progenitors but nor- mal levels of Sca1 progenitor cells

Azim Mohamedali; Ines Soeiro; Nicholas C. Lea; Janet Glassford; Lolita Banerji; Ghulam J. Mufti; Eric W.-F. Lam; N. Shaun; B. Thomas

2003-01-01

373

Isolation of Human Oral Keratinocyte Progenitor\\/Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progenitor\\/stem cell populations of epithelium are known to reside in the small-sized cell population. Our objective was to physically isolate and characterize an oral keratinocyte-enriched population of small-sized progenitor\\/stem cells. Primary human oral mucosal keratinocytes cultured in a chemically defined serum-free culture system, devoid of animal-derived feeder cells, were sorted by relative cell size and characterized by immunolabeling for ?1

K. Izumi; T. Tobita; S. E. Feinberg

2007-01-01

374

Vascular Calcifying Progenitor Cells Possess Bidirectional Differentiation Potentials  

PubMed Central

Vascular calcification is an advanced feature of atherosclerosis for which no effective therapy is available. To investigate the modulation or reversal of calcification, we identified calcifying progenitor cells and investigated their calcifying/decalcifying potentials. Cells from the aortas of mice were sorted into four groups using Sca-1 and PDGFR? markers. Sca-1+ (Sca-1+/PDGFR?+ and Sca-1+/PDGFR??) progenitor cells exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation potentials than Sca-1? (Sca-1?/PDGFR?+ and Sca-1?/PDGFR??) progenitor cells. Among Sca-1+ progenitor populations, Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells possessed bidirectional differentiation potentials towards both osteoblastic and osteoclastic lineages, whereas Sca-1+/PDGFR?+ cells differentiated into an osteoblastic lineage unidirectionally. When treated with a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells preferentially differentiated into osteoclast-like cells. Sca-1+ progenitor cells in the artery originated from the bone marrow (BM) and could be clonally expanded. Vessel-resident BM-derived Sca-1+ calcifying progenitor cells displayed nonhematopoietic, mesenchymal characteristics. To evaluate the modulation of in vivo calcification, we established models of ectopic and atherosclerotic calcification. Computed tomography indicated that Sca-1+ progenitor cells increased the volume and calcium scores of ectopic calcification. However, Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells treated with a PPAR? agonist decreased bone formation 2-fold compared with untreated cells. Systemic infusion of Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells into Apoe?/? mice increased the severity of calcified atherosclerotic plaques. However, Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells in which PPAR? was activated displayed markedly decreased plaque severity. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells mainly expressed osteocalcin; however, activation of PPAR? triggered receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B (RANK) expression, indicating their bidirectional fate in vivo. These findings suggest that a subtype of BM-derived and vessel-resident progenitor cells offer a therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular calcification and that PPAR? activation may be an option to reverse calcification. PMID:23585735

Lee, Ho-Jae; Song, Myung-Kang; Seo, Ji-Yun; Bae, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Hae-Young; Lee, Whal; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Oh, Byung-Hee; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

2013-01-01

375

T-cell generation by lymph node resident progenitor cells.  

PubMed

In the thymus, 2 types of Lin-Sca-1+ (lineage-negative stem cell antigen-1-positive) progenitors can generate T-lineage cells: c-Kit(hi) interleukin-7 receptor alpha-negative (c-Kit(hi)IL-7Ralpha-) and c-Kit(lo)IL-7Ralpha+. While c-Kit(hi)IL-7Ralpha- progenitors are absent, c-Kit(lo)IL-7Ralpha+ progenitors are abundant in the lymph nodes (LNs). c-Kit(lo)IL-7Ralpha+ progenitors undergo abortive T-cell commitment in the LNs and become arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle because they fail both to up-regulate c-myb, c-myc, and cyclin D2 and to repress junB, p16(INK4a), and p21(Cip1/WAF). As a result, development of LN c-Kit(lo)IL-7Ralpha+ progenitors is blocked at an intermediate CD44+CD25lo development stage in vivo, and LN-derived progenitors fail to generate mature T cells when cultured with OP9-DL1 stromal cells. LN stroma can provide key signals for T-cell development including IL-7, Kit ligand, and Delta-like-1 but lacks Wnt4 and Wnt7b transcripts. LN c-Kit(lo)IL-7Ralpha+ progenitors are able to generate mature T cells when cultured with stromal cells producing wingless-related MMTV integration site 4 (Wnt4) or upon in vivo exposure to oncostatin M whose signaling pathway intersects with Wnt. Thus, supplying Wnt signals to c-Kit(lo)IL-7Ralpha+ progenitors may be sufficient to transform the LN into a primary T-lymphoid organ. These data provide unique insights into the essence of a primary T-lymphoid organ and into how a cryptic extrathymic T-cell development pathway can be amplified. PMID:15746078

Terra, Rafik; Louis, Isabelle; Le Blanc, Richard; Ouellet, Sophie; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos; Perreault, Claude

2005-07-01

376

Reprogramming diabetic stem or progenitor cells for treating diabetic complications  

Cancer.gov

Bone marrow-derived stem or progenitor cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to be effective for repairing cardiovascular disease. However, recent studies have shown that autologous cells derived from diabetic patients are not as effective as those from non-diabetic or healthy volunteers. As many cardiovascular disease patients who are candidate for cell therapy have diabetes as co-morbid condition, new measures are required to reverse their dysfunction.

377

Progenitor mass of the type IIP supernova 2005cs  

E-print Network

The progenitor mass of type IIP supernova can be determined from either hydrodynamic modeling of the event or pre-explosion observations. To compare these approaches, we determine parameters of the sub-luminous supernova 2005cs and estimate its progenitor mass. We compute the hydrodynamic models of the supernova to describe its light curves and expansion velocity data. We estimate a presupernova mass of 17.3 Msun, an explosion energy of 4.1x10^{50} erg, a presupernova radius of 600 Rsun, and a radioactive Ni-56 mass of 0.0082 Msun. The derived progenitor mass of SN 2005cs is 18.2 Msun, which is in-between those of low-luminosity and normal type IIP supernovae. The obtained progenitor mass of SN 2005cs is higher than derived from pre-explosion images. The masses of four type IIP supernovae estimated by means of hydrodynamic modeling are systematically higher than the average progenitor mass for the 9-25 Msun mass range. This result, if confirmed for a larger sample, would imply that a serious revision of the present-day view on the progenitors of type IIP supernovae is required.

V. P. Utrobin; N. N. Chugai

2008-09-22

378

LINKING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND THEIR RESULTING EXPLOSIONS  

SciTech Connect

Comparing the ejecta velocities at maximum brightness and narrow circumstellar/interstellar Na D absorption line profiles of a sample of 23 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we determine that the properties of SN Ia progenitor systems and explosions are intimately connected. As demonstrated by Sternberg et al., half of all SNe Ia with detectable Na D absorption at the host-galaxy redshift in high-resolution spectroscopy have Na D line profiles with significant blueshifted absorption relative to the strongest absorption component, which indicates that a large fraction of SN Ia progenitor systems have strong outflows. In this study, we find that SNe Ia with blueshifted circumstellar/interstellar absorption systematically have higher ejecta velocities and redder colors at maximum brightness relative to the rest of the SN Ia population. This result is robust at a 98.9%-99.8% confidence level, providing the first link between the progenitor systems and properties of the explosion. This finding is further evidence that the outflow scenario is the correct interpretation of the blueshifted Na D absorption, adding additional confirmation that some SNe Ia are produced from a single-degenerate progenitor channel. An additional implication is that either SN Ia progenitor systems have highly asymmetric outflows that are also aligned with the SN explosion or SNe Ia come from a variety of progenitor systems where SNe Ia from systems with strong outflows tend to have more kinetic energy per unit mass than those from systems with weak or no outflows.

Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Hamuy, Mario [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Shields, Gregory A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Sternberg, Assaf, E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

2012-06-20

379

Characterization of Botulinum Progenitor Toxins by Mass Spectrometry†  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin analysis has renewed importance. This study included the use of nanochromatography-nanoelectrospray-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry to characterize the protein composition of botulinum progenitor toxins and to assign botulinum progenitor toxins to their proper serotype and strain by using currently available sequence information. Clostridium botulinum progenitor toxins from strains Hall, Okra, Stockholm, MDPH, Alaska, and Langeland and 89 representing serotypes A through G, respectively, were reduced, alkylated, digested with trypsin, and identified by matching the processed product ion spectra of the tryptic peptides to proteins in accessible databases. All proteins known to be present in progenitor toxins from each serotype were identified. Additional proteins, including flagellins, ORF-X1, and neurotoxin binding protein, not previously reported to be associated with progenitor toxins, were present also in samples from several serotypes. Protein identification was used to assign toxins to a serotype and strain. Serotype assignments were accurate, and strain assignments were best when either sufficient nucleotide or amino acid sequence data were available. Minor difficulties were encountered using neurotoxin-associated protein identification for assigning serotype and strain. This study found that combined nanoscale chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques can characterize C. botulinum progenitor toxin protein composition and that serotype/strain assignments based upon these proteins can provide accurate serotype and, in most instances, strain assignments using currently available information. Assignment accuracy will continue to improve as more nucleotide/amino acid sequence information becomes available for different botulinum strains. PMID:16085839

Hines, Harry B.; Lebeda, Frank; Hale, Martha; Brueggemann, Ernst E.

2005-01-01

380

Viral disruption of olfactory progenitors is exacerbated in allergic mice.  

