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Sample records for wheat straw composition

  1. Preliminary investigation of fungal bioprocessing of wheat straw for production of straw-thermoplastic composites.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David N; Houghton, Tracy P; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Shaw, Peter G; Hess, J Richard

    2003-01-01

    Straw utilization for composites is limited by poor resin and polymer penetration, and excessive resin consumption owing to the straw cuticle, fines, and lignin-hemicellulose matrix. White-rot fungi degrade these components of straw and could, therefore, potentially be used to improve resin penetration and resin binding without the use of physical or chemical pretreatments. Although long treatment times and large footprints the limit use of fungal treatments on a large scale, distributed fungal pretreatments could alleviate land requirements. In this article, we present progress toward the development of a passive fungal straw upgrading system utilizing whiterot fungi. PMID:12721465

  2. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  3. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  4. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. PMID:27295251

  5. Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mengeloglu, Fatih; Karakus, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF) filled thermoplastic composites were measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF in thermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WF and one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs and thermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improved adhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seen on the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties of WF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensile and flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties of thermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPP coupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with the combination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with the use of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties required by the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

  6. Effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment on cell wall composition and digestion kinetics of sugarcane residues and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Amjed, M; Jung, H G; Donker, J D

    1992-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize changes in cell wall composition and digestibility of sugarcane bagasse, pith from bagasse, and wheat straw after treatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP). The AHP treatment solution contained 1% H2O2 (wt/vol) maintained at pH 11.5 with NaOH. The H2O2 in solution amounted to 25% of the quantity of substrate treated. After treatment, residues were washed and dried. Detergent fiber composition, total fiber components (neutral sugars, uronic acids, Klason lignin, and noncore lignin phenolic acids), IVDMD, in vitro digestion kinetics of NDF, and monosaccharide digestibilities (24 and 120 h) were determined. Total fiber (TF) and NDF concentrations of all treatment residues were increased (P less than .05) over control substrates by AHP because of greater losses of cell solubles than of cell wall constituents. Hemicellulose:cellulose ratio in NDF of treatment residues was decreased (P less than .05) by AHP for all substrates, but the neutral sugar composition of TF did not agree with this preferential loss of hemicellulose components. Klason lignin, ADL, and esterified noncore lignin, especially ferulic acid, were reduced (P less than .05) by AHP, whereas etherified noncore lignin composition was unchanged. Treatment increased (P less than .05) IVDMD, extent of NDF digestion, and monosaccharide digestibilities of all crop residues. The rate of NDF digestion was increased (P less than .05) for the sugarcane residues but not for wheat straw. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide improved crop residue digestibility, probably as a result of the removal of core and noncore lignin fractions. PMID:1328129

  7. Production of fuel ethanol from wheat straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. The pretreatment of wheat straw is essential prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Research needs to be carried out to develop an efficient pretreatment method which can greatly help enzyme...

  8. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  9. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 μm) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 μm) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  10. Effect of six species of white-rot basidiomycetes on the chemical composition and rumen degradability of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Jalc, Dusan; Siroka, Peter; Ceresnáková Zb, Zuzana (breve)

    1997-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and cell-wall constituent degradation in wheat straw treated with six white-rot fungi: Daedalea quercina, Hericium clathroides, Phelinus laevigatus, Inonotus andersonii, Inonotus obliquus, and Inonotus dryophilus. The incubation of wheat straw for 30 days at 28 C improved IVDMD from 41.4 (control) to 59.2% for D. quercina, 56.3% for H. clathroides, 50.2% for P. laevigatus, 51.4% for I. andersonii, 52% for I. obliquus, and 55.9% for I. dryophilus. In contrast, the growth of fungi was accompanied by the dry matter loss of wheat straw: 43% for D. quercina, 12% for H. clathroides, and 22-25% for the other fungi. It is evident that the increase in digestibility by D. quercina was not offset by a loss of dry matter. The total VFA production during the rumen fermentation of fungus-treated straw was slightly increased by H. clathroides and I. dryophilus only. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were reduced in fungus-treated straw. Out of the three fractions (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin), hemicellulose and lignin showed the largest proportionate loss after inoculation with the fungi D. quercina, H. clathroides, P. laevigatus, and I. obliquus. The other two fungi showed the largest proportionate loss in cellulose and hemicellulose contents. The results of this study suggest that the digestion enhancement of wheat straw colonized by white-rot fungi is regulated by complex factors including the degradation of structural carbohydrates and lignin. PMID:12501327

  11. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  12. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  13. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

  14. Coproduction of xylose, lignosulfonate and ethanol from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengdong; Huang, Wangxiang; Huang, Wenjing; Wang, Ke; Chen, Qiming; Wu, Yuanxin

    2015-06-01

    A novel integrated process to coproduce xylose, lignosulfonate and ethanol from wheat straw was investigated. Firstly, wheat straw was treated by dilute sulfuric acid and xylose was recovered from its hydrolyzate. Its optimal conditions were 1.0wt% sulfuric acid, 10% (w/v) wheat straw loading, 100°C, and 2h. Then the acid treated wheat straw was treated by sulfomethylation reagent and its hydrolyzate containing lignosulfonate was directly recovered. Its optimal conditions were 150°C, 15% (w/v) acid treated wheat straw loading, and 5h. Finally, the two-step treated wheat straw was converted to ethanol through enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Under optimal conditions, 1kg wheat straw could produce 0.225kg xylose with 95% purity, 4.16kg hydrolyzate of sulfomethylation treatment containing 5.5% lignosulfonate, 0.183kg ethanol and 0.05kg lignin residue. Compared to present technology, this process is a potential economically profitable wheat straw biorefinery. PMID:25770471

  15. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  16. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  17. Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glucose benefits from improved enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw solids; (2) xylose benefits from the solubilization of xylan to the liquid phase during the pretreatment; (3) maleic acid replenishment costs; (4) neutralization costs of pretreated material; (5) costs due to furfural production; and (6) heating costs of the input materials. For each response factor, experimental data were fitted mathematically. After data translation to €/Mg dry straw, determining the relative contribution of each response factor, an economic optimization was calculated within the limits of the design variables. Results When costs are disregarded, an almost complete glucan conversion to glucose can be reached (90% from solids, 7%-10% in liquid), after enzymatic hydrolysis. During the pretreatment, up to 90% of all xylan is converted to monomeric xylose. Taking cost factors into account, the optimal process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with 46 mM maleic acid, resulting in a yield of 65 €/Mg (megagram = metric ton) dry straw, consisting of 68 €/Mg glucose benefits (from solids: 85% of all glucan), 17 €/Mg xylose benefits (from liquid: 80% of all xylan), 17 €/Mg maleic acid costs, 2.0 €/Mg heating costs and 0.68 €/Mg NaOH costs. In all but the most severe of the studied conditions, furfural formation was so limited that associated costs are considered negligible. Conclusions After the dilute maleic acid pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, almost complete conversion of wheat straw glucan and xylan is possible. Taking maleic acid replenishment, heating, neutralization and furfural formation into account, the optimum in the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of

  18. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw. PMID:26980627

  19. Comparison of sodium carbonate pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf to produce fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yongcan; Huang, Ting; Geng, Wenhui; Yang, Linfeng

    2013-06-01

    The specific characteristics of biomass structure and chemical composition of straw stem and leaf may result in different behavior of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, sodium carbonate (SC) was employed as a pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw. The chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf (sheath included) were investigated comparatively. Most of the polysaccharides are kept in the solid fractions after SC pretreatment, while the stem has better delignification selectivity than leaf at high temperature. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw leaf is significantly higher than that of stem. The maximum total sugar yield from SC pretreated leaf was about 16% higher than stem. The results show that sodium carbonate is of great potential to be used as a pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from straw handling waste in a straw pulp mill with a low feedstock cost. PMID:23587832

  20. Effect of Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat Grain and Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global impact of increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere on plants has been studied extensively recently but little information has been published on the effect of enrichment of atmospheric CO2 on the development of nutritive value of grain and straw for ruminant feeds. This paper re...

  1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw to increase methane production.

    PubMed

    Sambusiti, C; Ficara, E; Rollini, M; Manzoni, M; Malpei, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the chemical composition and the methane production of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw. NaOH pretreatment was conducted in closed bottles, at 40 °C for 24 h. Samples were soaked in a NaOH solution at different dosages (expressed in terms of total solids (TS) content) of 1 and 10% gNaOH/gTS, with a TS concentration of 160 gTS/L. At the highest NaOH dosage the reduction of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 31, 66 and 44%, and 13, 45 and 3% for sorghum and wheat straw, respectively. The concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) in the liquid phase after the pretreatment was also improved both for wheat straw and sorghum (up to 24 and 33%, respectively). Total sugars content increased up to five times at 10% gNaOH/gTS with respect to control samples, suggesting that NaOH pretreatment improves the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests showed that the NaOH pretreatment favoured the anaerobic degradability of both substrates. At 1 and 10% NaOH dosages, the methane production increased from 14 to 31% for ensiled sorghum forage and from 17 to 47% for wheat straw. The first order kinetic constant increased up to 65% for sorghum and up to 163% for wheat straw. PMID:23032777

  2. Fuel ethanol production from microwave pretreated wheat straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of temperature (160-240 deg C, 5 min) and duration (5-20 min at 200 deg C) of microwave pretreatment of wheat straw (8.6%, w/v, in water) on its enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars were evaluated. The yield of monomeric sugars from microwave (200 deg C, 10 min) pretreated w...

  3. Continuous Production of Ethanol from Wheat Straw Hydrolyzate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous production of ethanol from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically saccharified wheat straw hydrolyzate by ethanologenic recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 was investigated under various conditions at controlled pH 6.5 and 35 deg C. The average ethanol yield from the availabl...

  4. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW HYDROLYSATE USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 48.9 gL**-1 glucose was used to produce 20.1 gL**-1 ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 gL**-1h**-1 and 0....

  5. Structural and thermal characterization of wheat straw pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking.

    PubMed

    Gao, Allan H; Bule, Mahesh V; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D; Chen, Shulin

    2012-09-01

    Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic feedstocks requires an efficient pretreatment technology to allow ready access of polysaccharides for cellulolytic enzymes during saccharification. The effect of pretreatment on wheat straw through a low-temperature and low-pressure soaking aqueous ammonia (SAA) process was investigated in this study using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS), solid and liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) to demonstrate the changes in lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose structure. After treatment of 60 mesh wheat straw particles for 60 h with 28-30% ammonium hydroxide (1:10 solid/liquid) at 50 °C, sugar recovery increased from 14% (untreated) to 67% (SAA treated). The FTIR study revealed a substantial decrease in absorbance of lignin peaks. Solid and liquid state NMR showed minimal lignin structural changes with significant compositional changes. Activation energy of control and pretreated wheat straw was calculated according to the Friedman and ASTM methods and found to be decreased for SAA-treated wheat straw, from 259 to 223 kJ/mol. The SAA treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin without strongly affecting lignin functional groups or structure. PMID:22882009

  6. Effect of bio-treatment on the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Qin, M H; Xu, Q H; Shao, Z Y; Gao, Y; Fu, Y J; Lu, X M; Gao, P J; Holmbom, B

    2009-06-01

    Wheat straw, an important papermaking raw material in China, was treated with a white-rot fungus of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446, and the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives from the control and bio-treated samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Bio-treatment of wheat straw could alter the chemical composition of both the lipophylic and hydrophilic extractives. Sugars and phenolic substances such as coniferyl alcohol, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 1-guaiacylglycerol and ferulic acid were substantially degraded or consumed by the fungus. More lipophilic substances such as wax, glycerides and steryl esters were degraded into the corresponding components, resulting in much higher concentrations of fatty acids and sterols in the bio-treated samples. Obviously, the bio-treatment of wheat straw was of benefit to pitch control in pulping and papermaking processes, in the view of degradation of the more lipophilic substances. In addition, the bio-treatment could increase the lignin concentration in hot-water extractives of wheat straw. PMID:19268580

  7. Study of pozzolanic properties of wheat straw ash

    SciTech Connect

    Biricik, H.; Akoez, F.; Berktay, I.; Tulgar, A.N.

    1999-05-01

    As an agricultural product, wheat straw contains considerable amounts of SiO{sub 2}. When burned it leaves an ash very rich in SiO{sub 2} that has a pozzolanic character. Wheat is an important agricultural product in Turkey. In this study, wheat straws are ground to 1--5-mm size and subjected to preburning treatment. The preburned material is later burned in controller conditions for 5 hours at 570 and 670 C. The ash is cooled suddenly and ground to 90--200 {micro} size. The standard test specimens are produced from ash and mechanically, chemically, and physically tested for determination of its pozzolanic properties. It is obtained that the ash has pozzolanic activity.

  8. Wheat straw biomass: a resource for high-value chemicals.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Morris; Monreal, Carlos M; Powell, Erin E

    2014-01-01

    Two methods are proposed for increasing the commercial value of wheat straw based on its chemical constituents. The first method involves the determination and extraction of the major organic components of wheat straw, and the second involves those found and extracted in the aqueous and viscous biooils derived from the straw by fast pyrolysis. We used pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry to identify the fine chemicals, which have high commercial values. The most abundant organic compounds in the wheat straw and biooil used as precursors for green chemicals are N-heterocycles (16 to 29% of the Total Ion Intensities, TII) and fatty acids (19 to 26% of TIIs), followed by phenols and lignins (12 to 23% of TIIs). Other important precursors were carbohydrates and amino acids (1 to 8% TIIs), n-alkyl benzenes (3 to 5% of TIIs), and diols (4 to 9% TIIs). Steroids and flavonoids represented 1 to 5% of TIIs in the three materials. Examples of valuable chemical compounds that can be extracted from the wheat straw and biooils are m/z 256, 270, 278, 280, 282 and 284, which are the n-C16 and n-C17 fatty acids respectively, and the C18:3, C18:2 and C18:1 unsaturated fatty acids. In particular, the C18:2 (linoleic acid) is present at a concentration of 1.7% of TIIs. Pyrazole, pyrazine, pyridine, indoles, quinolines, carbazoles, and their identified derivatives are found in relatively high concentrations (1 to 8% of TIIs). Other useful compounds are sterols such as m/z 412 (stigmasterol), m/z 414 (β-sitosterol), and steroids such m/z 394 (stigmastatriene), m/z 398 (stigmastene) and m/z 410 (stigmastadienone). Relative to the wheat straw, the relative concentration of all flavonoids such as m/z 222 (flavone) and m/z 224 (flavonone) doubled in the biooils. The conversion of wheat straw by fast pyrolysis, followed by chemical characterization with mass spectrometry, and extraction of fine chemicals, opens up new possibilities for increasing the monetary value of crop residues

  9. Direct three-dimensional characterization and multiscale visualization of wheat straw deconstruction by white rot fungus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Qian, Chen; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-08-19

    Microbial degradation of lignocellulose for resource and energy recovery has received increasing interest. Despite its obvious importance, the mechanism behind the biodegradation, especially the changes of morphological structure and surface characteristics, has not been fully understood. Here, we used three-dimensional (3D) characterization and multiscale visualization methods, in combination with chemical compositional analyses, to elucidate the degradation process of wheat straw by a white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that the fungal attack initiated from stomata. Lignin of the straw decayed in both size and quantity, and heterogeneity in the biodegradation was observed. After treatment with the fungus, the straw surface turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, and the adhesion of the straw surface increased in the fungal degradation. The morphology of the straw outer layer became heterogeneous and loose with the formation of many holes with various sizes. The wasp-tunnels-like structure of the collenchyma and parenchyma of the straw as well as the fungal hyphae interspersed inside the straw structure were clearly visualized in the 3D reconstruction structure. This work offers a new insight into the mechanism of lignocellulose biodegradation and demonstrates that multiscale visualization methods could be a useful tool to explore such complex processes. PMID:25072830

  10. Cavitation assisted delignification of wheat straw: a review.

    PubMed

    Iskalieva, Asylzat; Yimmou, Bob Mbouyem; Gogate, Parag R; Horvath, Miklos; Horvath, Peter G; Csoka, Levente

    2012-09-01

    Wheat is grown in most of the Indian and Chinese regions and after harvesting, the remaining straw offers considerable promise as a renewable source most suitable for papermaking and as a pulping resource. Delignification of wheat straw offers ample scope for energy conservation by way of the application of the process intensification principles. The present work reviews the pretreatment techniques available for improving the effectiveness of the conventional approach for polysaccharide component separation, softening and delignification. A detailed overview of the cavitation assisted delignification process has been presented based on the earlier literature illustrations and important operational guidelines have been presented for overall low-cost and amenable energy utilization in the processes. The effectiveness of the methods has been evaluated according to yield and properties of the isolated fibers in comparison to the conventional treatment. Also the experimental results of one such non-conventional treatment scheme based on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation have been presented for the pulping of wheat straw. The effect of hydrodynamically induced cavitation on cell wall matrix and its components have been characterized using FT-IR analysis with an objective of understanding the cavitation assisted digestion mechanism on straws. It has been observed that the use of hydrodynamic cavitation does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes relocalisation and partial removal of lignin. Overall it appears that considerable improvement can be obtained due to the use of pretreatment or alternate techniques for delignification, which is an energy intensive step in the paper making industries. PMID:22410399

  11. Solid-state anaerobic digestion of spent wheat straw from horse stall.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhifang; Shi, Jian; Li, Yebo

    2011-10-01

    The spent wheat straw from horse stall bedding has lower cellulose and hemicellulose contents, but higher volatile fatty acid content than raw wheat straw. Biogas production from solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of spent wheat straw and raw wheat straw was compared in this study. The SS-AD tests were conducted at 22% total solids (TS) content using inoculum from a liquid AD system at three feedstock-to-inoculum (F/I) ratios of 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0. Daily methane yields of spent wheat straw peaked 8 and 3 days earlier than those of raw wheat straw at F/I ratios of 2.0 and 4.0, respectively. The highest methane yield of 150.0 L/kg volatile solids (VS) was obtained from spent wheat straw at an F/I ratio of 4.0, which was 56.2% higher than that of raw wheat straw. The corresponding cellulose and hemicellulose degradation of spent wheat straw was 24.1% and 49.4% higher than those of raw wheat straw, respectively. PMID:21852125

  12. Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than

  13. Enhanced saccharification of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    López-Abelairas, M; Lu-Chau, T A; Lema, J M

    2013-02-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi for the production of bioethanol is an alternative to the most used physico-chemical processes. After biological treatment, a solid composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin-this latter is with a composition lower than that found in the initial substrate-is obtained. On the contrary, after applying physico-chemical methods, most of the hemicellulose fraction is solubilized, while cellulose and lignin fractions remain in the solid. The optimization of the combination of cellulases and hemicellulases required to saccharify wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus was carried out in this work. The application of the optimal dosage made possible the increase of the sugar yield from 33 to 54 %, and at the same time the reduction of the quantity of enzymatic mixture in 40 %, with respect to the initial dosage. The application of a pre-hydrolysis step with xylanases was also studied. PMID:23306886

  14. Induction of wheat straw delignification by Trametes species

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Stajić, Mirjana; Jovanović, Vladimir M.; Kovačević, Višnja; Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Milovanović, Ivan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw is the major crop residue in European countries which makes it the most promising material for bioconversion into biofuels. However, cellulose and hemicellulose are protected with lignin, so delignification is an inevitable phase in lignocellulose processing. The organisms predominantly responsible for its degradation are white-rot fungi and among them Trametes species represent promising degraders due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Although numerous studies have confirmed that low molecular weight compounds can induce the production and activity of ligninolytic enzymes it is not clear how this reflects on the extent of delignification. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of p-anisidine and veratryl alcohol to induce the production and activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccases, and wheat straw delignification by six Trametes species. Significant inter- and intraspecific variations in activity and features of these enzymes were found, as well as differences in the potential of lignocellulose degradation in the presence or absence of inducers. Differences in the catalytic properties of synthesized enzyme isoforms strongly affected lignin degradation. Apart from enhanced lignin degradation, the addition of p-anisidine could significantly improve the selectivity of wheat straw ligninolysis, which was especially evident for T. hirsuta strains. PMID:27216645

  15. Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native β-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

  16. Induction of wheat straw delignification by Trametes species.

    PubMed

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Stajić, Mirjana; Jovanović, Vladimir M; Kovačević, Višnja; Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Milovanović, Ivan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw is the major crop residue in European countries which makes it the most promising material for bioconversion into biofuels. However, cellulose and hemicellulose are protected with lignin, so delignification is an inevitable phase in lignocellulose processing. The organisms predominantly responsible for its degradation are white-rot fungi and among them Trametes species represent promising degraders due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Although numerous studies have confirmed that low molecular weight compounds can induce the production and activity of ligninolytic enzymes it is not clear how this reflects on the extent of delignification. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of p-anisidine and veratryl alcohol to induce the production and activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccases, and wheat straw delignification by six Trametes species. Significant inter- and intraspecific variations in activity and features of these enzymes were found, as well as differences in the potential of lignocellulose degradation in the presence or absence of inducers. Differences in the catalytic properties of synthesized enzyme isoforms strongly affected lignin degradation. Apart from enhanced lignin degradation, the addition of p-anisidine could significantly improve the selectivity of wheat straw ligninolysis, which was especially evident for T. hirsuta strains. PMID:27216645

  17. Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Birgit; Mach, Robert L; Mach-Aigner, Astrid R

    2014-01-01

    We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native β-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

  18. Bioavailability of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from wheat straw and chaff in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rohweder, Dirk; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Sondermann, Sarah; Schollenberger, Margit; Drochner, Winfried; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-02-01

    Fusarium infections do not only affect the grain, but also the rest of the plant, which result in contamination of plants with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The bioavailability of DON may be influenced by the matrix due to the differences in nutrient composition between grain and straw, particularly the high fibre component in straw. The experiment was carried out by exposing 18 male castrated pigs (30-40 kg live weight) with a single dose of DON from wheat grain, straw and chaff in the diet. The courses of DON serum concentrations were evaluated using toxicokinetic methods. The absorption of DON was not influenced by the source of DON. The invasion half-life of DON from grain, straw and chaff amounted to 0.76, 0.77 and 0.48 h, respectively, and were not significantly different. The elimination of DON was also not affected by the DON source. The bioavailability of DON, calculated by the dose corrected area under the curve of the serum-DON-concentrations, amounted to 81.9, 87.3 and 109.8% for straw, grain and chaff, respectively, without significant differences. Thus, the uptake of DON from straw may contribute comparably to the overall exposure of animals. PMID:23336299

  19. Pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide for increasing enzymatic and microbial degradability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoying; Zicari, Steven M; Liu, Guangqing; Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong

    2015-06-01

    The pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at ambient temperature (20°C) was investigated. The pretreatment effects on chemical composition and physical structures, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion were evaluated. Wheat straw at 10% total solids (TS) was treated with KOH solution for 24h at a wide range of KOH loadings from 2% to 50% (w/w dry basis). Higher KOH loading resulted in higher lignin reduction from the straw and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the resulting black liquor. Maximum lignin reduction of 54.7% was observed at 50% KOH loading. In comparison to untreated straw, specific hydrolysis yields achieved 14.0-92.3% over the range of 2-50% KOH loading, and methane yields increased 16.7-77.5% for KOH loadings of 10-50%, respectively. Accounting for losses during pretreatment, 20% KOH loading resulted in maximum overall reducing sugar yield and methane yield and therefore is the recommended loading for pretreatment under these conditions. PMID:25768417

  20. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  1. Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw: product distribution and generation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiqiang; Wang, Wenlong; Liu, Hongzhen; Ma, Chunyuan; Song, Zhanlong

    2014-04-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw is studied, combined with analysis of products, the distribution and generation pathway of products are investigated. Only a small amount of volatiles released when microwave pyrolysis of pure straw. Mixtures of adding CuO and Fe3O4 can pyrolyze, and the majority in pyrolysis products is in liquid-phase. Severe pyrolysis occur after adding carbon residue, the CO content in pyrolysis gas products is high, and the maximum volume content of H2 can exceed 35 vol.%. The high-temperature is helpful for increasing the yield of combustible gas in gaseous products, in particular the H2 production, but also helpful for improving the conversion of sample. Pyrolysis is carried out layer by layer from the inside to outside. As the internal material firstly pyrolyze and pyrolysis products released pass through the low temperature zone, the chance of occurrence of secondary reactions is reduced. PMID:24607465

  2. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION OF LIME PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW TO ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw used in this study contained 44.24 +/- 0.28% cellulose and 25.23 +/- 0.11% hemicellulose. Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from ...

  3. Use of ground wheat straw in container nursery substrates to overwinter daylily divisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) straw is being evaluated as a potential component in soilless container mixes either alone or combined with compost to replace a significant portion of the substrate currently supplied by pine bark and peat moss. The objective of this study was to evaluate wheat straw and horse...

  4. Scale-up of wheat straw conversion to fuel ethanol at 100 liter scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw can serve as low cost feedstock for conversion to ethanol. Pretreatment is crucial prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. We have used dilute H2SO4 pretreatment at a high temperature for pretreatment of wheat straw. The pretreated hydrolyzate was bioabated using a novel fungal strain able to ...

  5. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    -GC-MS), thermogravimetric (TG) /differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the fungal secretomes and composition, functional groups, and structural changes of the fungal spent wheat straw lignin were determined. Milled wood lignin (MWL) was extracted from biological treated and untreaed wheat straw. Detailed structural analysis through two dimentional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonances (2D HMQC NMR) of the pretreated lignin (acetylated) revealed low abundances of the substructures dibenzodioxacin and cinnamyl alcohol. Further analysis of lignin by Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) demonstrated the significant decrease of guaiacyl units. The results support previous findings on the biodegradation of wheat straw as analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). Revealing the characteristic behavior of P. chrysosporium-mediated biomass degradation, the information presented in this paper offers new insight into the understanding of biological lignin degradation of wheat straw by P. chrysosporium.

  6. [Isotope compositions of elemental carbon in the smoke and ash from crop straw combustion].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Li, Jiu-Hai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Dan; Liu, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Six genotypes of straws for rice, maize and wheat, respectively, were combusted under flaming and smoldering conditions, and the isotope compositions for elemental carbon ( EC) in the straw smoke and ash were investigated with an isotopic mass spectrometer. The results showed that the mean delta 13C values for EC in the flaming and smoldering smoke of rice straw were - 28. 3 per thousand and - 28.7 per thousand, with depletions of 2.7 per thousand and 3. 0 per thousand relative to that of total carbon (TC) in the straw, respectively. The mean delta 13C values for EC in the flaming and smoldering smoke of wheat straw were -28.5 per thousand and - 28. 0 per thousand, with a depletion of 0. 1 per thousand and enrichment of 0. 4 per thousand comparing to TC in the straw, respectively. The average values in two types of maize straw smoke were -17.2 per thousand and - 13. 6 per thousand,with a depletion of 3.4 per thousand and an enrichment of 0. 2 per thousand relative to TC in the straw, respectively. The mean delta 13C ratios for EC in the flaming and smoldering ash of rice straw were -27. 5 per thousand and -27. 3 per thousand, with depletions of 1.8 per thousand and 1. 6 per thousand comparing with TC in the straw, respectively. In the flaming and smoldering ash of wheat straw, the mean ratios were -27.4 per thousand and -26.0 per thousand, with enrichments of 0. 9 per thousand and 2. 4 per thousand relative to TC in the straw, respectively. In the two types of ash for maize straw, the average delta13 C values for EC were - 15. 0 per thousand and - 14. 8 per thousand,which were 1. 2 per thousand and 1.0 per thousand lighter than those of the straw TC. In general, evident isotope fractionations occur between EC in both smoke and ash and TC in the corresponding straws, especially for rice and maize straws. The isotopic ratios may be useful in identifying and estimating the contribution of EC from straw combustion to ambient aerosol. PMID:25055653

  7. Flowability parameters for chopped switchgrass, wheat straw and corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, A.R.; Bitra, V.S.P.; Yoder, D.C.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-02-01

    A direct shear cell to measure the shear strength and flow properties of chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover was designed, fabricated, and tested. Yield loci (r2=0.99) determined at pre-consolidation pressures of 3.80 kPa and 5.02 kPa indicated that chopped biomass followed Mohr-Coulomb failure. Normal stress significantly affected the displacement required for shear failure, as well as the friction coefficient values for all three chopped biomass types. Displacement at shear failure ranged from 30 to 80 mm, and depended on pre-consolidation pressure, normal stress, and particle size. Friction coefficient was inversely related to normal stress, and was highest for chopped corn stover. Also, chopped corn stover exhibited the highest angle of internal friction, unconfined yield strength, major consolidation strength, and cohesive strength, all of which indicated increased challenges in handling chopped corn stover. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength indicated that chopped biomass cannot be handled by gravity alone. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength were 43 and 0.75 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 44 and 0.49 kPa for chopped wheat straw; and 48 and 0.82 kPa for chopped corn stover. Unconfined yield strength and major consolidation strength used for characterization of bulk flow materials and design of hopper dimensions were 3.4 and 10.4 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 2.3 and 9.6 kPa for chopped wheat straw and 4.2 and 11.8 kPa for chopped corn stover. These results are useful for development of efficient handling, storage, and transportation systems for biomass in biorefineries.

  8. Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

  9. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation-alkaline pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules.

  10. Metataxonomic profiling and prediction of functional behaviour of wheat straw degrading microbial consortia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixed microbial cultures, in which bacteria and fungi interact, have been proposed as an efficient way to deconstruct plant waste. The characterization of specific microbial consortia could be the starting point for novel biotechnological applications related to the efficient conversion of lignocellulose to cello-oligosaccharides, plastics and/or biofuels. Here, the diversity, composition and predicted functional profiles of novel bacterial-fungal consortia are reported, on the basis of replicated aerobic wheat straw enrichment cultures. Results In order to set up biodegradative microcosms, microbial communities were retrieved from a forest soil and introduced into a mineral salt medium containing 1% of (un)treated wheat straw. Following each incubation step, sequential transfers were carried out using 1 to 1,000 dilutions. The microbial source next to three sequential batch cultures (transfers 1, 3 and 10) were analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS1 pyrosequencing. Faith’s phylogenetic diversity values became progressively smaller from the inoculum to the sequential batch cultures. Moreover, increases in the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Flavobacteriales and Sphingobacteriales were noted along the enrichment process. Operational taxonomic units affiliated with Acinetobacter johnsonii, Pseudomonas putida and Sphingobacterium faecium were abundant and the underlying strains were successfully isolated. Interestingly, Klebsiella variicola (OTU1062) was found to dominate in both consortia, whereas K. variicola-affiliated strains retrieved from untreated wheat straw consortia showed endoglucanase/xylanase activities. Among the fungal players with high biotechnological relevance, we recovered members of the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Coniochaeta and Trichosporon. Remarkably, the presence of peroxidases, alpha-L-fucosidases, beta-xylosidases, beta-mannases and beta-glucosidases, involved in lignocellulose

  11. Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus and Erwinia carotovora on wheat straw digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, C.L.; Conway, K.E.; Horn, G.W.

    1981-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether growing Pleurotus ostreatus and Erwinia carotovora on wheat straw would synergistically improve the digestibility of straw and whether there was a necessity of sterilizing the straw by autoclaving prior to inoculation. Dry matter decomposition of autoclaved and non-autoclaved straw was similar when both organisms were used in the system after 28 days incubation. However, in vitro ruminal dry matter digestibility of straw was significantly improved (P less than 10) only when the straw was autoclaved prior to inoculation with both organisms. (Refs. 21).

  12. Selective liquefaction of wheat straw in phenol and its fractionation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhang; Zhang, Yuzhen; Xie, Shuangping

    2012-05-01

    For the first time, a method of phenol-selective liquefaction is proposed for the fractionation and multilevel conversion of lignocellulose. Through phenol-selective liquefaction, lignin and hemicellulose are liquefied, with large amounts of cellulose retained in the unliquefied residues. Using a phenol/straw ratio of 3 and a sulfuric acid concentration of 3%, large amounts of hemicellulose (≥85%) and lignin (≥70%) can be liquefied at 100 °C in 30 min, with a high quantity of cellulose (≥80%) retained. Unliquefied residues from selective liquefaction have higher susceptibility for enzymatic attack. Enzymatic hydrolyzation of residues can be as high as 65% in 48 h with 40.7 FPU/g of dry materials, which can then be used to prepare sugar platform intermediates. The liquefied products of wheat straw are then resinified with formaldehyde in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst and synthesized into phenol formaldehyde-type resins reaching up to GB/T 14732-2006 standards. Phenol selective liquefaction, a new technology for the fractionation of lignocellulose, achieves effective fractionation and multilevel conversion of straw components. Hence, it is an important tool to achieve full utilization of biomass and high value-added conversion of lignocellulose. PMID:22544687

  13. Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.L.; Tengerdy, R.P.; Murphy, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at 0.12 L/h/g; substrate thickness of 1 to 2 cm; and duration of three days. Technical parameters for this optimized fermentation were: degree of substance utilization, 27.2%; protein yield/substrate, 0.09 g; biomass yield/bioconverted substrate, 0.40 g; degree of bioconversion of total available sugars in the substrate, 60.5%; specific efficiency of bioconversion, 70.8%; and overall efficiency of biomass production from substrate, 42.7%. Mixed culturing of Candida utilis further increased biomass production by 20%. The best mode of fermentation was a semicontinuous fed-batch fermentation where one-half of the fermented material was removed at three-day intervals and replaced by fresh substrate. In this mode, protein production was 20% higher than in batch mode, protein productivity was maintained over 12 days, and sporulation was prevented. 10 references.

  14. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost. PMID:27337959

  15. A multi-scale biomechanical model based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longjian; Li, Aiwei; He, Xueqin; Han, Lujia

    2015-11-20

    Biomechanical behavior is a fundamental property for the efficient utilization of wheat straw in such applications as fuel and renewable materials. Tensile experiments and lignocellulose analyses were performed on three types of wheat straw. A multi-scale finite element model composed of the microscopic model of the microfibril equivalent volume element and the macroscopic model of straw tissue was proposed based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw. The tensile properties of wheat straw were simulated by ANSYS software. The predicted stress-strain data were compared with the observed data, and good correspondence was achieved for all three types of wheat straw. The validated multi-scale finite-element (FE) model was then used to investigate the effect of the lignocellulose components on the biomechanical properties of wheat straw. More than 80% of stress is carried by the cellulose fiber, whereas the strain is mainly carried by the amorphous cellulose. PMID:26344265

  16. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Results Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Conclusions Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs. PMID:23945109

  17. Biohydrogen and carboxylic acids production from wheat straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Chandolias, Konstantinos; Pardaev, Sindor; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrolyzed wheat straw was converted into carboxylic acids and biohydrogen using digesting bacteria. The fermentations were carried out using both free and membrane-encased thermophilic bacteria (55°C) at various OLRs (4.42-17.95g COD/L.d), in semi-continuous conditions using one or two bioreactors in a series. The highest production of biohydrogen and acetic acid was achieved at an OLR of 4.42g COD/L.d, whilst the highest lactic acid production occurred at an OLR of 9.33g COD/L.d. Furthermore, the bioreactor with both free and membrane-encased cells produced 60% more lactic acid compared to the conventional, free-cell bioreactor. In addition, an increase of 121% and 100% in the production of acetic and isobutyric acid, respectively, was achieved in the 2nd-stage bioreactor compared to the 1st-stage bioreactor. PMID:27268482

  18. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. PMID:26231127

  19. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties) connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter) hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C. PMID:21269447

  20. Recovery of ammonium onto wheat straw to be reused as a slow-release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lihua; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Lan

    2013-04-10

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact of nitrogen pollution, a new multifunctional slow-release fertilizer was prepared by recovery of ammonium from aqueous solutions onto a superabsorbent composite. An eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS) was synthesized and used as the carrier to control the release of nutrients. The adsorption studies with NH₄⁺ indicated that the superabsorbent composite showed good affinity for NH₄⁺, with an adsorption capacity of 7.15 mmol g⁻¹ when 20 wt % of WS was incorporated and that the adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 40 min. Afterward, the feasibility of reusing the composite as a multifunctional slow-release nitrogen fertilizer was investigated. The results showed that the product with good water-retention and slow-release capacities could regulate soil acidity and was economical and eco-friendly for application in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:23495955

  1. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  2. On-combine Sensing Technique for Mapping Straw Yield within Wheat Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw from production of wheat is available for conversion to bioenergy. However, not all of this straw is available for conversion because a certain amount must be returned to the soil for conservation. County and state-wide inventories do not account for variation within farm fields. In this st...

  3. Microwave Pretreatment, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Fermentation of Wheat Straw to Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw used in this study contained 38.8±0.5% cellulose and 31.0±0.3% hemicellulose. The effects of temperature (160-240 deg C, 5 min) and duration (5-20 min at 200 deg C) of microwave pretreatment of wheat straw (8.6%, w/v, in water) on its enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars wer...

  4. Fuel Ethanol Production from Wheat Straw: Demonstration of Technology at the 100 Liter Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw, a globally abundant byproduct of wheat production, contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for conversion to fuel ethanol. It was pretreated at high solids loading with dilute acid at a high temperature for a short period of time. The pretreated hydrolyza...

  5. Fermentation technologies for ethanol production from wheat straw by a recombinant bacterium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw, a globally abundant byproduct of wheat production, contains about 70% carbohydrate that could potentially be used as a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Typically four process steps are involved in the production of ethanol from any lignocellulosic feedstock – pretreat...

  6. Purification, structural characterization, and modification of organosolv wheat straw lignin.

    PubMed

    Mbotchak, Laurie; Le Morvan, Clara; Duong, Khanh Linh; Rousseau, Brigitte; Tessier, Martine; Fradet, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Biolignin, a wheat straw lignin produced by acetic acid/formic acid/water hydrolysis, was characterized by (31)P and (13)C-(1)H 2D NMR spectroscopy and by size-exclusion chromatography. Biolignin is a mixture of low molar mass compounds (Mn = 1660 g/mol) made up of S, G, and H units and of coumaric and ferulic acid units. β-5 and β-O-4 interunit linkages are partially acylated in the γ-position by acetate and p-coumarate groups. Deacylated samples with a low content of contaminants were obtained by combining alkaline hydrolysis and solvent extraction. The high phenolic OH content found by (31)P NMR reflects the presence of condensed aromatic units, such as 5-5 units. Reaction of purified lignin with ethanol and ethane-1,2-diol yielded esterified lignins much more soluble than Biolignin in common organic solvents. During this reaction, the secondary OH of β-O-4 linkages was simultaneously etherified. Phenol hydroxyethylation by 2-chloroethanol yielded samples containing only aliphatic hydroxyl groups. PMID:25961961

  7. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on delignification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Umar; Irfan, Muhammad; Iram, Mehvish; Huma, Zile; Nelofer, Rubina; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratulain

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse structural changes through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) after alkaline pretreatment of wheat straw for optimum steaming period. During the study, 2 mm size of substrate was soaked in 2.5% NaOH for 1 h at room temperature and then autoclaved at 121°C for various steaming time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Results revealed that residence time of 90 min at 121°C has strong effect on substrate, achieving a maximum cellulose content of 83%, delignification of 81% and hemicellulose content of 10.5%. Further SEM and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed structural modification caused by alkaline pretreatment in substrate. Maximum saccharification yield of 52.93% was achieved with 0.5% enzyme concentration using 2.5% substrate concentration for 8 h of incubation at 50°C. This result indicates that the above-mentioned pretreatment conditions create accessible areas for enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25285562

  8. Acidic pretreatment of wheat straw in decanol for the production of surfactant, lignin and glucose.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Sinisa; Le Bras, Jean; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Agach, Mickaël; Estrine, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals. PMID:22312256

  9. Acidic Pretreatment of Wheat Straw in Decanol for the Production of Surfactant, Lignin and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Sinisa; Le Bras, Jean; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Agach, Mickaël; Estrine, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals. PMID:22312256

  10. Properties of Wheat-Straw Boards with Frw Based on Interface Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. D.; Wang, F. H.; Liu, Y.

    This paper explored the effect of MDI, UF and FRW content on the mechanical and fire retardant property of straw based panels with surface alkali liquor processing. In order to manufacture the straw based panel with high quality, low toxic and fire retardant, the interface of wheat-straw was treated with alkaline liquid, and the orthogonal test was carried out to optimize the technical parameters. The conductivity and diffusion coefficient K of the straw material after alkaline liquid treatment increased obviously. This indicated that alkaline liquid treatment improved the surface wet ability of straw, which is helpful for the infiltration of resin. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized treating condition was alkaline liquid concentration as 0.4-0.8%, alkaline dosage as 1:2.5-1:4.5, alkalinetreated time as 12h-48 h.The physical and mechanical properties of wheat-straw boards after treated increased remarkably and it could satisfy the national standard. The improvement of the straw surface wet ability is helpful to the forming of chemical bond. Whereas the variance analysis of the fire retardant property of straw based panel showed that TTI, pkHRR and peak value appearance time were not affected by the MDI, UF and FRW content significantly. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized processing condition was MDI content as 3%, UF resin content as 6% and the FRW content as 10%.

  11. Chemical characterization of hydrothermally pretreated and enzyme-digested wheat straw: An evaluation of recalcitrance.

