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1

Wheat Straw-Polypropylene Composites.  

E-print Network

??Composites are combinations of mainly two different components: the matrix and the filler/reinforcement. In the thermoplastic composites industry, natural fibers from agricultural crops have been… (more)

Kruger, Paula Kapustan

2007-01-01

2

Green composites from a conjugated linseed oil-based resin and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green composites have been prepared using a free radically cured conjugated linseed oil-based resin reinforced with wheat straw. The effect of the amount of the wheat straw; the size of the wheat straw fiber; the matrix crosslink density; the incorporation of a compatibilizer, maleic anhydride; and the molding pressure on the structure, water absorption, and thermal and mechanical properties of

Daniel P. Pfister; Richard C. Larock

2010-01-01

3

Effect of the solvent type and temperature on phytosterol contents and compositions of wheat straw, bran, and germ extracts.  

PubMed

Wheat fractions, such as bran, germ, and straw, are rich in a number of health beneficial bioactive compounds. However, they have not been exploited to their full capacity for value-added product development. This study examines the potential of recovering phytosterol (PS)-enriched extracts from wheat germ, bran, and straw. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of solvent type and temperature on PS content and composition in straw, bran, and germ extracts. Petroleum ether, chloroform, n-hexane, and ethanol were used as solvents. A pressurized solvent extraction system was used for extraction of wheat fractions. Germ extracts had the highest total PS content followed by straw and bran extracts. Beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol were the main PSs in all of the extracts. Ethanol extraction resulted in the lowest total PS recovery from germ. Solvent type had a significant effect on PS composition in straw extracts. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant PS in straw hexane extracts (74% of total PS). Petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethanol extracted more stigmasterol than beta-sitosterol from straw. This study demonstrated that the solvent type and temperature had significant effects on both PS content and composition of extracts collected from wheat fractions. Because of the complex nature of the agricultural materials, solvent selection and process optimization need to be based on experimental data. Pressurized solvent extraction is a useful technique to screen complex biological materials for their composition and to determine processing conditions to be optimized. PMID:19848388

Dunford, Nurhan Turgut; Irmak, Sibel; Jonnala, Ramakanth

2009-11-25

4

[Chemical composition of n-alkanes in wheat straw and smoke].  

PubMed

Straw of six wheat species was burned under flaming and smoldering conditions. Chemical compositions of n-alkanes in the straw and its smoke were measured with GC/MS. The results showed, the main compounds in all samples were C16 to C33, and the total amounts of n-alkanes in the straw were between 19.6 and 62.3 mg x kg(-1), with a mean value of 36.0 mg x kg(-1). Moreover, the ratios of the contents of n-alkanes with low carbon number (< C23) to the total n-alkanes varied from 1.4% to 31.6%. The C27/C29 values in straws ranged from 20.2% to 47.4% with an average of 33.7%, and the C31/C29 values ranged from 22.9% to 48.1% with a mean value of 32.7%. In the flaming smoke, the total contents were 764.2 to 5 304.1 mg x kg(-1), with a mean value of 2 854.2 mg x kg(-1). And the contribution of the compounds with low carbon number to the total contents was 2.0% to 19.4%, the mean of which was 7.1%. Furthermore, the C27/C29 ratios changed from 10.0% to 31.6% with an average of 20.2%, and the C31/C29 values ranged from 47.1% to 98.9% with a mean of 71.2%. In the smoldering smoke, the total contents were in the range of 5 126 to 15 898 mg x kg(-1), and the mean value was 9 220.8 mg kg(-1). The ratios of the content of n-alkanes with low carbon number to the total n-alkanes varied from 1.9% to 13.0%, and the average value was 5.5%. In addition, the C27/C29 values ranged from 8.6% to 23.0% with a mean of 13.8%, and C31/C29 ratios varied from 42.5% to 90.2% with an average of 62.2%. In both the straw and the smoke, n-alkanes showed unimodal distribution with a peak at C29. The compounds with high carbon number (> C21) in all samples had evident odd to even carbon number predominance. The carbon predominance index (CPI) for the straw ranged from 4.0 to 33.6 with a mean value of 19. 2, and the corresponding average carbon chain length (ACL) varied from 25.2 to 29.0 with a mean of 28.0. The CPI for flaming smoke was between 4.4 and 27.1 with a mean value of 12.4, and the corresponding ACL varied from 27.6 to 29.4 with an average value of 28.8. The CPI values for smoldering smoke ranged from 5.5 to 29.6 with a mean of 18.0, and the ACL was from 28.0 to 29.5 with an average value of 28.9. In short, there were visible differentiations among the chemical compositions of n-alkanes in wheat straw and its smoke, which are helpful for identifying the organic contaminants in ambient aerosol from wheat straw burning. PMID:24455921

Liu, Gang; Li, Jiu-Hai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Dan

2013-11-01

5

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were\\u000a investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw\\u000a was made of the chemical composition, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and\\u000a fractionated into pulp (cellulose),

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

6

Strawboard from vapor phase acetylation of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial ground wheat straw was used in a central composite response surface experimental design to examine four acetylating process variables: reaction temperature, reaction time, initial moisture content of straw, and the vapor flow rate of chemical reagent. The response variable was acetyl content determined as a function of straw weight gain. Diphenylmethyane diisocyante was used as a binder to prepare

Greggory S Karr; Xiuzhi S Sun

2000-01-01

7

Production of fuel ethanol from wheat straw  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat straw contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. The pretreatment of wheat straw is essential prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Research needs to be carried out to develop an efficient pretreatment method which can greatly help enzyme...

8

Biodegradation of wheat straw by Pleurotus ostreatus.  

PubMed

Wheat straw pretreated with chemicals as well as hot water was subjected to degradation by edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses component of both chemically as well as hot water treated wheat straw was degraded by the fungus and in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body of the mushroom was produced. Biodegradation of wheat straw in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During vegetative growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the wheat straw decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated wheat straw supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency (BE) of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrate. Degradation of the hot water treated wheat straw was better and faster than chemically treated substrate. PMID:25535709

Pandey, V K; Singh, M P

2014-01-01

9

Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of wheat straw with enzyme treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) of wheat straw with enzyme treatment was studied. Instead of direct enzyme pretreatment\\u000a on wheat straw, an alternative treatment method was used, in which coarse pulps from refiner defibrated wheat straw rather\\u000a than wheat straw were pretreated with a crude enzyme containing mainly xylanase, then impregnated with alkaline H2O2 solution and further refined. The optimum

Jian Zhao; Xuezhi Li; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

2004-01-01

10

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw was made of the chemical com- position, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and fractionated into pulp

Xue-Jun PanYoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

11

Nutraceutical and functional scenario of wheat straw.  

PubMed

In the era of nutrition, much focus has been remunerated to functional and nutraceutical foodstuffs. The health endorsing potential of such provisions is attributed to affluent phytochemistry. These dynamic constituents have functional possessions that are imperative for cereal industry. The functional and nutraceutical significance of variety of foods is often accredited to their bioactive molecules. Numerous components have been considered but wheat straw and its diverse components are of prime consideration. In this comprehensive dissertation, efforts are directed to elaborate the functional and nutraceutical importance of wheat straw. Wheat straw is lignocellulosic materials including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It hold various bioactive compounds such as policosanols, phytosterols, phenolics, and triterpenoids, having enormous nutraceutical properties like anti-allergenic, anti-artherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects, antiviral, and anticancer. These compounds are protecting against various ailments like hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, wheat straw has demonstrated successfully, low cost, renewable, versatile, widely distributed, easily available source for the production of biogas, bioethanol, and biohydrogen in biorefineries to enhance the overall effectiveness of biomass consumption in protected and eco-friendly environment. Furthermore, its role in enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of bakery products through reducing the progression of staling and retrogradation is limelight of the article. PMID:23216000

Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Waqas, Khalid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Umair

2013-01-01

12

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw. PMID:11991077

Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

2002-05-01

13

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v\\/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H2SO4 (w\\/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L\\/S) 10 (v\\/w), pulping temperature 105°C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15%

Xuejun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

2005-01-01

14

Organosolv pulping of wheat straw by use of phenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite design was used to investigate the influence of the cooking conditions (time, temperature and phenol concentration) for wheat straw with phenol-water mixtures on the properties of the pulp obtained (yield and holocellulose, ?-cellulose, lignin and ethanol-benzene extractable contents) and the pH of the resulting wastewater. A second-order polynomial model consisting of three independent process variables was found

L. Jiménez; M. J. de la Torre; F. Maestre; J. L. Ferrer; I. Pérez

1997-01-01

15

Use of formaldehyde for making wheat straw cellulose pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite design was used to investigate the influence of the cooking conditions (time, temperature and formaldehyde concentration) for wheat straw with formaldehyde–water mixtures on the properties of the pulp obtained (yield and holocellulose, ?-cellulose, lignin and ethanol–benzene extractives contents) and the pH of the resulting wastewater. A second-order polynomial model consisting of three independent process variables was found

L Jiménez; I Pérez; M. J de la Torre; F López; J Ariza

2000-01-01

16

Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal  

PubMed Central

Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

2010-01-01

17

Effect of bio-treatment on the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw, an important papermaking raw material in China, was treated with a white-rot fungus of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446, and the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives from the control and bio-treated samples were analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Bio-treatment of wheat straw could alter the chemical composition of both the lipophylic and hydrophilic extractives. Sugars and phenolic substances such as coniferyl

M. H. Qin; Q. H. Xu; Z. Y. Shao; Y. Gao; Y. J. Fu; X. M. Lu; P. J. Gao; B. Holmbom

2009-01-01

18

Aerodynamic Properties of Wheat Kernel and Straw Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal velocity and drag coefficient of wheat kernel and straw materials (Canadian variety) have been experimentally measured by suspending the particles in an air stream. The effects of mass and moisture content of wheat kernel, node position and length of straw on terminal velocity were studied. The results showed that mass and moisture content have significant effects (p<0.01) on terminal

M. H. Khoshtaghaza; R. Mehdizadeh

19

Enhancing Enzymatic Digestibility of Wheat Straw by Ethanol Cooking Pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol cooking is an important process for the fractionation of biomass components. This work evaluate the effectiveness of sulphate acid catalyzed ethanol cooking pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The wheat straw samples, which were impregnated with 1.0% sulphate acid for about 12 h at room temperature, were submitted to ethanol cooking pretreatment. The in¿uence of both pretreatment temperature

Peng Luo; Zhong Liu

2010-01-01

20

Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glucose benefits from improved enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw solids; (2) xylose benefits from the solubilization of xylan to the liquid phase during the pretreatment; (3) maleic acid replenishment costs; (4) neutralization costs of pretreated material; (5) costs due to furfural production; and (6) heating costs of the input materials. For each response factor, experimental data were fitted mathematically. After data translation to €/Mg dry straw, determining the relative contribution of each response factor, an economic optimization was calculated within the limits of the design variables. Results When costs are disregarded, an almost complete glucan conversion to glucose can be reached (90% from solids, 7%-10% in liquid), after enzymatic hydrolysis. During the pretreatment, up to 90% of all xylan is converted to monomeric xylose. Taking cost factors into account, the optimal process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with 46 mM maleic acid, resulting in a yield of 65 €/Mg (megagram = metric ton) dry straw, consisting of 68 €/Mg glucose benefits (from solids: 85% of all glucan), 17 €/Mg xylose benefits (from liquid: 80% of all xylan), 17 €/Mg maleic acid costs, 2.0 €/Mg heating costs and 0.68 €/Mg NaOH costs. In all but the most severe of the studied conditions, furfural formation was so limited that associated costs are considered negligible. Conclusions After the dilute maleic acid pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, almost complete conversion of wheat straw glucan and xylan is possible. Taking maleic acid replenishment, heating, neutralization and furfural formation into account, the optimum in the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw in this study is 65 €/Mg dry feedstock. This is reached when process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with a maleic acid concentration of 46 mM. Maleic acid replenishment is the most important of the studied cost factors. PMID:20025730

2009-01-01

21

Effect of Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat Grain and Straw  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The global impact of increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere on plants has been studied extensively recently but little information has been published on the effect of enrichment of atmospheric CO2 on the development of nutritive value of grain and straw for ruminant feeds. This paper re...

22

Dilute acid hydrolysis of wheat straw oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

The dilute acid posthydrolysis of wheat straw hemicellulosic oligosaccharides obtained by autohydrolysis was evaluated. An empirical model was used to describe the effect of catalyst concentration (sulfuric acid, 0.1-4% w/w) and reaction time (0-60 min) based on data from a Doehlert experimental design. Catalyst concentration is the main variable influencing posthydrolysis performance, as both its linear and quadratic coefficients are statistically significant for the majority of the studied variables, namely, the ones related to sugar and byproducts production. Reaction time influences xylose and furan derivatives concentrations but not phenolics or acetic acid content. Catalyst concentration and reaction time interact synergistically, minimizing sugar recovery and promoting furan derivatives production. Based on the proposed models, it was possible to delimit an operational range that enables to obtain high monosaccharides recovery together with a slight decrease in inhibitors content as compared to the standard acid hydrolysis treatment. Furthermore, this is achieved with up to 70% less acid spending or considerable savings on reaction time. PMID:19043676

Duarte, Luís C; Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Gírio, Francisco M

2009-05-01

23

Influence of ethanol pulping of wheat straw on the resulting paper sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite factorial design was used to examine the influence of independent variables of the ethanol pulping of wheat straw (viz. processing temperature and time, and ethanol concentration) on the yield and Shopper–Riegler index of the resulting pulp, and on various physical properties of paper sheets (viz. breaking length, stretch, burst index, tear index and brightness) obtained from it.

L Jiménez; I Pérez; J. C Garc??a; A Rodr??guez; J. L Ferrer

2002-01-01

24

Ultrastructure and Topochemistry of Delignification in Alkaline Pulping of Wheat Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the ultrastructure, lignin distribution and topochemistry in alkaline pulping of wheat straw. The ultrastructure of wheat straw fiber is similar to that of a wood tracheid. The lignin concentrations in various morphological regions of wheat straw are similar to the corresponding regions in birch wood fiber. But the lignin contents as a percentage of total lignin

H. M. Zhai; Z. Z. Lee

1989-01-01

25

BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW HYDROLYSATE USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 48.9 gL**-1 glucose was used to produce 20.1 gL**-1 ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 gL**-1h**-1 and 0....

26

Acid Precipitation and Purification of Wheat Straw Lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid precipitation and purification of lignin from wheat straw soda pulping effluent were studied. Prior to lignin precipitation, the suspended solids and dissolved silica were removed from the effluent to avoid lignin contamination. Suspended solids and dissolved silica were removed by centrifugation and selective precipitation at pH 5, respectively. After these treatments, the pH of the effluent was reduced

M. A. Gilarranz; F. Rodriguez; M. Oliet; J. A. Revenga

1998-01-01

27

Optimisation of wheat straw Triticum drum kraft pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains the problems brought about by the raw material and pulping method used in the Afyon-SEKA Pulp Mill producing bleached pulp from mixed wheat straw (Triticum drum L.) (65%) and reed (Phragmites communis) (35%). The use of mixed raw material causes such problems, as heterogeneous pulping, low freeness level, drainage difficulties and wet sheet breaks during the papermaking

?lhan Deniz; Hüseyin Kõrcõa; Saim Ates

2004-01-01

28

Effect of bio-treatment on the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives of wheat straw.  

PubMed

Wheat straw, an important papermaking raw material in China, was treated with a white-rot fungus of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446, and the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives from the control and bio-treated samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Bio-treatment of wheat straw could alter the chemical composition of both the lipophylic and hydrophilic extractives. Sugars and phenolic substances such as coniferyl alcohol, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 1-guaiacylglycerol and ferulic acid were substantially degraded or consumed by the fungus. More lipophilic substances such as wax, glycerides and steryl esters were degraded into the corresponding components, resulting in much higher concentrations of fatty acids and sterols in the bio-treated samples. Obviously, the bio-treatment of wheat straw was of benefit to pitch control in pulping and papermaking processes, in the view of degradation of the more lipophilic substances. In addition, the bio-treatment could increase the lignin concentration in hot-water extractives of wheat straw. PMID:19268580

Qin, M H; Xu, Q H; Shao, Z Y; Gao, Y; Fu, Y J; Lu, X M; Gao, P J; Holmbom, B

2009-06-01

29

Structural and thermal characterization of wheat straw pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking.  

PubMed

Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic feedstocks requires an efficient pretreatment technology to allow ready access of polysaccharides for cellulolytic enzymes during saccharification. The effect of pretreatment on wheat straw through a low-temperature and low-pressure soaking aqueous ammonia (SAA) process was investigated in this study using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS), solid and liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) to demonstrate the changes in lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose structure. After treatment of 60 mesh wheat straw particles for 60 h with 28-30% ammonium hydroxide (1:10 solid/liquid) at 50 °C, sugar recovery increased from 14% (untreated) to 67% (SAA treated). The FTIR study revealed a substantial decrease in absorbance of lignin peaks. Solid and liquid state NMR showed minimal lignin structural changes with significant compositional changes. Activation energy of control and pretreated wheat straw was calculated according to the Friedman and ASTM methods and found to be decreased for SAA-treated wheat straw, from 259 to 223 kJ/mol. The SAA treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin without strongly affecting lignin functional groups or structure. PMID:22882009

Gao, Allan H; Bule, Mahesh V; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D; Chen, Shulin

2012-09-01

30

Comparison of Acetic Acid Lignin with Milled Wood and Alkaline Lignins from Wheat Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw, as an agricultural residue, is generated in a huge quantity worldwide every year. In countries that are short of forest resources, such as China, wheat and rice straws are extensively used as raw material for pulp and paper. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in China, which account for about 90 % of

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

2000-01-01

31

Cellulases and xylanase of an anaerobic rumen fungus grown on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, cellulose, and xylan.  

PubMed Central

The activities of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes produced by an anaerobic fungus (R1) which resembled Neocallimastix sp. were investigated. Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), cellobiase, and filter paper (FPase) activities had pH optima of 6.0, 5.5, and 6.0, respectively. CMCase and cellobiase activities both had a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C, whereas FPase had an optimum of 45 degrees C. The pH and temperature optima for xylanase activity were pH 6.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. Growth of the fungus on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, or cellulose resulted in substantial colonization, with at least 43 to 58% losses in substrate dry matter and accumulation of comparable amounts of formate. This end product was correlated to apparent loss of substrate dry weight and could be used as an indicator of fungal growth. Milling of wheat straw did not enhance the rate or extent of substrate degradation. Growth of the R1 isolate on the above substrates or xylan also resulted in accumulation of high levels of xylanase activity and lower cellulase activities. Of the cellulases, CMCase was the most active and was associated with either low or trace amounts of cellobiase and FPase activities. During growth on xylan, reducing sugars, including arabinose and xylose, rapidly accumulated in the medium. Xylose and other reducing sugars, but not arabinose, were subsequently used for growth. Reducing sugars also accumulated, but not as rapidly, when the fungus was grown on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, or cellulose. Xylanase activities detected during growth of R1 on media containing glucose, xylose, or cellobiose suggested that enzyme production was constitutive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3606104

Lowe, S E; Theodorou, M K; Trinci, A P

1987-01-01

32

Cellulases and xylanase of an anaerobic rumen fungus grown on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, cellulose and xylan  

SciTech Connect

The activities of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes produced by an anaerobic fungus (RI) which resembled Neocallimastix sp. were investigated. Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), cellobiase, and filter paper (FPase) activities had pH optima of 6.0, 5.5 and 6.0, respectively. CMCase and cellobiase activities both had a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C, whereas FPase had an optimum of 45 degrees C. The pH and temperature optima for xylanase activity were pH 6.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. Growth of the fungus on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, or cellulose resulted in substantial colonization, with at least 43 to 58% losses in substrate dry matter and accumulation of comparable amounts of formate. This end product was correlated to apparent loss of substrate dry weight and could be used as an indicator of fungal growth. Milling of wheat straw did not enhance the rate or extent of substrate degradation. Growth of the RI isolate on the above substrates or xylan also resulted in accumulation of high levels of xylanase activity and lower cellulase activities. Of the cellulases, CMCase was the most active and was associated with either low or trace amounts of cellobiase and FPase activities. During growth on xylan, reducing sugars, including arabinose and xylose, rapidly accumulated in the medium. Xylose and other reducing sugars, but not arabinose, were subsequently used for growth. Reducing sugars also accumulated, but not as rapidly, when the fungus was grown on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, or cellulose. Xylanase activities detected during growth of RI on media containing glucose, xylose, or cellobiose suggested that enzyme production was constitutive. Xylanase activity was mainly cell associated in these cultures, but there was a considerable increase in activity during fungal autolysis. (Refs. 33).

Lowe, S.E.; Theodorou, M.K.; Trinci, A.P.J.

1987-06-01

33

Separation and Characterization of Cellulose from Wheat Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly purified cellulose was separated from wheat straw by sequential treatments of dewaxed straw with 0.5?M aqueous KOH at 35°C for 2.5 h under ultrasonic irradiation time of 0 to 35 min, 2% H2O2–0.2% TAED at pH 11.8 for 12 h at 48°C, and with 80% acetic acid–70% nitric acid (10\\/1, v\\/v) at 120°C for 15 min. The yield of crude cellulose preparations obtained

RunCang Sun; Jeremy Tomkinson

2005-01-01

34

Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than effective tissue disruption. PMID:23590820

2013-01-01

35

Use of butanol-water mixtures for making wheat straw pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   A central composite design was used to investigate the influence of the cooking conditions (time, temperature and butanol\\u000a concentration) for wheat straw with butanol-water mixtures on the properties of the pulp obtained (yield and holocellulose,\\u000a ?-cellulose, lignin and ethanol-benzene extractives contents) and the pH of the resulting waste water. A second-order polynomial\\u000a model consisting of three independent process variables

L. Jiménez; F. Maestre; I. Pérez

1999-01-01

36

Evaluation of the nutritive value of apple pulp mixed with different amounts of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the high amounts of apple rejected for commercialization its use as alternative feed for ruminants should be considered. This study was designed to investigate the nutritive value of apple pulp-wheat straw mixtures. Chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and gas production profiles of ensiled mixtures containing 85 (M85), 70 (M70), and 50% (M50) of apple pulp were

M. A. M. Rodrigues; C. M. Guedes; A. Rodrigues; J. W. Cone; Gelder van A. H; L. M. M. Ferreira

2008-01-01

37

Organosolv pulping of wheat straw by use of acetone-water mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite design was used to investigate the influence of the cooking conditions (time, temperature and acetone concentration) for wheat straw with acetone-water mixtures on the properties of the pulp obtained (yield and holocellulose, ?-cellulose, lignin and ethanol-benzene extractable contents) and the pH of the resulting waste water. A second-order polynomial model consisting of three independent process variables was

L. Jiménez; M. J. de la Torre; J. L. Bonilla; J. L. Ferrer

1998-01-01

38

Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei.  

PubMed

We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native ?-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

Jovanovi?, Birgit; Mach, Robert L; Mach-Aigner, Astrid R

2014-01-01

39

Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei  

PubMed Central

We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native ?-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

2014-01-01

40

Hydrotreating of wheat straw in toluene and ethanol.  

PubMed

In the present work, wheat straw was hydroliquefied at a temperature of 300°C for 4h in ethanol or toluene in order to obtain bio-components which are useful for fuel purposes. The experiments were performed in a 100mL batch reactor under hydrogen pressure of 70 bar. Typically, 2g of straw and 0.1g of catalyst (66%Ni/SiO2-Al2O3) were dispersed in 15 g of solvent. The main compounds of the oil produced during the liquefaction of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin of wheat straw in both solvents are: tetrahydrofuran-2-methanol, 1,2-butanediol and butyrolactone. Besides the mentioned compounds, ethanol favoured the decomposition of bigger molecules to short-chain alcohols such as 1-butanol, 1,2-propanediol and 1,2-ethanediol. Toluene contributes to the production of furans and other cyclic compounds. The light fractions distilled together with the solvent also contain the following: 1-propanol, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. PMID:24787323

Murnieks, Raimonds; Kampars, Valdis; Malins, Kristaps; Apseniece, Lauma

2014-07-01

41

Influence of the operating conditions in the acetone pulping of wheat straw on the properties of the resulting paper sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite factor design was used to examine the influence of independent variables in the acetone pulping of wheat straw (processing temperature, time, and acetone concentration) on the yield of the resulting pulp, and on various physical properties of paper sheets (breaking length, stretch, burst index, tear index and brightness) obtained from it.Equations that related each dependent variable to

L Jiménez; J. C Garc??a; I Pérez; J. L Ferrer; A Chica

2001-01-01

42

Influence of oxygen bleaching variables of enzyme-treated soda pulp from wheat straw on the quality of black liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black liquor from the oxygen bleaching of soda pulp from wheat straw pre-treated with the enzyme cartazyme was characterized. A central composite design was used to examine the influence of oxygen bleaching variables (temperature (T), time (t), and soda concentration (S)) on some properties of the black liquor (pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC),

L. Jiménez; I. Pérez; J. C. Garc??a; F. López; J. Ariza

2000-01-01

43

Use of ground wheat straw in container nursery substrates to overwinter daylily divisions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat (Triticum sp.) straw is being evaluated as a potential component in soilless container mixes either alone or combined with compost to replace a significant portion of the substrate currently supplied by pine bark and peat moss. The objective of this study was to evaluate wheat straw and horse...

44

Co-refining of wheat straw pulp and hardwood kraft pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw has been used as a pulping resource in China for many years. Wheat straw pulp (WSP) was widely used to substitute high quality chemical pulps such as those made from wood in producing writing and printing paper to reduce production cost of the resultant paper products and to improve paper smoothness without sacrificing paper strength. In this study,

Qingxi Hou; Bo Yang; Wei Liu; Hongbin Liu; Yimei Hong; Ruixia Zhang

2011-01-01

45

Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py-GC-MS), thermogravimetric (TG) /differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the fungal secretomes and composition, functional groups, and structural changes of the fungal spent wheat straw lignin were determined. Milled wood lignin (MWL) was extracted from biological treated and untreaed wheat straw. Detailed structural analysis through two dimentional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonances (2D HMQC NMR) of the pretreated lignin (acetylated) revealed low abundances of the substructures dibenzodioxacin and cinnamyl alcohol. Further analysis of lignin by Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) demonstrated the significant decrease of guaiacyl units. The results support previous findings on the biodegradation of wheat straw as analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). Revealing the characteristic behavior of P. chrysosporium-mediated biomass degradation, the information presented in this paper offers new insight into the understanding of biological lignin degradation of wheat straw by P. chrysosporium.

Zeng, Jijiao

46

Flowability parameters for chopped switchgrass, wheat straw and corn stover  

SciTech Connect

A direct shear cell to measure the shear strength and flow properties of chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover was designed, fabricated, and tested. Yield loci (r2=0.99) determined at pre-consolidation pressures of 3.80 kPa and 5.02 kPa indicated that chopped biomass followed Mohr-Coulomb failure. Normal stress significantly affected the displacement required for shear failure, as well as the friction coefficient values for all three chopped biomass types. Displacement at shear failure ranged from 30 to 80 mm, and depended on pre-consolidation pressure, normal stress, and particle size. Friction coefficient was inversely related to normal stress, and was highest for chopped corn stover. Also, chopped corn stover exhibited the highest angle of internal friction, unconfined yield strength, major consolidation strength, and cohesive strength, all of which indicated increased challenges in handling chopped corn stover. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength indicated that chopped biomass cannot be handled by gravity alone. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength were 43 and 0.75 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 44 and 0.49 kPa for chopped wheat straw; and 48 and 0.82 kPa for chopped corn stover. Unconfined yield strength and major consolidation strength used for characterization of bulk flow materials and design of hopper dimensions were 3.4 and 10.4 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 2.3 and 9.6 kPa for chopped wheat straw and 4.2 and 11.8 kPa for chopped corn stover. These results are useful for development of efficient handling, storage, and transportation systems for biomass in biorefineries.

Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Yoder, D.C. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-02-01

47

Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment. PMID:25613555

Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

2015-03-01

48

Metataxonomic profiling and prediction of functional behaviour of wheat straw degrading microbial consortia  

PubMed Central

Background Mixed microbial cultures, in which bacteria and fungi interact, have been proposed as an efficient way to deconstruct plant waste. The characterization of specific microbial consortia could be the starting point for novel biotechnological applications related to the efficient conversion of lignocellulose to cello-oligosaccharides, plastics and/or biofuels. Here, the diversity, composition and predicted functional profiles of novel bacterial-fungal consortia are reported, on the basis of replicated aerobic wheat straw enrichment cultures. Results In order to set up biodegradative microcosms, microbial communities were retrieved from a forest soil and introduced into a mineral salt medium containing 1% of (un)treated wheat straw. Following each incubation step, sequential transfers were carried out using 1 to 1,000 dilutions. The microbial source next to three sequential batch cultures (transfers 1, 3 and 10) were analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS1 pyrosequencing. Faith’s phylogenetic diversity values became progressively smaller from the inoculum to the sequential batch cultures. Moreover, increases in the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Flavobacteriales and Sphingobacteriales were noted along the enrichment process. Operational taxonomic units affiliated with Acinetobacter johnsonii, Pseudomonas putida and Sphingobacterium faecium were abundant and the underlying strains were successfully isolated. Interestingly, Klebsiella variicola (OTU1062) was found to dominate in both consortia, whereas K. variicola-affiliated strains retrieved from untreated wheat straw consortia showed endoglucanase/xylanase activities. Among the fungal players with high biotechnological relevance, we recovered members of the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Coniochaeta and Trichosporon. Remarkably, the presence of peroxidases, alpha-L-fucosidases, beta-xylosidases, beta-mannases and beta-glucosidases, involved in lignocellulose degradation, was indicated by predictive bacterial metagenome reconstruction. Reassuringly, tests for specific (hemi)cellulolytic enzymatic activities, performed on the consortial secretomes, confirmed the presence of such gene functions. Conclusion In an in-depth characterization of two wheat straw degrading microbial consortia, we revealed the enrichment and selection of specific bacterial and fungal taxa that were presumably involved in (hemi) cellulose degradation. Interestingly, the microbial community composition was strongly influenced by the wheat straw pretreatment. Finally, the functional bacterial-metagenome prediction and the evaluation of enzymatic activities (at the consortial secretomes) revealed the presence and enrichment of proteins involved in the deconstruction of plant biomass. PMID:24955113

2014-01-01

49

Pretreatment of wheat straw for fermentation to methane.  

PubMed

The effects of pretreating wheat straw with gamma-ray irradiation, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide on methane yield, fermentation rate constant, and loss of feedstock constituents were evaluated using laboratory-scale batch fermentors. Results showed that methane yield increased as pretreatment alkali concentration increased, with the highest yield being 37% over untreated straw for the pretreatment consisting of sodium hydroxide dosage of 34 g OH(-)/kg volatile solids, at 90 degrees C for 1 h. Gamma-ray irradiation had no significant effect on methane yield. Alkaline pretreatment temperatures above 100 degrees C caused a decrease in methane yield. After more than 100 days of fermentation, all of the hemi-cellulose and more than 80% of the cellulose were degraded. The loss in cellulose and hemicellulose accounted for 100% of the volatile solids lost. No consistent effect of pretreatments on batch fermentation rates was noted. Semicontinuous fermentations of straw-manure mixtures confirmed the relative effectiveness of sodium and ammonium-hydroxide pretreatments. PMID:18555303

Hashimoto, A G

1986-12-01

50

A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw?  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B.; Du, Chenyu

2013-01-01

51

Sugar recoveries from wheat straw following treatments with the fungus Irpex lacteus.  

PubMed

Irpex lacteus is a white-rot fungus capable of increasing sugar recovery from wheat straw; however, in order to incorporate biopretreatment in bioethanol production, some process specifications need to be optimized. With this objective, I. lacteus was grown on different liquid culture media for use as inoculums. Additionally, the effect of wheat straw particle size, moisture content, organic and inorganic supplementations, and mild alkali washing during solid-state fermentation (SSF) on sugar yield were investigated. Wheat thin stillage was the best medium for producing inoculums. Supplementation of wheat straw with 0.3mM Mn(II) during SSF resulted in glucose yields of 68% as compared to yields of 62% and 33% for cultures grown without supplementation or on untreated raw material, respectively after 21 days. Lignin loss, wheat straw digestibility, peroxidase activity, and fungal biomass were also correlated with sugar yields in the search for biopretreatment efficiency indicators. PMID:23347930

Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; Vaquero, María Eugenia; Martínez, Ángel T; Martínez, María Jesús

2013-03-01

52

Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Biomass recalcitrance is affected by a number of chemical, physical and biological factors. In this study we looked into the differences in recalcitrance between two major anatomical fractions of wheat straw biomass, leaf and stem. A set of twenty-one wheat cultivars was fractionated and illustrated the substantial variation in leaf-to-stem ratio between cultivars. The two fractions were compared in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic convertibility, cellulose crystallinity and glucan accessibility. The use of water as a probe for assessing glucan accessibility was explored using low field nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy in combination with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Results Leaves were clearly more degradable by lignocellulolytic enzymes than stems, and it was demonstrated that xylose removal was more linked to glucose yield for stems than for leaves. Comparing the locations of water in leaf and stem by low field NMR and FT-IR revealed that the glucan hydroxyl groups in leaves were more accessible to water than glucan hydroxyl groups in stems. No difference in crystallinity between leaf and stem was observed using wide angle x-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated by the accessibility of the hydroxyl groups to water. This suggests that water may be used to assess glucan accessibility in biomass samples. PMID:24860617

2014-01-01

53

Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Results Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Conclusions Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs. PMID:23945109

2013-01-01

54

Preparation of lignopolyols from wheat straw soda lignin.  

PubMed

Wheat straw soda lignin was modified and characterized by several qualitative and quantitative methods such as (31)P NMR spectroscopy to evaluate its potential as a substitute for polyols in view of polyurethane applications. Chemical modification of the lignin was achieved with propylene oxide to form lignopolyol derivatives. This was performed by a two-step reaction of lignin with maleic anhydride followed by propylene oxide and by direct oxyalkylation under acidic and alkaline conditions. The physical and chemical properties of lignopolyols from each method and the subsequent chain-extended hydroxyl groups were evaluated. Direct oxyalkylation of lignin under alkaline conditions was found to be more efficient than acidic conditions and more effective than the two-step process for preparing lignopolyol with higher aliphatic hydroxyl contents. PMID:21854019

Ahvazi, Behzad; Wojciechowicz, Olivia; Ton-That, Tan-Minh; Hawari, Jalal

2011-10-12

55

Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties) connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter) hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C. PMID:21269447

2011-01-01

56

Recovery of ammonium onto wheat straw to be reused as a slow-release fertilizer.  

PubMed

With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact of nitrogen pollution, a new multifunctional slow-release fertilizer was prepared by recovery of ammonium from aqueous solutions onto a superabsorbent composite. An eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS) was synthesized and used as the carrier to control the release of nutrients. The adsorption studies with NH?? indicated that the superabsorbent composite showed good affinity for NH??, with an adsorption capacity of 7.15 mmol g?¹ when 20 wt % of WS was incorporated and that the adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 40 min. Afterward, the feasibility of reusing the composite as a multifunctional slow-release nitrogen fertilizer was investigated. The results showed that the product with good water-retention and slow-release capacities could regulate soil acidity and was economical and eco-friendly for application in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:23495955

Xie, Lihua; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Lan

2013-04-10

57

Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

58

Research on integrated anaerobic pretreatment of rural sewage\\/wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent testing method used to study the operating characteristic of the two-phase anaerobic process dealing with the low concentration of wheat straw-containing wastewater. The wheat straw dosage within the acidogenic reactor and the change of pH, ammonia nitrogen, COD and VFA in the two-phase anaerobic reactor were investigated. The result indicated that two-phase anaerobic treatment was still in the range

Xiang Hu; Zhijun Guo; Hang Yin; Zhengshan He

2010-01-01

59

Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41g-ethanol\\/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0ml-H2\\/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were

Prasad Kaparaju; María Serrano; Anne Belinda Thomsen; Prawit Kongjan; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

60

Crystal and pore structure of wheat straw cellulose fiber during recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in crystal structure and pore size of wheat straw fiber after repeated recycling were studied by means of X-ray\\u000a diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that in\\u000a unbleached wheat straw cellulose crystallinity increased and the water retention value decreased with increasing rounds of\\u000a recycling. After five rounds, the crystallinity increased by 14.6%

Yangmei Chen; Yan Wang; Jinquan Wan; Yongwen Ma

2010-01-01

61

Anaerobic digestion of wastewater produced in the manufacture of cellulosic pulp from wheat straw in immobilised cell bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater produced in the manufacture of cellulosic pulp from wheat straw (COD of 38.8 g\\/l) were studied. Laboratory experiments were carried out in 1-1 bioreactors containing supports of different chemical composition and features, namely: saponite, montmorillonite, bentogel, sepiolite (pansil) and PVC, to which the microorganisms responsible for the process adhered. The process was

V. Alonso; A. Martín; R. Borja

1995-01-01

62

Fuel Ethanol Production from Wheat Straw: Demonstration of Technology at the 100 Liter Scale  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat straw, a globally abundant byproduct of wheat production, contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for conversion to fuel ethanol. It was pretreated at high solids loading with dilute acid at a high temperature for a short period of time. The pretreated hydrolyza...