PubMed

Upper airway viral infection in patients with airway allergy often exacerbates olfactory dysfunction, but the mechanism for this exacerbation remains unclear. Here, we examined the effects of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, in the presence or absence of airway allergy, on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their progenitors in mice. Immunohistological analyses revealed that cockroach allergen (CRA)-induced airway allergy alone did not affect the number of OMP(+) mature ORNs and SOX2(+) ORN progenitors. Intranasal RSV line 19 infection in allergy-free mice resulted in a transient decrease in SOX2(+) ORN progenitors without affecting OMP(+) ORNs. In contrast, the RSV-induced decrease in SOX2(+) ORN progenitors was exacerbated and prolonged in allergic mice, which resulted in eventual loss of OMP(+) ORNs. In the allergic mice, reduction of RSV in the olfactory epithelium was delayed as compared with allergy-free mice. These results suggest that ORN progenitors were impaired by RSV infection and that airway allergy exacerbated damage to ORN progenitors by reducing viral clearance. PMID:24998164

Ueha, R; Mukherjee, S; Ueha, S; de Almeida Nagata, D E; Sakamoto, T; Kondo, K; Yamasoba, T; Lukacs, N W; Kunkel, S L

2014-09-01

381

Human Adult White Matter Progenitor Cells Are Multipotent Neuroprogenitors Similar to Adult Hippocampal Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Adult neural progenitor cells (aNPC) are a potential autologous cell source for cell replacement in neurologic diseases or for cell-based gene therapy of neurometabolic diseases. Easy accessibility, long-term expandability, and detailed characterization of neural progenitor cell (NPC) properties are important requisites for their future translational/clinical applications. aNPC can be isolated from different regions of the adult human brain, including the accessible subcortical white matter (aNPCWM), but systematic studies comparing long-term expanded aNPCWM with aNPC from neurogenic brain regions are not available. Freshly isolated cells from subcortical white matter and hippocampus expressed oligodendrocyte progenitor cell markers such as A2B5, neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2), and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) in ?20% of cells but no neural stem cell (NSC) markers such as CD133 (Prominin1), Nestin, SOX2, or PAX6. The epidermal growth factor receptor protein was expressed in 18% of aNPCWM and 7% of hippocampal aNPC (aNPCHIP), but only a small fraction of cells, 1 of 694 cells from white matter and 1 of 1,331 hippocampal cells, was able to generate neurospheres. Studies comparing subcortical aNPCWM with their hippocampal counterparts showed that both NPC types expressed mainly markers of glial origin such as NG2, A2B5, and OLIG2, and the NSC/NPC marker Nestin, but no pericyte markers. Both NPC types were able to produce neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in amounts comparable to fetal NSC. Whole transcriptome analyses confirmed the strong similarity of aNPCWM to aNPCHIP. Our data show that aNPCWM are multipotent NPC with long-term expandability similar to NPC from hippocampus, making them a more easily accessible source for possible autologous NPC-based treatment strategies. PMID:24558163

Lojewski, Xenia; Wegner, Florian; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Hallmeyer-Elgner, Susanne; Kirsch, Matthias; Schwarz, Johannes; Schöler, Hans R.

2014-01-01

382

Two phase sampling for wheat acreage estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two phase Landsat-based sample allocation and wheat proportion estimation method was developed. This technique employs manual, Landsat full frame-based wheat or cultivated land proportion estimates from a large number of segments comprising a first sample phase to optimally allocate a smaller phase two sample of computer or manually processed segments. Application to the Kansas Southwest CRD for 1974 produced a wheat acreage estimate for that CRD within 2.42 percent of the USDA SRS-based estimate using a lower CRD inventory budget than for a simulated reference LACIE system. Factor of 2 or greater cost or precision improvements relative to the reference system were obtained

Thomas, R. W.; Hay, C. M.

1977-01-01

383

Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management  

PubMed Central

Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control. PMID:24065979

Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

2013-01-01

384

Human Retinal Progenitor Cell Transplantation Preserves Vision*  

PubMed Central

Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic strategy for retinal degenerative diseases involving the loss of photoreceptors. However, it faces challenges to clinical translation due to safety concerns and a limited supply of cells. Human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) from fetal neural retina are expandable in vitro and maintain an undifferentiated state. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hRPCs transplanted into a Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat model of retinal degeneration. At 12 weeks, optokinetic response showed that hRPC-grafted eyes had significantly superior visual acuity compared with vehicle-treated eyes. Histological evaluation of outer nuclear layer (ONL) characteristics such as ONL thickness, spread distance, and cell count demonstrated a significantly greater preservation of the ONL in hRPC-treated eyes compared with both vehicle-treated and control eyes. The transplanted hRPCs arrested visual decline over time in the RCS rat and rescued retinal morphology, demonstrating their potential as a therapy for retinal diseases. We suggest that the preservation of visual acuity was likely achieved through host photoreceptor rescue. We found that hRPC transplantation into the subretinal space of RCS rats was well tolerated, with no adverse effects such as tumor formation noted at 12 weeks after treatment. PMID:24407289

Luo, Jing; Baranov, Petr; Patel, Sherrina; Ouyang, Hong; Quach, John; Wu, Frances; Qiu, Austin; Luo, Hongrong; Hicks, Caroline; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Jessica; Sfeir, Nicole; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Meixia; Reade, Victoria; Patel, Sara; Sinden, John; Sun, Xiaodong; Shaw, Peter; Young, Michael; Zhang, Kang

2014-01-01

385

Cardiogenic Differentiation and Transdifferentiation of Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

In recent years, cell transplantation has drawn tremendous interest as a novel approach to preserving or even restoring contractile function to infarcted hearts. A typical human infarct involves the loss of approximately one billion cardiomyocytes, and so many investigators have sought to identify endogenous or exogenous stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into committed cardiomyocytes and repopulate lost myocardium. As a result of these efforts, dozens of stem cell types have been reported to have cardiac potential. These include pluripotent embryonic stem cells as well various adult stem cells resident in compartments including bone marrow, peripheral tissues, and the heart itself. Some of these cardiogenic progenitors have been reported to contribute replacement muscle through endogenous reparative processes or via cell transplantation in preclinical cardiac injury models. However, considerable disagreement exists regarding the efficiency and even the reality of cardiac differentiation by many of these stem cell types, making these issues a continuing source of controversy in the field. In this review, we consider approaches to cell fate mapping and establishing the cardiac phenotype, as well as the current state of the evidence for the cardiogenic and regenerative potential of the major candidate stem cell types. PMID:18988903

Reinecke, Hans; Minami, Elina; Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Laflamme, Michael A.

2009-01-01

386

Young star clusters: Progenitors of globular clusters!?  

E-print Network

Star cluster formation is a major mode of star formation in the extreme conditions of interacting galaxies and violent starbursts. Young clusters are observed to form in a variety of such galaxies, a substantial number resembling the progenitors of globular clusters in mass and size, but with significantly enhanced metallicity. From studies of the metal-poor and metal-rich star cluster populations of galaxies, we can therefore learn about the violent star formation history of these galaxies, and eventually about galaxy formation and evolution. We present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of our GALEV code, with special emphasis on the gaseous emission of presently forming star clusters, and a new tool to compare extensive model grids with multi-color broad-band observations to determine individual cluster masses, metallicities, ages and extinction values independently. First results for young star clusters in the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569 are presented. The mass distributions determined for the young clusters give valuable input to dynamical star cluster system evolution models, regarding survival and destruction of clusters. We plan to investigate an age sequence of galaxy mergers to see dynamical destruction effects in process.

P. Anders; U. Fritze--v. Alvensleben; R. de Grijs

2003-09-04

387

Erythropoietin signaling promotes transplanted progenitor cell survival  

PubMed Central

We examine the potential for erythropoietin signaling to promote donor cell survival in a model of myoblast transplantation. Expression of a truncated erythropoietin receptor in hematopoietic stem cells has been shown to promote selective engraftment in mice. We previously demonstrated expression of endogenous erythropoietin receptor on murine myoblasts, and erythropoietin treatment can stimulate myoblast proliferation and delay differentiation. Here, we report that enhanced erythropoietin receptor expression, as well as exogenous erythropoietin treatment in myoblasts, provided a survival advantage and protection against apoptosis under serum-starvation conditions. When cultured in differentiation medium, expression of the myogenic regulatory proteins shifted toward early differentiation with increased erythropoietin receptor. Expression of early myogenic differentiation proteins Myf-5 and MyoD increased, while later stage protein myogenin decreased. Transplantation of C2C12 myoblasts overexpressing truncated erythropoietin receptor showed more transplanted cell incorporation into muscle fibers in muscular dystrophy mdx mice. These cells also restored dystrophin protein expression in mdx mice at 6 wk after cell treatment that was further increased with exogenous erythropoietin administration. In summary, enhanced erythropoietin receptor expression promotes transplanted cell survival in a mouse model for myoblast transplantation and provides dystrophin expression in mice with muscular dystrophy.—Jia, Y., Warin, R., Yu, X., Epstein, R., Noguchi, C. T. Erythropoietin signaling promotes transplanted progenitor cell survival. PMID:19417086

Jia, Yi; Warin, Renaud; Yu, Xiaobing; Epstein, Reed; Noguchi, Constance Tom

2009-01-01

388

The Progenitors of Type I SNe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernovae of Type I are deprived of hydrogen and rich in heavy elements, and share the same physics of light curve and spectrum formation: continuum processes are unimportant compared to line-blocking, especially in the UV. An analysis of their spectra and light curves yields insights into the explosion mechanism. SNe Ia, the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs accreting mass to reach the Chandrasekhar limit, have homogeneous properties and are used as standardized candles, but the reason for this is only now beginning to emerge. SNe Ib and Ic result from the explosion following the core collapse of massive stars that had lost their outer envelope. SNe Ib are rich in He, while SNe Ic are not, suggesting that they are caused by the collapse of bare CO cores. SNe Ic show a wide range of properties. The most massive and energetic SNe Ic are linked to Gamma Ray Bursts. Additionally, signatures of strong asphericities can be deduced from their late-time spectra and from polarisation. Such asphericities may be common to all core-collapse SNe. The exact nature of the progenitors of these SNe remains unclear.