    PubMed

    Merali, Zara; Marjamaa, Kaisa; Käsper, Andres; Kruus, Kristiina; Gunning, A Patrick; Morris, Vic J; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    There is great interest in understanding changes that occur to cell wall constituents during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulose, particularly in relation to recalcitrance of the residues. This paper reports the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzyme hydrolysis on the extractability and properties of recalcitrant wheat straw polymers. The results show that the undigested residue had lost much of its archestructure. Compositional analysis portrayed a considerable loss of cross-linking di-ferulic acid phenolics, hemicellulosic and cellulosic sugars. The remaining cellulosic and non-cellulosic polysaccharides were much more readily extractable in alkali and molecular profiling revealed the presence of low Mw oligomers in the fractions suggesting the partial enzyme hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and cellulose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pretreated and enzyme-digested residues surprisingly resulted in ethanol yields of up to 99% of the theoretical. This is discussed in relation to the "recalcitrant" nature of the original pretreated and enzyme digested biomass. PMID:26769515

  12. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations. PMID:23535542

  13. Selective hydrolysis of hemicellulose from wheat straw by a nanoscale solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chao; Wang, Chunming; Huang, Fan; Wang, Fengxue; Jia, Honghua; Zhou, Hua; Wei, Ping

    2015-10-20

    A nanoscale catalyst, solid acid SO4(2-)/Fe2O3 with both Lewis and Brønsted acidity was found to effectively hydrolyze hemicellulose while keeping cellulose and lignin inactive, and selective hydrolysis of hemicellulose from wheat straw by this catalyst was also confirmed. The factors that significantly affected hydrolysis process were investigated with response surface methodology, and the optimum conditions for time, temperature, and ratio of wheat straw to catalyst (w/w) were calculated to be 4.10h, 141.97°C, and 1.95:1, respectively. A maximum hemicellulose hydrolysis yield of 63.5% from wheat straw could be obtained under these conditions. In addition, the catalyst could be recycled six times with high activity remaining. PMID:26256198

  14. Preparation and characterization of durum wheat (Triticum durum) straw cellulose nanofibers by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Montaño-Leyva, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Felix, Francisco; Torres-Chávez, Patricia; Ramirez-Wong, Benjamin; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sanchez-Machado, Dalia

    2011-02-01

    Cellulose nanofibers from durum wheat straw ( Triticum durum ) were produced and characterized to study their potential as reinforcement fibers in biocomposites. Cellulose was isolated from wheat straw by chemical treatment. Nanofibers were produced via an electrospinning method using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the solvent. The nanofibers were 270 ± 97 nm in diameter. Analysis of the FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the chemical treatment of the wheat straw removed hemicellulose and lignin. XRD revealed that the crystallinity of the cellulose was reduced after electrospinning, but nanofibers remained highly crystalline. The glass transition temperature (T(g) value) of the fibers was 130 °C, higher than that of cellulose (122 °C), and the degradation temperature of the fibers was 236 °C. Residual TFA was not present in the nanofibers as assessed by the FT-IR technique. PMID:21207978

  15. Effect of a magnetic field on the adsorptive removal of methylene blue onto wheat straw biochar.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoting; Zhu, Weiyong; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Lili; Zhu, Lingfeng; Zhao, Weigao

    2016-04-01

    Biochar pyrolyzed from wheat straw was innovatively used for the adsorptive removal of cationic dye methylene blue through exposure to a magnetic field. The adsorption capability of the biochar pyrolyzed at 200 °C exceeded that of samples pyrolyzed at higher temperatures. The surface acidic functional groups of wheat straw biochar were deduced to be more sensitive to the effects of the external magnetic field. The enhancement of the magnetic field achieved by increases in the initial dye concentration, and a decrease in the biochar dosage and solution pH, were more significant compared with those caused by other conditions. Kinetic experiments indicated that chemisorption occurred during adsorption. The qmax values for dye adsorption without, and with, an external magnetic field were found to be 46.6 and 62.5mg/g, respectively. These demonstrated that wheat straw biochar could be used for the efficient adsorption of pollutants when assisted by an external magnetic field. PMID:26845216

  16. Strong cellulase inhibitors from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose with subsequent fermentation to ethanol provides a green alternative for the production of transportation fuels. Because of its recalcitrant nature, the lignocellulosic biomass must be pretreated before enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the pretreatment often results in the formation of compounds that are inhibitory for the enzymes or fermenting organism. Although well recognized, little quantitative information on the inhibition of individual cellulase components by identified inhibitors is available. Results Strong cellulase inhibitors were separated from the liquid fraction of the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw. HPLC and mass-spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the inhibitors were oligosaccharides (inhibitory oligosaccharides, IOS) with a degree of polymerization from 7 to 16. The IOS are composed of a mixture of xylo- (XOS) and gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS). We propose that XOS and GOS are the fragments of the xylan backbone and mixed-linkage β-glucans, respectively. The IOS were approximately 100 times stronger inhibitors for Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) than cellobiose, which is one of the strongest inhibitors of these enzymes reported to date. Inhibition of endoglucanases (EGs) by IOS was weaker than that of CBHs. Most of the tested cellulases and hemicellulases were able to slowly degrade IOS and reduce the inhibitory power of the liquid fraction to some extent. The most efficient single enzyme component here was T. reesei EG TrCel7B. Although reduced by the enzyme treatment, the residual inhibitory power of IOS and the liquid fraction was strong enough to silence the major component of the T. reesei cellulase system, CBH TrCel7A. Conclusions The cellulase inhibitors described here may be responsible for the poor yields from the enzymatic conversion of the whole slurries from lignocellulose pretreatment under conditions that do not favor complete degradation of

  17. Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass,wheat straw, and corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, A.R.; Bitra, V.S.P.; Igathinathane, C.; Yang, Y.T.; Miu, P.I; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-08-01

    Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5 18.4 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 36.1 8.6 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 52.1 10.8 kg/m3 for corn stover. Mean tapped bulk densities were 81.8 26.2 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 42.8 11.7 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 58.9 13.4 kg/m3 for corn stover. Percentage changes in compressibility due to variation in particle size obtained from a knife mill ranged from 64.3 to 173.6 for chopped switchgrass, 22.2 51.5 for chopped wheat straw and 42.1 117.7 for chopped corn stover within the tested consolidation pressure range of 5 120 kPa. Pressure and volume relationship of chopped biomass during compression with application of normal pressure can be characterized by the Walker model and Kawakita and Ludde model. Parameter of Walker model was correlated to the compressibility with Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Relationship between volume reduction in chopped biomass with respect to number of tappings studied using Sone s model indicated that infinite compressibility was highest for chopped switchgrass followed by chopped wheat straw and corn stover. Degree of difficulty in packing measured using the parameters of Sone s model indicated that the chopped wheat straw particles compacted very rapidly by tapping compared to chopped switchgrass and corn stover. These results are very useful for solving obstacles in handling bulk biomass supply logistics issues for a biorefinery.

  18. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn’s formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  19. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn's formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  20. Autohydrolysis pretreatment of waste wheat straw for cellulosic ethanol production in a co-located straw pulp mill.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiang; Jin, Yanbin; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Park, Sunkyu

    2015-01-01

    Waste wheat straw (WWS) is the waste product from feedstock preparation process in a straw pulp mill. It has a significant annual production rate and no commercial value has been explored on this material. In this study, waste wheat straw was pretreated using an autohydrolysis process followed by mechanical refining, and the pretreated materials were further enzymatically hydrolyzed to evaluate the total sugar recovery for bioethanol production. Results show that autohydrolysis at 170 °C for 40 min followed by 6000 revolution PFI refining provided the best result in this study, where a total sugar recovery (total sugars in autohydrolysis filtrate and enzymatic hydrolyzate over total carbohydrates on raw WWS) of 70 % at 4 filter paper unit per oven dry gram (FPU/OD g) substrate enzyme charge could be obtained. The economic evaluation of this biorefinery process indicates that cellulosic ethanol production from autohydrolysis of WWS is a very profitable business, with 28.4 % of internal rate of return can be achieved based on current ethanol wholesale price in China. PMID:25374142

  1. [Effect of adding different amounts of wheat straw and phosphorus on soil microorganism community].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Hai; Huang, Jian; Luo, Zheng-Rong; Dong, Shuguang; Wang, Yi-Kun; Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhang, Long; Jin, Ai-Wu

    2014-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of wheat straw (0 g x kg(-1), N0; 2.08 g x kg(-1), N1) and phosphorus (0 mg x kg(-1), P0; 100 mg x kg(-1), P1; 200 mg x kg(-1), P2; 400 mg x kg(-1), P3) on microorganism community in a soil of low-phosphorus. Adding straw and phosphorus had significant effects on the soil microbial total biomass (MTB), bacterial biomass (MB), fungal biomass (FB), and fungi to bacteria ratio (F/B), which all decreased in order of N1P1>N1P0>N1P2>N1P3>N0P1>N0P2>N0P3. MTB, MB, FB and F/B ratio of the wheat straw addition treatments were all significantly higher than in the non-straw addition treatments under the same level of phosphorus addition. As for the same wheat straw addition, MTB, MB, FB and F/B ratio increased firstly and then decreased with increasing the level of phosphorus addition, and the combinations of P1 level were optimal. PMID:24984499

  2. Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2012-07-01

    After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether (137)Cs and (90)Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with (137)Cs and (90)Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. PMID:22248931

  3. Generation of low cost sugars from wheat straw: Progress, opportunities, and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw (WS) is a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. It contains about 35-45% cellulose, 20-30% hemicelluloses, and 8-15% lignin. Generation of sugars from WS involves pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Pretreatment is crucial as native WS is very resistant to enzymatic...

  4. Continuous ethanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate by recombinant ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain FBR5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous production of ethanol from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically saccharified wheat straw hydrolyzate by ethanologenic recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 was investigated under various conditions at controlled pH 6.5 and 35 deg C. The strain FBR5 was chosen because of its a...

  5. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Siniša; Kádár, Zsófia; Márová, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw into ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively in the presence of catalyst. Red yeast strain S. roseus produced 1.73-2.22 mg g(-1) of ergosterol on the filter cake, 1.15-4.17 mg g(-1) of ergosterol and 1.23-1.56 mg g(-1) of β-carotene on pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and also the highest amount of carotenoids and ergosterol on untreated wheat straw (1.70 and 4.17 mg g(-1), respectively). PMID:23434815

  6. Performance Monitoring: Evaluating a Wheat Straw PRB for Nitrate Removal at an Agricultural Operation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is conducting long-term monitoring of a wheat straw permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for remediation of ground water contaminated with nitrate from a now-closed swine concentrat...

  7. Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation

    PubMed Central

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças Almeida; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds. PMID:24031226

  8. BIOCONVERSION OF WHEAT STRAW TO BUTANOL (A SUPERIOR LIQUID FUEL): SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION, FERMENTATION, AND PRODUCT RECOVERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of the increasing price of transportation fuel, we have intensified our research on butanol production from agricultural residues using Clostridium beijerinckii. Butanol has superior fuel properties compared to ethanol. In this paper, wheat straw was evaluated as a feedstock for butano...

  9. Ethanol production from wheat straw by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 at high solid loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production by a recombinant bacterium from wheat straw (WS) at high solid loading by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. The yield of total sugars from dilute acid pretreated WS (150 g/L) after enzymatic saccharific...

  10. Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun Hong, Sung; Taek Lee, Jae; Lee, Sungbeom; Gon Wi, Seung; Ju Cho, Eun; Singh, Sudhir; Sik Lee, Seung; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2014-01-01

    Pretreating wheat straw with a combination of dilute acid and gamma irradiation was performed in an attempt to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The glucose yield was significantly affected by combined pretreatment (3% sulfuric acid-gamma irradiation), compared with untreated wheat straw and individual pretreatment. The increasing enzymatic hydrolysis after combined pretreatment is resulting from decrease in crystallinity of cellulose, loss of hemicelluloses, and removal or modification of lignin. Therefore, combined pretreatment is one of the most effective methods for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw biomass.

  11. [Effects of wheat-straw returning into paddy soil on dissolved organic carbon contents and rice grain yield].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jing-du; Gu, Hai-yan; Dai, Qi-gen; Ma, Ke-qiang; Jiang, Feng; He, Li

    2015-02-01

    A tank experiment using conventional rice cultivar Nanjing 44 as experimental material was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Yangzhou University to investigate the dynamics of wheat straw decomposition rate and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils, as well as its effects on the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and rice yield. The two rates of wheat straw returning were 0 and 6000 kg · hm(-2), and three N application levels were 0, 225, 300 kg · hm(-2). The results showed that, the rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils were highest during the initial 30 days after wheat straw returning, and then slowed down after, which could be promoted by a higher level of nitrogen application. The rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay soil were higher than that in sandy soil. The DOC content in soil increased gradually with wheat straw returning into paddy soil and at the twenty-fifth day, and then decreased gradually to a stable value. The DOC content at the soil depth of 15 cm was significantly increased by wheat straw returning, but not at the soil depth of 30 cm and 45 cm. It was concluded that wheat straw returning increased the DOC content in the soil depth of 0-15 cm mainly. N application decreased the DOC content and there was no difference between the two N application levels. Straw returning decreased the number of tillers in the early growth period, resulted in significantly reduced panicles per unit area, but increased spikelets per panicle, filled-grain percentages, 1000-grain mass, and then enhanced grain yield. PMID:26094457

  12. Development of low-cost wheat-straw insulation board

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, L.K.; Glicksman, L.R.; Harvey, H.S. Jr.; Charlson, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg/m{sup 3}, and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m{center_dot}K/W [R3 to R4 per inch (h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu{center_dot}in)]. The initial effort focused on straw insulation boards suitable for use in buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation. The possible methods of fabrication initially evaluated were (1) containing the straw in panels with wire and battens, (2) pulping the straw, and (3) binding with adhesive. Starch, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and sodium silicate were evaluated as adhesives for both uncut and shredded straw. Methods of application included spraying, foaming, and dipping, at various adhesive-loading rates. Small samples were formed at a range of densities and tested for structural and thermal properties. All three approaches can succeed structurally and thermally, but are unable to compete economically with existing insulation board. A final batch of boards was made by spraying methane di-isocyanate (MDI), a synthetic resin, into a rotating tumbler that contained shredded straw. The boards, made over a range of densities and resin contents, and using straw with and without the fine particles, were tested thermally and structurally. Good mechanical properties were obtained at resin contents as low as 2% by mass. At densities of 128 and 160 kg/m{sup 3}, the boards had thermal resistivities of 24 to 26 m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W. The pressure required to compress the 160 kg/m{sup 3} boards to 10% of their original thickness was approximately 100 kPa, and the modulus of rupture in bending was about 340 kPa. Removing the fine particles from the straw improved board strength markedly. The

  13. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  14. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14–19% and the ambient radiation by 9–16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  15. The single-batch bioconversion of wheat straw to ethanol employing the fungus Trichoderma viride and the yeast Pachysolen tannophylus.

    PubMed

    Zayed, G; Meyer, O

    1996-05-01

    We have developed and optimized a single-batch process of the production of ethanol from wheat straw employing the fungus Trichoderma viride and the yeast Pachysolen tannophylus. T. viride and Aspergillus niger were examined for their ability to produce fermentable sugars from cellulosic waste materials, e.g. different kinds of straw and wood waste. T. viride most efficiently saccharified delignified wheat straw within 3 days at 25-30 degrees C with a yield of reducing sugars of 27 g from 50 g delignified wheat straw. The resulting wheat straw hydrolysates contained xylose and glucose in a 1:1.6 molar ratio. After heat inactivation of fungal activities the sugars were converted to ethanol by the oxygen-tolerant yeast P. tannophylus in the same batch. Under the optimized conditions developed (all weights are per liter) 70 g natural untreated wheat straw (100%) yielded 50 g delignified straw (71.4%), which was saccharified to 27 g reducing sugars (38.6%). Fermentation of the sugars yielded 11.8 g ethanol (16.9%) and followed the molar equation: 1 xylose + 1.6 glucose --> 5.3 ethanol + 5.6 CO2. PMID:8737576

  16. [Effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on nutrient balance and grain yield of late sowing wheat in rice-wheat rotation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Shi, Zu-liang; Yang, Si-jun; Gu, Ke-jun; Dai, Ting-bo; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Ren-hua

    2015-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on grain yield, nutrient accumulation, nutrient release from straw and nutrient balance in late sowing wheat. The results showed that straw returning together with appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer improved the grain yield. Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased significantly as the nitrogen application rate increased. At the same nitrogen application rate (270 kg N · hm(-2)), the dry matter, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of the treatment with straw returning were higher than that without straw returning, but the nitrogen accumulation was lower. Higher-rate nitrogen application promoted straw decomposition and nutrient release, and decreased the proportion of the nutrient released from straw after jointing. The dry matter, phosphorus and potassium release from straw showed a reverse 'N' type change with the wheat growing, while nitrogen release showed a 'V' type change. The nutrient surplus increased significantly with the nitrogen application rate. At the nitrogen application rate for the highest grain yield, nitrogen and potassium were surplus significantly, and phosphorus input could keep balance. It could be concluded that as to late sowing wheat with straw returning, applying nitrogen at 257 kg · hm(-2) and reducing potassium fertilizer application could improve grain yield and reduce nutrients loss. PMID:26785553

  17. Sodium borohydrate (NaBH4) pretreatment for efficient enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Cöpür, Yalçin; Tozluoglu, Ayhan; Ozyürek, Omer

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the aim was to examine bioethanol production of wheat straw residues using an alternative chemical, sodium borohydrate (NaBH(4)) in chemical pretreatment step. The obtained results showed that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and NaBH(4) treated straw resulted in 87.8% and 83.3% glucan conversion in enzymatic hydrolysis, but hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (74.7%) and sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) (71.7%) had lower glucan conversion. The highest ethanol yield from untreated straw (115 g/kg) was observed for 4% NaBH(4) pretreated sample (60 min) and the theoretical yield (86.9%) was also calculated to be highest for the sample. PMID:22244903

  18. Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: biomass production and substrate biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Salmones, Dulce; Mata, Gerardo; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

    2005-03-01

    The results of the cultivation of six strains of Pleurotus (P. djamor (2), P. ostreatus (2) and P. pulmonarius (2)) on coffee pulp and wheat straw are presented. Metabolic activity associated with biomass of each strain was determined, as well as changes in lignin and polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose), phenolic and caffeine contents in substrate samples colonized for a period of up to 36 days. Analysis were made of changes during the mycelium incubation period (16 days) and throughout different stages of fructification. Greater metabolic activity was observed in the wheat straw samples, with a significant increase between 4 and 12 days of incubation. The degradation of polysaccharide compounds was associated with the fruiting stage, while the reduction in phenolic contents was detected in both substrates samples during the first eight days of incubation. A decrease was observed in caffeine content of the coffee pulp samples during fruiting stage, which could mean that some caffeine accumulates in the fruiting bodies. PMID:15501659

  19. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment. PMID:21087497

  20. An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost estimation study was performed for a biological butanol production plant with a capacity of 150 x 10**6 kg butanol/year. Wheat straw was used as a feedstock. In addition to butanol, acetone (78.05 x 10**6 kg/year) and ethanol (28.54 x 10**6 kg/year) would also be produced. The total capital c...

  1. Products of alkaline peroxide attack on wheat straw, oak, and keraf

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.; Peterson, R.

    1985-07-01

    Wheat straw, oak, and kenaf were partially delignified by treatment with hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.0, and the water-soluble degradation products were characterized. Forty to sixty percent of the solubilized products were larger than 1000 molecular weight (MW), as determined by membrane ultrafiltration. Lignin degradation products in the low-molecular-weight fraction (is less than 1000) consisted primarily of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids. 14 references.

  2. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition. PMID:21714234

  3. Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-01-01

    Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here "Biotech Feed" was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI: 3.74 Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50 g more daily body weight. PMID:25269679

  4. Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-01-01

    Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here “Biotech Feed” was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI: 3.74 Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50 g more daily body weight. PMID:25269679

  5. Kinetics of cadmium, chromium, and lead sorption onto chemically modified sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Mahmood-ul-Hassan, M; Suthar, V; Rafique, E; Ahmad, R; Yasin, M

    2015-07-01

    In this study, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) adsorption potential of unmodified and modified sugarcane bagasse and ground wheat straw was explored from aqueous solution through batch equilibrium technique. Both the materials were chemically modified by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) alone and in combination with nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Two kinetic models, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order were used to follow the adsorption process and reaction fallowed the later model. The Pb removal by both the materials was highest and followed by Cr and Cd. The chemical treatment invariably increased the adsorption capacity and NaOH treatment proved more effective than others. Langmuir maximum sorption capacity (q m) of Pb was utmost (12.8-23.3 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 14.5-22.4 mg/g of wheat straw) and of Cd was least (1.5-2.2 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 2.5-3.8 mg/g of wheat straw). The q m was in the order of Pb > Cr > Cd for all the three adsorbents. Results demonstrate that agricultural waste materials used in this study could be used to remediate the heavy metal-polluted water. PMID:26116198

  6. A New and Environmentally Friendly Route for Preparation of Carbon Microspheres from Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Leishan, Chen; Yu, Miao; Gairong, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The reactions were performed to synthesize carbon materials using wheat straw powder as raw material. The wheat straw powder was first hydrolyzed at the absence of a catalyst at 190°C for 1 h, then the hydrolyzate solution was used as carbon source to prepare carbon materials via hydrothermal carbonization at 180°C in the absence of a catalyst for 8 h. The influence of solid-liquid-ratio of wheat straw to water on the morphology of the product was investigated. The samples were examined by a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the product was carbon microspheres with a large number of O–H, CHO, and other functional groups, and the diameters of carbon microspheres noticeably depended on the solid-liquid ratio. When the solid-liquid ratio was 1 : 60, the diameters of carbon microspheres were in the range of 100 to 300 nm when the solid-liquid ratio was 1 : 40, carbon microspheres with larger and more uniform diameters mostly about 250 nm were obtained, and when the solid-liquid-ratio was 1 : 20, there were more larger carbon microspheres with diameters about 800 nm in the product and the surface of these carbon microspheres is smoother, whereas; the uniformity of the product deteriorates. PMID:24288457

  7. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; de Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health. PMID:26102585

  8. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; de Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health. PMID:26102585

  9. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  10. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull

    PubMed Central

    Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

    2013-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  11. Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Return on Soil Organic Carbon in a Rice-Wheat Rotation System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0–7, 7–14 and 14–21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0–7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7–14 cm depth. However, at 14–21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:24586434

  12. Utilization of the water soluable fraction of wheat straw as a plant nutrient source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight was removed from wheat straw and roots, although the recovery of individual nutrients varied. Leaching also removed about 20 percent of the total organic carbon from the biomass. In terms of dry weight, the leachate was comprised of approximately 60 percent organic and 40 percent inorganic compounds. Direct use of wheat straw leachate in static hydroponic systems had an inhibitory effect on wheat growth, both in the presence and absence of microorganisms. Biological treatment of leachate either with a mixed microbial community or the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus L., prior to use in hydroponic solutions, significantly reduced both the organic content and the inhibitory effects of the leachate. The inhibitory effects of unprocessed leachate appear to be a result of rapidly acting phytotoxic compounds that are detoxified by microbial activity. Leaching holds considerable promise as a method for nutrient recycling in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

  13. Wheat straw degradation and production of alternative substrates for nitrogenase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Dziga, Dariusz; Jagiełło-Flasińska, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is a major component of plant biomass and could be applied in the production of biofuels, especially bioethanol. An alternative approach is production of a clean fuel - hydrogen from cellulosic biomass. In this paper an innovatory model of cellulosic waste degradation has been proposed to verify the possibility of utilization of cellulose derivatives by purple non-sulfur bacteria. The concept is based on a two-step process of wheat straw conversion by bacteria in order to obtain an organic acid mixture. In the next stage such products are consumed by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the known producer of hydrogen. It has been documented that Cellulomonas uda expresses cellulolytic activity in the presence of wheat straw as an only source of carbon. R. sphaeroides applied in this research can effectively consume organic acids released from straw by C. uda and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and is able to grow in the presence of these substrates. Additionally, an increased nitrogenase activity of R. sphaeroides has been indicated when bacteria were cultivated in the presence of cellulose derivatives which suggests that hydrogen production occurs. PMID:26192769

  14. Enhanced biomethane potential from wheat straw by low temperature alkaline calcium hydroxide pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2015-08-01

    A factorially designed experiment to examine the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, enzyme addition and particle size, on the mesophilic (35 °C) anaerobic digestion of wheat straw was conducted. Experiments used a 48 h pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2 7.4% (w/w), addition of Accellerase®-1500, with four particle sizes of wheat straw (1.25, 2, 3 and 10mm) and three digestion time periods (5, 15 and 30 days). By combining particle size reduction and Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, the average methane potential was increased by 315% (from 48 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1) to 202 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1)) after 5 days of anaerobic digestion compared to the control. Enzyme addition or Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment with 3, 2 and 1.25 mm particle sizes had 30-day batch yields of between 301 and 335 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Alkali pre-treatment of 3mm straw was shown to have the most potential as a cost effective pre-treatment and achieved 290 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1), after only 15 days of digestion. PMID:25898087

  15. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Jan B; Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning; Elder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall. PMID:18471316

  16. Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

  17. Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

    2002-04-01

    Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950°C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

  18. Pretreatment and fractionation of wheat straw for production of fuel ethanol and value-added co-products in a biorefinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment condi...

  19. Removal of Fermentation Inhibitors from Alkaline Peroxide Pretreated and Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Wheat Straw: Production of Butanol from Hydrolysate Using Clostridium beijerinckii in Batch Reactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw was investigated. Pretreated wheat straw was hydrolyzed using celluloytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and the hydrolysate was used to produce butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The culture produced less than 2.59 gL**-1 acetone...

  20. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  1. Water-saving techniques in Chinese agriculture: water-saving irrigation and straw mulching for winter wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guoqiang; Zhu, Zixi; Zheng, Youfei; Fang, Wensong

    2004-01-01

    Based on the relationship between water balance and crop-water, water-saving irrigation model was integrated with monitoring and prediction of soil moisture, forming a system of decision-making of irrigation. It is demonstrated that straw mulching for winter wheat is an effective way to reduce soil evaporation at early stages and increase yield and improve water utilization efficiency. Combination of water-saving irrigation and straw mulching plays an important role in China water-saving agriculture.

  2. Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a), CBH2 (Cel6a), EG1 (Cel7b), EG2 (Cel5a), as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a) were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25%) which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw. PMID:22373423

  3. Persistence of Pendimethalin in/on Wheat, Straw, Soil and Water.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Indu; Chauhan, Reena; Kumari, Beena

    2015-11-01

    Pendimethalin, a dinitroaniline group of organic herbicide compounds used as pre emergence weed control in wheat, onion and soyabean crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the harvest time residues of pendimethalin in wheat grain and straw its dissipation behaviour in soil and water. At harvest time, the residues of pendimethalin in wheat grain and straw were found to be below determination limit of 0.001 mg kg(-1) following single application of the herbicide at the rate of 1 (T1/single dose) and 2 (T2/double dose) kg a.i. ha(-1). Soil samples from the field were collected periodically and analysed by GC-ECD system. In soil, initial deposits of 4.069 and 10.473 mg kg(-1) of pendimethalin persisted up to 90 days and dissipation followed first order kinetics with half life period of 12.03 days in T1 and 13.00 days in T2. Residues of pendimethalin studied in water under laboratory conditions at 0.5 (T1) and 1.0 (T2) mg L(-1) levels persisted up to 90 days. Dissipation kinetics followed first order kinetics with half-life values of 12.70 and 13.78 days at single and double dose, respectively. Limit of determination in grain, straw and soil were 0.001 mg kg(-1) and in water was 0.001 mg L(-1). Application of the herbicide is considered quite safe from consumer and environmental point of view. PMID:26193835

  4. Analysis of methane potentials of steam-exploded wheat straw and estimation of energy yields of combined ethanol and methane production.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Alexander; Bösch, Peter; Friedl, Anton; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Agrarian biomass as a renewable energy source can contribute to a considerable CO(2) reduction. The overriding goal of the European Union is to cut energy consumption related greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% until the year 2020. This publication aims at optimising the methane production from steam-exploded wheat straw and presents a theoretical estimation of the ethanol and methane potential of straw. For this purpose, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different time/temperature combinations. Specific methane yields were analyzed according to VDI 4630. Pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion significantly increased the methane yield from anaerobic digestion by up to 20% or a maximum of 331 l(N)kg(-1) VS compared to untreated wheat straw. Furthermore, the residual anaerobic digestion potential of methane after ethanol fermentation was determined by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw using cellulase. Based on the resulting glucose concentration the ethanol yield and the residual sugar available for methane production were calculated. The theoretical maximum ethanol yield of wheat straw was estimated to be 0.249 kg kg(-1) dry matter. The achievable maximum ethanol yield per kg wheat straw dry matter pretreated by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis was estimated to be 0.200 kg under pretreatment conditions of 200 degrees C and 10 min corresponding to 80% of the theoretical maximum. The residual methane yield from straw stillage was estimated to be 183 l(N)kg(-1) wheat straw dry matter. Based on the presented experimental data, a concept is proposed that processes wheat straw for ethanol and methane production. The concept of an energy supply system that provides more than two forms of energy is met by (1) upgrading obtained ethanol to fuel-grade quality and providing methane to CHP plants for the production of (2) electric energy and (3) utility steam that in turn can be used to operate distillation columns in the

  5. Bulk density of wet and dry wheat straw and switchgrass particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Naimi, L.J.; Hoque, M.; Mani, Sudhagar; Narayan, S.

    2008-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Bulk density is a major physical property in designing the logistic system for biomass handling. The size, shape, moisture content, individual particle density, and surface characteristics are few factors affecting the bulk density. This research investigates the effects of true particle lengths ranging from 6 to 50 mm and moisture contents ranging from 8% to 60% wet basis (wb) on the bulk density of wheat straw and switchgrass. Three types of particle densities of straw and switchgrass measured were: a hollow particle density assuming a hollow cylindrical geometry, a solid particle density assuming a solid cylindrical geometry, and a particle density measured using a gas pycnometer at a gas pressure of 40 kPa. The bulk density of both loose fill and packed fill biomass samples was examined. The calculated wet and dry bulk density ranged from 24 to 111 kg m 3 for straw and from 49 to 266 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The corresponding tapped bulk density ranged from 34 to 130 kg m 3 for straw and 68 to 323 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The increase in bulk density due to tapping the container was from 10% for short 6 mm particles to more than 50% for long 50 mm particles. An equation relating the bulk density of stems as a function of moisture content, dry bulk density, and particle size was developed. After the validation of this bulk density equation, the relationship would be highly useful in designing the logistics system for large scale transport of biomass to a biorefinery. The bulk density and particle density data of uniform particles would be important, if straw and switchgrass is used for pulping and paper making.

  6. Bioconversion of wheat straw to ethanol: chemical modification, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Detroy, R.W.; Lindenfelser, L.A.; Sommer, S.; Orton, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    The current studies involved a series of chemical treatment combinations upon wheat straw (WS), and subsequent hydrolysis of released cellulose to fermentable sugars. Primary chemical treatment of WS was followed by additional, secondary treatment of residues with either acids or alkali. Following primary and secondary treatment the WS residues were hydrolyzed with cellulase, and final glucose yields were determined. Samples of residues and effluents taken after each reaction also were analyzed. Large-scale experiments for both saccharification and alcohol production were investigated in a glass-column reactor. The results showed that conversion of the cellulosic component to sugar varied with the chemical modification steps. 23 refs.

  7. Ozonation and alkaline-peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw for Cryptococcus curvatus fermentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J. B.; Lin, S.; McKenzie, S.; Denvir, A.

    2000-01-01

    Crop residues in an Advanced Life Support System (ALS) contain many valuable components that could be recovered and used. Wheat is 60% inedible, with approximately 90% of the total sugars in the residue cellulose and hemicellulose. To release these sugars requires pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Cryptococcus curvatus, an oleaginous yeast, uses the sugars in cellulose and hemicellulose for growth and production of storage triglycerides. In this investigation, alkaline-peroxide and ozonation pretreatment methods were compared for their efficiency to release glucose and xylose to be used in the cultivation of C. curvatus. Leaching the biomass with water at 65 degrees C for 4 h prior to pretreatment facilitated saccharification. Alkaline-peroxide and ozone pretreatment were almost 100% and 80% saccharification efficient, respectively. The sugars derived from the hydrolysis of alkaline-peroxide-treated wheat straw supported the growth of C. curvatus and the production of edible single-cell oil.

  8. Effects of wheat straw incorporation on the availability of soil nutrients and enzyme activities in semiarid areas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Ke; Ding, Ruixia; Yang, Baoping; Nie, Junfeng; Jia, Zhikuan; Han, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Soil infertility is the main barrier to dryland agricultural production in China. To provide a basis for the establishment of a soil amelioration technical system for rainfed fields in the semiarid area of northwest China, we conducted a four-year (2007-2011) field experiment to determine the effects of wheat straw incorporation on the arid soil nutrient levels of cropland cultivated with winter wheat after different straw incorporation levels. Three wheat straw incorporation levels were tested (H: 9000 kg hm(-2), M: 6000 kg hm(-2), and L: 3000 kg hm(-2)) and no straw incorporation was used as the control (CK). The levels of soil nutrients, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil labile organic carbon (LOC), and enzyme activities were analyzed each year after the wheat harvest. After straw incorporation for four years, the results showed that variable straw amounts had different effects on the soil fertility indices, where treatment H had the greatest effect. Compared with CK, the average soil available N, available P, available K, SOC, and LOC levels were higher in the 0-40 cm soil layers after straw incorporation treatments, i.e., 9.1-30.5%, 9.8-69.5%, 10.3-27.3%, 0.7-23.4%, and 44.4-49.4% higher, respectively. On average, the urease, phosphatase, and invertase levels in the 0-40 cm soil layers were 24.4-31.3%, 9.9-36.4%, and 42.9-65.3% higher, respectively. Higher yields coupled with higher nutrient contents were achieved with H, M and L compared with CK, where these treatments increased the crop yields by 26.75%, 21.51%, and 7.15%, respectively. PMID:25880452

  9. Effects of Wheat Straw Incorporation on the Availability of Soil Nutrients and Enzyme Activities in Semiarid Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Ke; Ding, Ruixia; Yang, Baoping; Nie, Junfeng; Jia, Zhikuan; Han, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Soil infertility is the main barrier to dryland agricultural production in China. To provide a basis for the establishment of a soil amelioration technical system for rainfed fields in the semiarid area of northwest China, we conducted a four—year (2007–2011) field experiment to determine the effects of wheat straw incorporation on the arid soil nutrient levels of cropland cultivated with winter wheat after different straw incorporation levels. Three wheat straw incorporation levels were tested (H: 9000 kg hm-2, M: 6000 kg hm-2, and L: 3000 kg hm-2) and no straw incorporation was used as the control (CK). The levels of soil nutrients, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil labile organic carbon (LOC), and enzyme activities were analyzed each year after the wheat harvest. After straw incorporation for four years, the results showed that variable straw amounts had different effects on the soil fertility indices, where treatment H had the greatest effect. Compared with CK, the average soil available N, available P, available K, SOC, and LOC levels were higher in the 0–40 cm soil layers after straw incorporation treatments, i.e., 9.1–30.5%, 9.8–69.5%, 10.3–27.3%, 0.7–23.4%, and 44.4–49.4% higher, respectively. On average, the urease, phosphatase, and invertase levels in the 0–40 cm soil layers were 24.4–31.3%, 9.9–36.4%, and 42.9–65.3% higher, respectively. Higher yields coupled with higher nutrient contents were achieved with H, M and L compared with CK, where these treatments increased the crop yields by 26.75%, 21.51%, and 7.15%, respectively. PMID:25880452

  10. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  11. SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw with the addition of saccharified or fermented wheat meal in integrated bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integration of second-generation (2G) bioethanol production with existing first-generation (1G) production may facilitate commercial production of ethanol from cellulosic material. Since 2G hydrolysates have a low sugar concentration and 1G streams often have to be diluted prior to fermentation, mixing of streams is beneficial. Improved ethanol concentrations in the 2G production process lowers energy demand in distillation, improves overall energy efficiency and thus lower production cost. There is also a potential to reach higher ethanol yields, which is required in economically feasible ethanol production. Integrated process scenarios with addition of saccharified wheat meal (SWM) or fermented wheat meal (FWM) were investigated in simultaneous saccharification and (co-)fermentation (SSF or SSCF) of steam-pretreated wheat straw, while the possibility of recovering the valuable protein-rich fibre residue from the wheat was also studied. Results The addition of SWM to SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw, using commercially used dried baker’s yeast, S. cerevisiae, resulted in ethanol concentrations of about 60 g/L, equivalent to ethanol yields of about 90% of the theoretical. The addition of FWM in batch mode SSF was toxic to baker’s yeast, due to the ethanol content of FWM, resulting in a very low yield and high accumulation of glucose. The addition of FWM in fed-batch mode still caused a slight accumulation of glucose, but the ethanol concentration was fairly high, 51.2 g/L, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 90%, based on the amount of glucose added. In batch mode of SSCF using the xylose-fermenting, genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain KE6-12, no improvement was observed in ethanol yield or concentration, compared with baker’s yeast, despite the increased xylose utilization, probably due to the considerable increase in glycerol production. A slight increase in xylose consumption was seen when glucose from SWM was fed at a low feed rate

  12. Effect of Additions on Ensiling and Microbial Community of Senesced Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    David N. Thompson; Joni M. Barnes; Tracy P. Houghton

    2005-04-01

    Crop residues collected during or after grain harvest are available once per year and must be stored for extended periods. The combination of air, high moisture, and high microbial loads leads to shrinkage during storage and risk of spontaneous ignition. Ensiling is a wet preservation method that could be used to store these residues stably. To economically adapt ensiling to biomass that is harvested after it has senesced, the need for nutrient, moisture, and microbial additions must be determined. We tested the ensiling of senesced wheat straw in sealed columns for 83 d. The straw was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and amended with several levels of water and free sugars. The ability to stabilize the straw polysaccharides was strongly influenced by both moisture and free sugars. Without the addition of sugar, the pH increased from 5.2 to as much as 9.1, depending on moisture level, and losses of 22% of the cellulose and 21% of the hemicellulose were observed. By contrast, when sufficient sugars were added and interstitial water was maintained, a final pH of 4.0 was attainable, with correspondingly low (<5%) losses of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results show that ensiling should be considered a promising method for stable storage of wet biorefinery feedstocks.

  13. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  14. Rapid Assessment of In Situ Wheat Straw Residue Via Remote Sensing Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. G.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J.; Wersinger, J. M.; Guertal, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    Crop residues influence near surface soil organic carbon content (SOC), impact our ability to remotely assess soil properties, and play a role in global carbon budgets. Methods that measure crop residues are laborious, and largely inappropriate for regional estimates. The objective of this study was to evaluate remote sensing (RS) data for rapid quantification of residue cover. In March 2000 and April 2001, residue plots (15 m x 15 m) were established in the Coastal Plain and Appalachian Plateau physiographic regions of Alabama. Treatments consisted of five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw cover rates (0, 10, 20, 50, and 80%) replicated 3 times. Soil water content and residue decomposition were monitored. Spectral measurements were acquired via spectroradiometer (350 - 1050 nm), Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) (400 - 12,500 nm), airborne color photography (400 - 600 nm), and IKONOS satellite (450 - 900 nm). Spectroradiometer data were acquired monthly, aircraft images yearly, and satellite per availability. Results showed all platforms successfully estimated residue cover variability using red, near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) regions of the spectrum. Airborne ATLAS imagery was best explaining as much as 98% of the variability in wheat straw cover. Spectroradiometer, color infrared photography, and IKONOS imagery accounted for 84, 56, and 24% of the variability, respectively.

  15. Unpolluted fractionation of wheat straw by steam explosion and ethanol extraction.

    PubMed

    Hongzhang, Chen; Liying, Liu

    2007-02-01

    An unpolluted process of wheat straw fractionation by steam explosion coupled with ethanol extraction was studied. The wheat straw was steam exploded for 4.5 min with moisture of 34.01%, a pressure of 1.5 MPa without acid or alkali. Hemicellulose sugars were recovered by water countercurrent extraction and decolored with chelating ion exchange resin D412. The gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis results indicated that there were organic acids in the hemicellulose sugars and the ratio of monosaccharides to oligosaccharides was 1:9 and the main component, xylose, was 85.9% in content. The total recovery rate of hemicellulose was 80%. Water washed materials were subsequently extracted with ethanol. The optimum extraction conditions in this work were 40% ethanol, fiber/liquor ratio 1:50 (w/v), severity log(R)=3.657 (180 degrees C for 20 min), 0.1% NaOH. The lignin yield was 75% by acid precipitation and 85% ethanol solvent was recovered. The lignin was purified using Björkman method. Infrared spectrometry (IR) results indicated that the lignin belonged to GSH (guaiacyl (G) syringyl (S) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H)) lignin and its purity rate reached 85.3%. The cellulose recovery rate was 94% and the results of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and infrared spectrometry (IR) showed that hemicellulose and lignin content decreased after steam explosion and ethanol extraction. PMID:16574408

  16. Characterization and swelling-deswelling properties of wheat straw cellulose based semi-IPNs hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-07-17

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was prepared by polymerizing wheat straw and an aqueous solution of acrylic acid (AA), and further semi-interpenetrating with PVA occurred during the chemosynthesis. The swelling and deswelling properties of WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel and WSC-g-PKA hydrogel were studied and compared in various pH solutions, salt solutions, temperatures, particle sizes and ionic strength. The results indicated that both hydrogels had the largest swelling capacity at pH=6, and the effect of ions on the swelling of hydrogels was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+). The Schott's pseudo second order model can be effectively used to evaluate swelling kinetics of hydrogels. Moreover, the semi-IPNs hydrogel had improved swelling-deswelling properties compared with that of WSC-g-PKA hydrogel. PMID:24702940

  17. Wheat straw biochar amendments on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanan; Yang, Baoshan; Song, Ziheng; Wang, Hui; He, Fei; Han, Xuemei

    2016-08-01

    Soil amendments of wheat straw biochar (BC), lignocellulosic substrate (LS), BC+LS, and BC+LS+BR (surfactant Brij30) were investigated for the first time in order to remedy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-polluted soil using pilot scale microcosm incubation. We hypothesized that the removal of PAHs could be inhibited due to the adsorption and immobilization of biochar and the inhibition depends on the molecular-weight of PAHs. The removal rates of phenanthrene (PHE) and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranked as C=BC>LS=LS+BC=LS+BC+BR and C=BC=LS+BC+BR>LS=LS+BC. Wheat straw biochar inhibited the removal of PHE and accelerated BaP removal. The activity of Dehydrogenase (DH) was depressed by the addition of the biochar while the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was stimulated. Lignocellulose and surfactant are favourable to sustain soil microbiological activity and the removal of PAHs although the diversity of bacterial community was not significantly changed. The findings implied that the components of PAHs are necessary to consider when the amendments are implemented by associated biochar in PAH-polluted soil. PMID:27151675

  18. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART II - FED-BATCH FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolyzate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable u...

  19. Differential proteomic analysis of the secretome of Irpex lacteus and other white-rot fungi during wheat straw pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying new high-performance enzymes or enzyme complexes to enhance biomass degradation is the key for the development of cost-effective processes for ethanol production. Irpex lacteus is an efficient microorganism for wheat straw pretreatment, yielding easily hydrolysable products with high sugar content. Thus, this fungus was selected to investigate the enzymatic system involved in lignocellulose decay, and its secretome was compared to those from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus which produced different degradation patterns when growing on wheat straw. Extracellular enzymes were analyzed through 2D-PAGE, nanoLC/MS-MS, and homology searches against public databases. Results In wheat straw, I. lacteus secreted proteases, dye-decolorizing and manganese-oxidizing peroxidases, and H2O2 producing-enzymes but also a battery of cellulases and xylanases, excluding those implicated in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation to their monosaccharides, making these sugars poorly available for fungal consumption. In contrast, a significant increase of β-glucosidase production was observed when I. lacteus grew in liquid cultures. P. chrysosporium secreted more enzymes implicated in the total hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and P. ostreatus produced, in proportion, more oxidoreductases. Conclusion The protein pattern secreted during I. lacteus growth in wheat straw plus the differences observed among the different secretomes, justify the fitness of I. lacteus for biopretreatment processes in 2G-ethanol production. Furthermore, all these data give insight into the biological degradation of lignocellulose and suggest new enzyme mixtures interesting for its efficient hydrolysis. PMID:23937687

  20. Comparison of separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated wheat straw to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y- 2034 from wheat straw (WS) by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pretreated WS (86 g L-1) after enzymatic saccharification was 2...

  1. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART I-BATCH FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simult...

  2. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw. PMID:26264398

  3. Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerre, A.B.; Olesen, A.B.; Fernqvist, T.; Ploeger, A.; Schmidt, A.S.

    1996-03-05

    The wet oxidation process of wheat straw has been studied as a pretreatment method to attain the main goal: to break down cellulose to glucose enzymatic, and secondly, to dissolve hemicellulose (e.g., for fermentation) without producing microbial inhibitors. Wet oxidation combined with base addition readily oxidizes lignin from wheat straw facilitating the polysaccharides for enzymatic hydrolysis. By using a specially constructed autoclave system, the wet oxidation process was optimized with respect to both reaction time and temperature. The best conditions (20 g/L straw, 170 C, 5 to 10 min) gave about 85% w/w yield of converting cellulose to glucose. The process water, containing dissolved hemicellulose and carboxylic acids, has proven to be a direct nutrient source for the fungus Aspergillus niger producing exo-{beta}-xylosidase. Furfural and hydroxymethyl-furfural, known inhibitors of microbial growth when other pretreatment systems have been applied, were not observed following the wet oxidation treatment.