63

Estimating Straw Production of Spring and Winter Wheat Richard Engel1  

E-print Network

Estimating Straw Production of Spring and Winter Wheat Richard Engel1 , Dan Long2 , Gregg Carlson2 production for spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are important in Montana because crop residue provides protection against wind and water erosion, residue influences nutrient cycling and fertilizer

Lawrence, Rick L.

64

Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6% urea and 5.8% molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p??0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?

Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

2014-08-01

65

Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility\\u000a and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (±SD) live weight of 19.8 (±1.06) kg,\\u000a were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp

Ajebu Nurfeta

2010-01-01

66

Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping\\/tillage operations and\\/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in

Hess

2005-01-01

67

Strong cellulase inhibitors from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background The use of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose with subsequent fermentation to ethanol provides a green alternative for the production of transportation fuels. Because of its recalcitrant nature, the lignocellulosic biomass must be pretreated before enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the pretreatment often results in the formation of compounds that are inhibitory for the enzymes or fermenting organism. Although well recognized, little quantitative information on the inhibition of individual cellulase components by identified inhibitors is available. Results Strong cellulase inhibitors were separated from the liquid fraction of the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw. HPLC and mass-spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the inhibitors were oligosaccharides (inhibitory oligosaccharides, IOS) with a degree of polymerization from 7 to 16. The IOS are composed of a mixture of xylo- (XOS) and gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS). We propose that XOS and GOS are the fragments of the xylan backbone and mixed-linkage ?-glucans, respectively. The IOS were approximately 100 times stronger inhibitors for Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) than cellobiose, which is one of the strongest inhibitors of these enzymes reported to date. Inhibition of endoglucanases (EGs) by IOS was weaker than that of CBHs. Most of the tested cellulases and hemicellulases were able to slowly degrade IOS and reduce the inhibitory power of the liquid fraction to some extent. The most efficient single enzyme component here was T. reesei EG TrCel7B. Although reduced by the enzyme treatment, the residual inhibitory power of IOS and the liquid fraction was strong enough to silence the major component of the T. reesei cellulase system, CBH TrCel7A. Conclusions The cellulase inhibitors described here may be responsible for the poor yields from the enzymatic conversion of the whole slurries from lignocellulose pretreatment under conditions that do not favor complete degradation of hemicellulose. Identification of the inhibitory compounds helps to design better enzyme mixtures for their degradation and to optimize the pretreatment regimes to minimize their formation. PMID:24053778

2013-01-01

68

Production of ethyl levulinate by direct conversion of wheat straw in ethanol media.  

PubMed

The production of ethyl levulinate from wheat straw by direct conversion in ethanol media was investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the effects of processing parameters, and the regression analysis was performed on the data obtained. A close agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions was achieved. The optimal conditions for ethyl levulinate production from wheat straw were acid concentration 2.5%, reaction temperature 183°C, mass ratio of liquid to solid 19.8 and reaction time 36 min. Under the optimum conditions, the yield of ethyl levulinate 17.91% was obtained, representing a theoretical yield of 51.0%. The results suggest that wheat straw can be used as potential raw materials for the production of ethyl levulinate by direct conversion in ethanol media. PMID:22858471

Chang, Chun; Xu, Guizhuan; Jiang, Xiaoxian

2012-10-01

69

Pretreatment of wheat straw using SO2 dissolved in hot water.  

PubMed

Efficient pretreatment is important for complete enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic materials. Pretreatment of wheat straw with sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) dissolved in hot water achieved xylose and total product yields of up to 61.1% and 93.9%, respectively, based on the mass of lignocellulose in wheat straw. The apparent activation energies for hemicellulose conversion and xylose dehydration were 7.8 and 9.0 kJ/mol. FT-IR spectra of the residual solid after treatment showed that the hemicellulosic components were converted, the hydrogen bonds in cellulose were broken, but the lignin structure was not changed. Importantly, the SO(2) was recovered from the product mixture by steam stripping and could be reused. Thus, the SO(2)-H(2)O system is an efficient and environmentally friendly way for the conversion of hemicellulose in wheat straw into monosaccharides, such as xylose, glucose and arabinose. PMID:22989658

Liu, Weina; Hou, Yucui; Wu, Weize; Niu, Muge; Wang, Wenhua

2012-11-01

70

Unraveling the effects of laccase treatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw.  

PubMed

Laccase enzymes are promising detoxifying agents during lignocellulosic bioethanol production from wheat straw. However, they affect the enzymatic hydrolysis of this material by lowering the glucose recovery yields. This work aimed at explaining the negative effects of laccase on enzymatic hydrolysis. Relative glucose recovery in presence of laccase (10IU/g substrate) with model cellulosic substrate (Sigmacell) at 10% (w/v) was almost 10% points lower (P<0.01) than in the absence of laccase. This fact could be due to an increase in the competition of cellulose binding sites between the enzymes and a slight inhibition of ?-glucosidase activity. However, enzymatic hydrolysis and infrared spectra of laccase-treated and untreated wheat straw filtered pretreated residue (WS-FPR), revealed that a grafting process of phenoxy radicals onto the lignin fiber could be the cause of diminished accessibility of cellulases to cellulose in pretreated wheat straw. PMID:25459824

Oliva-Taravilla, Alfredo; Moreno, Antonio D; Demuez, Marie; Ibarra, David; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; González-Fernández, Cristina; Ballesteros, Mercedes

2014-10-23

71

Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass,wheat straw, and corn stover  

SciTech Connect

Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5 18.4 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 36.1 8.6 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 52.1 10.8 kg/m3 for corn stover. Mean tapped bulk densities were 81.8 26.2 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 42.8 11.7 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 58.9 13.4 kg/m3 for corn stover. Percentage changes in compressibility due to variation in particle size obtained from a knife mill ranged from 64.3 to 173.6 for chopped switchgrass, 22.2 51.5 for chopped wheat straw and 42.1 117.7 for chopped corn stover within the tested consolidation pressure range of 5 120 kPa. Pressure and volume relationship of chopped biomass during compression with application of normal pressure can be characterized by the Walker model and Kawakita and Ludde model. Parameter of Walker model was correlated to the compressibility with Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Relationship between volume reduction in chopped biomass with respect to number of tappings studied using Sone s model indicated that infinite compressibility was highest for chopped switchgrass followed by chopped wheat straw and corn stover. Degree of difficulty in packing measured using the parameters of Sone s model indicated that the chopped wheat straw particles compacted very rapidly by tapping compared to chopped switchgrass and corn stover. These results are very useful for solving obstacles in handling bulk biomass supply logistics issues for a biorefinery.

Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-08-01

72

Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn  

PubMed Central

The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn’s formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

2014-01-01

73

Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn.  

PubMed

The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn's formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

2014-01-01

74

Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Waste Wheat Straw for Cellulosic Ethanol Production in a Co-located Straw Pulp Mill.  

PubMed

Waste wheat straw (WWS) is the waste product from feedstock preparation process in a straw pulp mill. It has a significant annual production rate and no commercial value has been explored on this material. In this study, waste wheat straw was pretreated using an autohydrolysis process followed by mechanical refining, and the pretreated materials were further enzymatically hydrolyzed to evaluate the total sugar recovery for bioethanol production. Results show that autohydrolysis at 170 °C for 40 min followed by 6000 revolution PFI refining provided the best result in this study, where a total sugar recovery (total sugars in autohydrolysis filtrate and enzymatic hydrolyzate over total carbohydrates on raw WWS) of 70 % at 4 filter paper unit per oven dry gram (FPU/OD g) substrate enzyme charge could be obtained. The economic evaluation of this biorefinery process indicates that cellulosic ethanol production from autohydrolysis of WWS is a very profitable business, with 28.4 % of internal rate of return can be achieved based on current ethanol wholesale price in China. PMID:25374142

Han, Qiang; Jin, Yanbin; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Park, Sunkyu

2015-01-01

75

PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR AN INTEGRATED BIOMATERIALS AND ETHANOL BIOREFINERY USING WHEAT STRAW FEEDSTOCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biobased products and fuels appear to have a very bright future. A consortium led by NDSU is currently engaged in a project that would use cellulose nanofibers derived from wheat straw to make a product that could substitute for fiberglass and plastics in many applications, including automotive parts. The work described here analyzes the economic value of producing cellulose nanowhiskers

F. Larry Leistritz; Donald M. Senechal; Mark D. Stowers; William F. McDonald; Chris M. Saffron; Nancy M. Hodur

2006-01-01

76

Screening of white-rot fungi for biological pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty two basidiomycetes, mostly white rot fungi, were grown on wheat straw. Lignin-, cellulose-, and hemicellulose-degradation was recorded in order to find a species growing on lignin preferably. The “oyster-mushroom”Pleurotus sp. “florida” showed fastest delignification of all tested fungi.

H. W. Miiller; W. Trfisch

1986-01-01

77

Anaerobic treatment of wastewater produced in the manufacture of cellulosic pulp from wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the continuous anaerobic digestion process of wastewater, produced in the manufacture of cellulosic pulp from wheat straw, was carried out. An influent wastewater with a COD of 45 g.l was used and hydraulic retention times ranging between 29 and 8 days were tested. For a hydraulic retention time of 8 days a start?up of acidification was observed

V. Alonso; A. Martín; R. Borja; A. Chica

1993-01-01

78

A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3.

Guolin Huang; Jeffrey X. Shi; Tim A. G. Langrish

2007-01-01

79

Biobleaching of cellulose pulp from wheat straw with enzymes and hydrogen peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the operating conditions (temperature, time, enzyme concentration, pH and pulp consistency) used in the enzymic step of an XP (Cartazyme–hydrogen peroxide) sequence for bleaching soda pulp from wheat straw on various properties of the resulting pulp (yield, brightness, viscosity and kappa number) and of the paper sheets obtained from it (brightness, breaking length, stretch, burst index and

L Jiménez; E Navarro; J. L Ferrer; F Lopéz; J Ariza

1999-01-01

80

Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional

Jan B Kristensen; Lisbeth G Thygesen; Claus Felby; Henning Jørgensen; Thomas Elder

2008-01-01

81

Influence of process variables on the properties of pulp obtained by ethanol pulping of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of independent variables in the cooking of wheat straw with ethanol-water mixtures (ethanol concentration, cooking time and temperature) on various properties of the pulp (yield and holocellulose, ?-cellulose and lignin contents) was studied with a view to determining the best operating conditions to obtain quality pulp (pulp with high holocellulose and ?-cellulose contents and a low lignin content).

L Jiménez; M. J de la Torre; J. L Ferrer; J. C Garc??a

1999-01-01

82

Modifications of wheat straw to enhance cellulose saccharification by enzymic hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical, physical and thermal processes were applied to wheat straw, and the modified products were assayed by enzymic hydrolysis. Treatments that remove pentosans or lignin make the cellulose more readily available to saccharifying enzymes. For example, autohydrolysis at 170 degrees for 30 min decreased pentosan content and increased 4-fold the conversion of cellulose to glucose. Cold soda pulping removed lignin

R. L. Cunningham; R. W. Detroy; M. O. Bagby; F. L. Baker

1981-01-01

83

Generation of low cost sugars from wheat straw: Progress, opportunities, and challenges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat straw (WS) is a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. It contains about 35-45% cellulose, 20-30% hemicelluloses, and 8-15% lignin. Generation of sugars from WS involves pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Pretreatment is crucial as native WS is very resistant to enzymatic...

84

Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pretreating wheat straw with a combination of dilute acid and gamma irradiation was performed in an attempt to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The glucose yield was significantly affected by combined pretreatment (3% sulfuric acid-gamma irradiation), compared with untreated wheat straw and individual pretreatment. The increasing enzymatic hydrolysis after combined pretreatment is resulting from decrease in crystallinity of cellulose, loss of hemicelluloses, and removal or modification of lignin. Therefore, combined pretreatment is one of the most effective methods for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw biomass.

Hyun Hong, Sung; Taek Lee, Jae; Lee, Sungbeom; Gon Wi, Seung; Ju Cho, Eun; Singh, Sudhir; Sik Lee, Seung; Yeoup Chung, Byung

2014-01-01

85

Development of low-cost wheat-straw insulation board  

SciTech Connect

Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg/m{sup 3}, and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m{center_dot}K/W [R3 to R4 per inch (h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu{center_dot}in)]. The initial effort focused on straw insulation boards suitable for use in buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation. The possible methods of fabrication initially evaluated were (1) containing the straw in panels with wire and battens, (2) pulping the straw, and (3) binding with adhesive. Starch, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and sodium silicate were evaluated as adhesives for both uncut and shredded straw. Methods of application included spraying, foaming, and dipping, at various adhesive-loading rates. Small samples were formed at a range of densities and tested for structural and thermal properties. All three approaches can succeed structurally and thermally, but are unable to compete economically with existing insulation board. A final batch of boards was made by spraying methane di-isocyanate (MDI), a synthetic resin, into a rotating tumbler that contained shredded straw. The boards, made over a range of densities and resin contents, and using straw with and without the fine particles, were tested thermally and structurally. Good mechanical properties were obtained at resin contents as low as 2% by mass. At densities of 128 and 160 kg/m{sup 3}, the boards had thermal resistivities of 24 to 26 m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W. The pressure required to compress the 160 kg/m{sup 3} boards to 10% of their original thickness was approximately 100 kPa, and the modulus of rupture in bending was about 340 kPa. Removing the fine particles from the straw improved board strength markedly. The final boards at a density of 160 kg/m{sup 3} and 2 to 4% resin content have an estimated materials cost of $1.22 per unit of thermal resistance (m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W) per square metre of area (2{cents} per R per ft{sup 2}). This cost is substantially less than either the cost of the expanded polystyrene available in Pakistan or the retail cost of any rigid board insulation sold in North America.

Norford, L.K.; Glicksman, L.R.; Harvey, H.S. Jr.; Charlson, J.A.

2000-07-01

86

Fractionation of Wheat Straw by Steam-Explosion Pretreatment and Alkali Delignification. Cellulose Pulp and Byproducts from Hemicellulose and Lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fractionation of wheat straw was studied using a two-stage process based on an hydrolytic pretreatment followed by alkali delignification. The hydrolytic pretreatment was performed by steam explosion. Straw was steamed at temperatures comprised between 205 and 230°C for 2 min. The steamed straw was washed with hot water to yield a solution rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The

Daniel Montané; Xavier Farriol; Joan Salvadó; Paul Jollez; Esteban Chornet

1998-01-01

87

Application of steam explosion to the fractionation and rapid vapor-phase alkaline pulping of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of steam explosion technology for the production of cellulose pulps was evaluated at a bench scale using wheat straw as raw lignocellulosic material. Steam explosion was used either as a pretreatment method to achieve the fractionation of the straw into its constitutive polymers, or as a rapid pulping method for the production of unbleached chemical pulps from alkali-impregnated

D. Montane; X. Farriol; J. Salvadó; P. Jollez; E. Chornet

1998-01-01

88

Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose  

PubMed Central

Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing carbon source for enzyme production. Results We have examined and compared the transcriptome of T. reesei growing on wheat straw and lactose as carbon sources under otherwise similar conditions. Gene expression on wheat straw exceeded that on lactose, and 1619 genes were found to be only induced on wheat straw but not on lactose. They comprised 30% of the CAZome, but were also enriched in genes associated with phospholipid metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, iron homeostatis and autophagy. Two thirds of the CAZome was expressed both on wheat straw as well as on lactose, but 60% of it at least >2-fold higher on the former. Major wheat straw specific genes comprised xylanases, chitinases and mannosidases. Interestingly, the latter two CAZyme families were significantly higher expressed in a strain in which xyr1 encoding the major regulator of cellulase and hemicellulase biosynthesis is non-functional. Conclusions Our data reveal several major differences in the transcriptome between wheat straw and lactose which may be related to the higher enzyme formation on the former and their further investigation could lead to the development of methods for increasing enzyme production on lactose. PMID:24016404

2013-01-01

89

Solid-state production of biopulp by Phanerochaete chrysosporium using steam-exploded wheat straw as substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel material for biopulp-making, steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), was studied. During the steam explosion process, the hemicellulose was partly degraded and became water-soluble sugar as the carbon resource of the chosen microbe growth, and compared with non-SEWS, the degradation amount of cellulose decreased and the degradation amount of lignin increased for the fermented steam-exploded wheat straw (FSEWS) cultured with

Hongzhang Chen; Fujian Xu; Zuohu Li

2002-01-01

90

Biobleaching of wheat straw-rich soda pulp with alkalophilic laccase from ?-proteobacterium JB: Optimization of process parameters using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkalophilic laccase from ?-proteobacterium JB was applied to wheat straw-rich soda pulp to check its bleaching potential by using response surface methodology based on central composite design. The design was employed by selecting laccase units, ABTS (2,2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) concentration and pH as model factors. The results of second order factorial design experiments showed that all three independent variables

Gursharan Singh; Naveen Ahuja; Mona Batish; Neena Capalash; Prince Sharma

2008-01-01

91

Characterization of degradation products from alkaline wet oxidation of wheat straw.  

PubMed

Alkaline wet oxidation pre-treatment (water, sodium carbonate, oxygen, high temperature and pressure) of wheat straw was performed as a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design with the process parameters: temperature, reaction time, sodium carbonate and oxygen. Alkaline wet oxidation was an efficient pre-treatment of wheat straw that resulted in solid fractions with high cellulose recovery (96%) and high enzymatic convertibility to glucose (67%). Carbonate and temperature were the most important factors for fractionation of wheat straw by wet oxidation. Optimal conditions were 10 min at 195 degrees C with addition of 12 bar oxygen and 6.5 g l(-1) Na2CO3. At these conditions the hemicellulose fraction from 100 g straw consisted of soluble hemicellulose (16 g), low molecular weight carboxylic acids (11 g), monomeric phenols (0.48 g) and 2-furoic acid (0.01 g). Formic acid and acetic acid constituted the majority of degradation products (8.5 g). The main phenol monomers were 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, syringaldehyde. acetosyringone (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone), vanillic acid and syringic acid, occurring in 0.04-0.12 g per 100 g straw concentrations. High lignin removal from the solid fraction (62%) did not provide a corresponding increase in the phenol monomer content but was correlated to high carboxylic acid concentrations. The degradation products in the hemicellulose fractions co-varied with the pre-treatment conditions in the principal component analysis according to their chemical structure, e.g. diacids (oxalic and succinic acids), furan aldehydes, phenol aldehydes, phenol ketones and phenol acids. Aromatic aldehyde formation was correlated to severe conditions with high temperatures and low pH. Apart from CO2 and water, carboxylic acids were the main degradation products from hemicellulose and lignin. PMID:11848374

Klinke, Helene B; Ahring, Birgitte K; Schmidt, Anette S; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

2002-03-01

92

Physical and thermochemical properties of cereal straws  

SciTech Connect

Cereal straws are one of the most commonly available lignocellulosic materials that can be converted to different types of fuels and chemical feedstocks through a variety of thermochemical conversion processes. This study provides information on moisture content, bulk density, particle size, heating values, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, ash composition, and ash feasibility characteristics for four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye). The type of straw and the crop variety have significant effects on the chemical properties of straw.

Ghaly, A.E. (Agricultural Engineering Dept., Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (CA)); Al-Taweel, A. (Chemical Engineering Dept., Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (CA))

1990-01-01

93

Rice straw fiber-reinforced high-density polyethylene composite: Effect of fiber type and loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite panels using virgin and recycled high-density polyethylene (VHDPE and RHDPE) and five types of natural fibers including four rice straw components (i.e., rice husk, rice straw leaf, rice straw stem, and whole rice straw) and wood fiber as control were made by melt compounding and compression molding. Fiber characteristics and the influences of fiber type and loading rate on

Fei Yao; Qinglin Wu; Yong Lei; Yanjun Xu

2008-01-01

94

An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cost estimation study was performed for a biological butanol production plant with a capacity of 150 x 10**6 kg butanol/year. Wheat straw was used as a feedstock. In addition to butanol, acetone (78.05 x 10**6 kg/year) and ethanol (28.54 x 10**6 kg/year) would also be produced. The total capital c...

95

Nutritional evaluation of wheat straw treated with Crinipellis sp. in Sahiwal calves.  

PubMed

Wheat straw was subjected to solid-state fermentation (SSF) with lignolytic white-rot fungus (WRF) Crinipellis sp. for 5 days to improve the nutritive value and digestibility. The fungal treatment caused a significant (P?wheat straw (FT-WS) than untreated wheat straw (UT-WS). Further, in vitro gas production, in vitro true dry matter digestibility and in vitro true organic matter digestibility at 48 h, metabolizable energy (ME) content, microbial biomass production, and short-chain fatty acids synthesis were significantly (P?wheat straw for feeding growing calves. PMID:23839599

Mahesh, Munnurpal Satyanarayana; Mohini, Madhu; Jha, Pankaj; Sawant, Sanjay Pandurang; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2013-11-01

96

SO2-Ethanol-Water (SEW) Pulping: II. Kinetics for Spruce, Beech, and Wheat Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

SO2-ethanol-water (SEW) delignification kinetics for spruce, beech, and wheat straw are presented. All these species produce pulps using SEW cooking liquor and follow first order delignification kinetics at similar bulk delignification rates. However, residual delignification is much slower for beech than for spruce.The hemicelluloses retention (135°C) and cellulose degradation kinetics are also characterized for beech SEW pulping. Xylan and glucomannan

Mikhail Iakovlev; Herbert Sixta; Adriaan van Heiningen

2011-01-01

97

Growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum in a periodic pressure oscillating, solid-state fermentation of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw impregnated with a nutrient solution was used to culture Rhizobium leguminosarum. The fermentation was carried out in a periodic pressure, oscillating, solid-state fermenter. At 30 °C and 3 atm, Rhizobium leguminosarum grew to 5.3×1010 c.f.u. g-1 substrate dry matter in about 36 h, while only 1.8×1010 c.f.u. g-1 substrate dry matter was obtained in a conventional static tray

Hua Zhao; Xiaoyong Zhang; Zuohu Li

2001-01-01

98

Delignification of wheat straw using a mixture of carboxylic acids and peroxoacids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw was pulping by an Organosolv process using a mixture of acetic acid\\/formic acid\\/water (AA\\/FA\\/water). In order to make easier the bleaching step, it was possible to improve the delignification in an efficient and selective manner by using peroxoacids in acidic organic medium. First a solution of peroxoacids was synthesized by adding hydrogen peroxide in a mixture of acetic

Long Kham; Yves Le Bigot; Michel Delmas; Gérard Avignon

2005-01-01

99

Biological upgrading of wheat straw through solid-state fermentation with Streptomyces cyaneus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological upgrading of wheat straw with Streptomyces cyaneus was examined through the analysis of chemical and structural changes of the transformed substrate during solid-state fermentation.\\u000a Analysis of enzymes produced during the growth of S. cyaneus showed that phenol oxidase was the predominant enzyme. The reduction in Klason lignin content (16.4%) in the transformed\\u000a substrate indicated the ability of this

M. Berrocal; A. S. Ball; S. Huerta; J. M. Barrasa; M. Hernández; M. I. Pérez-Leblic; M. E. Arias

2000-01-01

100

Influence of dimethyl formamide pulping of wheat straw on cellulose degradation and comparison with Kraft process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulping of wheat straw with dimethyl formamide was studied in order to investigate the effects of the cooking variables (temperature (190°C, 200°C, and 210°C) and time (120min, 150min, and 180min) and organic solvent ratio (30%, 50%, and 70%) dimethyl formamide (DMF+water) value) on the degradation of cellulose and degree of polymerization (DP) of organosolv pulp. The SCAN viscosity was

Y. Ziaie-Shirkolaee; J. Mohammadi-Rovshandeh; P. Rezayati-Charani; M. B. Khajeheian

2008-01-01

101

Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed  

PubMed Central

Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here “Biotech Feed” was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI: 3.74?Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50?g more daily body weight. PMID:25269679

Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2014-01-01

102

Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed.  

PubMed

Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here "Biotech Feed" was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI: 3.74 Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50 g more daily body weight. PMID:25269679

Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2014-01-01

103

Enzymatic hydrolysis of autohydrolyzed wheat straw followed by refining to produce fermentable sugars.  

PubMed

Wheat straw was pretreated using an autohydrolysis process with different temperatures (160-200 °C) and times (10-20 min) in order to allow the recovery of hemicellulose in the filtrate and help open up the structure of the biomass for improved accessibility of enzymes during enzymatic hydrolysis. Autohydrolysis at 190 °C for 10 min provided the highest overall sugar (12.2/100g raw wheat straw) in the autohydrolysis filtrate and recovered 62.3% of solid residue. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, the pulps obtained from each pretreatment condition were subjected to a refining post-treatment to improve enzyme accessibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for all the pretreated solids with and without refining post-treatment at the enzyme loadings of 4 and 10 FPU/g oven dry substrate for 96 h. A total of 30.4 g sugars can be recovered from 100g wheat straw at 180 °C for 20 min with 4 FPU/g enzyme charge. PMID:24300844

Ertas, Murat; Han, Qiang; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-min

2014-01-01

104

Fractionation of triticale, wheat, barley, oats, canola, and mustard straws for the production of carbohydrates and lignins.  

PubMed

Five cereal (triticale, durum wheat, CPS wheat, feed barley, oats) and two oilseed (canola, mustard) straws were fractionated with pressurized low polarity water in a flow-through reactor at 165°C with a flow rate of 115mL/min and a solvent-to-solid ratio of 60mL/g. The conversion and extraction of the major carbohydrates and lignin from the reactor system during hydrothermal treatment was largely completed within the first 20-30min. Glucan content of all straws were enriched by the process. More than 90% of the xylan and nearly 50% of the lignin were extracted and there was no effect on yield due to crop species. However, there were differences in solid residue and liquid extract composition. Cereal crops yielded a residue richer in glucan and lower in lignin. Oilseed crop residues contained very low levels of ash. Xylo-oligosaccharides from oilseed crops contain more acetyl and uronic acid substituents. PMID:22197077

Pronyk, C; Mazza, G

2012-02-01

105

Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Return on Soil Organic Carbon in a Rice-Wheat Rotation System  

PubMed Central

Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0–7, 7–14 and 14–21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0–7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7–14 cm depth. However, at 14–21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:24586434

Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

2014-01-01

106

Utilization of the water soluable fraction of wheat straw as a plant nutrient source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight was removed from wheat straw and roots, although the recovery of individual nutrients varied. Leaching also removed about 20 percent of the total organic carbon from the biomass. In terms of dry weight, the leachate was comprised of approximately 60 percent organic and 40 percent inorganic compounds. Direct use of wheat straw leachate in static hydroponic systems had an inhibitory effect on wheat growth, both in the presence and absence of microorganisms. Biological treatment of leachate either with a mixed microbial community or the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus L., prior to use in hydroponic solutions, significantly reduced both the organic content and the inhibitory effects of the leachate. The inhibitory effects of unprocessed leachate appear to be a result of rapidly acting phytotoxic compounds that are detoxified by microbial activity. Leaching holds considerable promise as a method for nutrient recycling in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.

1990-01-01

107

Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates.  

PubMed

ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40 g/g ABE yield and 127.71 g ABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32 g/g ABE yield and 79.65 g ABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media. PMID:24983690

Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa

2014-09-01

108

Effect of four pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of wheat straw. Influence of inhibitors and washing.  

PubMed

Pretreatment is essential in the production of alcohol from lignocellulosic material. In order to increase enzymatic sugar release and bioethanol production, thermal, dilute acid, dilute basic and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were applied to wheat straw. Compositional changes in pretreated solid fractions and sugars and possible inhibitory compounds released in liquid fractions were analysed. SEM analysis showed structural changes after pretreatments. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Pichia stipitis of unwashed and washed samples from each pretreatment were performed so as to compare sugar and ethanol yields. The effect of the main inhibitors found in hydrolysates (formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was first studied through ethanol fermentations of model media and then compared to real hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of washed alkaline peroxide pretreated biomass provided the highest sugar concentrations, 31.82g/L glucose, and 13.75g/L xylose, their fermentation yielding promising results, with ethanol concentrations reaching 17.37g/L. PMID:24531149

Toquero, Cristina; Bolado, Silvia

2014-04-01

109

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Wheat Straw Paper and Wood Pulp Paper Use at UBC  

E-print Network

Into Wheat Straw Paper and Wood Pulp Paper Use at UBC Jack Yue Zhang Ryan LaMarche Weber Lin William Tung Chao Jiang University of British Columbia APSC 262 March 29, 2012 Disclaimer: "UBC SEEDS provides of a project/report". #12;1 AN INVESTIGATION INTO WHEAT STRAW PAPER AND WOOD PULP PAPER USE AT UBC Submitted to

110

Nitrogen availability effects on carbon mineralization, fungal and bacterial growth, and enzyme activities during decomposition of wheat straw in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were (1) to investigate the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw decomposition to increasing nitrogen availability (0.5, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.9% N of straw dry matter) in a microcosm experiment at controlled temperature (15°C) and moisture (?10 kPa), (2) to elucidate underlying mechanisms at the microbial-community level, and (3) to develop a model according to the measurements.

T. M Henriksen; T. A Breland

1999-01-01

111

Pulp properties resulting from different pretreatments of wheat straw and their influence on enzymatic hydrolysis rate.  

PubMed

Wheat straw was subjected to three different processes prior to saccharification, namely alkaline pulping, natural pulping and autohydrolysis, in order to study their effect on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. Parameters like medium concentration, temperature and time have been varied in order to optimize each method. Milling the raw material to a length of 4mm beforehand showed the best cost-value-ratio compared to other grinding methods studied. Before saccharification the pulp can be stored in dried form, leading to a high yield of glucose. Furthermore the relation of pulp properties (i.e. intrinsic viscosity, Klason-lignin and hemicelluloses content, crystallinity, morphology) to cellulose hydrolysis is discussed. PMID:25058295

Rossberg, Christine; Steffien, Doreen; Bremer, Martina; Koenig, Swetlana; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C; Moniz, Patrícia; Hoernicke, Max; Bertau, Martin; Fischer, Steffen

2014-10-01

112

Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

J.S. Tumuluru [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies Dept.; L.G. Tabil [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Y. Song [Shenyang Agricultural University (China). Coll. of Engineering; K.L. Iroba [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; V. Meda [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

2014-01-01

113

Effect of additions on ensiling and microbial community of senesced wheat straw.  

PubMed

Crop residues collected during or after grain harvest are available once per year and must be stored for extended periods. The combination of air, high moisture, and high microbial loads leads to shrinkage during storage and risk of spontaneous ignition. Ensiling is a wet preservation method that could be used to store these residues stably. To economically adapt ensiling to biomass that is harvested after it has senesced, the need for nutrient, moisture, and microbial additions must be determined. We tested the ensiling of senesced wheat straw in sealed columns for 83 d. The straw was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and amended with several levels of water and free sugars. The ability to stabilize the straw polysaccharides was strongly influenced by both moisture and free sugars. Without the addition of sugar, the pH increased from 5.2 to as much as 9.1, depending on moisture level, and losses of 22% of the cellulose and 21% of the hemicellulose were observed. By contrast, when sufficient sugars were added and interstitial water was maintained, a final pH of 4.0 was attainable, with correspondingly low (<5%) losses of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results show that ensiling should be considered a promising method for stable storage of wet biorefinery feedstocks. PMID:15917585

Thompson, David N; Barnes, Joni M; Houghton, Tracy P

2005-01-01

114

Partial replacement of concentrate with tomato pulp and olive cake-based feed blocks as supplements for lambs fed wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replacement value of feed blocks tomato pulp (TP-FB) or olive cake (OC-FB) for a concentrate (wheat bran and processed barley, 1:2) was evaluated using 25 Barbarine lambs, fed wheat straw (WS) based diet, in a 75-day feeding trial followed by a total collection period (4 days adaptation and 6 days collection). Wheat straw was fed ad libitum and supplemented

H. Ben Salem; I.-A. Znaidi

2008-01-01

115

SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw with the addition of saccharified or fermented wheat meal in integrated bioethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background Integration of second-generation (2G) bioethanol production with existing first-generation (1G) production may facilitate commercial production of ethanol from cellulosic material. Since 2G hydrolysates have a low sugar concentration and 1G streams often have to be diluted prior to fermentation, mixing of streams is beneficial. Improved ethanol concentrations in the 2G production process lowers energy demand in distillation, improves overall energy efficiency and thus lower production cost. There is also a potential to reach higher ethanol yields, which is required in economically feasible ethanol production. Integrated process scenarios with addition of saccharified wheat meal (SWM) or fermented wheat meal (FWM) were investigated in simultaneous saccharification and (co-)fermentation (SSF or SSCF) of steam-pretreated wheat straw, while the possibility of recovering the valuable protein-rich fibre residue from the wheat was also studied. Results The addition of SWM to SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw, using commercially used dried baker’s yeast, S. cerevisiae, resulted in ethanol concentrations of about 60 g/L, equivalent to ethanol yields of about 90% of the theoretical. The addition of FWM in batch mode SSF was toxic to baker’s yeast, due to the ethanol content of FWM, resulting in a very low yield and high accumulation of glucose. The addition of FWM in fed-batch mode still caused a slight accumulation of glucose, but the ethanol concentration was fairly high, 51.2 g/L, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 90%, based on the amount of glucose added. In batch mode of SSCF using the xylose-fermenting, genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain KE6-12, no improvement was observed in ethanol yield or concentration, compared with baker’s yeast, despite the increased xylose utilization, probably due to the considerable increase in glycerol production. A slight increase in xylose consumption was seen when glucose from SWM was fed at a low feed rate, after 48 hours, compared with batch SSCF. However, the ethanol yield and concentration remained in the same range as in batch mode. Conclusion Ethanol concentrations of about 6% (w/v) were obtained, which will result in a significant reduction in the cost of downstream processing, compared with SSF of the lignocellulosic substrate alone. As an additional benefit, it is also possible to recover the protein-rich residue from the SWM in the process configurations presented, providing a valuable co-product. PMID:24286350

2013-01-01

116

Characterization and swelling-deswelling properties of wheat straw cellulose based semi-IPNs hydrogel.  

PubMed

A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was prepared by polymerizing wheat straw and an aqueous solution of acrylic acid (AA), and further semi-interpenetrating with PVA occurred during the chemosynthesis. The swelling and deswelling properties of WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel and WSC-g-PKA hydrogel were studied and compared in various pH solutions, salt solutions, temperatures, particle sizes and ionic strength. The results indicated that both hydrogels had the largest swelling capacity at pH=6, and the effect of ions on the swelling of hydrogels was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+). The Schott's pseudo second order model can be effectively used to evaluate swelling kinetics of hydrogels. Moreover, the semi-IPNs hydrogel had improved swelling-deswelling properties compared with that of WSC-g-PKA hydrogel. PMID:24702940

Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

2014-07-17

117

Methane production from wheat straw with anaerobic sludge by heme supplementation.  

PubMed

Wheat straw particles were directly used as substrate for batch anaerobic digestion with anaerobic sludge under 35°C to evaluate the effects of adding heme on methane production. When 1mg/l heme was added to the fermentation process with no agitated speed, a maximum cumulative methane production of 12227.8ml was obtained with cumulative methane yield of wheat straw was 257.4ml/g-TS (total solid), which was increased by 20.6% compared with 213.5ml/g-TS of no heme was added in the reactor. Meanwhile, oxido-reduction potential (ORP) level was decreased, the activity of coenzyme F420 was significantly improved and NADH/NAD(+) ratio were the highest than other experimental groups. These results suggest that heme-supplemented anaerobic sludge with no agitated speed may be providing a more reductive environment, which is a cost-effective method of anaerobic digestion from biomass waste to produce methane with less energy consuming. PMID:25247248

Xi, Yonglan; Chang, Zhizhou; Ye, Xiaomei; Xu, Rong; Du, Jing; Chen, Guangyin

2014-11-01

118

Development and characterization of an environmentally friendly process sequence (autohydrolysis and organosolv) for wheat straw delignification.  