Mazzali, P. A.; Nomoto, K.; Maeda, K.; Deng, J.; Benetti, S.; Röpke, F.; Hillebrandt, W.

2008-07-01

389

Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration  

PubMed Central

During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs. PMID:25713804

Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.

2015-01-01

390

Genome-wide association for grain morphology in synthetic hexaploid wheats using digital imaging analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Grain size and shape greatly influence grain weight which ultimately enhances grain yield in wheat. Digital imaging (DI) based phenomic characterization can capture the three dimensional variation in grain size and shape than has hitherto been possible. In this study, we report the results from using digital imaging of grain size and shape to understand the relationship among different components of this trait, their contribution to enhance grain weight, and to identify genomic regions (QTLs) controlling grain morphology using genome wide association mapping with high density diversity array technology (DArT) and allele-specific markers. Results Significant positive correlations were observed between grain weight and grain size measurements such as grain length (r?=?0.43), width, thickness (r?=?0.64) and factor from density (FFD) (r?=?0.69). A total of 231 synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) were grouped into five different sub-clusters by Bayesian structure analysis using unlinked DArT markers. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was observed among DArT loci?>?10 cM distance and approximately 28% marker pairs were in significant LD. In total, 197 loci over 60 chromosomal regions and 79 loci over 31 chromosomal regions were associated with grain morphology by genome wide analysis using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches, respectively. They were mainly distributed on homoeologous group 2, 3, 6 and 7 chromosomes. Twenty eight marker-trait associations (MTAs) on the D genome chromosomes 2D, 3D and 6D may carry novel alleles with potential to enhance grain weight due to the use of untapped wild accessions of Aegilops tauschii. Statistical simulations showed that favorable alleles for thousand kernel weight (TKW), grain length, width and thickness have additive genetic effects. Allelic variations for known genes controlling grain size and weight, viz. TaCwi-2A, TaSus-2B, TaCKX6-3D and TaGw2-6A, were also associated with TKW, grain width and thickness. In silico functional analysis predicted a range of biological functions for 32 DArT loci and receptor like kinase, known to affect plant development, appeared to be common protein family encoded by several loci responsible for grain size and shape. Conclusion Conclusively, we demonstrated the application and integration of multiple approaches including high throughput phenotyping using DI, genome wide association studies (GWAS) and in silico functional analysis of candidate loci to analyze target traits, and identify candidate genomic regions underlying these traits. These approaches provided great opportunity to understand the breeding value of SHWs for improving grain weight and enhanced our deep understanding on molecular genetics of grain weight in wheat. PMID:24884376

2014-01-01

391

Development of wheat marketing strategies for the Texas Northern High Plains  

E-print Network

, Kansas City hard red winter wheat futures prices were used instead of Chicago Board of Trade wheat futures prices since hard red winter wheat is grown around Sunray, Texas. Kansas City wheat futures prices will be sub- tracted from Sunray cash wheat..., 1974-1980. Examples of Buy and Sell Signals Generated by Moving Averages. 14 May Wheat Outlook and Situation Hard Winter Wheat Forecast Beginning Stock and Actual Beginning Stock Values for Crop Years 1975-1979. 44 November Wheat Outlook...

Johnson, Karl E

1982-01-01

392

Wheat domestication: lessons for the future.  

PubMed

Wheat was one of the first crops to be domesticated more than 10,000 years ago in the Middle East. Molecular genetics and archaeological data have allowed the reconstruction of plausible domestication scenarios leading to modern cultivars. For diploid einkorn and tetraploid durum wheat, a single domestication event has likely occurred in the Karacadag Mountains, Turkey. Following a cross between tetraploid durum and diploid T. tauschii, the resultant hexaploid bread wheat was domesticated and disseminated around the Caucasian region. These polyploidisation events facilitated wheat domestication and created genetic bottlenecks, which excluded potentially adaptive alleles. With the urgent need to accelerate genetic progress to confront the challenges of climate change and sustainable agriculture, wild ancestors and old landraces represent a reservoir of underexploited genetic diversity that may be utilized through modern breeding methods. Understanding domestication processes may thus help identifying new strategies. PMID:21377616

Charmet, Gilles

2011-03-01

393

Testing the Quality of Wheat Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity adapted from Montana State University shows how various wheat products used in the food industry are tested to make sure they have the desired physical and nutritional characteristics.

2009-12-08

394

Energy balance of wheat conversion to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The Western Canadian ethanol industry uses wheat as the preferred feed stock. The net energy balance of an ethanol system based on this starchy feed stock is of interest if Canada utilizes ethanol fuels from wheat as one of its measures to meet international commitments for greenhouse gas reduction and energy conservation under the Green Plan. The wheat to ethanol production systems for the Brown and Thin Black soil zones of the Canadian Prairies were analyzed from soil to processing completion to determine the net energy balance. The data clearly demonstrates the positive net energy balance, with the energy balance ranging from 1.32 to 1.63:1 for the Brown soil zone, and from 1.19 to 1.47:1 for the Thin Black soil zone. The final energy balance depends upon the agronomic practices and wheat variety assumed for the production system.

Stumborg, M.A.; Zentner, R.P.; Coxworth, E. [SPARC, Saskatoon (Canada)

1996-12-31

395

Two phase sampling for wheat acreage estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-phase Landsat-based sample allocation and wheat proportion estimation method was developed. The technique employs manual, Landsat full frame-based wheat or cultivated land proportion estimates from a large number of segments comprising a first sample phase to optimally allocate a small phase-two sample of computer or manually processed segments. Proportion estimates from each phase are then linked by regression or probability proportional to estimated size estimators to provide wheat proportion estimates and standard errors by reporting unit. Application to the Kansas Southwest CRD (Crop Reporting District) for 1974 produced a wheat acreage estimate for that CRD within 2.42% of the USDA SRS-based estimate using a lower CRD inventory budget than for a simulated reference LACIE (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment) system.

Thomas, R. W.; Hay, C. M.

1977-01-01

396

Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 °C to 32 °C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was consistently more accurate in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, regardless of the input information used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each °C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time.

Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Rötter, R. P.; Lobell, D. B.; Cammarano, D.; Kimball, B. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Wall, G. W.; White, J. W.; Reynolds, M. P.; Alderman, P. D.; Prasad, P. V. V.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Anothai, J.; Basso, B.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, A. J.; de Sanctis, G.; Doltra, J.; Fereres, E.; Garcia-Vila, M.; Gayler, S.; Hoogenboom, G.; Hunt, L. A.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Jabloun, M.; Jones, C. D.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Koehler, A.-K.; Müller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.; Olesen, J. E.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Eyshi Rezaei, E.; Ruane, A. C.; Semenov, M. A.; Shcherbak, I.; Stöckle, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Thorburn, P. J.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wallach, D.; Wolf, J.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, Y.

2015-02-01

397

Chromosome arm-specific BAC end sequences permit comparative analysis of homoeologous chromosomes and genomes of polyploid wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Bread wheat, one of the world’s staple food crops, has the largest, highly repetitive and polyploid genome among the cereal crops. The wheat genome holds the key to crop genetic improvement against challenges such as climate change, environmental degradation, and water scarcity. To unravel the complex wheat genome, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) is pursuing a chromosome- and chromosome arm-based approach to physical mapping and sequencing. Here we report on the use of a BAC library made from flow-sorted telosomic chromosome 3A short arm (t3AS) for marker development and analysis of sequence composition and comparative evolution of homoeologous genomes of hexaploid wheat. Results The end-sequencing of 9,984 random BACs from a chromosome arm 3AS-specific library (TaaCsp3AShA) generated 11,014,359?bp of high quality sequence from 17,591 BAC-ends with an average length of 626?bp. The sequence represents 3.2% of t3AS with an average DNA sequence read every 19?kb. Overall, 79% of the sequence consisted of repetitive elements, 1.38% as coding regions (estimated 2,850 genes) and another 19% of unknown origin. Comparative sequence analysis suggested that 70-77% of the genes present in both 3A and 3B were syntenic with model species. Among the transposable elements, gypsy/sabrina (12.4%) was the most abundant repeat and was significantly more frequent in 3A compared to homoeologous chromosome 3B. Twenty novel repetitive sequences were also identified using de novo repeat identification. BESs were screened to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR) and transposable element junctions. A total of 1,057 SSRs were identified with a density of one per 10.4?kb, and 7,928 junctions between transposable elements (TE) and other sequences were identified with a density of one per 1.39?kb. With the objective of enhancing the marker density of chromosome 3AS, oligonucleotide primers were successfully designed from 758 SSRs and 695 Insertion Site Based Polymorphisms (ISBPs). Of the 96 ISBP primer pairs tested, 28 (29%) were 3A-specific and compared to 17 (18%) for 96 SSRs. Conclusion This work reports on the use of wheat chromosome arm 3AS-specific BAC library for the targeted generation of sequence data from a particular region of the huge genome of wheat. A large quantity of sequences were generated from the A genome of hexaploid wheat for comparative genome analysis with homoeologous B and D genomes and other model grass genomes. Hundreds of molecular markers were developed from the 3AS arm-specific sequences; these and other sequences will be useful in gene discovery and physical mapping. PMID:22559868

2012-01-01

398

Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans  

E-print Network

Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Expected yield per acre2 118 126 39 62 23 149 158 49 70 29 soils represent soils capable of producing corn and soybeans with yields about 20% higher than average

Jackson, Scott A.