  4. Surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose extracted from wheat straw: Effect of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Kaushik, Anupama; Ahuja, Dheeraj

    2016-10-01

    Aggregates of microfibrillated cellulose isolated from wheat straw fibers were subjected to propionylation under different processing conditions of time, temperature and concentration. The treated fibers were then homogenized to obtain surface modified nanofibrillated cellulose. For varying parameters, progress of propionylation and its effects on various characteristics was investigated by FTIR, degree of substitution, elemental analysis, SEM, EDX, TEM, X-ray diffraction, static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Thermal stability of the nanofibrils was also investigated using thermogravimetric technique. FTIR analysis confirmed the propionylation of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers. The variations in reaction conditions such as time and temperature had shown considerable effect on degree of substitution (DS) and surface contact angle (CA). These characterization results represent the optimizing conditions under which cellulose nanofibrils with hydrophobic characteristics up to contact angle of 120° can be obtained. PMID:27312612

  5. Anaerobic digestion of wheat straw--performance of continuous solid-state digestion.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Marcel; Heeg, Kathrin; Mumme, Jan

    2013-10-01

    In this study the upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor was operated at various conditions to optimize the process parameters for anaerobically digesting wheat straw in a continuous process. Additionally, particle size effects have been studied in the operation at 55 and 60°C. Moreover, the incremental effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) to the system was examined from 2.5 to 8 gVS L(-1) d(-1). It was found that the UASS operating at 60 °C with a small OLR yields highest methane production, but the advantage over thermophilic operation is negligible. The rise in OLR reduces the systems yields, as expected. From OLR=8 gVS L(-1) d(-1) a second stage is necessary to circumvent volatile fatty acids accumulation. PMID:23954246

  6. Recycling cellulase from enzymatic hydrolyzate of acid treated wheat straw by electroultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Song, Weijie; Qi, Benkun; Lu, Jianren; Wan, Yinhua

    2013-09-01

    This work explores the feasibility of recycling cellulase by electroultrafiltration (EUF), an ultrafiltration process enhanced by an electric field, to reduce the cost of enzymatic transformation of cellulose. The effect of electric field under different operating conditions (buffer concentration, acid treated wheat straw concentration, current and temperature) on flux during EUF was examined. The results showed that EUF was effective to reduce concentration polarization (CP) and enhance filtration flux in recycling cellulase. The flux improvement by the electric field could be strengthened at low buffer concentration (5 mM) and relatively low temperature (room temperature) and high current (150 mA). The flux for 2% (substrate concentration, w/v) lignocellulosic hydrolyzate increased by a factor of 4.4 at 836 V/m and room temperature, compared to that without electric field. This work shows that under appropriate operating conditions EUF can efficiently recycle cellulase from lignocellulosic hydrolyzate and thus substantially reduce hydrolysis cost. PMID:23867538

  7. Cellulase deactivation based kinetic modeling of enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jing-Liang; Xu, Hui-Juan; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Guo, Ying

    2010-11-01

    Applying mass action law and quasi-steady-state theory, two cellulase kinetic models namely Eqs. (5) and (8) were developed on the basis of the first and second order reactions of enzyme deactivation, respectively. The two models are compared according to analysis of experimental data from enzymatic hydrolysis steam-exploded wheat straw. Both simulation and prediction results show Eq. (8) has much higher accuracy than Eq. (5). Analysis of initial hydrolysis rate is also in accordance with Eq. (8) and against Eq. (5). Fitted values of k(2) (the rate constant of product formation), k(de2) (the rate constant of enzyme deactivation) and K(e) (the equilibrium constant) determined from Eq. (8) are 0.4732 h(-1), 0.4011 L/(hg), and 16.8597 g/L, respectively. The higher the enzyme concentration is, the larger the deactivation rate. PMID:20594825

  8. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids: wheat straw fractionation.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lopes, André M; João, Karen G; Rubik, Djonatam F; Bogel-Łukasik, Ewa; Duarte, Luís C; Andreaus, Jürgen; Bogel-Łukasik, Rafał

    2013-08-01

    This work is devoted to study pre-treatment methodologies of wheat straw with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][CH3COO]) and subsequent fractionation to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The method developed and described here allows the separation into high purity carbohydrate and lignin fractions and permits an efficient IL recovery. A versatility of the established method was confirmed by the IL reuse. The fractionation of completely dissolved biomass led to cellulose-rich and hemicellulose-rich fractions. A high purity lignin was also achieved. To verify the potential further applicability of the obtained carbohydrate-rich fractions, and to evaluate the pre-treatment efficiency, the cellulose fraction resulting from the treatment with [emim][CH3COO] was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results showed a very high digestibility of the cellulose samples and confirmed a high glucose yield for the optimized pre-treatment methodology. PMID:23735803

  9. Abiotic and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw cell wall: a biochemical and ultrastructural investigation.

    PubMed

    Lequart, C; Ruel, K; Lapierre, C; Pollet, B; Kurek, B

    2000-07-14

    The action of an abiotic lignin oxidant and a diffusible xylanase on wheat straw was studied and characterized at the levels of the molecular structures by chemical analysis and of the cell wall ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. While distinct chemical changes in the target polymers were observed when each system was used separately, a combination of the two types of catalysts did not significantly increase either lignin oxidation or hemicellulose hydrolysis. Microscopic observations however revealed that the supramolecular organization of the cell wall polymers was significantly altered. This suggests that the abiotic Mn-oxalate complex and the xylanase cooperate in modifying the cell wall architecture, without noticeably enhancing the degradation of the constitutive polymers. PMID:10949315

  10. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS) unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS), resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L) did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and second

  11. Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

    2013-01-01

    Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost <0.16% C as CO over the 90-d incubation period. Biomass yields were not significantly modified by biochar treatments, except for a slight decrease at the 144 kg N ha rate. Foliar N concentrations were significantly reduced by biochar application. Biochar significantly increased soil water content; however, this increase did not result in increased biomass yield. In conclusion, our kiln-produced biochar was highly aromatic and appeared quite recalcitrant in soil but had no overall significant impact on ryegrass yields. PMID:23673835

  12. Policosanol contents and compositions of wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Sibel; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2005-07-13

    Policosanol (PC) is the common name for a mixture of high molecular weight (20-36 carbon) aliphatic primary alcohols, which are constituents of plant epicuticular waxes. Wheat germ oil has been reported to improve human physical fitness, and this effect is attributed to its high PC, specifically its high octacosanol (OC) content. Although the PC composition of wheat leaves has been studied extensively, information on PC content and composition of wheat grain fractions is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the PC contents and compositions of wheat grain fractions of 31 varieties grown in Oklahoma. PC compositions of the samples were identified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. The PC content of wheat bran was higher than that of the germ, shorts, and flour. The Trego and Intrada varieties had the highest PC content among the 31 wheat varieties studied. Tetracosanol (C24), hexacosanol (C26), and OC (C28) were the major PC components in all varieties. This study showed that wheat varieties grown under identical growing conditions and management differ significantly in PC content and composition. PMID:15998118

  13. White-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biohydrogen production: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Zelun; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    This paper demonstrates biohydrogen production was enhanced by white-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw (WS) through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Wheat straw was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium at 30 °C under solid state fermentation for 12 days, and lignin was removed about 28.5 ± 1.3 %. Microscopic structure observation combined thermal gravity and differential thermal gravity analysis further showed that the lignocellulose structure obviously disrupted after fungal pretreatment. Subsequently, the pretreated WS and crude cellulases prepared from Trichoderma atroviride were applied in SSF for hydrogen production using Clostridium perfringens. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained to be 78.5 ± 3.4 ml g(-1)-pretreated WS, which was about 1.8-fold than the unpretreated group. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz model was applied study the progress of cumulative H(2) production. This work developed a novel bio-approach to improve fermentative H(2) yield from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24429553

  14. Comparison of the substrate enzymatic digestibility and lignin structure of wheat straw stems and leaves pretreated by green liquor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Wangxia; Gu, Feng; Cao, Tingyue; Jin, Yongcan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) and the lignin structure of green liquor (GL) pretreated wheat straw stems and leaves were investigated. Compared with wheat straw stems, leaves showed higher delignification selectivity in GL pretreatment and higher SED in enzymatic hydrolysis. Wet chemical analysis indicated that, characterized with lower content of syringyl units and less β-O-4 linkages, leaf lignin is structurally different from stem lignin. After GL pretreatment, the drops of both nitrobenzene oxidation and ozonation products yield of leaves were obviously higher than those of stems, which means that more β-O-4 linkages of leaf lignin were broken than that of stem lignin. The SED of total sugar in GL-pretreated leaves was about 50% higher than that in GL-pretreated stems. The less content and lower S/G ratio of lignin are suggested to be the important factors for the better SED of GL-pretreated leaves. PMID:26342786

  15. Growth, carcass yield and meat quality attributes of Red Maasai sheep fed wheat straw-based diets.

    PubMed

    Safari, John G; Mushi, Daniel E; Mtenga, Louis A; Kifaro, George C; Eik, Lars O

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two castrated Red Maasai sheep (12.7 kg initial body weight, aged 12-18 months), were used in an 84-day experiment to evaluate diets based on treated straw upon growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality. The animals were blocked by weight into four similar groups and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with eight individually fed animals per treatment. The dietary treatments were ad libitum untreated wheat straw (UTS), wheat straw treated with urea and lime (TS), straw and ad libitum hay (UTSH), and TS and ad libitum hay (TSH). In addition, each experimental animal received 220 g/day (on as fed basis) of a concentrate diet. Treatment of straw increased (P < 0.05) dry matter intake (42.3 vs. 33.7 g/kg W (75)/day), energy intake (4.6 vs. 3.7 MJ ME/d) and the average daily gain (40.7 vs. 23.1 g). Animals on TS produced heavier (P < 0.05) carcasses (6.6 vs. 5.4 kg) with superior conformation than animals on UTS. Percentage cooking loss was higher in carcasses from animals fed TS compared to those from other diets. Except M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosus, tenderness of muscles was not affected by diet but ageing of meat improved (P < 0.001) tenderness. Overall, straw treatment increased carcass yields with limited effects on meat quality attributes. PMID:20640886

  16. VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

    1999-02-01

    Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and

  17. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:22730900

  18. High-throughput microarray profiling of cell wall polymers during hydrothermal pre-treatment of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Simón, Ana; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Obro, Jens; Felby, Claus; Willats, William G T; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-02-15

    Lignocellulosic plant material is potentially a sustainable source of fermentable sugars for bioethanol production. However, a barrier to this is the high resistance or recalcitrance of plant cell walls to be hydrolyzed. Therefore, a detailed knowledge of the structural features of plant cell walls that contribute to recalcitrance is important for improving the efficiency of bioethanol production. In this work we have used a technique known as Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) to analyze wheat straw before and after being subjected to hydrothermal pre-treatments at four different temperatures. The CoMPP technique combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the high-throughput capacity of microarrays. Changes in the relative abundance of cell wall polysaccharides could be tracked during processing, and a reduction in xylan, arabinoxylans, xyloglucan, and mixed-linked glucan epitopes was detected at the two highest temperatures of pre-treatment used. This work demonstrates the potential of CoMPP as a complementally technique to conventional methods for analyzing biomass composition. PMID:19777595

  19. Cadmium availability and uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in soils applied with wheat straw or composted pig manure.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong; Su, Shiming; Liu, Rongle; Li, Shutian

    2016-08-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) availability and uptake by cherry-red radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in Cd-contaminated soils after addition with wheat straw or composted pig manure were studied. The results indicated that wheat straw application promoted radish growth until the second harvest, while pig manure application improved radish biomass in Acid Ferralsols regardless of harvesting seasons. Application with pig manure might be more effective in lowering the Cd uptake by radish than wheat straw. Especially when pig manure of 11.9 g TOC kg(-1) amended into Acid Ferralsols, Cd contents in leaves and roots of radish decreased by 89.2 and 95.7 % at the second harvest, respectively. The changes in Cd fractions distribution in soils after application were contributed to the decline of Cd availability. Furthermore, significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) between the ratio of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in soils and exchangeable Cd was also observed. However, the significantly negative relationship (P < 0.01) between soil pH and exchangeable Cd was merely found in pig manure-treated Acid Ferralsols. The increases in HA/FA ratio or pH values in soils after adding organic materials were also responsible for the decrease of Cd availability in soils and uptake by radish. Thus, it is recommended to stabilize soil Cd and reducing plant uptake by application with composted manure without or slightly contaminated with metals. PMID:27098882

  20. Photo-biohydrogen production potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK from wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biotechnological exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass is promising for sustainable and environmentally sound energy provision strategy because of the abundant availability of the renewable resources. Wheat straw (WS) comprising of 75-80% cellulose and hemicellulose is one of widely available, inexpensive and renewable lignocellulosic biomass types. The cellulosic and hemicellulose substrate can be hydrolyzed into monomeric sugars by chemical and/or biological methods. Results This study examined comparative potential of dilute acid and pre-ammonia pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw (WS) for hydrogen production by purple non sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK. Gas production became noticeable after 14 h of inoculation in WS pretreated with 4% H2SO4. The detoxified liquid hydrolyzate (DLH) after overliming attained a production level of 372 mL-H2/L after 16 h under illumination of 120-150 W/m2 at 30 ± 2.0°C. Whereas the non-detoxified acid pretreated hydrolyzate (NDLH) of WS could produce only upto 254 mL-H2/L after 21 h post inoculation. Evolution of H2 became observable just after 10 ± 2.0 h of inoculation by employing 48 h age inoculum on the WS pretreated with 30% ammonia, hydrolyzed with cellulase 80 FPU/g and β-glucosidase 220 CbU/ml at 50°C. Upto 712 ml/L of culture was measured with continuous shaking for 24 h. The 47.5% and 64.2% higher hydrogen volume than the DLH and NDLH substrates, respectively appeared as a function of significantly higher monomeric sugar contents of the enzymatically hydrolyzed substrate and lesser/zero amounts of toxic derivatives including pH reducing agents. Conclusion Photofermentative hydrogen production from lignocellulosic waste is a feasible approach for eco-friendly sustainable supply of bioenergy in a cost-effective way. Results of this study provide new insight for addressing biotechnological exploitation of abundantly available and low-cost cellulosic substrates

  1. Relationship of Deoxynivalenol Content in Grain, Chaff, and Straw with Fusarium Head Blight Severity in Wheat Varieties with Various Levels of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fang; Wu, Jirong; Zhao, Hongyan; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON) content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation. PMID:25751146

  2. KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Igathinathane, C.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well

  3. Unveiling the metabolic potential of two soil-derived microbial consortia selected on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Based on the premise that plant biomass can be efficiently degraded by mixed microbial cultures and/or enzymes, we here applied a targeted metagenomics-based approach to explore the metabolic potential of two forest soil-derived lignocellulolytic microbial consortia, denoted RWS and TWS (bred on wheat straw). Using the metagenomes of three selected batches of two experimental systems, about 1.2 Gb of sequence was generated. Comparative analyses revealed an overrepresentation of predicted carbohydrate transporters (ABC, TonB and phosphotransferases), two-component sensing systems and β-glucosidases/galactosidases in the two consortia as compared to the forest soil inoculum. Additionally, "profiling" of carbohydrate-active enzymes showed significant enrichments of several genes encoding glycosyl hydrolases of families GH2, GH43, GH92 and GH95. Sequence analyses revealed these to be most strongly affiliated to genes present on the genomes of Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides, Flavobacterium and Pedobacter spp. Assembly of the RWS and TWS metagenomes generated 16,536 and 15,902 contigs of ≥10 Kb, respectively. Thirteen contigs, containing 39 glycosyl hydrolase genes, constitute novel (hemi)cellulose utilization loci with affiliation to sequences primarily found in the Bacteroidetes. Overall, this study provides deep insight in the plant polysaccharide degrading capabilities of microbial consortia bred from forest soil, highlighting their biotechnological potential. PMID:26343383

  4. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor. PMID:25637386

  5. Particle-Scale Modeling of Methane Emission during Pig Manure/Wheat Straw Aerobic Composting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2016-04-19

    Inefficient aerobic composting techniques significantly contribute to the atmospheric methane (CH4) levels. Macro-scale models assuming completely aerobic conditions cannot be used to analyze CH4 generation in strictly anaerobic environments. This study presents a particle-scale model for aerobic pig manure/wheat straw composting that incorporates CH4 generation and oxidation kinetics. Parameter estimation revealed that pig manure is characterized by high CH4 yield coefficient (0.6414 mol CH4 mol(-1) Cman) and maximum CH4 oxidation rate (0.0205 mol CH4 kg(-1) VSaero h(-1)). The model accurately predicted CH4 emissions (R(2) = 0.94, RMSE = 2888 ppmv, peak time deviation = 0 h), particularly in the self-heating and cooling phases. During mesophilic and thermophilic stages, a rapid increase of CH4 generation (0.0130 mol CH4 kg(-1) VS h(-1)) and methanotroph inactivation were simulated, implying that additional measures should be performed during these phases to mitigate CH4 emissions. Furthermore, CH4 oxidation efficiency was related to oxygen permeation through the composting particles. Reducing the ambient temperature and extending the aeration duration can decrease CH4 emission, but the threshold temperature is required to trigger the self-heating phase. These findings provide insights into CH4 emission during composting and may inform responsible strategies to counteract climate change. PMID:27045933

  6. Unveiling the metabolic potential of two soil-derived microbial consortia selected on wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Based on the premise that plant biomass can be efficiently degraded by mixed microbial cultures and/or enzymes, we here applied a targeted metagenomics-based approach to explore the metabolic potential of two forest soil-derived lignocellulolytic microbial consortia, denoted RWS and TWS (bred on wheat straw). Using the metagenomes of three selected batches of two experimental systems, about 1.2 Gb of sequence was generated. Comparative analyses revealed an overrepresentation of predicted carbohydrate transporters (ABC, TonB and phosphotransferases), two-component sensing systems and β-glucosidases/galactosidases in the two consortia as compared to the forest soil inoculum. Additionally, “profiling” of carbohydrate-active enzymes showed significant enrichments of several genes encoding glycosyl hydrolases of families GH2, GH43, GH92 and GH95. Sequence analyses revealed these to be most strongly affiliated to genes present on the genomes of Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides, Flavobacterium and Pedobacter spp. Assembly of the RWS and TWS metagenomes generated 16,536 and 15,902 contigs of ≥10 Kb, respectively. Thirteen contigs, containing 39 glycosyl hydrolase genes, constitute novel (hemi)cellulose utilization loci with affiliation to sequences primarily found in the Bacteroidetes. Overall, this study provides deep insight in the plant polysaccharide degrading capabilities of microbial consortia bred from forest soil, highlighting their biotechnological potential. PMID:26343383

  7. Lignocellulosic Wheat Straw-Derived Ion-Exchange Adsorbent for Heavy Metals Removal.

    PubMed

    Krishnani, K K

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work is to develop partially delignified Ca(2+)-and-Mg(2+)-ion-exchanged product from lignocellulosic wheat straw for the removal of eight different heavy metals Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) and for detoxification of Cr(VI). Maximum fixation capacity, pH, and initial metal concentration dependence were determined to confirm strong affinity of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Hg(2+) ions onto the product, whereas Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Mn(2+) were the least fixed. Morphology of the product characterized by scanning electron microscope showed its physical integrity. Different experimental approaches were applied to determine the role of cations such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) and several functional groups present in the product in an ion exchange for the fixation of metal ions. Potentiometric titration and Scatchard and Dahlquist interpretation were employed for determination of binding site heterogeneity. Results showed strong and weak binding sites in the product. This product has advantages over other conventional processes by virtue of abundance, easy operational process, and cost reduction in waste disposal of its raw material. PMID:26494139

  8. Microbiota of Soil-Like Substrate Depending on Wheat Straw Processing Method in Experimental LSS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, Lyalya; Sysoeva, Olga

    In previous experiments conducted in the closed environmental system BIOS-3 plant waste and test persons' exometabolites were carried away from the life-support system (LSS). It is possible to create a new-generation LSS with a higher degree of matter cycle closure by adding to the soil-like substrate inedible plant waste used for cultivation of plants in the experimental LSS model. Using single-factor analysis of variance, we estimated the effect of the introduced inedible plant waste on the microbiota of the soil-like substrate (SLS). The plant waste was used: to increase the degree of matter cycle closure in the system; to replace the volume of soil-like substrate in the system; as a fertilizer for growing higher plants in the experimental LSS model. A statistically significant effect of wheat straw processing method on the number of all microorganism groups was observed in different variants of the experiment. The obtained results can be used in planning and carrying out of subsequent experiments with higher plants cultivated on SLS with waste in a closed environmental system including humans.

  9. Two approaches for introduction of wheat straw lignin into rigid polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshanitsa, A.; Paberza, A.; Vevere, L.; Cabulis, U.; Telysheva, G.

    2014-05-01

    In present work the BIOLIGNIN{trade mark, serif} obtained in the result of wheat straw organosolv processing in CIMV pilot plant (France) was investigated as a component of rigid polyurethanes (PUR) foam systems. Different separate approaches of lignin introduction into PUR foam system were studied: as filler without chemical preprocessing and as liquid lignopolyol obtained by lignin oxypropylation in alkali conditions. The incorporation of increasing amount of lignin as filler into reference PUR foam systems on the basis of mixture of commercial polyethers Lupranol 3300 and Lupranol 3422 steadily decreased the compression characteristics of foams, their dimensional stability and hydrophobicity. The complete substitution of Lupranol 3300 by lignopolyol increases its cell structure uniformity and dimensional stability and does not reduce the physical-mechanical properties of foam. In both cases the incorporation of lignin into PUR foam leads to the decreasing of maximum values of thermodegradation rates. The lignin filler can be introduced into lignopolyol based PUR foam in higher quantity than in the reference Lupranol based PUR without reduction of compression characteristics of material. In this work the optimal lignin content in the end product - PUR foam as both polyol and filler is 16%.

  10. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    PubMed Central

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l−1 of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v−1) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60–80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g−1 of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9–1.0 g g−1 of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. PMID:26230610

  11. Effects of tillage practices and straw returning methods on greenhouse gas emissions and net ecosystem economic budget in rice-wheat cropping systems in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. S.; Guo, L. J.; Liu, T. Q.; Li, C. F.; Cao, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Significant efforts have been devoted to assess the effects of conservation tillage (no-tillage [NT] and straw returning) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and net economic budget in crop growing seasons. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effects conservation tillage on the net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB) in a rice-wheat cropping system. Therefore, a split-plot field experiment was performed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of tillage practices (i.e., conventional intensive tillage [CT] and NT) and straw returning methods (i.e., straw returning or removal of preceding crop) on the soil total organic carbon (TOC), GHG emissions, GWP, GHGI, and NEEB of sandy loam soil in a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Conservation tillage did not affect rice and wheat grain yields. Compared with CT and straw removal, NT and straw returning significantly increased the TOC of 0-5 cm soil layer by 2.9% and 7.8%, respectively. However, the TOC of 0-20 cm soil layer was not affected by tillage practices and straw returning methods. NT did not also affect the N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons; NT significantly decreased the annual CH4 emissions by 7.5% and the annual GWP by 7.8% compared with CT. Consequently, GHGI under NT was reduced by 8.1%. Similar to NT, straw returning did not affect N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons. Compared with straw removal, straw returning significantly increased annual CH4 emissions by 35.0%, annual GWP by 32.0%, and annual GHGI by 31.1%. Straw returning did not also affect NEEB; by contrast, NT significantly increased NEEB by 15.6%. NT without straw returning resulted in the lowest GWP, the lowest GHGI, and the highest NEEB among all treatments. This finding suggested that NT without straw returning may be applied as a sustainable technology to increase economic and environmental benefits. Nevertheless, environmentally straw

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases from rice production with simultaneous incorporation of wheat straw and nitrogen fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Longlong; Xia, Yongqiu; Ma, Shutan; Wang, Jinyang; Wang, Shuwei; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-08-01

    Impacts of simultaneous inputs of crop straw and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and N losses from rice production are not well understood. A 2-year field experiment was established in a rice-wheat cropping system in the Taihu Lake region (TLR) of China to evaluate the GHG intensity (GHGI) as well as reactive N intensity (NrI) of rice production with inputs of wheat straw and N fertilizer. The field experiment included five treatments of different N fertilization rates for rice production: 0 (RN0), 120 (RN120), 180 (RN180), 240 (RN240), and 300 kg N ha-1 (RN300, traditional N application rate in the TLR). Wheat straws were fully incorporated into soil before rice transplantation. The meta-analytic technique was employed to evaluate various Nr losses. Results showed that the response of rice yield to N rate successfully fitted a quadratic model, while N fertilization promoted Nr discharges exponentially (nitrous oxide emission, N leaching, and runoff) or linearly (ammonia volatilization). The GHGI of rice production ranged from 1.20 (RN240) to 1.61 kg CO2 equivalent (CO2 eq) kg-1 (RN0), while NrI varied from 2.14 (RN0) to 10.92 g N kg-1 (RN300). Methane (CH4) emission dominated the GHGI with a proportion of 70.2-88.6 % due to direct straw incorporation, while ammonia (NH3) volatilization dominated the NrI with proportion of 53.5-57.4 %. Damage costs to environment incurred by GHG and Nr releases from current rice production (RN300) accounted for 8.8 and 4.9 % of farmers' incomes, respectively. Cutting N application rate from 300 (traditional N rate) to 240 kg N ha-1 could improve rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency by 2.14 and 10.30 %, respectively, while simultaneously reducing GHGI by 13 %, NrI by 23 %, and total environmental costs by 16 %. Moreover, the reduction of 60 kg N ha-1 improved farmers' income by CNY 639 ha-1, which would provide them with an incentive to change the current N application rate. Our study suggests that GHG

  13. Selection of strains of Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana adapted for efficient mycelial growth on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Mata, G; Delpech, P; Savoie, J M

    2001-09-01

    Mycelial growth rates are presented for 11 strains of Lentinula edodes and six strains of Lentinula boryana cultivated on solid media: derived from malt extract (MEA); malt yeast extract (YMEA); and, YMEA plus soluble lignin derivatives (YMEA+WSLD). The results were compared with data for mycelial growth rates, of the same strains cultivated on substrates derived from wheat straw treated at different temperatures (50, 65, 75 and autoclaving at 121 degrees C). In general, the addition of WSLD significantly reduced mycelial growth rates in both species. The greatest mycelial growth rate was obtained on sterilized straw at 121 degrees C for the majority of strains. However, this growth was not significantly different from that obtained at 75 degrees C. L. edodes showed greater growth rates than L. boryana. The feasibility of using estimates of mycelial growth rate on YMEA and YMEA+WSLD are discussed as possible indicators of a strain's potential for mycelial growth on substrates derived from wheat straw. PMID:15487920

  14. Comparison of two Cellulomonas strains and their interaction with Azospirillum brasilense in degradation of wheat straw and associated nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

    1986-04-01

    A mutant strain of Cellulomonas sp. CS1-17 was compared with Cellulomonas gelida 2480 as the cellulolytic component of a mixed culture which was responsible for the breakdown of wheat straw to support asymbiotic nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 (ATCC 29145). Cellulomonas sp. strain CS1-17 was more efficient than was C. gelida in cellulose breakdown at lower oxygen concentrations and, in mixed culture with A. brasilense, it supported higher nitrogenase activity(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction) and nitrogen fixation with straw as the carbon source. Based on gravimetric determinations of straw breakdown and total N determinations, the efficiency of nitrogen fixation was 72 and 63 mg of N per g of straw utilized for the mixtures containing Cellulomonas sp. and C. gelida, respectively. Both Cellulomonas spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited a wide range of pH tolerance. When introduced into sterilized soil, the Cellulomonas sp.-Azospirillum brasilense association was more effective in nitrogen fixation at a pH of 7.0 than at the native soil pH (5.6). This was also true of the indigenous diazotrophic microflora of this soil. The potential implications of this work to the field situation are discussed. 16 references.

  15. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing. PMID:18954978

  16. Microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic bioreactor fed by fruit vegetable wastes and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Zuo, Jiane; Chen, Xiaojie; Xing, Wei; Xing, Linan; Li, Peng; Lu, Xiangyang; Li, Chao

    2014-12-01

    The microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor (ITPAR) were investigated by 16S rDNA clone library technology. The 75L reactor was designed with a 25L rotating acidogenic unit at the top and a 50L conventional upflow methanogenic unit at the bottom, with a recirculation connected to the two units. The reactor had been operated for 21 stages to co-digest fruit/vegetable wastes and wheat straw, which showed a very good biogas production and decomposition of cellulosic materials. The results showed that many kinds of cellulose and glycan decomposition bacteria related with Bacteroidales, Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales were dominated in the reactor, with more bacteria community diversities in the acidogenic unit. The methanogens were mostly related with Methanosaeta, Methanosarcina, Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium; the predominating genus Methanosaeta, accounting for 40.5%, 54.2%, 73.6% and 78.7% in four samples from top to bottom, indicated a major methanogenesis pathway by acetoclastic methanogenesis in the methanogenic unit. The beta diversity indexes illustrated a more similar distribution of bacterial communities than that of methanogens between acidogenic unit and methanogenic unit. The differentiation of methanogenic community composition in two phases, as well as pH values and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations confirmed the phase separation of the ITPAR. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that the special designing of ITPAR maintained a sufficient number of methanogens, more diverse communities and stronger syntrophic associations among microorganisms, which made two phase anaerobic digestion of cellulosic materials more efficient. PMID:25499496

  17. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Magid, Jakob; Bruun, Sander

    2015-06-18

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during bioethanol production, and the spectra were analysed to identify components associated with recalcitrance. A total of 1122more » wheat straw samples from nine different locations in Denmark and one location in the United Kingdom, spanning a large variation in genetic material and environmental conditions during growth, were analysed. The FTIR-PAS spectra of non-pretreated wheat straw were correlated with the measured sugar release, determined by a high-throughput pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis (HTPH) assay. A partial least square regression (PLSR) calibration model predicting the glucose and xylose release was developed. The interpretation of the regression coefficients revealed a positive correlation between the released glucose and xylose with easily hydrolysable compounds, such as amorphous cellulose and hemicellulose. Additionally, we observed a negative correlation with crystalline cellulose and lignin, which inhibits cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis. FTIR-PAS was used as a reliable method for the rapid estimation of sugar release during bioethanol production. The spectra revealed that lignin inhibited the hydrolysis of polysaccharides into monomers, while the crystallinity of cellulose retarded its hydrolysis into glucose. Amorphous cellulose and xylans were found to contribute significantly to the released amounts of glucose and xylose

  18. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Magid, Jakob; Bruun, Sander

    2015-06-18

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during bioethanol production, and the spectra were analysed to identify components associated with recalcitrance. A total of 1122 wheat straw samples from nine different locations in Denmark and one location in the United Kingdom, spanning a large variation in genetic material and environmental conditions during growth, were analysed. The FTIR-PAS spectra of non-pretreated wheat straw were correlated with the measured sugar release, determined by a high-throughput pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis (HTPH) assay. A partial least square regression (PLSR) calibration model predicting the glucose and xylose release was developed. The interpretation of the regression coefficients revealed a positive correlation between the released glucose and xylose with easily hydrolysable compounds, such as amorphous cellulose and hemicellulose. Additionally, we observed a negative correlation with crystalline cellulose and lignin, which inhibits cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis. FTIR-PAS was used as a reliable method for the rapid estimation of sugar release during bioethanol production. The spectra revealed that lignin inhibited the hydrolysis of polysaccharides into monomers, while the crystallinity of cellulose retarded its hydrolysis into glucose. Amorphous cellulose and xylans were found to contribute significantly to the released amounts of glucose and xylose, respectively.

  19. Amino acid production from rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates by recombinant pentose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Vipin; Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Wendisch, Volker F; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2011-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the pentose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but it is known that recombinants expressing the araBAD operon and/or the xylA gene from Escherichia coli are able to grow with the pentoses xylose and arabinose as sole carbon sources. Recombinant pentose-utilizing strains derived from C. glutamicum wild type or from the L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain DM1729 utilized arabinose and/or xylose when these were added as pure chemicals to glucose-based minimal medium or when they were present in acid hydrolysates of rice straw or wheat bran. The recombinants grew to higher biomass concentrations and produced more L-glutamate and L-lysine, respectively, than the empty vector control strains, which utilized the glucose fraction. Typically, arabinose and xylose were co-utilized by the recombinant strains along with glucose either when acid rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates were used or when blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose were used. With acid hydrolysates growth, amino acid production and sugar consumption were delayed and slower as compared to media with blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The ethambutol-triggered production of up to 93 ± 4 mM L-glutamate by the wild type-derived pentose-utilizing recombinant and the production of up to 42 ± 2 mM L-lysine by the recombinant pentose-utilizing lysine producer on media containing acid rice straw or wheat bran hydrolysate as carbon and energy source revealed that acid hydrolysates of agricultural waste materials may provide an alternative feedstock for large-scale amino acid production. PMID:21796382

  20. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui Ling; Chen, Yong; Xu, Xiao Li; Yang, Yu Xia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields (p≤0.001). However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001). The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05). Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01) with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001) by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001) increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L) allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L. PMID:25049818

  1. Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Manríquez, O. M.; Montano, M. F.; Calderon, J. F.; Valdez, J. A.; Chirino, J. O.; Gonzalez, V. M.; Salinas-Chavira, J.; Mendoza, G. D.; Soto, S.; Zinn, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Eight Holstein steers (216±48 kg body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous 4×4 Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (p<0.01) and total tract (p = 0.03) organic matter (OM) digestion. As expected, increasing wheat straw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p<0.05) ruminal and total tract digestion of OM. Digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch, per se, were not affected (p>0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect (p≥0.48) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (p<0.01), and total-tract starch (p = 0.05) digestion were greater for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p<0.01) ruminal pH, although ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and estimated methane were not affected (p≥0.27). Ruminal digestion of OM and starch, and post-ruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal NDF digestion was greater (p = 0.02) for dry rolled than for steam-flaked corn, although total tract NDF digestion was unaffected (p = 0.94). Ruminal microbial efficiency and ruminal degradation of feed N were not affected (p>0.14) by corn processing. However

  2. Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Manríquez, O M; Montano, M F; Calderon, J F; Valdez, J A; Chirino, J O; Gonzalez, V M; Salinas-Chavira, J; Mendoza, G D; Soto, S; Zinn, R A

    2016-06-01

    Eight Holstein steers (216±48 kg body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous 4×4 Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (p<0.01) and total tract (p = 0.03) organic matter (OM) digestion. As expected, increasing wheat straw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p<0.05) ruminal and total tract digestion of OM. Digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch, per se, were not affected (p>0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect (p≥0.48) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (p<0.01), and total-tract starch (p = 0.05) digestion were greater for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p<0.01) ruminal pH, although ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and estimated methane were not affected (p≥0.27). Ruminal digestion of OM and starch, and post-ruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal NDF digestion was greater (p = 0.02) for dry rolled than for steam-flaked corn, although total tract NDF digestion was unaffected (p = 0.94). Ruminal microbial efficiency and ruminal degradation of feed N were not affected (p>0.14) by corn processing. However

  3. Fractionation of wheat straw by prehydrolysis, organosolv delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis for production of sugars and lignin.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, W J J; Smit, A T; de Wild, P J; den Uil, H

    2012-06-01

    Wheat straw was fractionated using a three-step biorefining approach: (1) aqueous pretreatment for hemicellulose prehydrolysis into sugars, (2) organosolv delignification, and (3) enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis into glucose. Prehydrolysis was applied to avoid degradation of hemicellulose sugars during organosolv delignification. Maximum xylose yield obtained was 67% or 0.17 kg/kg straw (prehydrolysis: 175 °C, 30 min, 20mM H(2)SO(4)) compared to 4% in case of organosolv without prehydrolysis (organosolv: 200 °C, 60 min, 60% w/w aqueous ethanol). Prehydrolysis was found to reduce the lignin yield by organosolv delignification due to the formation of 'pseudo-lignin' and lignin recondensation during prehydrolysis. This reduction could partly be compensated by increasing the temperature of the organosolv delignification step. Prehydrolysis substantially improved the enzymatic cellulose digestibility from 49% after organosolv without prehydrolysis to 80% (20 FPU/g substrate). Increasing the organosolv delignification temperature to 220 °C resulted in a maximum enzymatic glucose yield of 93% or 0.36 kg/kg straw. PMID:22446052

  4. Composting of poultry manure and wheat straw in a closed reactor: optimum mixture ratio and evolution of parameters.

    PubMed

    Petric, Ivan; Selimbasić, Vahida

    2008-02-01

    The main objectives of this work were to investigate the evolution of some principal physico-chemical properties (temperature, carbon dioxide, oxygen, ammonia, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter) and microbial population (mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria and fungi) during composting poultry manure with wheat straw in a reactor system, and to evaluate the optimum mixture ratio for organic substrate production. The experiments were carried out in four small laboratory reactors (1 l) and one large reactor (32 l) under adiabatic conditions over 14 days. During the process the highest temperature was 64.6 degrees C, pH varied between 7.40 and 8.85, electrical conductivity varied between 3.50 and 4.31 dS m(-1) and the highest value of organic matter (dry weight) degradation was 47.6%. Mesophilic bacteria and fungi predominated in the beginning, and started the degradation with generation of metabolic heat. By increasing the temperature in reactors, the number of thermophilic microorganisms also increased, which resulted in faster degradation of substrate. The application of a closed reactor showed a rapid degradation of manure/straw mixture as well as a good control of the emissions of air polluting gases into atmosphere. The results showed that the ratio of manure to straw 5.25:1 (dry weight) was better for composting process than the other mixture ratios. PMID:17387619

  5. Synthesis of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/PVA semi-IPNs superabsorbent resin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Rui

    2013-04-15

    To better use wheat straw and minimize its negative impact on environment, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) composed of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) network and linear polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was prepared by polymerization in the presence of a redox initiating system. The structure and morphology of semi-IPNs SAR were characterized by means of FTIR, SEM and TGA, which confirmed that WSC and PVA participated in the graft polymerization reaction with acrylic acid (AA). The factors that can influence the water absorption of the semi-IPNs SAR were investigated and optimized, including the weight ratios of AA to WSC and PVA to WSC, the content of initiator and crosslinker, neutralization degree (ND) of AA, reaction temperature and time. The semi-IPNs SAR prepared under optimized synthesis condition gave the best water absorption of 266.82 g/g in distilled water and 34.32 g/g in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. PMID:23544572

  6. Preparation of wheat straw based superabsorbent resins and their applications as adsorbents for ammonium and phosphate removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Su, Yuan; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2013-09-01

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) was prepared by graft copolymerization. The structure and performance of the WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR was studied and compared with those of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) SAR. The effects of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4(+) and PO4(3-) removal from solutions were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm data of adsorption of both NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were well fitted to the Freundlich model. Kinetic analysis showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was more suitable for describing the whole adsorption process of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) on SARs. Overall, WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR showed better properties in comparison with WSC-g-PKA SAR and it could be considered as one efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer. PMID:23786713

  7. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions. PMID:12653275

  8. [High titer ethanol production from an atmospheric glycerol autocatalytic organosolv pretreated wheat straw].

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jianquan; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Feiyang; Ren, Junli; Sun, Fubao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ding, Cancan; Lin, Qiaowen

    2015-10-01

    The expensive production of bioethanol is because it has not yet reached the 'THREE-HIGH' (High-titer, high-conversion and high-productivity) technical levels of starchy ethanol production. To cope with it, it is necessary to implement a high-gravity mash bioethanol production (HMBP), in which sugar hydrolysates are thick and fermentation-inhibitive compounds are negligible. In this work, HMBP from an atmospheric glycerol autocatalytic organosolv pretreated wheat straw was carried out with different fermentation strategies. Under an optimized condition (15% substrate concentration, 10 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 30 FPU/g dry matter, 10% (V/V) inoculum ratio), HMBP was at 31.2 g/L with a shaking simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 37 degrees C for 72 h, and achieved with a conversion of 73% and a productivity of 0.43 g/(L x h). Further by a semi-SFF with pre-hydrolysis time of 24 h, HMBP reached 33.7 g/L, the conversion and productivity of which was 79% and 0.47 g/(L x h), respectively. During the SSF and semi-SSF, more than 90% of the cellulose in both substrates were hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. Finally, a fed-batch semi-SFF was developed with an initial substrate concentration of 15%, in which dried substrate (= the weight of the initial substrate) was divided into three portions and added into the conical flask once each 8 h during the first 24 h. HMBP achieved at 51.2 g/L for 72 h with a high productivity of 0.71 g/(L x h) while a low cellulose conversion of 62%. Interestingly, the fermentation inhibitive compound was mainly acetic acid, less than 3.0 g/L, and there were no other inhibitors detected, commonly furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural existing in the slurry. The data indicate that the lignocellulosic substrate subjected to the atmospheric glycerol autocatalytic organosolv pretreatment is very applicable for HMBP. The fed-batch semi-SFF is effective and desirable to realize an HMBP. PMID:26964336

  9. Comparison of separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes for ethanol production from wheat straw by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 from dilute acid pretreated wheat straw (WS) by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. The WS used in this study contained 32.0±0% cellulose, 32.1±1.3% hemicellulo...

  10. Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Wheat Gluten and Wheat Starch Co-filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to different abilities of wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG to WS as a co-filler. This study shows that the co-filler composites became more temperature dependent as the WG co...

  11. Methane enhancement through co-digestion of chicken manure and thermo-oxidative cleaved wheat straw with waste activated sludge: A C/N optimization case.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Shi, Zhendan; Zhao, Sanqin

    2016-07-01

    The present study emphasized the co-digestion of the thermal-H2O2 pretreated wheat straw (WS) and chicken manure (CM) with the waste activated sludge at four levels of C/N (35:1, 30:1, 25:1 and 20:1). All C/N compositions were found significant (P<0.05) to enhance methane generation and process stability during the anaerobic co-digestion of WS and CM. The experimental results revealed that the composition having C/N value of 20:1 was proved as optimum treatment with the methane enhancing capability of 85.11%, CODs removal efficiency of 48.55% and 66.83% VS removal as compared with the untreated WS. The other compositions having C/N of 25:1, 30:1 and 35:1 provided 75.85%, 63.04% and 59.96% enhanced methane respectively as compared with the control. Pretreatment of the WS reduced its C/N value up to 65%. Moreover, to optimize the most suitable C/N composition, the process stability of the co-digestion of WS and CM was deeply monitored. PMID:27038262

  12. Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    fuel; and on the other hand, it provides a means for ''exporting'' geothermal energy from the well site. The primary goal of the work discussed in this report was to investigate the effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. In assessing the relative merits of various sets of conditions, we considered both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, we also investigated the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge. Phenol was selected for study because it was reported (8) to be effective in suppressing repolymerization of reactive lignin fragments. Aluminum sulfate, on the other hand, was chosen as a representative of the Lewis acids which, we hoped, would catalyze the delignification reactions.