PubMed

The present work describes the delignification of wheat straw through an environmentally friendly process resulting from sequential application of autohydrolysis and organosolv processes. Wheat straw autohydrolysis was performed at 180°C during 30 min with a liquid-solid ratio of 10 (v/w); under these conditions, a solubilization of 44% of the original xylan, with 78% of sugars as xylooligosaccharides of the sum of sugars solubilized in the autohydrolysis liquors generated by the hemicellulose fraction hydrolysis. The corresponding solid fraction enrichment with 63.7% of glucan and 7.55% of residual xylan was treated with a 40% ethanol and 0.1% NaOH aqueous solution at a liquid-solid ratio of 10 (v/w), with the best results obtained at 180°C during 20 min. The highest lignin recovery, measured by acid precipitation of the extracted lignin, was 3.25 g/100 ml. The lignin obtained by precipitation was characterized by FTIR, and the crystallinity indexes from the native cellulose, the cellulose recovered after autohydrolysis, and the cellulose obtained after applying the organosolv process were obtained by X-ray diffraction, returning values of 21.32%, 55.17%, and 53.59%, respectively. Visualization of the fibers was done for all the processing steps using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:21274658

Ruiz, Héctor A; Ruzene, Denise S; Silva, Daniel P; da Silva, Fernando F Macieira; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A

2011-07-01

119

Bioethanol production from wheat straw via enzymatic route employing Penicillium janthinellum cellulases.  

PubMed

This study concerns in-house development of cellulases from a mutant Penicillium janthinellum EMS-UV-8 and its application in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes for bioethanol production from pre-treated wheat straw. In a 5L fermentor, the above strain could produce cellulases having activity of 3.1 FPU/mL and a specific activity of 0.83 FPU/mg of protein. In-house developed cellulase worked more efficiently in case of SSF as ethanol concentration of 21.6g/L and yield of 54.4% were obtained which were higher in comparison to SHF (ethanol concentration 12 g/L and 30.2% yield). This enzyme preparation when compared with commercial cellulase for hydrolysis of pre-treated wheat straw was found competitive. This study demonstrates that P. janthinellum EMS-UV-8 is a potential fungus for future large-scale production of cellulases. PMID:25086433

Singhania, Reeta Rani; Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Saini, Reetu; Adsul, Mukund; Mathur, Anshu; Gupta, Ravi; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

2014-10-01

120

Ammonia and urea treatment of wheat straw and corn stover JP Fontenot E Gallo Llorente, JM Obamahinti, VG Allen  

E-print Network

Ammonia and urea treatment of wheat straw and corn stover JP Fontenot E Gallo Llorente, JM, with ammonia and urea on nutritional value for ruminants. For each crop residue, square bales were allotted to three treatments : 1 - No treatment (control), 2 - Ammonia treatment, and 3 - Urea treat- ment. Jackbean

Boyer, Edmond

121

BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART I-BATCH FERMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simult...

122

BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART II - FED-BATCH FERMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolyzate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable u...

123

?-Glucosidase immobilisation on synthetic superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles and their application in saccharification of wheat straw and Eucalyptus globulus pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Glucosidase from Trichoderma reesei was immobilised on synthetic superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 10?nm and were used to supplement cellulase in the enzymatic hydrolysis of three substrates: wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion, Eucalyptus globulus pretreated by hydrothermolysis and E. globulus pretreated by hydrothermolysis followed by alkaline extraction. The hydrolysis yields for each pretreated material, using

Roberto Valenzuela; Jean Franco Castro; Carolina Parra; Jaime Baeza; Nelson Durán; Juanita Freer

2012-01-01

124

Synthesis and characterization of a novel super-absorbent based on wheat straw.  

PubMed

In order to develop an eco-friendly polymer, a novel super-absorbent polymer was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acrylic amide (AM) and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC) onto the pretreatment wheat straw (PTWS). The molecular structure of the super-absorbent was confirmed by FTIR. The factors that can influence absorbencies of the super-absorbent resin (SAR) were investigated, such as weight ratio between the monomers, the ratio of PTWS to monomers, the amount of initiator and cross-linker, temperature reaction time and neutralization degree of AA. The SAR has the water absorbency of 133.76 g/g in distilled water and 33.83 g/g in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution. PMID:21074415

Ma, Zuohao; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing; Zhong, Qianqian

2011-02-01

125

Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.  

PubMed

Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact. PMID:25299491

Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

2014-12-01

126

Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.  

PubMed

The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index. PMID:22784951

Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

2012-09-01

127

Dissecting the effect of chemical additives on the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw.  

PubMed

Chemical additives were examined for ability to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis of thermo-acidically pretreated wheat straw by Trichoderma reesei cellulase at 50 °C. Semi-empirical descriptors derived from the hydrolysis time courses were applied to compare influence of these additives on lignocellulose bioconversion on a kinetic level, presenting a novel view on their mechanism of action. Focus was on rate retardation during hydrolysis, substrate conversion and enzyme adsorption. PEG 8000 enabled a reduction of enzyme loading by 50% while retaining the same conversion of 67% after 24h. For the first time, a beneficial effect of urea is reported, increasing the final substrate conversion after 48 h by 16%. The cationic surfactant cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) enhanced the hydrolysis rate at extended reaction time (rlim) by 34% and reduced reaction time by 28%. A combination of PEG 8000 and urea increased sugar release more than additives used individually. PMID:25108473

Monschein, Mareike; Reisinger, Christoph; Nidetzky, Bernd

2014-10-01

128

Acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis of wheat straw to improve sugar recovery.  

PubMed

A comparison study of autohydrolysis and acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis of wheat straw was performed to understand the impact of acid addition on overall sugar recovery. Autohydrolysis combined with refining is capable of achieving sugar recoveries in the mid 70s. If the addition of a small amount of acid is capable of increasing the sugar recovery even higher it may be economically attractive. Acetic, sulfuric, hydrochloric and sulfurous acids were selected for acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis pretreatments. Autohydrolysis with no acid at 190 °C showed the highest total sugar in the prehydrolyzate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for all the post-treated solids with and without refining at enzyme loadings of 4 and 10 FPU/g for 96 h. Acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis at 190 °C with sulfurous acid showed the highest total sugar recovery of 81.2% at 4 FPU/g enzyme charge compared with 64.3% at 190 °C autohydrolysis without acid. PMID:25014168

Ertas, Murat; Han, Qiang; Jameel, Hasan

2014-10-01

129

Anaerobic digestion of wheat straw--performance of continuous solid-state digestion.  

PubMed

In this study the upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor was operated at various conditions to optimize the process parameters for anaerobically digesting wheat straw in a continuous process. Additionally, particle size effects have been studied in the operation at 55 and 60°C. Moreover, the incremental effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) to the system was examined from 2.5 to 8 gVS L(-1) d(-1). It was found that the UASS operating at 60 °C with a small OLR yields highest methane production, but the advantage over thermophilic operation is negligible. The rise in OLR reduces the systems yields, as expected. From OLR=8 gVS L(-1) d(-1) a second stage is necessary to circumvent volatile fatty acids accumulation. PMID:23954246

Pohl, Marcel; Heeg, Kathrin; Mumme, Jan

2013-10-01

130

Chemical and physical properties of processed newspaper compared to wheat straw and wood shavings as animal bedding.  

PubMed

Because of continuing concerns about the safety and the suitability of recycled newspaper as an animal bedding material, municipal curbside-collected newspaper was processed into chopped and pelleted forms for comparison studies with wheat straw and kiln-dried pinewood shavings. Measurements included nutrient, heavy metal, dioxin and furan content, particle size distribution, density, combustion potential, and water-holding capacity. Recycled newspaper, straw, and wood shavings tested below or equivalent to National Research Council dietary tolerance levels and US Environmental Protection Agency toxic equivalent levels. Small particle size distribution was shavings > straw > all forms of newspaper. The density of pelleted newspaper was 50-fold greater than that of chopped newspaper and straw and 15-fold greater than shavings. In simulated flash burns, chopped newspaper, straw, and shavings ignited, and flames spread rapidly in newspaper and shavings and lasted the longest in shavings. Pelleted newspaper did not ignite. Chopped and pelleted forms of newspaper and wood shavings had higher water holding capacities (>400%) than did straw (200%). Animal industries can, in confidence, utilize recycled newspaper as an animal bedding material, providing that sources of low toxicity are identified, and suitable processed forms are produced. PMID:10714873

Ward, P L; Wohlt, J E; Zajac, P K; Cooper, K R

2000-02-01

131

An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22.  

PubMed

A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain's promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid-liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose. PMID:24679663

Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

2014-04-01

132

White-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biohydrogen production: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates biohydrogen production was enhanced by white-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw (WS) through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Wheat straw was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium at 30 °C under solid state fermentation for 12 days, and lignin was removed about 28.5 ± 1.3 %. Microscopic structure observation combined thermal gravity and differential thermal gravity analysis further showed that the lignocellulose structure obviously disrupted after fungal pretreatment. Subsequently, the pretreated WS and crude cellulases prepared from Trichoderma atroviride were applied in SSF for hydrogen production using Clostridium perfringens. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained to be 78.5 ± 3.4 ml g(-1)-pretreated WS, which was about 1.8-fold than the unpretreated group. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz model was applied study the progress of cumulative H(2) production. This work developed a novel bio-approach to improve fermentative H(2) yield from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24429553

Zhi, Zelun; Wang, Hui

2014-07-01

133

Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.  

PubMed

With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:22730900

Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

2012-07-18

134

Improvement of high-yield pulp properties by using a small amount of bleached wheat straw pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the potential of using bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) was explored to improve the tensile strength of the high-yield pulp (HYP) while preserving its high bulk property. The results showed that with the addition of 5–10% refined BWSP, the HYP tensile strength can be increased by about 10–20% without sacrificing the bulk. Similar results were obtained by

Hongjie Zhang; Zhibin He; Yonghao Ni

2011-01-01

135

Physical and frictional properties of non-treated and steam exploded barley, canola, oat and wheat straw grinds  

Microsoft Academic Search

During storage and handling, accurate knowledge of the physical and frictional behaviors of biomass grinds is essential for the efficient design of equipment. Therefore, experiments were performed on non-treated and steam exploded barley, canola, oat and wheat straw grinds to determine their coefficient of internal friction and cohesion at three hammer mill screen sizes of 6.4, 3.2 and 1.6mm, three

Phani Adapa; Lope Tabil; Greg Schoenau

2010-01-01

136

Grinding performance and physical properties of non-treated and steam exploded barley, canola, oat and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grinding experiments were conducted on non-treated and steam exploded barley, canola, oat and wheat straw using a forage chopper and a hammer mill (screen sizes of 30, 6.4, 3.2 and 1.6 mm) to determine specific energy requirements, and geometric mean particle size and distribution of ground material. The bulk density of non-treated biomass was significantly higher than bulk density of steam

Phani Adapa; Lope Tabil; Greg Schoenau

2011-01-01

137

VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD  

SciTech Connect

Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

1999-02-01

138

Bleach boosting effect of xylanase A from Bacillus halodurans C-125 in ECF bleaching of wheat straw pulp.  

PubMed

Past studies have revealed major difficulties in applications of xylanase in the pulp and paper industry as enzymes isolated from many different species could not tolerate high temperatures or highly alkaline conditions. The thermostable xylanase A from Bacillus halodurans C-125 (C-125 xylanase A) was successfully cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris with a yield as high as 3361 U/mL in a 2 L reactor. Its thermophilic and basophilic properties (optimal activity at 70 °C and pH 9.0), together with the fact it is cellulase-free, render this enzyme attractive for compatible applications in the pulp and paper industry. The pretreatment of wheat straw pulp with C-125 xylanase A at pH 9.0 and 70 °C for 90 min induced the release of both chromophores (Ab(237), Ab(254), Ab(280)) and hydrophobic compounds (Ab(465)) into the filtrate as well as sugar degradation. Moreover, the addition of 10 U xylanase to 1 g wheat straw pulp (dry weight) as pretreatment improved brightness by 5.2% ISO and decreased the kappa number by 5.0% when followed by hydrogen peroxide bleaching. In addition, compared with two commercial enzymes, Pulpzyme HC and AU-PE89, which are normally incorporated in ECF bleaching of wheat straw pulp, C-125 xylanase A proved to be more effective in enhancing brightness as well as preserving paper strength properties. When evaluating the physical properties of pulp samples, such as tensile index, tearing index, bursting index, and post-color (PC) number, the enzymes involved in pretreating pulps exhibited better or the same performances as chemical treatment. Compared with chemical bleaching, chlorine consumption can be significantly reduced by 10% for xylanase-pretreated wheat straw pulp while maintaining the brightness together with the kappa number at the same level. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant surface modification of enzyme-pretreated pulp fibers with no marked fiber disruptions. PMID:23273277

Lin, Xiao-qiong; Han, Shuang-yan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hui; Zheng, Sui-ping; Ye, Yan-rui; Lin, Ying

2013-02-01

139

[Comparing the ammonia volatilization characteristic of two typical paddy soil with total wheat straw returning in Taihu Lake region].  

PubMed

An experiment using monolith lysimeter was conducted to compare the characteristic of N loss by ammonia (NH3) volatilization between the gleyed paddy soil (G soil) and hydromorphic paddy soil (H soil) the Changshu National Agro-ecological Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(31 degrees 33' N, 123 degrees 38' E). Three treatments were designed for each soil type, i. e. control (no urea and straw applied), nitrogen solely and nitrogen plus wheat straw. Ammonia volatilization, flood water NH4(+) -N concentration, pH and top soil Eh were measured during the rice-growing season. Results showed that the NH3 volatilization flux and cumulative N losses by NH3 volatilization from G soil were significantly higher than those from H soil, the average cumulative N losses being about 41.8 kg x hm(-2) and 11.2 kg x hm(-2), or 15.2% and 3.8% of the fertilizer N, respectively. The average N loss by NH3 volatilization during the tillering stage was the highest among the three fertilization stages, accounting for 29.4% and 8.3% of the fertilizer N for G soil and H soil, respectively. Wheat straw returning significantly increased paddy filed NH3 volatilization losses. Comparing with the sole application of fertilizer-N, the cumulative N loss by NH3 volatilization of fertilizer-N in combination with wheat straw was increased by 19.8% and 20.6% for G soil and H soil, respectively. In addition, ammonia volatilization fluxes showed a positive relationship with the flood water NH4(+) -N concentration and pH for both soils, but the relationship with top soil Eh still needs further study. PMID:23487914

Wang, Jun; Wang, De-Jian; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yuan

2013-01-01

140

HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF WHEAT STRAW ON PILOT PLANT SCALE Anders Thygesena  

E-print Network

/h was designed and constructed for continuous wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment of plant fiber biomass for 15 min, 18% of the hemicellulose and 5% of the cellulose were extracted. When 200 g straw glucose/100 g straw (~83% of the original cellulose) and 16 g xylose/100 g straw (~58% of the original

141

Two approaches for introduction of wheat straw lignin into rigid polyurethane foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present work the BIOLIGNIN{trade mark, serif} obtained in the result of wheat straw organosolv processing in CIMV pilot plant (France) was investigated as a component of rigid polyurethanes (PUR) foam systems. Different separate approaches of lignin introduction into PUR foam system were studied: as filler without chemical preprocessing and as liquid lignopolyol obtained by lignin oxypropylation in alkali conditions. The incorporation of increasing amount of lignin as filler into reference PUR foam systems on the basis of mixture of commercial polyethers Lupranol 3300 and Lupranol 3422 steadily decreased the compression characteristics of foams, their dimensional stability and hydrophobicity. The complete substitution of Lupranol 3300 by lignopolyol increases its cell structure uniformity and dimensional stability and does not reduce the physical-mechanical properties of foam. In both cases the incorporation of lignin into PUR foam leads to the decreasing of maximum values of thermodegradation rates. The lignin filler can be introduced into lignopolyol based PUR foam in higher quantity than in the reference Lupranol based PUR without reduction of compression characteristics of material. In this work the optimal lignin content in the end product - PUR foam as both polyol and filler is 16%.

Arshanitsa, A.; Paberza, A.; Vevere, L.; Cabulis, U.; Telysheva, G.

2014-05-01

142

Biorefinery valorization of autohydrolysis wheat straw hemicellulose to be applied in a polymer-blend film.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were the extraction of hemicellulose from wheat straw (WS) and its utilization in the reinforcement of a ?-carrageenan/locust bean gum (?-car/LBG) polymeric blend films (PBFs). WS hemicellulose extraction was performed under autohydrolysis process and hemicellulose extracted (HE) under optimum condition was used in PBFs. PBFs were prepared varying different proportions of HE into the ?-car/LBG film-forming solutions. Barrier properties (water vapor permeability, WVP), mechanical properties (tensile-strength, TS and elongation-at-break, EB), moisture content, opacity and thermal properties of the resulting PBFs were determined and related with the incorporation of HE. The 2-3-2 proportion (in the high ratio) of PBF (?-car/LBG/HE) causes a slight decrease of WVP and an increase of the TS, thus resulting in an improvement of the physical properties of PBFs. HE showed to be a promising material in order to reinforce ?-car/LBG PBF and can be an alternative in the application of hemicellulose according to biorefinery concept. PMID:23399271

Ruiz, Héctor A; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Silva, Hélder D; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A

2013-02-15

143

Synergic Effect of Wheat Straw Ash and Rice-Husk Ash on Strength Properties of Mortar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pozzolan materials obtained from various sources; when used as partial replacement for Portland cement in cement based applications play an important role not only towards sustainable development but in reducing the construction costs as well. Present study was conducted to investigate the synergic effect of Rice-Husk Ash (RHA) and Wheat Straw Ash (WSA) on the strength properties of ash substituted mortar. Ash materials were obtained after burning the wastes at 600°C for 5 h at a control rate of 2°C min. Two binary blends of mortar substituting 15% cement with WSA and RHA and three combinations of ternary blend with (10+5)%, (5+10)% and (7.5+7.5)% mix ratios of WSA and RHA, together with a control specimen were subjected to destructive (compressive and flexural strength) as well as non-destructive (ultrasonic pulse velocity) tests till 180 days of curing. Ternary blend with (7.5 + 7.5)% combination of WSA and RHA showed better strength results than control and other blends and proved to be the optimum combination for achieving maximum synergic effect.

Goyal, Ajay; Kunio, Hattori; Ogata, Hidehiko; Garg, Monika; Anwar, A. M.; Ashraf, M.; Mandula

144

Microbiota of Soil-Like Substrate Depending on Wheat Straw Processing Method in Experimental LSS Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous experiments conducted in the closed environmental system BIOS-3 plant waste and test persons' exometabolites were carried away from the life-support system (LSS). It is possible to create a new-generation LSS with a higher degree of matter cycle closure by adding to the soil-like substrate inedible plant waste used for cultivation of plants in the experimental LSS model. Using single-factor analysis of variance, we estimated the effect of the introduced inedible plant waste on the microbiota of the soil-like substrate (SLS). The plant waste was used: to increase the degree of matter cycle closure in the system; to replace the volume of soil-like substrate in the system; as a fertilizer for growing higher plants in the experimental LSS model. A statistically significant effect of wheat straw processing method on the number of all microorganism groups was observed in different variants of the experiment. The obtained results can be used in planning and carrying out of subsequent experiments with higher plants cultivated on SLS with waste in a closed environmental system including humans.

Tirranen, Lyalya; Sysoeva, Olga

145

Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.  

PubMed

The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor. PMID:25637386

Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

2015-02-01

146

Microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic bioreactor fed by fruit vegetable wastes and wheat straw.  

PubMed

The microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor (ITPAR) were investigated by 16S rDNA clone library technology. The 75L reactor was designed with a 25L rotating acidogenic unit at the top and a 50L conventional upflow methanogenic unit at the bottom, with a recirculation connected to the two units. The reactor had been operated for 21 stages to co-digest fruit/vegetable wastes and wheat straw, which showed a very good biogas production and decomposition of cellulosic materials. The results showed that many kinds of cellulose and glycan decomposition bacteria related with Bacteroidales, Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales were dominated in the reactor, with more bacteria community diversities in the acidogenic unit. The methanogens were mostly related with Methanosaeta, Methanosarcina, Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium; the predominating genus Methanosaeta, accounting for 40.5%, 54.2%, 73.6% and 78.7% in four samples from top to bottom, indicated a major methanogenesis pathway by acetoclastic methanogenesis in the methanogenic unit. The beta diversity indexes illustrated a more similar distribution of bacterial communities than that of methanogens between acidogenic unit and methanogenic unit. The differentiation of methanogenic community composition in two phases, as well as pH values and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations confirmed the phase separation of the ITPAR. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that the special designing of ITPAR maintained a sufficient number of methanogens, more diverse communities and stronger syntrophic associations among microorganisms, which made two phase anaerobic digestion of cellulosic materials more efficient. PMID:25499496

Wang, Chong; Zuo, Jiane; Chen, Xiaojie; Xing, Wei; Xing, Linan; Li, Peng; Lu, Xiangyang; Li, Chao

2014-12-01

147

Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw to improve methane yields: Investigation of the degradation kinetics of structural compounds during anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Wheat straw can serve as a low-cost substrate for energy production without competing with food or feed production. This study investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the biological methane potential and the degradation kinetics of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion. It was observed that the biological methane potential of the non steam exploded, ground wheat straw (276lNkgVS(-1)) did not significantly differ from the best steam explosion treated sample (286lNkgVS(-1)) which was achieved at a pretreatment temperature of 140°C and a retention time of 60min. Nevertheless degradation speed was improved by the pretreatment. Furthermore it was observed that compounds resulting from chemical reactions during the pretreatment and classified as pseudo-lignin were also degraded during the anaerobic batch experiments. Based on the rumen simulation technique, a model was developed to characterise the degradation process. PMID:25549903

Theuretzbacher, Franz; Lizasoain, Javier; Lefever, Christopher; Saylor, Molly K; Enguidanos, Ramon; Weran, Nikolaus; Gronauer, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander

2015-03-01

148

Amino acid production from rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates by recombinant pentose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the pentose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but it is known that recombinants expressing the araBAD operon and/or the xylA gene from Escherichia coli are able to grow with the pentoses xylose and arabinose as sole carbon sources. Recombinant pentose-utilizing strains derived from C. glutamicum wild type or from the L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain DM1729 utilized arabinose and/or xylose when these were added as pure chemicals to glucose-based minimal medium or when they were present in acid hydrolysates of rice straw or wheat bran. The recombinants grew to higher biomass concentrations and produced more L-glutamate and L-lysine, respectively, than the empty vector control strains, which utilized the glucose fraction. Typically, arabinose and xylose were co-utilized by the recombinant strains along with glucose either when acid rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates were used or when blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose were used. With acid hydrolysates growth, amino acid production and sugar consumption were delayed and slower as compared to media with blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The ethambutol-triggered production of up to 93 ± 4 mM L-glutamate by the wild type-derived pentose-utilizing recombinant and the production of up to 42 ± 2 mM L-lysine by the recombinant pentose-utilizing lysine producer on media containing acid rice straw or wheat bran hydrolysate as carbon and energy source revealed that acid hydrolysates of agricultural waste materials may provide an alternative feedstock for large-scale amino acid production. PMID:21796382

Gopinath, Vipin; Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Wendisch, Volker F; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

2011-12-01

149

Preparation of wheat straw based superabsorbent resins and their applications as adsorbents for ammonium and phosphate removal.  

PubMed

A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) was prepared by graft copolymerization. The structure and performance of the WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR was studied and compared with those of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) SAR. The effects of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4(+) and PO4(3-) removal from solutions were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm data of adsorption of both NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were well fitted to the Freundlich model. Kinetic analysis showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was more suitable for describing the whole adsorption process of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) on SARs. Overall, WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR showed better properties in comparison with WSC-g-PKA SAR and it could be considered as one efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer. PMID:23786713

Liu, Jia; Su, Yuan; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

2013-09-01

150

Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions.  

PubMed

Bacillus coagulans IPE22 was used to produce lactic acid (LA) from mixed sugar and wheat straw hydrolysates, respectively. All fermentations were conducted under non-sterilized conditions and sodium hydroxide was used as neutralizing agent to avoid the production of insoluble CaSO4. In order to eliminate the sequential utilization of mixed sugar and feedback inhibition during batch fermentation, membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was used to improve LA productivity. With MIRB, a high cell density was obtained and the simultaneous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose was successfully realized. The separation of LA from broth by membrane in batch fermentation also decreased feedback inhibition. MIRB was carried out using wheat straw hydrolysates (29.72 g/L glucose, 24.69 g/L xylose and 5.14 g/L arabinose) as carbon source, LA productivity was increased significantly from 1.01 g/L/h (batch 1) to 2.35 g/L/h (batch 6) by the repeated batch fermentation. PMID:24811443

Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Shen, Fei; Su, Yi; Khan, Rashid; Wan, Yinhua

2014-07-01

151

Glucose and xylose co-fermentation of pretreated wheat straw using mutants of S. cerevisiae TMB3400.  

PubMed

Wheat straw was pretreated and fermented to ethanol. Two strains, which had been mutated from the genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3400, KE6-12 and KE6-13i, have been used in this study and the results of performance were compared to that of the original strain. The glucose and xylose co-fermentation ability was investigated in batch fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) liquid (undiluted, and diluted 1.5 and 2 times). Both strains showed improved xylose uptake in diluted SPWS liquid, and increased ethanol yields compared with the original TMB3400 strain, although xylitol formation also increased slightly. In undiluted SPWS liquid, however, only KE6-13i performed better than the original strain regarding xylose utilization. Fed-batch fermentation of 1.5 and 2 times diluted liquid was performed by adding the glucose-rich hydrolysates from enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction of SPWS at a constant feed rate after 5 h of fermentation, when the glucose had been depleted. The modified strains showed improved xylose conversion; however, the ethanol yield was not significantly improved due to increased glycerol production. Fed-batch fermentation resulted in faster xylose utilization than in the batch cases. PMID:23262129

Erdei, Borbála; Frankó, Balázs; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

2013-03-10

152

A 13C CP\\/MAS NMR evaluation of the structural changes in wheat straw subjected to different chemical and biological pulping conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw pulps prepared by chemical (soda) and biological (enzymatic or fungal) treatments were analyzed by 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectrometry under quantitative acquisition conditions. The most significant changes reflected in the spectra as a result of soda cooking correspond to: (i) decrease of methoxyl content of the residual lignin (56, 153, 147 and 135 ppm), and (ii) deacetylation of hemicellulose

M. E. Guadalix; G. Almendros; A. T. Martínez; F. J. González-Vila; U. Lankes

1997-01-01

153

Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil fuel; and on the other hand, it provides a means for ''exporting'' geothermal energy from the well site. The primary goal of the work discussed in this report was to investigate the effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. In assessing the relative merits of various sets of conditions, we considered both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, we also investigated the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge. Phenol was selected for study because it was reported (8) to be effective in suppressing repolymerization of reactive lignin fragments. Aluminum sulfate, on the other hand, was chosen as a representative of the Lewis acids which, we hoped, would catalyze the delignification reactions.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01

154

Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required to foster tolerance towards industrial wheat straw hydrolysates.  

PubMed

The presence of toxic compounds derived from biomass pre-treatment in fermentation media represents an important drawback in second-generation bio-ethanol production technology and overcoming this inhibitory effect is one of the fundamental challenges to its industrial production. The aim of this study was to systematically identify, in industrial medium and at a genomic scale, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for simultaneous and maximal tolerance to key inhibitors of lignocellulosic fermentations. Based on the screening of EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection, 242 and 216 determinants of tolerance to inhibitory compounds present in industrial wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) and in inhibitor-supplemented synthetic hydrolysate were identified, respectively. Genes associated to vitamin metabolism, mitochondrial and peroxisomal functions, ribosome biogenesis and microtubule biogenesis and dynamics are among the newly found determinants of WSH resistance. Moreover, PRS3, VMA8, ERG2, RAV1 and RPB4 were confirmed as key genes on yeast tolerance and fermentation of industrial WSH. PMID:25287021

Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, Miguel C; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

2014-12-01

155

Effects of different pre-extractions combining with chemi-thermomechanical treatments on the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.  

PubMed

Three different pre-extraction methods (i.e., acetic acid, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide) were used for the pretreatment followed by chemi-thermomechanical treatments and then enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw to produce fermentable sugars. The performance of enzymatic hydrolysis by the synergistic effect of pre-extractions and chemi-thermomechanical treatments was remarkable. Results showed that the pre-extraction combining with the chemi-thermomechanical treatments shorten the enzymatic hydrolysis time and improved the glucose yield at the same enzyme loadings. The chemical components, swelling ability, and crystallinity, as well as the surface morphology of the substrates were changed obviously. All of these changes can affect the accessibility of enzymes to cellulose in the substrates to a certain extent. PMID:25459806

Zhang, Jinping; Liu, Wei; Hou, Qingxi; Chen, Junwei; Xu, Ningpan; Ji, Fuzeng

2014-10-19

156

Generation of Electricity and Analysis of Microbial Communities in Wheat Straw Biomass-Powered Microbial Fuel Cells?  

PubMed Central

Electricity generation from wheat straw hydrolysate and the microbial ecology of electricity-producing microbial communities developed in two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. The power density reached 123 mW/m2 with an initial hydrolysate concentration of 1,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/liter, while coulombic efficiencies ranged from 37.1 to 15.5%, corresponding to the initial hydrolysate concentrations of 250 to 2,000 mg COD/liter. The suspended bacteria found were different from the bacteria immobilized in the biofilm, and they played different roles in electricity generation from the hydrolysate. The bacteria in the biofilm were consortia with sequences similar to those of Bacteroidetes (40% of sequences), Alphaproteobacteria (20%), Bacillus (20%), Deltaproteobacteria (10%), and Gammaproteobacteria (10%), while the suspended consortia were predominately Bacillus (22.2%). The results of this study can contribute to improving understanding of and optimizing electricity generation in microbial fuel cells. PMID:19376925

Zhang, Yifeng; Min, Booki; Huang, Liping; Angelidaki, Irini

2009-01-01

157

A method for estimating biomass of Agaricus bisporus in a solid substrate, composted wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Growth ofAgaricus bisporus mycelium in liquid cultures, or linear growth in compost, was directly proportional to the quantity of extracellular laccase. Laccase activity measured during the mycelial colonisation of composted straw can therefore be used to quantify the mycelial growth. Immunological methods indicate that the laccase appears to be a specific product ofA. bisporus or very closely related species.

D. A. Wood

1979-01-01

158

The addition of ground wheat straw as a fiber source in the gestation diet of sows and the effect on sow and litter performance for three successive parities.  

PubMed

A regional experiment was conducted at 8 experiment stations, with a total of 320 sows initially, to evaluate the efficacy of adding 13.35% ground wheat straw to a corn-soybean meal gestation diet for 3 successive gestation-lactation (reproductive) cycles compared with sows fed a control diet without straw. A total of 708 litters were farrowed over 3 reproductive cycles. The basal gestation diet intake averaged 1.95 kg daily for both treatments, plus 0.30 kg of straw daily for sows fed the diet containing ground wheat straw (total intake of 2.25 kg/d). During lactation, all sows on both gestation treatments were fed ad libitum the standard lactation diet used at each station. Response criteria were sow farrowing and rebreeding percentages, culling factors and culling rate, weaning-to-estrus interval, sow BW and backfat measurements at several time points, and litter size and total litter weight at birth and weaning. Averaged over 3 reproductive cycles, sows fed the diet containing wheat straw farrowed and weaned 0.51 more pigs per litter (P wheat straw consumed more (P = 0.01) lactation diet per day than control sows. There were no gestation diet treatment differences for any sow fate criterion (farrowing and rebreeding percentages, and culling rate), any sow BW and backfat measurement, or the weaning-to-estrus interval. Lactation diet intake and all sow BW and backfat measurements increased with increasing parity. In conclusion, when the daily intake of the basal gestation diet was equalized for both treatments, the addition of 13.35% ground wheat straw to the gestation diet improved sow and litter performance, with increases in litter size and total litter weight at birth and weaning compared with control sows and litters. PMID:18952734

Veum, T L; Crenshaw, J D; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Easter, R A; Ewan, R C; Nelssen, J L; Miller, E R; Pettigrew, J E; Ellersieck, M R

2009-03-01

159

Kinetics of wheat straw solid-state fermentation with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus — lignin and polysaccharide alteration and production of related enzymatic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of straw solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated to characterize the delignification processes by these white-rot fungi. Two successive phases could be defined during straw transformation, characterized by changes in respiratory activity, changes in lignin and polysaccharide content and composition, increase in in-vitro digestibility, and enzymatic activities produced by the fungi. Lignin composition

Manuel Valmaseda; María Jesús Martínez; Angel T. Martínez

1991-01-01

160

Treatment of wheat straw using tannase and white-rot fungus to improve feed utilization by ruminants  

PubMed Central

Background Current research to enrich cattle feed has primarily focused on treatment using white rot fungi, while there are scarce reports using the enzyme tannase, which is discussed only in reviews or in the form of a hypothesis. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of tannase on wheat straw (WS) and also the effect of lyophilized tannase at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% (w/w) on WS followed by fermentation with Ganoderma sp. for 10 d and compared in relation to biochemical parameters, crude protein (CP) content, and nutritional value by calculating the C/N ratio in order to improve the nutritional value of cattle feed. Results Penicillium charlesii, a tannase-producing microorganism, produced 61.4 IU/mL of tannase in 54 h when 2% (w/v) tannic acid (TA) was initially used as a substrate in medium containing (% w/v) sucrose (1.0), NaNO3 (1.0), and MgSO4 (0.08 pH, 5.0) in a 300-L fermentor (working volume 220 L), and concomitantly fed with 1.0% (w/v) TA after 24 h. The yield of partially purified and lyophilized tannase was 5.8 IU/mg. The tannin-free myco-straw at 0.1% (w/w) tannase showed 37.8% (w/w) lignin degradation with only a 20.4% (w/w) decrease in cellulose content and the in vitro feed digestibility was 32.2%. An increase in CP content (up to 1.28-fold) along with a lower C/N ratio of 25.0%, as compared to myco-straw, was obtained. Conclusions The use of tannin-free myco-straw has potential to improve the nutritional content of cattle feed. This biological treatment process was safe, eco-friendly, easy to perform, and was less expensive as compared to other treatment methods. PMID:24555694

2014-01-01

161

Possibility of using waste tire composites reinforced with rice straw as construction materials.  

PubMed

Agricultural lignocellulosic fiber (rice straw)-waste tire particle composite boards were manufactured for use as insulation boards in construction, using the same method as that used in the wood-based panel industry. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.8 and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of rice straw/waste tire particle). A commercial polyurethane adhesive for rubber was used as the composite binder. The water proof, water absorption and thickness swelling properties of the composite boards were better than those of wood particleboard. Furthermore, the flexibility and flexural properties of the composite boards were superior to those of other wood-based panel products. The composite boards also demonstrated good acoustical insulation, electrical insulation, anti-caustic and anti-rot properties. These boards can be used to prevent impact damage, are easily modifiable and are inexpensive. They are able to be used as a substitute for insulation boards and other flexural materials in construction. PMID:15207296

Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Kang, Chun-Won

2004-10-01

162

Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate within a two-phase solid-state anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate were investigated. Anaerobic digestion was carried out within an up-flow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor connected to an anaerobic filter (AF) by liquor recirculation. Two lab-scale reactor systems were operated simultaneously at 37°C and 55°C. The UASS reactors were fed at a fixed organic loading rate of 2.5gL(-1)d(-1), based on volatile solids. Molecular genetic analyses of the bacterial and archaeal communities within the UASS reactors (digestate and effluent liquor) and the AFs (biofilm carrier and effluent liquor) were conducted under steady-state conditions. The thermophilic UASS reactor had a considerably higher biogas and methane yield in comparison to the mesophilic UASS, while the mesophilic AF was slightly more productive than the thermophilic AF. When the thermophilic and mesophilic community structures were compared, the thermophilic system was characterized by a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequence analysis. The composition of the archaeal communities was phase-separated under thermophilic conditions, but rather stage-specific under mesophilic conditions. Family- and order-specific real-time PCR of methanogenic Archaea supported the taxonomic distribution obtained by rrs sequence analysis. The higher anaerobic digestion efficiency of the thermophilic compared to the mesophilic UASS reactor was accompanied by a high abundance of Firmicutes and Methanosarcina sp. in the thermophilic UASS biofilm. PMID:25467556

Heeg, Kathrin; Pohl, Marcel; Sontag, Mario; Mumme, Jan; Klocke, Michael; Nettmann, Edith

2014-10-23

163

Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput. PMID:21896164

2011-01-01

164

Resource assessment and removal analysis for corn stover and wheat straw in the Eastern and Midwestern United States—rainfall and wind-induced soil erosion methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was to develop a methodology to estimate “hectare-weighted”, county-level, corn stover and spring and winter wheat straw removable residue quantities in the USA for 1995–1997 in 37 states (north–south line from North Dakota to Texas and all states east) such that tolerable rainfall and wind soil loss limits were not exceeded.The methodology developed and employed

Richard G. Nelson

2002-01-01

165

Ethanol–acetone pulping of wheat straw. Influence of the cooking and the beating of the pulps on the properties of the resulting paper sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of independent variables in the pulping of wheat straw by use of an ethanol–acetone–water mixture [processing temperature and time, ethanol\\/(ethanol+acetone) value and (ethanol+acetone)\\/(ethanol+acetone+water) value] and of the number of PFI beating revolutions to which the pulp was subjected, on the properties of the resulting pulp (yield and Shopper–Riegler index) and of the paper sheets obtained from it (breaking

L. Jiménez; I. Pérez; F. López; J. Ariza; A. Rodr??guez

2002-01-01

166

In situ ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids from extruded soybeans: effects of dietary adaptation and of mixing with lecithin or wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics and intermediates of biohydrogenation of fatty acids were investigated in situ using extruded soybeans, a blend of extruded soybeans and lecithin (99:1), or a blend of extruded soybeans plus wheat straw (66:34). Two dry dairy cows received successively a diet with added palmitic acid and a diet with added extruded soybeans, and assays were completed after a 3-week adaptation

A. Agazzi; C. Bayourthe; M. C. Nicot; A. Troegeler-Meynadier; R. Moncoulon; F. Enjalbert

2004-01-01

167

Phytochemical composition and anticancer activity of germinated wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination is a natural method to increase bioactive components that have beneficial effects on human health. Germinated wheat flour samples of a hard red wheat cultivar (Rampart) were prepared after germination of three and five days and investigated for phytochemical composition and anticanc...