399

Rustproofing wheat for a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers projections of potential effects of climate change on rusts of wheat and how we should factor in a changing\\u000a climate when planning for the future management of these diseases. Even though the rusts of wheat have been extensively studied\\u000a internationally, there is a paucity of information on the likely effects of a changing climate on the rusts

Sukumar Chakraborty; Jo Luck; Grant Hollaway; Glenn Fitzgerald; Neil White

2011-01-01

400

Impact of United States international wheat policy  

E-print Network

world food security. Wheat importing countries, particularly less developed nations, articulated their desires tor a global grain reserve at the World Food Conference in Rome during December, 197m. Since then, widespread wheat surpluses have created... The Situation and Policies concerning Mheat 5 12 III ' IRPACTS ON NAJOR WORLD ECONORIC SECTORS ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 27 Developing Importing Countries Asia ~ ~ ~ Africa Latin America Developing Importing countries Developed Importing Countries Centrally Planned...

Richards, Dean

1977-01-01

401

Gene loss, silencing and activation in a newly synthesized wheat allotetraploid.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the events that affect gene structure and expression in the early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat. The transcriptome response was studied by analyzing 3072 transcripts in the first generation of a synthetic allotetraploid (genome S(l)S(l)A(m)A(m)), which resembles tetraploid wheat (genome BBAA), and in its two diploid progenitors Aegilops sharonensis (S(l)S(l)) and Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (A(m)A(m)). The expression of 60 out of 3072 transcripts was reproducibly altered in the allotetraploid: 48 transcripts disappeared and 12 were activated. Transcript disappearance was caused by gene silencing or by gene loss. Gene silencing affected one or both homeologous loci and was associated in part with cytosine methylation. Gene loss or methylation had occurred already in the F(1) intergeneric hybrid or in the allotetraploid, depending on the locus. The silenced/lost genes included rRNA genes and genes involved in metabolism, disease resistance, and cell cycle regulation. The activated genes with a known function were all retroelements. These findings show that wide hybridization and chromosome doubling affect gene expression via genetic and epigenetic alterations immediately upon allopolyploid formation. These events contribute to the genetic diploidization of newly formed allopolyploids. PMID:11973318

Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A

2002-01-01

402

Wheat production in controlled environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present optimization study for maximum yield and quality conditions in the lunar or Martian Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS)-based growth of wheat has determined that, for 23-57 g/sq m per day of edible biomass, minimum CELSS size must be of the order of 12-30 sq m/person. About 600 W/sq m of electricity would be consumed by the artificial lighting required; temperature, irradiance, photoperiod, CO2 levels, humidity, and wind velocity are all controlled. A rock wool plant support allows direct seeding, and densities of up to 10,000 plants/sq m. Densities of up to 2000 plants/sq m appear to increase seed yields.

Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Bubenheim, David

1987-01-01

403

Epigenetic States of nephron progenitors and epithelial differentiation.  

PubMed

In mammals, formation of new nephrons ends perinatally due to consumption of mesenchymal progenitor cells. Premature depletion of progenitors due to prematurity or postnatal loss of nephrons due to injury causes chronic kidney disease and hypertension. Intensive efforts are currently invested in designing regenerative strategies to form new nephron progenitors from pluripotent cells, which upon further differentiation provide a potential source of new nephrons. To know if reprogramed renal cells can maintain their identity and fate requires knowledge of the epigenetic states of native nephron progenitors and their progeny. In this article, we summarize current knowledge and gaps in the epigenomic landscape of the developing kidney. We now know that Pax2/PTIP/H3K4 methyltransferase activity provides the initial epigenetic specification signal to the metanephric mesenchyme. During nephrogenesis, the cap mesenchyme housing nephron progenitors is enriched in bivalent chromatin marks; as tubulogenesis proceeds, the tubular epithelium acquires H3K79me2. The latter mark is uniquely induced during epithelial differentiation. Analysis of histone landscapes in clonal metanephric mesenchyme cell lines and in Wilms tumor and normal fetal kidney has revealed that promoters of poised nephrogenesis genes carry bivalent histone signatures in progenitors. Differentiation or stimulation of Wnt signaling promotes resolution of bivalency; this does not occur in Wilms tumor cells consistent with their developmental arrest. The use of small cell number ChIP-Seq should facilitate the characterization of the chromatin landscape of the metanephric mesenchyme and various nephron compartments during nephrogenesis. Only then we will know if stem and somatic cell reprogramming into kidney progenitors recapitulates normal development. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 893-902, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25560433

Adli, Mazhar; Parlak, Mahmut; Li, Yuwen; El-Dahr, Samir S

2015-06-01

404

Evaluation of a High-Speed Color Sorter for Segregation of Red and White Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed color sorter has the potential to help wheat breeders purify their white wheat breeding lines and white wheat exporters to meet purity requirements of end users. For this reason, a commercial color sorter was evaluated for sorting mixed red and white wheat. Ten wheat blends containing 95% white and 5% red wheat by mass were produced by mixing

Melchor C. Pasikatan; Floyd E. Dowell

405

Biodegradation of wheat straw by Pleurotus ostreatus.  

PubMed

Wheat straw pretreated with chemicals as well as hot water was subjected to degradation by edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses component of both chemically as well as hot water treated wheat straw was degraded by the fungus and in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body of the mushroom was produced. Biodegradation of wheat straw in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During vegetative growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the wheat straw decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated wheat straw supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency (BE) of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrate. Degradation of the hot water treated wheat straw was better and faster than chemically treated substrate. PMID:25535709

Pandey, V K; Singh, M P

2014-01-01

406

Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Patients with DR may irreversibly lose sight as a result of the development of diabetic macular edema (DME) and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR); retinal blood vessel dysfunction and degeneration plays an essential role in their pathogenesis. Although new treatments have been recently introduced for DME, including intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGFs) and steroids, a high proportion of patients (~40–50%) do not respond to these therapies. Furthermore, for people with PDR, laser photocoagulation remains a mainstay therapy despite this being an inherently destructive procedure. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a low-frequency population of circulating cells known to be recruited to sites of vessel damage and tissue ischemia where they promote vascular healing and re-perfusion. A growing body of evidence suggests that the number and function of EPCs are altered in patients with varying degrees of diabetes duration, metabolic control, and in the presence or absence of DR. Although there are no clear-cut outcomes from these clinical studies, there is mounting evidence that some EPC sub-types may be involved in the pathogenesis of DR and may also serve as biomarkers for disease progression and stratification. Moreover, some EPC sub-types have considerable potential as therapeutic modalities for DME and PDR in the context of cell therapy. This study presents basic clinical concepts of DR and combines this with a general insight on EPCs and their relation to future directions in understanding and treating this important diabetic complication. PMID:24782825

Lois, Noemi; McCarter, Rachel V.; O’Neill, Christina; Medina, Reinhold J.; Stitt, Alan W.

2014-01-01

407

Next-generation sequencing and syntenic integration of flow-sorted arms of wheat chromosome 4A exposes the chromosome structure and gene content.  

PubMed

Wheat is the third most important crop for human nutrition in the world. The availability of high-resolution genetic and physical maps and ultimately a complete genome sequence holds great promise for breeding improved varieties to cope with increasing food demand under the conditions of changing global climate. However, the large size of the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome (approximately 17 Gb/1C) and the triplication of genic sequence resulting from its hexaploid status have impeded genome sequencing of this important crop species. Here we describe the use of mitotic chromosome flow sorting to separately purify and then shotgun-sequence a pair of telocentric chromosomes that together form chromosome 4A (856 Mb/1C) of wheat. The isolation of this much reduced template and the consequent avoidance of the problem of sequence duplication, in conjunction with synteny-based comparisons with other grass genomes, have facilitated construction of an ordered gene map of chromosome 4A, embracing ?85% of its total gene content, and have enabled precise localization of the various translocation and inversion breakpoints on chromosome 4A that differentiate it from its progenitor chromosome in the A genome diploid donor. The gene map of chromosome 4A, together with the emerging sequences of homoeologous wheat chromosome groups 4, 5 and 7, represent unique resources that will allow us to obtain new insights into the evolutionary dynamics between homoeologous chromosomes and syntenic chromosomal regions. PMID:21974774

Hernandez, Pilar; Martis, Mihaela; Dorado, Gabriel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Gálvez, Sergio; Schaaf, Sebastian; Jouve, Nicolás; Šimková, Hana; Valárik, Miroslav; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F X

2012-02-01

408

Recurrent Deletions of Puroindoline Genes at the Grain Hardness Locus in Four Independent Lineages of Polyploid Wheat1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Polyploidy is known to induce numerous genetic and epigenetic changes but little is known about their physiological bases. In wheat, grain texture is mainly determined by the Hardness (Ha) locus consisting of genes Puroindoline a (Pina) and b (Pinb). These genes are conserved in diploid progenitors but were deleted from the A and B genomes of tetraploid Triticum turgidum (AB). We now report the recurrent deletions of Pina-Pinb in other lineages of polyploid wheat. We analyzed the Ha haplotype structure in 90 diploid and 300 polyploid accessions of Triticum and Aegilops spp. Pin genes were conserved in all diploid species and deletion haplotypes were detected in all polyploid Triticum and most of the polyploid Aegilops spp. Two Pina-Pinb deletion haplotypes were found in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum; ABD). Pina and Pinb were eliminated from the G genome, but maintained in the A genome of tetraploid Triticum timopheevii (AG). Subsequently, Pina and Pinb were deleted from the A genome but retained in the Am genome of hexaploid Triticum zhukovskyi (AmAG). Comparison of deletion breakpoints demonstrated that the Pina-Pinb deletion occurred independently and recurrently in the four polyploid wheat species. The implications of Pina-Pinb deletions for polyploid-driven evolution of gene and genome and its possible physiological significance are discussed. PMID:18024553

Li, Wanlong; Huang, Li; Gill, Bikram S.