  13. Hydrothermal pretreatment of several lignocellulosic mixtures containing wheat straw and two hardwood residues available in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Duarte, Luís Chorão; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Loureiro-Dias, Maria Conceição; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    This work studied the processing of biomass mixtures containing three lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe, eucalyptus residues (ER), wheat straw (WS) and olive tree pruning (OP). The mixtures were chemically characterized, and their pretreatment, by autohydrolysis, evaluated within a severity factor (logR0) ranging from 1.73 up to 4.24. A simple modeling strategy was used to optimize the autohydrolysis conditions based on the chemical characterization of the liquid fraction. The solid fraction was characterized to quantify the polysaccharide and lignin content. The pretreatment conditions for maximal saccharides recovery in the liquid fraction were at a severity range (logR0) of 3.65-3.72, independently of the mixture tested, which suggests that autohydrolysis can effectively process mixtures of lignocellulosic materials for further biochemical conversion processes. PMID:25742753

  14. Prewashing enhances the liquid hot water pretreatment efficiency of waste wheat straw with high free ash content.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Wu, Xinxing; Huang, Yang; Lai, Chenhuan; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The effect of prewashing process prior to the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of high free ash content waste wheat straw (WWS) was investigated. It was found that prewashing process decreased the ash content of WWS greatly, from 29.48% to 9.82%. This contributed to the lower pH value of prehydrolyzate and higher xylan removal in the following LHW pretreatment. More importantly, the prewashing process effectively increased the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of pretreated WWS, from 53.04% to 84.15%. The acid buffering capacity (ABC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of raw and prewashed WWS were examined. The majority of free ash removal from WWS by prewashing resulted in the decrease of the ABC of the WWS from 211.74 to 61.81mmol/pH-kg, and potentially enhancing the efficiency of the follow-up LHW pretreatment. PMID:27540635

  15. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    PubMed Central

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M.; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus’ mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  16. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted pelleting of wheat straw: a predictive model for energy consumption using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Meng; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic biomass can be used as a feedstock for biofuel manufacturing. Pelleting of cellulosic biomass can increase its bulk density and thus improve its storability and reduce the feedstock transportation costs. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted (UV-A) pelleting can produce biomass pellets whose density is comparable to that processed by traditional pelleting methods (e.g. extruding, briquetting, and rolling). This study applied response surface methodology to the development of a predictive model for the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting of wheat straw. Effects of pelleting pressure, ultrasonic power, sieve size, and pellet weight were investigated. This study also optimized the process parameters to minimize the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting using response surface methodology. Optimal conditions to minimize the energy consumption were the following: ultrasonic power at 20%, sieve size at 4 mm, and pellet weight at 1g, and the minimum energy consumption was 2.54 Wh. PMID:23859359

  17. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  18. Cellulase stability, adsorption/desorption profiles and recycling during successive cycles of hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Cristina; Felby, Claus; Gama, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    The potential of enzymes recycling after hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw under a variety of conditions was investigated, monitoring the activity of the enzymes in the solid and liquid fractions, using low molecular weight substrates. A significant amount of active enzymes could be recovered by recycling the liquid phase. In the early stage of the process, enzyme adsorb to the substrate, then gradually returning to the solution as the saccharification proceeds. At 50°C, normally regarded as an acceptable operational temperature for saccharification, the enzymes (Celluclast) significantly undergo thermal deactivation. The hydrolysis yield and enzyme recycling efficiency in consecutive recycling rounds can be increased by using high enzyme loadings and moderate temperatures. Indeed, the amount of enzymes in the liquid phase increased with its thermostability and hydrolytic efficiency. This study contributes towards developing effective enzymes recycling strategies and helping to reduce the enzyme costs on bioethanol production. PMID:24502914

  19. Comparison of some new pretreatment methods for second generation bioethanol production from wheat straw and water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Guragain, Yadhu Nath; De Coninck, Joelle; Husson, Florence; Durand, Alain; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic residues like water hyacinth (WH) and wheat straw (WS) using crude glycerol (CG) and ionic liquids (IL) pretreatment was evaluated and compared with conventional dilute acid pretreatment (DAT) in terms of enzymatic hydrolysis yield and fermentation yield of pretreated samples. In the case of WS, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment was found to be the best method. The hydrolysis yields of glucose and total reducing sugars were 2.1 and 3.3 times respectively higher by IL pretreatment than DAT, while it was 1.4 and 1.9 times respectively higher with CG pretreatment. For WH sample, CG pretreatment was as effective as DAT and more effective than IL pretreatment regarding hydrolysis yield. The fermentation inhibition was not noticeable with both types of pretreatment methods and feedstocks. Besides, CG pretreatment was found as effective as pure glycerol pretreatment for both feedstocks. This opens up an attractive economic route for the utilization of CG. PMID:21273061

  20. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required to foster tolerance towards industrial wheat straw hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, Miguel C; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-12-01

    The presence of toxic compounds derived from biomass pre-treatment in fermentation media represents an important drawback in second-generation bio-ethanol production technology and overcoming this inhibitory effect is one of the fundamental challenges to its industrial production. The aim of this study was to systematically identify, in industrial medium and at a genomic scale, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for simultaneous and maximal tolerance to key inhibitors of lignocellulosic fermentations. Based on the screening of EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection, 242 and 216 determinants of tolerance to inhibitory compounds present in industrial wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) and in inhibitor-supplemented synthetic hydrolysate were identified, respectively. Genes associated to vitamin metabolism, mitochondrial and peroxisomal functions, ribosome biogenesis and microtubule biogenesis and dynamics are among the newly found determinants of WSH resistance. Moreover, PRS3, VMA8, ERG2, RAV1 and RPB4 were confirmed as key genes on yeast tolerance and fermentation of industrial WSH. PMID:25287021

  1. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) andmore » higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.« less

  2. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) and higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  3. Treatment of wheat straw using tannase and white-rot fungus to improve feed utilization by ruminants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current research to enrich cattle feed has primarily focused on treatment using white rot fungi, while there are scarce reports using the enzyme tannase, which is discussed only in reviews or in the form of a hypothesis. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of tannase on wheat straw (WS) and also the effect of lyophilized tannase at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% (w/w) on WS followed by fermentation with Ganoderma sp. for 10 d and compared in relation to biochemical parameters, crude protein (CP) content, and nutritional value by calculating the C/N ratio in order to improve the nutritional value of cattle feed. Results Penicillium charlesii, a tannase-producing microorganism, produced 61.4 IU/mL of tannase in 54 h when 2% (w/v) tannic acid (TA) was initially used as a substrate in medium containing (% w/v) sucrose (1.0), NaNO3 (1.0), and MgSO4 (0.08 pH, 5.0) in a 300-L fermentor (working volume 220 L), and concomitantly fed with 1.0% (w/v) TA after 24 h. The yield of partially purified and lyophilized tannase was 5.8 IU/mg. The tannin-free myco-straw at 0.1% (w/w) tannase showed 37.8% (w/w) lignin degradation with only a 20.4% (w/w) decrease in cellulose content and the in vitro feed digestibility was 32.2%. An increase in CP content (up to 1.28-fold) along with a lower C/N ratio of 25.0%, as compared to myco-straw, was obtained. Conclusions The use of tannin-free myco-straw has potential to improve the nutritional content of cattle feed. This biological treatment process was safe, eco-friendly, easy to perform, and was less expensive as compared to other treatment methods. PMID:24555694

  4. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, F.; Abdullah, M.; Chaudhry, A. S.; Bhatti, J. A.; Jabbar, M. A.; Ahmed, F.; Mehmood, T.; Asim, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kamran, Z.; Irshad, I.; Tahir, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves. PMID:26950866

  5. NO formation during agricultural straw combustion.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Xiaoping

    2011-07-01

    NO formation during combustion of four typical kinds of straw (wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and corn stalk) which belong to soft straw and hard straw was studied in a tubular quartz fixed bed reactor under conditions relevant to grate boiler combustion. Regarding the real situation in biomass fired power plants in China, NO formation from blended straw combustion was also investigated. Nitrogen transfer during blended straw pyrolysis was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results show that NO conversion for the four straws during combustion is distinctive. Over 70% fuel-N converts into NO for cotton stalk, while only 37% for wheat straw under the same condition. When wheat straw and cotton stalk were mixed, N-NO conversion increases. The limestone addition promotes NO emission during cotton stalk combustion. The presence of SO(2) in atmosphere suppresses NO formation from straw combustion. PMID:21592786

  6. On-site cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei 3EMS35 mutant and same vessel saccharification and fermentation of acid treated wheat straw for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Zia-ullah; Syed, Qurat-ul-Ain; Wu, Jing; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials involves process steps like pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and distillation. In this study, wheat straw was explored as feedstock for on-site cellulase production by T. reesei 3EMS35 mutant, and as a substrate for second generation bioethanol production from baker yeast. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractography (XRD) of untreated wheat straw (UWS) and acid treated wheat straw (TWS) were done to understand the structural organization and changes in the cellulase accessibility and reactivity. The effect of delignification and structural modification for on-site cellulase enzyme production was comparably studied. The efficiency of crude cellulase enzyme for digestion of UWS and TWS and then production of ethanol from TWS was studied using same-vessel saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) technique, both in shaking flasks as well as in fermenters. Two different methods of operation were tested, i.e. the UWSEnz method, where UWS was used for on-site enzyme production, and TWSEnz method where TWS was applied as substrate for cellullase production. Results obtained showed structural modifications in cellulose of TWS due to delignification, removal of wax and change of crystallinity. UWS was better substrate than TWS for cellulase production due to the fact that lignin did not hinder the enzyme production by fungus but acted as a booster. On-site cellulase enzyme produced by T. reesei 3EMS35 mutant hydrolyzed most of cellulose (91 %) in TWS within first 24 hrs. Shake flasks experiments showed that ethanol titers and yields with UWSEnz were 2.9 times higher compared to those obtained with TWSEnz method respectively. Comparatively, titer of ethanol in shake flask experiments was 10 % higher than this obtained in 3 L fermenter with UWSEnz. Outcomes from this investigation clearly demonstrated the potential of on-site cellulase enzyme production and SVSF for ethanol production

  7. Characterization of wheat straw-degrading anaerobic alkali-tolerant mixed cultures from soda lake sediments by molecular and cultivation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Porsch, Katharina; Wirth, Balázs; Tóth, Erika M; Schattenberg, Florian; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline pretreatment has the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas. However, the elevated pH of the substrate may require alkalitolerant microbial communities for an effective digestion. Three mixed anaerobic lignocellulolytic cultures were enriched from sediments from two soda lakes with wheat straw as substrate under alkaline (pH 9) mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The gas production of the three cultures ceased after 4 to 5 weeks, and the produced gas was composed of carbon dioxide and methane. The main liquid intermediates were acetate and propionate. The physiological behavior of the cultures was stable even after several transfers. The enrichment process was also followed by molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and of the mcrA/mrtA functional gene for methanogens. The main shift in the microbial community composition occurred between the sediment samples and the first enrichment, whereas the structure was stable in the following transfers. The bacterial communities mainly consisted of Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales and Spirochaeta, but differed at genus level. Methanothermobacter and Methanosarcina genera and the order Methanomicrobiales were predominant methanogenes in the obtained cultures. Additionally, single cellulolytic microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures and identified as members of the alkaliphilic or alkalitolerant genera. The results show that anaerobic alkaline habitats harbor diverse microbial communities, which can degrade lignocellulose effectively and are therefore a potential resource for improving anaerobic digestion. PMID:25737100

  8. Characterization of wheat straw-degrading anaerobic alkali-tolerant mixed cultures from soda lake sediments by molecular and cultivation techniques.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Katharina; Wirth, Balázs; Tóth, Erika M; Schattenberg, Florian; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment has the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas. However, the elevated pH of the substrate may require alkalitolerant microbial communities for an effective digestion. Three mixed anaerobic lignocellulolytic cultures were enriched from sediments from two soda lakes with wheat straw as substrate under alkaline (pH 9) mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The gas production of the three cultures ceased after 4 to 5 weeks, and the produced gas was composed of carbon dioxide and methane. The main liquid intermediates were acetate and propionate. The physiological behavior of the cultures was stable even after several transfers. The enrichment process was also followed by molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and of the mcrA/mrtA functional gene for methanogens. The main shift in the microbial community composition occurred between the sediment samples and the first enrichment, whereas the structure was stable in the following transfers. The bacterial communities mainly consisted of Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales and Spirochaeta, but differed at genus level. Methanothermobacter and Methanosarcina genera and the order Methanomicrobiales were predominant methanogenes in the obtained cultures. Additionally, single cellulolytic microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures and identified as members of the alkaliphilic or alkalitolerant genera. The results show that anaerobic alkaline habitats harbor diverse microbial communities, which can degrade lignocellulose effectively and are therefore a potential resource for improving anaerobic digestion. PMID:25737100

  9. [Effects of no-tillage plus inter-planting and remaining straw on the field on cropland eco-environment and wheat growth].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Hongcheng; Dai, Qigen; Huo, Zhongyang; Xu, Ke; Ruan, Huifang

    2005-02-01

    The studies showed that under no-tillage plus inter-planting rice and wheat, the height of rice stubble remained on the field significantly affected light transmission rate, with an optimal height of 20-30 cm. No-tillage and straw-remaining decreased soil temperature at noon in sunny days, but slightly increased it in the morning and evening, led to a less diurnal difference of soil temperature. The average diurnal soil temperature under no-tillage was higher in cloudy but lower in sunny days. Under no-tillage and straw-remaining, both the bulk density and the penetration resistance of topsoil increased, but no apparent adverse effect of them was observed on wheat growth. Under no-tillage, soil water content was higher under drought condition, and soil permeability after irrigation was better, which was propitious to the wheat growth. Straw-remaining significantly inhibited weeds, but led to the decrease of basic seedlings and enhanced the damage of freezing. Under no-tillage plus inter-planting, the individuals of effective ears decreased, while the kilo-grain weight increased. The grain yield was slightly but not significantly low under no-tillage plus inter-planting. PMID:15852946

  10. Effects of changes in straw chemical properties and alkaline soils on bacterial communities engaged in straw decomposition at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhang, Congzhi; Feng, Youzhi; Chen, Lin; Yu, Zhenghong; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the composition of a bacterial community engaged in decomposing wheat straw in a fluvo-aquic soil at 15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C were identified using barcode pyrosequencing. Functional carbon groups in the decomposing wheat straw were evaluated by 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were more abundant, whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were less abundant, at higher temperatures during the later stages of decomposition. Differences in the chemical properties of straw accounted for 19.3% of the variation in the community composition, whereas soil properties accounted for more (24.0%) and temperature, for less (7.4%). Carbon content of the soil microbial biomass and nitrogen content of straw were significantly correlated with the abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The chemical properties of straw, especially the NCH/OCH3, alkyl O-C-O, and O-alkyl functional groups, exercised a significant effect on the composition of the bacterial community at different temperatures during decomposition—results that extend our understanding of bacterial communities associated with the decomposition of straw in agro-ecosystems and of the effects of temperature and chemical properties of the decomposing straw and soil on such communities. PMID:26916902

  11. Effect of long term feeding of ammoniated wheat straw treated with or without HCl on blood biochemical parameters in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Usha Rani; Sahu, Dev Sharan; Naik, Prafulla Kumar; Dass, Ram Sharan; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-four growing male buffalo calves (one year of age; 88.54 +/- 3.81 kg average body weight) were divided into three comparable groups (I, II and III) on the basis of their body weight (BW) in a completely randomised design to study the effect of long term feeding of ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) and hydrochloric acid treated ammoniated wheat straw (HCl-AWS) on blood biochemical changes. The animals were offered a concentrate mixture (CM) along with wheat straw (WS), ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) (4% urea at a 50% moisture level) and hydrochloric acid treated ammoniated wheat straw (HCI-AWS) (4% urea at a 50% moisture level and HCI added to trap 30% of NH3 evolved) in groups I, II and III, respectively for an average daily gain (ADG) of 500 g. All the diets were made iso-nitrogenous by preparing three types of concentrate mixtures of different CP levels. The blood was collected from the jugular vein randomly from three animals of each group initially after 8 months post feeding and subsequently after two months interval up to 14 months of experimental feeding. Due to urea ammoniation, the CP content of WS increased from 3.66 to 8.51 and was further increased to 11.35 due to the addition of HCl during urea-ammoniation of wheat straw. The cumulative period mean plasma glucose values (mg %), in group II (53.13) were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those in groups I (48.44) and III (50.60). The cumulative period mean values of serum albumin and globulin (g %) were not significantly different and were comparable among the groups I (3.33 and 3.06), II (3.53 and 2.97) and III (3.49 and 2.94). The cumulative period mean values of serum albumin: globulin ratio and total protein values were not significantly different among the different groups. Serum urea and creatinine values were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in group III (58.66 and 2.24) as compared to groups I and II. The cumulative period mean values of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (KA units) did not

  12. Biorefining strategy for maximal monosaccharide recovery from three different feedstocks: eucalyptus residues, wheat straw and olive tree pruning.

    PubMed

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Duarte, Luís Chorão; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Marques, Susana; Loureiro-Dias, Maria Conceição; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    This work proposes the biorefining of eucalyptus residues (ER), wheat straw (WS) and olive tree pruning (OP) combining hydrothermal pretreatment (autohydrolysis) with acid post-hydrolysis of the liquid fraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction towards maximal recovery of monosaccharides from those lignocellulose materials. Autohydrolysis of ER, WS and OP was performed under non-isothermal conditions (195-230°C) and the non-cellulosic saccharides were recovered in the liquid fraction while cellulose and lignin remained in the solid fraction. The acid post-hydrolysis of the soluble oligosaccharides was studied by optimizing sulfuric acid concentration (1-4%w/w) and reaction time (10-60 min), employing a factorial (2(2)) experimental design. The solids resulting from pretreatment were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis by applying commercial cellulolytic enzymes Celluclast® 1.5L and Novozyme® 188 (0.225 and 0.025 g/g solid, respectively). This strategy provides high total monosaccharide recovery or high glucose recovery from lignocellulosic materials, depending on the autohydrolysis conditions applied. PMID:25742752

  13. Optimization of cultivation and nutrition conditions and substrate pretreatment for solid-substrate fermentation of wheat straw by Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J S; Tripathi, J P

    1991-01-01

    Bioconversion of wheat straw by solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) with Coriolus versicolor was optimized by varying its physiological parameters. Selective delignification (more lignin than holocellulose degradation) and increases in crude protein (CP) content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were taken as the criteria to select optimum levels of these parameters. The fungus behaved optimally under the following set of cultural and nutritional conditions: pH 5.5, moisture level 55%, temperature 30 degrees C, duration of fermentation 21 d, form of inoculum--grain culture, turning frequency--once at mid-incubation, urea (nitrogen source) 1.5% (sterile) or 3.0% (nonsterile), single superphosphate (phosphorus + sulfur source) 1.0%, no addition of free polysaccharides (as whey or molasses). A maximum of 17.5% increase in IVDMD involving 4.3% degradation of lignin, was attained in the optimized SSF under laboratory conditions. The digestibility improvement could be further increased by using a substrate pretreatment (physical/chemical/biological) in the following order of preference: NaOH treatment, urea or urine treatment, ensiling, steaming, grinding. For practical farm applications, urea treatment and ensiling appeared most feasible. The laboratory optimized process was also scaled up to 4 kg (sterile and unsterile) and 50 kg (unsterile) fermentations. PMID:1841863

  14. Co-consumption of glucose and xylose for organic acid production by Aspergillus carbonarius cultivated in wheat straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Lübeck, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius exhibits excellent abilities to utilize a wide range of carbon sources and to produce various organic acids. In this study, wheat straw hydrolysate containing high concentrations of glucose and xylose was used for organic acid production by A. carbonarius. The results indicated that A. carbonarius efficiently co-consumed glucose and xylose and produced various types of organic acids in hydrolysate adjusted to pH 7. The inhibitor tolerance of A. carbonarius to the hydrolysate at different pH values was investigated and compared using spores and recycled mycelia. This comparison showed a slight difference in the inhibitor tolerance of the spores and the recycled mycelia based on their growth patterns. Moreover, the wild-type and a glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutant were compared for their abilities to produce organic acids using the hydrolysate and a defined medium. The two strains showed a different pattern of organic acid production in the hydrolysate where the Δgox mutant produced more oxalic acid but less citric acid than the wild-type, which was different from the results obtained in the defined medium This study demonstrates the feasibility of using lignocellulosic biomass for the organic acid production by A. carbonarius. PMID:26925619

  15. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater. PMID:25710573

  16. Assessment of the potential for biogas production from wheat straw leachate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters.

    PubMed

    Idrus, S; Banks, C J; Heaven, S

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is a major potential source of waste biomass for renewable energy production, but its high salt content causes problems in combustion. The salts can be removed by washing, but this process also removes a proportion of the organic material which could potentially be recovered by anaerobic digestion of the washwater leachate. This approach would maximise the overall energy yield in an integrated process in which washwater could be recycled after further desalting. Leachate from cold water washing with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1.2 g l⁻¹ was fed to mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters at a loading rate of 1 g COD l⁻¹ day⁻¹ to determine the energy yield and any detrimental effects of the leached salts on the process. The specific methane production was 0.29 l CH₄ g⁻¹ COD(added), corresponding to a COD removal rate of 84%. Light metal cations in the leachate, especially potassium, were found to accumulate in the digesters and appeared to have a synergistic effect up to a concentration of ∼6.5 mg K g⁻¹ wet weight of the granular sludge, but further accumulation caused inhibition of methanogenesis. It was shown that gas production in the inhibited digesters could be restored within 12 days by switching the feed to a synthetic sewage, which washed the accumulated K out of the digesters. PMID:23109593

  17. Production of short-chain fatty acids from the biodegradation of wheat straw lignin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Baltierra-Trejo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Yáñez, Juan Manuel; Buenrostro-Delgado, Otoniel; Márquez-Benavides, Liliana

    2015-11-01

    The wheat straw lignin-rich fraction (WSLig-RF) can be used as a raw material for the production of metabolites for industrial use if ligninolytic mitosporic fungi are used for its biodegradation into aromatics and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, i.e., SCFA2-6). Although methods for the production of SCFA2-6 have been described previously, quantitative data of SCFA2-6 production have not been reported. The objectives of this study were to investigate the biodegradation of different concentrations of WSLig-RF by Aspergillus fumigatus and to identify whether SCFA2-6 production was dependent on the concentration of aromatics. A. fumigatus generated 2805mgL(-1) acetic acid when mixed with WSLig-RF at a concentration of 20gL(-1). Thus, aromatics are a substrate for the biosynthesis of SCFA2-6, and their production depends on the concentration of WSLig-RF aromatics. PMID:26263005

  18. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system. PMID:25391347

  19. Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation of High Dry Matter Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw at Low Enzyme Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O2 as oxidizing agent was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%.

  20. Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaochen; Zheng, Yubin; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Chen, Shulin

    2011-05-01

    This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g/L) and hexoses (4.9 g/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia lipolytica, were evaluated by using this hydrolysate as substrates. The results showed that all of these strains could use the detoxified hydrolysate to produce lipids while except R. toruloides non-detoxified hydrolysate could also be used for the growth of all of the selective yeast strains. C. curvatus showed the highest lipid concentrations in medium on both the detoxified (4.2g/L) and non-detoxified (5.8 g/L) hydrolysates. And the inhibitory effect studies on C. curvatus indicated HMF had insignificant impacts at a concentration of up to 3g/L while furfural inhibited cell growth and lipid content by 72.0% and 62.0% at 1g/L, respectively. Our work demonstrates that lipid production is a promising alternative to utilize hemicellulosic sugars obtained during pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21463940

  1. Yield and nutritional content of Pleurotus sajor caju on wheat straw supplemented with raw and detoxified mahua cake.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh

    2013-12-15

    The effect of supplementation of wheat straw (WS) with raw/detoxified mahua cake (MC) on yield and nutritional quality of Pleurotus sajor caju was studied. Raw cake significantly enhanced the yield compared to control and could be tolerated up to a 10% addition. Detoxification further improved the mushroom yield giving a maximum of 1024.7 g kg(-1) from WS supplemented with 20% saponin free detoxified mahua cake. Chemical analysis of fruit bodies revealed that they are rich in proteins (27.4-34.8%), soluble sugars (28.6-32.2%) and minerals. Glucose, trehalose and glutamic acid, alanine were the major sugars and amino acids detected by HPLC analysis, respectively. HPLC studies further confirmed the absence of saponins (characteristic toxins present in MC) in both fruit bodies and spent. Degradation of complex molecules in spent was monitored via FTIR. The study proved beneficial for effective management of agricultural wastes along with production of nutrient rich and saponin free fruit bodies/spent. PMID:23993610

  2. A study for development of emission factors for trace gases and carbonaceous particulate species from in situ burning of wheat straw in agricultural fields in india

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Shivraj; Sharma, C.; Singh, D. P.; Dixit, C. K.; Singh, Nahar; Sharma, P.; Singh, K.; Bhatt, S.; Ghude, S.; Gupta, V.; Gupta, Raj K.; Tiwari, M. K.; Garg, S. C.; Mitra, A. P.; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    Major crops subject to field burning of crop residue (FBCR) generated an estimated 284 Tg of residue in India, of which 40% was contributed by wheat in the year 2000. About 7.5% of this total generated wheat straw was subjected to on-site burning, that is expected to emit large amounts of trace gases and particulate matter (PM) to the atmosphere, whose country-specific estimates and emission factors (EFs) are presently not available. An in situ experiment for wheat straw burning was undertaken for developing India specific EFs. The EFs of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, NOx, NO and NO2 were found to be 1787±36, 3.6±2.7, 28.1±20.1, 0.74±0.46, 1.70±1.68, 0.78±0.71 and 0.56±0.47gkg-1, whereas those for organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC) were 0.3±0.1, 0.2±0.1, and 0.5±0.2gkg-1, respectively. Although these EFs have been generated from a single field experiment nevertheless they address important information gap on FBCR in the region. Further, the total emissions of CH4, CO2, CO, N2O, NOx, NO, NO2, OC, BC and TC from wheat straw burning in India for the year 2000 was estimated as 68±51, 34435±682, 541±387, 14±9, 33±32, 15±14, 11±9, 6±2, 3±1 and 10±4 Gg, respectively.

  3. Comparative study of lignin characteristics from wheat straw obtained by soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment and effect on the following enzymatic hydrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haitao; Xie, Yimin; Zheng, Xing; Pu, Yunqiao; Huang, Fang; Meng, Xianzhi; Wu, Weibing; Ragauskas, Arthur; Yao, Lan

    2016-05-01

    To understand the structural changes of lignin after soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment, milled straw lignin, black liquor lignin and residual lignin extracted from wheat straw were characterized by FT-IR, UV, GPC and NMR. The results showed that the main lignin linkages were β-aryl ether substructures (β-O-4'), followed by phenylcoumaran (β-5') and resinol (β-β') substructures, while minor content of spirodienone (β-1'), dibenzodioxocin (5-5') and α,β-diaryl ether linkages were detected as well. After pretreatment, most lignin inter-units and lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) linkages were degraded and dissolved in black liquor, with minor amount left in residual pretreated biomass. In addition, through quantitative (13)C and 2D-HSQC NMR spectral analysis, lignin and LCC were found to be more degraded after kraft pretreatment than soda-AQ pretreatment. Furthermore, the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis results showed that more cellulose in wheat straw was converted to glucose after kraft pretreatment, indicating that LCC linkages were important in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. PMID:26897415

  4. Priming effect of (13)C-labelled wheat straw in no-tillage soil under drying and wetting cycles in the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enke; Wang, Jianbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Angers, Denis A; Yan, Changrong; Oweis, Theib; He, Wenqing; Liu, Qin; Chen, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drying and wetting (DW) cycles on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation and on the priming effect (PE) induced by the addition of (13)C-labelled wheat straw to long-term no-tillage (NT) and conventional-tillage (CT) soils. We observed that the SOC mineralisation rate in rewetted soils was greater than that in soils that were kept at constant water content. The proportion of CO2 derived from the straw declined dramatically during the first 10 days. The priming direction was first positive, and then became slightly negative. The PE was higher under DW cycles than under constant water content. There was no significant effect of the tillage system on the SOC mineralisation rate or PE. The data indicate that the DW cycles had a significant effect on the SOC mineralisation rate and on the PE, demonstrating a positive combined effect between wheat straw and moisture fluctuations. Further research is needed to study the role of microbial communities and C pools in affecting the SOC mineralisation response to DW cycles. PMID:26345303

  5. Priming effect of 13C-labelled wheat straw in no-tillage soil under drying and wetting cycles in the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enke; Wang, Jianbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Angers, Denis A.; Yan, Changrong; Oweis, Theib; He, Wenqing; Liu, Qin; Chen, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drying and wetting (DW) cycles on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation and on the priming effect (PE) induced by the addition of 13C-labelled wheat straw to long-term no-tillage (NT) and conventional-tillage (CT) soils. We observed that the SOC mineralisation rate in rewetted soils was greater than that in soils that were kept at constant water content. The proportion of CO2 derived from the straw declined dramatically during the first 10 days. The priming direction was first positive, and then became slightly negative. The PE was higher under DW cycles than under constant water content. There was no significant effect of the tillage system on the SOC mineralisation rate or PE. The data indicate that the DW cycles had a significant effect on the SOC mineralisation rate and on the PE, demonstrating a positive combined effect between wheat straw and moisture fluctuations. Further research is needed to study the role of microbial communities and C pools in affecting the SOC mineralisation response to DW cycles. PMID:26345303

  6. Effects of green liquor pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

    2013-12-01

    Green liquor (Na2S+Na2CO3, GL) pretreatment is a proven pathway to improve the enzymatic saccharification for the production of bioethanol. In this work, the effects of GL pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw at various total titratable alkali (TTA) charge and temperature were investigated. The GL pretreatment showed excellent performance in high polysaccharides retention and delignification selectivity. Under the optimized GL pretreatment condition (4% TTA charge, 20% sulfidity and 140°C), 92.5% of glucan, 82.4% of xylan and 81.6% of arabinan in rice straw were recovered with a delignification of 39.4%. The maximum sugar yields of 83.9%, 69.6% and 78.0%, respectively for glucan, xylan and total sugar, were achieved at the same GL pretreatment condition with an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate. The results suggested that GL pretreatment is a practicable method for rice straw to enhance enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production. PMID:24128400

  7. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Kamil, Alison; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 µg/g and was correlated with whole wheat content (r = 0.9248; p = 0.0083). Ferulic acid (FerA) was the dominant phenolic at 99.9-316.0 µg/g and mostly bound tightly to the wheat matrix. AR-C21 and total FerA predicted the whole wheat content in each product (R(2 )= 0.9933). Total phytosterol content ranged from 562.6 to 1035.5 µg/g. Total tocol content ranged from 19.3 to 292.7 µg/g. Phytosterol and tocol contents were independent of whole wheat content. Whole wheat biscuits and pasta were the most potent products to induce QR in Hepa1c1c7 cells. This study provides a platform to characterize the relationship between the phytochemical composition of whole wheat and products formulated with this whole grain. PMID:25578763

  8. Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9 ± 0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P < 0.01) the total DM, OM and CP intake and improved (P < 0.01) the daily body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Lambs in T2, T3 and T4 gained weight at the rate of 22.7, 21.9 and 14.1 g/day, respectively, while lambs on the control diet lost weight at a rate of -24.9 g/day. Supplementation also improved (P < 0.01) the digestibility of DM, OM, CP and NDF of the total diet. It was concluded that supplementation of E. coracana straw with NSC, CSC and U mixed with WB improves feed utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs. PMID:20661642

  9. Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P; Womac, A.R.; Chevanan, Nehru; Miu, P.I.; Smith, D.R.; Igathinathane, C.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-07-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic

  10. Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH) and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH). The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11 mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production. PMID:22824058

  11. Fungicide Effects on Fungal Community Composition in the Wheat Phyllosphere

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied. PMID:25369054

  12. Intake, digestion and small intestinal protein availability in sheep in relation to ammoniation of wheat straw with or without protein supplementation.

    PubMed

    Oosting, S J; Van Bruchem, J; Chen, X B

    1995-09-01

    The effects of ammoniation of wheat straw with or without supplementation of protein sources of either high (casein) or relatively low (potato protein) rumen degradability on intake and digestion were studied with four sheep in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Rations offered were: (1) untreated wheat straw (UWS), (2) ammoniated wheat straw (AWS), (3) AWS supplemented with 3.2 g casein/kg live weight (W)0.75 per d (AWSC) and (4) AWS supplemented with 3.9 g potato protein/kg W0.75 per d (AWSP). Straw was offered ad lib. and all rations were supplemented with sugarbeet pulp and a mineral mixture. NH3 treatment increased intake and digestion. Supplementation of AWS with potato protein increased total digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) compared with AWS whereas supplementation with casein did not affect total DOMI. Protein supplementation of AWS significantly reduced rumen digestion of cellulose, and when the supplementation was with casein it reduced rumen digestion of neutral-detergent fibre and hemicellulose also. This lower rumen digestion was compensated by a higher proportion of digestion occurring in the hindgut for hemicellulose (P < 0.05 for AWSC, P > 0.05 for AWSP), but not for cellulose. Across all rations, rumen fluid volume increased with increasing cell-wall intake. The efficiencies of microbial protein synthesis were (average of three different methods of estimation) 23.3, 26.2, 34.8 and 31.7 g N/kg apparently-rumen-degraded organic matter for UWS, AWS, AWSC and AWSP respectively. The difference between UWS and AWS was not significant, but values for AWSC and AWSP were significantly higher than that for AWS. The rumen digestion of feed amino acid-N (AA-N) was significantly higher for AWSC than for the other rations. The apparent small-intestinal digestion of AA-N and N was significantly higher for AWSP than for the other rations. The true small-intestinal digestion values were 0.86, 0.84 and 0.68 for AA-N, N and non-protein-N respectively. Ileal

  13. Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Khan; Alam, Zeb

    2007-08-01

    Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%-10.27%, 2.15%-2.55% total fats, 1.72%-1.85% dietary fibers, 77.65x10(-6)-84.25x10(-6) of potassium and 7.70x10(-6)-35.90x10(-6) of sodium ions concentration, 0.24x10(-6)-0.84x10(-6) of phosphorus, 1.44%-2.10% ash, 31.108-43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%-9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes. PMID:17657856

  14. Germinated wheat: Phytochemical composition and mixing characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germinated grain recently attracts interest due to its beneficial effect on human health. In this research, whole wheat flour samples obtained after three days and five days of germination were analyzed for biochemical components, mixing quality, and effects on human breast cancer cells. Germinati...

  15. Characterization of a Novel Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP)-Type Enzyme from Irpex lacteus and Its Application in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Irpex lacteus is a white rot basidiomycete proposed for a wide spectrum of biotechnological applications which presents an interesting, but still scarcely known, enzymatic oxidative system. Among these enzymes, the production, purification, and identification of a new dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type enzyme, as well as its physico-chemical, spectroscopic, and catalytic properties, are described in the current work. According to its N-terminal sequence and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses, I. lacteus DyP showed high homology (>95%) with the hypothetical (not isolated or characterized) protein cpop21 from an unidentified species of the family Polyporaceae. The enzyme had a low optimal pH, was very stable to acid pH and temperature, and showed improved activity and stability at high H2O2 concentrations compared to other peroxidases. Other attractive features of I. lacteus DyP were its high catalytic efficiency oxidizing the recalcitrant anthraquinone and azo dyes assayed (kcat/Km of 1.6 × 106 s-1 M-1) and its ability to oxidize nonphenolic aromatic compounds like veratryl alcohol. In addition, the effect of this DyP during the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw was checked. The results suggest that I. lacteus DyP displayed a synergistic action with cellulases during the hydrolysis of wheat straw, increasing significantly the fermentable glucose recoveries from this substrate. These data show a promising biotechnological potential for this enzyme. PMID:23666335

  16. Measurement of process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw using FT-NIR spectroscopy and synergy interval PLS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hui; Liu, Guohai; Mei, Congli; Yu, Shuang; Xiao, Xiahong; Ding, Yuhan

    2012-11-01

    The feasibility of rapid determination of the process variables (i.e. pH and moisture content) in solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw using Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was studied. Synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithm was implemented to calibrate regression model. The number of PLS factors and the number of subintervals were optimized simultaneously by cross-validation. The performance of the prediction model was evaluated according to the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the correlation coefficient (R). The measurement results of the optimal model were obtained as follows: RMSECV = 0.0776, Rc = 0.9777, RMSEP = 0.0963, and Rp = 0.9686 for pH model; RMSECV = 1.3544% w/w, Rc = 0.8871, RMSEP = 1.4946% w/w, and Rp = 0.8684 for moisture content model. Finally, compared with classic PLS and iPLS models, the siPLS model revealed its superior performance. The overall results demonstrate that FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with siPLS algorithm can be used to measure process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw, and NIR spectroscopy technique has a potential to be utilized in SSF industry.

  17. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G(+)/G(-)). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G(+)/G(-) compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems. PMID:27611023

  18. Impact of steam explosion on the wheat straw lignin structure studied by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Harri; Elder, Thomas; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rovio, Stella; Rahikainen, Jenni; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja

    2014-10-29

    Chemical changes of lignin induced by the steam explosion (SE) process were elucidated. Wheat straw was studied as the raw material, and lignins were isolated by the enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) procedure before and after the SE treatment for analyses mainly by two-dimensional (2D) [heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)] and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The β-O-4 structures were found to be homolytically cleaved, followed by recoupling to β-5 linkages. The homolytic cleavage/recoupling reactions were also studied by computational methods, which verified their thermodynamic feasibility. The presence of the tricin bound to wheat straw lignin was confirmed, and it was shown to participate in lignin reactions during the SE treatment. The preferred homolytic β-O-4 cleavage reaction was calculated to follow bond dissociation energies: G-O-G (guaiacyl) (69.7 kcal/mol) > G-O-S (syringyl) (68.4 kcal/mol) > G-O-T (tricin) (67.0 kcal/mol). PMID:25290760

  19. Ethanol Production from Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw Hydrolysate by Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 in a Continuous Immobilized Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie J.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    Thermophilic ethanol fermentation of wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in a continuous immobilized reactor system. The experiments were carried out in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at 70°C. Undetoxified wheat straw hydrolysate was used (3-12% dry matter), corresponding to sugar mixtures of glucose and xylose ranging from 12 to 41 g/1. The organism, thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1, exhibited significant resistance to high levels of acetic acid (up to 10 g/1) and other metabolic inhibitors present in the hydrolysate. Although the hydrolysate was not detoxified, ethanol yield in a range of 0.39-0.42 g/g was obtained. Overall, sugar efficiency to ethanol was 68-76%. The reactor was operated continuously for approximately 143 days, and no contamination was seen without the use of any agent for preventing bacterial infections. The tested microorganism has considerable potential to be a novel candidate for lignocellulose bioconversion into ethanol. The work reported here also demonstrates that the use of FBR configuration might be a viable approach for thermophilic anaerobic ethanol fermentation.

  20. Kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw including a novel strategy of estimation of endogenous decay and yield coefficients using numerical integration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw has not been widely reported in the literature. Since endogenous decay and yield coefficients are two basic parameters for the design of anaerobic digesters, they are currently estimated only by continues experiments. In this study, numerical integration was employed to develop a novel strategy to estimate endogenous decay and yield coefficients using initial and final liquid data combined with methane volumes produced over time in batch experiments. To verify this method, the kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different TS and VS levels was investigated, with the corresponding endogenous decay and (non-observed) yield coefficients in the exponential periods determined to be between 0.74 × 10(-3) and 6.1 × 10(-3) d(-1), and between 0.0259 and 0.108 g VSS (g VS)(-1), respectively. A general Gompertz model developed early for bio-product could be used to simulate the methane volume profile in the co-digestion. The same model parameters obtained from the methane model combined with the corresponding yield coefficients could also be used to describe the VSS generation and VS destruction. PMID:27234662

  1. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0–5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G−). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G− compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems. PMID:27611023

  2. [Effects of Warming and Straw Application on Soil Respiration and Enzyme Activity in a Winter Wheat Cropland].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-tao; Sang, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Zheng-hua

    2016-02-15

    In order to investigate the effects of warming and straw application on soil respiration and enzyme activity, a field experiment was performed from November 2014 to May 2015. Four treatments, which were control (CK), warming, straw application, and warming and straw application, were arranged in field. Seasonal variability in soil respiration, soil temperature and soil moisture for different treatments were measured. Urease, invertase, and catalase activities for different treatments were measured at the elongation, booting, and anthesis stages. The results showed that soil respiration in different treatments had similar seasonal variation patterns. Seasonal mean soil respiration rates for the CK, warming, straw application, and warming and straw application treatments were 1.46, 1.96, 1.92, and 2.45 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. ANOVA indicated that both warming and straw applications significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced soil respiration compared to the control treatment. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature in different treatments fitted with the exponential regression function. The exponential regression functions explained 34.3%, 28.1%, 24.6%, and 32.0% variations of soil respiration for CK, warming, straw application, and warming and straw application treatments, respectively. Warming and straw applications significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced urease, invertase, and catalase activities compared to CK. The relationship between soil respiration and urease activity fitted with a linear regression function, with the P value of 0.061. The relationship between soil respiration and invertase (P = 0.013), and between soil respiration and catalase activity (P = 0.002) fitted well with linear regression functions. PMID:27363163

  3. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment. PMID:26642223

  4. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

  5. Effect of Wheat Flour Pre-cooking on the Composite Modulus of Wheat Flour and Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Latex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial wheat flours with two different concentrations of insoluble protein were used as fillers to reinforce styrene-butadiene latex composites and their viscoelastic properties were examined. Both wheat flours were also cooked at 55, 70, or 95 deg C for one hour in an aqueous dispersion prior ...

  6. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Ronald HW; Bakker, Robert R; Boersma, Arjen R; Bisschops, Iemke; Pels, Jan R; de Jong, Ed; Weusthuis, Ruud A; Reith, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight) is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52%) in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (in)organic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane), whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion), yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per kilogram (dry basis). PMID

  7. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Supplementation and Anhydrous Ammonia Treatment of Wheat Straw on In-situ Degradability and, Rumen Fermentation and Growth Performance of Yearling Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Özelçam, Hülya; Baykal, Gülşah Yeğenoğlu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation (6.6×108 cfu) and anhydrous ammonia treatment (3%) of wheat straw (WS) were investigated on in-situ dry matter (DM) degradability, and on rumen fermentation and growth performance of lambs. Rumen-fistulated Menemen sheep fed a diet with and without live yeast were used to assess the DM degradability characteristics of WS and ammonia-treated wheat straw (WSNH3). Twenty-six yearling Menemen male lambs were fed in four groups. Lambs of control group (WS) received untreated WS without supplemental yeast, whereas other three groups were fed WS treated with anhydrous ammonia (WSNH3 group), untreated WS and yeast (WS+YEAST group) or WS treated with anhydrous ammonia and yeast (WSNH3+YEAST group). Supplemented live yeast (4 g/d) was added in the diet. Lambs were offered untreated or ammonia treated WS ad-libitum and concentrate was fed at 1% of live body weight. The degradability of the water-insoluble (fraction B) was significantly increased by all of the treatment groups. Potential degradability (A+B), effective DM degradability’s (pe2, pe5, and pe8) and average daily weight gain increased only in WSNH3+YEAST group (p<0.05). Voluntary DM intake was not increased by the treatments (p>0.05), but voluntary metabolizable energy and crude protein intake were increased by WSNH3 and by WSNH3+YEAST (p<0.05). Average daily rumen pH was not affected by any of the treatments, but average daily NH3-N was significantly higher in the WSNH3 and WSNH3+YEAST groups, and total volatile fatty acids were significantly higher in the WS+YEAST and WSNH3+YEAST groups. In conclusion, the improvement of feed value of WS was better by the combination of ammonia-treatment and yeast supplementation compared to either treatment alone. PMID:25656177

  8. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

  9. Effect of Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch Ratio on the Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrolyzed wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) showed substantial reinforcement effects in rubber composites. Due to different abilities of WG and WS to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG and WS as a co-filler. The...

  10. Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Wheat Gluten and Starch Co-filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to different abilities of wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG to WS as a co-filler. This study shows that the co-filler composites became more temperature dependent as the WG co...

  11. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

  12. [Short-term effects of different tillage modes combined with straw-returning on the soil labile organic carbon components in a farmland with rice-wheat double cropping].