168

Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.  

PubMed

In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system. PMID:25391347

Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

2014-11-12

169

Optimization of cultivation and nutrition conditions and substrate pretreatment for solid-substrate fermentation of wheat straw by Coriolus versicolor.  

PubMed

Bioconversion of wheat straw by solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) with Coriolus versicolor was optimized by varying its physiological parameters. Selective delignification (more lignin than holocellulose degradation) and increases in crude protein (CP) content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were taken as the criteria to select optimum levels of these parameters. The fungus behaved optimally under the following set of cultural and nutritional conditions: pH 5.5, moisture level 55%, temperature 30 degrees C, duration of fermentation 21 d, form of inoculum--grain culture, turning frequency--once at mid-incubation, urea (nitrogen source) 1.5% (sterile) or 3.0% (nonsterile), single superphosphate (phosphorus + sulfur source) 1.0%, no addition of free polysaccharides (as whey or molasses). A maximum of 17.5% increase in IVDMD involving 4.3% degradation of lignin, was attained in the optimized SSF under laboratory conditions. The digestibility improvement could be further increased by using a substrate pretreatment (physical/chemical/biological) in the following order of preference: NaOH treatment, urea or urine treatment, ensiling, steaming, grinding. For practical farm applications, urea treatment and ensiling appeared most feasible. The laboratory optimized process was also scaled up to 4 kg (sterile and unsterile) and 50 kg (unsterile) fermentations. PMID:1841863

Yadav, J S; Tripathi, J P

1991-01-01

170

Gamma and electron radiation effects on straw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw and rye straw are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestability of these agricultural rough materials can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose.

Leonhardt, J. W.; Baer, M.; Huebner, G.; Hennig, A.; Nehring, K.

171

Natural cellulose fibers from soybean straw.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development of natural cellulose technical fibers from soybean straw with properties similar to the natural cellulose fibers in current use. About 220 million tons of soybean straw available in the world every year could complement the byproducts of other major food crops as inexpensive, abundant and annually renewable sources for natural cellulose fibers. Using the agricultural byproducts as sources for fibers could help to address the concerns on the future price and availability of both the natural and synthetic fibers in current use and also help to add value to the food crops. A simple alkaline extraction was used to obtain technical fibers from soybean straw and the composition, structure and properties of the fibers was studied. Technical fibers obtained from soybean straw have high cellulose content (85%) but low% crystallinity (47%). The technical fibers have breaking tenacity (2.7 g/den) and breaking elongation (3.9%) higher than those of fibers obtained from wheat straw and sorghum stalk and leaves but lower than that of cotton. Overall, the structure and properties of the technical fibers obtained from soybean straw indicates that the fibers could be suitable for use in textile, composite and other industrial applications. PMID:19345577

Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

2009-07-01

172

Effects of green liquor pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.  

PubMed

Green liquor (Na2S+Na2CO3, GL) pretreatment is a proven pathway to improve the enzymatic saccharification for the production of bioethanol. In this work, the effects of GL pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw at various total titratable alkali (TTA) charge and temperature were investigated. The GL pretreatment showed excellent performance in high polysaccharides retention and delignification selectivity. Under the optimized GL pretreatment condition (4% TTA charge, 20% sulfidity and 140°C), 92.5% of glucan, 82.4% of xylan and 81.6% of arabinan in rice straw were recovered with a delignification of 39.4%. The maximum sugar yields of 83.9%, 69.6% and 78.0%, respectively for glucan, xylan and total sugar, were achieved at the same GL pretreatment condition with an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate. The results suggested that GL pretreatment is a practicable method for rice straw to enhance enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production. PMID:24128400

Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

2013-12-01

173

Response of Fumaric Acid Addition on Methanogenesis, Rumen Fermentation, and Dry Matter Degradability in Diets Containing Wheat Straw and Sorghum or Berseem as Roughage Source  

PubMed Central

An in vitro incubation system was used to evaluate effect of supplementation of fumaric acid at 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM concentration in high-, medium-, and low-fiber wheat straw containing total mixed diets with sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on rumen fermentation, methane production, and gas kinetics parameters. Three types of diets were prepared with different roughage and concentrate ratio (80?:?20, 50?:?50, and 20?:?80) by taking the representative samples. The roughage part composed of wheat straw (70?parts) and sorghum (30?parts) or berseem (30?parts) and the concentrate part composed of maize (33%), GNC (21%), mustard cake (12%), wheat bran (20%), deoiled rice bran (11%), mineral mixture (2%), and salt (1%). Fumaric acid was added in incubation medium to achieve final concentration of 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM. All the treatment combinations were arranged in 4 × 3 factorial designs with three replicates. It was concluded from the study that fumaric acid addition (5–15?mM) in diets varying in roughage to concentrate ratio significantly (P ? 0.05) reduced the methane production without affecting dry matter digestibility and maximum reduction was noticed at 5?mM concentration. PMID:23738126

Sirohi, S. K.; Pandey, Poonam; Goel, Navneet

2012-01-01

174

Improving simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of pretreated wheat straw using both enzyme and substrate feeding  

PubMed Central

Background Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) has been recognized as a feasible option for ethanol production from xylose-rich lignocellulosic materials. To reach high ethanol concentration in the broth, a high content of water-insoluble solids (WIS) is needed, which creates mixing problems and, furthermore, may decrease xylose uptake. Feeding of substrate has already been proven to give a higher xylose conversion than a batch SSCF. In the current work, enzyme feeding, in addition to substrate feeding, was investigated as a means of enabling a higher WIS content with a high xylose conversion in SSCF of a xylose-rich material. A recombinant xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (TMB3400) was used for this purpose in fed-batch SSCF experiments of steam-pretreated wheat straw. Results By using both enzyme and substrate feeding, the xylose conversion in SSCF could be increased from 40% to 50% in comparison to substrate feeding only. In addition, by this design of the feeding strategy, it was possible to process a WIS content corresponding to 11% in SSCF and obtain an ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.35 g g-1. Conclusion A combination of enzyme and substrate feeding was shown to enhance xylose uptake by yeast and increase overall ethanol yield in SSCF. This is conceptually important for the design of novel SSCF processes aiming at high-ethanol titers. Substrate feeding prevents viscosity from becoming too high and thereby allows a higher total amount of WIS to be added in the process. The enzyme feeding, furthermore, enables keeping the glucose concentration low, which kinetically favors xylose uptake and results in a higher xylose conversion. PMID:20678195

2010-01-01

175

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) by Burkholderia sacchari using wheat straw hydrolysates and gamma-butyrolactone.  

PubMed

Burkholderia sacchari DSM 17165 is able to grow and produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) both on hexoses and pentoses. In a previous study, wheat straw lignocellulosic hydrolysates (WSH) containing high C6 and C5 sugar concentrations were shown to be excellent carbon sources for P(3HB) production. Using a similar feeding strategy developed for P(3HB) production based on WSH, fed-batch cultures were developed aiming at the production of the copolymer P(3HB-co-4HB) (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)) by B. sacchari. The ability of this strain to synthesize P(3HB-co-4HB) was first shown in shake flasks using gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) as precursor of the 4HB units. Fed-batch cultures using glucose as carbon source (control) and GBL were developed to achieve high copolymer productivities and 4HB incorporations. The attained P(3HB-co-4HB) productivity and 4HB molar% were 0.7g/(Lh) and 4.7molar%, respectively. The 4HB incorporation was improved to 6.3 and 11.8molar% by addition of 2g/L propionic and acetic acid, respectively. When WSH were used as carbon source under the same feeding conditions, the values achieved were 0.5g/(Lh) and 5.0molar%, respectively. Burkholderia sacchari, a strain able to produce biopolymers based on xylose-rich lignocellulosic hydrolysates, is for the first time reported to produce P(3HB-co-4HB) using gamma butyrolactone as precursor. PMID:24811901

Cesário, M Teresa; Raposo, Rodrigo S; Almeida, M Catarina M D de; van Keulen, Frederik; Ferreira, Bruno S; Telo, João P; Fonseca, M Manuela R da

2014-11-01

176

Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention\\u000a to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and\\u000a their interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental\\u000a designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The pretreatment pH

Mads Pedersen; Katja S Johansen; Anne S Meyer

2011-01-01

177

Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products.  

PubMed

Abstract Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9?µg/g and was correlated with whole wheat content (r?=?0.9248; p?=?0.0083). Ferulic acid (FerA) was the dominant phenolic at 99.9-316.0?µg/g and mostly bound tightly to the wheat matrix. AR-C21 and total FerA predicted the whole wheat content in each product (R(2?)=?0.9933). Total phytosterol content ranged from 562.6 to 1035.5?µg/g. Total tocol content ranged from 19.3 to 292.7?µg/g. Phytosterol and tocol contents were independent of whole wheat content. Whole wheat biscuits and pasta were the most potent products to induce QR in Hepa1c1c7 cells. This study provides a platform to characterize the relationship between the phytochemical composition of whole wheat and products formulated with this whole grain. PMID:25578763

Chen, C-Y Oliver; Kamil, Alison; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

2015-02-01

178

Measurement of process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw using FT-NIR spectroscopy and synergy interval PLS algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of rapid determination of the process variables (i.e. pH and moisture content) in solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw using Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was studied. Synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithm was implemented to calibrate regression model. The number of PLS factors and the number of subintervals were optimized simultaneously by cross-validation. The performance of the prediction model was evaluated according to the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the correlation coefficient (R). The measurement results of the optimal model were obtained as follows: RMSECV = 0.0776, Rc = 0.9777, RMSEP = 0.0963, and Rp = 0.9686 for pH model; RMSECV = 1.3544% w/w, Rc = 0.8871, RMSEP = 1.4946% w/w, and Rp = 0.8684 for moisture content model. Finally, compared with classic PLS and iPLS models, the siPLS model revealed its superior performance. The overall results demonstrate that FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with siPLS algorithm can be used to measure process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw, and NIR spectroscopy technique has a potential to be utilized in SSF industry.

Jiang, Hui; Liu, Guohai; Mei, Congli; Yu, Shuang; Xiao, Xiahong; Ding, Yuhan

2012-11-01

179

Novel xylanase from a holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library and its application in xylooligosaccharide and ferulic Acid production from wheat straw.  

PubMed

A novel gene fragment containing a xylanase was identified from a Holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library. The novel xylanase (Xyln-SH1) belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and exhibited a maximum of 44% identity to the glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Xyln-SH1 was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized. A high level of activity was obtained under the optimum conditions of pH 6.5 and 40 °C. A substrate utilization study indicated that Xyln-SH1 was cellulase-free and strictly specific to xylan from softwood. The synergistic effects of Xyln-SH1 and feruloyl esterase (FAE-SH1) were observed for the release of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and ferulic acid (FA) from wheat straw. In addition, a high dose of Xyln-SH1 alone was observed to improve the release of FA from wheat straw. These features suggest that this enzyme has substantial potential to improve biomass degradation and industrial applications. PMID:23134352

Cheng, Fansheng; Sheng, Jiping; Dong, Rubo; Men, Yejun; Gan, Lin; Shen, Lin

2012-12-26

180

Impact of steam explosion on the wheat straw lignin structure studied by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance and density functional methods.  

PubMed

Chemical changes of lignin induced by the steam explosion (SE) process were elucidated. Wheat straw was studied as the raw material, and lignins were isolated by the enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) procedure before and after the SE treatment for analyses mainly by two-dimensional (2D) [heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)] and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The ?-O-4 structures were found to be homolytically cleaved, followed by recoupling to ?-5 linkages. The homolytic cleavage/recoupling reactions were also studied by computational methods, which verified their thermodynamic feasibility. The presence of the tricin bound to wheat straw lignin was confirmed, and it was shown to participate in lignin reactions during the SE treatment. The preferred homolytic ?-O-4 cleavage reaction was calculated to follow bond dissociation energies: G-O-G (guaiacyl) (69.7 kcal/mol) > G-O-S (syringyl) (68.4 kcal/mol) > G-O-T (tricin) (67.0 kcal/mol). PMID:25290760

Heikkinen, Harri; Elder, Thomas; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rovio, Stella; Rahikainen, Jenni; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja

2014-10-29

181

Characterization of a Novel Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP)-Type Enzyme from Irpex lacteus and Its Application in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw  

PubMed Central

Irpex lacteus is a white rot basidiomycete proposed for a wide spectrum of biotechnological applications which presents an interesting, but still scarcely known, enzymatic oxidative system. Among these enzymes, the production, purification, and identification of a new dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type enzyme, as well as its physico-chemical, spectroscopic, and catalytic properties, are described in the current work. According to its N-terminal sequence and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses, I. lacteus DyP showed high homology (>95%) with the hypothetical (not isolated or characterized) protein cpop21 from an unidentified species of the family Polyporaceae. The enzyme had a low optimal pH, was very stable to acid pH and temperature, and showed improved activity and stability at high H2O2 concentrations compared to other peroxidases. Other attractive features of I. lacteus DyP were its high catalytic efficiency oxidizing the recalcitrant anthraquinone and azo dyes assayed (kcat/Km of 1.6 × 106 s-1 M-1) and its ability to oxidize nonphenolic aromatic compounds like veratryl alcohol. In addition, the effect of this DyP during the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw was checked. The results suggest that I. lacteus DyP displayed a synergistic action with cellulases during the hydrolysis of wheat straw, increasing significantly the fermentable glucose recoveries from this substrate. These data show a promising biotechnological potential for this enzyme. PMID:23666335

Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia

2013-01-01

182

Description of Comamonas serinivorans sp. nov., isolated from wheat straw compost.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated SP-35(T), was isolated from compost and was subjected to a taxonomic study. This isolate was short-rod-shaped and non-spore-forming. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence comparison indicated the isolate was related to the genus Comamonas. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that its closest neighbours were the type strains Comamonas odontotermitis Dant 3-8(T) (96.8?% similarity), Comamonas testosteroni DSM 50244(T) (96.5?%), Comamonas guangdongensis CY01(T) (95.9?%) and Comamonas composti YY287(T) (95.6?%). Using phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, fatty acid composition data and a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics we could clearly distinguish strain SP-35(T) from type strains of the genus Comamonas. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SP-35(T) was 63.1 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0, C17?:?0 cyclo, summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c) and summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?6c and/or C18?:?1?7c). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidlyglycerol. Differences in phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics support the classification of strain SP-35(T) as a representative of a novel species in the genus Comamonas, for which the name Comamonas serinivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP-35(T) (?=?DSM 26136(T)?=?JCM 18194(T)). PMID:25242539

Zhu, Daochen; Xie, Changxiao; Huang, Ying; Sun, Jianzhong; Zhang, Weimin

2014-12-01

183

Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties.  

PubMed

Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%-10.27%, 2.15%-2.55% total fats, 1.72%-1.85% dietary fibers, 77.65x10(-6)-84.25x10(-6) of potassium and 7.70x10(-6)-35.90x10(-6) of sodium ions concentration, 0.24x10(-6)-0.84x10(-6) of phosphorus, 1.44%-2.10% ash, 31.108-43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%-9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes. PMID:17657856

Ikhtiar, Khan; Alam, Zeb

2007-08-01

184

Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties*  

PubMed Central

Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%~10.27%, 2.15%~2.55% total fats, 1.72%~1.85% dietary fibers, 77.65×10?6~84.25×10?6 of potassium and 7.70×10?6~35.90×10?6 of sodium ions concentration, 0.24×10?6~0.84×10?6 of phosphorus, 1.44%~2.10% ash, 31.108~43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%~9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes. PMID:17657856

Ikhtiar, Khan; Alam, Zeb

2007-01-01

185

Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.  

PubMed

This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. PMID:24440253

Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

2014-03-01

186

Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.  

PubMed

Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

2010-06-01

187

A technical and economic analysis of acid-catalyzed steam explosion and dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments using wheat straw or aspen wood chips  

SciTech Connect

Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most plentiful and potentially cheapest feedstocks for ethanol production. The cellulose component can be broken down into glucose by enzymes and then converted to ethanol by yeast. However, hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose is difficult, and some form of pretreatment is necessary to increase the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic attack. An analysis has been completed of two pretreatment options, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis and sulfur dioxide impregnated steam explosion, for two feedstocks, wheat straw and aspen wood chips. Detailed process flow sheets and material and energy balances were used to generate equipment cost information. A technical and economic analysis compared the two feedstocks for each of the two pretreatments. For the same pretreatment, sugars produced from aspen wood hydrolysis were cheaper because of the higher carbohydrate content of aspen, whereas dilute acid pretreatment is favored over acid-catalyzed steam explosion.

Schell, D.J.; Torget, R.; Power, A. [Solar Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1991-12-31

188

Straw- and slurry-associated prokaryotic communities differ during co-fermentation of straw and swine manure.  

PubMed

Anaerobic co-fermentation of straw and manure is widely used for waste treatment and biogas production. However, the differences between the straw- and slurry-associated prokaryotic communities, their dynamic changes throughout the co-fermentation process, and their correlations with bioreactor performance are not fully understood. To address these questions, we investigated the prokaryotic community compositions and the dynamics of prokaryotes attached to the straw and in the slurry during co-fermentation of wheat straw and swine manure using pyrosequencing technique. The results showed that straw- and slurry-associated prokaryotes were different in their structure and function. Straw-associated prokaryotic communities were overrepresented by the phyla Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, while Synergistetes and Euryarchaeota were more abundant in the slurry. The straw-associated candidate class TG3, genera Fibrobacter, Bacteroides, Acetivibrio, Clostridium III, Papillibacter, Treponema, Sedimentibacter, and Lutispora may specialize in substrate hydrolysis. Propionate was the most abundant volatile fatty acid in the slurry, and it was probably degraded through syntrophic oxidation by the genera Pelotomaculum, Methanoculleus, and Methanosaeta. The protein-fermenting bacteria Aminobacterium and Cloacibacillus were much abundant in the slurry, indicating that proteins are important substrates in the co-fermentation. This study provided a better understanding of the anaerobic co-fermentation process that is driven by spatially differentiated microbiota. PMID:24633443

Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Pei, Zhaojun; Sun, Xiaori; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Zhiying; Wang, Yuanpeng; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Tao; Li, Xiangzhen

2014-05-01

189

Effects of Wheat Bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) Infestation in Preharvest Period on Wheat Technological Quality and Gluten Composition  

PubMed Central

The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75?kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing. PMID:24550692

Torbica, Aleksandra M.; Mastilovi?, Jasna S.; Poji?, Milica M.; Kevrešan, Žarko S.

2014-01-01

190

Compositional constraints on slag formation and potassium volatilization from rice straw blended wood fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental melting of biomass ash blends demonstrates that the addition of rice straw to a dominantly wood-based fuel causes a marked freezing point depression in the liquidus temperature of the inorganic slag from well above 2000 °C to a minimum of about 1260 °C. The minimum temperature is achieved for ash blends with about 30% rice straw ash. The melting

Peter Thy; Bryan M. Jenkins; Charles E. Lesher; Sidsel Grundvig

2006-01-01

191

Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

192

Growth, carcass yield and meat quality attributes of Red Maasai sheep fed wheat straw-based diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two castrated Red Maasai sheep (12.7 kg initial body weight, aged 12–18 months), were used in an 84-day experiment\\u000a to evaluate diets based on treated straw upon growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality. The animals were blocked\\u000a by weight into four similar groups and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with eight individually fed animals\\u000a per treatment. The dietary treatments were

John G. Safari; Daniel E. Mushi; Louis A. Mtenga; George C. Kifaro; Lars O. Eik

2011-01-01

193

[Carbon isotopic compositions of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in the smoke from combustion of rice straw].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the carbon isotopic fractionation in n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in smoke from rice straw combustion, six types of rice straw were burned in laboratory under flaming and smoldering conditions, and the compound specific isotopic compositions for the two classes of biomarkers in the smoke were determined. The results showed that the delta13C values of individual n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids released from flaming burns of all the rice species ranged from -28.6 per thousand to -38.8 per thousand and from -29.6 per thousand to -41.9per thousand, respectively, and that the mean delta13C values for the two compound classes in the flaming smoke for the six types of rice straw were in the range of -32.6 per thousand to -36. 4per thousand and -34.0 per thousand to -36.2 per thousand, respectively. Moreover, the n-alkanes in the smoke from the most straws were more depleted in 13C in general than the identical substances with equal carbon number in corresponding unburned biomass. The magnitude of the isotopic discrimination (delta) was up to 4.1per thousand. Conversely, the n-alkanoic acids in the smoke tended to be more enriched in 13C than the corresponding biomarkers in the unburned straw for all of the species, and the delta was up to 6.3 per thousand. The delta13C values of the individual n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in the smoke from smoldering burns of the six species varied between -31.7 per thousand and -39.0 per thousand and between -31.3 per thousand and -38.8 per thousand, respectively. The average values for the two compound classes in the smoke for a species were in the range of -35.1 per thousand to -36.4 per thousand and -34.4 per thousand to -35.6 per thousand, respectively. The compound specific delta13C values of the n-alkanes in the smoke for most species were smaller than those of the same substances in the corresponding rice straw, and the greatest delta was 6.1 per thousand. However, the delta13C values of n-alkanoic acids in the smoke were greater than those in the rice straw, and the delta was up to 8.4 per thousand. The n-alkanes from the smoldering burn were more depleted in 13C than those from the flaming burn of the identical rice species, whereas the n-alkanoic acids (> or = C19) more enriched in 13C. These results suggest that there is significant difference in the carbon isotopic composition of individual n-alkanes or n-alkanoic acids in the smoke derived from rice straw combustion and the unburned biomass, and that converse carbon isotopic fractionation occurs in the two compound classes in the smoke relative to those in the rice straw. PMID:23379139

Liu, Gang; Sun, Li-Na; Li, Jiu-Hai; Xu, Hui

2012-12-01

194

Impact of steam explosion on biogas production from rape straw in relation to changes in chemical composition.  

PubMed

An 81day trial compared the cumulative production of methane from rape straw pre-treated by steam explosion at 15 levels of severity. The final methane yields were similar. The temporal variation in production rate exhibited two peaks: maximum production occurred in the first peak at around 21days with heights that increased with severity; the height of the second peak reduced with severity and peaked between 32 and 36days. Changes in the straw composition were investigated using mid-infrared spectroscopy. These were also strongly related to the degree of severity, allowing good predictive models to be built of severity and subsequently the rate of methane production. The main spectral changes showed the degradation of cellulose and xylose-containing hemicelluloses and production of furfural-like components commonly associated with biomass pre-treatments. Only small changes to lignin were associated with increased methane generation suggesting a structural rather than chemical role in this process. PMID:22947446

Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Ryden, Peter; Horn, Svein J; Tapp, Henri S; Wellner, Nikolaus; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Waldron, Keith W

2012-11-01

195

The kinetics of inhibitor production resulting from hydrothermal deconstruction of wheat straw studied using a pressurised microwave reactor  

PubMed Central

Background The use of a microwave synthesis reactor has allowed kinetic data for the hydrothermal reactions of straw biomass to be established from short times, avoiding corrections required for slow heating in conventional reactors, or two-step heating. Access to realistic kinetic data is important for predictions of optimal reaction conditions for the pretreatment of biomass for bioethanol processes, which is required to minimise production of inhibitory compounds and to maximise sugar and ethanol yields. Results The gravimetric loss through solubilisation of straw provided a global measure of the extent of hydrothermal deconstruction. The kinetic profiles of furan and lignin-derived inhibitors were determined in the hydrothermal hydrolysates by UV analysis, with concentrations of formic and acetic acid determined by HPLC. Kinetic analyses were either carried out by direct fitting to simple first order equations or by numerical integration of sequential reactions. Conclusions A classical Arrhenius activation energy of 148 kJmol?1 has been determined for primary solubilisation, which is higher than the activation energy associated with historical measures of reaction severity. The gravimetric loss is primarily due to depolymerisation of the hemicellulose component of straw, but a minor proportion of lignin is solubilised at the same rate and hence may be associated with the more hydrophilic lignin-hemicellulose interface. Acetic acid is liberated primarily from hydrolysis of pendant acetate groups on hemicellulose, although this occurs at a rate that is too slow to provide catalytic enhancement to the primary solubilisation reactions. However, the increase in protons may enhance secondary reactions leading to the production of furans and formic acid. The work has suggested that formic acid may be formed under these hydrothermal conditions via direct reaction of sugar end groups rather than furan breakdown. However, furan degradation is found to be significant, which may limit ultimate quantities generated in hydrolysate liquors. PMID:24678822

2014-01-01

196

Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.  

PubMed

The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p?wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

2014-09-01

197

List of publications 1. Sun, L., Mller, B. and Schnrer, A. (2013) Biogas production from wheat straw community  

E-print Network

List of publications 1. Sun, L., Müller, B. and Schnürer, A. (2013) Biogas production from wheat biogas digesters. Biores. Technol. 132, 327­332 4. Manzoor, S., Müller, B., Niazi A., Bongcam-Rudloff E of syntrophic acetate- oxidising culture in biogas reactors exposed to increasing levels of ammonia. Applied

198

Fed-batch SSCF using steam-exploded wheat straw at high dry matter consistencies and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain: effect of laccase supplementation  

PubMed Central

Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol is expected to play an important role in fossil fuel replacement in the short term. Process integration, improvements in water economy, and increased ethanol titers are key considerations for cost-effective large-scale production. The use of whole steam-pretreated slurries under high dry matter (DM) conditions and conversion of all fermentable sugars offer promising alternatives to achieve these goals. Results Wheat straw slurry obtained from steam explosion showed high concentrations of degradation compounds, hindering the fermentation performance of the evolved xylose-recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE6-12 strain. Fermentability tests using the liquid fraction showed a higher number of colony-forming units (CFU) and higher xylose consumption rates when treating the medium with laccase. During batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) processes, cell growth was totally inhibited at 12% DM (w/v) in untreated slurries. However, under these conditions laccase treatment prior to addition of yeast reduced the total phenolic content of the slurry and enabled the fermentation. During this process, an ethanol concentration of 19 g/L was obtained, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 39% of the theoretical yield. By changing the operation from batch mode to fed-batch mode, the concentration of inhibitors at the start of the process was reduced and 8 g/L of ethanol were obtained in untreated slurries with a final consistency of 16% DM (w/v). When fed-batch SSCF medium was supplemented with laccase 33 hours after yeast inoculation, no effect on ethanol yield or cell viability was found compared to untreated fermentations. However, if the laccase supplementation (21 hours after yeast inoculation) took place before the first addition of substrate (at 25 hours), improved cell viability and an increased ethanol titer of up to 32 g/L (51% of the theoretical) were found. Conclusions Laccase treatment in SSCF processes reduces the inhibitory effect that degradation compounds have on the fermenting microorganism. Furthermore, in combination with fed-batch operational mode, laccase supplementation allows the fermentation of wheat straw slurry at high DM consistencies, improving final ethanol concentrations and yields. PMID:24219973

2013-01-01

199

Straw Kazoo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make some music by constructing a kazoo out of a simple plastic drinking straw. Use this activity to explore sound, vibrations, and music. Learners can experiment with pitch by modifying the length of the straw.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

200

Wheat aleurone: separation, composition, health aspects, and potential food use.  

PubMed

Over the last three decades substantial attention has been given to the role of dietary fiber in health and disease, in particular diabetes, cardiovascular disease, intestinal health, and some types of cancer. As a result the food industry started to add back fiber to refined foods and develop fiber rich foods. Scientists suggested that whole grain foods are superior to foods enriched with fibers obtained/synthesized using enzyme treatment, and thermal or chemical processing because the content of bioactive components and micronutrients in whole grain is more abundant. This triggered interest in how to isolate the micronutrient rich aleurone fiber fraction from wheat. Aleurone is a single cell layer at the inner site of the bran. It contains most of the minerals, vitamins, phenolic antioxidants, and lignans of the wheat grain. Novel milling and dry-fractionation techniques have recently allowed for full-scale separation of aleurone cells from the other layers of wheat bran, yielding a fiber rich concentrate which potentially contains many of the "whole grain kernel bioactives," which recently have been used in a variety of studies. The present review highlights available data on aleurone isolation, composition, intestinal physiology, and its metabolism and potential health benefits as well as its use in food. PMID:22452734

Brouns, Fred; Hemery, Youna; Price, Ruth; Anson, Nuria Mateo

2012-01-01

201

Water and temperature dynamics in a clay soil under winter wheat: influence on straw decomposition and N immobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter wheat grown on a clay soil was subjected to one of four treatments. The control was not irrigated; the drought treatment had screens to divert rainwater; the irrigation and irrigation\\/fertilization treatments were irrigated using a drip-tube system with liquid fertilizer (200 kg N ha-1 year-1) applied daily in the irrigation\\/fertilization treatment according to predicted plant uptake. All other treatments

Olof Andrén; Kfilmfin Rajkai; Thomas Kiitterer

1993-01-01

202

A mutated xylose reductase increases bioethanol production more than a glucose/xylose facilitator in simultaneous fermentation and co-fermentation of wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are able to ferment xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass. However, better xylose fermenting strains are required to reach complete xylose uptake in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. In the current study, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing a heterologous xylose pathway including either the native xylose reductase (XR) from P. stipitis, a mutated variant of XR (mXR) with altered co-factor preference, a glucose/xylose facilitator (Gxf1) from Candida intermedia or both mXR and Gxf1 were assessed in SSCF of acid-pretreated non-detoxified wheat straw. The xylose conversion in SSCF was doubled with the S. cerevisiae strain expressing mXR compared to the isogenic strain expressing the native XR, converting 76% and 38%, respectively. The xylitol yield was less than half using mXR in comparison with the native variant. As a result of this, the ethanol yield increased from 0.33 to 0.39 g g-1 when the native XR was replaced by mXR. In contrast, the expression of Gxf1 only slightly increased the xylose uptake, and did not increase the ethanol production. The results suggest that ethanolic xylose fermentation under SSCF conditions is controlled primarily by the XR activity and to a much lesser extent by xylose transport. PMID:21906329

2011-01-01

203

Delignification of straw with ozone to enhance biodegradability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw was treated with ozone to remove the lignin and increase its biodegradability. The attack of ozone on straw is not selective. Lignin and carbohydrates are oxidized concurrently though the rate of reaction with the latter is slower. A 50% reduction of the original lignin content is optimal for enzymatic hydrolysis. After treatment, 75% of the cellulose in straw

Arthur Binder; Luciano Pelloni; Armin Fiechter

1980-01-01

204

Chemical composition, digestibility and energy content of leguminous grains and straws  

E-print Network

increasing the overall fertility of the soil. #12;The agronomic aspects of some rainfed leguminous crops, 164 soyabean meal, 50 wheat bran, 5 dicalcium phosphate, 10 limestone and 3 sodium chloride. A mineral

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Wheat Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

grain or forage varieties and the development of short stat- ure, strong-strawed varieties for growing under irrigation and high fertility conditions. RECOMMENDED AND ACCEPTABLE WHEAT VARIETIES BY AREAS Area Recommended Acceptable 1 Tascosa Comanche.... wheat are different from those used in dryland production. The land usually is plowed with a disc or moldboard plow and the straw is turned under. Weeds and volunteer wheat are controlled with the usual implements. In many cases the land may...

Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Lahr, Keith; Merkle, Owen G.; Futrell, M. C.

1960-01-01

206

Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.  

PubMed

The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

2013-09-01

207

Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative activities of wheat flour.  

PubMed

Ten soft wheat varieties grown in Maryland were compared for their phytochemical compositions, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities. Free radical scavenging capacities were examined against DPPH(·), oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS(·+) radicals. Significant radical scavenging capacities were detected in all wheat flour extracts. Total phenolic content ranged from 1.66 to 2.01 mg of GAE/g wheat flour. The wheat flours contained 172.91-297.55 ?g/g insoluble bound ferulic acid, contributing 89.74-94.29% of total ferulic acid on a per weight basis. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were 0.27-0.46 and 0.08-0.13 ?g/g, respectively. In addition, the wheat flours had 0.30-0.59 and 0.07-0.29 ?g/g ?- and ?-tocopherols, respectively. Four wheat flour extracts were further examined for their antiproliferative activities. The Jamestown wheat flour showed significant antiproliferative activity against both HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells at the initial treatment concentration of 50 mg flour equivalents/ml, while USG3555 flour showed inhibitive effect only in HT-29 cancer cells, suggesting the different and possible selective antiproliferative property of the wheat flours. These results may be used to direct the breeding effects to produce soft winter wheat varieties with improved health properties. PMID:22868094

Lv, Junli; Yu, Lu; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Liu, Linwei; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2012-11-15

208

Flexible Straws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of flexible straws for teaching properties of figures and families of shapes. Describes a way to make various two- or three-dimensional geometric shapes. Lists eight advantages of the method. (YP)

Prentice, Gerard

1989-01-01

209

Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.

2012-04-01

210

Engineered hydrochar composites for phosphorus removal/recovery: Lanthanum doped hydrochar prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of lanthanum pretreated rice straw.  