2008-01-01

409

Population Density and Distribution of Wheat Bugs Infesting Durum Wheat in Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m2), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m2). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread. PMID:23906035

Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

2013-01-01

410

Population density and distribution of wheat bugs infesting durum wheat in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m²), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m²). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread. PMID:23906035

Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

2013-01-01

411

The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

412

REQUEST FOR SUPPORT OF REGISTRATION OF 03SPELT4 CROP KIND: Wheat TYPE: Spring Spelt wheat  

E-print Network

REQUEST FOR SUPPORT OF REGISTRATION OF 03SPELT4 CROP KIND: Wheat TYPE: Spring Spelt wheat PROPOSERS TEST NUMBERS: 03SPELT4 PEDIGREE: RL5407/Common winter spelt (F5)//PGR8801 03SPELT4 was selected from the cross RL5407/Common winter spelt (F5)//PGR8801. RL5407 is an awned, grey-black hulled spring spelt

Saskatchewan, University of

413

AFLP genetic diversity analysis in Russian wheat aphid resistant wheat accessions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a serious insect pest which causes severe economic losses in wheat (Triticum spp.). Among the various US RWA biotypes detected, biotype 1 (RWA1) and biotype 2 (RWA2) are the most prevalent and most virulent on many cultivated genotypes. Al...

414

Pathogenicity of three isolates of Rhizoctonia sp. from wheat and peanut on hard red winter wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia-induced root diseases can significantly affect wheat and peanut production where these two field crops are grown in rotation. Hence, this study characterized two isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. from wheat [R. cerealis (RC) and R. solani (RSW)] and one from peanut [R. solani (RSP) ] for cul...

415

Effects of the Russian wheat aphid on osmotic potential and fructan content of winter wheat seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an autumn Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), infestation on winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., was investigated using osmotic potential, fructan content and field survival measurements to estimate coldhardiness. An average infestation of 147 aphids per plant, under simulated hardening conditions, increased the osmotic potential of ‘Froid’ and ‘Brawny’ (more or less coldhardy varieties, respectively) seedlings by

E. W. Storlie; L. E. Talbert; G. A. Taylor; H. A. Ferguson; J. H. Brown

1992-01-01

416

Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing of Russian wheat aphid injury to wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a severe pest of wheat in the High Plains region of the United States. Remote sensing could be effective for detecting RWA infestations for pest management decision-making purposes. We evaluated an airborne multi-spectral remote sensing system for its ability to di...

417

Flavor Characterization of Breads Made from Hard Red Winter Wheat and Hard White Winter Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 69(5):556-559 Sensory flavor profiles for white pan bread and whole wheat bread impression than did HRW crust. HRW crumb was sweeter and more made from hard red winter (HRW) or hard white winter (HWW) wheat dairylike than HWW crumb. HWW crumb had a phenoliclike note not were developed by a professionally trained panel. The flavors of crust present

CHUN-YEN CHANG; EDGAR CHAMBERS

418

Development of hard white winter wheats for a hard red winter wheat region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard white winter wheat (HWWW) occupies a very limited area of the USA, but its purported advantages suggest that its production in the major hard red winter wheat (HRWW) region may be feasible. Objectives of our investigations were to develop experimental HWWW lines that combined desirable attributes-grain yield, functional grain quality, and resistance to preharvest sprouting-in single genotypes for comparison

M. P. Upadhyay; G. M. Paulsen; E. G. Heyne; R. G. Sears; R. C. Hoseney

1984-01-01

419

Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat (Triticum sp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted. H1 was further purified. Their activities against fungi with varying degrees of wheat pathogenicity were determined. They included Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. graminearu...

420

Partial Support for Winter Wheat Laboratory Marker-Assisted-Selection Program Phil Bruckner, Winter Wheat Breeder  

E-print Network

Partial Support for Winter Wheat Laboratory Marker-Assisted-Selection Program Phil Bruckner, Winter Wheat Breeder Project Description Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is an established plant breeding technology widely used by plant breeding programs around the world to supplement and enhance field

Maxwell, Bruce D.

421

The Wheat CAP Project: Integrating Marker-Assisted Selection into US Wheat Breeding Programs.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public wheat breeding programs are responsible for the development of the majority of commercial varieties grown in the United States. For the wheat industry to remain competitive, these programs must integrate new technologies into conventional breeding efforts. The USDA-ARS Regional Genotyping Lab...

422

SUPERNOVA 2008bk AND ITS RED SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR  

SciTech Connect

We have obtained limited photometric and spectroscopic data for supernova (SN) 2008bk in NGC 7793, primarily at {approx}> 150 days after explosion. We find that it is a Type II-Plateau (II-P) SN that most closely resembles the low-luminosity SN 1999br in NGC 4900. Given the overall similarity between the observed light curves and colors of SNe 2008bk and 1999br, we infer that the total visual extinction to SN 2008bk (A{sub V} = 0.065 mag) must be almost entirely due to the Galactic foreground, similar to what has been assumed for SN 1999br. We confirm the identification of the putative red supergiant (RSG) progenitor star of the SN in high-quality g'r'i' images we had obtained in 2007 at the Gemini-South 8 m telescope. Little ambiguity exists in this progenitor identification, qualifying it as the best example to date, next to the identification of the star Sk -69 Degree-Sign 202 as the progenitor of SN 1987A. From a combination of photometry of the Gemini images with that of archival, pre-SN, Very Large Telescope JHK{sub s} images, we derive an accurate observed spectral energy distribution (SED) for the progenitor. We find from nebular strong-intensity emission-line indices for several H II regions near the SN that the metallicity in the environment is likely subsolar (Z Almost-Equal-To 0.6 Z{sub Sun }). The observed SED of the star agrees quite well with synthetic SEDs obtained from model RSG atmospheres with effective temperature T{sub eff} = 3600 {+-} 50 K. We find, therefore, that the star had a bolometric luminosity with respect to the Sun of log (L{sub bol}/L{sub Sun} ) = 4.57 {+-} 0.06 and radius R{sub *} = 496 {+-} 34 R{sub Sun} at {approx}6 months prior to explosion. Comparing the progenitor's properties with theoretical massive-star evolutionary models, we conclude that the RSG progenitor had an initial mass in the range of 8-8.5 M{sub Sun }. This mass is consistent with, albeit at the low end of, the inferred range of initial masses for SN II-P progenitors. It is also consistent with the estimated upper limit on the initial mass of the progenitor of SN 1999br, and it agrees with the low initial masses found for the RSG progenitors of other low-luminosity SNe II-P.

Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Elias-Rosa, Nancy [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, Mailcode 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Davidge, Tim J., E-mail: vandyk@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: tim.davidge@nrc.ca [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada); and others

2012-01-15

423

Testing and validating the CERES-wheat (Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis-wheat) model in diverse environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CERES-Wheat is a computer simulation model of the growth, development, and yield of spring and winter wheat. It was designed to be used in any location throughout the world where wheat can be grown. The model is written in Fortran 77, operates on a daily time stop, and runs on a range of computer systems from microcomputers to mainframes. Two versions of the model were developed: one, CERES-Wheat, assumes nitrogen to be nonlimiting; in the other, CERES-Wheat-N, the effects of nitrogen deficiency are simulated. The report provides the comparisons of simulations and measurements of about 350 wheat data sets collected from throughout the world.

Otter-Nacke, S.; Godwin, D. C.; Ritchie, J. T.

1986-01-01

424

Alkylresorcinols in wheat varieties in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen.  

PubMed

The contents of alkylresorcinols (AR) were analyzed in 131 winter wheats, 20 spring wheats, 10 durum wheats, 5 spelt wheats, and 10 early cultivated forms of wheat (5 diploid einkorn and 5 tetraploid emmer), which are part of the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. AR were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), which provides both total contents and relative homologue compositions, as well as with a Fast Blue colorimetric method that provides only total contents but which is fast and easily screens a large number of samples. There was considerable variation in the total AR content analyzed with GC: winter wheat (220-652 microg/g of dm), spring wheat (254-537 microg/g of dm), durum wheat (194-531 microg/g of dm), spelt (490-741 microg/g of dm), einkorn (545-654 microg/g of dm), and emmer wheat (531-714 microg/g of dm). The relative AR homologue composition was different for different types of wheat, with a C17:0 to C21:0 ratio of 0.1 for winter, spring, and spelt wheats, 0.04 for einkorn and emmer wheat, and 0.01 for durum wheat. The total AR content analyzed with the Fast Blue method was lower than that analyzed with GC but there was a good correlation between the two methods (R(2) = 0.76). PMID:18921971

Andersson, Annica A M; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Fra?, Anna; Boros, Danuta; Aman, Per

2008-11-12

425

X-ray signatures of type Ia supernova progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of type Ia supernova progenitors remains unclear, despite more than 30 years of research. Two progenitor scenarios are normally considered: that of a massive white dwarf accreting material from a non-degenerate companion (the single-degenerate scenario), and that of a merging double white dwarf binary (the double-degenerate scenario). The X-ray signatures of the two scenarios are expected to be quite different, and we expect to detect 'naked', nearby, single-degenerate progenitors as supersoft X-ray sources (van den Heuvel et al. 1992). However, so far, a systematic search of the Chandra archive has yielded 10 non-detections (Nielsen et al. 2012) and one possible, somewhat ambiguous, detection (Roelofs et al. 2008). We discuss this search and the implications for determining the nature of type Ia supernova progenitors, as well as the possible importance of obscuration by local material lost from the progenitor systems into the circumbinary region (Nielsen et al. in prep.).