    PubMed

    Yang, Min-Fang; Zhu, Li-Qun; Han, Xin-Zhong; Gu, Ke-Jun; Hu, Nai-Juan; Bian, Xin-Min

    2013-05-01

    A two-year (2009-2011) field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage modes, straw-returning, and their interactions on the soil total organic carbon (TOC) and labile organic carbon (LOC) components (easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC)) at the soil depths of 0-7, 7-14, and 14-21 cm in a farmland with rice-wheat double cropping. In all treatments of straw-returning, the TOC and LOC contents in each soil layer were significantly higher than those without straw-returning. Under plowing tillage, the MBC content in 0-7 cm soil layer was significantly higher than that under rotary tillage, but the EOC content was in adverse. Rotary tillage made the TOC content in 7 - 14 cm soil layer being significantly higher, as compared with plowing tillage. The TOC, WSOC, and MBC contents in 14-21 cm soil layer under plowing tillage were significantly higher than those under rotary tillage. Plowing tillage combined with rice and wheat straws-returning made the soil TOC content being higher than the other treatments. PMID:24015560

  13. [Carbon isotopic compositions of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in the smoke from combustion of rice straw].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Li-Na; Li, Jiu-Hai; Xu, Hui

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate the carbon isotopic fractionation in n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in smoke from rice straw combustion, six types of rice straw were burned in laboratory under flaming and smoldering conditions, and the compound specific isotopic compositions for the two classes of biomarkers in the smoke were determined. The results showed that the delta13C values of individual n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids released from flaming burns of all the rice species ranged from -28.6 per thousand to -38.8 per thousand and from -29.6 per thousand to -41.9per thousand, respectively, and that the mean delta13C values for the two compound classes in the flaming smoke for the six types of rice straw were in the range of -32.6 per thousand to -36. 4per thousand and -34.0 per thousand to -36.2 per thousand, respectively. Moreover, the n-alkanes in the smoke from the most straws were more depleted in 13C in general than the identical substances with equal carbon number in corresponding unburned biomass. The magnitude of the isotopic discrimination (delta) was up to 4.1per thousand. Conversely, the n-alkanoic acids in the smoke tended to be more enriched in 13C than the corresponding biomarkers in the unburned straw for all of the species, and the delta was up to 6.3 per thousand. The delta13C values of the individual n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in the smoke from smoldering burns of the six species varied between -31.7 per thousand and -39.0 per thousand and between -31.3 per thousand and -38.8 per thousand, respectively. The average values for the two compound classes in the smoke for a species were in the range of -35.1 per thousand to -36.4 per thousand and -34.4 per thousand to -35.6 per thousand, respectively. The compound specific delta13C values of the n-alkanes in the smoke for most species were smaller than those of the same substances in the corresponding rice straw, and the greatest delta was 6.1 per thousand. However, the delta13C values of n-alkanoic acids

  14. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB < WB and WWB, WB >25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response. PMID:25829607

  15. The kinetics of inhibitor production resulting from hydrothermal deconstruction of wheat straw studied using a pressurised microwave reactor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of a microwave synthesis reactor has allowed kinetic data for the hydrothermal reactions of straw biomass to be established from short times, avoiding corrections required for slow heating in conventional reactors, or two-step heating. Access to realistic kinetic data is important for predictions of optimal reaction conditions for the pretreatment of biomass for bioethanol processes, which is required to minimise production of inhibitory compounds and to maximise sugar and ethanol yields. Results The gravimetric loss through solubilisation of straw provided a global measure of the extent of hydrothermal deconstruction. The kinetic profiles of furan and lignin-derived inhibitors were determined in the hydrothermal hydrolysates by UV analysis, with concentrations of formic and acetic acid determined by HPLC. Kinetic analyses were either carried out by direct fitting to simple first order equations or by numerical integration of sequential reactions. Conclusions A classical Arrhenius activation energy of 148 kJmol−1 has been determined for primary solubilisation, which is higher than the activation energy associated with historical measures of reaction severity. The gravimetric loss is primarily due to depolymerisation of the hemicellulose component of straw, but a minor proportion of lignin is solubilised at the same rate and hence may be associated with the more hydrophilic lignin-hemicellulose interface. Acetic acid is liberated primarily from hydrolysis of pendant acetate groups on hemicellulose, although this occurs at a rate that is too slow to provide catalytic enhancement to the primary solubilisation reactions. However, the increase in protons may enhance secondary reactions leading to the production of furans and formic acid. The work has suggested that formic acid may be formed under these hydrothermal conditions via direct reaction of sugar end groups rather than furan breakdown. However, furan degradation is found to be significant

  16. Fed-batch SSCF using steam-exploded wheat straw at high dry matter consistencies and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain: effect of laccase supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol is expected to play an important role in fossil fuel replacement in the short term. Process integration, improvements in water economy, and increased ethanol titers are key considerations for cost-effective large-scale production. The use of whole steam-pretreated slurries under high dry matter (DM) conditions and conversion of all fermentable sugars offer promising alternatives to achieve these goals. Results Wheat straw slurry obtained from steam explosion showed high concentrations of degradation compounds, hindering the fermentation performance of the evolved xylose-recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE6-12 strain. Fermentability tests using the liquid fraction showed a higher number of colony-forming units (CFU) and higher xylose consumption rates when treating the medium with laccase. During batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) processes, cell growth was totally inhibited at 12% DM (w/v) in untreated slurries. However, under these conditions laccase treatment prior to addition of yeast reduced the total phenolic content of the slurry and enabled the fermentation. During this process, an ethanol concentration of 19 g/L was obtained, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 39% of the theoretical yield. By changing the operation from batch mode to fed-batch mode, the concentration of inhibitors at the start of the process was reduced and 8 g/L of ethanol were obtained in untreated slurries with a final consistency of 16% DM (w/v). When fed-batch SSCF medium was supplemented with laccase 33 hours after yeast inoculation, no effect on ethanol yield or cell viability was found compared to untreated fermentations. However, if the laccase supplementation (21 hours after yeast inoculation) took place before the first addition of substrate (at 25 hours), improved cell viability and an increased ethanol titer of up to 32 g/L (51% of the theoretical) were found. Conclusions Laccase treatment in SSCF processes

  17. A start-up of psychrophilic anaerobic sequence batch reactor digesting a 35 % total solids feed of dairy manure and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-12-01

    Zero liquid discharge is currently an objective in livestock manure management to minimize water pollution. This paper reports the start-up phase of a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure with bedding fed at 35 % total solids and an organic loading rate of 3.0 g total chemical oxygen demand kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) in anaerobic sequence batch reactors. The specific methane (CH4) yield ranged from 165.4 ± 9.8 to 213.9 ± 13.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) with an overall average of 188 ± 17 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS during 11 successive start-up cycles (231 days) and a maximum CH4 production rate of 10.2 ± 0.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS day(-1). The inoculum-to-substrate (VS-based) ratio ranged from 4.06 to 4.47. Although methanogenesis proceeded fairly well the hydrolysis seemed to be the rate limiting step. It is possible start up psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces and wheat straw at feed TS of 35 % within 7-10 successive cycles (147-210 days). PMID:26289773

  18. A mutated xylose reductase increases bioethanol production more than a glucose/xylose facilitator in simultaneous fermentation and co-fermentation of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are able to ferment xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass. However, better xylose fermenting strains are required to reach complete xylose uptake in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. In the current study, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing a heterologous xylose pathway including either the native xylose reductase (XR) from P. stipitis, a mutated variant of XR (mXR) with altered co-factor preference, a glucose/xylose facilitator (Gxf1) from Candida intermedia or both mXR and Gxf1 were assessed in SSCF of acid-pretreated non-detoxified wheat straw. The xylose conversion in SSCF was doubled with the S. cerevisiae strain expressing mXR compared to the isogenic strain expressing the native XR, converting 76% and 38%, respectively. The xylitol yield was less than half using mXR in comparison with the native variant. As a result of this, the ethanol yield increased from 0.33 to 0.39 g g-1 when the native XR was replaced by mXR. In contrast, the expression of Gxf1 only slightly increased the xylose uptake, and did not increase the ethanol production. The results suggest that ethanolic xylose fermentation under SSCF conditions is controlled primarily by the XR activity and to a much lesser extent by xylose transport. PMID:21906329

  19. Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (± SD) live weight of 20.5 ± 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of supplementation. The results suggest that at least 300 g (395 g/kg dietary DM) of Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:20050945

  20. Improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated wheat straw by metal ion blocking of non-productive cellulase adsorption on lignin.

    PubMed

    Akimkulova, Ardak; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Xuebing; Liu, Dehua

    2016-05-01

    Eleven salts were selected to screen the possible metal ions for blocking the non-productive adsorption of cellulase onto the lignin of dilute acid pretreated wheat straw. Mg(2+) was screened finally as the promising candidate. The optimal concentration of MgCl2 was 1mM, but the beneficial action was also dependent on pH, hydrolysis time and cellulase loading. Significant improvement of glucan conversion (19.3%) was observed at low cellulase loading (5FPU/g solid). Addition of isolated lignins, tannic acid and lignin model compounds to pure cellulose hydrolysis demonstrated that phenolic hydroxyl group (Ph-OH) was the main active site blocked by Mg(2+). The interaction between Mg(2+) and Ph-OH of lignin monomeric moieties followed an order of p-hydroxyphenyl (H)>guaiacyl (G)>syringyl (S). Mg(2+) blocking made the lignin surface less negatively charged, which might weaken the hydrogen bonding and electrostatically attractive interaction between lignin and cellulase enzymes. PMID:26930032

  1. Effect of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis on the physical-chemical composition and morphologic structure of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marcia Maria de Souza; Perrone, Olavo Micali; Nunes, Christiane da Costa Carreira; Taboga, Sebastião; Boscolo, Maurício; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2016-11-01

    The present work aimed to study the effect of the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and straw with microwave irradiation in aqueous and acid glycerol solutions on their chemical composition, fiber structure and the efficiency of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the pretreatment acted mainly on the lignin and hemicellulose fractions of the bagasse, whereas, in the straw, lesser structural and chemical changes were observed. The images from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that treating bagasse and straw with acid glycerol solution loosened the cell walls and there was a breakdown in the pit membrane. The treated material was submitted to hydrolysis for 72h and higher yields of reducing sugars were observed compared to the untreated material (250.9mg/g from straw and 197.4mg/g from bagasse). TEM images after hydrolysis confirmed the possible points of access of the enzymes to the secondary cell wall region of the pretreated biomass. PMID:27578061

  2. [Effect of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil potassium content and stratification ratio in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang-lan; Li, Xiu-shuang; Wang, Shu-juan; Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    Soil stratified sampling method and potassium chemical fractionation analysis were used to investigate effects of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil K contents and stratification ratios in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain of Northwest China. The results showed that after 13-year continuous shallow tillage and straw returning, surface accumulation and stratification effect obviously occurred for soil available K (SAK) and non-exchangeable K (NEK), which was particularly remarkable for SAK and its fractions. Serious depletion of SAK occurred in 15-30 cm soil layer, and the SAK value was lower than the critical value of soil potassium deficiency. Meanwhile, significant differences were found between SR1 and SR2 values of SAK and its fractions, SR was obtained by values of topsoil layer (0-5 cm) divided by corresponding values of lower soil layers (5-15 cm layer, SR1, or 15-30 cm layer, SR2). However, no significant difference was observed between SR values of NEK and mineral K. In conclusion, returning of all straw over 10 years in the winter wheat/summer maize rotation system contributed greatly to maintaining soil K pool balance, while special attention should be paid to the negative effects of surface accumulation and stratification of SAK on soil K fertility. PMID:26915186

  3. One-step, green, and economic synthesis of water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw, and their bio-applications in labeling, imaging, and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ming; Zhong, Ruibo; Gao, Haiyang; Li, Wanrong; Yun, Xiaoling; Liu, Jingran; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhao, Guofen; Zhang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    The use of biomass as renewable and sustainable energy source has attracted the attention of politics and research and development (R&D) facilities around the world. Agricultural straw acts as a typical biowaste, which still needs highly effective recycling to save the biomass urgently at present. Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) are novel biocompatible nanomaterials that have been proved to be produced from many carbon-abundant materials and hold great promise for the modern nanobiomedicine. In order to realize a "one-stone-two-birds" strategy, we report a green, economic, one-pot method in this article for synthesizing photoluminescent C-dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), we show that the as-prepared C-dots are amorphous in structure and are mainly composed of carbon. Their tiny size (<2 nm), combined with the characteristic excitation-dependent relatively bright emission, and robust photostability made the C-dots a potential biocompatible nanomaterial for bio-applications. We have experimentally demonstrated their potential applications in biomedical labeling, imaging, and sensing/detecting. The high yield (∼20%) of C-dots from wheat straw may suggest a new economic strategy for recycling biowaste.

  4. Modification in the properties of paper by using cellulase-free xylanase produced from alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 in biobleaching of wheat straw pulp.

    PubMed

    Walia, Abhishek; Mehta, Preeti; Guleria, Shiwani; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-09-01

    Alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 isolated from mushroom compost is an actinomycete that produces industrially important and environmentally safer thermostable cellulase-free xylanase, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as an alternative to the use of toxic chlorinated compounds. Strain CKMX1 was previously characterized by metabolic fingerprinting, whole-cell fatty acids methyl ester analysis, and 16S rDNA and was found to be C. cellulans CKMX1. Crude enzyme (1027.65 U/g DBP) produced by C. cellulans CKMX1, having pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively, in solid state fermentation of apple pomace, was used in the production of bleached wheat straw pulp. Pretreatment with xylanase at a dose of 5 U/g after pulping decreased pulp kappa points by 1.4 as compared with the control. Prebleaching with a xylanase dose of 5 U/g pulp reduced the chlorine charge by 12.5%, increased the final brightness points by approximately 1.42% ISO, and improved the pulp strength properties. Xylanase could be substituted for alkali extraction in C-Ep-D sequence and used for treating chemically bleached pulp, resulting in bleached pulp with higher strength properties. Modification of bleached pulp with 5 U of enzyme/g increased pulp whiteness and breaking length by 1.03% and 60 m, respectively; decreased tear factor of pulp by 7.29%; increased bulk weight by 3.99%, as compared with the original pulp. Reducing sugars and UV-absorbing lignin-derived compound values were considerably higher in xylanase-treated samples. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 has a potential application in the pulp and paper industries. PMID:26220821

  5. Heterologous production of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina and their effect on saccharification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Turbe-Doan, Annick; Arfi, Yonathan; Record, Eric; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Levasseur, Anthony

    2013-06-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular glycosylated haemoflavoenzymes produced by many different wood-degrading and phytopathogenic fungi. Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase genes are recurrently discovered by genome sequencing projects in various phylogenetically distinct fungi. The genomes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina were screened for candidate cdh genes, and one and three putative gene models were evidenced, respectively. Two putative cdh genes were selected and successfully expressed for the first time in Aspergillus niger. CDH activity was measured for both constructions (CDHcc and CDHpa), and both recombinant CDHs were purified to homogeneity and subsequently characterised. Kinetic constants were determined for several carbohydrates including β-1,4-linked di- and oligosaccharides. Optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 5 for CDHcc and 65-70 °C and 6 for CDHpa. Both CDHs showed a broad range of pH stability between 4 and 8. The effect of both CDHs on saccharification of micronized wheat straw by an industrial Trichoderma reesei secretome was determined. The addition of each CDH systematically decreased the release of total reducing sugars, but to different extents and according to the CDH concentration. Analytical methods were carried out to quantify the release of glucose, xylose and gluconic acid. An increase of glucose and xylose was measured at a low CDHcc concentration. At moderated and high CDHcc and CDHpa concentrations, glucose was severely reduced with a concomitant increase of gluconic acid. In conclusion, these results give new insights into the physical and chemical parameters and diversity of basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDHs. These findings also demonstrated that CDH drastically influenced the saccharification on a natural substrate, and thus, CDH origin, concentration and potential enzymatic partners should be carefully considered in future artificial secretomes for

  6. A GC-MS study of the volatile organic composition of straw and oyster mushrooms during maturity and its relation to antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo-Min; Wu, Wen-Wei; Li, Gong-Ke

    2008-09-01

    Mushrooms are very popular in the market for their nutritional and medicinal use. Mushroom volatiles are not only an important factor in the flavor, but also contain many antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity is a very important property for disease prevention. The volatile compositional characteristics of straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea [Bull. ex Fr.] Sing.) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus [Jacq. ex Fr.] Kummer) during maturity and the mushroom antioxidant activity related to the non-volatiles and volatiles are studied by a chromatographic method in combination with a spectrophotometric method. The volatile compounds of straw and oyster mushrooms are sampled and identified by a combination sampling method, including headspace solid phase microextraction and steam distillation, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Among all the volatile compounds identified, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone are the two main compounds with the highest amounts in the volatile compositions of straw and oyster mushrooms. During maturity time of the straw mushrooms, the unsaturated 1-octen-3-ol peak area is reduced, whereas the saturated 3-octanone peak area is increased. However, during normal maturity time of oyster mushrooms, the peak areas of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone remain at the same level. 1-Octen-3-ol has a different antioxidant activity from 3-octanone. Combining the results of antioxidant experiments of water extract and main volatile components by the use of a phosphomolybdenum spectrophotometric method, the conclusion is drawn that oyster mushrooms might possess stronger antioxidant activities than straw mushrooms. PMID:18796224

  7. Comparison of TLUD and atmospherically-controlled retort methods of preparing biochar using corn stover and wheat straw feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a very versatile and useful material in many applications beyond carbon sequestration in soils. Rubber composite filler, sorptive media for toxic or other undesirable species in water, and peat moss replacement are just three examples of biochar applications we have studied at our laborat...

  8. Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation of sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    You, Xiang; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Sixta, Herbert; Iakovlev, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation was determined for sugarcane (SC) straw in terms of pulp composition (non-carbohydrate components, cellulose, hemicelluloses) and properties (kappa number, pulp intrinsic viscosity in CED and cellulose degree of polymerization). Effect of temperature (135-165°C) and time (18-118min) was studied at fixed liquor composition (SO2/ethanol/water=12:22.5:65.5, w/w) and a liquor-to-solid ratio (4Lkg(-1)). Interpretation is given in terms of major fractionation reactions, removal of non-carbohydrate components and xylan, as well as acid hydrolysis of cellulose, and is compared to other lignocellulosic substrates (beech, spruce and wheat straw). Overall, SO2-ethanol-water process efficiently fractionates SC straw by separating cellulose from both non-carbohydrate components and xylan while reducing cellulose DP. PMID:27089426

  9. Mechanical Properties of Green Composites with Poly(caprolactone) and Wheat Gluten

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) was incorporated into poly(caprolactone) (PCL) up to 50% w/w as a filler to form a biodegradable polymer composite. Microscopic examination showed a well-dispersed particle-matrix system. The composite was evaluated for tensile properties. The tensile strength of the composite d...

  10. Nitrogen fixation associated with development and localization of mixed populations of Cellulomonas species and Azospirillium brasilense grown on cellulose or wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Halsall, D.M.; Goodchild, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    Mixed cultures of Cellulomonas sp. and Azospirillum brasilense were grown with straw or cellulose as the carbon source under conditions favoring the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Rapid increases in cell numbers, up to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate, were evident after 4 and 5 days of incubation at 30 degrees C for cellulose and straw, respectively. Nitrogen fixation (detected by acetylene reduction measured on parallel cultures) commenced after 2 and 4 days of incubation for straw and cellulose, respectively, and continued for the duration of the experiment. Pure cultures of Cellulomonas sp. showed an increase in cell numbers, but CO/sub 2/ production was low, and acetylene reduction was not detected on either cellulose or straw. Pure cultures of A. brasilense on cellulose showed an inital increase in cell numbers (10/sup 7/ cells per g of substrate) over 4 days, followed by a decline presumably caused by the exhaustion of available carbon substrate. On straw, A. brasilense increased to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate over 5 days and then declined slowly; this growth was accompanied by acetylene reduction. Scanning electron micrographs of straw incubated with a mixture under the above conditions for 8 days showed cells of both species in close proximity to each other. Evidence was furnished that the close spatial relatioship of cells from the two species facilitated the mutally beneficial association between them and thus increased the efficiency with which the products of straw breakdown were used for nitrogen fixation. 17 references.

  11. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases. PMID:26088282

  12. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  13. Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

  14. Phytochemical Composition, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiproliferative Activity of Whole Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five wheat cultivars (Macon, Louise, WestBred 936, Alpowa, and Blanca Grande) were evaluated for phenolics composition, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition, anti-inflammatory activity, and antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells. Total ferulic acid ranged from 451.7-731.3 µg/g , with the ...

  15. Effects of Decomposition on Remotely Sensed Estimates of Wheat Residue Cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of crop residue cover is required to assess the extent of conservation tillage. Our objectives were to measure the changes in wheat straw composition and spectral reflectance during decomposition and to assess impact of these changes on remotely sensed estimates of residue cover. Mesh...

  16. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  17. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Auf'm Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems. PMID:27313585

  18. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Cheng; auf’m Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems. PMID:27313585

  19. Process intensification through microbial strain evolution: mixed glucose-xylose fermentation in wheat straw hydrolyzates by three generations of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignocellulose hydrolyzates present difficult substrates for ethanol production by the most commonly applied microorganism in the fermentation industries, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High resistance towards inhibitors released during pretreatment and hydrolysis of the feedstock as well as efficient utilization of hexose and pentose sugars constitute major challenges in the development of S. cerevisiae strains for biomass-to-ethanol processes. Metabolic engineering and laboratory evolution are applied, alone and in combination, to adduce desired strain properties. However, physiological requirements for robust performance of S. cerevisiae in the conversion of lignocellulose hydrolyzates are not well understood. The herein presented S. cerevisiae strains IBB10A02 and IBB10B05 are descendants of strain BP10001, which was previously derived from the widely used strain CEN.PK 113-5D through introduction of a largely redox-neutral oxidoreductive xylose assimilation pathway. The IBB strains were obtained by a two-step laboratory evolution that selected for fast xylose fermentation in combination with anaerobic growth before (IBB10A02) and after adaption in repeated xylose fermentations (IBB10B05). Enzymatic hydrolyzates were prepared from up to 15% dry mass pretreated (steam explosion) wheat straw and contained glucose and xylose in a mass ratio of approximately 2. Results With all strains, yield coefficients based on total sugar consumed were high for ethanol (0.39 to 0.40 g/g) and notably low for fermentation by-products (glycerol: ≤0.10 g/g; xylitol: ≤0.08 g/g; acetate: 0.04 g/g). In contrast to the specific glucose utilization rate that was similar for all strains (qGlucose ≈ 2.9 g/gcell dry weight (CDW)/h), the xylose consumption rate was enhanced by a factor of 11.5 (IBB10A02; qXylose = 0.23 g/gCDW/h) and 17.5 (IBB10B05; qXylose = 0.35 g/gCDW/h) as compared to the qXylose of the non-evolved strain BP10001. In xylose-supplemented (50

  20. Composition and expression of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes in the straw-degrading mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingzhi; Gui, Fu; Xie, Baogui; Deng, Youjin; Sun, Xianyun; Lin, Mengying; Tao, Yongxin; Li, Shaojie

    2013-01-01

    Volvariella volvacea is one of a few commercial cultivated mushrooms mainly using straw as carbon source. In this study, the genome of V. volcacea was sequenced and assembled. A total of 285 genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in V. volvacea were identified and annotated. Among 15 fungi with sequenced genomes, V. volvacea ranks seventh in the number of genes encoding CAZymes. In addition, the composition of glycoside hydrolases in V. volcacea is dramatically different from other basidiomycetes: it is particularly rich in members of the glycoside hydrolase families GH10 (hemicellulose degradation) and GH43 (hemicellulose and pectin degradation), and the lyase families PL1, PL3 and PL4 (pectin degradation) but lacks families GH5b, GH11, GH26, GH62, GH93, GH115, GH105, GH9, GH53, GH32, GH74 and CE12. Analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles of 3 strains using 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE) reveals that 239 CAZyme genes were expressed even in potato destrose broth medium. Our data also showed that the formation of a heterokaryotic strain could dramatically increase the expression of a number of genes which were poorly expressed in its parental homokaryotic strains. PMID:23554925

  1. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on growth performance and sorting behaviors of holstein dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for pregnant Holstein heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake (DMI) by heifers by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems co...

  2. Classification of spelt cultivars based on differences in storage protein compositions from wheat.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Annette; Konitzer, Katharina; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Wholemeal flours from 62 spelt and 13 wheat cultivars were studied. The quantitative protein compositions of the Osborne fractions determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, showed that the chromatograms of the reduced gliadin fractions were most suitable for the distinction of spelt from wheat and for the classification of spelt. The patterns of the reduced spelt gliadins showed one to three markers that were not present in wheat. Based on these markers, spelt cultivars were classified into three groups ranging from 'typical spelt' to 'similar to common wheat'. Marker 1 was identified as ω1,2-gliadin and markers 2, 3a and 3b were identified as γ-gliadins by means of N-terminal sequence analysis and determination of the relative molecular mass by mass spectrometry. As glutenin-bound ω-gliadins were present in wheat and absent in spelt, this protein type may be used to detect and quantitate small amounts of wheat in spelt products. PMID:25172697

  3. Effects of Maturity Stages on the Nutritive Composition and Silage Quality of Whole Crop Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Z. L.; Zhang, T. F.; Chen, X. Z.; Li, G. D.; Zhang, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2) were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×105 colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) content (p<0.05) of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05) and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages. PMID:25049492

  4. Use of peanut and cowpea in wheat-based products containing composite flours.

    PubMed

    McWatters, K H; Resurreccion, A V; Beuchat, L R; Phillips, R D

    1995-01-01

    Cowpeas and peanuts are legumes of major dietary and economic importance. They are favored worldwide because of their palatability, contribution to nutritional status, and low cost as a protein source compared to animal protein. Flours processed from cowpeas and peanuts have unique physico-chemical and sensory properties when used in composite flour mixtures. Appropriate blends of cowpea and peanut flours to replace wheat flour in Chinese-type noodles, muffins, and tortillas were determined using modelling and optimization procedures. For noodles, 15% peanut flour and 8% cowpea flour supplementation produced an acceptable product with high protein content (21%). For wheat flour replacement in muffins, up to 43% cowpea and up to 44% peanut flours may be used. However, when wheat flour replacement is 50% or greater, cassava flour should comprise 56 to 72% of the blend with a few exceptions. In tortillas, 24% cowpea and 46% peanut flours produced products similar in quality characteristics to those made from 100% wheat flour. The systematic approach used in these studies is more efficient than the traditional substitution method to optimize sensory qualities of wheat-based products containing composite flours. PMID:7784400

  5. The effect of a combined biological and thermo-mechanical pretreatment of wheat straw on energy yields in coupled ethanol and methane generation.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Blomqvist, Johanna; Lizasoain, Javier; Klietz, Lena; Potthast, Antje; Horn, Svein Jarle; Nilsen, Paal J; Gronauer, Andreas; Passoth, Volkmar; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol and biogas are energy carriers that could contribute to a future energy system independent of fossil fuels. Straw is a favorable bioenergy substrate as it does not compete with food or feed production. As straw is very resistant to microbial degradation, it requires a pretreatment to insure efficient conversion to ethanol and/or methane. This study investigates the effect of combining biological pretreatment and steam explosion on ethanol and methane yields in order to improve the coupled generation process. Results show that the temperature of the steam explosion pretreatment has a particularly strong effect on possible ethanol yields, whereas combination with the biological pretreatment showed no difference in overall energy yield. The highest overall energy output was found to be 10.86 MJ kg VS(-1) using a combined biological and steam explosion pretreatment at a temperature of 200°C. PMID:26176820

  6. Effect of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw on its composition and in sacco digestibility and in vitro fermentation by rumen microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Adya, M; Sareen, V K; Singh, S

    1995-01-01

    Chemical composition, in sacco rumen disappearance of various cell wall constituents (CWC) and in vitro fermentation pattern of hydrothermally treated (1 to 14 kp/cm2 pressure for 5 min) rice straw was examined. At 10 kp/cm2 pressure treatment (maximum effect) the contents of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), hemicellulose (HC) and cellulose (CE) were decreased by 32.5, 35.3, 27.8, 10.2, 61.2 and 25.1%, respectively (P < 0.05), over the untreated control. The in sacco rumen disappearance of DM, OM, HC and CE from rice straw treated at 8 kp/cm2 pressure (maximum effect) and incubated for 48 h was increased from 53.2 to 77.7, 52.4 to 80.3, 49.5 to 82.0 and 49.2 to 79.3%, respectively (P < 0.01). In vitro production of total volatile fatty acids and the content of TCA-insoluble protein was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) on treated compared with untreated straw. PMID:7625290

  7. STRAW UTILIZATION IN REGION 10 STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While agricultural burning has been going on for many years in Oregon, Idaho and Washington among grass seed and wheat growers as a means for reducing or eliminating straw wastes, over these years it has become more apparent that ag burning has adverse environmental and human hea...

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical compositions of some agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1994-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of different doses of γ irradiation on the changes in the crude fibre contents of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs. Ground samples of the 6 residues were irradiated by γ irradiation at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 100 kilogray (kGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for total nitrogen (N), crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that γ irradiation has no effect on total N whereas it decreased CF contents especially at the highest dose (100 kGy) reaching 30% for cottonwood, 21% for wheat straw and maize straw, and about 16% for barley straw, lentils straw and maize cobs. NDF decreased by about 6% for cottonwood, wheat straw and barley straw, 11% for maize straw and 9% for maize cobs. γ Irradiation (100 kGy) also decreased ADF by 8% for cottonwood, 7% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 6% for wheat straw and barley straw. No effects on NDF and ADF in lentils straw were observed. ADL content was also decreased by 8% in cottonwood, 21% in wheat straw, 18% in barley straw and maize straw, and by 30% in maize cobs, with no effect in lentils straw. The percentage of cellulose (CL):CF ratio increased by 31, 25, 13, 18, 19 and 15% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. Also hemicellulose (HCL):CF ratios increased by 48, 18, 15, 17, 5 and 4% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, and 48%, 18%, 15%, 17%, 5% and 4% in the HCL:CF ratio for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. CL:ADL ratios increased by γ irradiation (100 kGy) by 23, 16, 14 and 38% for wheat straw, barley straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, with no changes in the ratios for cottonwood and lentils straw

  9. Study on allelopathic effects of Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate on several plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Fu, Wenting; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

    Rice and wheat are the traditional food of Chinese people, and therefore the main crop candidates for bio-regenerative life-support systems. Recycling rice and wheat straw is an important issue concerning the system. In order to decide if the mixed-substrate made of rice and wheat straw is suitable of plant cultivation, Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate was tested in an aqueous extract germination experiment. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract on seed vigor, seedling growth and development situations and the physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat, lettuce and pumpkin were studied, and the presence and degrees of allelopathic effects were analyzed. The test results showed that this type of SLS exerted different degrees of allelopathic effect on wheat and lettuce; this allelopathic effect was related to the concentration of SLS aqueous extract. The most significant phenomenon is that with the increase of aqueous extract concentration, the seed germination, root length and shoot fresh weight of wheat decreased; and every concentration of aqueous extract showed significant inhibition on the root length and root fresh weight of lettuce. However, this type of SLS showed little effect on the growth of pumpkin seedlings. Contents changes of chlorophyll and endogenous hormones in wheat and lettuce seedlings, and the chemical compositions of SLS were measured, and the mechanism of allelopathic effect was preliminarily analyzed.

  10. The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

    The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

  11. Factors affecting the physical properties of edible composite film prepared from zein and wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingfeng; Lu, Yanan; Cui, Heping; Jia, Xiangxing; Bai, Hongchao; Ma, Yuxiang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of zein ratio, concentration of glycerol, liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH and heat-treatment temperature on the properties of zein/wheat gluten composite films were researched. The results showed that elongation (E) increased with an increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, but it first increased and then decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat-treatment temperature, pH and the ratio of liquid to solid; Tensile strength (TS) increased with the increase in heat-treatment temperature and pH, and decreased with the increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, and it reached a maximum value when the ratio of zein/wheat gluten was 20%, but had a minimum value when the ratio of liquid to solid was 8:1; Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) increased with an increase of glycerol concentration and the ratio of liquid to solid and ethanol concentration, but it decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat treatment temperature, and pH of the film forming solution. PMID:22453930

  12. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9 in wheat bran-rice straw mixed substrate and use of cocktail enzymes for deinking of waste office paper pulp.

    PubMed

    Das, Arpan; Paul, Tanmay; Halder, Suman K; Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K; Pati, Bikas R; Mondal, Keshab C

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to optimize mixed substrate solid state fermentation for the production of cellulases and xylanase by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9. Among 11 different parameters, fermentation time (86-88 h), medium pH (6.1-6.2), substrate amount (10.0-10.5 g) and substrate ratio (wheat bran:rice straw) (1.1) had significantly influences on enzyme production. Under these conditions endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, FPase (filter paper degrading activity) and xylanase activities of 826.2, 255.16, 102.5 and 1130.4 U/g, respectively were obtained. The enzyme cocktail extracted (solid to water ratio of 1:10) from the ferments increased brightness of waste office paper pulp by 82.8% ISO, Ink(D) value by 82.1%, removed chromophores (2.53 OD; A(237)nm) and hydrophobic compounds (1.15 OD; A(465)nm) and also decreased the kappa number to 13.5 from 16.8. PMID:23196251

  13. Mycological composition in the rhizosphere of winter wheat in different crop production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frac, Magdalena; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

    2010-05-01

    Fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem as decomposers of plant residues, releasing nutrients that sustain and stimulate processes of plant growth. Some fungi possess antagonistic properties towards plant pathogens. The structure of plant and soil communities is influenced by the interactions among its component species and also by anthropogenic pressure. In the study of soil fungi, particular attention is given to the rhizosphere. Knowledge of the structure and diversity of the fungal community in the rhizosphere lead to the better understanding of pathogen-antagonist interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycological composition of the winter wheat rhizosphere in two different crop production systems. The study was based on a field experiment established in 1994 year at the Experimental Station in South-East Poland. The experiment was conducted on grey-brown podzolic soil. In this experiment winter wheat were grown in two crop production systems: ecological and conventional - monoculture. The research of fungi composition was conducted in 15th year of experiment. Rhizosphere was collected two times during growing season, in different development stage: shooting phase and full ripeness phase. Martin medium and the dilutions 10-3 and 10-4 were used to calculate the total number cfu (colony forming units) of fungi occurring in the rhizosphere of winter wheat. The fungi were identified using Czapeka-Doxa medium for Penicillium, potato dextrose agar for all fungi and agar Nirenberga (SNA) for Fusarium. High number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of wheat in ecological system. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of the phytosanitary condition of the soil. However, the decrease of the antagonistic microorganism number in the crop wheat in monoculture can be responsible for appearance higher number of the

  14. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  15. Lipid Composition and Protein Dynamics in Thylakoids of Two Wheat Cultivars Differently Sensitive to Drought.

    PubMed Central

    Quartacci, M. F.; Pinzino, C.; Sgherri, CLM.; Navari-Izzo, F.

    1995-01-01

    Two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars with different sensitivities to drought were either grown under regular irrigation or subjected to water deficit by withholding water for 14 d. Water-stressed plants of both cultivars underwent similar decreases in leaf water potential, but the drought-tolerant cultivar showed higher relative water content and turgor. Neither osmotic nor elastic adjustment mechanisms appeared to be active under the conditions described here. Thylakoids isolated from the stressed, drought-tolerant wheat showed an increase in lipid-to-protein ratio, in comparison with the control, whereas this ratio remained unchanged in the sensitive wheat. In both cultivars, water deficit determined different rearrangements in the composition of the thylakoid individual polar lipids, but their unsaturation level remained unaffected with the exception of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. In the drought-sensitive cultivar, an accumulation of free fatty acids together with a reduction in polar lipid amount was observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of spin-labeled proteins of stressed plants from the sensitive cv Adamello showed a higher spin label rotational correlation time together with lower sulphydryl group and mobile proteic portion levels, in comparison with the control. In the tolerant cv Ofanto, the first two parameters changed to a lesser extent following water depletion, and the mobile proteic portion was not altered. PMID:12228463

  16. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  17. Controlling pesticide loss by natural porous micro/nano composites: straw ash-based biochar and biosilica.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dongqing; Wang, Longhai; Zhang, Guilong; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Zhengyan

    2013-09-25

    Pesticide sprayed onto plant leaves tends to discharge into the environment through rainwater washing, leaching, and volatilization, resulting in severe pollution to soil, water, and air. Here, to control pesticide loss, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BCS) to traditional pesticide. BCS possesses a porous micro/nano structure and thus can adsorb a large amount of pesticide molecules to form pesticide-BCS complexes that tend to be retained by the rough surface of plant leaves, displaying a high adhesion performance on the leaves; therefore, the pesticide loss decreases, sufficient pesticide for the plant is supplied, and the pollution risk of the pesticide can be substantially lowered. PMID:24001024

  18. Rheological and functional properties of composite sweet potato - wheat dough as affected by transglutaminase and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Ndayishimiye, Jean Bernard; Huang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Chen, Yong-Zheng; Letsididi, Rebaone; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Ndahetuye, Jean Baptiste; Tang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Effect of transglutaminase (TGM) and ascorbic acid (AA) on composite sweet potato - wheat dough functional and rheological properties was studied. Partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour at the level of 20 % significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced glutenin, gliadin, dough stability, protein weakening, storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″). Mixolab revealed that both TGM and AA treated dough had stability and protein weakening closed to wheat dough (control), with TGM treated dough having the highest values. TGM Introduced new cross-link bonds as shown by the change of amino acid concentration, leading to an increase in storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″), with G' being higher at all levels of TGM concentration. The opposite was observed for composite dough treated with AA as measured by controlled - stress rheometer. TGM treatment increased glutenin and gliadin content. Compared with the control, dough treated with AA exhibited high molecular weight of polymers than TGM treated dough. The results indicate that the TGM and AA modification of the mixolab and dynamic rheological characteristics (G' and G″) dependent on the changes of GMP, glutenin, gliadin and protein weakening in the composite dough. TGM and AA treatment could improve functional and rheological properties of sweet potato - wheat dough to levels that might be achieved with normal wheat bread. However, it's extremely important to optimize the concentrations of both additives to obtain the optimum response. PMID:27162397

  19. [Effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on soil labile organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Guang; Li, Hui Xin; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Feng

    2007-04-01

    A six-year field plot experiment of rice-wheat rotation was conducted to study the effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on cropland soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon. Five treatments were installed, i.e., CK, straw mulch (M), straw mulch plus earthworm inoculation (ME), incorporated straw with soil (I), and incorporated straw with soil plus earthworm inoculation (IE). The results showed that soil organic carbon content increased significantly after six years straw application, and treatment I was more efficient than treatment M. Earthworm inoculation under straw application had no significant effects on soil organic carbon content. Straw application, whether straw mulch or incorporated straw with soil, increased the content of soil labile organic carbon, and incorporated straw with soil was more beneficial to the increase of the contents of hot water-extractable carbon, potentially mineralizable carbon, acid-extractable carbon, readily oxidizable carbon, particulate organic carbon, and light fraction organic carbon. There was a little relationship between the quantitative variations of soil dissoluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon and the patterns of straw application. Among the treatments, the activity of soil organic carbon was decreased in the order of IF > I > M > ME > CK. Straw application pattern was the main factor affecting soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon, while earthworm inoculation was not universally significanfly effective to all kinds of soil labile organic carbon. PMID:17615878

  20. Cell-wall architecture and lignin composition of wheat developed in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Heyenga, A. G.; Levine, H. G.; Choi, J.; Davin, L. B.; Krikorian, A. D.; Lewis, N. G.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The microgravity environment encountered during space-flight has long been considered to affect plant growth and developmental processes, including cell wall biopolymer composition and content. As a prelude to studying how microgravity is perceived - and acted upon - by plants, it was first instructive to investigate what gross effects on plant growth and development occurred in microgravity. Thus, wheat seedlings were exposed to microgravity on board the space shuttle Discovery (STS-51) for a 10 day duration, and these specimens were compared with their counterparts grown on Earth under the same conditions (e.g. controls). First, the primary roots of the wheat that developed under both microgravity and 1 g on Earth were examined to assess the role of gravity on cellulose microfibril (CMF) organization and secondary wall thickening patterns. Using a quick freeze/deep etch technique, this revealed that the cell wall CMFs of the space-grown wheat maintained the same organization as their 1 g-grown counterparts. That is, in all instances, CMFs were randomly interwoven with each other in the outermost layers (farthest removed from the plasma membrane), and parallel to each other within the individual strata immediately adjacent to the plasma membranes. The CMF angle in the innermost stratum relative to the immediately adjacent stratum was ca 80 degrees in both the space and Earth-grown plants. Second, all plants grown in microgravity had roots that grew downwards into the agar; they did not display "wandering" and upward growth as previously reported by others. Third, the space-grown wheat also developed normal protoxylem and metaxylem vessel elements with secondary thickening patterns ranging from spiral to regular pit to reticulate thickenings. Fourthly, both the space- and Earth-grown plants were essentially of the same size and height, and their lignin analyses revealed no substantial differences in their amounts and composition regardless of the gravitational

  1. Mapping straw yield using on-combine light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw is not only important for long-term soil productivity, but also as a raw material for biofuel, livestock feed, building, packing, and bedding. Inventory figures in the United States for potential straw availability are largely based on whole states and counties. ...

  2. Antioxidant, functional and rheological properties of optimized composite flour, consisting wheat and amaranth seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Awolu, Olugbenga Olufemi; Osemeke, Richard Onyemaechi; Ifesan, Beatrice O Temilade

    2016-02-01

    Consumer's interest in functional food has continued to increase due to its potential health benefits. This study therefore is aimed at developing a functional wheat based flour comprising, amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace. The statistical analyses were carried out using response surface methodology (RSM). For the experimental design, the composite flour components were the variables while the proximate and mineral compositions were the responses. After the statistical optimisation process, the best three blends were chosen for further analyses; determination of antioxidant, functional and rheological properties. From the results, the best blends were Runs 11, 13 and 19, with percentages composition of wheat, amaranth seed, brewers, spent grain and apple pomace of 65 %, 30 %, 2 %, 3 %; 60.43 %, 29.68 %, 4.1 %, 5.79 % and 81.94 %, 6.75 %, 3.39 %, 7.92 % respectively. The ANOVA, R(2) and R(2) adjusted values for the proximate and mineral compositions showed that the composite flours were statistically satisfactory. The results also indicated that the antioxidant, functional and rheological properties of the three best blends showed good and acceptable nutritional and rheological properties. Composite flours with acceptable and excellent nutritional composition, functional properties and rheological behaviour can be obtained from composite blends consisting wheat, amaranth seed, brewers, spent grain and apple pomace flours. PMID:27162395

  3. The effects of composite photosynthetic bacterial inoculant PS21 on the biochemical characteristics of wheat seedlings under tetrabromobisphenol A stress

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hong-Lian; Zhang, Fu-Li

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the composite photosynthetic bacterial inoculant PS21 alleviate the damage inflicted on wheat seedlings by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). The biochemical characteristics of wheat seedlings were analysed through laboratory simulation after co-treating seedlings with PS21 and 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg kg−1 TBBPA, respectively. The results showed that TBBPA reduced the total chlorophyll content and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. TBBPA increased the soluble sugar content, soluble protein content and activate superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC: 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC: 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD; EC: 1.11.1.7) at low concentrations, while it reduced soluble sugar content, soluble protein content and decreased the activities of SOD, CAT and POD at high concentrations. At the concentration of 107 CFU mL−1, PS21 could markedly relieve the toxicity of different concentrations of TBBPA on wheat seedlings. Wheat seedlings treated with both TBBPA and PS21 showed a higher soluble sugar content, higher soluble protein content, higher SOD, CAT and POD activities, and a lower MDA content as compared to those treated only with TBBPA. The composite photosynthetic bacterial inoculant PS21 significantly alleviates the damage inflicted on wheat seedlings by TBBPA. PMID:26019643

  4. EFFECT OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS ON DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BREAD CRUMB CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour mill streams, obtained from three samples of Nekota, a hard red winter wheat, were used in this study. The objective was to assess the contribution of protein composition on dough rheological properties and bread crumb characteristics of bread made from the mill streams. Flour proteins were fr...

  5. Effect of wheat forage maturity and preservation method on forage chemical composition and performance of growing calves fed mixed diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three 2.4-ha wheat (Triticum aestivum L) fields were used to test the effects of maturity at harvest (boot vs dough) and preservation method (hay vs silage) on forage yield, chemical composition, and animal performance when fed in mixed diets. Forages were incorporated into 4 diets in a 2 x 2 factor...

  6. Colour, composition and quality of M. longissimus dorsi and M. extensor carpi radialis of steers housed on straw or concrete slats or accommodated outdoors on wood-chips.