PubMed

Engineered hydrochar composites (EHC) were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of lanthanum pretreated rice straw. The as-prepared composite with about 30% lanthanum content showed greater P removal potential than La(OH)3, indicating the synergistic effect of hydrochar and lanthanum in P removal. The adsorption results showed that EHC showed great P adsorption capacities (>50mgPg(-1)) in the pH range of 2.5-10.5, and the presence of competing anions had little negative effects on P adsorption on EHC. The equilibrium time for P adsorption on EHC was considerably reduced under acid condition (12h) compared to alkaline condition (48h). The maximum adsorption capacity was 61.57mgPg(-1) according to Langmuir isotherms. These results suggested that EHC was highly effective in P adsorption in a wide range of pH and the presence of competing anions, thus EHC could be a promising adsorbent for phosphorus removal/recovery from wastewater. PMID:24727355

Dai, Lichun; Wu, Bo; Tan, Furong; He, Mingxiong; Wang, Wenguo; Qin, Han; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun

2014-06-01

211

Process intensification through microbial strain evolution: mixed glucose-xylose fermentation in wheat straw hydrolyzates by three generations of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Lignocellulose hydrolyzates present difficult substrates for ethanol production by the most commonly applied microorganism in the fermentation industries, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High resistance towards inhibitors released during pretreatment and hydrolysis of the feedstock as well as efficient utilization of hexose and pentose sugars constitute major challenges in the development of S. cerevisiae strains for biomass-to-ethanol processes. Metabolic engineering and laboratory evolution are applied, alone and in combination, to adduce desired strain properties. However, physiological requirements for robust performance of S. cerevisiae in the conversion of lignocellulose hydrolyzates are not well understood. The herein presented S. cerevisiae strains IBB10A02 and IBB10B05 are descendants of strain BP10001, which was previously derived from the widely used strain CEN.PK 113-5D through introduction of a largely redox-neutral oxidoreductive xylose assimilation pathway. The IBB strains were obtained by a two-step laboratory evolution that selected for fast xylose fermentation in combination with anaerobic growth before (IBB10A02) and after adaption in repeated xylose fermentations (IBB10B05). Enzymatic hydrolyzates were prepared from up to 15% dry mass pretreated (steam explosion) wheat straw and contained glucose and xylose in a mass ratio of approximately 2. Results With all strains, yield coefficients based on total sugar consumed were high for ethanol (0.39 to 0.40 g/g) and notably low for fermentation by-products (glycerol: ?0.10 g/g; xylitol: ?0.08 g/g; acetate: 0.04 g/g). In contrast to the specific glucose utilization rate that was similar for all strains (qGlucose???2.9 g/gcell dry weight (CDW)/h), the xylose consumption rate was enhanced by a factor of 11.5 (IBB10A02; qXylose?=?0.23 g/gCDW/h) and 17.5 (IBB10B05; qXylose?=?0.35 g/gCDW/h) as compared to the qXylose of the non-evolved strain BP10001. In xylose-supplemented (50 g/L) hydrolyzates prepared from 5% dry mass, strain IBB10B05 displayed a qXylose of 0.71 g/gCDW/h and depleted xylose in 2 days with an ethanol yield of 0.30 g/g. Under the conditions used, IBB10B05 was also capable of slow anaerobic growth. Conclusions Laboratory evolution of strain BP10001 resulted in effectively enhanced qXylose at almost complete retention of the fermentation capabilities previously acquired by metabolic engineering. Strain IBB10B05 is a sturdy candidate for intensification of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol processes. PMID:24708666

2014-01-01

212

Composition and Expression of Genes Encoding Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes in the Straw-Degrading Mushroom Volvariella volvacea  

PubMed Central

Volvariella volvacea is one of a few commercial cultivated mushrooms mainly using straw as carbon source. In this study, the genome of V. volcacea was sequenced and assembled. A total of 285 genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in V. volvacea were identified and annotated. Among 15 fungi with sequenced genomes, V. volvacea ranks seventh in the number of genes encoding CAZymes. In addition, the composition of glycoside hydrolases in V. volcacea is dramatically different from other basidiomycetes: it is particularly rich in members of the glycoside hydrolase families GH10 (hemicellulose degradation) and GH43 (hemicellulose and pectin degradation), and the lyase families PL1, PL3 and PL4 (pectin degradation) but lacks families GH5b, GH11, GH26, GH62, GH93, GH115, GH105, GH9, GH53, GH32, GH74 and CE12. Analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles of 3 strains using 3?-tag digital gene expression (DGE) reveals that 239 CAZyme genes were expressed even in potato destrose broth medium. Our data also showed that the formation of a heterokaryotic strain could dramatically increase the expression of a number of genes which were poorly expressed in its parental homokaryotic strains. PMID:23554925

Xie, Baogui; Deng, Youjin; Sun, Xianyun; Lin, Mengying; Tao, Yongxin; Li, Shaojie

2013-01-01

213

Straw Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working as engineering teams, students design and create model beam bridges using plastic drinking straws and tape as their construction materials. Their goal is to build the strongest bridge with a truss pattern of their own design, while meeting the design criteria and constraints. They experiment with different geometric shapes and determine how shapes affect the strength of materials. Let the competition begin!

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

214

Straw Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners design, build and test a model bridge out of straws. The bridge must span 25 cm across a gap between two tables or two chairs. To measure the load, the bridge must securely hold a small cup. Learners test the load by placing as many pennies in the cup as possible and counting how many the bridge can hold.

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

215

High-temperature reactions of straw ash and the anti-sintering additives kaolin and dolomite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straw of various types of rape, wheat and barley have been studied with respect to the formation of crystalline compounds and high-temperature reactions in ash, as well as sintering and melting behaviour. During the low-temperature ashing process simple, crystalline compounds such as carbonates, sulphates and chlorides were formed. A significant part of the ash from wheat and barley straw was

B.-M. Steenari; O. Lindqvist

1998-01-01

216

Changes in weed composition of winter wheat crops due to long-term fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various fertilization levels on weed species composition and aboveground biomass were investigated in experimental plots of winter wheat established 14 years ago in Fengqiu, China. The treatments examined influenced weeds growth, the effects differing much between weed species. Arenaria serpyllifolia, Chorispora tenella, Erysimum cheiranthoides, and Veronica persica were best adapted either to N-, P-, K-deficiency or balanced

Lichu Yin; Zucong Cai; Wenhui Zhong

2005-01-01

217

Mitochondrial polymorphism. IV. Phospholipid composition of mitochondria of a wheat hybrid and its parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria of young seedlings of wheat genotypes 28, 31MS, and 31MS |MX 28 differed in total lipid and phospholipid. Hybrid mitochondria had more lipid and phospholipid than did the parents, and the three genotypes differed in fatty acid composition of the phospholipid fraction. Hybrid mitochondria exhibited heterosis in cytochrome oxidase activity. Although depletion of phospholipid greatly reduced cytochrome oxidase activity

Hari K. Srivastava; Igor V. Sarkissian

1972-01-01

218

STRAW UTILIZATION IN REGION 10 STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

While agricultural burning has been going on for many years in Oregon, Idaho and Washington among grass seed and wheat growers as a means for reducing or eliminating straw wastes, over these years it has become more apparent that ag burning has adverse environmental and human hea...

219

Wheat-gluten-based natural polymer nanoparticle composites.  

PubMed

A series of wheat-gluten-based nanocomposites were produced by dispersing Cloisite-30B nanoclay particles into plasticized wheat gluten systems under thermal processing conditions. The exfoliation of the nanoparticles as confirmed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy has resulted in significant enhancement of the mechanical properties for both deamidated proteins and vital gluten systems under 50% relative humidity (RH). Such strength improvement was also pronounced for wheat gluten (WG) systems under a high humidity condition (RH = 85%). A similar level of further strength enhancement was obtained for the WG systems that had been strengthened by blending with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and cross-linking with glyoxal. Although the nanoclay modifier, a quaternary ammonium, caused an additional plasticization to the materials, the interactions between the gluten matrix and the nanoparticles were predominant in all of these nanocomposites. A solid-state NMR study indicated that the polymer matrix in all of these nanocomposites displayed a wide distribution of chain mobilities at a molecular level (less than 1 nm). The interactions between the nanoparticles and the natural polymer matrix resulted in motional restriction for all components in the mobile phases including lipid, plasticizers, and plasticized components, although no significant influence from the nanoparticles was obtained in the mobility of the rigid phases (unplasticized components). On a scale of 20-30 nm, the deamidated protein systems tended to be homogeneous. The small domain size of the matrix resulted in modifications of the spin-lattice relaxation of these systems via spin diffusion. The residual starch seemed to remain in a relatively larger domain size in WG systems. The nanoparticles could enhance the miscibility between the starch and the other components in the WG nanocomposite, but such miscibility enhancement did not occur in the WG/PVA blend and the cross-linked system. These polymer matrixes were still heterogeneous on a scale of 20-30 nm. PMID:17291057

Zhang, Xiaoqing; Do, My Dieu; Dean, Katherine; Hoobin, Pam; Burgar, Iko M

2007-02-01

220

The composition of grain and forage from glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is equivalent to that of conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

Glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800, simply referred to as MON 71800, contains a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that has a reduced affinity for glyphosate as compared to the endogenous plant EPSPS enzyme. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the compositional equivalence of MON 71800 to its nontransgenic parent as well as to conventional wheat varieties. The compositional assessment evaluated the levels of proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients in wheat forage and grain grown during two field seasons across a total of eight sites in the United States and Canada. These data demonstrated that with respect to these important nutritional components, the forage and grain from MON 71800 were equivalent to those of its nontransgenic parent and commercial wheat varieties. These data, together with the previously established safety of the CP4 EPSPS protein, support the conclusion that glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is as safe and nutritious as commercial wheat varieties. PMID:14995149

Obert, Janet C; Ridley, William P; Schneider, Ronald W; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy; Astwood, James D

2004-03-10

221

The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

222

Co-cultivation of Trichoderma reesei RutC30 with three black Aspergillus strains facilitates efficient hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw and shows promises for on-site enzyme production.  

PubMed

Co-cultivation of fungi may be an excellent system for on-site production of cellulolytic enzymes in a single bioreactor. Enzyme supernatants from mixed cultures of Trichoderma reesei RutC30, with either the novel Aspergillus saccharolyticus AP, Aspergillus carbonarius ITEM 5010 or Aspergillus niger CBS 554.65 cultivated in solid-state fermentation were tested for avicelase, FPase, endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase activity as well as in hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw. Around 30% more avicelase activity was produced in co-cultivation of T. reesei and A. saccharolyticus than in T. reesei monoculture, suggesting synergistic interaction between those fungi. Fermentation broths of mixed cultures of T. reesei with different Aspergillus strains resulted in approx. 80% efficiency of hydrolysis which was comparable to results obtained using blended supernatants from parallel monocultures. This indicates that co-cultivation of T. reesei with A. saccharolyticus or A. carbonarius could be a competitive alternative for monoculture enzyme production and a cheaper alternative to commercial enzymes. PMID:25043347

Kolasa, Marta; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette

2014-10-01

223

Inhibition of pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and certain other weed species by phytotoxic components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine if well-known phytotoxic effects of plant residues on crop growth could also be responsible for observed reductions of certain weed species in no-till cropping systems. An aqueous extract of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) reduced the germination and root length of pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Phytotoxicity was increased by about 70% when bioassays with the wheat extract on morning glory and ragweed were conducted in the presence of light. Phytotoxic substances were extracted from wheat with 2 N NaOH. The hydrolyzed extract was fractionated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The compound isolated by TLC having the greatest inhibitory effects on morning glory germination was identified using mass spectrometry and determined to be ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid). Ferulic acid at 5 × 10(3) M inhibited the germination and root length of morning glory 23 and 82%, respectively, and prickly sida (Sida spinosa L.) with carpels 85 and 82%, respectively. Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) germination was inhibited 100%. Ferulic acid had no effect on ragweed or prickly sida without carpels. Morning glory root and shoot biomass were reduced 52 and 26%, respectively, when morning glory was grown in sand and watered with a 5 × 10(3) M solution of ferulic acid. Ferulic acid in the presence of prickly sida seed carpels was found to undergo decarboxylation, forming a styrene derivative, 2-methoxy-4-ethenylphenol. The more phytotoxic styrene compound was produced by a bacterium isolated from the carpels of prickly sida seed. The study showed that ferulic acid and other compounds may indeed play a role in reducing the growth of certain weeds in no-tillage cropping systems. PMID:24407798

Liebl, R A; Worsham, A D

1983-08-01

224

Mycological composition in the rhizosphere of winter wheat in different crop production systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem as decomposers of plant residues, releasing nutrients that sustain and stimulate processes of plant growth. Some fungi possess antagonistic properties towards plant pathogens. The structure of plant and soil communities is influenced by the interactions among its component species and also by anthropogenic pressure. In the study of soil fungi, particular attention is given to the rhizosphere. Knowledge of the structure and diversity of the fungal community in the rhizosphere lead to the better understanding of pathogen-antagonist interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycological composition of the winter wheat rhizosphere in two different crop production systems. The study was based on a field experiment established in 1994 year at the Experimental Station in South-East Poland. The experiment was conducted on grey-brown podzolic soil. In this experiment winter wheat were grown in two crop production systems: ecological and conventional - monoculture. The research of fungi composition was conducted in 15th year of experiment. Rhizosphere was collected two times during growing season, in different development stage: shooting phase and full ripeness phase. Martin medium and the dilutions 10-3 and 10-4 were used to calculate the total number cfu (colony forming units) of fungi occurring in the rhizosphere of winter wheat. The fungi were identified using Czapeka-Doxa medium for Penicillium, potato dextrose agar for all fungi and agar Nirenberga (SNA) for Fusarium. High number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of wheat in ecological system. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of the phytosanitary condition of the soil. However, the decrease of the antagonistic microorganism number in the crop wheat in monoculture can be responsible for appearance higher number of the potentially phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp.). Further research, using molecular technique, will help better understanding interactions between plant and microorganisms in the wheat rhizosphere under different soil management conditions.

Frac, Magdalena; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

2010-05-01

225

Polyphenol composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of amaranth, quinoa buckwheat and wheat as affected by sprouting and baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the polyphenol composition and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat and wheat, and evaluated how these properties were affected following two types of processing: sprouting and baking. The total phenol content amongst the seed extracts were significantly higher in buckwheat (323.4mgGAE\\/100g) and decreased in the following order: buckwheat>quinoa>wheat>amaranth. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the radical

L. Alvarez-Jubete; H. Wijngaard; E. K. Arendt; E. Gallagher

2010-01-01

226

Effect of adding wheat bran and germ fractions on the chemical composition of high-fiber toast bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the type of bran, level of addition, particle size and addition of wheat germ on the chemical composition of high-fiber toast bread was investigated. The bran and germ fractions were found to be high in ash, protein, fat and total dietary fiber contents. The wheat germ had a protein content of 27.88% compared with 11.35, 12.69 and

Jiwan S Sidhu; Suad N Al-Hooti; Jameela M Al-Saqer

1999-01-01

227

Building with Straw.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the early use of straw in Africa and Europe as a building material. Provides background information and a basic framework for the straw bale project, and recommends supervision for young students. Lists objectives for building a straw bale bench and provides the building instructions which consist of three sessions. Includes four…

Di Santo, Gilbert

2000-01-01

228

Thermal degradation of cereal straws in air  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the thermogravimetric behavior of four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye) at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50{degrees}C/min) in air examined. The thermal degradation rate, the initial degradation temperature, the active and passive pyrolysis zones, and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were determined. Increasing the heating rate increased the thermal degradation rate and decreased both the initial degradation temperature and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The higher the cellulosic content of the straw, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the straw resulted in higher residual weight at 600{degrees}C.

Ghaly, A.E. (Agricultural Engineering Dept., Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, P.O. Box 1000, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (CA))

1990-01-01

229

Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).  

PubMed

Biochar addition to agricultural soils might increase the sorption of herbicides, and therefore, affect other sorption-related processes such as leaching, dissipation and toxicity for plants. In this study, the impact of wheat straw biochar on the sorption, leaching and dissipation in a soil, and toxicity for sunflower of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), a commonly used ionizable herbicide, was investigated. The results showed that MCPA sorption by biochar and biochar-amended soil (1.0wt% biochar) was 82 and 2.53 times higher than that by the non-amended soil, respectively. However, desorption of MCPA from biochar-amended soil was only 1.17 times lower than its desorption in non-amended soil. Biochar addition to soil reduced both MCPA leaching and dissipation. About 35% of the applied MCPA was transported through biochar-amended soil, while up to 56% was recovered in the leachates transported through non-amended soil. The half-life value of MCPA increased from 5.2d in non-amended soil to 21.5 d in biochar-amended soil. Pot experiments with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown in MCPA-free, but biochar-amended soil showed no positive effect of biochar on the growth of sunflower in comparison to the non-amended soil. However, biochar itself significantly reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) in sunflower. There was no significant difference in the phytotoxic effects of MCPA on sunflowers between the biochar-amended soil and the non-amended soil. Furthermore, MCPA had no effect on the photosynthetic pigment contents in sunflower. PMID:23474069

Tatarková, Veronika; Hiller, Edgar; Vaculík, Marek

2013-06-01

230

Size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles during a straw burning period at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain) of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The particle size spectra and chemical composition of aerosol particles at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a background site of southeastern China, were investigated using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and other aerosol monitoring instruments. The field campaign was conducted from Sep. 29 to Oct. 9, 2012, to observe the influence of straw burning on the size distribution, chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols at a background site. Results showed that K-Secondary and K-EC particles were the dominant particle types during this period, with their number concentrations totally accounting for 74% of all the particles. From long-range transport analysis of air masses, six types of particles all contained high concentrations of 39 [K]+ ion (known as the tracer for biomass burning) which indicate that biomass burning may represent as a significant source of aerosols for air masses originated from the north of Mt. Huang. The sampling period could be classified into three sub-periods according to the backward trajectories. During sub-period 1, the K-Secondary particles exhibited the highest concentrations, accounting for 74.2% and 55.4%, respectively, of the submicron and super-micron particles. In sub-period 3, K-EC dominated the submicron particles, indicating that more particles had anthropogenic sources, especially industrial emissions. The results obtained in this study will enrich the database of aerosol chemical composition in the background sites of southeast China and could be of important applications in environmental and climate research.

Chen, Kui; Yin, Yan; Kong, Shaofei; Xiao, Hui; Wu, Yixiao; Chen, Jianghua; Li, Aihua

2014-02-01

231

Mapping straw yield using on-combine light detection and ranging (LiDAR)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw is not only important for long-term soil productivity, but also as a raw material for biofuel, livestock feed, building, packing, and bedding. Inventory figures in the United States for potential straw availability are largely based on whole states and counties. ...

232

Xylanase production using agro-residue in solid-state fermentation from Bacillus pumilus ASH for biodelignification of wheat straw pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stage statistical design was used to optimize xylanase production from Bacillus pumilus ASH under solid-state fermentation. Initially, Plackett–Burman designing (PB) was used for the selection of crucial production\\u000a parameters. Peptone, yeast extract, incubation time, moisture level and pH were found to be the crucial factors for the xylanase\\u000a production. Crucial variables were further processed through central composite designing (CCD)

Gaurav Garg; Ritu Mahajan; Amanjot Kaur; Jitender Sharma

233

Colour, composition and quality of M. longissimus dorsi and M. extensor carpi radialis of steers housed on straw or concrete slats or accommodated outdoors on wood-chips.  

PubMed

Forty-five Charolais crossbred steers were offered a common diet and accommodated either outside on wood-chips (OWP, 18m(2)/head) or in a naturally-ventilated building in slatted-floor pens (SLA, 2.5m(2)/500kg bodyweight) or in straw-bedded pens (STR, 4m(2)/head) for 132 days. Carcass weight averaged 351, 362, and 372 (sed 6.63)kg (P<0.05), for SLA, STR and OWP, respectively. Accommodation system did not affect the colour, drip loss, shear force or composition of Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD) or Musculus extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles or the sensory characteristics of LD. The ultimate pH of ECR was highest (P<0.05) for OWP steers, while their LD was darker at 2 days post-mortem than LD from STR steers. It is concluded that accommodating cattle on OWP had a minor transient effect on beef colour and no impact on beef composition or eating quality. PMID:22063032

Dunne, P G; Rogalski, J; Moreno, T; Monahan, F J; French, P; Moloney, A P

2008-08-01

234

Membrane fatty acid compositions and cold-induced responses in tetraploid and hexaploid wheats.  

PubMed

Plant cells often increase cold tolerance by reprogramming their genes expression which results in adjusted metabolic alternations, a process enhanced under cold acclimation. In present study, we assessed the changes of membrane fatty acid compositions along with physio-biochemical indices like H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity during cold stress (CS) phases in acclimated and non-acclimated durum (SRN and Gerdish) and bread (Norstar) wheat genotypes. During thermal treatments, MDA was an end product of lipid peroxidation via oxidative stress (H2O2 content) rather than LOX activity. LOX activity plays a double role in mechanism of cold tolerance in wheat, particularly at severe stress. With increase in severity of CS especially in non-acclimated plants, LOX activity decreased along with an increase in MDA and other responses helped increase or maintaine unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) whereas in acclimated plants (moderate CS), increasing of LOX activity along with a decrease in MDA indicates probably its role in secondary metabolites like jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Significant increase of total FAs and particularly unsaturated FAs showed distinct cell endeavor to protect against CS in Norstar and Gerdish compared to SRN genotype. Results showed that an increase in double bond index and LOX activity and low MDA under CS could be reasons for plant cold tolerance. PMID:25266238

Nejadsadeghi, Leila; Maali-Amiri, Reza; Zeinali, Hassan; Ramezanpour, Sanaz; Sadeghzade, Behzad

2015-02-01

235

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Wheat Paper at UBC  

E-print Network

Into Wheat Paper at UBC Jobin Ansari-Gilani Donald Harris Siavash Jalali Youtai Xue University of British Ansari-Gilani Donald Harris Siavash Jalali Youtai Xue #12;2 Abstract Wheat straw is an agricultural waste

236

Make Music with Straws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners build pan pipes out of drinking straws by cutting them to different lengths. Then, learners make music by blowing across the straws and playing some well-known songs. Use this activity to introduce how sound works including vibration and pitch.

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

237

Straw in a Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem on a state's high school exit exam asked for the longest straw that would fit in a box. The examiners apparently wanted the length of a diagonal of the box, but the figure accompanying the question suggested otherwise--that the radius of the straw be considered. This article explores that more general problem.

Jerrard, Richard; Schneider, Joel; Smallberg, Ralph; Wetzel, John

2006-01-01

238

Straws and Airplanes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create airplanes from straws and geometric shapes. Test them out to see how far they can fly, or how accurately they can be aimed. All you need is a straw, two strips of paper, and some tape to make these strange-looking gliders!

Minnesota, Science M.

1995-01-01

239

Green composites and coatings from agricultural feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green composites have been produced from natural oils and agricultural co-products or residues. A variety of natural oil-based resins, both free radically- and cationically-cured, and agricultural filler\\/fiber reinforcements have been utilized in their production. The natural oils and agricultural filler\\/fibers of interest include tung, corn, soybean, fish, and linseed oils and spent germ, corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass. The

Daniel Patrick Pfister

2010-01-01

240

Agro-residue reinforced high-density polyethylene composites: Fiber characterization and analysis of composite properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to study the potential of agro-residues such as wheat straw, cornstalk and corncob as reinforcements for thermoplastics as an alternative to wood fibers. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were prepared with a high content of agro-residues (65wt.%). Surface chemistry of agro-residues was studied in comparison with wood flour with a view to evaluate its

Suhara Panthapulakkal; Mohini Sain

2007-01-01

241

Association study of wheat grain protein composition reveals that gliadin and glutenin composition are trans-regulated by different chromosome regions  

PubMed Central

Wheat grain storage protein (GSP) content and composition are the main determinants of the end-use value of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain. The accumulation of glutenins and gliadins, the two main classes of GSP in wheat, is believed to be mainly controlled at the transcriptional level through a network of transcription factors. This regulation network could lead to stable cross-environment allometric scaling relationships between the quantity of GSP classes/subunits and the total quantity of nitrogen per grain. This work conducted a genetic mapping study of GSP content and composition and allometric scaling parameters of grain N allocation using a bread wheat worldwide core collection grown in three environments. The core collection was genotyped with 873 markers for genome-wide association and 167 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in 51 candidate genes for candidate association. The candidate genes included 35 transcription factors (TFs) expressed in grain. This work identified 74 loci associated with 38 variables, of which 19 were candidate genes or were tightly linked with candidate genes. Besides structural GSP genes, several loci putatively trans-regulating GSP accumulation were identified. Seven candidate TFs, including four wheat orthologues of barley TFs that control hordein gene expression, were associated or in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers associated with the composition or quantity of glutenin or gliadin, or allometric grain N allocation parameters, confirming the importance of the transcriptional control of GSP accumulation. Genome-wide association results suggest that the genes regulating glutenin and gliadin compositions are mostly distinct from each other and operate differently. PMID:23881399

Plessis, Anne; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

2013-01-01

242

Association study of wheat grain protein composition reveals that gliadin and glutenin composition are trans-regulated by different chromosome regions.  

PubMed

Wheat grain storage protein (GSP) content and composition are the main determinants of the end-use value of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain. The accumulation of glutenins and gliadins, the two main classes of GSP in wheat, is believed to be mainly controlled at the transcriptional level through a network of transcription factors. This regulation network could lead to stable cross-environment allometric scaling relationships between the quantity of GSP classes/subunits and the total quantity of nitrogen per grain. This work conducted a genetic mapping study of GSP content and composition and allometric scaling parameters of grain N allocation using a bread wheat worldwide core collection grown in three environments. The core collection was genotyped with 873 markers for genome-wide association and 167 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in 51 candidate genes for candidate association. The candidate genes included 35 transcription factors (TFs) expressed in grain. This work identified 74 loci associated with 38 variables, of which 19 were candidate genes or were tightly linked with candidate genes. Besides structural GSP genes, several loci putatively trans-regulating GSP accumulation were identified. Seven candidate TFs, including four wheat orthologues of barley TFs that control hordein gene expression, were associated or in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers associated with the composition or quantity of glutenin or gliadin, or allometric grain N allocation parameters, confirming the importance of the transcriptional control of GSP accumulation. Genome-wide association results suggest that the genes regulating glutenin and gliadin compositions are mostly distinct from each other and operate differently. PMID:23881399

Plessis, Anne; Ravel, Catherine; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Martre, Pierre

2013-09-01

243

Influence of light on labelling of wheat stem lignins using [U14C] phenylalanine or [O14CH3] sinapic acid  

E-print Network

Influence of light on labelling of wheat stem lignins using [U14C] phenylalanine or [O14CH3 lignin in the dark or in the light. Batches of 5 wheat-straw upper internodes (flowery stage) were of wheat straw lignin with phe* or with sin* gives, especially in the dark, lignins either labelled

Boyer, Edmond

244

Chemical composition, cell wall features and degradability of stem, leaf blade and sheath in untreated and alkali-treated rice straw.  

PubMed

Three dominant morphological fractions (i.e. leaf blade (LB), leaf sheath (LS) and stem) were analysed for chemical composition and ruminal degradability in three rice straw varieties. In one variety treated with alkali, cell wall features were also characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The highest concentrations of cell wall carbohydrates (hemicellulose and cellulose) were observed in LS, whereas the highest concentrations of non-fibre (silica, phenolic compounds and CP) and lignin were recorded for LB. The stem had the lowest silica and hemicellulose contents but intermediate levels of other components. In terms of ruminal degradability, stem ranked higher than LB, which was followed by LS. Hemicellulose was found to be less degradable than either dry matter or cellulose in all the three fractions investigated. FTIR results indicated that the highest levels of hydrogen bonding, esterification and crystallinity within the cell wall components belonged to LS. In the alkaline treatment, these indices decreased to a larger extent for leaf fractions and a greater improvement was achieved in the degradability of LB and LS compared with that of stem. In the 24-h ruminal incubation, the silicified layer of epidermis and the underlying cell walls showed a rigid structure in the control fractions, whereas the treatment with NaOH resulted in crimping of the silicified cuticle layer and the loss of integrity in cell structure. Despite the highest silica and lignin contents observed in LB, LS showed the lowest degradability, which might be due to its high level of hydrogen bonding, crystallinity and esterification within its cell wall components as well as its high hemicellulose content. PMID:23473105

Ghasemi, E; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Emami, M R; Karimi, K

2013-07-01

245

Estimating grain and straw nitrogen concentration in grain crops based on aboveground nitrogen concentration and harvest index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Simulating grain (Ng) and straw (Ns) nitrogen concentration is important in cropping systems simulation models. In this paper we present a simple model to partition nitrogen between grain and straw at harvest for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L), and sorg...

246

Deposition of potassium salts on heat transfer surfaces in straw-fired boilers: a pilot-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of inorganic salts in straw-fired combustion systems was studied in Sandia's Multifuel Combustor. Special attention was drawn to the deposition of potassium, chlorine, and sulphur and the sulphation of potassium chloride to potassium sulphate. The experiments included wheat straw-firing under different combustion conditions and with elevated sulphur levels. Investigations of deposit formation on a simulated superheater tube placed

H. P Nielsen; L. L Baxter; G Sclippab; C Morey; F. J Frandsen; K Dam-Johansen

2000-01-01

247

Wheat bran: its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective  

PubMed Central

Wheat bran is a concentrated source of insoluble fibre. Fibre intakes are generally lower than recommendations. This paper reviews the physiological effects of wheat bran and the health benefits it may provide in terms of the prevention of diseases such as colon and breast cancers, cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal diseases. In recognition of the weight of evidence, the European Food Safety Authority has recently approved two health claims for wheat bran and gastrointestinal health. PMID:22716911

2012-01-01

248

Drinking Straw Pulse Measurer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this health activity, learners create a device so that they not only feel their heartbeat, but also see it, using a straw and some clay. Learners calculate their pulse rate (beats per minute) while at rest and after exercise.

Boston, Wgbh

2003-01-01

249

Drinking Straw Oboe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will construct an oboe-like instrument from a plastic drinking straw by cutting the end to split it into two loose flaps, like reeds on an oboe. Blowing hard makes a sound. Cutting the straws to different lengths provides an opportunity for learners to predict how length will affect sound. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Music and Sound.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

250

Bioethanol production from rice straw by popping pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Rice straw has considerable potential as a raw material for bioethanol production. Popping pretreatment of rice straw prior to downstream enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was found to increase cellulose to glucose conversion efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of popping pretreatment and determine the optimal enzyme loading using a surface response design. Results The optimal doses of cellulase and xylanase enzymes were 23 FPU and 62 IU/g biomass, respectively. Using the optimized enzyme condition and popping pretreatment of rice straw (15% substrate loading, w/v), a sugar recovery of 0.567 g/g biomass (glucose; 0.394 g/g) was obtained in 48 h, which was significantly higher than that from untreated rice straw (total sugar recovery; 0.270 g/g biomass). Fermentation of the hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in 0.172 g ethanol/g biomass after 24 h, equivalent to 80.9% of the maximum theoretical yield (based on the amount of glucose in raw material). Changes in the chemical composition and surface area of rice straw were also investigated before and after popping pretreatment. The results showed little or no difference in chemical composition between the pretreated rice straw and the control. However, the surface area of pretreated rice straw increased twofold compared to the control. Conclusion Popping pretreatment of rice straw can effectively improve downstream saccharification and fermentation, important for bioethanol production. PMID:24286244

2013-01-01

251

Phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from the whole-meal flour of italian durum wheat cultivars.  

PubMed

In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and ?-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-?1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D'Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

2015-01-01

252

Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stok?osa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

2013-01-01

253

Lignocarbohydrate Solubilization from Straw by Actinomycetes  

PubMed Central

Actinomycetes grown on wheat straw solubilized a lignocarbohydrate fraction which could be recovered by acid precipitation. Further characterization of this product (APPL) during growth of Streptomyces sp. strain EC1 revealed an increase in carboxylic acid and phenolic hydroxyl content, suggesting progressive modification. This was also observed in dioxane-extracted lignin fractions of degraded straw, and some similarity was further suggested by comparative infrared spectroscopy. However, the molecular weight profile of APPL was relatively constant during growth of Streptomyces sp. strain EC1 on straw, while analysis of the dioxane-extracted lignin fractions appeared to show fragmentation followed by repolymerization. Lignocarbohydrate solubilization could be monitored in all cultures by routine assay of APPL-associated protein, which accounted for up to 20% of the extracellular culture protein in some cases. Interestingly, this protein fraction was found to include active hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulose, and specific enzyme activities were often increased in the acid-insoluble fractions of culture supernatants. This was particularly important for peroxidase and veratryl oxidase activities, which could be readily detected in the acid-precipitable lignocarbohydrate complex but were virtually undetectable in untreated culture supernatants. PMID:16348309

Ball, A. S.; Godden, B.; Helvenstein, P.; Penninckx, M. J.; McCarthy, A. J.

1990-01-01

254

Organically vs conventionally grown winter wheat: Effects on grain yield, technological quality, and on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of bran and refined flour.  

PubMed

Since organic food is widely assumed to have a better nutritional quality than conventional food, our aim was to study the effects of organic vs conventional cropping systems on yield and the phenolic composition of winter wheat cv. 'Bologna'. Although organic wheat yielded less than conventional wheat, mainly due to the nitrogen shortage, and its bread-making quality was lower, the cultivation system did not affect the total amounts of phenolics and phenolic acids. Of the eight phenolic acids identified, only ferulic acid was influenced by the cultivation system. Phenolic composition and quantity were significantly affected by the milling fraction (bran or white flour): phenolics were more concentrated in the bran, which showed the highest antioxidant power. Under the conditions adopted in this study, an organic cropping system can maintain or even increase the health properties of the wheat milled products, provided a reduction in grain yield is accepted. PMID:25577104

Mazzoncini, Marco; Antichi, Daniele; Silvestri, Nicola; Ciantelli, Giulia; Sgherri, Cristina

2015-05-15

255

Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective  

PubMed Central

The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t?1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. PMID:24926116

Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P.

2013-01-01

256

Cerebroside C Increases Tolerance to Chilling Injury and Alters Lipid Composition in Wheat Roots  

PubMed Central

Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4°C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4°C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25°C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.62–62.26%, 13.54–63.93% and 13.90–61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.69–46.06%, 3.37–37.96%, and ?7.00–178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC. PMID:24058471

Li, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Yu; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xu; Li, Cong; Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Ye, Yong-Hao

2013-01-01

257

Soda Straw Tensegrity Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from George Hart contains information on how to build tensegrity structures, based on the Platonic solids, from straws, rubber bands, and paper clips. Step-by-step instructions, illustrated by numerous photographs, are provided. These structures are similar to some of the sculptures by Kenneth Snelson.

2008-05-08

258

Surface characterization of lignocellulosics for composite manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to form moisture resistant wheat strawboards, either by altering the straw surface characteristics or by changing the chemistry of the polymeric 4, 4' diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI)-based matrix and interface. Part I compared the surface characteristics of wheat, barley, oat, rice, kenaf, hemp and softwood particles. All cereal straws had two surfaces: epidermis and brittle-pith

Ananth V. Iyer

2003-01-01

259

The hemicellulolytic enzyme arsenal of Thermobacillus xylanilyticus depends on the composition of biomass used for growth  

PubMed Central

Background Thermobacillus xylanilyticus is a thermophilic and highly xylanolytic bacterium. It produces robust and stable enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and esterases, which are of special interest for the development of integrated biorefineries. To investigate the strategies used by T. xylanilyticus to fractionate plant cell walls, two agricultural by-products, wheat bran and straw (which differ in their chemical composition and tissue organization), were used in this study and compared with glucose and xylans. The ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on these substrates was studied. When the bacteria used lignocellulosic biomass, the production of enzymes was evaluated and correlated with the initial composition of the biomass, as well as with the evolution of any residues during growth. Results Our results showed that T. xylanilyticus is not only able to use glucose and xylans as primary carbon sources but can also use wheat bran and straw. The chemical compositions of both lignocellulosic substrates were modified by T. xylanilyticus after growth. The bacteria were able to consume 49% and 20% of the total carbohydrates in bran and straw, respectively, after 24 h of growth. The phenolic and acetyl ester contents of these substrates were also altered. Bacterial growth on both lignocellulosic biomasses induced hemicellulolytic enzyme production, and xylanase was the primary enzyme secreted. Debranching activities were differentially produced, as esterase activities were more important to bacterial cultures grown on wheat straw; arabinofuranosidase production was significantly higher in bacterial cultures grown on wheat bran. Conclusion This study provides insight into the ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on abundant agricultural by-products, which are inexpensive carbon sources for enzyme production. The composition of the biomass upon which the bacteria grew influenced their growth, and differences in the biomass provided resulted in dissimilar enzyme production profiles. These results indicate the importance of using different biomass sources to encourage the production of specific enzymes. PMID:23241174

2012-01-01

260

Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of Fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil.  

PubMed

A multiyear survey of more than 200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were found among 671 FGSC isolates from FHB infected wheat heads: F. graminearum (Fgra, 83%) of the 15-ADON genotype, F. meridionale (Fmer, 12.8%) and F. asiaticum (Fasi, 0.4%) of the NIV genotype, and F. cortaderiae (Fcor, 2.5%) and F. austroamericanum (Faus, 0.9%) with either the NIV or the 3-ADON genotype. Regional differences in FGSC composition were observed, with Fmer and the NIV type being significantly (P < 0.001) more prevalent in PR (>28%) than in RS (?9%). Within RS, Fgra was overrepresented in fields below 600 m elevation and in fields with higher levels of FHB incidence (P < 0.05). Species composition was not significantly influenced by previous crop or the stage of grain development at sampling. Habitat-specific differences in FGSC composition were evaluated in three fields by characterizing a total of 189 isolates collected from corn stubble, air above the wheat canopy and symptomatic wheat kernels. Significant differences in FGSC composition were observed among these habitats (P < 0.001). Most strikingly, Fmer and Fcor of the NIV genotype accounted for the vast majority (>96%) of isolates from corn stubbles, whereas Fgra with the 15-ADON genotype were dominant (>84%) among isolates from diseased wheat kernels. Potential differences in pathogenic fitness on wheat were also suggested by a greenhouse competitiveness assay in which Fgra was recovered at much higher frequency (>90%) than Fmer from four wheat varieties inoculated with an equal mixture of Fgra and Fmer isolates. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that FGSC composition and consequently the trichothecene contamination in wheat grown in southern Brazil is influenced by host adaptation and pathogenic fitness. Evidence that Fmer and Fcor with the NIV genotype are regionally significant contributors to FHB may have significant implications for food safety and the economics of cereal production. PMID:25121641

Del Ponte, Emerson; Spolti, Pierri; Ward, Todd; Gomes, Larissa Bitencourt; Nicolli, Camila Primieri; Kuhnem, Paulo Roberto; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri Jose

2014-08-14

261

Composition of the Fusarium graminearum species complex populations in wheat cropping environments in Southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) comprises several toxigenic species that cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. In this study, high number (n=671 isolates) of pathogenic isolates (isolated from infected spikes) was obtained from a 3-year large-scale survey (2009-2011) conducted o...