Nielsen, Mikkel

2012-09-01

426

Hepatic stellate cells contribute to progenitor cells and liver regeneration  

PubMed Central

Retinoid-storing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have recently been described as a liver-resident mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) population; however, it is not clear whether these cells contribute to liver regeneration or serve as a progenitor cell population with hepatobiliary characteristics. Here, we purified HSCs with retinoid-dependent fluorescence-activated cell sorting from eGFP-expressing rats and transplanted these GFP+ HSCs into wild-type (WT) rats that had undergone partial hepatectomy in the presence of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2AAF) or retrorsine, both of which are injury models that favor stem cell–based liver repair. Transplanted HSCs contributed to liver regeneration in host animals by forming mesenchymal tissue, progenitor cells, hepatocytes, and cholangiocytes and elevated direct bilirubin levels in blood sera of GUNN rats, indicating recovery from the hepatic bilirubin–handling defect in these animals. Transplanted HSCs engrafted within the bone marrow (BM) of host animals, and HSC-derived cells were isolated from BM and successfully retransplanted into new hosts with injured liver. Cultured HSCs transiently adopted an expression profile similar to that of progenitor cells during differentiation into bile acid–synthesizing and –transporting hepatocytes, suggesting that stellate cells represent a source of liver progenitor cells. This concept connects seemingly contradictory studies that favor either progenitor cells or MSCs as important players in stem cell–based liver regeneration. PMID:25401473

Kordes, Claus; Sawitza, Iris; Götze, Silke; Herebian, Diran; Häussinger, Dieter

2014-01-01

427

Early decline in progenitor diversity in the marmoset lateral ventricle.  

PubMed

The lateral ventricle (LV) of the adult rodent brain harbors neural stem cells (NSCs) that continue to generate new neurons throughout life. NSCs located in defined areas of the LV walls generate progenitors with distinct transcriptional profiles that are committed to specific neuronal fates. Here, we assessed if such diversity of NSCs also exist in the adult common marmoset, a widely used primate species in basic and clinical neuroscience research. We first investigated the 3D distributions of proliferative progenitors and committed neuroblasts in the marmoset forebrain. In addition to these maps, we assessed the spatial presence of divergent progenitor populations based on their expression of defined transcription factors, that is, Dlx2, Pax6, Tbr2, and Ngn2 which are differentially expressed by ?-aminobutyric acidergic versus glutamatergic progenitors in the adult rodent forebrain. In striking contrast to rodents, glutamatergic progenitors were only sparse in neonates and absent from the adult LV, whilst present in the hippocampus. Our analyses highlight major differences in the diversity of NSCs of the marmoset LV compared with rodents and emphasize the need to address NSCs diversity in evolutionary higher order mammals concomitantly to rodents. PMID:22473896

Azim, Kasum; Zweifel, Stefan; Klaus, Fabienne; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Amrein, Irmgard; Raineteau, Olivier

2013-04-01

428

Impaired DNA Replication within Progenitor Cell Pools Promotes Leukemogenesis  

PubMed Central

Impaired cell cycle progression can be paradoxically associated with increased rates of malignancies. Using retroviral transduction of bone marrow progenitors followed by transplantation into mice, we demonstrate that inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation impairs competition, promoting the expansion of progenitors that acquire oncogenic mutations which restore cell cycle progression. Conditions that impair DNA replication dramatically enhance the proliferative advantage provided by the expression of Bcr-Abl or mutant p53, which provide no apparent competitive advantage under conditions of healthy replication. Furthermore, for the Bcr-Abl oncogene the competitive advantage in contexts of impaired DNA replication dramatically increases leukemogenesis. Impaired replication within hematopoietic progenitor cell pools can select for oncogenic events and thereby promote leukemia, demonstrating the importance of replicative competence in the prevention of tumorigenesis. The demonstration that replication-impaired, poorly competitive progenitor cell pools can promote tumorigenesis provides a new rationale for links between tumorigenesis and common human conditions of impaired DNA replication such as dietary folate deficiency, chemotherapeutics targeting dNTP synthesis, and polymorphisms in genes important for DNA metabolism. PMID:16277552

2005-01-01

429

Observational Clues to the Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are important distance indicators, element factories, cosmic-ray accelerators, kinetic-energy sources in galaxy evolution, and end points of stellar binary evolution. It has long been clear that a SN Ia must be the runaway thermonuclear explosion of a degenerate carbon-oxygen stellar core, most likely a white dwarf (WD). However, the specific progenitor systems of SNe Ia, and the processes that lead to their ignition, have not been identified. Two broad classes of progenitor binary systems have long been considered: single-degenerate (SD), in which a WD gains mass from a nondegenerate star; and double-degenerate (DD), involving the merger of two WDs. New theoretical work has enriched these possibilities with some interesting updates and variants. We review the significant recent observational progress in addressing the progenitor problem. We consider clues that have emerged from the observed properties of the various proposed progenitor populations, from studies of SN Ia sites—pre- and postexplosion—from analysis of the explosions themselves and from the measurement of event rates. The recent nearby and well-studied event, SN 2011fe, has been particularly revealing. The observational results are not yet conclusive and sometimes prone to competing theoretical interpretations. Nevertheless, it appears that DD progenitors, long considered the underdog option, could be behind some, if not all, SNe Ia. We point to some directions that may lead to future progress.

Maoz, Dan; Mannucci, Filippo; Nelemans, Gijs

2014-08-01

430

Chromosome constitution of polyploid wheats: Introduction of diploid wheat chromosome 4  

PubMed Central

Chromosome 4 of diploid wheat (chromosome d4) is not present in hexaploid wheat. This chromosome has been added to hexaploid wheat and observed not to pair meiotically with its 21 chromosomes. Also, chromosome d4 compensates for Cornerstone male sterility, which involves a recessive mutation in chromosome arm 4AS. Chromosome d4 has been separately substituted for chromosomes 4A and 4B. These two substituted hexaploid chromotypes have the entire genome of diploid wheat and may have agricultural significance. An alternative hypothesis of the evolution of polyploid wheats is proposed that involves the loss of chromosome d4 and the retention of two versions of chromosome 4B at the early tetraploid stage. Images PMID:16593705

Wazuddin, M.; Driscoll, C. J.

1986-01-01

431

Comparison of chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations among Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)-infested wheat isolines.  

PubMed

Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), feeding injury on 'Betta' wheat isolines with the Dn1 and Dn2 genes was compared by assessing chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, and aphid fecundity. The resistant Betta isolines (i.e., Betta-Dn1 and Betta-Dn2) supported similar numbers of aphids, but had significantly fewer than the susceptible Betta wheat, indicating these lines are resistant to aphid feeding. Diuraphis noxia feeding resulted in different responses in total chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations among the Betta wheat isolines. The infested Betta-Dn2 plants had higher levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids in comparison with uninfested plants. In contrast, infested Betta-Dn1 plants had the same level of chlorophyll and carotenoid in comparison with uninfested plants. Our data provide essential information on the effect of D. noxia feeding on chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations for Betta wheat and its isolines with D. noxia-resistant Dn1 and Dn2 genes. PMID:14994818

Heng-Moss, T M; Ni, X; Macedo, T; Markwell, J P; Baxendale, F P; Quisenberry, S S; Tolmay, V

2003-04-01

432

New Types of Wheat Chromosomal Structural Variations in Derivatives of Wheat-Rye Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background Chromosomal rearrangements induced by wheat-rye hybridization is a very well investigated research topic. However, the structural alterations of wheat chromosomes in wheat-rye hybrids are seldom reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Octoploid triticale lines were derived from common wheat Triticum. aestivum L. ‘Mianyang11’×rye Secale cereale L. ‘Kustro’. Some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with ‘Mianyang11’ and common wheat T. aestivum L. ‘Chuannong27’ followed by self-fertilization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1 and rye genomic DNA as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A, 6A, 1B, 2B, 6B, 7B, 1D, 3D and 7D were observed. 5AL arm carrying intercalary Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1 or both Oligo-pSc119.2-1 and Oligo-pTa535-1 signals, 6AS, 1BS and 1DL arms containing terminal Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal, 6BS and 3DS arms without terminal Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal, 7BS without subtelomeric Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal and 7DL with intercalary Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal have been observed. However, these changed wheat chromosomes have not been detected in ‘Mianyang11’ and Chuannong 27. The altered 5A, 6A, 7B and 7D chromosomes in this study have not been reported and represent several new karyotype structures of common wheat chromosomes. Conclusions/Significance These rearranged wheat chromosomes in the present study afford some new genetic variations for wheat breeding program and are valuable materials for studying the biological function of tandem repetitive DNA sequences. PMID:25302962

Chen, Lei; Wang, Yangyang; Ren, Zhenglong; Fu, Shulan

2014-01-01

433

77 FR 21685 - United States Standards for Wheat  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...market's ability to discover the price/value relationship, GIPSA will not propose...graded wheat, to help improve the value of the wheat being purchased. While...shipping at export or elsewhere in the value chain. Table...

2012-04-11

434

Relationship between lutein and mycotoxin content in durum wheat.  

PubMed

Levels of lutein and a number of mycotoxins were determined in seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) and two varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) in order to explore possible relationships amongst these components. Durum wheat cultivars always showed both higher lutein and mycotoxin contents than common wheat cultivars. The mycotoxins detected in both common and durum wheat cultivars were produced by the genera Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Fusarium was the major producer of mycotoxins (26 mycotoxins) followed by Claviceps (14 mycotoxins), which was present only in some cultivars such as Chevalier (common wheat), Lupidur and Selyemdur (both durum wheat), Alternaria (six mycotoxins) and Aspergillus (three mycotoxins). Positive correlations between the levels of lutein and mycotoxins in durum wheat cultivars were found for the following mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), its derivative DON-3-glucoside, moniliformin, culmorin and its derivatives (5-hydroxyculmorin and 15-hydroxyculmorin). PMID:24844356

Delgado, Rosa M; Sulyok, Michael; Jirsa, Ond?ej; Spitzer, Tomáš; Krska, Rudolf; Polišenská, Ivana

2014-01-01

435

Morphological features and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.  

PubMed

Morphological features, granule composition, and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were compared with those of normal wheat starch. The morphologies and granule populations were found to be similar for the two starches. However, waxy wheat starch contained a smaller proportion of B-type granules, had a larger average granule diameter, and a higher degree of crystallinity than normal wheat starch, as measured by particle size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These differences resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature, transition enthalpy, peak viscosity, breakdown, swelling power, lower peak viscosity temperature and final viscosity in waxy wheat starch. These points suggest that waxy wheat starch should have greater resistance to retrogradation during cooling and higher water-holding capacity under dry conditions. Highlighting the differences in physicochemical properties of waxy and normal wheat starches should help point toward effective applications of waxy wheat starch in the food industry. PMID:24076202

Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

2013-11-01

436

19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning....

2014-04-01

437

19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning....

2011-04-01

438

19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning....

2013-04-01

439

19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning....

2012-04-01

440

19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning....

2010-04-01

441

agronomie: agriculture and environment A new disease of wheat caused  

E-print Network

1996) Summary — Late maturity wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L) culivars Trigomax and Buck. Alternaria leaf blight / wheat / Triticum aestivum / Alternaria triticimaculans Résumen — Une nueva enfermedad del trigo causada por Alternaria triticimaculans en Argentina. Plantas de trigo (Triticum aestivum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

Glial Progenitors as Targets for Transformation in Glioma  

PubMed Central

Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and arises throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent focus on stem-like glioma cells has implicated neural stem cells (NSCs), a minor precursor population restricted to germinal zones, as a potential source of gliomas. In this review, we will focus on the relationship between oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), the largest population of cycling glial progenitors in the postnatal brain, and gliomas. Recent studies suggest that OPCs can give rise to gliomas. Furthermore, signaling pathways often associated with NSCs also play key roles during OPC lineage development. Recent advances suggesting that gliomas can undergo a switch from progenitor- to stem-like phenotype after therapy, implicating that an OPC-origin is more likely than previously recognized. Future in-depth studies of OPC biology may shed light on the etiology of OPC-derived gliomas and reveal new therapeutic avenues. PMID:24889528

Ilkanizadeh, Shirin; Lau, Jasmine; Huang, Miller; Foster, Daniel J.; Wong, Robyn; Frantz, Aaron; Wang, Susan; Weiss, William A.; Persson, Anders I.

2014-01-01

443

Neural progenitors, neurogenesis and the evolution of the neocortex.  

PubMed

The neocortex is the seat of higher cognitive functions and, in evolutionary terms, is the youngest part of the mammalian brain. Since its origin, the neocortex has expanded in several mammalian lineages, and this is particularly notable in humans. This expansion reflects an increase in the number of neocortical neurons, which is determined during development and primarily reflects the number of neurogenic divisions of distinct classes of neural progenitor cells. Consequently, the evolutionary expansion of the neocortex and the concomitant increase in the numbers of neurons produced during development entail interspecies differences in neural progenitor biology. Here, we review the diversity of neocortical neural progenitors, their interspecies variations and their roles in determining the evolutionary increase in neuron numbers and neocortex size. PMID:24866113

Florio, Marta; Huttner, Wieland B

2014-06-01

444

Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Inflammation and Allergy  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells contribute to allergic inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines that are generated following allergen challenge can impact the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells leading to increased production of effector cells such as eosinophils and basophils, which are key cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation. Homing of stem cells to the lungs is associated with inflammatory and remodeling changes in asthmatics. Factors that modulate the differentiation and increased migration of stem cells to the site of inflammation in asthma remain to be defined. Stem cells can mature at the site of inflammation in response to inflammatory mediators and other components in the milieu. While the available data suggest that hematopoietic cells traffic to target tissues, the molecular factors underlying in situ differentiation have yet to be specified. Here, we critically evaluate the potential role of hematopoietic progenitors in contributing to the increased immune cell infiltrate in allergic asthma and the factors that drive their differentiation. PMID:24363657

Fischer, Kimberly D.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

2013-01-01

445

ASCL1 reprograms mouse Müller glia into neurogenic retinal progenitors  

PubMed Central

Non-mammalian vertebrates have a robust ability to regenerate injured retinal neurons from Müller glia (MG) that activate the gene encoding the proneural factor Achaete-scute homolog 1 (Ascl1; also known as Mash1 in mammals) and de-differentiate into progenitor cells. By contrast, mammalian MG have a limited regenerative response and fail to upregulate Ascl1 after injury. To test whether ASCL1 could restore neurogenic potential to mammalian MG, we overexpressed ASCL1 in dissociated mouse MG cultures and intact retinal explants. ASCL1-infected MG upregulated retinal progenitor-specific genes and downregulated glial genes. Furthermore, ASCL1 remodeled the chromatin at its targets from a repressive to an active configuration. MG-derived progenitors differentiated into cells that exhibited neuronal morphologies, expressed retinal subtype-specific neuronal markers and displayed neuron-like physiological responses. These results indicate that a single transcription factor, ASCL1, can induce a neurogenic state in mature MG. PMID:23637330

Pollak, Julia; Wilken, Matthew S.; Ueki, Yumi; Cox, Kristen E.; Sullivan, Jane M.; Taylor, Russell J.; Levine, Edward M.; Reh, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

446

Models for supernova progenitors in massive binary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of core-collapse supernovae is closely related to binary interactions. For example, the majority of Type Ib/c and Type IIb supernovae may occur in massive binary systems as a result of mass transfer at various evolutionary stages. I will present some evolutionary models of massive binary stars including several important physical ingredients, like tidal interactions and mass and angular momentum exchange, and discuss their implications for supernova progenitors and their populations. I will particularly emphasize that Type Ib/c supernova progenitors at their pre-supernova stage should have very different properties compared to the observed Wolf-Rayet stars, which are widely believed to represent SN Ibc progenitors, and that many observed properties of SNe Ib/c and IIb can be explained well with the binary scenario.

Yoon, Sung Chul

2014-09-01

447

Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis. PMID:19296839

Varney, Melinda E; Hardman, W Elaine; Sollars, Vincent E

2009-01-01

448

Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae  

SciTech Connect

The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a Type Ia supernova rate from z {approx} 0.01-0.1 of r{sub V} = 4.26{sub -1.93 -0.10}{sup +1.39 +0.10} h{sup 3} x 10{sup -4} SNe Ia/yr/Mpc{sup 3} from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

Wood-Vasey, William Michael

2004-08-16

449

Gluten and wheat intolerance today: are modern wheat strains involved?  

PubMed

Celiac disease is a food-induced enteropathy resulting from exposure to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a less known syndrome whose prevalence is under-estimated. The last decades have seen changes in the clinical presentation of both diseases. One possible explanation is that changes in the gluten-rich cereals themselves were the principal causes. Celiac-triggering gluten proteins are indeed expressed to higher levels in modern cereals while non-triggering proteins are expressed less. Sophisticated hybridization techniques have been used to produce new strains of modern wheat, the most high-yielding of which have since made their way into human foods in the absence of animal or human safety testing. The dramatic changes in the clinical presentation of celiac disease and NCGS have taken place when new cereal hybrids were introduced into human foods. This is a critical medical and environmental issue which needs to be investigated by appropriate studies. PMID:24524657

de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

2014-08-01

450

Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell mechanisms in myelodysplastic syndromes  

PubMed Central

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by variable cytopenias and ineffective hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors in MDS have not been extensively characterized. We transplanted purified human HSCs from MDS samples into immunodeficient mice and show that HSCs are the disease-initiating cells in MDS. We identify a recurrent loss of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in the bone marrow of low risk MDS patients that can distinguish low risk MDS from clinical mimics, thus providing a simple diagnostic tool. The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. We propose that MDS HSCs compete with normal HSCs in the patients by increasing their frequency at the expense of normal hematopoiesis, that the loss of MDS myeloid progenitors by programmed cell death and programmed cell removal are, in part, responsible for the cytopenias, and that up-regulation of the “don’t eat me” signal CD47 on MDS myeloid progenitors is an important transition step leading from low risk MDS to high risk MDS and, possibly, to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23388639

Pang, Wendy W.; Pluvinage, John V.; Price, Elizabeth A.; Sridhar, Kunju; Arber, Daniel A.; Greenberg, Peter L.; Schrier, Stanley L.; Park, Christopher Y.; Weissman, Irving L.

2013-01-01

451

Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell mechanisms in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by variable cytopenias and ineffective hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors in MDS have not been extensively characterized. We transplanted purified human HSCs from MDS samples into immunodeficient mice and show that HSCs are the disease-initiating cells in MDS. We identify a recurrent loss of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in the bone marrow of low risk MDS patients that can distinguish low risk MDS from clinical mimics, thus providing a simple diagnostic tool. The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. We propose that MDS HSCs compete with normal HSCs in the patients by increasing their frequency at the expense of normal hematopoiesis, that the loss of MDS myeloid progenitors by programmed cell death and programmed cell removal are, in part, responsible for the cytopenias, and that up-regulation of the "don't eat me" signal CD47 on MDS myeloid progenitors is an important transition step leading from low risk MDS to high risk MDS and, possibly, to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23388639

Pang, Wendy W; Pluvinage, John V; Price, Elizabeth A; Sridhar, Kunju; Arber, Daniel A; Greenberg, Peter L; Schrier, Stanley L; Park, Christopher Y; Weissman, Irving L

2013-02-19

452

Subventricular zone progenitors in time and space: generating neuronal diversity  

PubMed Central

The adult mammalian brain harbors a population of cells around their lateral ventricles capable of giving rise to new neurons throughout life. The so-called subventricular zone (SVZ) is a heterogeneous germinative niche in regard to the neuronal types it generates. SVZ progenitors give rise to different olfactory bulb (OB) interneuron types in accordance to their position along the ventricles. Here, I review data showing the difference between progenitors located along different parts of the SVZ axes and ages. I also discuss possible mechanisms for the origin of this diversity. PMID:25565967

Sequerra, Eduardo B.

2014-01-01

453

ON IDENTIFYING THE PROGENITORS OF Type Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

We propose two new means of identifying the main class of progenitors of Type Ia supernovae-single or double degenerate: (1) if the range of supernova properties is significantly determined by the range of viewing angles of non-spherically symmetric explosions, then the nature of the correlation between polarization and another property (for example, the velocity gradient) can be used to determine the geometry of the asymmetry and hence the nature of the progenitor, and (2) in the double- but not in the single-degenerate case, the range in the observed properties (e.g., velocity gradients) is likely to increase with the amount of carbon seen in the ejecta.

Livio, Mario; Pringle, J. E., E-mail: mlivio@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2011-10-10

454

Enrichment and terminal differentiation of striated muscle progenitors in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Enrichment and terminal differentiation of mammalian striated muscle cells is severely hampered by fibroblast overgrowth, de-differentiation and/or lack of functional differentiation. Herein we report a new, reproducible and simple method to enrich and terminally differentiate muscle stem cells and progenitors from mice and humans. We show that a single gamma irradiation of muscle cells induces their massive differentiation into structurally and functionally intact myotubes and cardiomyocytes and that these cells can be kept in culture for many weeks. Similar results are also obtained when treating skeletal muscle-derived stem cells and progenitors with Mitomycin C.

Becher, Ulrich M.; Breitbach, Martin; Sasse, Philipp [Institute of Physiology I, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)] [Institute of Physiology I, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Garbe, Stephan [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Ven, Peter F.M. van der [Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fuerst, Dieter O., E-mail: dfuerst@uni-bonn.de [Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fleischmann, Bernd K., E-mail: bernd.fleischmann@uni-bonn.de [Institute of Physiology I, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

2009-10-01

455

Activin A expression regulates multipotency of mesenchymal progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Bone marrow (BM) stroma currently represents the most common and investigated source of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs);\\u000a however, comparable adult progenitor or stem cells have also been isolated from a wide variety of tissues. This study aims\\u000a to assess the functional similarities of MPCs from different tissues and to identify specific factor(s) related to their multipotency.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  For this purpose, we

Farida Djouad; Wesley M Jackson; Brent E Bobick; Sasa Janjanin; Yingjie Song; George TJ Huang; Rocky S Tuan

2010-01-01

456

Progenitors and SNR Associated to SGR/AXPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the identification of SGR/AXPs progenitors and associated birth events. We argue that a possible interval of 18 -- 40M? of rotating progenitors is indicated, and that associated supernovae may be driven by the magnetar under certain conditions. This does not guarantee a super-energetic event, although it is shown that this may be the case of the recent identification CXOU J171405.7-381031/CTB37B. Magnetars are predicted to be massive, M ? 1.6M? right at their birth.

Horvath, Jorge E.

2015-01-01

457

Possible Progenitor of Special Supernova Type Detected  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, scientists have reported the possible detection of a binary star system that was later destroyed in a supernova explosion. The new method they used provides great future promise for finding the detailed origin of these important cosmic events. In an article appearing in the February 14th issue of the journal Nature, Rasmus Voss of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany and Gijs Nelemans of Radboud University in the Netherlands searched Chandra images for evidence of a much sought after, but as yet unobserved binary system - one that was about to go supernova. Near the position of a recently detected supernova, they discovered an object in Chandra images taken more than four years before the explosion. Optical image of SN 2007on Optical image of SN 2007on The supernova, known as SN 2007on, was identified as a Type Ia supernova. Astronomers generally agree that Type Ia supernovas are produced by the explosion of a white dwarf star in a binary star system. However, the exact configuration and trigger for the explosion is unclear. Is the explosion caused by a collision between two white dwarfs, or because a white dwarf became unstable by pulling too much material off a companion star? Answering such questions is a high priority because Type Ia supernovas are major sources of iron in the Universe. Also, because of their nearly uniform intrinsic brightness, Type Ia supernova are used as important tools by scientists to study the nature of dark energy and other cosmological issues. People Who Read This Also Read... Oldest Known Objects Are Surprisingly Immature Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Discovery of Most Recent Supernova in Our Galaxy Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking "Right now these supernovas are used as black boxes to measure distances and derive the rate of expansion of the universe," said Nelemans. "What we're trying to do is look inside the box." If the supernova explosion is caused by material being pulled off a companion star onto the white dwarf, fusion of this material on the surface of the star should heat the star and produce a strong source of X-radiation prior to the explosion. Once the supernova explosion occurs, the white dwarf is expected to be completely destroyed and then would be undetectable in X-rays. In the merger scenario, the intensity of X-ray emission prior to the explosion is expected to be much weaker. Based on the detection of a fairly strong X-ray source at approximately the position of SN 2007on 4 years before the explosion, Voss and Nelemans conclude that the data support the scenario where matter is pulled off a companion star. The small number of X-ray sources in the field implies that there is only a small chance of an unrelated source being so close by coincidence. Also, the X-ray source has similar properties to those expected for fusion on a white dwarf, unlike most X-ray sources in the sky. However, in follow-up studies, Voss, Nelemans and colleagues Gijs Roelofs (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.) and Cees Bassa (McGill University, Canada) used higher-quality optical images to better determine the supernova's position. This work, which is not yet published, shows a small, but significant difference in the measured positions of the supernova and the X-ray source, suggesting the source may not be the progenitor. Follow-up Chandra observations hint that the X-ray object has disappeared, but further observations are needed to finally decide whether the source was the progenitor or not. The team is also applying this new method to other supernovas and has high hopes that they will eventually succeed in identifying the elusive cause of at least some of these explosions. "We're very excited about opening up a new way of studying supernovas, even though we're not sure that we've seen this particular stellar bomb before it exploded," said Gijs Roelofs. "We're very confident that we'll learn a lot more about these important supernovas in the future.&

2008-04-01

458

Proteomic analysis of secreted saliva from Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Kurd.) biotypes that differ in virulence to wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diuraphis noxia, Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA), biotypes are classified by their differential virulence to wheat varieties containing resistance genes. RWA salivary proteins, unlike those of most aphid species, cause foliar damage and physiological alterations in plants. A comparative proteomic analys...

459

Characterization of stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar 'Gage'  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat (Triticum spp.) stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat because of virulent race Ug99 (TTKSK). Many bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars grown in North America are susceptible to Ug99 or its derivative races ...

460

The vanishing wheat landraces of the Fertile Crescent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic diversity of wheat landraces constituted a sizable portion of the mega diversity in the Fertile Crescent as a center of origin and of diversity of major crop plants. Following wheat domestication in the Fertile Crescent, early farmers developed diverse wheat landraces, and contributed to the...

461

Control of stripe rusts of wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW) using trap plots and through field surveys during the 2006 growing season. Through collaborators in other states, stripe rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the US. In 2006, wheat stripe rust occurred in...

462

Estimating English Wheat Production in the Industrial Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat was the single most important product of the British economy during the Industrial Revolution, being both the largest component of national income and the primary determinant of caloric intake. This paper offers new estimates of annual wheat production during industrialisation. Whereas other researchers infer wheat production indirectly from demand equations, we estimate production directly from output equations. Our estimates

Liam Brunt

1999-01-01

463

PLANT RESISTANCE Photosynthesis and Yield Reductions From Wheat Stem Sawfly  

E-print Network

PLANT RESISTANCE Photosynthesis and Yield Reductions From Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Interactions With Wheat Solidness, Water Stress, and Phosphorus Deficiency KEVIN J. DELANEY,1 DAVID K. WEAVER. The current study examined causes of variation in the impact of larval stem mining by the wheat stem sawßy

Peterson, Robert K. D.

464

21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section...Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the class...

2012-04-01

465

21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section...Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the class...

2011-04-01

466

7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a...

2012-01-01

467

21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheat and soy macaroni products. 139.140 Section...Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.140 Wheat and soy macaroni products. (a) Wheat and soy macaroni products are the...

2014-04-01

468

7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the...

2011-01-01

469

Title: Wheat Stem Sawfly in Durum Principal Investigator  

E-print Network

Title: Wheat Stem Sawfly in Durum Principal Investigator: Joyce Eckhoff, Agronomist MSU Eastern.eckhoff@ars.usda.gov Project description: Sawfly larvae overwinter in the crowns of spring wheat and durum. Some durum as compared to spring wheat crowns following harvest. There are currently no solid-stemmed durum varieties

Maxwell, Bruce D.

470

21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat and soy macaroni products. 139.140 Section...Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.140 Wheat and soy macaroni products. (a) Wheat and soy macaroni products are the...

2012-04-01

471

Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 1 Wheat croissants,  

E-print Network

Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 1 Wheat croissants, applesauce, straw- berry jam Fruit salad, celery 2 Fruit salad, cucum- bers 9 Blueberry muffins, applesauce Wheat crackers, cheese slices 10 11 12 White grape juice, cheerios, rice krispies Yogurt and pears 13 Wheat bagel, cream cheese, kiwi Sweet potatoes

Liu, Taosheng

472

77 FR 23420 - United States Standards for Wheat  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and...proposal to revise the U.S. Standards for Wheat under the U.S. Grain Standards Act...definition of Contrasting classes in Hard White wheat and change the grade limits for...

2012-04-19

473

7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a...

2013-01-01

474

7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the...

2014-01-01

475

7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the...

2010-01-01

476

21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137.205 Food and...Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour conforms to the definition and...

2014-04-01

477

7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This...imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the...

2012-01-01

478

21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137.205 Food and...Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour conforms to the definition and...

2012-04-01

479

21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section...Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the class...

2013-04-01

480

21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137.205 Food and...Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour conforms to the definition and...

2010-04-01