    PubMed

    Dunne, P G; Rogalski, J; Moreno, T; Monahan, F J; French, P; Moloney, A P

    2008-08-01

    Forty-five Charolais crossbred steers were offered a common diet and accommodated either outside on wood-chips (OWP, 18m(2)/head) or in a naturally-ventilated building in slatted-floor pens (SLA, 2.5m(2)/500kg bodyweight) or in straw-bedded pens (STR, 4m(2)/head) for 132 days. Carcass weight averaged 351, 362, and 372 (sed 6.63)kg (P<0.05), for SLA, STR and OWP, respectively. Accommodation system did not affect the colour, drip loss, shear force or composition of Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD) or Musculus extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles or the sensory characteristics of LD. The ultimate pH of ECR was highest (P<0.05) for OWP steers, while their LD was darker at 2 days post-mortem than LD from STR steers. It is concluded that accommodating cattle on OWP had a minor transient effect on beef colour and no impact on beef composition or eating quality. PMID:22063032

  7. Effect of raw material on cooking quality and nutritional composition of durum wheat spaghetti.

    PubMed

    Padalino, L; Mastromatteo, M; Lecce, L; Spinelli, S; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the effect of semolina and wholemeal flour from six durum wheat cultivars on the pasta cooking and nutritional quality was evaluated. The wholemeal spaghetti samples showed an improvement in the chemical composition (high protein and insoluble dietary fibre content) but they have a decline in the cooking quality (high cooking loss) with respect to the semolina spaghetti. In particular, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli and Core samples recorded the highest protein and insoluble dietary fibre content, respectively. As compared to the other samples, the wholemeal spaghetti Iride recorded a higher cooking loss. Moreover, the wholemeal spaghetti showed the lowest overall quality due to the low score of elasticity, firmness and colour. Specifically, the wholemeal Cappelli recorded a slight rise of the overall quality with respect to other wholemeal samples. In conclusion, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli was found to be an optimum compromise between the sensory and nutritional quality. PMID:25666412

  8. Toughness of natural rubber composites reinforced with hydrolyzed and modified wheat gluten aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toughness of natural rubber can be improved by using fillers for various rubber applications. Dry wheat gluten is a protein from wheat flour and is sufficiently rigid for rubber reinforcement. The wheat gluten was hydrolyzed to reduce its particle size and microfluidized to reduce and homogenize...

  9. Influence of Initial C/N Ratio on Chemical and Microbial Composition during Long Term Composting of Straw.

    PubMed

    Eiland, F.; Klamer, M.; Lind, A.-M.; Leth, M.; Bååth, E.

    2001-04-01

    Shredded straw of Miscanthus was composted in 800-L boxes with different amounts of pig slurry added as nitrogen source. The impact of the different initial C/N ratios (11, 35, 47, 50, and 54) on the composting process and the end product was evaluated by examining chemical and microbiological parameters during 12 months of composting. Low initial C/N ratios caused a fast degradation of fibers during the first three months of composting (hemicellulose: 50-80%, cellulose: 40-60%), while high initial C/N ratios resulted in 10-20% degradation of both hemicellulose and cellulose. These differences were reflected in the microbial biomass and respiration, which initially were higher in low C/N treatments than in high C/N treatments. After 12 months of composting, this situation was reversed. Composts with high initial C/N ratios had high microbial biomass (15-20 mg ATP g-1 OM) and respiration rates (200 mg CO2 h-1 g-1 OM) compared to treatments with low initial C/N ratios (less than 10 mg ATP g-1 OM and 25 mg CO2 h-1 g-1 OM). This could be explained by the microorganisms being nitrogen limited in the high C/N ratio treatments. In the low C/N ratio treatments, without nitrogen limitation, the high activity in the beginning decreased with time because of exhaustion of easily available carbon. Different nitrogen availability was also seen in the nitrification patterns, since nitrate was only measured in significant amounts in the treatments with initial C/N ratios of 11 and 35. The microbial community structure (measured as phospholipid fatty acid, PLFA, profile) was also affected by the initial C/N ratios, with lower fungal/bacterial ratios in the low compared to the high C/N treatments after 12 months of composting. However, in the low C/N treatments higher levels of PLFAs indicative of thermophilic gram-positive bacteria were found compared to the high C/N treatments. This was caused by the initial heating phase being longer in the low than in the high C/N treatments

  10. The influence of chitosan on the structural properties of whey protein and wheat starch composite systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Natasha; Ashton, John; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-07-15

    The structural properties of medium molecular weight chitosan (CHT), whey protein isolate (WPI) and native wheat starch (WS) from low- to intermediate-solid single systems and composite matrices were investigated. Analysis involved monitoring the thermal behavior of these biopolymers during controlled heating from 25 up to 95 °C and subsequent cooling to 5 °C under small deformation dynamic oscillation in-shear and micro differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Further information regarding the molecular interactions of components and overall network morphology of the systems was revealed through subjecting thermally developed gels to large deformation compression testing, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Our study found a significant change in the structure of WPI networks upon incorporation of CHT in preparations due to electrostatic forces developing between the two polymeric constituents. In the tertiary system, the presence of low levels of starch contributed to a reduction in the firmness of the gel matrix. However, at higher additions of the polysaccharide, a recovery in the stored energy of composite materials was apparent, as recorded in the thermomechanical protocol. PMID:25722139

  11. Wheat bran: its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Wheat bran is a concentrated source of insoluble fibre. Fibre intakes are generally lower than recommendations. This paper reviews the physiological effects of wheat bran and the health benefits it may provide in terms of the prevention of diseases such as colon and breast cancers, cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal diseases. In recognition of the weight of evidence, the European Food Safety Authority has recently approved two health claims for wheat bran and gastrointestinal health. PMID:22716911

  12. Physico-mechanical and tribological properties of Grewia Optiva fiber/bio-particulates hybrid polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gangil, Brijesh; Patel, Vinay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Lack of resources and increasing environmental issues has received widespread attention for the development of natural fiber/ particulate reinforced hybrid polymer composites. In the present investigation the authors use (GO) Grewia Optiva as the main reinforcement and rice husk/wheat straw as additional particulates for improving the mechanical and wear properties of polymer composites. The samples were prepared by hand layup technique according to ASTM standards. The results indicated that incorporation of wheat straw with GO polymer materials exhibited better hardness (2.5 times harder) and less wear (0.85 times) than mono GO fiber polymer composites (GOFRP). Moreover, Rice husk filled GOFRP shows superior impact energy among the all set of composites. Water absorption behavior was also discussed in this investigation.

  13. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites. PMID:20499931

  14. Phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from the whole-meal flour of Italian durum wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D'Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

  15. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D’Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

  16. Isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from grain straws and their use for the preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose-based nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Oun, Ahmed A; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2016-10-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were isolated from rice straw (RS), wheat straw (WS), and barley straw (BS) by using acid hydrolysis method. They were fibrous in shape with length (L) of 120-800nm and width (W) of 10-25nm, aspect ratio (L/W) of 18, 16 and 19, crystallinity index (CI) of 0.663, 0.710, and 0.634, and yield of 64, 75, and 69wt% for RS, WS, and BS respectively. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/CNC composite films were prepared with various concentration of the CNCs. SEM results showed that the CNCs were evenly distributed in the polymer to form homogeneous films. Mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were varied depending on the type of CNCs and their concentration. Tensile strength (TS) increased by 45.7%, 25.2%, and 42.6%, and the water vapor permeability (WVP) decreased by 26.3%, 19.1%, and 20.4% after forming composite with 5wt% of CNCs obtained from RS, WS, and BS, respectively. PMID:27312629

  17. Use of Near-Isogenic Wheat Lines to Determine the Glutenin Composition and Functionality in Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L) the synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins (GS) is controlled by three heterologous genetic loci present on the long arms of group 1 wheat chromosomes. The loci Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-D1 and their allelic variants play important roles in the functional propert...

  18. Characterizing the composition and evolution of homoeologous genomes in hexaploid wheat through BAC-end sequencing on chromosome 3B.

    PubMed

    Paux, Etienne; Roger, Delphine; Badaeva, Ekatherina; Gay, Georges; Bernard, Michel; Sourdille, Pierre; Feuillet, Catherine

    2006-11-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important crops worldwide. However, because of its large, hexaploid, highly repetitive genome it is a challenge to develop efficient means for molecular analysis and genetic improvement in wheat. To better understand the composition and molecular evolution of the hexaploid wheat homoeologous genomes and to evaluate the potential of BAC-end sequences (BES) for marker development, we have followed a chromosome-specific strategy and generated 11 Mb of random BES from chromosome 3B, the largest chromosome of bread wheat. The sequence consisted of about 86% of repetitive elements, 1.2% of coding regions, and 13% remained unknown. With 1.2% of the sequence length corresponding to coding sequences, 6000 genes were estimated for chromosome 3B. New repetitive sequences were identified, including a Triticineae-specific tandem repeat (Fat) that represents 0.6% of the B-genome and has been differentially amplified in the homoeologous genomes before polyploidization. About 10% of the BES contained junctions between nested transposable elements that were used to develop chromosome-specific markers for physical and genetic mapping. Finally, sequence comparison with 2.9 Mb of random sequences from the D-genome of Aegilops tauschii suggested that the larger size of the B-genome is due to a higher content in repetitive elements. It also indicated which families of transposable elements are mostly responsible for differential expansion of the homoeologous wheat genomes during evolution. Our data demonstrate that BAC-end sequencing from flow-sorted chromosomes is a powerful tool for analysing the structure and evolution of polyploid and highly repetitive genomes. PMID:17010109

  19. Bioethanol production from rice straw by popping pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice straw has considerable potential as a raw material for bioethanol production. Popping pretreatment of rice straw prior to downstream enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was found to increase cellulose to glucose conversion efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of popping pretreatment and determine the optimal enzyme loading using a surface response design. Results The optimal doses of cellulase and xylanase enzymes were 23 FPU and 62 IU/g biomass, respectively. Using the optimized enzyme condition and popping pretreatment of rice straw (15% substrate loading, w/v), a sugar recovery of 0.567 g/g biomass (glucose; 0.394 g/g) was obtained in 48 h, which was significantly higher than that from untreated rice straw (total sugar recovery; 0.270 g/g biomass). Fermentation of the hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in 0.172 g ethanol/g biomass after 24 h, equivalent to 80.9% of the maximum theoretical yield (based on the amount of glucose in raw material). Changes in the chemical composition and surface area of rice straw were also investigated before and after popping pretreatment. The results showed little or no difference in chemical composition between the pretreated rice straw and the control. However, the surface area of pretreated rice straw increased twofold compared to the control. Conclusion Popping pretreatment of rice straw can effectively improve downstream saccharification and fermentation, important for bioethanol production. PMID:24286244

  20. Heavy metals and trace elements in atmospheric fall-out: their relationship with topsoil and wheat element composition.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Jasan, Raquel; Plá, Rita; Pignata, María L

    2012-04-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the average concentrations and deposition rates of 28 elements in atmospheric bulk deposition and to elucidate associations among topsoil, bulk deposition and wheat element composition. The fluxes of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) deposition in Córdoba were higher than in other agro-ecosystems, which reflects both natural (geochemistry and topsoil removal) and anthropogenic sources. High lanthanide, uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations revealed the impact of an open cast uranium mine. The highest enrichment factors (EF) were those of Cu, Pb, Zn and nickel (Ni), with calcium (Ca) being the most prominent in the surroundings of a cement plant. Industries and the transport of airborne urban pollutants were the main anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and antimony (Sb). The concentrations of metals in wheat grain were predicted using the topsoil and atmospheric fall-out composition with R(2)=0.90, with the latter being the best explanatory variable. The present study highlights the potential health hazards of wheat consumption (Environmental Protection Agency) by the assessment of heavy metals in bulk atmospheric deposition. PMID:22390956

  1. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  2. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming].

    PubMed

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on

  3. Organically vs conventionally grown winter wheat: effects on grain yield, technological quality, and on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of bran and refined flour.

    PubMed

    Mazzoncini, Marco; Antichi, Daniele; Silvestri, Nicola; Ciantelli, Giulia; Sgherri, Cristina

    2015-05-15

    Since organic food is widely assumed to have a better nutritional quality than conventional food, our aim was to study the effects of organic vs conventional cropping systems on yield and the phenolic composition of winter wheat cv. 'Bologna'. Although organic wheat yielded less than conventional wheat, mainly due to the nitrogen shortage, and its bread-making quality was lower, the cultivation system did not affect the total amounts of phenolics and phenolic acids. Of the eight phenolic acids identified, only ferulic acid was influenced by the cultivation system. Phenolic composition and quantity were significantly affected by the milling fraction (bran or white flour): phenolics were more concentrated in the bran, which showed the highest antioxidant power. Under the conditions adopted in this study, an organic cropping system can maintain or even increase the health properties of the wheat milled products, provided a reduction in grain yield is accepted. PMID:25577104

  4. Cerebroside C Increases Tolerance to Chilling Injury and Alters Lipid Composition in Wheat Roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Yu; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xu; Li, Cong; Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Ye, Yong-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4°C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4°C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25°C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.62–62.26%, 13.54–63.93% and 13.90–61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.69–46.06%, 3.37–37.96%, and −7.00–178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC. PMID:24058471

  5. Composition, Assembly, and Trafficking of a Wheat Xylan Synthase Complex1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Wiemels, Richard E.; Soya, Aaron; Whitley, Rebekah; Held, Michael; Faik, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Xylans play an important role in plant cell wall integrity and have many industrial applications. Characterization of xylan synthase (XS) complexes responsible for the synthesis of these polymers is currently lacking. We recently purified XS activity from etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. To further characterize this purified activity, we analyzed its protein composition and assembly. Proteomic analysis identified six main proteins: two glycosyltransferases (GTs) TaGT43-4 and TaGT47-13; two putative mutases (TaGT75-3 and TaGT75-4) and two non-GTs; a germin-like protein (TaGLP); and a vernalization related protein (TaVER2). Coexpression of TaGT43-4, TaGT47-13, TaGT75-3, and TaGT75-4 in Pichia pastoris confirmed that these proteins form a complex. Confocal microscopy showed that all these proteins interact in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but the complexes accumulate in Golgi, and TaGT43-4 acts as a scaffold protein that holds the other proteins. Furthermore, ER export of the complexes is dependent of the interaction between TaGT43-4 and TaGT47-13. Immunogold electron microscopy data support the conclusion that complex assembly occurs at specific areas of the ER before export to the Golgi. A di-Arg motif and a long sequence motif within the transmembrane domains were found conserved at the NH2-terminal ends of TaGT43-4 and homologous proteins from diverse taxa. These conserved motifs may control the forward trafficking of the complexes and their accumulation in the Golgi. Our findings indicate that xylan synthesis in grasses may involve a new regulatory mechanism linking complex assembly with forward trafficking and provide new insights that advance our understanding of xylan biosynthesis and regulation in plants. PMID:26917684

  6. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  7. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiyun; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Shunli; Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  8. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality. PMID:26471616

  9. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and 'Miracle-Wheat'.

    PubMed

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Youssef, Helmy M; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. 'Compositum-Barley' and tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat' (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation 'Miracle-Wheat' produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in 'Compositum-Barley,' i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched head(t) (bh(t)) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat.' Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bh(t) locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of 'Miracle-Wheat.' mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat's yield potential. PMID:26156223

  10. Cell Wall Biomolecular Composition Plays a Potential Role in the Host Type II Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Lahlali, Rachid; Kumar, Saroj; Wang, Lipu; Forseille, Li; Sylvain, Nicole; Korbas, Malgorzata; Muir, David; Swerhone, George; Lawrence, John R.; Fobert, Pierre R.; Peng, Gary; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat worldwide. Cultivar resistance to FHB depends on biochemical factors that confine the pathogen spread in spikes. Breeding for cultivar resistance is considered the most practical way to manage this disease. In this study, different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques were applied to discriminate resistance in wheat genotypes against FHB. Synchrotron-based spectroscopy and imaging techniques, including focal plane array infrared and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were used to understand changes in biochemical and nutrients in rachis following FHB infection. Sumai3 and Muchmore were used to represent resistant and susceptible cultivars to FHB, respectively, in this study. The histological comparison of rachis showed substantial differences in the cell wall thickness between the cultivars after infection. Synchrotron-based infrared imaging emphasized substantial difference in biochemical composition of rachis samples between the two cultivars prior to visible symptoms; in the resistant Sumai3, infrared bands representing lignin and hemicellulose were stronger and more persistent compared to the susceptible cultivar. These bands may be the candidates of biochemical markers for FHB resistance. Focal plane array infrared imaging (FPA) spectra from the rachis epidermis and vascular bundles revealed a new band (1710 cm−1) related to the oxidative stress on the susceptible cultivar only. XRF spectroscopy data revealed differences in nutrients composition between cultivars, and between controls and inoculated samples, with substantial increases observed for Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Si in the resistant cultivar. These nutrients are related to cell wall stability, metabolic process, and plant defense mechanisms such as lignification pathway and callose deposition. The combination of cell wall composition and lignification plays a role in the mechanism of type II host resistance to FHB. Biochemical profiling

  11. Cell Wall Biomolecular Composition Plays a Potential Role in the Host Type II Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Lahlali, Rachid; Kumar, Saroj; Wang, Lipu; Forseille, Li; Sylvain, Nicole; Korbas, Malgorzata; Muir, David; Swerhone, George; Lawrence, John R; Fobert, Pierre R; Peng, Gary; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat worldwide. Cultivar resistance to FHB depends on biochemical factors that confine the pathogen spread in spikes. Breeding for cultivar resistance is considered the most practical way to manage this disease. In this study, different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques were applied to discriminate resistance in wheat genotypes against FHB. Synchrotron-based spectroscopy and imaging techniques, including focal plane array infrared and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were used to understand changes in biochemical and nutrients in rachis following FHB infection. Sumai3 and Muchmore were used to represent resistant and susceptible cultivars to FHB, respectively, in this study. The histological comparison of rachis showed substantial differences in the cell wall thickness between the cultivars after infection. Synchrotron-based infrared imaging emphasized substantial difference in biochemical composition of rachis samples between the two cultivars prior to visible symptoms; in the resistant Sumai3, infrared bands representing lignin and hemicellulose were stronger and more persistent compared to the susceptible cultivar. These bands may be the candidates of biochemical markers for FHB resistance. Focal plane array infrared imaging (FPA) spectra from the rachis epidermis and vascular bundles revealed a new band (1710 cm(-1)) related to the oxidative stress on the susceptible cultivar only. XRF spectroscopy data revealed differences in nutrients composition between cultivars, and between controls and inoculated samples, with substantial increases observed for Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Si in the resistant cultivar. These nutrients are related to cell wall stability, metabolic process, and plant defense mechanisms such as lignification pathway and callose deposition. The combination of cell wall composition and lignification plays a role in the mechanism of type II host resistance to FHB. Biochemical profiling

  12. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and Fusarium graminearum contamination of cereal straw; field distribution; and sampling of big bales.

    PubMed

    Häggblom, P; Nordkvist, E

    2015-05-01

    Sampling of straw bales from wheat, barley, and oats was carried out after harvest showing large variations in deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) levels. In the wheat field, DON was detected in all straw samples with an average DON concentration of 976 μg/kg and a median of 525 μg/kg, while in four bales, the concentrations were above 3000 μg/kg. For ZEN, the concentrations were more uniform with an average concentration of 11 μg/kg. The barley straw bales were all positive for DON with an average concentration of 449 μg/kg and three bales above 800 μg/kg. In oat straw, the average DON concentration was 6719 μg/kg with the lowest concentration at 2614 μg/kg and eight samples above 8000 μg/kg. ZEN contamination was detected in all bales with an average concentration of 53 μg/kg with the highest concentration at 219 μg/kg. Oat bales from another field showed an average concentration of 16,382 μg/kg. ZEN concentrations in the oat bales were on average 153 μg/kg with a maximum at 284 μg/kg. Levels of Fusarium graminearum DNA were higher in oat straw (max 6444 pg DNA/mg straw) compared to straw from wheat or barley. The significance of mycotoxin exposure from straw should not be neglected particularly in years when high levels of DON and ZEN are also detected in the feed grain. With a limited number of samples preferably using a sampling probe, it is possible to distinguish lots of straw that should not be used as bedding material for pigs. PMID:25665688

  13. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective.

    PubMed

    Glithero, N J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2013-08-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t(-1) the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. PMID:24926116

  14. A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw☆

    PubMed Central

    Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B.; Du, Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

  15. Use of methylation filtration and C(0)t fractionation for analysis of genome composition and comparative genomics in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rustgi, Sachin; Chaudhuri, Rajat Kanti; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra Paul; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Houben, Andreas; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2011-07-20

    We investigated the compositional and structural differences in sequences derived from different fractions of wheat genomic DNA obtained using methylation filtration and C(0)t fractionation. Comparative analysis of these sequences revealed large compositional and structural variations in terms of GC content, different structural elements including repeat sequences (e.g., transposable elements and simple sequence repeats), protein coding genes, and non-coding RNA genes. A correlation between methylation status [determined on the basis of selective inclusion/exclusion in methylation-filtered (MF) library] of different repeat elements and expression level was observed. The expression levels were determined by comparing MF sequences with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) available in the public domain. Only a limited overlap among MF, high C(0)t (HC), and ESTs was observed, suggesting that these sequences may largely either represent the low-copy non-transcribed sequences or include genes with low expression levels. Thus, these results indicated a need to study MF and HC sequences along with ESTs to fully appreciate complexity of wheat gene space. PMID:21777856

  16. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit allelic composition on wheat flour tortilla quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat cultivars possessing quality attributes needed to produce optimum quality tortillas have not been identified. This study investigated the effect of variations in high molecular weight glutenin subunits encoded at the Glu-1 loci (Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-D1) on dough properties and tortilla quality....

  17. Composition of the Fusarium graminearum species complex populations in wheat cropping environments in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) comprises several toxigenic species that cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. In this study, high number (n=671 isolates) of pathogenic isolates (isolated from infected spikes) was obtained from a 3-year large-scale survey (2009-2011) conducted o...

  18. Variation in polar lipid composition within near-isogenic wheat lines containing different puroindoline haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extensive amount of research has investigated kernel hardness. However, the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Puroindoline-A and puroindoline-B proteins must be present in their wild-type form to create soft textured wheat. Similar to puroindoline proteins, polar lipids are...

  19. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Sorghum, Millet, and Whole Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 2 million people in the United States have celiac disease, or about 1 in 133 individuals. People who have this disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Nutrient profiles were lacking in the USDA Nat...

  20. Building a Straw Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  1. The effect of biochar and crop straws on heavy metal bioavailability and plant accumulation in a Cd and Pb polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Sun, Cai-Xia; Ye, Xue-Zhu; Xiao, Wen-Dan; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Biochar derived from various materials has been investigated with regard to its ability to decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils, and thus reduce their potential to enter the food chain. However, little attention has been given to the adsorption capacity of untreated crop straws, which are commonly used as a biochar feedstock, especially in soils. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of crop straws on heavy metal immobilization and subsequent heavy metal uptake by maize and ryegrass in a soil artificially polluted by Cd and Pb. Bamboo biochar, rice straw, and wheat straw were mixed into soil four weeks before the experiment, enabling them to reach equilibrium at 2% (w/w), 1% (w/w), and 1% (w/w), respectively. The results showed that soil pH for both species was significantly increased by all treatments, except when wheat straw was used for ryegrass cultivation. Soil organic carbon was only improved in the rice straw treatment and the soil alkali-hydrolyzable N content was significantly decreased with all of the amendments, which may have contributed to the lack of an effect on plant biomass. Soil available Cd was significantly lower in the rice straw treatment than in the control soil, while Pb levels clearly decreased in wheat straw treatment. The Cd concentration in shoots of maize was reduced by 50.9%, 69.5%, and 66.9% with biochar, rice straw, and wheat straw, respectively. In addition, shoot Cd accumulation was decreased by 47.3%, 67.1%, and 66.4%, respectively. Shoot Pb concentration and accumulation were only reduced with the rice straw treatment for both species. However, metal uptake in plant roots was more complex, with increased metal concentrations also detected. Overall, the direct application of crop straw could be considered a feasible way to immobilize selected metals in soil, once the long-term effects are confirmed. PMID:27285283

  2. The hemicellulolytic enzyme arsenal of Thermobacillus xylanilyticus depends on the composition of biomass used for growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thermobacillus xylanilyticus is a thermophilic and highly xylanolytic bacterium. It produces robust and stable enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and esterases, which are of special interest for the development of integrated biorefineries. To investigate the strategies used by T. xylanilyticus to fractionate plant cell walls, two agricultural by-products, wheat bran and straw (which differ in their chemical composition and tissue organization), were used in this study and compared with glucose and xylans. The ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on these substrates was studied. When the bacteria used lignocellulosic biomass, the production of enzymes was evaluated and correlated with the initial composition of the biomass, as well as with the evolution of any residues during growth. Results Our results showed that T. xylanilyticus is not only able to use glucose and xylans as primary carbon sources but can also use wheat bran and straw. The chemical compositions of both lignocellulosic substrates were modified by T. xylanilyticus after growth. The bacteria were able to consume 49% and 20% of the total carbohydrates in bran and straw, respectively, after 24 h of growth. The phenolic and acetyl ester contents of these substrates were also altered. Bacterial growth on both lignocellulosic biomasses induced hemicellulolytic enzyme production, and xylanase was the primary enzyme secreted. Debranching activities were differentially produced, as esterase activities were more important to bacterial cultures grown on wheat straw; arabinofuranosidase production was significantly higher in bacterial cultures grown on wheat bran. Conclusion This study provides insight into the ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on abundant agricultural by-products, which are inexpensive carbon sources for enzyme production. The composition of the biomass upon which the bacteria grew influenced their growth, and differences in the biomass provided resulted in dissimilar enzyme

  3. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to <20.0 N. The melting peak temperature was increased from 52 C to between 53.0 C and 57.0 C with added hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers. The melting enthalpy of the retrograded amylopectin was lower in composite bread with hydrocolloids and emulsifiers, 6.7-11.0 J/g compared to 20.0 J/g for the reference bread. These results show that emulsifiers in combination with hydrocolloids can improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat breads. PMID:27386112

  4. Evaluation of various feedstuffs of ruminants in terms of chemical composition and metabolisable energy content

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Datt, Chander; Das, L. K.; Kundu, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition and metabolisable energy (ME) content of feedstuffs used in ruminant animals using in vitro method. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 feedstuffs used for ruminant feeding including cultivated non-leguminous fodders like maize, sorghum, pearl millet, and oat; leguminous fodders like cowpea and berseem; agro-industrial by-products such as wheat bran, deoiled rice bran, rice polish, wheat straw, and concentrates such as mustard oil cake, groundnut cake, soybean meal, cotton seed cake, grains like maize, oat, wheat, and barley were taken for this study. Chemical compositions and cell wall constituents of test feeds were determined in triplicate. The crude protein (CP) content was calculated as nitrogen (N) × 6.25. True dry matter digestibility (TDMD), true organic matter digestibility (TOMD), ME, and partitioning factor (PF) values were determined by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT). Results: The CP content of non-leguminous fodders varied from 7.29% (sorghum) to 9.51% (maize), but leguminous fodders had less variation in CP. Oilseed cakes/meals had high CP and ether extract (EE) content than other feedstuffs except rice polish, which had 12.80% EE. Wheat straw contained highest fiber fractions than the other ingredients. ME content was highest in grains (wheat-12.02 MJ/kg) and lowest in wheat straw (4.65 MJ/kg) and other roughages. TDMD of grains and oilseed cakes/meals were higher than the fodders and agro-industrial by-products. The same trend was observed for TOMD. Conclusions: It was concluded that the energy feeds showed a great variation in chemical composition and ME content. The results of this study demonstrated that the kinetics of gas production of energy feed sources differed among themselves. Evaluation of various feedstuffs is helpful in balanced ration formulation for field animals and under farm conditions for better utilization of these commonly available feed resources. PMID:27047142

  5. Influence of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition at Glu-B1 locus on secondary and micro structures of gluten in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Tianhong; Yu, Jing; Li, Liqun; Feng, Yi; Li, Xuejun

    2016-04-15

    Glutenin is one of the critical gluten proteins that affect the processing quality of wheat dough. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) affect rheological behavior of wheat dough. This research demonstrated the effects of four variations of HMW-GS composition at the Glu-B1 locus on secondary and micro structures of gluten and rheological properties of wheat dough, using the bread wheat Xinong 1330 and its three near-isogenic lines (NILs). Results indicated that the Amide I bands of the four wheat lines shifted slightly, but the secondary structure, such as content of α-helices, β-sheets, disulfide bands, tryptophan bands and tyrosine bands, differed significantly among the four NILs. The micro structure of gluten in NIL 2 (Bx14+By15) and NIL 3 (Bx17+By18) showed more cross linkage, with two contrasting patterns. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the content of β-sheets and disulfide bonds has a significant relationship with dough stability, which suggests that the secondary structures could be used as predictors of wheat quality. PMID:26675856

  6. Macronutrient composition of nickel-treated wheat under different sulfur concentrations in the nutrient solution.

    PubMed

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Chwil, Stanisław; Chwil, Mirosława

    2016-03-01

    The effect of different sulfate(VI) sulfur (2, 6, and 9 mM S) levels and nickel(II) chloride (0, 0.0004, 0.04 and 0.08 mM Ni) in the nutrient solution on productivity and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) status and accumulation in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Zebra cv. was studied. Ni treatment reduced the biomass and disturbed the balance and accumulation of macronutrients in wheat. Intensive S nutrition, especially with 6 mM S, at least partially increased the biomass, improved ionic equilibrium, and enhanced nutrient accumulation in Ni-exposed plants in spite of increased Ni accumulation. Admittedly, the dose 9 mM S reduced Ni accumulation in shoots but increased accumulation thereof in roots. Compared to 6 mM, the dose 9 mM was less effective in improving the mineral status of Ni-treated wheat. PMID:26593727

  7. The relationship between different biotypes and protein composition of Hard Red Winter Wheat flours and their affect on alkaline noodle color and texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five samples of biotypes derived from two hard red winter wheat (HRW) cultivars, Centurk and OK102, were grown in a randomized complete block design at Mead, NE. The biotypes varied in their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition with five different HMW-GS allelic combi...

  8. Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Straw Roughage by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zihao; Feng, Mengyuan; Zhu, Kechen; Han, Lijun; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2016-08-10

    A multiresidue analytical method using a modification of the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) sample preparation approach combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was established and validated for the rapid determination of 69 pesticides at different levels (1-100 ng/g) in wheat and rice straws. In the quantitative analysis, the recoveries ranged from 70 to 120%, and consistent RSDs ≤ 20% were achieved for most of the target analytes (53 pesticides in wheat straw and 58 in rice straw). Almost all of the analytes achieved good linearity with R(2) > 0.98, and the limit of validation levels (LVLs) for diverse pesticides ranged from 1 to 10 ng/g. Different extraction and cleanup conditions were evaluated in both types of straw, leading to different options. The use of 0.1% formic acid or not in extraction with acetonitrile yielded similar final outcomes, but led to the use of a different sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction. Both options are efficient and useful for the multiresidue analysis of targeted pesticides in wheat and rice straw samples. PMID:26881844

  9. RNA interference targeting rye secalins alters flour protein composition in a wheat variety carrying a 1Bl.1RS translocation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat varieties carrying chromosome translocations from rye are part of the international wheat breeding pool, despite being associated with defects in dough processing quality. Among the proposed causes for the quality defects of flours from such wheats is the presence of the secalins, encoded by ...

  10. Enhanced biological straw saccharification through coculturing of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Al-Hothaly, Khalid; Mouradov, Aidyn; Smith, Andrew T; Ball, Andrew S; Adetutu, Eric M

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic waste (LCW) is an abundant, low-cost, and inedible substrate for the induction of lignocellulolytic enzymes for cellulosic bioethanol production using an efficient, environmentally friendly, and economical biological approach. In this study, 30 different lignocellulose-degrading bacterial and 18 fungal isolates were quantitatively screened individually for the saccharification of four different ball-milled straw substrates: wheat, rice, sugarcane, and pea straw. Rice and sugarcane straws which had similar Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy profiles were more degradable, and resulted in more hydrolytic enzyme production than wheat and pea straws. Crude enzyme produced on native straws performed better than those on artificial substrates (such as cellulose and xylan). Four fungal and five bacterial isolates were selected (based on their high strawase activities) for constructing dual and triple microbial combinations to investigate microbial synergistic effects on saccharification. Combinations such as FUNG16-FUNG17 (Neosartorya fischeri-Myceliophthora thermophila) and RMIT10-RMIT11 (Aeromonas hydrophila-Pseudomonas poae) enhanced saccharification (3- and 6.6-folds, respectively) compared with their monocultures indicating the beneficial effects of synergism between those isolates. Dual isolate combinations were more efficient at straw saccharification than triple combinations in both bacterial and fungal assays. Overall, co-culturing can result in significant increases in saccharification which may offer significant commercial potential for the use of microbial consortia. PMID:25724976

  11. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking

  12. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, C. v.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields plant available inorganic phosphate (Pi) and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P-compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four Pi are released, and one oxygen atom from water is incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi is subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ 6 to 10‰), which is similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ∼ 7‰) where less than three Pi are released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ -12‰), again similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ɛ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking substrate-dependency of

  13. Study of chemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification for producing fermentable sugars from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated a cost-effective approach for the conversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars. The composition of rice straw pretreated with 1 % sulfuric acid or 1 % sodium hydroxide solution was compared to rice straw with no chemical pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification experiments on non-pretreated rice straw (NPRS), pretreated rice straw (PRS), and pretreated rice straw with acid hydrolysate (PRSAH) were conducted in a series of batch reactors. The results indicated that pretreating the rice straw with dilute acid and base increased the cellulose content from 38 % to over 50 %. During enzymatic saccharification, straight aliphatic cellulose was hydrolyzed before branched hemicellulose, and glucose was the major hydrolysis product. The glucose yield was 0.52 g glucose/g for NPRS and was comparable to the yields of 0.50 g glucose/g for PRS and 0.58 g glucose/g for PRSAH. The hydrolysis of rice straw to produce glucose can be described by a first-order reaction with a rate constant of 0.0550 d(-1) for NPRS, 0.0653 d(-1) for PRSAH, and 0.0654 d(-1) for PRS. Overall, the production of fermentable sugars from ground rice straw will be more cost effective if the straw is not pretreated with chemicals. PMID:24346765

  14. Using isotopic tracers to assess the impact of tillage and straw management on the microbial metabolic network in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Groenigen, K.; Forristal, D.; Jones, M. B.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.; Dijkstra, P.

    2013-12-01

    By decomposing soil organic matter, microbes gain energy and building blocks for biosynthesis and release CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, insight into the effect of management practices on microbial metabolic pathways and C use efficiency (CUE; microbial C produced per substrate C utilized) may help to predict long term changes in soil C stocks. We studied the effects of reduced (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) on the microbial central C metabolic network, using soil samples from a 12-year-old field experiment in an Irish winter wheat cropping system. Each year after harvest, straw was removed from half of the RT and CT plots or incorporated into the soil in the other half, resulting in four treatment combinations. We added 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose as metabolic tracer isotopomers to composite soil samples taken at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm) from each treatment and used the rate of position-specific respired 13CO2 to parameterize a metabolic model. Model outcomes were then used to calculate CUE of the microbial community. We found that the composite samples differed in CUE, but the changes were small, with values ranging between 0.757-0.783 across treatments and soil depth. Increases in CUE were associated with a decrease in tricarboxylic acid cycle and reductive pentose phosphate pathway activity and increased consumption of metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Our results indicate that RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage without substantially changing CUE or any of the microbial metabolic pathways. This suggests that at our site, RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage mostly through direct effects such as increased soil C input and physical protection from decomposition, rather than by feedback responses of the microbial community.

  15. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples. PMID:21545134

  16. Thermal degradation of cereal straws in air and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ergundenler, A.

    1991-12-31

    The termogravimetric behavior of four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50{degrees}C/min) in air and nitrogen atmospheres. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were determined for these straws in both atmospheres. Increasing the heating rate increased the thermal degradation rate, and decreased both the initial degradation temperature and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The higher the cellulosic content of the straw, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the straw resulted in higher residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The thermal degradation rate in active pyrolysis zone was lower in air atmosphere than in nitrogen atmosphere, whereas the thermal degradation rate in passive pyrolysis zone and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were higher in nitrogen atmosphere than in air atmosphere.

  17. Effect of Cd sup 2+ CN lipid composition of thylakoid membranes CF wheat chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, D.; Sheoran, I.S.; Singh, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Cadmium application in wheat plants decreased thylakoid total lipids, total glycolipids, total phospholipids and total neutral lipids by 22, 23, 12 and 25% respectively. MGDG and DGDG were the major glycolipids and their level decreased by 32 and 27%, respectively under cadmium treatment. Sulpholipids were also decreased by 27%. Cadmium application also decreased the concentration of phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) and phosphatidyl choline (PC) to the extent of about 57 and 31%, respectively. Phosphatidic acid, which could not be detected under control, appeared in cadmium treated leaves. Triglycerides, the major constituents of neutral lipids, were decreased by 68%. However, free fatty acid content increased by about 19% under cadmium treatment. These results indicate that cadmium treatment affects the architecture of thylakoid membranes which in turn may adversely affect the light reactions of photosynthesis.

  18. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking. PMID:25286188

  19. Wheat gluten amino acid composition analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Ine; Lamberts, Lieve; Celus, Inge; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-07-17

    A simple accurate method for determining amino acid composition of wheat gluten proteins and their gliadin and glutenin fractions using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection is described. In contrast to most conventional methods, the analysis requires neither pre- or post-column derivatization, nor oxidation of the sample. It consists of hydrolysis (6.0M hydrochloric acid solution at 110 degrees C for 24h), evaporation of hydrolyzates (110 degrees C), and chromatographic separation of the liberated amino acids. Correction factors (f) accounted for incomplete cleavage of peptide bonds involving Val (f=1.07) and Ile (f=1.13) after hydrolysis for 24h and for Ser (f=1.32) losses during evaporation. Gradient conditions including an extra eluent (0.1M acetic acid solution) allowed multiple sequential sample analyses without risk of Glu contamination on the anion-exchange column. While gluten amino acid compositions by the present method were mostly comparable to those obtained by a conventional method involving oxidation, acid hydrolysis and post-column ninhydrin derivatization, the latter method underestimated Tyr, Val and Ile levels. Results for the other amino acids obtained by the different methods were linearly correlated (r>0.99, slope=1.03). PMID:19523641

  20. The use of image analysis to investigate C:N ratio in the mixture of chicken manure and straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekała, W.; Dach, J.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Witaszek, K.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of analysis of C:N ratio in the chicken manure and wheat straw mixture. This paper presents preliminary assumptions and parameters of extraction characteristics process. It also presents an introduction of digital image analysis of chicken manure and wheat straw mixture. This work is an introduction to the study on develop computer system that could replace chemical analysis. Good understanding the value of dependence C:N on the basis of image analysis will help in selection of optimal conditions for biological waste treatment.

  1. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water

  2. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.

    PubMed

    Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

    2011-11-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jord

  3. Nanostructural morphology of plasticized wheat gluten and modified potato starch composites: relationship to mechanical and barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Faraz; Andersson, Mariette; Koch, Kristine; Menzel, Carolin; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Plivelic, Tomás S; Kuktaite, Ramune

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we were able to produce composites of wheat gluten (WG) protein and a novel genetically modified potato starch (MPS) with attractive mechanical and gas barrier properties using extrusion. Characterization of the MPS revealed an altered chain length distribution of the amylopectin fraction and slightly increased amylose content compared to wild type potato starch. WG and MPS of different ratios plasticized with either glycerol or glycerol and water were extruded at 110 and 130 °C. The nanomorphology of the composites showed the MPS having semicrystalline structure of a characteristic lamellar arrangement with an approximately 100 Å period observed by small-angle X-ray scattering and a B-type crystal structure observed by wide-angle X-ray scattering analysis. WG has a structure resembling the hexagonal macromolecular arrangement as reported previously in WG films. A larger amount of β-sheets was observed in the samples 70/30 and 30/70 WG-MPS processed at 130 °C with 45% glycerol. Highly polymerized WG protein was found in the samples processed at 130 °C versus 110 °C. Also, greater amounts of WG protein in the blend resulted in greater extensibility (110 °C) and a decrease in both E-modulus and maximum stress at 110 and 130 °C, respectively. Under ambient conditions the WG-MPS composite (70/30) with 45% glycerol showed excellent gas barrier properties to be further explored in multilayer film packaging applications. PMID:25629918

  4. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  5. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide from natural algicides: decomposition organic matter from straw.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Liyin; Yang, Jixiang

    2015-08-01

    The ability of decomposition organic matter from three natural algicides (barley, rice, and wheat straw) and natural organic matter (NOM) isolates to generate hydrogen peroxide under simulated solar irradiation was evaluated in order to understand the mechanism of indirect algae inhibition through a photochemical pathway. Specific optical properties (higher phenolic hydroxyl group contents and lower E2/E3) of barley straw organic matter (BSOM) reveal its outstanding ability to produce H2O2 as a photosensitizer. The appearance of a protein-like structure in BSOM indicated that bacteria or fungi probably transformed the structure of BSOM and brought other organic matter, which may account for its distinct optical properties. The ΦH2O2 of BSOM obtained through aerobic decomposition is 14.73 × 10(-5), which is three times the value of SRHA, whereas the ΦH2O2 value of BSOM obtained for non-aerobic decomposition was 5.30 × 10(-5), still higher than that of SRHA. The ΦH2O2 of rice straw organic matter was slightly lower than those of SRHA and SRFA, but much higher than that of wheat straw organic matter. The superior ability of BSOM to generate H2O2 was partly responsible for the outstanding potential and prior choice of barley straw for cyanobacteria or algae inhibition in various plant decomposition products. PMID:26153543

  6. Effect of fermentation conditions on L-lactic acid production from soybean straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Wenyu; Xiang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Four types of straw, namely, soybean, wheat, corn, and rice, were investigated for use in lactic acid production. These straws were mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. After pretreatment with ammonia, the cellulose content increased, whereas the hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Analytical results also showed that the liquid enzymatic hydrolysates were primarily composed of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. Preliminary experiments showed that a higher lactic acid concentration could be obtained from the wheat and soybean straw. However, soybean straw was chosen as the substrate for lactic acid production owing to its high protein content. The maximum lactic acid yield (0.8 g/g) and lactic acid productivity (0.61 g/(l/h)) were obtained with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 35 g/l at 30°C when using Lactobacillus casei (10% inoculum) for a 42 h fermentation period. Thus, the experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using a soybean straw enzymatic hydrolysate as a substrate for lactic acid production. PMID:25152056

  7. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H.; Hol, W. H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  8. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H; Hol, W H G

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  9. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF. PMID:27386107

  10. Effect of heat and drought stress on the structure and composition of arabinoxylan and β-glucan in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Balla, Krisztina; Láng, László; Bedő, Zoltán; Veisz, Ottó; Shewry, Peter R

    2014-02-15

    The effects of heat (H), drought (D) and H+D (from 12th day after heading for 15 days) on the dietary fiber content and composition (arabinoxylan (AX) and β-glucan) of three winter wheat varieties (Plainsman V, Mv Magma and Fatima 2) were determined. Results showed that H and D stress decreased the TKW, the β-glucan contents of the seeds and the quantity of the DP3+DP4 units, while the protein and AX contents increased. The highest amounts of AX and proteins were in the H+D stressed samples with heat stress also increasing the water extractability (WE) of the AX. However, while the content of AX content was generally increased by all stresses, drought stress had negative effect on the AX content of the drought tolerant Plainsman V. Fatima 2 behaved similarly to Plainsman V as regards to its drought tolerance, but was very sensitive to heat stress, while Mv Magma was the most resistant to heat stress. PMID:24507319

  11. Development of oil-spill sorbent from straw biomass waste: Experiments and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Tijani, Mansour M; Aqsha, Aqsha; Mahinpey, Nader

    2016-04-15

    The recovery of oil spilled on land or water has become an important issue due to environmental regulations. Canadian biomasses as fibrous materials are naturally renewable and have the potential to absorb oil-spills at different ranges. In this work, four Canadian biomasses were examined in order to evaluate their oil affinities and study parameters that could affect oil affinity when used as sorbent, such as average particle size, surface coating and reusability. Moreover, one oil sorption model was adopted and coupled with another developed model to approximate and verify the experimental findings of the oil sorbent biomasses. At an average particle size of 150-1000 μm, results showed that barley straw biomass had the highest absorbency value at 6.07 g/g, while flax straw had the lowest value at 3.69 g/g. Wheat and oat straws had oil absorbency values of 5.49 and 5.00 g/g, respectively. An average particle size of 425-600 μm indicated better absorbency values for oat and wheat straws. Furthermore, the thermal stability study revealed major weight recovery for two flame retardant coatings at hemicellulose and lignocellulose degradation temperature ranges. It was also found that oat straw biomass could be regenerated and used for many sorption/desorption cycles, as the reusability experiment showed only a 18.45% reduction in the oil absorbency value after six consecutive cycles. The developed penetration absorbency (PA) model showed oat straw adsorbed oil at the inter-particle level; and, the results of the sorption capacity model coupled with the PA model excellently predicted the oil sorption of raw and coated oat straws. PMID:26895719

  12. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

  13. H2-Producing Bacterial Community during Rice Straw Decomposition in Paddy Field Soil: Estimation by an Analysis of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Gene Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Ryuko; Asakawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The transcription patterns of [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes (hydA), which encode the enzymes responsible for H2 production, were investigated during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil using molecular biological techniques. Paddy soil amended with and without rice straw was incubated under anoxic conditions. RNA was extracted from the soil, and three clone libraries of hydA were constructed using RNAs obtained from samples in the initial phase of rice straw decomposition (day 1 with rice straw), methanogenic phase of rice straw decomposition (day 14 with rice straw), and under a non-amended condition (day 14 without rice straw). hydA genes related to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Thermotogae were mainly transcribed in paddy soil samples; however, their proportions markedly differed among the libraries. Deltaproteobacteria-related hydA genes were predominantly transcribed on day 1 with rice straw, while various types of hydA genes related to several phyla were transcribed on day 14 with rice straw. Although the diversity of transcribed hydA was significantly higher in the library on day 14 with rice straw than the other two libraries, the composition of hydA transcripts in the library was similar to that in the library on day 14 without rice straw. These results indicate that the composition of active H2 producers and/or H2 metabolic patterns dynamically change during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil. PMID:27319579

  14. XPS and IGC characterization of steam treated triticale straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyan; Boluk, Yaman

    2010-10-01

    The surface chemical composition and surface energy of native and steam treated triticale straws have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to reveal the effect of steam treatment temperature and time. The XPS results show that the contents of C elements and C-C group on the exterior surface of native triticale straw are much higher than those on the interior surface, indicating that there was a high quantity of wax on the exterior surface of the native triticale straw. Upon steam treatment, both carbon levels and C-C groups reduce with increasing steam temperature and treatment time of the exterior surfaces. However, the effect of steam treatment on the interior surface is very limited. In terms of the surface acid and base properties, the steam treated samples exhibited higher acid and base properties than the native sample, indicating a more polar surface of the steam treated sample.