262

PROTEIN ACCUMULATION AND COMPOSITION IN WHEAT GRAINS: EFFECTS OF MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND HIGH TEMPERATURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of fertilizer and high temperature on accumulation of total protein and individual gliadins and glutenins in wheat grains were studied under controlled environment conditions. Under a moderate temperature regimen of 24oC days, 17oC nights (24/17oC), post-anthesis fertilizer supplied by conti...

263

Biochars derived from various crop straws: characterization and Cd(II) removal potential.  

PubMed

Five types of biochars prepared from four crop straws and one wood shaving at 600 °C were characterized, and their sorption to Cd(II) were determined to investigate the differences in capacity to function as sorbents to heavy metals. Surface areas and pore volumes of the biochars were inversely correlated to the lignin content of raw biomass. The biochars derived from crop straws displayed more developed pore structure than wood char due to the higher lignin content of wood. Sorption capacity of the biochars to Cd(II) followed the order of corn straw>cotton straw>wheat straw>rice straw>poplar shaving, which was not strictly consistent with the surface area of the chars. The surface characteristics of chars before and after Cd(II) sorption were investigated with scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which suggested that the higher sorption of Cd(II) on corn straw chars was mainly attributed to cation exchange, surface precipitation of carbonate, and surface complexation with oxygen-containing groups. This study indicated that crop straw biochars exhibit distinct sorption capacities to heavy metals due to various surface characteristics, and thus the sorption efficiency should be carefully evaluated specific to target contaminant. PMID:24859708

Sun, Jingkuan; Lian, Fei; Liu, Zhongqi; Zhu, Lingyan; Song, Zhengguo

2014-08-01

264

[Emission factors and PM chemical composition study of biomass burning in the Yangtze River Delta region].  

PubMed

The emission characteristics of five typical crops, including wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw, soybean straw and fuel wood, were investigated to explore the gas and particulates emission of typical biomass burning in Yangzi-River-Delta area. The straws were tested both by burning in stove and by burning in the farm with a self-developed measurement system as open burning sources. Both gas and fine particle pollutants were measured in this study as well as the chemical composition of fine particles. The results showed that the average emission factors of CO, NO, and PM2,5 in open farm burning were 28.7 g.kg -1, 1.2 g.kg-1 and 2.65 g kg-1 , respectively. Due to insufficient burning in the low oxygen level environment, the emission factors of stove burning were higher than those of open farm burning, which were 81.9 g kg-1, 2. 1 g.kg -1 and 8.5 gkg -1 , respectively. Oil rape straw had the highest emission factors in all tested straws samples. Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon(OC) and element carbon(EC) , was the foremost component of PM2, 5from biomass burning. The average mass fractions of OC and EC were (38.92 +/- 13.93)% and (5.66 +/-1.54)% by open farm burning and (26.37 +/- 10. 14)% and (18.97 +/- 10.76)% by stove burning. Water soluble ions such as Cl-and K+ had a large contribution. The average mass fractions of CI- and K+ were (13.27 +/-6. 82)% and (12.41 +/- 3.02)% by open farm burning, and were (16.25 +/- 9.34)% and (13.62 +/- 7.91)% by stove burning. The K +/OC values of particles from wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw and soybean straw by open farm burning were 0. 30, 0. 52, 0. 49 and 0. 15, respectively, which can be used to evaluate the influence on the regional air quality in YRD area from biomass burning and provide direct evidence for source apportionment. PMID:25055647

Tang, Xi-Bin; Huang, Cheng; Lou, Sheng-Rong; Qiao, Li-Ping; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ming-hua; Chen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Qian; Li, Gui-Ling; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Gang-Feng

2014-05-01

265

Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Certain wheat gluten proteins form large protein polymers that are extractable in 0.5% SDS only after sonication. Although there is a strong relationship between the amounts of these polymers in the flour and bread-making quality, the protein components of these polymers have not been thoroughly investigated. Results Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication. Proteins were further separated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) into monomeric and polymeric fractions and analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). When proteins in select 2-DE spots were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), overlapping spots from the different protein fractions often yielded different identifications. Most high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) partitioned into the polymer fractions, while most gliadins were found in the monomer fractions. The exceptions were alpha, gamma and omega gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues. These proteins were detected in all fractions, but comprised the largest proportion of the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. Several types of non-gluten proteins also were found in the polymer fractions, including serpins, triticins and globulins. All three types were found in the largest proportions in the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. Conclusions This is the first study to report the accumulation of gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues in the SDS-extractable glutenin polymer fraction, supporting the hypothesis that these gliadins serve as chain terminators of the polymer chains. These data make it possible to formulate hypotheses about how protein composition influences polymer size and structure and provide a foundation for future experiments aimed at determining how environment affects glutenin polymer distribution. In addition, the analysis revealed additional layers of complexity to the wheat flour proteome that should be considered when evaluating quantitative 2-DE data. PMID:24517725

2014-01-01

266

Title: Kentucky Bluegrass Straw Utilization: Genetic and Management Factors Influencing Pulping Requirements and Papermaking Properties Objectives: The main goal of this interdisciplinary project is to stimulate an integration of the PNW paper and agricultural industries for improving their environmental and economic sustainability. Specific research objectives were to: 1. evaluate Kentucky bluegrass straw as a potential raw material for papermaking and soil amendments\\/fertilizers. â assess variations in straw characteristics related to fiber quality among commercial cultivars used in the PNW. â relate fiber characteristics to paper making quality of the pulp derived from bluegrass â evaluate pulping liquor byproducts from Kentucky bluegrass straw as potential soil amendments\\/fertilizers. 2. optimize straw pulping, fiber blending and black liquor processing for producing paper medium, molded paper products, soil amendments and hydroseeding products. 3. Contribute above-generated resear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was not renewed after the first year of phase II. In light of the discontinuation of funding, projects were culminated, summarized and publications were finalized. Commercial pilot studies on making molded paper products were successfully executed with wheat and bluegrass straw by UW. Bluegrass straw black liquor's strong alkalinity increases soil pH, has modest effects on soil EC,

William L. Pan; William T. McKean; M. Lewis; William J. Johnston; Lou Edwards

267

Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition and corrosion measurements were conducted at a 10 MW wheat straw fired stoker boiler used for combined power and heat production. The plant experiences major problems with deposits on the heat transfer surfaces, and test probes have shown enhanced corrosion due to selective corrosion for metal temperatures above 520°C. Deposition measurements carried out at a position equal to the

Hanne Philbert Michelsen; Flemming Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Ole Hede Larsen

1998-01-01

268

Study of chemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification for producing fermentable sugars from rice straw.  

PubMed

This study evaluated a cost-effective approach for the conversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars. The composition of rice straw pretreated with 1 % sulfuric acid or 1 % sodium hydroxide solution was compared to rice straw with no chemical pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification experiments on non-pretreated rice straw (NPRS), pretreated rice straw (PRS), and pretreated rice straw with acid hydrolysate (PRSAH) were conducted in a series of batch reactors. The results indicated that pretreating the rice straw with dilute acid and base increased the cellulose content from 38 % to over 50 %. During enzymatic saccharification, straight aliphatic cellulose was hydrolyzed before branched hemicellulose, and glucose was the major hydrolysis product. The glucose yield was 0.52 g glucose/g for NPRS and was comparable to the yields of 0.50 g glucose/g for PRS and 0.58 g glucose/g for PRSAH. The hydrolysis of rice straw to produce glucose can be described by a first-order reaction with a rate constant of 0.0550 d(-1) for NPRS, 0.0653 d(-1) for PRSAH, and 0.0654 d(-1) for PRS. Overall, the production of fermentable sugars from ground rice straw will be more cost effective if the straw is not pretreated with chemicals. PMID:24346765

Chen, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jih-Gaw

2014-07-01

269

Effect of wheat middlings-based total mixed ration on milk production and composition responses of lactating dairy ewes.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) containing wheat middlings (WM) from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Appulo) as a corn grain substitute on milk yield and composition performance was measured in Comisana×Leccese crossbred lactating ewes. Forty ewes were divided into 2 equal groups and fed 1 of the 2 experimental diets for 18 wk. The control diet contained 255 g of corn/kg of dry matter (DM) as the main starch source, whereas the experimental diet contained 500 g of WM/kg of DM. To evaluate the in vivo digestibility of pelleted TMR, 4 adult rams were placed in metabolic cages and their individual feces and urine were collected. In the performance trial, ewe milk yield was recorded daily and individual milk samples were analyzed weekly for milk composition and to determine milk renneting parameters. The ewes fed both diets showed similar DM, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes. Digestibility of DM, organic matter, and crude protein of the 2 TMR was similar, but neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher in the WM diet. In the milking trial, the WM diet increased milk fat percentage and yield but had no effect on milk yield, protein, lactose, and clotting properties compared with the control diet. Our findings indicate that WM can be fed to lactating ewes as an alternative to more traditional concentrate sources such as corn. Feeding 50% of WM in a lactation diet supported milking performance in a manner similar a corn-based diet. Moreover, the results may be applied in countries where corn cultivation is adversely affected by the high cost of production. PMID:21183048

Tufarelli, V; Laudadio, V

2011-01-01

270

Thermal degradation of cereal straws in air and nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The termogravimetric behavior of four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50{degrees}C/min) in air and nitrogen atmospheres. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were determined for these straws in both atmospheres. Increasing the heating rate increased the thermal degradation rate, and decreased both the initial degradation temperature and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The higher the cellulosic content of the straw, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the straw resulted in higher residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The thermal degradation rate in active pyrolysis zone was lower in air atmosphere than in nitrogen atmosphere, whereas the thermal degradation rate in passive pyrolysis zone and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were higher in nitrogen atmosphere than in air atmosphere.

Ghaly, A.E.; Ergundenler, A. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia (Canada)

1991-12-31

271

Species Composition and Diversity of Parasitoids and Hyper-Parasitoids in Different Wheat Agro-Farming Systems  

PubMed Central

Insect communities depend on both their local environment and features of the surrounding habitats. Diverse plant communities may enhance the abundance and species diversity of local natural enemies, which is possible due to a higher abundance and species diversity in complex landscapes. This hypothesis was tested using cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids by comparing 18 spring wheat fields, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), in structurally-complex landscapes (dominated by semi-natural habitat, > 50%, n = 9) and structurally-simple landscapes dominated by arable landscape (dominated by crop land, > 80%, n = 9). The agricultural landscape structure had significant effects on the number of parasitoid and hyper-parasitoid species, as 26 species (17 parasitoids and 9 hyper-parasitoids) were found in the complex landscapes and 21 were found in the simple landscapes (14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids). Twenty-one species occurred in both landscape types, including 14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids species. The species diversity of parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids were significantly different between the complex and simple landscapes. In addition, arable fields in structurally-simple agricultural landscapes with little semi-natural habitats could support a lower diversity of cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids than structurally-complex landscapes. These findings suggest that cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids need to find necessary resources in structurally-complex landscapes, and generalizations are made concerning the relationship between landscape composition and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Overall, abundance, species richness, and species diversity increased with increasing plant diversity and landscape complexity in spring wheat fields and increasing amounts of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape. PMID:24773471

Zhao, Zi-hua; Liu, Jun-He; He, Da-Han; Guan, Xiao-qin; Liu, Wen-Hui

2013-01-01

272

Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs) using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3?m-type and 1–3?s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work provided new insights into the composition and function of 18 LMW-GS alleles in bread wheat. The variation of i-type genes mainly contributed to the high diversity of Glu-A3 alleles, and the differences among Glu-B3 alleles were mainly derived from the high polymorphism of s-type genes. Among LMW-GS alleles, Glu-A3e and Glu-B3c represented inferior alleles for bread-making quality, whereas Glu-A3d, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g and Glu-B3i were correlated with superior bread-making quality. Glu-D3 alleles played minor roles in determining quality variation in bread wheat. Thus, LMW-GS alleles not only affect dough extensibility but greatly contribute to the dough resistance, glutenin macro-polymers and bread quality. PMID:23259617

2012-01-01

273

First survey of the wheat chromosome 5A composition through a next generation sequencing approach.  

PubMed

Wheat is one of the world's most important crops and is characterized by a large polyploid genome. One way to reduce genome complexity is to isolate single chromosomes using flow cytometry. Low coverage DNA sequencing can provide a snapshot of individual chromosomes, allowing a fast characterization of their main features and comparison with other genomes. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a 2x coverage of wheat chromosome 5A. The resulting sequence assembly was used to identify TEs, genes and miRNAs, as well as to infer a virtual gene order based on the synteny with other grass genomes. Repetitive elements account for more than 75% of the genome. Gene content was estimated considering non-redundant reads showing at least one match to ESTs or proteins. The results indicate that the coding fraction represents 1.08% and 1.3% of the short and long arm respectively, projecting the number of genes of the whole chromosome to approximately 5,000. 195 candidate miRNA precursors belonging to 16 miRNA families were identified. The 5A genes were used to search for syntenic relationships between grass genomes. The short arm is closely related to Brachypodium chromosome 4, sorghum chromosome 8 and rice chromosome 12; the long arm to regions of Brachypodium chromosomes 4 and 1, sorghum chromosomes 1 and 2 and rice chromosomes 9 and 3. From these similarities it was possible to infer the virtual gene order of 392 (5AS) and 1,480 (5AL) genes of chromosome 5A, which was compared to, and found to be largely congruent with the available physical map of this chromosome. PMID:22028874

Vitulo, Nicola; Albiero, Alessandro; Forcato, Claudio; Campagna, Davide; Dal Pero, Francesca; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Colaiacovo, Moreno; Faccioli, Primetta; Lamontanara, Antonella; Šimková, Hana; Kubaláková, Marie; Perrotta, Gaetano; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Pietrella, Marco; Gianese, Giulio; Doležel, Jaroslav; Giuliano, Giovanni; Cattivelli, Luigi; Valle, Giorgio; Stanca, A Michele

2011-01-01

274

Effect of amino acids on the composition and properties of extruded mixtures of wheat flour and glucose.  

PubMed

Wheat flour was extruded at 100-120 degrees C with 5% D-glucose or mixtures of 5% D-glucose and 0.5% or 2.0% of L-alanine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-threonine or L-cysteine. The extent of browning was only moderate, and yellow and red pigments were produced. The odour intensity increased with the addition of either glucose or a mixture of glucose and amino acids; the odour was not significantly intensive according to sensory acceptancy analysis. The odour profile was influenced by the structure of amino acid present in the extruded material. The addition of D-glucose increased the production of furan derivatives, and in lesser degree, of pyrazines in the extruded product. The pyrazine content increased with the addition of amino acids, except cysteine which enhanced the production of sulphur compounds instead of pyrazines. The composition of the pyrazine fraction varied depending on the amino acid added. Pretreatment of D-glucose with an amino acid in aqueous solution affected the composition of volatiles, but it did not significantly enhance the pyrazine production. PMID:10907241

Farouk, A; Pudil, F; Janda, V; Pokorný, J

2000-06-01

275

Effect of fermentation conditions on L-lactic Acid production from soybean straw hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Four types of straw, namely, soybean, wheat, corn, and rice, were investigated for use in lactic acid production. These straws were mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. After pretreatment with ammonia, the cellulose content increased, whereas the hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Analytical results also showed that the liquid enzymatic hydrolysates were primarily composed of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. Preliminary experiments showed that a higher lactic acid concentration could be obtained from the wheat and soybean straw. However, soybean straw was chosen as the substrate for lactic acid production owing to its high protein content. The maximum lactic acid yield (0.8 g/g) and lactic acid productivity (0.61 g/(l/h)) were obtained with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 35 g/l at 30°C when using Lactobacillus casei (10% inoculum) for a 42 h fermentation period. Thus, the experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using a soybean straw enzymatic hydrolysate as a substrate for lactic acid production. PMID:25152056

Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Wenyu; Xiang, Juan

2015-01-28

276

Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.  

PubMed

The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordão presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordão and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different concentrations of different metals. The advantages of using INAA are the multielementality, low detection limits and use of solid samples (no need of digestion). PMID:21367605

Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

2011-11-01

277

Characterization of photosynthetic pigment composition, photosystem II photochemistry and thermal energy dissipation during leaf senescence of wheat plants grown in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic pigment composition and photo- system II (PSII) photochemistry were characterized during the flag leaf senescence of wheat plants grown in the field. During leaf senescence, neo- xanthin and b-carotene decreased concomitantly with chlorophyll, whereas lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments were less affected, leading to increases in lutein\\/chlorophyll and xanthophyll cycle pigments\\/chlorophyll ratios. The chlorophyll a\\/b ratio also increased. With

Congming Lu; Qingtao Lu; Jianhua Zhang; Tingyun Kuang

2001-01-01

278

Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus.  

PubMed

The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

Kholif, A E; Khattab, H M; El-Shewy, A A; Salem, A Z M; Kholif, A M; El-Sayed, M M; Gado, H M; Mariezcurrena, M D

2014-03-01

279

Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus  

PubMed Central

The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

2014-01-01

280

Microbial community composition is consistent across anaerobic digesters processing wheat-based fuel ethanol waste streams.  

PubMed

Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted on byproducts from dry-grind wheat-based ethanol plants amended with feedlot manure at two input ratios. Whole stillage (WST), thin stillage (TST) and wet cake (WCK) were tested alone and with 1:1 and 2:1 ratios (VS basis) of byproduct:feedlot manure in bench-scale batch reactors. The addition of manure increased both the rate and consistency of methane production in triplicate reactors. In addition, digesters co-digesting thin stillage and cattle manure at 1:1 and 2:1 stillage:manure produced 125% and 119% expected methane based on the biomethane potential of each substrate digested individually. Bacterial community analysis using universal target amplification and pyrosequencing indicated there was a numerically dominant core of 42 bacteria that was universally present in the reactors regardless of input material. A smaller-scale analysis of the archaeal community showed that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens were present in significant quantities. PMID:24534794

Town, Jennifer; Annand, Holly; Pratt, Dyan; Dumonceaux, Tim; Fonstad, Terrance

2014-04-01

281

XPS and IGC characterization of steam treated triticale straw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface chemical composition and surface energy of native and steam treated triticale straws have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to reveal the effect of steam treatment temperature and time. The XPS results show that the contents of C elements and C-C group on the exterior surface of native triticale straw are much higher than those on the interior surface, indicating that there was a high quantity of wax on the exterior surface of the native triticale straw. Upon steam treatment, both carbon levels and C-C groups reduce with increasing steam temperature and treatment time of the exterior surfaces. However, the effect of steam treatment on the interior surface is very limited. In terms of the surface acid and base properties, the steam treated samples exhibited higher acid and base properties than the native sample, indicating a more polar surface of the steam treated sample.

Zhao, Liyan; Boluk, Yaman

2010-10-01

282

Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of rice straw by microwave pretreatment.  

PubMed

In this study, Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology were employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave pretreatment of rice straw. Experimental results show that microwave intensity (MI), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the enzymatic saccharification of rice straw. The maximal efficiencies of cellulose, hemicellulose and total saccharification were respectively increased by 30.6%, 43.3% and 30.3% under the optimal conditions of MI 680 W, IT 24 min and SC 75 g/L. The chemical composition analysis of straw further confirmed that microwave pretreatment could disrupt the silicified waxy surface, break down the lignin-hemicellulose complex and partially remove silicon and lignin. PMID:18930389

Ma, Huan; Liu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xing; Wu, Yue-Jin; Yu, Zeng-Liang

2009-02-01

283

Effect of heat and drought stress on the structure and composition of arabinoxylan and ?-glucan in wheat grain.  

PubMed

The effects of heat (H), drought (D) and H+D (from 12th day after heading for 15 days) on the dietary fiber content and composition (arabinoxylan (AX) and ?-glucan) of three winter wheat varieties (Plainsman V, Mv Magma and Fatima 2) were determined. Results showed that H and D stress decreased the TKW, the ?-glucan contents of the seeds and the quantity of the DP3+DP4 units, while the protein and AX contents increased. The highest amounts of AX and proteins were in the H+D stressed samples with heat stress also increasing the water extractability (WE) of the AX. However, while the content of AX content was generally increased by all stresses, drought stress had negative effect on the AX content of the drought tolerant Plainsman V. Fatima 2 behaved similarly to Plainsman V as regards to its drought tolerance, but was very sensitive to heat stress, while Mv Magma was the most resistant to heat stress. PMID:24507319

Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Balla, Krisztina; Láng, László; Bed?, Zoltán; Veisz, Ottó; Shewry, Peter R

2014-02-15

284

Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.  

PubMed

Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively). PMID:17662601

Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

2008-05-01

285

Degradation and utilization of cellulose and straw by three different anaerobic fungi from the ovine rumen.  

PubMed Central

Three different ruminal fungi, a Neocallimastix sp. (strain LM-1), a Piromonas sp. (strain SM-1), and a Sphaeromonas sp. (strain NM-1), were grown anaerobically in liquid media which contained a suspension of either 1% (wt/vol) purified cellulose or finely milled wheat straw as the source of fermentable carbon. Fungal biomass was estimated by using cell wall chitin or cellular protein in cellulose cultures and chitin in straw cultures. Both strains LM-1 and SM-1 degraded cellulose with a concomitant increase in fungal biomass. Maximum growth of both fungi occurred after incubation for 4 days, and the final yield of protein was the same for both fungi. Cellulose degradation continued after growth ceased. Strain NM-1 failed to grow in the cellulose medium. All three anaerobic fungi grew in the straw-containing medium, and loss of dry weight from the cultures indicated degradation of straw to various degrees (LM-1 greater than SM-1 greater than NM-1). The total fiber component and the cellulose component of the straw were degraded in similar proportions, but the lignin component remained undegraded by any of the fungi. Maximum growth yield on straw occurred after 4 days for strain LM-1 and after 5 days for strains SM-1 and NM-1. The calculated yield of cellular protein for strain LM-1 was twice that of both strains SM-1 and NM-1. The cellular protein yield of strain SM-1 was the same in both cellulose and straw cultures. In contrast to cellulose, straw degradation ceased after the end of the growth phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2764575

Gordon, G L; Phillips, M W

1989-01-01

286

Process optimization for the preparation of straw feedstuff for rearing yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) in BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been confirmed in our previous work that in bioregenerative life support systems, feeding yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) using fermented straw has the potential to provide good animal protein for astronauts, meanwhile treating with plant wastes. However, since the nitrogen content in straw is very low, T. molitor larvae can not obtain sufficient nitrogen, which results in a relatively low growth efficiency. In this study, wheat straw powder was mixed with simulated human urine before fermentation. Condition parameters, e.g. urine:straw ratio, moisture content, inoculation dose, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and pH were optimized using Taguchi method. Larval growth rate and average individual mass of mature larva increased significantly in the group of T. molitor larvae fed with feedstuff prepared with the optimized process.

Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong

2012-07-01

287

Microbial community responsible for the decomposition of rice straw in a paddy field: estimation by phospholipid fatty acid analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the microbial communities responsible for rice straw decomposition in paddy field, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition of leaf sheaths and blades was analyzed during the decomposition of both residues under upland conditions after harvest and under flooded conditions at the time of transplanting of rice plants. In addition, rice straw that had been placed in the field under

Asumi Nakamura; ChoCho Tun; Susumu Asakawa; Makoto Kimura

2003-01-01

288

Environmentally-induced changes in protein composition in developing grains of wheat are related to changes in total protein content.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) nutrition, post-anthesis temperature and drought-induced changes in the kinetics of accumulation of dry mass, total grain N and protein fractions (albumins-globulins, amphiphils, gliadins, and glutenins) contents were examined for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crops were grown in controlled environment tunnels in 1994 and 1998. In 1994, five post-anthesis temperatures averaging from 15-25 degrees C were applied during grain-filling. In 1998 two post-anthesis temperatures averaging 13 degrees C and 20 degrees C were applied and factorized with two post-anthesis water regimes. In 1994 crops also were grown in the field, where different application rates and timing of N nutrition were tested. When expressed in thermal time, the kinetics of accumulation of the protein fractions were not significantly affected by post-anthesis temperature or drought; whereas N nutrition significantly increased the rate and duration of accumulation of storage proteins. Albumin-globulin proteins accumulated during the early stage of grain development. The rate of accumulation of that fraction decreased significantly at c. 250 degrees Cd after anthesis, when the storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins) started to accumulate significantly. Single allometric relationships for the different environmental conditions exist between the quantity of each protein fraction and the total quantity of N per grain. From these results it was concluded that (1) the process of N partitioning is neither significantly affected by post-anthesis temperature or drought nor by the rate and timing of N nutrition and (2) at maturity, variations in protein fraction composition are mainly because of differences in the total quantity of N accumulated during grain-filling. PMID:12773520

Triboï, Eugène; Martre, Pierre; Triboï-Blondel, Anne-Marie

2003-07-01

289

The formation of submicron aerosol particles, HCl and SO 2 in straw-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of submicron particles, HCl and SO2 in the flue gas from the combustion of straw from wheat, barley and oil seed rape was studied by field measurements on two utility boilers. The concentration of submicron particles varies from 75–2000mgNm-3§§1Nm3 (normal cubic meter)=1m3 gas measured at 1atm and 0°C. and the mean diameter in the range from 0.2 to

Kurt A. Christensen; Michael Stenholm; Hans Livbjerg

1998-01-01

290

Wheat Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... contain wheat. Wheat has been found in some brands of ice cream, marinara sauce, play dough, potato ... Camp List College Traveling Work For Employers Education & Awareness Education Working Group Annual Conference Speaker Proposals Webinars ...

291

Force Components, the Last Straw.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An activity in which students use a rubber band and flexible straws to pull a dynamics cart so that the cart has a consistent angle and, therefore, a consistent horizontal component of force is described. A copy of the handout for the activity is included. (KR)

Fox, Kenneth

1991-01-01

292

The effect of variety and growing conditions on the chemical composition and nutritive value of wheat for broilers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG), in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05) affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F) wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F) wheats. An increase (p<0.1) of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the low seed rate of 40 compared to 640 seeds/m(2). It was concluded that the type of wheat sample and environmental growing conditions significantly affects bird performance when fed wheat-based diets. PMID:25049800

Ball, M E E; Owens, B; McCracken, K J

2013-03-01

293

Evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are fungal plant pathogens producing toxic secondary metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV). In Luxembourg, the Fusarium species composition isolated from symptomatic winter wheat heads was dominated by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) between the years 2009 and 2012, except for 2011, when Fusarium culmorum strains (genetic NIV chemotype) dominated the pathogen complex. Previous reports indicated that F. graminearum sensu stricto (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) was also most frequently isolated from randomly sampled winter wheat kernels including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic kernels in 2007 and 2008. The annual precipitation (average of 10 weather stations scattered across the country) decreased continuously from 924.31mm in 2007 over 917.15mm in 2008, to 843.38mm in 2009, 736.24mm in 2010, and 575.09mm in 2011. In 2012, the annual precipitation increased again to 854.70mm. Hardly any precipitation was recorded around the time of wheat anthesis in the years 2010 and 2011, whereas precipitation levels >50mm within the week preceding anthesis plus the week post anthesis were observed in the other years. The shift to genetic NIV chemotype F. culmorum strains in 2011 was accompanied by a very minor elevation of average NIV contents (2.9ngg(-1)) in the grain. Our data suggest that high NIV levels in Luxembourgish winter wheat are at present rather unlikely, because the indigenous F. culmorum strains with the genetic NIV chemotype seem to be outcompeted under humid in vivo conditions by F. graminearum DON producing strains on the one hand and seem to be inhibited - even though to a lower extent than DON producing strains - under dry in vivo conditions on the other hand. PMID:24859190

Beyer, Marco; Pogoda, Friederike; Pallez, Marine; Lazic, Joëlle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Pasquali, Matias

2014-07-16

294

Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation  

PubMed Central

Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent), biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea) as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4) was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw. PMID:23118505

Feng, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Guo, Yan; Yang, Gaihe; Xi, Jianchao; Ren, Guangxin

2012-01-01

295

Changes in the material characteristics of maize straw during the pretreatment process of methanation.  

PubMed

Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, "result" microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent), biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea) as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4) was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw. PMID:23118505

Feng, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Guo, Yan; Yang, Gaihe; Xi, Jianchao; Ren, Guangxin

2012-01-01

296

Comparison of Seven Chemical Pretreatments of Corn Straw for Improving Methane Yield by Anaerobic Digestion  

PubMed Central

Agriculture straw is considered a renewable resource that has the potential to contribute greatly to bioenergy supplies. Chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion can increase the anaerobic digestibility of agriculture straw. The present study investigated the effects of seven chemical pretreatments on the composition and methane yield of corn straw to assess their effectiveness of digestibility. Four acid reagents (H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, and CH3COOH) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% (w/w) and three alkaline reagents (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and NH3·H2O) at concentrations of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) were used for the pretreatments. All pretreatments were effective in the biodegradation of the lignocellulosic straw structure. The straw, pretreated with 3% H2O2 and 8% Ca(OH)2, acquired the highest methane yield of 216.7 and 206.6 mL CH4 g VS ?1 in the acid and alkaline pretreatments, which are 115.4% and 105.3% greater than the untreated straw. H2O2 and Ca(OH)2 can be considered as the most favorable pretreatment methods for improving the methane yield of straw because of their effectiveness and low cost. PMID:24695485

Song, Zilin; GaiheYang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Liao, Yinzhang

2014-01-01

297

The effect of additions of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash on the yield and composition of seabreeze wheat and sweet sudan grass grown on Austin clay soil in the greenhouse  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF ADDITIONS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHCRIC ACID kND POTASH ON THE IIELD kND COMPOSITION OF SEABRFXZK WHEAT kND SWEET SUDAN GRASS GUNN ON AUSTIN CLAX SOIL IN THE GREENHOUSE k Thesis Flake Leroy Fisher Approved as to style and content hy... Chairean o ttee Head Department of Agronomy January, 1950 THE EFFECT OF ADDITIONS OF NITROGEN& PHOSPHORIC ACID AND POTASH ON THE YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF SEABREE2Z WHEAT AND SHEET SUDAN GRASS GROMN ON AUSTIN CLAY SOIL IN THE GREENHOUSE Flake Leroy...

Fisher, Flake Leroy

1950-01-01

298

Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid lead to increasing conversion of hemicellulose to xylose. In contrast, increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations degrade the hemicellulose to unknown derivates. Consequently, almost no sugars from hemicellulose remain for fermentation. The hydrolysis of sulfuric acid pretreated straw results in a maximum glucose concentration of 100 g/kg straw and a xylose concentration of nearly 30 g/kg. Sodium hydroxide pretreated and hydrolyzed straw leads to a maximum glucose concentration of 90 g/kg straw and a xylose concentration of nearly 20 g/kg. In comparison to the two chemical pretreatment methods (sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid pretreatment), the steam explosion pretreatment (conditions: temperature 190°C, time 20 minutes) results in a higher glucose concentration of about 190 g/kg straw and a xylose concentration of nearly 75 g/kg straw after enzymatic hydrolysis of the dried straw. Because of the small effect the sodium hydroxide pretreatment has on xylose recovery, this method won't be used for separation and conversion of hemicellulose into xylose and arabinose. Although pretreatment with sulfuric acid achieved promising results, further research and economical considerations have to be performed. In conclusion, the steam explosion method is still the state of the art pretreatment method for the production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Alkaline methods destroy most of the xylose part of the sugar fraction and a loss of up to 25 % of the fermentable sugars is not acceptable for a sustainable biofuel production. The acid pretreatment yields high amounts of accessible hemicellulose and cellulose, but the consumption of chemicals for acid pretreatment and neutralization has to be taken into account when considering technical implementation.

Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

2013-04-01

299

Registration of ‘Warhorse’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Warhorse’ (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

300

Registration of Warhorse wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Warhorse' (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

301

Flocculation of high purity wheat straw soda lignin.  

PubMed

In industrial process, acidification causes non-sulfonated lignin insolubility. The flocculants poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) and bovine blood (BB) also caused lignin insolubility while cationic polyacrylamide, chitosan, and soy protein PF 974 were ineffective. Turbidity determined optimal flocculant, but turbidity magnitude with BB was greater than expected. pDADMAC caused negative lignin Zeta potential to became positive, but BB-lignin Zeta potential was always negative. Insoluble lignin did not gravity sediment, and flocculant-lignin mixtures were centrifuged. Pellet and supernatant dry mass and corrected spectroscopic results were in good agreement for optimal pDADMAC and BB. Spectroscopy showed 87-92% loss of supernatant lignin. Nitrogen analysis showed BB concentrated in the pellet until the pellet became saturated with BB. Subtracting ash and BB mass from pellet and supernatant mass confirmed optimal BB. Low levels of alum caused increased lignin flocculation at lower levels of pDADMAC and BB, but alum did not affect optimal flocculant. PMID:24326211

Piazza, G J; Lora, J H; Garcia, R A

2014-01-01

302

Use of near-isogenic wheat lines to determine glutenin and gliadin composition and funtionality in flour tortillas  

E-print Network

tortilla baking quality. Near-isogenic wheat lines in which one or more of these loci were absent or deleted were used in the study. These lines were analyzed using SSR primers to verify the chromosome deletions. A standard SDS PAGE gel and a Lab on Chip...

Mondal, Suchismita

2006-10-30

303

Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication and further separated by size exclusion chromatography into monomeric and polymeric fractions. Proteins in each fraction were analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel...

304

Bioethanol production from rice straw residues  

PubMed Central

A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L?1. PMID:24159309

Belal, Elsayed B.

2013-01-01

305

Effects of application of corn straw on soil microbial community structure during the maize growing season.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of corn straw application on soil microbial communities and the relationship between such communities and soil properties in black soil. The crop used in this study was maize (Zea mays L.). The five treatments consisted of applying a gradient (50, 100, 150, and 200%) of shattered corn straw residue to the soil. Soil samples were taken from May through September during the 2012 maize growing season. The microbial community structure was determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Our results revealed that the application of corn straw influenced the soil properties and increased the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Applying corn straw to fields also influenced the variation in soil microbial biomass and community composition, which is consistent with the variations found in soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil respiration (SR). However, the soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio had no effect on soil microbial communities. The abundance of PLFAs, TN, and SR was higher in C1.5 than those in other treatments, suggesting that the soil properties and soil microbial community composition were affected positively by the application of corn straw to black soil. A Principal Component Analysis indicated that soil microbial communities were different in the straw decomposition processes. Moreover, the soil microbial communities from C1.5 were significantly different from those of CK (p?straw treatments that correlated with SR (p?straw positively influences soil properties and soil microbial communities and that these properties affect these communities. The individual PLFA signatures were sensitive indicators that reflected the changes in the soil environment condition. PMID:24652702

Lu, Ping; Lin, Yin-Hua; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Yan-Peng; Tan, Fei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Wang, Miao; Xu, De-Rong; Wang, Xi-Zhuo

2015-01-01

306

A novel method for determination of the (15) N isotopic composition of Rubisco in wheat plants exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Although ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is mostly known as a key enzyme involved in CO2 assimilation during the Calvin cycle, comparatively little is known about its role as a pool of nitrogen storage in leaves. For this purpose, we developed a protocol to purify Rubisco that enables later analysis of its (15) N isotope composition (?(15) N) at the natural abundance and (15) N-labeled plants. In order to test the utility of this protocol, durum wheat (Triticum durum var. Sula) exposed to an elevated CO2 concentration (700 vs 400 µmol mol(-1) ) was labeled with K(15) NO3 (enriched at 2 atom %) during the ear development period. The developed protocol proves to be selective, simple, cost effective and reproducible. The study reveals that (15) N labeling was different in total organic matter, total soluble protein and the Rubisco fraction. The obtained data suggest that photosynthetic acclimation in wheat is caused by Rubisco depletion. This depletion may be linked to preferential nitrogen remobilization from Rubisco toward grain filling. PMID:25272325

Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Avice, Jean Christophe; Bourguignon, Jacques

2015-02-01

307

Wheat Newsletter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

308

Age Norms for Straw-Drinking Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 28 infants (ages 8-12 months) investigated their ability to drink from a straw. Results indicate 22 percent were not able to drink from a straw, whereas 78 percent were able to do so. Data failed to reveal any significant differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity. (Contains nine references.) (Author/CR)

Hunt, Lauren; Lewis, Danielle; Reisel, Sharon; Waldrup, Lanae; Wooster, Donna M. Adam

2000-01-01

309

Microbial communities responsible for the decomposition of rice straw compost in a Japanese rice paddy field determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the microbial communities responsible for the decomposition of rice straw compost in soil during the rice cultivation period, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition of rice straw compost was determined by periodically sampling the compost from a Japanese rice field under flooded conditions. About 21% of the compost was decomposed within a period of 3 months. The total amount

Takanori Tanahashi; Jun Murase; Kazuo Matsuya; Susumu Asakawa; Makoto Kimura

2004-01-01

310

Chemical composition in relation with biomass ash structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass combustion can be more complicated like combustion of fossil fuels because it is necessary to solve problems with lower ash melting temperature. It can cause a lot of problems during combustion process. Chemical composition of biomass ash has great impact on sinters and slags creation in ash because it affects structure of heated ash. In this paper was solved relation between chemical composition and structure of heated ash from three types of biomass (spruce wood, miscanthus giganteus and wheat straw). Amount of SiO2, CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and K2O was determined. Structure of heated ash was optically determined after heating to 1000 °C or 1200 °C. Results demonstrated that chemical composition has strong effect on structure and color of heated ash.

Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef

2014-08-01

311

Shifts of functional gene representation in wheat rhizosphere microbial communities under elevated ozone  

PubMed Central

Although the influence of ozone (O3) on plants has been well studied in agroecosystems, little is known about the effect of elevated O3 (eO3) on soil microbial functional communities. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to investigate the functional composition, and structure of rhizosphere microbial communities of Yannong 19 (O3-sensitive) and Yangmai 16 (O3-relatively sensitive) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under eO3. Compared with ambient O3 (aO3), eO3 led to an increase in soil pH and total carbon (C) percentages in grain and straw of wheat plants, and reduced grain weight and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Based on GeoChip hybridization signal intensities, although the overall functional structure of rhizosphere microbial communities did not significantly change by eO3 or cultivars, the results showed that the abundance of specific functional genes involved in C fixation and degradation, nitrogen (N) fixation, and sulfite reduction did significantly (P<0.05) alter in response to eO3 and/or wheat cultivars. Also, Yannong 19 appeared to harbor microbial functional communities in the rhizosphere more sensitive in response to eO3 than Yangmai 16. Additionally, canonical correspondence analysis suggested that the functional structure of microbial community involved in C cycling was largely shaped by soil and plant properties including pH, DOC, microbial biomass C, C/N ratio and grain weight. This study provides new insight into our understanding of the influence of eO3 and wheat cultivars on soil microbial communities. PMID:23151639

Li, Xinyu; Deng, Ye; Li, Qi; Lu, Caiyan; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

2013-01-01

312

Dissipation kinetics and residues of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl in wheat ecosystem.  

PubMed

The dissipation kinetics and residual levels of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl in wheat field ecosystem were determined using a quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged and safe method (QuEChERS) with rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl at three spiking levels in wheat plant, soil, wheat straw and wheat grain ranged from 72.8% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10.1% and 82.5% to 103.8% with RSDs were less than 9.4%, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl for wheat plant, wheat straw, wheat grain and soil were 0.01, 0.01, 0.005, 0.005mgkg(-1), respectively. The field trials results showed that the half-lives of florasulam were 2.76-10.83d. Half-lives for tribenuron-methyl were found to be 1.27-5.37d. The terminal residues in wheat grain were much lower than maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by China (0.01mgkg(-1) for florasulam and 0.05mgkg(-1) for tribenuron-methyl), which considered to be safe for human beings. These results will contribute to establishing the scientific basis of the dosage of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl for use in wheat field ecosystems. PMID:25268470

Dong, Bizhang; Qian, Wei; Hu, Jiye

2015-02-01

313

Assessment of Straw Biomass Feedstock Resources in the Pacific Northwest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Straw is produced as a coproduct of cereal grain and grass seed production on 6.2 million acres in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Some of this straw residue is returned to the soil for conservation purposes, but markets for excess straw are limited. As a consequence, much of this straw was burne...

314

Nutritional evaluation of wheat and barley cultivars by growth rate and body composition of larvae of Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

Larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., Gembloux strain, race F, were reared on diets of 17 cultivars of wheat and 29 cultivars of barley, prepared for determination of digestible energy with mice, for 4 weeks at 27 +/- 0.25 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% relative humidity. Values for percentage crude protein of tissues of larvae fed wheat cultivars were significantly and positively correlated with values for digestible energy as determined with mice. These values were not correlated for larvae fed barley cultivars; however, values for per cent dry matter content of larvae were significantly and positively correlated with values for digestible energy determined with mice. This apparent discrepancy is explained on the basis of the chemical constitution of barley and the availability of amino acids of barley to the larvae. Use of larvae of Tenebrio molitor to indicate the digestible energy of cereal grains is feasible, provided that the proper parameter is chosen. Nevertheless, use of this biological method seems more suitable for evaluation of protein quality and of amino acid availability than for a measure of digestible energy of feeds. PMID:71027

Davis, G R; Sosulski, F W

1976-04-01

315

Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.  

PubMed

Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg?¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg?¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg?¹ dw). PMID:23749039

Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

2013-08-01

316

Quanah Wheat.  

E-print Network

.* , . + , "r-,."* $,' . - .-A$ . -. EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMEE~T STATION r R. D. Mjtector. Wege Station, Texas % Au!ui& 734 Ahq 1951 QUANAH WHEAT I. M. ATKINS Digest This bulletin reports the development and characteristics of Quanah, a... new disease-resistant hard red winter wheat of excellent quality, which is now available to Texas farmers. This new variety was developed in the cooperative small grain improvement program of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station...

Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1951-01-01

317

Wheat: The Whole Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

318

Characteristics of diethylenetriamine-crosslinked cotton stalk\\/wheat stalk and their biosorption capacities for phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two polymeric biosorbents were prepared from cotton stalk (CS) and wheat straw (WS) by the epichlorohydrin–diethylenetriamine–trimethylamine method. Amine-crosslinked cotton stalk (AC-CS) and wheat stalk (AC-WS) were used for the adsorption of phosphate, and their physicochemical properties as well as biosorption properties for phosphate were discussed intensively. Results indicated that the contents of holocellulose in CS and WS corresponded to the

Xing Xu; Yue Gao; Baoyu Gao; Xin Tan; Ya-Qin Zhao; Qinyan Yue; Yan Wang

2011-01-01

319

[The nutritive value of wheat germ floc].  

PubMed

The experimental investigation of the food value of wheat germ floc included the study of their chemical composition, biological value, and assimilability of the protein. Basing on the results obtained the authors have made a conclusion on the high food value of wheat germ floc and on their promising use as enriching additives to varying foodstuffs. PMID:2399684

Safronova, A M; Vysotski?, V G; Narodetskaia, R V; Trushina, E N; Sandakova, G K; Kolkunova, G K

1990-01-01

320

Producing Pine Straw in East Texas Forests  

E-print Network

quality mulch for landscapes and gardens. Producing Pine Straw in East Texas Forests Eric L. Taylor, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist C. Darwin Foster, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader in Forestry The Texas A&M University...

Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

2004-01-09

321

Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol (THFA) Pulping of Rice Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 80–95% solution of tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA) added with 0.15–0.5% catalytic hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used to pulp rice straw. The pulping conditions applied for organosolv digestions of the straw at atmospheric pressure and 120°C cooking for 4 h. The characteristics of the digestion, chemical properties of the resulting pulp, and the handsheet physical properties were evaluated. As for the

C. L. Ho; E. I. C. Wang; Y. C. Su

2009-01-01

322

Or ganosol v deligni … cat ion of st eam exploded wheat st r aw  

Microsoft Academic Search

I t has been increasing the interest in the study of alternative pulping processes that conciliate high performance and protection to the environment. I n the same way, the use of agricultural residues has been more and more reminded as promising raw material for production of chemical products. The wheat straw is a very abundant agricultural residue and it has

M. R. Rosa; G. J. M. Rocha

323

The Impact of Post-Pretreatment Conditioning on Enzyme Accessibility and Water Interactions in Alkali Pretreated Rice Straw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice straw, a high-abundance lignocellulosic residue from rice production has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biofuel production in California. In this study, the impact of post-alkali pretreatment conditioning schemes on enzyme saccharification efficiency was examined, particularly focusing on understanding resulting biomass compositional impacts on water interactions with the biomass and enzyme accessibility to the cellulose fraction. Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide and subsequently washed by two different conditions: 1) by extensive washing with distilled water to reduce the pH to the optimum for cellulases which is pH 5--6, and 2) immediate pH adjustment to pH 5--6 with hydrochloric acid before extensive washing with distilled water. The two post-pretreatment conditions gave significant differences in ash, acid-insoluble lignin, glucan and xylan compositions. Alkali pretreatment improved cellulase digestibility of rice straw, and water washing improved enzymatic digestibility more than neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions with a purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A, a reducing-end specific cellulase, demonstrated that the differences in saccharification are likely due to differences in the accessibility of the cellulose fraction to the cellulolytic enzymes. Further analyses were conducted to study the mobility of the water associated with the rice straw samples by measuring T2 relaxation times of the water protons by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed significant changes in water association with the rice straw due to the pretreatment and due to the two different post-pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment increased the amount of water at the surface of the rice straw samples as indicated by increased amplitude of the shortest T2 time peaks in the relaxation spectra. Moreover, the amount of water in the first T2 pool in the water washed sample was significantly greater than in the neutralized sample. These results suggest that the specific surface area of rice straw accessible to water protons was increased by the alkali pretreatment, likely due to solubilization of alkali-soluble components of the cell walls. Post-pretreatment processes resulted in differences in the specific surface area likely due to re-precipitation of alkali solubilized components during neutralization. The T2 relaxation times of the surface water pool in washed and raw rice straw were not significantly different, at 4.4 and 4.5 ms, respectively, but both T2 times were significantly shorter than that of the neutralized and then washed sample, at 5.5 ms. The expectation was that the T2 times of the surface water peaks would reflect differences in surface composition of the rice straw samples. Further analysis of surface composition is necessary to further interpret the shortest T2 times observed in the samples. The T2 spectra of the rice straw samples contained longer T2 time peaks that were interpreted as differences in porosity of the rice straw due to the treatments. Pretreatment caused physical changes to rice straw that impacted water organization (3 peaks to 4 peaks), but the amount of water in the peaks were greater in the washed rice straw than the neutralized rice straw suggesting that water-washed rice straw had more of the larger pores than the neutralized and then washed rice straw. One possible explanation is that the neutralization caused precipitation of alkali solubilized components that filled the volumes of the pores.

Karuna, Nardrapee

324

Bioaugmentation with an acetate-type fermentation bacterium Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes improves methane production from corn straw.  

PubMed

The effect of bioaugmentation with an acetate-type fermentation bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes on the anaerobic digestion of corn straw was evaluated by batch experiments. Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes is a promising strain for bioaugmentation with relatively high growth rate, hydrogen yields and acetate tolerance, which ferments a broad spectrum of pentoses, hexoses and polyoses mainly into acetate and hydrogen. During corn straw digestion, bioaugmentation with A. hydrogenigenes led to 19-23% increase of the methane yield, with maximum of 258.1mL/g-corn straw achieved by 10% inoculation (control, 209.3mL/g-corn straw). Analysis of lignocellulosic composition indicated that A. hydrogenigenes could increase removal rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses in corn straw residue by 12% and 5%, respectively. Further experiment verified that the addition of A. hydrogenigenes could improve the methane yields of methyl cellulose and xylan (models for cellulose and hemicelluloses, respectively) by 16.8% and 7.0%. PMID:25549904

Zhang, Jie; Guo, Rong-Bo; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Qiao, Jiang-Tao; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Chuan-Shui

2015-03-01

325

Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is\\u000a the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is\\u000a composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid,\\u000a and formic acid). The aim

Miklós Gyalai-Korpos; Réka Mangel; Pablo Alvira; Dóra Dienes; Mercedes Ballesteros; Kati Réczey

2011-01-01

326

Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of Fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were fou...

327

Spring Wheat Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat (various species of the genus Triticum) is a grass originating from the Levant area of the Middle East. However, only hexaploid common wheat (Triticum eastivum), and tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) are presently cultivated worldwide. Not only is wheat an important crop today, it may well have influenced human history.\\u000a Wheat was a key factor enabling the

M. Mergoum; P. K. Singh; J. A. Anderson; R. J. Peña; R. P. Singh; S. S. Xu; J. K. Ransom

328

Changes in Protein Composition and Mn Abundance in Photosystem II Particles on Photoactivation of the Latent O2-Evolving System in Flash-Grown Wheat Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Protein composition and Mn abundance were compared between the two photosystem II (PSII) particle preparations obtained before and after photoactivation of the latent O2-evolving system in intermittently flashed wheat leaves. The following results have been obtained: (a) nonphotoactivated PSII particles were devoid of two extrinsic proteins which corresponded to the 24 and 16 kilodalton proteins in spinach particles, although the particles contained all the intrinsic proteins and the 33 kilodalton extrinsic protein. (b) The two extrinsic proteins absent in nonphotoactivated PSII particles were present in nonphotoactivated thylakoids, but were easily removed by a hypotonic shock followed by brief sonication. Such removal of the proteins did not occur in photoactivated thylakoids. (c) Nonphotoactivated PSII particles contained 1.5 Mn/400 chlorophyll, while photoactivated particles contained 8 Mn/400 chlorophyll. (d) Nonphotoactivated thylakoids contained 6 Mn/400 chlorophyll, but most of them were removed from thylakoids by a hypotonic shock in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Such removal of Mn did not occur in photoactivated thylakoids. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16664613

Ono, Taka-Aki; Kajikawa, Hiroko; Inoue, Yorinao

1986-01-01

329

A study of heritable and other factors influencing shattering in wheat  

E-print Network

** tered in the field, date first head and weight of fifty seed in 1954........ . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 34 7 The main effeots of phosphorus on the percent of grain shattered in the field and on seed weight for the varieties Wichita, Blackhull and Cimarron... was found to be reduced in phosphorus-deficient oat and wheat plants. Phillips (23) analyzed for lignin and other elements in wheat straw. He found that in the chaff of wheat fertilized with 600 pounds of sodium nitrate per acre there was less ash, more...

Porter, Kenneth Boyd

1957-01-01

330

Vacuum straw tracker test beam run  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum of understanding requests beam time at Fermilab during the 2005 Meson Test Beam run to measure the detection inefficiency of vacuum straw tubes. One of the future kaon experiments at J-PARC has the goal to measure the branching ratio of the neutral kaon ''Golden Mode'' K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} with a few hundred event sensitivity. This future J-PARC experiment is a follow up of a current KEK experiment, E391a which has been taking data since February 2004. E391a is a collaboration of five countries (Japan, United States, Russia, Korea, and Taiwan) with ten institutions (KEK, Saga U, Yamagata U, Osaka U, U of Chicago, Pusan U, JINR, NDA, Kyoto U, National Taiwan U, and RCNP). The branching ratio of K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} is small, about 3 x 10{sup -11}. To first order, all kaon decays with final states with charged particles need to be vetoed, and those include K{sub e3}, K{sub {mu}3}, and K{sub {+-}0} (about 80% of all neutral kaon decay). The standard and typical veto power comes from sheet scintillator and may not be adequate. Vacuum straw tubes provides additional, independent and orthogonal veto power, but the detection inefficiency has not been known or measured in a detail way. The inefficiency of the straw has three sources, the electronics, the straw wall/wire, and the gas. We like to perform beam test to measure all three sources. There is much experience in straw detector technology, and some in vacuum straw technology (CKM R&D effort). The possible use of straws in the future K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} experiment will allow absolute photon/electron energy calibration (via K{sub {+-}0} decays), possible measurement of photon inefficiencies (via K{sub 000} with {pi}{sup 0} Dalitz), and as mentioned, charged particle veto. The results of this proposed beam test will provide new knowledge on the absorption cross section and will direct us on design issues for future neutral kaon decay experiments. Regarding the straws, lots of R&D work has been done by the CKM collaboration, and we plan to use as much existing straws setup and related equipment as possible.

Wah, Yau; /Chicago U.

2005-08-01

331

Soil organic carbon dynamics in wheat-maize cropping systems of north China: application of isotope approach to long-term experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon (SOC) in agro-ecosystem is largely influencedby agricultural practices such as croppingand fertilization. However, quantifying the contributions of various crops has been lacking. Here, we applied isotopic approachto study SOC dynamics under wheat-maize rotation with variousfertilization treatments atthree long-term experiment sites innorth China. Three treatments were chosen: no fertilizer (control), chemical nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) and NPK plus straw (NPKS).Soil samples were collected from0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100cm after 13 and 20 years of treatment, and SOC and its stable 13C compositions were determined. Generally, SOC content significantly decreased with depths, from 8.2 ×1.4 g kg-1 (in 0-20 cm) to 3.3×1.0 g kg-1 (in 80-100 cm) across all treatments and sites. Soil ?13C values at all depths, treatments and sites ranged from -24.2‰ to -21.6‰, averaged -22.8‰, indicating that ~70% of SOC was derived from wheat and previous C3 plant, and ~30% from maize and previous C4 plant.Both SOC and soil ?13C were significantly affected by fertilization managements, especiallyin 0-40 cm where linear relationship occurred between SOC and estimated C input. Overall, the slop of the linear equation, i.e., conversion efficiency, was four times greater for wheat-derived C relative to that for maize residue C. Our study indicated that maize-derived C contributed less to C sequestration in wheat-maize rotation system of north China. Figure 1. Relationships between SOC stock (0-40 cm) and accumulated C input for wheat (C3), maize (C4) and total. Significance is marked with one (P < 0.05), two (P < 0.01) and three (P < 0.001) asterisks.

Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Xu, M.; Zhang, W.

2013-12-01

332

Cell Walls of Developing Wheat Starchy Endosperm: Comparison of Composition and RNA-Seq Transcriptome1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The transcriptome of the developing starchy endosperm of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) was determined using RNA-Seq isolated at five stages during grain fill. This resource represents an excellent way to identify candidate genes responsible for the starchy endosperm cell wall, which is dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 70% of the cell wall polysaccharides, with 20% (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan, 7% glucomannan, and 4% cellulose. A complete inventory of transcripts of 124 glycosyltransferase (GT) and 72 glycosylhydrolase (GH) genes associated with cell walls is presented. The most highly expressed GT transcript (excluding those known to be involved in starch synthesis) was a GT47 family transcript similar to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IRX10 involved in xylan extension, and the second most abundant was a GT61. Profiles for GT43 IRX9 and IRX14 putative orthologs were consistent with roles in AX synthesis. Low abundances were found for transcripts from genes in the acyl-coA transferase BAHD family, for which a role in AX feruloylation has been postulated. The relative expression of these was much greater in whole grain compared with starchy endosperm, correlating with the levels of bound ferulate. Transcripts associated with callose (GSL), cellulose (CESA), pectin (GAUT), and glucomannan (CSLA) synthesis were also abundant in starchy endosperm, while the corresponding cell wall polysaccharides were confirmed as low abundance (glucomannan and callose) or undetectable (pectin) in these samples. Abundant transcripts from GH families associated with the hydrolysis of these polysaccharides were also present, suggesting that they may be rapidly turned over. Abundant transcripts in the GT31 family may be responsible for the addition of Gal residues to arabinogalactan peptide. PMID:22123899

Pellny, Till K.; Lovegrove, Alison; Freeman, Jackie; Tosi, Paola; Love, Christopher G.; Knox, J. Paul; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A.C.

2012-01-01

333

Seismic load-resisting capacity of plastered straw bale walls  

E-print Network

Straw bales have been incorporated into buildings for centuries, but only recently have they been explored in academic settings for their structural potential. Straw bale building is encountering a growing audience due to ...

Hsiaw, Jennifer S. (Jennifer Sing-Yee)

2010-01-01

334

Utilization of straw in biomass energy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a big agricultural country and one of the most abundant straw resources in the world, producing more than 620million tons of straw in 2002, and representing about 33–45% of energy consumption for livelihood in rural areas. Utilization of straw as energy with high efficiency and rationality not only meets the demands for energy as the economy grows, but

Xianyang Zeng; Yitai Ma; Lirong Ma

2007-01-01

335

Operating mode of high pressure straws with high spatial resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents results of studying the operating mode of thin-walled drift tubes (straws) at flushing it with a high-pressure gas mixture, which allowed obtaining extremely high spatial resolution for straw detectors. The results of studying the radiation ageing of straws operating in this mode are also described.

Davkov, K. I.; Myalkovskiy, V. V.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Cholakov, V. D.

2014-05-01

336

The effects of added wheat proteins on processing and quality of wheat flour tortillas  

E-print Network

Specific proteins improve quality of flour for breadmaking but protein composition in tortilla flour has not been investigated. Selected wheat protein fractions can separately modify dough resistance and extensibility. This may yield tortillas...

Pascut, Simina

2002-01-01

337

Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Wastewater from Straw Pulp and Paper Mill by Fe2O3\\/UV\\/H2O2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the photocatalytic degradation of real effluents from wheat straw pulp and paper mill by nano-Fe2O3 catalyst. Four different ferric oxide samples were synthesized by homogeneous precipitation of reflux at different drying and calcination conditions. The most active catalyst was characterized and used as catalyst in photocatalytic degradation process. The effect of key

Aimei Li; Haizhen Yang; Yiren Zhu

2011-01-01

338

Pine Straw as a Ground Cover Mulch  

E-print Network

L-5447 1/04 Pine Straw as a Ground Cover Mulch Eric L. Taylor, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist C. Darwin Foster, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader in Forestry The Texas A&M University System T he dead needles...

Taylor, Eric; Tate, Jay

2004-01-09

339

Integrated processes for use of pulps and lignins obtained from sugarcane bagasse and straw: a review of recent efforts in Brazil.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse and straw can be converted into pulps, oils, controlled-release formulations, chelating agents, and composites. This article reviews bagasse and straw conversion efforts in Brazil. Laboratory-scale processes were developed aiming at the integral use of these biomass byprod ucts. Organosolv pulping and oxidation of lignin are the most promising processes for the rational use of sugarcane residues. Fungal pretreatment and spectroscopic characterization are also discussed. PMID:15930561

Gonçalves, Adilson R; Benar, Priscila; Costa, Sirlene M; Ruzene, Denise S; Moriya, Regina Y; Luz, Sandra M; Ferretti, Lais P

2005-01-01

340

Winter and Specialty Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two main commercial types of wheat are durum (Triticum durum L., 2n=4x= 28) and common (T. aestivum L, 2n=6x=42.) wheat, the latter being the more widely grown. Wheat has three growth habits, namely winter (wheats grown over the winter months that require vernalization and can withstand prolong...

341

Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread  

PubMed Central

In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

2014-01-01

342

Effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with high quality cassava flour on the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, sensory quality, and microbial quality of bread.  

PubMed

IN THE CURRENT STUDY, WHEAT FLOUR WAS MIXED WITH HIGH QUALITY CASSAVA FLOUR (HQCF) IN SEVERAL RATIOS: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×10(3) CFU/mL to 1.4×10(4) CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×10(3) CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R(2)=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R(2)=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R(2)=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

2014-06-01

343

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

344

Genetic variability in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi compatibility supports the selection of durum wheat genotypes for enhancing soil ecological services and cropping systems in Canada.  

PubMed

Crop nutrient- and water-use efficiency could be improved by using crop varieties highly compatible with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Two greenhouse experiments demonstrated the presence of genetic variability for this trait in modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) germplasm. Among the five cultivars tested, 'AC Morse' had consistently low levels of AM root colonization and DT710 had consistently high levels of AM root colonization, whereas 'Commander', which had the highest colonization levels under low soil fertility conditions, developed poor colonization levels under medium fertility level. The presence of genetic variability in durum wheat compatibility with AMF was further evidenced by significant genotype × inoculation interaction effects in grain and straw biomass production; grain P, straw P, and straw K concentrations under medium soil fertility level; and straw K and grain Fe concentrations at low soil fertility. Mycorrhizal dependency was an undesirable trait of 'Mongibello', which showed poor growth and nutrient balance in the absence of AMF. An AMF-mediated reduction in grain Cd under low soil fertility indicated that breeding durum wheat for compatibility with AMF could help reduce grain Cd concentration in durum wheat. Durum wheat genotypes should be selected for compatibility with AMF rather than for mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:22356605

Singh, A K; Hamel, C; Depauw, R M; Knox, R E

2012-03-01

345

Surface characterization of lignocellulosics for composite manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this research were to form moisture resistant wheat strawboards, either by altering the straw surface characteristics or by changing the chemistry of the polymeric 4, 4' diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI)-based matrix and interface. Part I compared the surface characteristics of wheat, barley, oat, rice, kenaf, hemp and softwood particles. All cereal straws had two surfaces: epidermis and brittle-pith unlike one heterogeneous type observed for bast fibers and softwood particles. The epidermis of cereal straws was not wet by water or aqueous binders, whereas the pith surface allowed the penetration of water, but was not readily wetted by aqueous binders. Between the different surface treatments evaluated for wheat straw in Part II, NaOH selectively peeled-off the epidermis and pith layers. The treated straw particles were formable into strawboards using aqueous phenol-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, and duroplastic acrylic acid binders with good internal bond strength (IBS) and adequate water resistance. In Part III it was shown that, decreasing straw particle sizes and bleaching worsened the mechanical properties of strawboards, but the moisture absorption properties of bleached strawboards were lower than the unbleached ones. Layering of straw particles in strawboards did not seem to affect their mechanical or moisture absorption properties. Part IV showed that the pith surface of wheat straw was fractured on curing with PMDI, providing hollow microcrevices for water accumulation. Furthermore, the cured PMDI formed a network polyurea/polyuretonimine/polycarbodiimide/polyisocyanurate polymer on straw surfaces whose properties dictated the properties of strawboards. Among the different mono-, bi-, and tri-functional alcohols, amines and carboxylic acids evaluated in Part V as H-donor substitutes to moisture for reaction with PMDI on straw surfaces, ethylene glycol, resorcinol, glycerin and citric acid provided IBS values greater than the ANSI recommended minimum (60 psi) and lower thickness swell values than the moisture-cure process. In Part VI, strawboards formed with 2% PMDI and 5% epoxy or duroplastic acrylic acid binders had high IBS values, and their thickness swell after 24 h soaking in water was restricted to 13%, which was much lower than the ˜18--20% values obtained for strawboards made with 5% PMDI.

Iyer, Ananth V.

346

Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration\\u000a (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale\\u000a (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H2S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples

R Noble; P J Hobbs; A Mead; A Dobrovin-Pennington

2002-01-01

347

Environmentally degradable bio-based polymeric blends and composites.  

PubMed

Blends and composites based on environmentally degradable-ecocompatible synthetic and natural polymeric materials and fillers of natural origin have been prepared and processed under different conditions. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was used as the synthetic polymer of choice by virtue of its capability to be processed from water solution or suspension as well as from the melt by blow extrusion and injection molding. Starch and gelatin were taken as the polymeric materials from renewable resources. The fillers were all of natural origin, as waste from food and agro-industry consisted of sugar cane bagasse (SCB), wheat flour (WF), orange peels (OR), apple peels (AP), corn fibres (CF), saw dust (SD) and wheat straw (WS). All the natural or hybrid formulations were intended to be utilized for the production of: a) Environmentally degradable mulching films (hydro-biomulching) displaying, in some cases, self-fertilizing characteristics by in situ spraying of water solutions or suspensions; b) Laminates and containers to be used in agriculture and food packaging by compression and injection molding followed by baking. Some typical prototype items have been prepared and characterized in relation to their morphological and mechanical properties and tested with different methodology for their propensity to environmental degradation and biodegradation as ultimate stage of their service life. A relationship between chemical composition and mechanical properties and propensity to biodegradation has been discussed in a few representative cases. PMID:15468211

Chiellini, Emo; Cinelli, Patrizia; Chiellini, Federica; Imam, Syed H

2004-03-15

348

Nitric oxide emissions from rice-wheat rotation fields in eastern China: effect of fertilization, soil water content, and crop residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better understanding of nitric oxide (NO) emission from a typical rice-wheat agroecosystem in eastern China is important\\u000a for calculating the regional inventory and to propose effective NO mitigation options. Nitric oxide flux measurements by static\\u000a chamber method were made from treatments of conventional nitrogen-fertilizer (NPK plus urea) application, no-nitrogen application,\\u000a and nitrogen-fertilizer with incorporation of wheat straw residue for

Zaixing Zhou; Xunhua Zheng; Baohua Xie; Chunyan Liu; Tao Song; Shenghui Han; Jianguo Zhu

2010-01-01

349

Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential...

350

Optical selection of straws for the MPD endcap tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical method for estimating deviation from the linearity of straws with a diameter of 4 mm and a length of 60 cm mounted in the ring frames of a detector is described. The maximum permissible deviation from linearity of straws is 400 ?m, and the amplitudes of signals from a 55Fe source vary along the straws by no more than 9%. The results of this optical-linearity checkup agree fairly well with the data obtained using a more accurate method (the measurement of amplitude characteristics with a 55Fe source) for determining the deviation of a straw from the anode axis.

Grigalashvili, N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Myalkovskiy, V. V.; Peshekhonov, V. D.

2015-01-01

351

Physical Separation of Straw Stem Components to Reduce Silica  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these, silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher in silica, while chaff, leaves and nodes are the primary source of fines. Our approach to reducing silica is to selectively harvest the straw stems using an in-field physical separation, leaving the remaining components in the field to build soil organic matter and contribute soil nutrients.

Hess, John Richard; Thompson, David Neal; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Shaw, Peter Gordon; Grant, D.R.

2002-04-01

352

Effects of combination of rice straw with alfalfa pellet on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

Na, Y J; Lee, I H; Park, S S; Lee, S R

2014-07-01

353

Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

Na, Y. J.; Lee, I. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, S. R.

2014-01-01

354

Wheat grass selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

Richard Wang (USDA;ARS)

2006-09-25

355

Greenhouse gas emissions from a wheat-maize double cropping system with different nitrogen fertilization regimes.  

PubMed

Here, we report on a two-years field experiment aimed at the quantification of the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from the dominant wheat-maize double cropping system in North China Plain. The experiment had 6 different fertilization strategies, including a control treatment, recommended fertilization, with and without straw and manure applications, and nitrification inhibitor and slow release urea. Application of N fertilizer slightly decreased CH4 uptake by soil. Direct N2O emissions derived from recommended urea application was 0.39% of the annual urea-N input. Both straw and manure had relatively low N2O emissions factors. Slow release urea had a relatively high emission factor. Addition of nitrification inhibitor reduced N2O emission by 55%. We conclude that use of nitrification inhibitors is a promising strategy for N2O mitigation for the intensive wheat-maize double cropping systems. PMID:23434574

Hu, Xiao-Kang; Su, Fang; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Gao, Bing; Oenema, Oene; Christie, Peter; Huang, Bin-Xiang; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2013-05-01

356

Identification of QTL for grain quality traits in a cross of soft wheat cultivars Pioneer brand ‘25R26’ and ‘Foster’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

End-use quality of wheat, defined by milling, composition, and rhealogical properties, is vital to the entire wheat industry. An improved understanding of the genetics that control wheat quality is needed to efficiently improve wheat quality. Our objective was to determine the genetics of multipl...

357

Bioconversion of Straw into Improved Fodder: Fungal Flora Decomposing Rice Straw  

PubMed Central

The fungal flora decomposing rice straw were investigated all over the soil of Sharkia Province, east of Nile Delta, Egypt, using the nylon net bag technique. Sixty-four straw-decomposing species belonging to 30 genera were isolated by the dilution plate method in ground rice straw-Czapek's agar medium at pH 6. The plates were incubated separately at 5?, 25? and 45?, respectively. Twenty nine species belonging to 14 genera were isolated at 5?. The most frequent genus was Penicillium (seven species), and the next frequent genera were Acremonium (three species), Fusarium (three species), Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Mucor, Stachybotrys (two species) and Rhizopus stolonifer. At 25?, 47 species belonging to 24 genera were isolated. The most frequent genus was Aspergillus (nine species), and the next frequent genera were ranked by Penicillium (five species), Chaetomium (three species), Fusarium (three species). Each of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Myrothecium and Trichoderma was represented by two species. At 45?, 15 species belonging to seven genera were isolated. These were seven species of Aspergillus, two species of Chaetomium and two species of Emericella, while Humicola, Malbranchea, Rhizomucor and Talaromyces were represented by one species respectively. The total counts of fungi the genera, and species per gram of dry straw were significantly affected by incubation temperature and soil analysis (P < 0.05). PMID:24049492

2005-01-01

358

Bioconversion of Straw Into Improved Fodder: Mycoprotein Production and Cellulolytic Acivity of Rice Straw Decomposing Fungi  

PubMed Central

Sixty two out of the sixty four species of fungal isolates tested could produce both exo-?1,4-gluconase (C1) and endo-?1,4-gluconase (Cx) on pure cellulose and rice straw as carbon source in Czapek's medium. Fifty-eight and fifteen species were able to grow at 25? and at 45?, respectively. Eleven species could grow at both 25? and 45? while, four species appeared only at 45?. The most cellulolytic species at 25? was Trichoderma koningii producing 1.164 C1 (mg glucose/1 ml culture filtrate/1 hr) and 2.690 Cx on pure cellulose, and 0.889 C1 and 1.810 Cx on rice straw, respectively. At 45?, the most active thermotolerant species were Aspergillus terreus, followed by A. fumigatus. Talaromyces thermophilus was the highest active thermophilic species followed by Malbranchea sulfurea. Most of these species were also active in fermentation of rice straw at 25 and 45? (P<0.05). The most active ones were T. koningii, A. ochraceus and A. terreus, which produced 201.5, 193.1 and 188.1 mg crude protein/g dry straw, respectively. PMID:24049480

2005-01-01

359

Wheat: Science and Trade  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

360

Wheat Stripe Rust  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a chapter on wheat stripe rust in a book entitled “Wheat: Science and Trade”. The chapter provides an overview on various aspects of wheat stripe rust and control, including distribution and epidemiology; origin and historical importance; taxonomy, lifecycle, and host range; genetic variati...

361

Bioconversion of Straw into Improved Fodder: Preliminary Treatment of Rice Straw Using Mechanical, Chemical and/or Gamma Irradiation.  

PubMed

Crude protein (CP) content of mechanically ground rice straw into small particles by an electric grinder and reducing value (RV) and soluble protein (SP) in the culture filtrate were lower than that of the chopped straw into 5~6 cm lengths when both ground and chopped straws were fermented with Aspergillus ochraceus, A. terreus or Trichoderma koningii, at steady conditions. The reduction rate of RV, SP and CP was 22.2, 2.4, 7.3%; 9.1, 4.9, 8.5% or 0.0, 0.0, 3.6% for the three fungi, respectively. Chemical pretreatment of straw by soaking in NH4OH for a day caused significant increase in CP of the fermented straw than the other alkali and acidic pretreatments. Gamma irradiation pretreatment of dry and wet straw with water, specially at higher doses, 100, 200 or 500 kGy, caused significant increase in RV and SP as CP in the fermented straw by any of these fungi. Chemical-physical combination pretreatment of rice straw reduced the applied dose of gamma irradiation required for increasing fermentable ability of fungi from 500 kGy to 10 kGy with approximately the same results. Significant increases in RV and SP of fermented straw generally occurred as the dose of gamma irradiation for pretreated straw, which combined with NH4OH, gradually rose. Whereas, the increase percentage in CP of fermented straw that was pretreated by NH4OH-10 kGy was 12.4%, 15.4% or 8.6% for A. ochraceus, A. terreus or T. koningii, respectively. PMID:24039464

Helal, G A

2006-03-01

362

Biologization of Buckwheat Cultivation: Implementation of Straw and Biofertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently agricultural manufacture changes direction to maximal use of the biological factors, especially in plant growing. In this connective perspective, there is an application of untraditional organic fertilizers, namely, an uncommodity part of a crop(straw) and biofertilizers. However direct implementation of straw can temporarily worsen feed of crop, especially by nitrogen, in connection with its immobilization by microorganisms (1). On

Zorida GLAZOVA

363

Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical

Reza Hosseinpour; Pedram Fatehi; Ahmad Jahan Latibari; Yonghao Ni; S. Javad Sepiddehdam

2010-01-01

364

Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

1996-12-31

365

On-farm experiments over 5 years in a grain maize/winter wheat rotation: effect of maize residue treatments on Fusarium graminearum infection and deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat.  