  15. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  16. Simultaneous bioconversion of barley straw to butanol and product recovery: use of concentrated sugar solution and process integration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of increased gasoline prices, we focused on the production of butanol which contains more energy than ethanol on per gallon (or kg) basis from cellulosic agricultural biomass such as wheat straw using two different systems: i) separate hydrolysis, fermentation, and recovery (SHFR), and ...

  17. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P < 0.001), confirmed by fasting plasma alkylrecorsinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05) in parallel to a 53% decrease in the alkylrecorsinol concentration (P < 0.001) in the group consuming refined wheat breads. In this group, the abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, B. plebeius, and Prevotella tannerae decreased, whereas that of bacteria related to Collinsella and members of the Clostridium clusters IV and XI increased. In a multivariate regression analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides spp. was best explained by different fat compounds among dietary variables, whereas the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber. Our results indicate that the quality of grains has a minor effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat. PMID:23514765

  18. The Effect of Variety and Growing Conditions on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat for Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ball, M. E. E.; Owens, B.; McCracken, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG), in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05) affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F) wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F) wheats. An increase (p<0.1) of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the low seed

  19. Process optimization for the preparation of straw feedstuff for rearing yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong

    2012-07-01

    It has been confirmed in our previous work that in bioregenerative life support systems, feeding yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) using fermented straw has the potential to provide good animal protein for astronauts, meanwhile treating with plant wastes. However, since the nitrogen content in straw is very low, T. molitor larvae can not obtain sufficient nitrogen, which results in a relatively low growth efficiency. In this study, wheat straw powder was mixed with simulated human urine before fermentation. Condition parameters, e.g. urine:straw ratio, moisture content, inoculation dose, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and pH were optimized using Taguchi method. Larval growth rate and average individual mass of mature larva increased significantly in the group of T. molitor larvae fed with feedstuff prepared with the optimized process.

  20. Phenolic acid composition of sprouted wheats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Hatcher, David W; Barker, Wendy

    2011-06-15

    The phenolic acid profiles of flours from two Canadian wheat classes, Canadian Western Red Spring (CWRS) and Canadian Western Amber Durum (CWAD), were investigated using two different extraction mediums and analysed on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system at different degrees of sprout damage. A sound (non-sprouted) control sample as well as two different sprouted sub-samples, derived from different germination protocols of the control, were prepared for both the CWAD and CWRS. Free phenolic acids were extracted from the ground whole wheat meal using three repetitive 80% ethanol extractions. Bound phenolic compounds were subsequently released from the residue by alkaline hydrolysis followed by triplicate extraction with diethyl ether:ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v). Twelve phenolic acid standards were clearly resolved and quantified using a short 5min elution gradient. Seven phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic) were detected in the CWRS and CWAD alcoholic and alkaline extracts. Syringic acid was the main compound in the free phenolic alcoholic extracts of the wheat meal representing 77.0% and 75.3% of the total amount of detected free phenolic compounds for CWRS and CWAD, respectively. However, the major released phenolic compound detected in the alkaline hydrolysed extracts was ferulic acid accounting for 72.3% and 71.0% for CWRS and CWAD respectively total bound phenolics. During germination, syringic acid levels rose as the length of germination time increased, resulting in the increase in total phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of the sprouted wheat flours. There was an increase in total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the alcoholic extracts from the CWRS and CWAD wheat flours as the germination time was extended. As a result, the sprouted wheats exhibits better nutritional properties than un-germinated wheat and could be used to improve the nutrition value in

  1. Evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Marco; Pogoda, Friederike; Pallez, Marine; Lazic, Joëlle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Pasquali, Matias

    2014-07-16

    Fusarium species are fungal plant pathogens producing toxic secondary metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV). In Luxembourg, the Fusarium species composition isolated from symptomatic winter wheat heads was dominated by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) between the years 2009 and 2012, except for 2011, when Fusarium culmorum strains (genetic NIV chemotype) dominated the pathogen complex. Previous reports indicated that F. graminearum sensu stricto (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) was also most frequently isolated from randomly sampled winter wheat kernels including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic kernels in 2007 and 2008. The annual precipitation (average of 10 weather stations scattered across the country) decreased continuously from 924.31mm in 2007 over 917.15mm in 2008, to 843.38mm in 2009, 736.24mm in 2010, and 575.09mm in 2011. In 2012, the annual precipitation increased again to 854.70mm. Hardly any precipitation was recorded around the time of wheat anthesis in the years 2010 and 2011, whereas precipitation levels >50mm within the week preceding anthesis plus the week post anthesis were observed in the other years. The shift to genetic NIV chemotype F. culmorum strains in 2011 was accompanied by a very minor elevation of average NIV contents (2.9ngg(-1)) in the grain. Our data suggest that high NIV levels in Luxembourgish winter wheat are at present rather unlikely, because the indigenous F. culmorum strains with the genetic NIV chemotype seem to be outcompeted under humid in vivo conditions by F. graminearum DON producing strains on the one hand and seem to be inhibited - even though to a lower extent than DON producing strains - under dry in vivo conditions on the other hand. PMID:24859190

  2. Evaluation of two local cowpea species for nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions and organoleptic attributes of their wheat-based cookies

    PubMed Central

    Ayogu, Rufina N. B.; Nnam, Ngozi M.; Mbah, Mirabel

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood and adolescent malnutrition is a function of inadequate intake. Cookies are favourite snacks of children and adolescents. Objective This work determined the nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions of two local cowpea (oraludi and apama) flours and evaluated the organoleptic properties of their wheat-based cookies. Design The two local cowpea species were processed into flours separately and blended with wheat on a 56-g protein basis. Chemical compositions of the processed cowpea flours were analysed using standard methods. Organoleptic attributes were evaluated with a nine-point Hedonic scale. Statistical analysis, which involved mean and standard deviations, were computed by analysis of variance, and Duncan's new multiple range tests were used to separate and compare group means of sensory evaluation data, with significance accepted at P<0.05. Results The results revealed that oraludi had superior percentage values compared to apama in protein (26.22 and 20.88), fat (7.98 and 6.65), and ash (3.81 and 3.13), while apama proved superior in moisture (9.76 and 7.82), crude fibre (5.49 and 4.91), and carbohydrate (54.09 and 49.26). The values were higher for oraludi than apama in iron (8.62 and 6.49 mg), zinc (1.61 and 0.95 mg), and beta-carotene (223.24 and 190.63 mg) but lower in sodium (34.79 and 56.72 mg), potassium (25.73 and 30.65 mg), phosphorus (13.35 and 18.26 mg), thiamine (5.33 and 9.41 mg), vitamin C (16.63 and 21.09 mg), and vitamin E (0.51 and 0.67 mg). Apama had 0.06 mg phytate, 0.09 mg oxalate, 15.22 mg tannins, 3.59 mg flavonoids, and 0.19 mg saponin. Oraludi had 0.03 mg phytate, 0.32 mg oxalate, 15.94 mg tannins, 3.14 mg flavonoid, and 0.13 mg saponin. Mean scores of general acceptability for wheat:apama (80:20) and wheat:oraludi:apama (60:20:20) cookies (7.71 and 7.41) were superior (P<0.05) to others. Conclusions Oraludi and apama proved nutrient dense. Their use improved the acceptability of some of the wheat

  3. The effect of drying temperature on the composition of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, T.P.; Stevens, D.N.; Wright, C.T.; Radtke, C.W.

    2008-05-01

    The compositional quality of different lignocellulosic feedstocks influences their performance and potential demand at a biorefinery. Many analytical protocols for determining the composition or performance characteristics of biomass involve a drying step, where the drying temperature can vary depending on the specific protocol. To get reliable data, it is important to determine the correct drying temperature to vaporize the water without negatively impacting the compositional quality of the biomass. A comparison of drying temperature between 45 degrees C and 100 degrees C was performed using wheat straw and corn stover. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were taken of the dried samples and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Carbohydrates were analyzed using quantitative saccharification to determine sugar degradation. Analysis of variance was used to determine if there was a significant difference between drying at different temperatures. PCA showed an obvious separation in samples dried at different temperatures due to sample water content. However, quantitative saccharification data shows, within a 95% confidence interval, that there is no significant difference in sugar content for drying temperatures up to 100 degrees C for wheat straw and corn stover.

  4. The variability of biomass burning and its influence on regional aerosol properties during the wheat harvest season in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Li, Xingru; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    The spatial-temporal variation of biomass burning in June during the wheat harvest season in the North China (32-41°N, 111-120°E) and its influence on the regional aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the chemical compositions of size-segregated aerosols in the urban environment were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the burn ban policy and the influence on regional pollution. Fire events that occurred in early and middle June accounted for approximately 89% of the events during the month, and fire points located in mid-eastern China (32.5-35.5°N, 114-120°E) comprised 71%. The occurrences exhibit oscillatory changes with a minimum in 2008 (during the Beijing Olympics) and a peak and explosive growth in 2012. Under high relative humidity and south winds, fire emissions from straw burning combined with high urban/industrial emissions to produce intensive regional haze pollution in the North Plain. The formation of secondary inorganic particles was intensified due to the interactions of smoke plumes and urban/industrial pollutants in an urban environment. Higher concentrations and percentages (79%) of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon in the fine particles under high relative humidity conditions contributed to a deteriorated urban visibility. Therefore, stronger management and a comprehensive ban on wheat straw burning in June are urgently needed, especially during years when the south wind is dominant.

  5. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-03-11

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs.

  6. Structural features of reconstituted wheat wax films.

    PubMed

    Pambou, Elias; Li, Zongyi; Campana, Mario; Hughes, Arwel; Clifton, Luke; Gutfreund, Philipp; Foundling, Jill; Bell, Gordon; Lu, Jian R

    2016-07-01

    Cuticular waxes are essential for the well-being of all plants, from controlling the transport of water and nutrients across the plant surface to protecting them against external environmental attacks. Despite their significance, our current understanding regarding the structure and function of the wax film is limited. In this work, we have formed representative reconstituted wax film models of controlled thicknesses that facilitated an ex vivo study of plant cuticular wax film properties by neutron reflection (NR). Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) waxes were extracted from two different wheat straw samples, using two distinct extraction methods. Waxes extracted from harvested field-grown wheat straw using supercritical CO2 are compared with waxes extracted from laboratory-grown wheat straw via wax dissolution by chloroform rinsing. Wax films were produced by spin-coating the two extracts onto silicon substrates. Atomic force microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the two reconstituted wax film models are ultrathin and porous with characteristic nanoscale extrusions on the outer surface, mimicking the structure of epicuticular waxes found upon adaxial wheat leaf surfaces. On the basis of solid-liquid and solid-air NR and ellipsometric measurements, these wax films could be modelled into two representative layers, with the diffuse underlying layer fitted with thicknesses ranging from approximately 65 to 70 Å, whereas the surface extrusion region reached heights exceeding 200 Å. Moisture-controlled NR measurements indicated that water penetrated extensively into the wax films measured under saturated humidity and under water, causing them to hydrate and swell significantly. These studies have thus provided a useful structural basis that underlies the function of the epicuticular waxes in controlling the water transport of crops. PMID:27466439

  7. Structural features of reconstituted wheat wax films

    PubMed Central

    Pambou, Elias; Li, Zongyi; Campana, Mario; Hughes, Arwel; Clifton, Luke; Gutfreund, Philipp; Foundling, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular waxes are essential for the well-being of all plants, from controlling the transport of water and nutrients across the plant surface to protecting them against external environmental attacks. Despite their significance, our current understanding regarding the structure and function of the wax film is limited. In this work, we have formed representative reconstituted wax film models of controlled thicknesses that facilitated an ex vivo study of plant cuticular wax film properties by neutron reflection (NR). Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) waxes were extracted from two different wheat straw samples, using two distinct extraction methods. Waxes extracted from harvested field-grown wheat straw using supercritical CO2 are compared with waxes extracted from laboratory-grown wheat straw via wax dissolution by chloroform rinsing. Wax films were produced by spin-coating the two extracts onto silicon substrates. Atomic force microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the two reconstituted wax film models are ultrathin and porous with characteristic nanoscale extrusions on the outer surface, mimicking the structure of epicuticular waxes found upon adaxial wheat leaf surfaces. On the basis of solid–liquid and solid–air NR and ellipsometric measurements, these wax films could be modelled into two representative layers, with the diffuse underlying layer fitted with thicknesses ranging from approximately 65 to 70 Å, whereas the surface extrusion region reached heights exceeding 200 Å. Moisture-controlled NR measurements indicated that water penetrated extensively into the wax films measured under saturated humidity and under water, causing them to hydrate and swell significantly. These studies have thus provided a useful structural basis that underlies the function of the epicuticular waxes in controlling the water transport of crops. PMID:27466439

  8. Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication and further separated by size exclusion chromatography into monomeric and polymeric fractions. Proteins in each fraction were analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel...

  9. Effects of post-anthesis fertilizer on the protein composition of the gluten polymer in a US bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both genetic and environmental factors influence the types and amounts of wheat proteins that link together to form polymers essential for flour quality. To understand how plant growth conditions might influence gluten polymer formation, protein fractions containing small and large polymers were se...

  10. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Martin, C. R.; Steele, James L.; Dempster, Richard E.

    1992-03-01

    The development of new approaches for wheat hardness assessment may impact the grain industry in marketing, milling, and breeding. This study used image texture features for wheat hardness evaluation. Application of digital imaging to grain for grading purposes is principally based on morphometrical (shape and size) characteristics of the kernels. A composite sample of 320 kernels for 17 wheat varieties were collected after testing and crushing with a single kernel hardness characterization meter. Six wheat classes where represented: HRW, HRS, SRW, SWW, Durum, and Club. In this study, parameters which characterize texture or spatial distribution of gray levels of an image were determined and used to classify images of crushed wheat kernels. The texture parameters of crushed wheat kernel images were different depending on class, hardness and variety of the wheat. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels showed promise for use in class, hardness, milling quality, and variety discrimination.

  11. Comparison of Seven Chemical Pretreatments of Corn Straw for Improving Methane Yield by Anaerobic Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zilin; GaiheYang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Liao, Yinzhang

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture straw is considered a renewable resource that has the potential to contribute greatly to bioenergy supplies. Chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion can increase the anaerobic digestibility of agriculture straw. The present study investigated the effects of seven chemical pretreatments on the composition and methane yield of corn straw to assess their effectiveness of digestibility. Four acid reagents (H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, and CH3COOH) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% (w/w) and three alkaline reagents (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and NH3·H2O) at concentrations of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) were used for the pretreatments. All pretreatments were effective in the biodegradation of the lignocellulosic straw structure. The straw, pretreated with 3% H2O2 and 8% Ca(OH)2, acquired the highest methane yield of 216.7 and 206.6 mL CH4 g VS −1 in the acid and alkaline pretreatments, which are 115.4% and 105.3% greater than the untreated straw. H2O2 and Ca(OH)2 can be considered as the most favorable pretreatment methods for improving the methane yield of straw because of their effectiveness and low cost. PMID:24695485

  12. Registration of Warhorse wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Warhorse' (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

  13. The effects on chicks of dietary fibre from different sources: a growth factor in wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Hegde, S N; Rolls, B A; Turvey, A; Coates, M E

    1978-07-01

    1. Groups of chicks were given a low-residue diet with or without supplements of dietary fibre in the form of wheat bran, wheat straw or bagasse. Growth and food conversion efficiency (g weight gained/g food eaten; FCE) during the first 4 weeks of life were measured. 2. In every one of seven experiments supplementation of the diet with 100 g wheat bran/kg resulted in improved growth, and in three experiments FCE was also increased. 3. Supplementation with coarsely-milled wheat straw to provide an amount of unavailable carbohydrate equivalent to that in the bran diet resulted in poorer growth; finely-milled wheat straw had little effect on growth. 4. The growth-promoting effect of bran was destroyed by sterilization with heat or gamma-radiation. 5. In some experiments weights, lengths and volumes of small intestines were measured. Differences in intestinal dimensions between birds given the diet with and without fibre were not consistent, nor were they correlated with growth rate or FCE. 6. Histometric observations on small intestines from a few birds indicated that those given coarse wheat straw had longer vili and thicker muscularis layers, and the caecal tonsils had a greater area of lymphoid tissue and more follicles. PMID:566554

  14. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  15. Monitoring the impact of straw burning on particulate pollution using satellite and in-situ observations in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    The North China Plain is one of the main grain producing areas of China, but is also a severe straw burning zone. Winter wheat and summer corn harvests in this area usually occur from the beginning of Jun and Oct, respectively. After harvest, farmers usually burn out the remaining straw for convenience. However, straw burning can release a large quantity of air pollutants and can consequently result in a significant deterioration in regional air quality. To monitor the impact of straw burning on particulate pollution, daily MODIS thermal anomaly products (MOD14 and MYD14) were used to identify dates and regions of straw burning. Then the corresponding MODIS AOD products (MOD04 and MYD04) and particulate matter (PM) concentration observations from ground stations were integrated using a geostatistical method. By combining the accurate station-based PM observations and satellite data of well spatial coverage, PM concentration distribution maps were generated. Meanwhile, NCEP reanalysis data were used to obtain the corresponding surface wind pattern maps. Preliminary results show that satellite and station-based observations can indicate the impact of straw burning on PM pollution during harvest time. Air qualities during these times are obviously affected by the straw burning and surface wind field. Moreover, the air quality of the southeast study region is susceptible to the straw burning in adjacent areas due to the characteristic of the terrain.

  16. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from a rice-wheat crop rotation under wheat residue incorporation and no-tillage practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Xie, Baohua; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-11-01

    Crop residue incorporation and no-tillage are recommended as management practices and are being increasingly adopted in the agricultural sector. However, few studies have assessed the extent to which these practices integrate annual carbon and nitrogen trace gas fluxes and grain yield. We investigated the effect of wheat straw incorporation and no-tillage on nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes from a rice-wheat system in southeast China, using year-round field measurements. Compared to the treatment with synthetic nitrogen fertilizers alone, the wheat straw incorporation reduced the N2O emissions by 38% (P < 0.05) and increased the CH4 emissions by 74% (P < 0.05) during the annual rotation cycle. Compared to the conventional tillage, no-tillage prior to wheat sowing enhanced the N2O emissions by an average of 61% (P < 0.05), irrespective of residue incorporation. The CH4-C emissions that were induced by the wheat straw comprised 6% of the residue-carbon incorporated during the rice season. As a result of the stimulating effect of wheat straw incorporation on CH4 fluxes, the annual aggregate emissions of N2O and CH4 with straw incorporation (10.7 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 or 725 kg CO2-eq Mg-1 grain yield) were usually higher than those with no residue incorporation (7.6 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 or 545 kg CO2-eq Mg-1 grain yield), irrespective of the tillage practice. Nevertheless, the changes in greenhouse gas emissions are notably only the transient response of the rice-wheat system after crop residue incorporation and tillage conversion, which may not necessarily represent equilibrium conditions for this agro-ecosystem over the long term.

  17. Use of near-isogenic wheat lines to determine the glutenin composition and functionality requirements for flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Suchismita; Tilley, Michael; Alviola, Juma Novi; Waniska, Ralph D; Bean, Scott R; Glover, Karl D; Hays, Dirk B

    2008-01-01

    In wheat ( Triticum aestivum L), the synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins (GS) is controlled by three heterologous genetic loci present on the long arms of group 1 wheat chromosomes. The loci Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 and their allelic variants play important roles in the functional properties of wheat flour. This study focused on understanding the functionality of these protein subunits on tortilla quality. Near-isogenic wheat lines in which one or more of these loci were absent or deleted were used. Tortillas were prepared from each deletion line and the parent lines. The elimination of certain HMW-GS alleles alter distinct but critical aspects of tortilla quality such as diameter, shelf stability, and overall quality. Two deletion lines possessing HMW-GS 17 + 18 at Glu-B1 and deletions in Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 had significantly larger tortilla diameters, yet tortilla shelf life was compromised or unchanged from the parent lines used to develop the deletion lines or the commercial tortilla flour used as a control. Alternatively, a deletion line possessing Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 (HMW-GS 1, 5 + 10) and a deletion in Glu-B1 also significantly improved tortilla diameters. Whereas the increase in diameter was less than the line possessing only HMW-GS 17 + 18 at Glu-B1, the stability of the tortillas were, however, maintained and improved as compared to the parent lines containing a full compliment of HMW-GS. Thus, the presence of subunits 5 + 10 at Glu-D1 alone or in combination with subunit 1 at Glu-A1 appears to provide a compromise of improvement in dough extensibility for improved tortilla diameters while also providing sufficient gluten strength to maintain ideal shelf stability. PMID:18072743

  18. Isolation of barley hulls and straw constituents and study of emulsifying properties of their arabinoxylans.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Madhav P; Hicks, Kevin B

    2015-11-01

    Both barley hulls and straw contain valuable arabinoxylans and other useful carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components. The functional water soluble non-caloric arabinoxylan (hemicellulose B) fraction was isolated from hot water-extracted and de-starched barley hulls and straws by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Barley hulls contained comparatively more Hemi. B (20.51%) than barley straws (7.41 to 12.94%). The sugar composition of Hemi. B showed that they were typical arabinoxylans containing (in addition to arabinose and xylose) some galactose, glucose and acidic sugars in the side chains. The hemicellulose B fractions from barley straws were superior oil-in-water emulsifiers than those from barley hulls. These Hemi. B fractions contain protein, which contributes to their emulsions stabilizing property. PMID:26256379

  19. The use of steam explosion to increase the nutrition available from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Chen, Kunjie; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Chao; Shao, Qianjun; Sun, Qian; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rice straw was pretreated using steam-explosion (ST) technique to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of potential reducing sugars for feed utilization. The response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize the effects of steam pressure, pressure retention time, and straw moisture content on the yield of reducing sugar. All the investigated variables had significant effects (P < 0.001) on the reducing sugar yield. The optimum yield of 30.86% was obtained under the following pretreatment conditions: steam pressure, 1.54 MPa; pressure retention time, 140.5 Sec; and straw moisture content, 41.6%. The yield after thermal treatment under the same conditions was approximately 16%. Infrared (IR) radiation analysis showed a decrease in the cellulose IR crystallization index. ST noticeably increases reducing sugars in rice straw, and this technique may also be applicable to other cellulose/lignin sources of biomass. PMID:25522759

  20. Dissipation and Residues of Dichlorprop-P and Bentazone in Wheat-Field Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Jianlei; Pan, Lixiang; Song, Guochun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Dichlorprop-P and bentazone have been widely used in the prevention and control of weeds in wheat field ecosystems. There is a concern that pesticide residues and metabolites remain on or in the wheat. Thus, the study of the determination and monitoring of their residues in wheat has important significance. A rapid, simple and reliable QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method was modified, developed and validated for the determination of dichlorprop-P, bentazone and its metabolites (6-hydroxy-bentazone and 8-hydroxy-bentazone) in wheat (wheat plants, wheat straw and grains of wheat) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of this method ranged from 72.9% to 108.7%, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2.5-12 μg/kg. The dissipation and final residue of four compounds in three provinces (Shandong, Jiangsu and Heilongjiang) in China were studied. The trial results showed that the half-lives of dichlorprop-P and bentazone were 1.9-2.5 days and 0.5-2.4 days in wheat plants, respectively. The terminal residues in grains of wheat and wheat straw at harvest were all much below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.2 mg/kg for dichlorprop-P and 0.1 mg/kg for bentazone established by the European Union (EU, Regulation No. 396/2005). PMID:27240385

  1. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    PubMed

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

  2. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    PubMed Central

    Belal, Elsayed B.

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L−1. PMID:24159309

  3. Effects of application of corn straw on soil microbial community structure during the maize growing season.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Lin, Yin-Hua; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Yan-Peng; Tan, Fei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Wang, Miao; Xu, De-Rong; Wang, Xi-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of corn straw application on soil microbial communities and the relationship between such communities and soil properties in black soil. The crop used in this study was maize (Zea mays L.). The five treatments consisted of applying a gradient (50, 100, 150, and 200%) of shattered corn straw residue to the soil. Soil samples were taken from May through September during the 2012 maize growing season. The microbial community structure was determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Our results revealed that the application of corn straw influenced the soil properties and increased the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Applying corn straw to fields also influenced the variation in soil microbial biomass and community composition, which is consistent with the variations found in soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil respiration (SR). However, the soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio had no effect on soil microbial communities. The abundance of PLFAs, TN, and SR was higher in C1.5 than those in other treatments, suggesting that the soil properties and soil microbial community composition were affected positively by the application of corn straw to black soil. A Principal Component Analysis indicated that soil microbial communities were different in the straw decomposition processes. Moreover, the soil microbial communities from C1.5 were significantly different from those of CK (p < 0.05). We also found a high ratio of fungal-to-bacterial PLFAs in black soil and significant variations in the ratio of monounsaturated-to-branched fatty acids with different straw treatments that correlated with SR (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the application of corn straw positively influences soil properties and soil microbial communities and that these properties affect these communities. The individual PLFA signatures were sensitive indicators that reflected the changes in the soil environment condition. PMID:24652702

  4. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  5. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  6. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  7. Cadmium Isotope Fractionation in Soil-Wheat Systems.

    PubMed

    Wiggenhauser, Matthias; Bigalke, Moritz; Imseng, Martin; Müller, Michael; Keller, Armin; Murphy, Katy; Kreissig, Katharina; Rehkämper, Mark; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-09-01

    Analyses of stable metal isotope ratios constitute a novel tool in order to improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes in soil-plant systems. In this study, we used such measurements to assess Cd uptake and transport in wheat grown on three agricultural soils under controlled conditions. Isotope ratios of Cd were determined in the bulk C and A horizons, in the Ca(NO3)2-extractable Cd soil pool, and in roots, straw, and grains. The Ca(NO3)2-extractable Cd was isotopically heavier than the Cd in the bulk A horizon (Δ(114/110)Cdextract-Ahorizon = 0.16 to 0.45‰). The wheat plants were slightly enriched in light isotopes relative to the Ca(NO3)2-extractable Cd or showed no significant difference (Δ(114/110)Cdwheat-extract = -0.21 to 0.03‰). Among the plant parts, Cd isotopes were markedly fractionated: straw was isotopically heavier than roots (Δ(114/110)Cdstraw-root = 0.21 to 0.41‰), and grains were heavier than straw (Δ(114/110)Cdgrain-straw = 0.10 to 0.51‰). We suggest that the enrichment of heavy isotopes in the wheat grains was caused by mechanisms avoiding the accumulation of Cd in grains, such as the chelation of light Cd isotopes by thiol-containing peptides in roots and straw. These results demonstrate that Cd isotopes are significantly and systematically fractionated in soil-wheat systems, and the fractionation patterns provide information on the biogeochemical processes in these systems. PMID:27485095

  8. EFFECT OF STARCH SWELLING ON THE COMPOSITE MODULUS OF LOW- AND HIGH-GLUTEN WHEAT FLOURS AND CARBOXYLATED STYRENE-BUTADIENE LATEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour is a plentiful renewable resource. The dry flour is rigid and can be used as a potential reinforcement material for soft rubber matrices. Wheat flours with two different gluten contents were investigated and the initial cook temperature of the aqueous wheat flour dispersions was varied...

  9. Developmental Changes in Composition and Morphology of Cuticular Waxes on Leaves and Spikes of Glossy and Glaucous Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Hu, Yingang; Chen, Xinhong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The glossy varieties (A14 and Jing 2001) and glaucous varieties (Fanmai 5 and Shanken 99) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were selected for evaluation of developmental changes in the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes on leaves and spikes. The results provide us with two different wax development patterns between leaf and spike. The general accumulation trend of the total wax load on leaf and spike surfaces is first to increase and then decrease during the development growth period, but these changes were caused by different compound classes between leaf and spike. Developmental changes of leaf waxes were mainly the result of variations in composition of alcohols and alkanes. In addition, diketones were the third important contributor to the leaf wax changes in the glaucous varieties. Alkanes and diketones were the two major compound classes that caused the developmental changes of spike waxes. For leaf waxes, β- and OH-β-diketones were first detected in flag leaves from 200-day-old plants, and the amounts of β- and OH-β-diketones were significantly higher in glaucous varieties compared with glossy varieties. In spike waxes, β-diketone existed in all varieties, but OH-β-diketone was detectable only in the glaucous varieties. Unexpectedly, the glaucous variety Fanmai 5 yielded large amounts of OH-β-diketone. There was a significant shift in the chain length distribution of alkanes between early stage leaf and flag leaf. Unlike C28 alcohol being the dominant chain length in leaf waxes, the dominant alcohol chain length of spikes was C24 or C26 depending on varieties. Epicuticular wax crystals on wheat leaf and glume were comprised of platelets and tubules, and the crystal morphology changed constantly throughout plant growth, especially the abaxial leaf crystals. Moreover, our results suggested that platelets and tubules on glume surfaces could be formed rapidly within a few days. PMID:26506246

  10. [Composition and potential contribution of iron, calcium and zinc of bread and pasta made with wheat and amaranth flours].

    PubMed

    Dyner, Luis; Drago, Silvina R; Piñeiro, Adriana; Sánchez, Hugo; González, Rolando; Villaamil, Edda; Valencia, Mirta E

    2007-03-01

    Amaranth, a traditional american crop that is nowadays given renewed importance, has good food potential value. The minerals contributed by the grain are quantitatively important. However, as the flour is obtained by total grinding of the grain, this process leads to the presence of anti-nutritional components, such as fitates, and therefore, the evaluation of the actual availability of the minerals of nutritional interest becomes necessary. The process of bread fermentation, plus the addition of fitases and enhancers of mineral availability such as citric and ascorbic acid, might improve mineral bioavailability. The objective of this work was to assess protein, ash, lipids and total dietary fiber content and evaluate the concentration and dialyzability of Fe, Zn and Ca (as mineral bioavailability indicator) in bread and pasta 100% wheat, and bread and pasta obtained by replacing 20% wheat flour (WF) with whole amaranth flour (WAF). Ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and fitase were used as mineral bioavailability enhancers. The potential contribution of each mineral (PC) was calculated as each mineral concentration times its dialyzability. In 80:20 bread an increase of total dietary fiber and minerals, compared to 100% wheat products was observed. A maximum FePC in 80:20 bread was obtained with CA and fitase (0.55mg%). In pasta, the maximum effect was observed with CA (0.07 mg%). The CaPC was maximum in 80:20 pasta with CA (16.72 mg%). The greatest ZnPC was found in 80:20 bread with CA and fitase (0.40 mg%). The introduction of the WAF in fermented baked products with addition of CA and fitase allows to obtain nutritional advantages. PMID:17824202

  11. Chemical composition in relation with biomass ash structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    Biomass combustion can be more complicated like combustion of fossil fuels because it is necessary to solve problems with lower ash melting temperature. It can cause a lot of problems during combustion process. Chemical composition of biomass ash has great impact on sinters and slags creation in ash because it affects structure of heated ash. In this paper was solved relation between chemical composition and structure of heated ash from three types of biomass (spruce wood, miscanthus giganteus and wheat straw). Amount of SiO2, CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and K2O was determined. Structure of heated ash was optically determined after heating to 1000 °C or 1200 °C. Results demonstrated that chemical composition has strong effect on structure and color of heated ash.

  12. [Effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under rice-wheat cropping system].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Li, Yong; Li, Fen-hua; Sun, Guo-jun; Han, Min; Zhang, Hai-yan; Ji, Zhong; Wu, Chen-yu

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under a rice-wheat rotation system, a survey was conducted before wheat harvest in 2014 after a 4-year long-term recurrent fertilization scheme. Weed species types, density, height and diversity index under different fertilization and straw-returning schemes in wheat fields were studied and complemented with a canonical correspondence analysis on weed community distribution and soil nutrient factors. Twenty weed species were recorded among 36 wheat fields belonging to 19 genera and 11 families. Beckmannia syzigachne, Hemistepta lyrata, Malachium aquaticum and Cnidium monnieri were widely distributed throughout the sampled area. Long-term fertilization appeared to reduce weed species richness and density, particularly for broadleaf weeds, but increased weed height. Diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were lower and dominance indices were higher in fields where chemical fertilizers were applied alone or combined with organic fertilizers, especially, where organic-inorganic compound fertilizer was used, in which it readily caused the outbreak of a dominant species and severe damage. Conversely, diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were higher and dominance indices were lower when the straw was returned to the field combined with chemical or organic fertilizers, in which weed community structures were complex and stable with lower weed density. Under these conditions weeds only caused slight reduction of wheat growth. PMID:27228601

  13. Impact of UV-B on drought- or cadmium-induced changes in the fatty acid composition of membrane lipid fractions in wheat.

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Szalai, Gabriella; Kovács, Viktória; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-10-01

    UV-B radiation may have either a positive or negative impact under the same conditions in wheat, depending on the type of secondary abiotic stressor: Cd or drought. Supplemental UV-B prevented the wilting and leaf rolling induced by PEG treatment. In contrast, combined UV-B and Cd treatment resulted in pronounced oxidative stress. The opposite effect of UV-B radiation in the case of drought or cadmium stress may be related to the alteration induced in the fatty acid composition. UV-B caused changes in the unsaturation of leaf phosphatidylglycerol fractions, and the accumulation of flavonoid in the leaves may prevent the stress induced by subsequent drought treatment. However it resulted in pronounced injury despite the increased flavonoid content in roots exposed to Cd. This was manifested in a drastic decrease in the unsaturation of the leaf monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and the root phosphatidylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol fractions. Data on the flavonoid content and fatty acid composition showed that oxidative stress was induced by drought in the leaves, by Cd in the roots, and interestingly, by UV-B radiation in both the leaves and roots. The additive effect of the combined stresses was also detected in the roots. The results presented here suggest a relationship between the capacity of the plant to remodel the fatty acid composition and its resistance to various stress factors. PMID:25062444

  14. Fuel Ethanol Production from Barley Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicelluloses, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomer...

  15. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  16. Moisture in a straw bale wall

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.; Fremouw, S.; Kline, J.; Northcutt, D.; Wang, Z.; Weiser, R.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this project was to see if there was sufficient moisture to promote fungus growth within a straw bale wall. To determine the level of moisture, the walls in a straw bale building were instrumented to monitor relative humidity. The year-long monitoring began in August, 1997. During the monitoring period the building's interior relative humidity ranged from 22 to 71% and the exterior relative humidity ranged from 10 to 94%. The maximum straw bale relative humidity recorded was 85%, which occurred on February 21 on the south side of the building in a lower bale on the exterior side. The minimum straw bale relative humidity occurred on August 13 on the east side of the building in a lower bale on the exterior side and was 27%. In the 23 studies of mold growth in straw bales the authors reviewed, mold growth occurred between 70 and 91% relative humidity.

  17. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  18. Assessment of Straw Biomass Feedstock Resources in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw is produced as a coproduct of cereal grain and grass seed production on 6.2 million acres in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Some of this straw residue is returned to the soil for conservation purposes, but markets for excess straw are limited. As a consequence, much of this straw was burne...

  19. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  20. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    PubMed

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw). PMID:23749039

  1. Vital wheat gluten as a filler for rubber compounds: effects of pH and homogenization on the reinforcement properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vital wheat gluten was evaluated as a reinforcement filler in rubber composites. Previous studies of wheat flours that contained different concentrations of wheat gluten suggested that rubber composite reinforcement was directly proportional to wheat gluten concentration, although this effect may h...

  2. Tested R-value for straw bale walls and performance modeling for straw bale homes

    SciTech Connect

    Commins, T.R.; Stone, N.I.

    1998-07-01

    Since the late 1800's, houses have been built of straw. Contrary to nursery rhymes, these houses have proved sturdy and comfortable and not at all easy to blow down. In the last several years, as people have experimented with new and old building materials and looked for ways to halt rice field stubble burning, there has been a resurgence of homes built with straw. Unfortunately, there has been very little testing to determine the thermal performance of straw bale walls or to discover how these walls affect a home's heating and cooling energy consumption. Reported R-values for straw bale walls range from R-17 to R-54, depending on the test procedure, the type of straw used and the type of straw bale wall system. This paper reports on a test set-up by the California Energy Commission (Commission) and conducted in a nationally accredited lab, Architectural Testing Inc. (ATI) in Fresno, California. The paper describes the tested straw bale wall assemblies, the testing process, and problems encountered in the construction and testing of the walls. The paper also gives a reasonable R-value to use in calculating thermal performance of straw bale houses and presents findings that show that straw bale construction can decrease the heating and cooling energy usage of a typical house by up to a third over conventional practice.

  3. Effect of rice straw application on microbial community and activity in paddy soil under different water status.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-03-01

    Rice straw application and flooding are common practices in rice production, both of which can induce changes in the microbial community. This study used soil microcosms to investigate the impact of water status (saturated and nonsaturated) and straw application (10 g kg(-1) soil) on soil microbial composition (phospholipid fatty acid analysis) and activity (MicroResp(™) method). Straw application significantly increased total PLFA amount and individual PLFA components independent of soil moisture level. The amount of soil fungal PLFA was less than Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and actinomycete PLFA, except the drained treatment with rice straw application, which had higher fungal PLFA than actinomycete PLFA at the initial incubation stage. Straw amendment and waterlogging had different effects on microbial community structure and substrate-induced pattern. PLFA profiles were primarily influenced by straw application, whereas soil water status had the greater influence on microbial respiration. Of the variation in PLFA and respiration data, straw accounted for 30.1 and 16.7 %, while soil water status explained 7.5 and 29.1 %, respectively. Our results suggest that (1) the size of microbial communities in paddy soil is more limited by carbon substrate availability rather than by the anaerobic conditions due to waterlogging and (2) that soil water status is more important as a control of fungal growth and microbial community activity. PMID:26596827

  4. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM BURNING WHEAT AND RICE FIELD RESIDUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the first known values for emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from combustion of agricultural field biomass. Wheat and rice straw stubble collected from two western U.S. states were tested in a field burn simulation to dete...

  5. Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160112.html Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C Study highlights more fallout from opioid epidemic ... to snort opioids is a major cause of hepatitis C infection, a new study finds. The sharing ...

  6. Study of wheat protein based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peng

    wheat gluten/basalt composite and wheat gluten/clay composite materials. Their mechanical properties and biodegradation behaviors were determined.

  7. Heavy metal and trace element concentrations in wheat grains: assessment of potential non-carcinogenic health hazard through their consumption.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Jasan, Raquel; Plá, Rita; Pignata, María Luisa

    2011-10-15

    Heavy metal and trace element concentrations were examined in wheat grains and straw to elucidate associations between air pollution sources and soil variables. The mean wheat grain concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn surpassed the tolerance limits stated in the international legislation for wheat grain and foodstuffs. When topsoil Ba, Co, Cr and Zn concentrations were higher than the legislation thresholds for agricultural and residential soils, wheat grain concentrations were also increased. In addition, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn revealed an immobilization effect of a cement plant and the atmospheric deposition input, with Cd in wheat grains being associated with a cement plant and industrial waste incinerator. The health risks arising from wheat grain consumption indicated that the inhabitants of Argentina are experiencing significant non-carcinogenic risks (Hazard Index = 3.311), especially when consuming wheat grains affected by metallurgical or chemical factories, as well as by air transportation from big cities. PMID:21835546

  8. Biomethane production and physicochemical characterization of anaerobically digested teff (Eragrostis tef) straw pretreated by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Chufo, Akiber; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Pang, Yunzhi; Li, Xiujin

    2015-04-01

    The biogas production potential and biomethane content of teff straw through pretreatment by NaOH was investigated. Different NaOH concentrations (1%, 2%, 4% and 6%) were used for each four solid loadings (50, 65, 80 and 95 g/L). The effects of NaOH as pretreatment factor on the biodegradability of teff straw, changes in main compositions and enhancement of anaerobic digestion were analyzed. The result showed that, using 4% NaOH for pretreatment in 80 g/L solid loading produced 40.0% higher total biogas production and 48.1% higher biomethane content than the untreated sample of teff straw. Investigation of changes in chemical compositions and physical microstructure indicated that there was 4.3-22.1% total lignocellulosic compositions removal after three days pretreatment with NaOH. The results further revealed that NaOH pretreatment changed the structural compositions and lignin network, and improved biogas production from teff straw. PMID:25656865

  9. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods. PMID:25130676

  10. Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of Fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were fou...

  11. Cell Walls of Developing Wheat Starchy Endosperm: Comparison of Composition and RNA-Seq Transcriptome1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pellny, Till K.; Lovegrove, Alison; Freeman, Jackie; Tosi, Paola; Love, Christopher G.; Knox, J. Paul; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptome of the developing starchy endosperm of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) was determined using RNA-Seq isolated at five stages during grain fill. This resource represents an excellent way to identify candidate genes responsible for the starchy endosperm cell wall, which is dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 70% of the cell wall polysaccharides, with 20% (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan, 7% glucomannan, and 4% cellulose. A complete inventory of transcripts of 124 glycosyltransferase (GT) and 72 glycosylhydrolase (GH) genes associated with cell walls is presented. The most highly expressed GT transcript (excluding those known to be involved in starch synthesis) was a GT47 family transcript similar to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IRX10 involved in xylan extension, and the second most abundant was a GT61. Profiles for GT43 IRX9 and IRX14 putative orthologs were consistent with roles in AX synthesis. Low abundances were found for transcripts from genes in the acyl-coA transferase BAHD family, for which a role in AX feruloylation has been postulated. The relative expression of these was much greater in whole grain compared with starchy endosperm, correlating with the levels of bound ferulate. Transcripts associated with callose (GSL), cellulose (CESA), pectin (GAUT), and glucomannan (CSLA) synthesis were also abundant in starchy endosperm, while the corresponding cell wall polysaccharides were confirmed as low abundance (glucomannan and callose) or undetectable (pectin) in these samples. Abundant transcripts from GH families associated with the hydrolysis of these polysaccharides were also present, suggesting that they may be rapidly turned over. Abundant transcripts in the GT31 family may be responsible for the addition of Gal residues to arabinogalactan peptide. PMID:22123899

  12. Wheat Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is a chapter of a book entitled “Wheat: Chemistry and Technology”, the 4th edition, K. Khan and P.R. Shewry (eds.), to be published in 2007 following the 3rd edition, Y. Pomeranz (ed.), published in 1988 by AACC International Inc., St. Paul, MN. The chapter covers the subject area of wh...

  13. The Impact of Post-Pretreatment Conditioning on Enzyme Accessibility and Water Interactions in Alkali Pretreated Rice Straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuna, Nardrapee

    Rice straw, a high-abundance lignocellulosic residue from rice production has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biofuel production in California. In this study, the impact of post-alkali pretreatment conditioning schemes on enzyme saccharification efficiency was examined, particularly focusing on understanding resulting biomass compositional impacts on water interactions with the biomass and enzyme accessibility to the cellulose fraction. Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide and subsequently washed by two different conditions: 1) by extensive washing with distilled water to reduce the pH to the optimum for cellulases which is pH 5--6, and 2) immediate pH adjustment to pH 5--6 with hydrochloric acid before extensive washing with distilled water. The two post-pretreatment conditions gave significant differences in ash, acid-insoluble lignin, glucan and xylan compositions. Alkali pretreatment improved cellulase digestibility of rice straw, and water washing improved enzymatic digestibility more than neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions with a purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A, a reducing-end specific cellulase, demonstrated that the differences in saccharification are likely due to differences in the accessibility of the cellulose fraction to the cellulolytic enzymes. Further analyses were conducted to study the mobility of the water associated with the rice straw samples by measuring T2 relaxation times of the water protons by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed significant changes in water association with the rice straw due to the pretreatment and due to the two different post-pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment increased the amount of water at the surface of the rice straw samples as indicated by increased amplitude of the shortest T2 time peaks in the relaxation spectra. Moreover, the amount of water in the first T2 pool in the water washed sample was significantly greater than in the neutralized sample. These

  14. Mutation of Cellulose Synthase Gene Improves the Nutritive Value of Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yanjing; Zhao, Guoqi; Wei, Zhenwu; Yan, Changjie; Liu, Sujiao

    2012-01-01

    Rice straw is an important roughage resource for ruminants in many rice-producing countries. In this study, a rice brittle mutant (BM, mutation in OsCesA4, encoding cellulose synthase) and its wild type (WT) were employed to investigate the effects of a cellulose synthase gene mutation on rice straw morphological fractions, chemical composition, stem histological structure and in situ digestibility. The morphological fractions investigation showed that BM had a higher leaf sheath proportion (43.70% vs 38.21%, p<0.01) and a lower leaf blade proportion (25.21% vs 32.14%, p<0.01) than WT. Chemical composition analysis showed that BM rice straw was significantly (p<0.01) higher in CP (crude protein), hemicellulose and acid insoluble ash (AIA) contents, but lower in dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADFom) and cellulose contents when compared to WT. No significant difference (p>0.05) was detected in neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and ADL contents for both strains. Histological structure observation indicated that BM stems had fewer sclerenchyma cells and a thinner sclerenchyma cell wall than WT. The results of in situ digestion showed that BM had higher DM, NDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance at 24 or 48 h of incubation (p<0.05). The effective digestibility of BM rice straw DM and NDFom was greater than that of WT (31.4% vs 26.7% for DM, 29.1% vs 24.3% for NDFom, p<0.05), but the rate of digestion of the slowly digested fraction of BM rice straw DM and NDF was decreased. These results indicated that the mutation in the cellulose synthase gene could improve the nutritive value of rice straw for ruminants. PMID:25049629

  15. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Khan, Sardar; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-07-15

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using (13)C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ((13)C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO2 emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96mgCkg(-1)soilh(-1)) at 1d and 3d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p<0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and (13)C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p<0.05) higher in (13)C-labeled straw amended soil than the (13)C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the (13)C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of (13)C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p<0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest that the function, size and structure of the microbial

  16. Nitrate leaching, yields and carbon sequestration after noninversion tillage, catch crops, and straw retention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E M; Munkholm, L J; Olesen, J E; Melander, B

    2015-05-01

    Crop management factors, such as tillage, rotation, and straw retention, need to be long-term to allow conclusions on effects on crop yields, nitrate leaching, and carbon sequestration. In 2002, two field experiments, each including four cash crop rotations, were established on soils with 9 and 15% clay, under temperate, coastal climate conditions. Direct drilling and harrowing to two different depths were compared to plowing with respect to yield, nitrate N leaching, and carbon sequestration. For comparison of yields across rotations, grain and seed dry matter yields for each crop were converted to grain equivalents (GE). Leaching was compared to yields by calculating yield-scaled leaching (YSL, g N kg GE), and N balances were calculated as the N input in manure minus the N output in products removed from the fields. Direct drilling reduced yields, but no effect on leaching was found. Straw retention did not significantly increase yields, nor did it reduce leaching, while fodder radish ( L.) as a catch crop was capable of reducing nitrate leaching to a low level. Thus, YSL of winter wheat ( L.) was higher than for spring barley ( L.) grown after fodder radish due to the efficient catch crop. Soil organic carbon (SOC) did not increase significantly after 7 yr of straw incorporation or noninversion tillage. There was no correlation between N balances calculated for each growing season and N leaching measured in the following percolation period. PMID:26024267

  17. Comparison of three technics converting the straw to soil-like substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yidong; Beizhen Xie, Ms; Liu, Professor Hong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu.

    In the Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS), the treatment of inedible biomass of higher plants such as straw is one of the most important aspects for increasing the degree of closure of system. In this research, the straw of wheat and rice which are the candidate plants for BLSS was processed by three pretreating technics and the succedent treatment of worms respectively, and the soil like substrates (SLS) were obtained by those successive biological conversions. Subsequently, the pH, organic matter, available N, P, K and seed germination of the SLS were determined to confirm the feasibility of growing plants on them. Finally, lettuce was planted on them to compare the fertility of the SLS with three different process technics. Through our test, the optimal SLS process technic with short period was selected and the SLS with good "soil" characteristics was obtained. What's more, the results also indicated that the straw of higher plants can be involved into the intra-system turnover by producing SLS, which may improve the closure of BLSS.

  18. A straw-soil co-composting and evaluation for plant substrate in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Quanyong; Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Qin, Lifeng

    2013-02-01

    Material closure is important for the establishment of Bioregenerative Life Support System, and many studies have focused on transforming candidate plant residues into plant culture medium. For the limitations of using wheat straw compost as substrate for plant cultivation, a straw-soil co-composting technique was studied. The changes of pH, C/N value, germination index, cellulose, lignin and so on were monitored during the co-composting process. The maturity was evaluated by the C/N value and the germination index. The result showed that after 45 days' fermentation, the straw-soil final co-compost with inoculation (T1) became mature, while the co-compost without inoculation (T0) was not mature. In the plant culture test, the T1 substrate could satisfy the needs for lettuce's growth, and the edible biomass yield of lettuce averaged 74.42 g pot-1 at harvest. But the lettuces in T0 substrate showed stress symptoms and have not completed the growth cycle. Moreover, the results of nitrogen (N) transformation experiment showed that about 10.0% and 3.1% N were lost during the T1 co-composting and plant cultivation, respectively, 23.5% N was absorbed by lettuce, and 63.4% N remained in the T1 substrate after cultivation.

  19. Vacuum straw tracker test beam run

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Yau; /Chicago U.

    2005-08-01

    This memorandum of understanding requests beam time at Fermilab during the 2005 Meson Test Beam run to measure the detection inefficiency of vacuum straw tubes. One of the future kaon experiments at J-PARC has the goal to measure the branching ratio of the neutral kaon ''Golden Mode'' K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} with a few hundred event sensitivity. This future J-PARC experiment is a follow up of a current KEK experiment, E391a which has been taking data since February 2004. E391a is a collaboration of five countries (Japan, United States, Russia, Korea, and Taiwan) with ten institutions (KEK, Saga U, Yamagata U, Osaka U, U of Chicago, Pusan U, JINR, NDA, Kyoto U, National Taiwan U, and RCNP). The branching ratio of K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} is small, about 3 x 10{sup -11}. To first order, all kaon decays with final states with charged particles need to be vetoed, and those include K{sub e3}, K{sub {mu}3}, and K{sub {+-}0} (about 80% of all neutral kaon decay). The standard and typical veto power comes from sheet scintillator and may not be adequate. Vacuum straw tubes provides additional, independent and orthogonal veto power, but the detection inefficiency has not been known or measured in a detail way. The inefficiency of the straw has three sources, the electronics, the straw wall/wire, and the gas. We like to perform beam test to measure all three sources. There is much experience in straw detector technology, and some in vacuum straw technology (CKM R&D effort). The possible use of straws in the future K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} experiment will allow absolute photon/electron energy calibration (via K{sub {+-}0} decays), possible measurement of photon inefficiencies (via K{sub 000} with {pi}{sup 0} Dalitz), and as mentioned, charged particle veto. The results of this proposed beam test will provide new knowledge on the absorption cross section and will direct us on design issues for future neutral kaon decay experiments. Regarding

  20. Modified Rice Straw as Adsorbent Material to Remove Aflatoxin B1 from Aqueous Media and as a Fiber Source in Fino Bread

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Sherif R.; El-Desouky, Tarek A.; Hussein, Ahmed M. S.; Mohamed, Sherif S.; Naguib, Khayria M.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alkali consumption due to the modification process. The different concentrations of modified rice straw, aflatoxin B1, and pH were tested for removal of aflatoxin B1 from aqueous media and the maximum best removal was at 5% modified rice straw, 5 ng/mL aflatoxin B1, and pH 7. The modified rice straw was added to Fino bread at a level of 5, 10, and 15% and the chemical, rheological, baking quality, staling, and sensory properties were studied. Modified rice straw induced an increase of the shelf life and the produced Fino bread has a better consistency. PMID:26989411

  1. Modified Rice Straw as Adsorbent Material to Remove Aflatoxin B1 from Aqueous Media and as a Fiber Source in Fino Bread.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sherif R; El-Desouky, Tarek A; Hussein, Ahmed M S; Mohamed, Sherif S; Naguib, Khayria M

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alkali consumption due to the modification process. The different concentrations of modified rice straw, aflatoxin B1, and pH were tested for removal of aflatoxin B1 from aqueous media and the maximum best removal was at 5% modified rice straw, 5 ng/mL aflatoxin B1, and pH 7. The modified rice straw was added to Fino bread at a level of 5, 10, and 15% and the chemical, rheological, baking quality, staling, and sensory properties were studied. Modified rice straw induced an increase of the shelf life and the produced Fino bread has a better consistency. PMID:26989411

  2. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars.

    PubMed

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-01-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil. PMID:27385598

  3. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-01-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil. PMID:27385598

  4. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  5. Microbial response following straw application in a soil affected by a wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Ana; Lombao, Alba; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Martin, Angela; Fontúrbel, Maria Teresa; Vega, Jose Antonio; Fernández, Cristina; Carballas, Tarsy

    2015-04-01

    Mulching treatment is often recommended to reduce post-fire erosion and sediments yields but information concerning their effects on soil microorganisms is scarce. In the present investigation the evolution of several parameters related with the mass and activity of soil microorganisms was examined in a hillslope shrubland located in Saviñao (Lugo, NW Spain) and susceptible to suffer post-fire erosion (38% slope). In this area, affected by a medium-high severity wildfire in September 2012, different treatments with wheat straw applied to the burnt soil in mulch strips (800 and 1000 kg ha-1) were established by quadruplicate (10 m x 40 m plots) and compared with the corresponding burnt untreated control. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-2.5 cm depth) at different sampling times over one year after the wildfire and different soil biochemical properties (microbial biomass C, soil respiration, bacterial activity, -glucosidase, urease and phosphatase activities) were analyzed. The results showed large variation among the four field replicates of the same treatment (spatial variability), which makes difficult to evaluate the effect of mulch treatment. The evolution of the different biochemical properties in the post-fire stabilization treatments with the wheat straw applied in mulch strips were mainly related to the time passed after the fire (short- and medium- term changes in soil physical and chemical properties induced by both fire and climatic conditions) rather than to the straw mulching effects; in addition, a different temporal pattern was observed depending on the variable considered. The results pointed out the usefulness of examining intra-annual natural variability (spatial variation, seasonal fluctuations) when different indices of mass and activity of microorganisms were used as monitoring tools in soil ecosystems affected by fire. Acknowledgements. A. Barreiro and A. Lombao are recipients of FPU grants from Spanish Ministry of

  6. Responses of Wheat Yield, Macro- and Micro-Nutrients, and Heavy Metals in Soil and Wheat following the Application of Manure Compost on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Kou, Changlin; Ma, Zhenghua; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of livestock manure in cropping systems is considered to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there have been no systematic long-term studies of the effects of manure application on soil and crop macro- and micro-nutrients, heavy metals, and crop yields in China, despite their great importance for sustainable crop production and food safety. Thus, we conducted field experiments in a typical cereal crop production area of the North China Plain to investigate the effects of compost manure application rates on wheat yield, as well as on the macro-/micro-nutrients and heavy metals contents of soil and wheat. We found that compost application increased the soil total N and the available K, Fe, Zn, and Mn concentrations, whereas the available P in soil was not affected, and the available Cu decreased. In general, compost application had no significant effects on the grain yield, biomass, and harvest index of winter wheat. However, during 2012 and 2013, the N concentration decreased by 9% and 18% in straw, and by 16% and 12% in grain, respectively. With compost application, the straw P concentration only increased in 2012 but the grain P generally increased, while the straw K concentration tended to decrease and the grain K concentration increased in 2013. Compost application generally increased the Fe and Zn concentrations in straw and grain, whereas the Cu and Mn concentrations decreased significantly compared with the control. The heavy metal concentrations increased at some compost application rates, but they were still within the safe range. The balances of the macro-and micro-nutrients indicated that the removal of nutrients by wheat was compensated for by the addition of compost, whereas the level of N decreased without the application of compost. The daily intake levels of micronutrients via the consumption of wheat grain were still lower than the recommended levels when sheep manure compost was applied, except for that of Mn. PMID

  7. Responses of Wheat Yield, Macro- and Micro-Nutrients, and Heavy Metals in Soil and Wheat following the Application of Manure Compost on the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Kou, Changlin; Ma, Zhenghua; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of livestock manure in cropping systems is considered to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there have been no systematic long-term studies of the effects of manure application on soil and crop macro- and micro-nutrients, heavy metals, and crop yields in China, despite their great importance for sustainable crop production and food safety. Thus, we conducted field experiments in a typical cereal crop production area of the North China Plain to investigate the effects of compost manure application rates on wheat yield, as well as on the macro-/micro-nutrients and heavy metals contents of soil and wheat. We found that compost application increased the soil total N and the available K, Fe, Zn, and Mn concentrations, whereas the available P in soil was not affected, and the available Cu decreased. In general, compost application had no significant effects on the grain yield, biomass, and harvest index of winter wheat. However, during 2012 and 2013, the N concentration decreased by 9% and 18% in straw, and by 16% and 12% in grain, respectively. With compost application, the straw P concentration only increased in 2012 but the grain P generally increased, while the straw K concentration tended to decrease and the grain K concentration increased in 2013. Compost application generally increased the Fe and Zn concentrations in straw and grain, whereas the Cu and Mn concentrations decreased significantly compared with the control. The heavy metal concentrations increased at some compost application rates, but they were still within the safe range. The balances of the macro-and micro-nutrients indicated that the removal of nutrients by wheat was compensated for by the addition of compost, whereas the level of N decreased without the application of compost. The daily intake levels of micronutrients via the consumption of wheat grain were still lower than the recommended levels when sheep manure compost was applied, except for that of Mn. PMID

  8. Dissipation and Residues of Dichlorprop-P and Bentazone in Wheat-Field Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Jianlei; Pan, Lixiang; Song, Guochun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Dichlorprop-P and bentazone have been widely used in the prevention and control of weeds in wheat field ecosystems. There is a concern that pesticide residues and metabolites remain on or in the wheat. Thus, the study of the determination and monitoring of their residues in wheat has important significance. A rapid, simple and reliable QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method was modified, developed and validated for the determination of dichlorprop-P, bentazone and its metabolites (6-hydroxy-bentazone and 8-hydroxy-bentazone) in wheat (wheat plants, wheat straw and grains of wheat) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of this method ranged from 72.9% to 108.7%, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2.5–12 μg/kg. The dissipation and final residue of four compounds in three provinces (Shandong, Jiangsu and Heilongjiang) in China were studied. The trial results showed that the half-lives of dichlorprop-P and bentazone were 1.9–2.5 days and 0.5–2.4 days in wheat plants, respectively. The terminal residues in grains of wheat and wheat straw at harvest were all much below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.2 mg/kg for dichlorprop-P and 0.1 mg/kg for bentazone established by the European Union (EU, Regulation No. 396/2005). PMID:27240385

  9. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  10. Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

  11. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  12. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double-cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, as well as changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero N (control), optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. SN0, SNopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon), with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  13. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero-N control, optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. N0, Nopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon) with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  14. A simplified soil extraction sequence to monitor the main and trace element speciation in soil after compost and mineral fertilizer additions upon the composition of wheat grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred; Erhart, Eva

    2016-04-01

    High quality biological waste treatment aims at producing compost in order to maintain a clean environment and to sustain soil organic carbon levels. Fertilization with compost as a source of organic carbon, nutrients, and accessory elements, as well as fertilization with mineral N- and PK fertilizer have been tested in a field experiment on a calcaric Fluvisol in the Danube wetlands, at 4 levels each. Yields of wheat were recorded, and grains and soils were sampled from each treatment, and analyzed for main and trace element composition. The corresponding soils were characterized by mobile phases, obtained by leaching with 0,16M acetic acid to cover exchangeables plus carbonates, and subsequently by 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3 to dissolve the pedogenic oxides. Total amounts were obtained from digests with perchloric- nitric-hydrofluoric acid. For quasi-total amounts, aqua regia was replaced by pressure decomposition with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid. The proposed extraction sequence permits to analyze and interpret soil for main elements, trace elements, nutrients and anions simultaneously. Factor analyses of soil extracts obtained from dilute acetic acid revealed Ba-Be-Cd-Cu-Li-S (traces), Ca-Mg-Mn (main carbonates), Al-Fe-B, Y, and P-K (nutrients) as chemically feasible principal components. Subsequent soil extracts from oxalate contained Al-B-Co-K-Na-Pb-Si-V-S (maybe acid silicate weathering), Cr-Li-Ni-Sr-Ti (maybe basic silicate weathering), Be-Cu-Fe-P, Co-Mg-Mn-Zn (Mn-oxides) and Ba-Sc as principal components. Factor analyses of total element data distinguished the principal components Ce-La-Li-Sc-Y-P (rare earths), Al-Ca-Fe-K-Mg-Na-P (main elements), Cd-Co-Cr-Cu-Ni-Zn (trace elements), As-Pb (contaminants), Ba-Mn-Sr, and Ti, which looks chemically feasible also. Factor analyses of those soil fractions which presumably form the main fractions of exchangeables, carbonates, pedogenic oxides and silicates, showed no cross connections, except for P. Oxalate

  15. Elemental sulfur improves growth and phytoremediative ability of wheat grown in lead-contaminated calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Saifullah; Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Muhammad; Naeem, Asif; Bibi, Sadia; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad; Dahlawi, Saad

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the effect of elemental sulfur on lead uptake and its toxicity in wheat. A pot experiment was conducted with the purpose to examine the impact of sulfur on improving Pb solubility in soil, and uptake and accumulation in wheat plants. The effect of three levels of lead (0, 50, and 100 mg/kg soil) and sulfur (0, 150, and 300 mmol/kg soil) was tested in all possible combinations. Root dry matter, straw, and grain yields, and the photosynthetic and transpiration rates decreased significantly with increase in the concentration of Pb in the soil. However, sulfur fertilization in the presence of Pb improved the photosynthetic and transpiration rates and consequently increased the straw and grain yields of wheat. It also enhanced Pb accumulation in roots, its translocation from roots to shoot, and accumulation in grain. S and Zn contents of different plant parts were also enhanced. Thus, by mitigating the toxic effect of Pb and improving wheat growth, sulfur enhances Pb accumulation by the aboveground plant parts and hence the phytoextraction capacity of wheat. However, total accumulation of Pb shows that wheat plant cannot be considered as a suitable candidate for phytoremediation. PMID:26852881

  16. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  17. Factors affecting ammonia volatilisation from a rice-wheat rotation system.

    PubMed

    Tian, G; Cai, Z; Cao, J; Li, X

    2001-01-01

    Some of the major factors influencing ammonia volatilisation in a rice wheat rotation system were studied. A continuous airflow enclosure method was used to measure NH3 volatilisation in a field experiment at an agricultural college in Jiangsu Province. The five treatments comprised application rates of 0, 100, 200 or 300 kg N ha(-1) as urea, per growing season with rice straw amendment when wheat was sown, and 200 kg N ha(-1) without rice straw amendment. There were three replicates in a randomised block design. Ammonia volatilisation was measured immediately after urea application in the three consecutive years 1995 to 1997. The results show that N losses through NH3 volatilisation accounted for 4-19% of N applied during the wheat growing season and for 5-11% during the rice growing season. Ammonia volatilisation was affected significantly by soil moisture and temperature before and after fertiliser application during the wheat growing season. The ratio of volatilised NH3-N to applied N after urea application during the rice growing season was as follows: top-dressing at the onset of tillering > top-dressing at the start of the booting stage > basal fertilization. The results also show that the amount of N lost through NH3 volatilisation increased with increasing N application rate, but the ratio to applied N was not affected significantly by N application rate. Amendment with rice straw had no significant effect on NH3 volatilisation. PMID:11237290

  18. Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated rice straw and biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, A.; D'Souza, J.

    1986-10-01

    A comparative study on the saccharification of pretreated rice straw was brought about by using cellulase enzyme produced by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 52430 and its mutant strain UNGI-40. The effect of enzyme and substrate concentrations on the saccharification rate at 24 and 48 were studied. A syrup with 7% sugar concentration was obtained with a 10% substrate concentration for the mutant case, whereas a syrup with 6.8% sugar concentration was obtained with 3.5 times concentrated enzyme from the wild strain. A high saccharification value was obtained with low substrate concentration; the higher the substrate concentration used, the lower the percent saccharification. The glucose content in the hydrolysate comprised 80-82% of total reducing sugars; the remainder was cellobiose and xylose together. The hydrolysate supported the growth of yeasts Candida utilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 52431. A biomass with a 48% protein content was obtained. The essential amino acid composition of yeast biomass was determined.

  19. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential...

  20. Genetic dissection of yield and its component traits using high-density composite map of wheat chromosome 3A: bridging gaps between QTLs and underlying genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield compon...

  1. Relationship of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition and molecular weight distribution of wheat flour protein with water absorption and color characteristics of noodle dough

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colors of noodle doughs made from hard white winter wheat flours from Oregon were measured at optimum noodle water absorptions (NWA). Partial correlations, removing effect of protein concentration, indicated that NWA had negative relationships with 0 hr L* and 24 hr b*, and positive relationships wi...

  2. Molecular cytogenetic characterization and stem rust resistance of five wheat-thinopyrum ponticum partial amphiploids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial amphiploids created by crossing common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.), Barkworth & D. R. Dewey may be resistant to major wheat diseases and are an important intermediate material in wheat breeding. In this study, we examined chromosome composition of five Xiaoy...

  3. Functional and nutritional characteristics of soft wheat grown in no-till and conventional cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of no-till vs. conventional farming practices were evaluated on soft wheat functional and nutritional characteristics, including kernel physical properties, whole wheat composition, antioxidant activity and end-product quality. Soft white winter wheat cv. ORCF 102 was evaluated over a tw...

  4. Bacterial Populations Colonizing and Degrading Rice Straw in Anoxic Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Sabine; Stubner, Stephan; Conrad, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    Rice straw is a major substrate for the production of methane, a greenhouse gas, in flooded rice fields. The bacterial community degrading rice straw under anoxic conditions was investigated with molecular methods. Rice straw was incubated in paddy soil anaerobically for 71 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the bacterial community changed during the first 15 days but then was stable until the end of incubation. Fifteen DGGE bands with different signal intensities were excised, cloned, and sequenced. In addition, DNA was extracted from straw incubated for 1 and 29 days and the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and cloned. From these clone libraries 16 clones with different electrophoretic mobilities on a DGGE gel were sequenced. From a total of 31 clones, 20 belonged to different phylogenetic clusters of the clostridia, i.e., clostridial clusters I (14 clones), III (1 clone), IV (1 clone), and XIVa (4 clones). One clone fell also within the clostridia but could not be affiliated to one of the clostridial clusters. Ten clones grouped closely with the genera Bacillus (3 clones), Nitrosospira (1 clone), Fluoribacter (1 clones), and Acidobacterium (2 clones) and with clone sequences previously obtained from rice field soil (3 clones). The relative abundances of various phylogenetic groups in the rice straw-colonizing community were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bacteria were detached from the incubated rice straw with an efficiency of about 80 to 90%, as determined by dot blot hybridization of 16S rRNA in extract and residue. The number of active (i.e., a sufficient number of ribosomes) Bacteria detected with a general eubacterial probe (Eub338) after 8 days of incubation was 61% of the total cell counts. This percentage decreased to 17% after 29 days of incubation. Most (55%) of the active cells on day 8 belonged to the genus Clostridium, mainly

  5. Modeling of cumulative ash curve in hard red spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of cumulative ash curves (CAC) is very important for evaluation of milling quality of wheat and blending different millstreams for specific applications. The aim of this research was to improve analysis of CAC. Five hard red spring wheat genotype composites from two regions were milled on...

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from a wheat-maize double cropping system with different nitrogen fertilization regimes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Kang; Su, Fang; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Gao, Bing; Oenema, Oene; Christie, Peter; Huang, Bin-Xiang; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2013-05-01

    Here, we report on a two-years field experiment aimed at the quantification of the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from the dominant wheat-maize double cropping system in North China Plain. The experiment had 6 different fertilization strategies, including a control treatment, recommended fertilization, with and without straw and manure applications, and nitrification inhibitor and slow release urea. Application of N fertilizer slightly decreased CH4 uptake by soil. Direct N2O emissions derived from recommended urea application was 0.39% of the annual urea-N input. Both straw and manure had relatively low N2O emissions factors. Slow release urea had a relatively high emission factor. Addition of nitrification inhibitor reduced N2O emission by 55%. We conclude that use of nitrification inhibitors is a promising strategy for N2O mitigation for the intensive wheat-maize double cropping systems. PMID:23434574

  7. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  8. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

  9. Wheat Stripe Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter on wheat stripe rust in a book entitled “Wheat: Science and Trade”. The chapter provides an overview on various aspects of wheat stripe rust and control, including distribution and epidemiology; origin and historical importance; taxonomy, lifecycle, and host range; genetic variati...

  10. Physical Separation of Straw Stem Components to Reduce Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, John Richard; Thompson, David Neal; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Shaw, Peter Gordon; Grant, D.R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these, silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher in silica, while chaff, leaves and nodes are the primary source of fines. Our approach to reducing silica is to selectively harvest the straw stems using an in-field physical separation, leaving the remaining components in the field to build soil organic matter and contribute soil nutrients.

  11. Comparative degradation of [14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in wheat and potato after Foliar application and in wheat, radish, lettuce, and apple after soil application.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, A; Puvanesarajah, V; Burnett, T J; Barnekow, D E; Premkumar, N D; Smith, G A

    2001-01-01

    The fate of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) applied foliarly as the 2-ethylhexyl ester (EHE) to wheat and potatoes, to the soil as the dimethylamine (DMA) salt under apple tree canopies, and preplant as the free acid for wheat, lettuce, and radish was studied to evaluate metabolic pathways. Crop fractions analyzed for (14)C residues included wheat forage, straw, and grain; potato vine and tubers; and apple fruit. The primary metabolic pathway for foliar application in wheat is ester hydrolysis followed by the formation of base-labile 2,4-D conjugates. A less significant pathway for 2,4-D in wheat was ring hydroxylation to give NIH-shift products 2,5-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenoxyacetic acid (4-OH-2,5-D), 4-OH-2,3-D, and 5-OH-2,4-D both free and as acid-labile conjugates. The primary metabolic pathway in potato was again ester hydrolysis. 2,4-D acid was further transformed to 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4-OH-2,5-D. For the soil applications, (14)C residues in the crops were low, and characterization of the (14)C residues indicated association with or incorporation into the biochemical matrix of the tissue. The degradative pathways observed in wheat are similar to those characterized in other intact plant studies but differ from those in studies in wheat cell suspension culture in that no amino acid conjugates were observed. PMID:11170570

  12. Identification of QTL for grain quality traits in a cross of soft wheat cultivars Pioneer brand ‘25R26’ and ‘Foster’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality of wheat, defined by milling, composition, and rhealogical properties, is vital to the entire wheat industry. An improved understanding of the genetics that control wheat quality is needed to efficiently improve wheat quality. Our objective was to determine the genetics of multipl...

  13. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Na, Y. J.; Lee, I. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

  14. Acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose, xylan and straw into furfural by microwave-assisted reaction.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Oktay; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    Furfural is a biomass derived-chemical that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose and xylan to furfural by microwave-assisted reaction was investigated at selected ranges of temperature (140-190°C), time (1-30 min), substrate concentration (1:5-1:200 solid:liquid ratio), and pH (2-0.13). We found that a temperature of 180°C, a solid:liquid ratio of 1:200, a residence time of 20 min, and a pH of 1.12 gave the best furfural yields. The effect of different Brønsted acids on the conversion efficiency of xylose and xylan was also evaluated, with hydrochloric acid being found to be the most effective catalyst. The microwave-assisted process provides highly efficient conversion: furfural yields obtained from wheat straw, triticale straw, and flax shives were 48.4%, 45.7%, and 72.1%, respectively. PMID:21620690

  15. Study of Natural Fiber Breakage during Composite Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano-Solis, Carlos Jafet

    Biofiber-thermoplastic composites have gained considerable importance in the last century. To provide mechanical reinforcement to the polymer, fibers must be larger than a critical aspect ratio (length-to-width ratio). However, biofibers undergo breakage in length or width during processing, affecting their final aspect ratio in the composites. In this study, influence on biofiber breakage by factors related to processing conditions, fiber morphology and the flow type was investigated through: a) experiments using an internal mixer, a twin-screw extruder (TSE) or a capillary rheometer; and b) a Monte Carlo computer simulation. Composites of thermomechanical fibers of aspen or wheat straw mixed with polypropylene were studied. Internal mixer experiments analyzed wheat straw and two batches of aspen fibers, named AL and AS. AL fibers had longer average length. Processing variables included the temperature, rotors speed and fiber concentration. TSE experiments studied AL and AS fiber composites under various screws speeds, temperatures and feeding rates of the polymer and fibers. Capillary rheometers experiments determined AL fiber breakage in shear and elongational flows for composites processed at different concentrations, temperatures, and strain rates. Finally, the internal mixer experimental results where compared to Monte Carlo simulation predictions. The simulation focused on fiber length breakage due to fiber-polymer interactions. Internal mixer results showed that final fiber average length depended almost solely on processing conditions while final fiber average width depended on both processing conditions and initial fiber morphology. In the TSE, processing conditions as well as initial fiber length influenced final average length. TSE results showed that the fiber concentration regime seems to influence the effect of processing variables on fiber breakage. Capillary rheometer experiments demonstrated that biofiber breakage happens in both elongational and

  16. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lu; Ye, Philip; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  17. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature (15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 15°C and 25°C, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 25°C and 35°C. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well. PMID:24043125

  18. Water-use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Fang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259-7898 kg ha-1 for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic.

  19. Water–use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-fang; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-01-01

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259–7898 kg ha−1 for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic. PMID:26192158

  20. Bioconversion of Straw into Improved Fodder: Fungal Flora Decomposing Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The fungal flora decomposing rice straw were investigated all over the soil of Sharkia Province, east of Nile Delta, Egypt, using the nylon net bag technique. Sixty-four straw-decomposing species belonging to 30 genera were isolated by the dilution plate method in ground rice straw-Czapek's agar medium at pH 6. The plates were incubated separately at 5℃, 25℃ and 45℃, respectively. Twenty nine species belonging to 14 genera were isolated at 5℃. The most frequent genus was Penicillium (seven species), and the next frequent genera were Acremonium (three species), Fusarium (three species), Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Mucor, Stachybotrys (two species) and Rhizopus stolonifer. At 25℃, 47 species belonging to 24 genera were isolated. The most frequent genus was Aspergillus (nine species), and the next frequent genera were ranked by Penicillium (five species), Chaetomium (three species), Fusarium (three species). Each of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Myrothecium and Trichoderma was represented by two species. At 45℃, 15 species belonging to seven genera were isolated. These were seven species of Aspergillus, two species of Chaetomium and two species of Emericella, while Humicola, Malbranchea, Rhizomucor and Talaromyces were represented by one species respectively. The total counts of fungi the genera, and species per gram of dry straw were significantly affected by incubation temperature and soil analysis (P < 0.05). PMID:24049492

  1. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

  2. Coffee Stirrers and Drinking Straws as Disposable Spatulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turano, Morgan A.; Lobuono, Cinzia; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Although metal spatulas are damaged through everyday use and become discolored and corroded by chemical exposure, plastic drinking straws are inexpensive, sterile, and disposable, reducing the risk of cross-contamination during laboratory procedures. Drinking straws are also useful because they come in a variety of sizes; narrow sample containers…

  3. Temporal Changes in Tall Fescue Straw Residue Degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In grass seed agriculture, straw residue is a byproduct. Traditionally it has been thought of as a “waste” product yielding little additional net income to the grower. Straw residue can be baled and sold to Asian or local markets, open field burned, or flailed and left on the soil surface or incorpo...

  4. Response of Soil CO2 Emission and Summer Maize Yield to Plant Density and Straw Mulching in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanru; Liu, Xinhui; Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Lang, Kun; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

    2014-01-01

    Demand for food security and the current global warming situation make high and strict demands on the North China Plain for both food production and the inhibition of agricultural carbon emissions. To explore the most effective way to decrease soil CO2 emissions and maintain high grain yield, studies were conducted during the 2012 and 2013 summer maize growing seasons to assess the effects of wheat straw mulching on the soil CO2 emissions and grain yield of summer maize by adding 0 and 0.6 kg m−2 to fields with plant densities of 100 000, 75 000, and 55 000 plants ha−1. The study indicated that straw mulching had some positive effects on summer maize grain yield by improving the 1000-kernel weight. Meanwhile, straw mulching effectively controlled the soil respiration rate and cumulative CO2 emission flux, particularly in fields planted at a density of 75 000 plants ha−1, which achieved maximum grain yield and minimum carbon emission per unit yield. In addition, soil microbial biomass and microbial activity were significantly higher in mulching treatments than in nonmulching treatments. Consequently, summer maize with straw mulching at 75 000 plants ha−1 is an environmentally friendly option in the North China Plain. PMID:25147835

  5. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters. PMID:18777140

  6. Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

  7. Gaseous and particulate emission profiles during controlled rice straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, E.; Ferrer, M.; Calvet, S.; Coscollà, C.; Yusà, V.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of rice straw can emit considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants. We evaluated the effect of rice straw moisture content (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and on the organic and inorganic constituents of released particulate matter (PM): dioxins, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four burning tests were conducted per moisture treatment using the open chamber method. Additionally, combustion characteristics, including burning stages, durations, temperature, and relative humidity, were recorded. Burning tests showed flaming and smoldering stages were significantly longer in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the rest. The amount of burned straw and ashes decreased with increasing straw moisture content (P < 0.001). Carbon dioxide was the main product obtained during combustion with emission values ranging from 692 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (10% moisture content) to 835 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (20% moisture content). Emission factors for PM were the highest in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.005). Fine PM (PM2.5) accounted for more than 60% of total PM mass. Emission factors for dioxins increased with straw moisture content, being the highest in 20% moisture treatment, although showing a wide variability among burning tests (P > 0.05). Emissions factors for heavy metals were low and similar among moisture treatments (P > 0.05). Emission factors for individual PAHs were generally higher in 20% moisture treatment. Overall, emission factors of atmospheric pollutants measured in our study were higher in the 20% moisture content. This difference could be attributed to the incomplete combustion at higher levels of rice straw moisture content. According to our results, rice straw burning should be done after straw drying and under minimal moisture conditions to lower pollutant emission levels.

  8. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  9. Registration of ‘Bearpaw’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bearpaw’ (Reg. No. CV-1083, PI 665228) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2011. Bearpaw is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of five crosses made to the same F1 male sterile parent in ...

  10. Biomass yield as affected by wheat harvest method

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.R.; Hollingsworth, L.D.

    1982-12-01

    Wheat biomass yield and the portions recoverable by different harvesting methods were investigated at Bushland, TX. Where all above-ground dry matter was removed by hand and threshed with a small bundle thresher; the grain, straw and chaff portions averaged about 40, 50, and 10, respectively, of the total biomass. When clipping samples at a simulated combine harvesting height (13-14 inches), the remaining stubble amounts ranged from 1500 to 3000 pounds per acre when grain yield levels averaged 3000 to 6000 pounds per acre. In treatments where the stubble was swathed and baled after conventional combine harvesting, the straw yields ranged from 2000 to 2800 pounds per acre. The bales accounted for 34 to 46 of the ''material other than grain.'' There was about 2000 pounds per acre of stubble remaining below the 3 to 4 inch swather cutting height. In treatments where the combine cutter-bar was operated near ground level (2 to 3 inches) and all straw discharge was caught (whole plant combining), the catchings ranged from 65 to 89 of the ''material other than grain.'' The catching weights ranged from 3900 to 6000 pounds per acre.

  11. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzempek, P.

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC < PANDASTTReadoutChip >) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  12. Optimization of uncatalyzed steam explosion pretreatment of rapeseed straw for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    López-Linares, Juan C; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Tourán, Josefina; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Romero, Inmaculada

    2015-08-01

    Rapeseed straw constitutes an agricultural residue with great potential as feedstock for ethanol production. In this work, uncatalyzed steam explosion was carried out as a pretreatment to increase the enzymatic digestibility of rapeseed straw. Experimental statistical design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the influence of the temperature (185-215°C) and the process time (2.5-7.5min). According to the rotatable central composite design applied, 215°C and 7.5min were confirmed to be the optimal conditions, considering the maximization of enzymatic hydrolysis yield as optimization criterion. These conditions led to a maximum yield of 72.3%, equivalent to 81% of potential glucose in pretreated solid. Different configurations for bioethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw were investigated using the pretreated solid obtained under optimal conditions as a substrate. As a relevant result, concentrations of ethanol as high as 43.6g/L (5.5% by volume) were obtained as a consequence of using 20% (w/v) solid loading, equivalent to 12.4g ethanol/100g biomass. PMID:25935389

  13. Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material. PMID:24423650

  14. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ . PMID:26519407

  15. Effect of shearing on the reinforcement properties of vital wheat gluten

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reinforcement properties of vital wheat gluten as a biomaterial filler for a carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber were examined to assess its effectiveness as a filler for carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites. Composites were formulated using 10-40% vital wheat gluten by mixing aqu...

  16. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  17. Analysis of five simulated straw harvest scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stephen, Jamie; Stumborg, Mark; Fenton, James; Mani, Sudhagar

    2008-01-01

    Almost 36 million tonnes (t) of cereal grains are harvested annually on more than 16 million hectares (ha) in Canada. The net straw production varies year by year depending upon weather patterns, crop fertility, soil conservation measures, harvest method, and plant variety. The net yield of straw, after discounting for soil conservation, averages approximately 2.5 dry (d)t ha-1. Efficient equipment is needed to collect and package the material as a feedstock for industrial applications. This paper investigates the costs, energy input, and emissions from power equipment used for harvesting straw. Five scenarios were investigated: (1) large square bales, (2) round bales, (3) large compacted stacks (loafs), (4) dried chops, and (5) wet chops. The baled or loafed biomass is stacked next to the farm. Dry chop is collected in a large pile and wet chop is ensiled. The baling and stacking cost was $21.47 dt-1 (dry tonne), with little difference between round and large square baling. Loafing was the cheapest option at $17.08 dt-1. Dry chop and piling was $23.90 dt-1 and wet chop followed by ensiling was $59.75 dt-1. A significant portion of the wet chop cost was in ensiling. Energy input and emissions were proportional to the costs for each system, except for loafing, which required more energy input than the baling systems. As a fraction of the energy content of biomass (roughly 16 GJ dt-1), the energy input ranged from 1.2% for baling to 3.2% for ensiling. Emissions from the power equipment ranged from 20.3 kg CO2e dt-1 to more than 40 kg CO2e dt-1. A sensitivity analysis on the effect of yield on collection costs showed that a 33% increase in yield reduced the cost by 20%. Similarly a sensitivity analysis on weather conditions showed that a 10oC cooler climate extended the harvest period by 5-10 days whereas a 10oC warmer climate shortened the harvest period by 2-3 days.

  18. Microwave torrefaction of rice straw and Pennisetum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y F; Chen, W R; Chiueh, P T; Kuan, W H; Lo, S L

    2012-11-01

    Microwave torrefaction of rice straw and pennisetum was researched in this article. Higher microwave power levels contributed to higher heating rate and reaction temperature, and thus produced the torrefied biomass with higher heating value and lower H/C and O/C ratios. Kinetic parameters were determined with good coefficients of determination, so the microwave torrefaction of biomass might be very close to first-order reaction. Only 150W microwave power levels and 10min processing time were needed to meet about 70% mass yield and 80% energy yield for torrefied biomass. The energy density of torrefied biomass was about 14% higher than that of raw biomass. The byproducts (liquid and gas) possessed about 30% mass and 20% energy of raw biomass, and they can be seen as energy sources for heat or electricity. Microwave torrefaction of biomass could be a competitive technology to employ the least energy and to retain the most bioenergy. PMID:22929739

  19. STRAW: Species TRee Analysis Web server

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Timothy I.; Ruan, Zheng; Glenn, Travis C.; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The coalescent methods for species tree reconstruction are increasingly popular because they can accommodate coalescence and multilocus data sets. Herein, we present STRAW, a web server that offers workflows for reconstruction of phylogenies of species using three species tree methods—MP-EST, STAR and NJst. The input data are a collection of rooted gene trees (for STAR and MP-EST methods) or unrooted gene trees (for NJst). The output includes the estimated species tree, modified Robinson-Foulds distances between gene trees and the estimated species tree and visualization of trees to compare gene trees with the estimated species tree. The web sever is available at http://bioinformatics.publichealth.uga.edu/SpeciesTreeAnalysis/. PMID:23661681

  20. Wheat Quality Council Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2010 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeders’ experimental lines of wheat are evaluated for overall quality before being released for commercial production. The Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee provides milling and baking quality data on breeders’ experimental lines of wheat that are annually submitted to the Wheat Quality Counc...