PubMed

Over the course of 5 years, different maize residue treatments were conducted on 14 zero tillage on-farm sites in Switzerland to evaluate their effect on the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the contamination with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in winter wheat grains and wheat straw following grain maize. Two experimental series with three and five different treatments were carried out, respectively. Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe) was the predominant FHB-causing species with an overall incidence of 15% infected wheat grains. A significant correlation between symptoms in the field, F. graminearum incidence and DON content in wheat grains and wheat straw was observed. The average DON content in both wheat grains and wheat straw was approximately 5,000 ?g/kg and thus several times higher than the European maximum limit of 1,250 ?g/kg for unprocessed small-grain cereals for human consumption. Of all grain samples, 74% were above the maximum limit. Pooled over both experimental series, the average reduction of DON in grains through treatments of the maize residue compared with a control treatment ranged between 21 and 38%. The effect of various other factors, including the year, the wheat variety, the site, the maize hybrid and the production system was evaluated as well. The year and the wheat variety were the most important FHB influencing factors. Over all treatments, the variety Levis showed a fivefold higher average DON content compared with the variety Titlis. From different categories of maize residue particles, intact pieces of 5-15 cm length were strongly correlated with F. graminearum incidence and DON content in grains. During the time course of this study, the recommendation from a preliminary version of the internet-based DON forecasting system FusaProg to apply or to omit a fungicide treatment was correct in 32 out of 42 cases. The results are currently being used to optimise the FusaProg models. This study has shown that in a grain maize/winter wheat rotation, the DON content in wheat grains frequently exceeded the European maximum limit, even with a thorough treatment of maize residues and less susceptible wheat varieties. Hence, in order to reduce the contamination risk in a zero tillage system, the crop rotation needs to be modified. PMID:23605700

Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hecker, Andreas; Musa, Tomke; Dorn, Brigitte; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf

2011-05-01

366

of wheat. Socrates Overview  

E-print Network

Canada, the company publicly pledged that it would not commercially release the world’s first strain of genetically engineered wheat until several conditions were met. First, Monsanto pledged to gain market acceptance for genetically engineered wheat by convincing major international wheat buyers to agree to purchase it. Second, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada would have to approve Monsanto’s genetically engineered wheat simultaneously, so as not to give one country a market advantage over the other. Third, Monsanto pledged to work with the wheat industry and the regulatory agencies to establish “appropriate ” contami-150 Hard Red Spring Wheat 151 nation thresholds. 1 And finally, Monsanto committed to work with the wheat industry and the regulatory agencies to resolve unanswered questions about the costs of segregation and to address outstanding agronomic stewardship concerns (Monsanto Canada 2003). By March of 2004 Monsanto had failed to meet virtually all these self-imposed conditions, but

R. Dennis Olson

367

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China.  

PubMed

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

2006-11-01

368

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*  

PubMed Central

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

2006-01-01

369

A two-step process for efficient enzymatic saccharification of rice straw.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology was used to optimise a two-step process of cellulase mediated saccharification of rice straw by an isolated bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus. CMC concentration, yeast extract, pH and incubation temperature were optimised for cellulase production using a central composite design and their optimum values were determined to be 4.3% (w/v), 2.1% (w/v), 6.2 and 45.2 °C respectively. The CMCase activity at these values was 5.16±0.07 U/ml, which was 2.5 times that of the un-optimised system. Similarly, pretreated rice straw, enzyme load, incubation time and Tween-80 concentrations were optimised for enhanced saccharification of rice straw by optimised cellulase preparations, and their optimum values were calculated as 1.84% (w/v), 40 U, 57.4 h and 0.76 mM respectively. A percent saccharification of 69.5% was reported at optimal conditions. HPLC analysis revealed that hydrolysate produced at optimal conditions of saccharification constituted 70.8% of glucose. PMID:25305650

Gupta, Pratima; Parkhey, Piyush

2014-12-01

370

Cash Wheat in a Wheat-Ryegrass Grazing System.  

E-print Network

~-~ash Wheat ? Ina B~1452 November 1983 t Wheat--Ryegrass Grazing System ~ THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION / Neville P. Clarke, Director / The Texas A&M University System / College Station, 'l"exas SUMMARY Wheat is an important...

Nelson, L.R.; Rouquette, F.M. Jr.; Randel, R.D.

1983-01-01

371

POTENTIAL FOR ON-FARM CONVERSION OF STRAW TO BIOENERGY IN SEED PRODUCING OPERATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous efforts to convert straw to energy have been limited by the cost of transporting straw to a conversion facility, and by lack of technology to handle straw. A new dual stage gasifier design is being evaluated for potential on-farm conversion of straw to electrical power and liquid fuels. A...

372

Dynamics of Potassium Release and Adsorption on Rice Straw Residue  

PubMed Central

Straw application can not only increase crop yields, improve soil structure and enrich soil fertility, but can also enhance water and nutrient retention. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationships between straw decomposition and the release-adsorption processes of K+. This study increases the understanding of the roles played by agricultural crop residues in the soil environment, informs more effective straw recycling and provides a method for reducing potassium loss. The influence of straw decomposition on the K+ release rate in paddy soil under flooded condition was studied using incubation experiments, which indicated the decomposition process of rice straw could be divided into two main stages: (a) a rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 60 d and (b) a slow decomposition stage from 60 to 110 d. However, the characteristics of the straw potassium release were different from those of the overall straw decomposition, as 90% of total K was released by the third day of the study. The batches of the K sorption experiments showed that crop residues could adsorb K+ from the ambient environment, which was subject to decomposition periods and extra K+ concentration. In addition, a number of materials or binding sites were observed on straw residues using IR analysis, indicating possible coupling sites for K+ ions. The aqueous solution experiments indicated that raw straw could absorb water at 3.88 g g?1, and this rate rose to its maximum 15 d after incubation. All of the experiments demonstrated that crop residues could absorb large amount of aqueous solution to preserve K+ indirectly during the initial decomposition period. These crop residues could also directly adsorb K+ via physical and chemical adsorption in the later period, allowing part of this K+ to be absorbed by plants for the next growing season. PMID:24587364

Li, Jifu; Lu, Jianwei; Li, Xiaokun; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Zhou, Li

2014-01-01

373

Field study of submicron particles from the combustion of straw  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of small aerosol particles accompanying the combustion of straw for energy production is investigated. A sampling equipment specially designed for field measurements is described and characterized. The aerosol is studied by low-pressure cascade impactor and scanning mobility particle sizer, the particle morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and the chemical composition by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The combustion gas contains 3-500 mg/Nm{sup 3} of submicron particles with a mean diameter of approximately 0.3 {mu}m. The particles consist of almost pure potassium chloride and sulphate. The formation mechanism is analyzed by a theoretical simulation of the chemical reactions and the aerosol change during cooling of the flue gas. It is concluded that some sulphation of KCl occurs in the gas phase although the sulphate concentration is much lower than predicted by an equilibrium assumption. The theoretical simulation proves that the fine mode particles can be formed by homogeneous nucleation of either KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the first step and further growth occurs by coagulation and diffusive condensation of both KCl and K{sub 4}SO{sub 4} on existing particles. 25 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Christensen, K.A.; Livbjerg, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

1996-08-01

374

Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

375

Wheat Evolution: Dough Washing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 5), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by washing different types of dough with water and comparing the results. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

2012-01-01

376

Ammonia volatilization from soils with surface rice straw residue  

E-print Network

Reduced tillage rice production can result in rice straw and other residue on the soil surface which may enhance NH, volatilization of surface-applied N. Laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of surface...

Barghassa, Peyam

2012-06-07

377

Investigating Atmospheric Pressure with a Cup, Straw and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a reinforcement lab activity where students experiment with ways to get water to flow out of a cup and up a straw causing an imbalance in the atmospheric pressure surrounding the water.

378

Interactions of NaCl and Na 2SO 4 on soil organic C mineralization after addition of maize straws  

Microsoft Academic Search

NaCl and Na2SO4 often dominate salt compositions in saline soils. While either salt alone affects soil organic matter mineralization, their interactions on soil organic matter dynamics are unknown. This study aimed to investigate interactive effects of the two salts on organic C mineralization and microbial biomass C of the saline soils after addition of maize straws. Both NaCl and Na2SO4

Xiao-gang Li; Feng-min Li; Qi-fu Ma; Zhi-jun Cui

2006-01-01

379

Full-scale co-firing of straw and coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-firing of biofuels and coal in power plants is considered by the Danish utilities as a potential tool in reducing CO2 emissions. To test this, full-scale measurements were carried out for 1 week on a 250 MWe pulverized coal fired unit using 10–20% straw (thermal basis). With an increased fraction of straw in the fuel, a net decrease in NOx

Lars Storm Pedersen; Hanne Philbert Nielsen; Søren Kiil; Lone Aslaug Hansen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Finn Kildsig; Jan Christensen; Peer Jespersen

1996-01-01

380

Mutagenicity of the ash of rice straws by Ames' test.  

PubMed

Mutagenicity of fly ashes and bottom ashes of rice straw and rice husk was assayed by Ames' test. With respect to rice-straw ash, the extract from the fly ash was found to be more mutagenic than that from the bottom ash. In the case of rice husk, the mutagenicity of extract from the bottom ash was stronger than that from the fly ash. The extract from rice-husk bottom ash showed the strongest mutagenic activity among the four. PMID:3046058

Shibuya, N; Ohta, T; Sakai, H; Endoh, K; Yamamoto, M

1988-05-01

381

Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process.The holocellulose, ?-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and

Alejandro Rodríguez; Ana Moral; Luis Serrano; Jalel Labidi; Luis Jiménez

2008-01-01

382

Genetic Dissection of Yield and Its Component Traits Using High-Density Composite Map of Wheat Chromosome 3A: Bridging Gaps between QTLs and Underlying Genes  

PubMed Central

Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield component QTLs, and to map QTLs for biomass-related traits. Many of the previously identified QTLs for yield and its component traits were confirmed and were localized to narrower intervals. Four novel QTLs one each for shoot biomass (Xcfa2262-Xbcd366), total biomass (wPt2740-Xcfa2076), kernels/spike (KPS) (Xwmc664-Xbarc67), and Pseudocercosporella induced lodging (PsIL) were also detected. The major QTLs identified for grain yield (GY), KPS, grain volume weight (GVWT) and spikes per square meter (SPSM) respectively explained 23.2%, 24.2%, 20.5% and 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of the genetic map with the integrated physical map allowed estimation of recombination frequency in the regions of interest and suggested that QTLs for grain yield detected in the marker intervals Xcdo549-Xbarc310 and Xpsp3047-Xbarc356 reside in the high-recombination regions, thus should be amenable to map-based cloning. On the other hand, QTLs for KPS and SPSM flanked by markers Xwmc664 and Xwmc489 mapped in the low-recombination region thus are not suitable for map-based cloning. Comparisons with the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA sequence identified 11 candidate genes (CGs) for yield and yield related QTLs of which chromosomal location of two (CKX2 and GID2-like) was confirmed using wheat aneuploids. This study provides necessary information to perform high-resolution mapping for map-based cloning and for CG-based cloning of yield QTLs. PMID:23894667

Rustgi, Sachin; Shafqat, Mustafa N.; Kumar, Neeraj; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Ali, M. Liakat; Dweikat, Ismail; Campbell, B. Todd; Gill, Kulvinder Singh

2013-01-01

383

Development of high amylose wheat through TILLING  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an important source of food worldwide and the focus of considerable efforts to identify new combinations of genetic diversity for crop improvement. In particular, wheat starch composition is a major target for changes that could benefit human health. Starches with increased levels of amylose are of interest because of the correlation between higher amylose content and elevated levels of resistant starch, which has been shown to have beneficial effects on health for combating obesity and diabetes. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) is a means to identify novel genetic variation without the need for direct selection of phenotypes. Results Using TILLING to identify novel genetic variation in each of the A and B genomes in tetraploid durum wheat and the A, B and D genomes in hexaploid bread wheat, we have identified mutations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in starch branching enzyme IIa genes (SBEIIa). Combining these new alleles of SBEIIa through breeding resulted in the development of high amylose durum and bread wheat varieties containing 47-55% amylose and having elevated resistant starch levels compared to wild-type wheat. High amylose lines also had reduced expression of SBEIIa RNA, changes in starch granule morphology and altered starch granule protein profiles as evaluated by mass spectrometry. Conclusions We report the use of TILLING to develop new traits in crops with complex genomes without the use of transgenic modifications. Combined mutations in SBEIIa in durum and bread wheat varieties resulted in lines with significantly increased amylose and resistant starch contents. PMID:22584013

2012-01-01

384

Residues and dissipation kinetics of triazole fungicides difenoconazole and propiconazole in wheat and soil in Chinese fields.  

PubMed

An analytical method for simultaneously determining the residues of difenoconazole and propiconazole in wheat straw, wheat grain and soil was developed. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations in all samples ranged 86.2-101.3% and 3.1-12.1% for propiconazole and difenoconazole. The half-lives of difenoconazole and propiconazole were 3.6-5.5days and 5.1-6.9days in wheat straws, and 4.9-5.8days and 6.1-8.4days in soil, respectively. The residues in wheat grain were found to be <0.01mg/kg, based on the application rate (135g a.i./ha) and the pre-harvest interval (PHI=28days) recommended by the manufacturer. The results suggest that the use of difenoconazole and propiconazole on wheat is considered to be safe under the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) in the Chinese fields, and the main factors for pesticide residue in crops are application times, rates and pre-harvest intervals. PMID:25172726

Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wayne; Jian, Qiu; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Zuntao; Wang, Donglan; Liu, Xianjin

2015-02-01

385

Wheat: Science and Trade  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

386

Agrometeorology and Wheat Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

387

Registration of 'Ripper' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

388

Registration of ‘Kelse’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hard red spring (HRS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain must have high grain protein concentration (GPC) to maximize market value. The objective of this research was to develop a HRS wheat cultivar with high GPC and durable resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici), a ...

389

REGISTRATION OF 'MCCORMICK' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘McCormick’ (Reg. no. CV-959, PI 632691) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed and released May 2002 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. McCormick wheat was named in tribute of Robert Hall of Walnut Grove in Rockbridge County, VA, and his sons, including Cyrus Hal...

390

REGISTRATION OF 'TRIBUTE' WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Tribute’ (Reg. no. CV-958, PI 632689) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed and released May 2002 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Tribute is broadly adapted and has performed well over most of the soft red winter wheat production regions in the U.S.A. and Can...

391

Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how composites work by creating and testing their own composite for an imaginary company. This activity shows learners that composites are simply materials that are made up of two or more visibly distinct substances. Use this activity to talk about how composites are everywhere in our lives.

Research, Cornell C.

2003-01-01

392

Whole Wheat Pizza Dough Ingredients  

E-print Network

Whole Wheat Pizza Dough Ingredients: 1 cup flour, white, for breads 1 cup whole wheat flour 1. Blend yeast with flour mixture. Add hot water; stir to form dough. 3. Add enough whole wheat flour whole wheat flour on the kneading surface; turn out dough onto floured surface; knead to form stiff

Liskiewicz, Maciej

393

Acetylation of rice straw for thermoplastic applications.  

PubMed

An inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastic was developed through acetylation of rice straw (RS) with acetic anhydride. Acetylation conditions were optimized. The structure and properties of acetylated RS were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that acetylation of RS has successfully taken place, and comparing with raw RS, the degree of crystallinity decreased and the decomposition rate was slow. The acetylated RS has got thermoplasticity when weight ratio of RS and acetic anhydride was 1:3, using sulphuric acid (9% to RS) as catalyst in glacial acetic acid 35°C for 12h, and the dosage of solvent was 9 times RS, in which weight percent gain (WPG) of the modified RS powder was 35.5% and its percent acetyl content was 36.1%. The acetylated RS could be formed into transparent thin films with different amount of plasticizer diethyl phthalate (DEP) using tape casting technology. PMID:23688473

Zhang, Guangzhi; Huang, Kai; Jiang, Xue; Huang, Dan; Yang, Yiqi

2013-07-01

394

Anther culture and chromosome reduction in wheat × Thinopyrum wide crosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little information on the anther culture response and cytogenetic nature of pollen-derived calli and regenerants\\u000a of wide crosses in wheat. The anther culture response of three Thinopyrum species (wheatgrasses), their hybrids and backcrosses with wheat, and the chromosome composition of calli and regenerants\\u000a were studied to determine the feasibility of efficient chromosome elimination and production of alien addition

H. C. Sharma; O. Benlhabib; H. W. Ohm

1999-01-01

395

9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from...

2012-01-01

396

9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...  

...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from...

2014-01-01

397

9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from...

2011-01-01

398

9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from...

2013-01-01

399

9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from...

2010-01-01

400

[Soil respiration and carbon balance in wheat field under conservation tillage].  

PubMed

In order to study the characteristics of carbon sources and sinks in the winter wheat farmland ecosystem in southwest hilly region of China, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Chongqing. The soil respiration and plant growth dynamics were analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat-maize-soybean. Four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching), and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching) were designed. Root biomass regression (RR) and root exclusion (RE) were used to compare the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration. The results showed that the average soil respiration rate was 1.71 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) with a variation of 0.62-2.91 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Significant differences in soil respiration rate were detected among different treatments. The average soil respiration rate of T, R, TS and RS were 1.29, 1.59, 1.99 and 1.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. R treatment did not increase the soil respiration rate significantly until the jointing stage. Straw mulching treatment significantly increased soil respiration, with a steadily high rate during the whole growth period. During the 169 days of growth, the total soil respiration was 2 266.82, 2799.52, 3 483.73 and 3 443.89 kg x hm(-2) while the cumulative aboveground biomasses were 51 800.84, 59 563.20, 66 015.37 and 7 1331.63 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control, the yield of R, TS and RS increased by 14.99%, 27.44% and 37.70%, respectively. The contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was 47.05% by RBR, while it was 53.97% by RE. In the early growth period, the carbon source was weak. The capacity of carbon sink started to increase at the jointing stage and reached the maximum during the filling stage. The carbon budget of wheat field was 5 924.512, 6743.807, 8350.741, 8 876.115 kg x hm(-2), respectively. The results indicated that ridge tillage and straw mulching conservation tillage significantly improved the carbon sink in the wheat farmland ecosystem. PMID:25158525

Zhang, Sai; Wang, Long-Chang; Huang, Zhao-Cun; Jia, Hui-Juan; Ran, Chun-Yan

2014-06-01

401

Wheat Evolution: Dough Rising  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.6-7 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by creating dough from different flours, observing the samples of dough as they rise, and then baking the dough. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

2012-01-01

402

Wheat Evolution: Sedimentation Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.8-9 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by conducting sedimentation tests on different flours. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant. Note: Sedimentation test can also be done using SDS detergent and lactic acid instead of soap and vinegar.

Council, Biotechnology A.

2012-01-01

403

Bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To increase the closure of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS), the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by mushrooms and worms has been studied. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation and succeeding growth of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus. In this process the total content of lignocellulose in the straw was removed by 37.74%. Furthermore, 46.68 g (fresh weight) of mushrooms could be produced from 100.0 g (dry weight) of rice straw. During the conversion of rice straw into a starting SLS by mushrooms and worms, the matter loss was 77.31%. The lettuce has been planted in the SLS and the yield when lettuce was cultivated on the SLS (8.77gm-2day-1) was comparable to the yield obtained on the nutrient solution. In addition, the silicon in the SLS ash can reach upto 32% and the circulation of it is expected during the growth of rice.

Yu, Chengying; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

404

Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties  

PubMed Central

Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

2012-01-01

405

Butanol productivity enhancers in wheat straw hydrolyzate: employing potential of enhanced reaction rate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Butanol production by fermentation is gaining momentum due to increased prices of fossil fuels. This biofuel is a major product of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation that can be produced from hydrolyzed agricultural residues and/or corn. A control glucose (60 g/L) based batch fermentation us...

406

Biobleach boosting effect of recombinant xylanase B from the hyperthermophilic Thermotoga maritima on wheat straw pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recombinant xylanase B (XynB) of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 was found to be highly specific towards xylans and exhibit very low activity towards carboxymethylcellulose in previous\\u000a study. XynB was thermostable at neutral to alkaline pH region at 90°C and retained more than 90% activity after 1 h over the\\u000a pH range of pH 6.1 to 11.1. The suitability of XynB for

Z. Q. Jiang; X. T. Li; S. Q. Yang; L. T. Li; Y. Li; W. Y. Feng

2006-01-01

407

Wet explosion of wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure: Effect on the methane productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary feedstock but their economical profitable operation relies on the addition of other biomass products with a high biogas

G. Wang; H. N. Gavala; I. V. Skiadas; B. K. Ahring

2009-01-01

408

Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main

V. G. Murphy; J. C. Linden; A. R. Moreira; T. G. Lenz

1981-01-01

409

Comparison of mechanistic models in the initial rate enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different mechanistic models have been used in the literature to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. Although these different models have been applied to different substrates, most of these mechanistic models fit into two- and three-parameter mechanistic models. The purpose of this study is to compare the models and determine the activation energy and the enthalpy of adsorption

Russell F Brown; Frank K Agbogbo; Mark T Holtzapple

2010-01-01

410

Bulk density of wet and dry wheat straw and switchgrass particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Bulk density is a major physical property in designing the logistic system for biomass handling. The size, shape, moisture content, individual particle density, and surface characteristics are few factors affecting the bulk density. This research investigates the effects of true particle lengths ranging from 6 to 50 mm and moisture contents ranging from 8% to 60% wet basis (wb)

Shahabaddine Sokhansanj; X. T. Bi; L. J. Naimi; M. Hoque; Sudhagar Mani; S. Narayan

2008-01-01

411

Scalable Product Line Configuration: A Straw to Break the Camel's Back  

E-print Network

Scalable Product Line Configuration: A Straw to Break the Camel's Back Abdel Salam Sayyad Joseph like a single straw that is enough to break the camel's back ­given that it is a feature-rich seed. We

Menzies, Tim

412

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

E-337 1/05 Gaylon Morgan, State Extension Small Grains Specialist, College Station, TX Carl Patrick, Extension Entomologist, Amarillo, TX Karl Steddom and Charlie Rush, Plant Pathologists, Amarillo, TX W Overview of WSMV and HPV Wheat Streak Mosaic...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

413

Durum Wheat Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter summarizes the scientific and technical knowledge for durum wheat breeding, giving some examples of the methods\\u000a applied in national programs. Section 1 refers to the importance of durum wheat in the world. Sections 2 and 3 give technical\\u000a details on genetic diversity and the choice of germplasm, while the main varietal groups are explained in Section 4. Information

Conxita Royo; Elias M. Elias; Frank A. Manthey

414

Prediction of heating value of straw by proximate data, and near infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration of straw resources for energy production has been attracting agricultural scientists and engineers for decades. And the heating value of straw has always been the focus when initiating a straw-based biomass energy project. Nevertheless determination of heating values of straw needs delicate and expensive calorimeter, and is time-consuming. It’s quite desirable to develop quick and easy model predicting heating

Caijin Huang; Lujia Han; Zengling Yang; Xian Liu

2008-01-01

415

NA62 Spectrometer: A Low Mass Straw Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NA62 experiment at CERN, aiming at a precision measurement of the ultra-rare decay K+ ? ?+??, relies on kinematical rejection up to 105 (? 1012 is needed in total). One of the limiting factors to achieve this goal is the multiple scattering in the magnetic spectrometer for kaon decay products; therefore an almost massless (?1.5% X0) straw tracker has been designed to operate in vacuum, to be able to install it inside the decay volume. A vacuum tight prototype was built and tested in 2010: efficiency (?99%), rate capability and single straw resolution (?200 ?m) were veri?ed. The construction of the ?rst chamber started in 2011.

Sergi, A.

416

Preliminary studies on fungal treatment of sugarcane straw for organosolv pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the effect of fungal pretreatment of sugarcane straw in the performance of the treated pulps. Fermentation time, fungal mycelium load and pretreatment scale were studied in the fungal treatment, and the best conditions were 15 days with 250mgkg?1 fungal mycelium per straw weight causing high lignin decomposition. At the largest scale tested (50g straw) lignin degradation exceeded

M. B. W. Saad; L. R. M. Oliveira; R. G. Cândido; G. Quintana; G. J. M. Rocha; A. R. Gonçalves

2008-01-01

417

FOAMED ARTICLES BASED ON POTATO STARCH, CORN AND WHEAT FIBRE, AND POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Continued research cooperation between USDA Laboratories (USA) and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and either corn or wheat fibres, co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process. Foam trays were prepared by baking the blen...

418

Wheat cultivated with organic fertilizers and urea: Baking performance and dough properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data describing white flour composition, dough properties and baking performance of both spring and winter wheat treated with different fertilizer strategies including meat bone meal, slurry manure and urea, were analyzed by principal component analysis and variance analysis. No significant differences in the analyzed variables were found between flour from wheat fertilized with organic fertilizers or urea at different N

Helena Fredriksson; Lennart Salomonsson

1997-01-01

419

Insects which challenge global wheat production: Russian wheat aphid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The book chapter on Russian wheat aphid, (Diuraphis noxia (Mord.)), is one of several that addresses significant pests in the book entitled, Wheat Science and Trade. The chapter gives a detailed account of the history of the Russian wheat aphid as global pest, and its biology, ecology and managemen...

420

Timing of Pine Straw Harvests Affects Soil and Nutrient Losses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pine straw is a valuable landscape mulch because it conserves soil moisture, moderates soil temperature, inhibits weed growth, and protects the soil surface against erosion, while retaining a loose structure that allows water, air, and fertilizer to easily reach the soil surface. As a result, marke...

421

The Truck Driver's Straw Problem and Cantor Sets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A colleague was moving, and someone on the professional moving crew, upon hearing she was a mathematician, asked what happens when you repeatedly transfer water back and forth between two classes using a straw. The question is simple to solve if you alternate which glass you transfer from and to, but if more general patters are allowed, some…

Iga, Kevin

2008-01-01

422

Truck Drivers, a Straw, and Two Glasses of Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While waiting for his meal to arrive, a truck driver was using his straw to move water from one glass to another when he was struck by this question: If I keep doing this, will the two glasses ever have exactly the same amount of water? This article looks at various problems related to that question.

Iga, Kevin; Killpatrick, Kendra

2006-01-01

423

Use of ground miscanthus straw in container nursery substrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pine bark (PB) is the primary component in nursery substrates in the U.S. Availability of pine bark is decreasing and price is increasing. The objective of this research was to determine if miscanthus straw (MS) can replace all or part of the pine bark fraction in nursery container substrates. F...

424

Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

425

The Character of Normal Temperature Straw-Rotting Microbial Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study degradation capability and optimal condition of produced endoglucanase (CMCcase), the microbial community with efficient cellulose degrading ability in 28°C was studied. Microbial community came from rotted rice straw which was enriched and domesticated by improved Mandels medium. The standard cellulase activity assays were used to determine cellulase activity, degradation products were analyzed by gas chromatography mass

Chang-li LIU; Xiao-fen WANG; Xiao-juan WANG; Pei-pei LI; Zong-jun CUI

2010-01-01

426

Cryopreservation of immature bovine oocytes by vitrification in straws  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to cryopreserve by vitrification by ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) immature bovine oocytes in straws and to investigate the effects of vitrification on post-thaw oocyte maturation.A total of 575 cumulus oocyte complexes were obtained by follicle aspiration from 238 ovaries of cows slaughtered at a local abattoir. Following selection, oocytes with compacted

Yunus Cetin; Ayhan Bastan

2006-01-01

427

Folk Arts in the Home: New Mexican Straw Applique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 16th century the Spanish introduced marquetry techniques to the New World. The term "marquetry" applies to two different types of surface decoration: inlay and veneer; straw applique as it is practiced in New Mexico combines both techniques.) The introduction of marquetry dovetailed with the pre-Hispanic Aztec tradition of decorating…

Gomez, Aurelia; Sullivan, Laura Temple

428

Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients  

E-print Network

Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 1 cup strawberries, chopped 2 wheat flour 1/2 cup brown sugar, packed 1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda Directions 1. Heat oven to 400º bowl mix together whole wheat flour, brown sugar and baking soda. Mix well. 5. Add strawberry mixture

Liskiewicz, Maciej

429

Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

430

Combined pretreatment using ozonolysis and ball milling to improve enzymatic saccharification of corn straw.  

PubMed

Two clean pretreatments, ozonolysis (OZ) and planetary ball milling (BM) were applied separately and in combination to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw. Pretreatment of corn straw by OZ and BM alone improved the enzymatic hydrolysis significantly, primarily through delignification and decrystallization of cellulose, respectively. When combined, OZ-BM and BM-OZ pretreatments made the enzymatic hydrolysis more efficient. The glucose and xylose yield of corn straw treated with OZ for 90min followed by BM for 8min (OZ90-BM8) reached to 407.8 and 101.9mg/g-straw, respectively under cellulase loading of 15FPU/g-straw, which was fivefold more than that of untreated straw. Under much lower cellulase loading of 1.5FPU/g-straw, the glucose and xylose yield of treated straw OZ90-BM8 remained at 416.0 and 108.4mg/g-straw, respectively, while the yield of untreated straw decreased. These findings indicate that the combined OZ-BM can be used as a promising pretreatment for corn straw. PMID:25569033

Shi, Feng; Xiang, Heji; Li, Yongfu

2015-03-01

431

Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing levels of dietary camelina meal. Weight gain (p < 0.01) and feed intake (p = 0.08) were linearly reduced as the level of camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p < 0.01). Birds fed diets containing 15% camelina meal had significantly higher (p < 0.01) levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total n-3 fatty acids, total n-6 fatty acids and a significantly lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.01) than birds fed canola meal. In conclusion, the inclusion of camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197

Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu

2012-10-01

432

Long-Term Monitoring of Rainfed Wheat Yield and Soil Water at the Loess Plateau Reveals Low Water Use Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was grown for 30 consecutive years and soil water content (0–200 cm) was measured every 10 days. The monitoring data were used to calibrate the AquaCrop model and then to analyse the components of the water balance. There was a strong positive relationship between total available water and mean cereal yield. However, only one-third of the available water was actually used by the winter wheat for crop transpiration. The remaining two-thirds were lost by soil evaporation, of which 40 and 60% was lost during the growing and fallow seasons, respectively. Wheat yields ranged from 0.6 to 3.9 ton/ha and WUE from 0.3 to 0.9 kg/m3. Results of model experiments suggest that minimizing soil evaporation via straw mulch or plastic film covers could potentially double wheat yields and WUE. We conclude that the relatively low wheat yields and low WUE were mainly related to (i) limited rainfall, (ii) low soil water storage during fallow season due to large soil evaporation, and (iii) poor synchronisation of the wheat growing season to the rain season. The model experiments suggest significant potential for increased yields and WUE. PMID:24302987

Qin, Wei; Chi, Baoliang; Oenema, Oene

2013-01-01

433

Long-term monitoring of rainfed wheat yield and soil water at the loess plateau reveals low water use efficiency.  

PubMed

Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was grown for 30 consecutive years and soil water content (0-200 cm) was measured every 10 days. The monitoring data were used to calibrate the AquaCrop model and then to analyse the components of the water balance. There was a strong positive relationship between total available water and mean cereal yield. However, only one-third of the available water was actually used by the winter wheat for crop transpiration. The remaining two-thirds were lost by soil evaporation, of which 40 and 60% was lost during the growing and fallow seasons, respectively. Wheat yields ranged from 0.6 to 3.9 ton/ha and WUE from 0.3 to 0.9 kg/m(3). Results of model experiments suggest that minimizing soil evaporation via straw mulch or plastic film covers could potentially double wheat yields and WUE. We conclude that the relatively low wheat yields and low WUE were mainly related to (i) limited rainfall, (ii) low soil water storage during fallow season due to large soil evaporation, and (iii) poor synchronisation of the wheat growing season to the rain season. The model experiments suggest significant potential for increased yields and WUE. PMID:24302987

Qin, Wei; Chi, Baoliang; Oenema, Oene

2013-01-01

434

Inheritance of Russian wheat aphid resistance from tetraploid wheat accessions during transfer to hexaploid wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of new sources of resistance to Russian wheat aphid (RWA) (Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has become very important with the identification of several new biotypes since 2003. Our objective was to characterize\\u000a inheritance and expression of resistance to RWA biotype 2 from three tetraploid wheat landraces (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. dicoccon) during transfer to hexaploid

Benjamin M. Beyer; Scott D. Haley; Nora L. V. Lapitan; Junhua H. Peng; Frank B. Peairs

2011-01-01

435

A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability. PMID:23134614

2012-01-01

436

Biolistics Transformation of Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

437

Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.  

PubMed

The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. PMID:22297044

Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

2012-04-01

438

Multiplex PCR identification of wheat HMW glutenin subunit genes by allele-specific markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat bread-making quality is closely correlated with composition and quantity of gluten proteins, in particular with high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits encoded by the Glu-1 genes. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed to identify the allele composition of HMW glutenin com- plex Glu-1 loci (Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1) in common wheat genotypes. The study of multiplex PCR

Marcin MOCZULSKI; P. SALMANOWICZ

439

Fallow season straw and water management effects on methane emissions in California rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to legislative mandate to reduce postharvest straw burning and environmental concerns to restore wetland habitat for Pacific flyway waterfowl, California rice growers are incorporating straw into soil and flooding rice fields in winter. These changes were hypothesized to alter soil carbon cycling pathways across the region. The principal objective of this study was to determine how various winter fallowed straw and water management changes would affect year-round methane emissions. Main plots were winter flood and nonflood, and subplots had straw treatments: burned, soil incorporated, or rolled (partially soil incorporated). Results showed the principal factor controlling methane emissions was the interaction of flooding and straw amendments. The presence of either water or straw alone led to low emissions. Winter emissions accounted for 50% of annual totals in straw-amended treatments despite lower temperatures and the presence of plants in summer. Summer emissions were significantly influenced by winter straw amendments but not by winter flood. Postdrain peaks after winter drain accounted for 10-13% of annual emissions in treatments with amended straw. Although rolled and incorporated treatments had similar straw inputs, methane fluxes from rolled treatments were higher than from incorporated treatments. Measurements of methane should be conducted year-round to capture fallow and postdrain fluxes and improve global emission estimates. Regional emission estimates showed that 2.6 times more methane was emitted after flooding plus incorporation was implemented than before the legislative mandate was enacted.

Fitzgerald, G. J.; Scow, K. M.; Hill, J. E.

2000-09-01

440

[Chemical composition of three Mexican strains of mushrooms (Pleurotus ostratus)].  

PubMed

The chemical composition of three Mexican strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (INIREB-8, CDBB-H-896 and CDBB-H-897), were determined. The mushrooms were cultivated on wheat straw in a greenhouse (22-28 degrees C temperature and 80 +/- 5% of relative humidity). Fruits bodies of P. ostreatus contained (all values are expressed in g/100 g dry wt.), protein (N x 6.25): 24.64 +/- 0.21-28.50 +/- 0.26; lipids: 1.10 +/- 0.16-1.85 +/- 0.22; mineral matter: 7.66 +/- 0.23-8.79 +/- 0.25; dietary fibre: 32.14 +/- 0.14-36.81 +/- 0.40; and available carbohydrates: 26.33 +/- 1.04-30.46 +/- 0.21. They contain vitamins (mg/100 g dry wt): riboflavin: 3.31-3.7, thiamin: 1.92-1.96, niacin: 35.98-36.56 and ascorbic acid: 28-35. The main fatty acid was linoleic (0.70-1.19 g/100 g dry wt), it was also reported a low calcium and phosphorus content. Concluding the Pleurotus ostreatus could be a source of some of the complex B vitamins, dietary fiber, protein and linoleic acid. PMID:10347703

Bautista Justo, M; Alanís Guzmán, M G; González de Mejía, E; García Díaz, C L

1998-12-01

441

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw II: Behavior of Ash and Silica in Rice Straw during Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping and Bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A detailed examination was made of the behavior and distribution of ash and silica during atmospheric acetic acid pulping and subsequent bleaching of rice straw. Ash-rich pulps (in unbleached pulp, about 18 %; and in bleached pulp, 16 %) with matchable strength properties for conventional alkaline pulps were obtained from rice straw by acetic acid pulping. More than 50

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano; Toshiaki Ito

1999-01-01

442

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw IV: PhysicoChemical Characterization of Acetic Acid Lignins from Rice Straw and Woods. Part 1. Physical Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lignins obtained by atmospheric acetic acid delignification of rice straw, birch and fir were characterized by molecular weight, solubility and thermomechanical analysis, and by ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. Rice straw lignins (rice lignins) were very different from birch and fir lignins. The former was difficult to dissolve in most tested solvents and infusible

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

443

Registration of 'Chesapeake' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Chesapeake’ (Reg. No. CV-1011, PI 643935) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. Ches...

444

Registration of Camelot Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Camelot ' (PI 653832) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2008. In addition to researchers at the releasing institutions, USDA-ARS researchers at Manhattan, KS, and St. Paul, MN, ...

445

REGISTRATION OF ‘CHOPTANK’ WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Choptank’ (Reg. no. CV-976, PI 639724) is a soft red winter wheat (triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Natural Resource Sciences and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2...

446

REGISTRATION OF GOODSTREAK WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goodstreak¿ (Reg. No. Cv- , PI ) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2000 by the developing institutions and the Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station. Goodstreak was re...

447

Registration of 'Tiger' wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

448

Registration of ‘Coral’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Coral’ soft white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008, via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Coral was selected from the cross MSU D3913 / MSU D0331 made i...

449

Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’ (PI 612958)/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ (PI 590941 PVPO) and was tested under the experim...

450

Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-1041, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ and was tested under the experimental number VA02W-370. J...

451

Wheat Germ DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from wheat germ using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics an