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1

Preparation and characterization of polypropylene–wheat straw–clay composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of polypropylene hybrid composite consisting of wheat straw and clay as reinforcement materials was investigated. The composite samples were prepared through melt blending method using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The composition of constituents of hybrid composite such as percentages of wheat straw, clay and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene as a coupling agent was varied in order to investigate their

C. Ravindra Reddy; A. Pouyan Sardashti; Leonardo C. Simon

2010-01-01

2

Preparation and characterization of wheat straw fibers for reinforcing application in injection molded thermoplastic composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of wheat straw fibers prepared by mechanical and chemical processes as reinforcing additives for thermoplastics was investigated. Fibers prepared by mechanical and chemical processes were characterized with respect to their chemical composition, morphology, and physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Composites of polypropylene filled with 30% wheat straw fibers were prepared and their mechanical properties were also evaluated. The

S. Panthapulakkal; A. Zereshkian; M. Sain

2006-01-01

3

[Chemical compositions of n-alkanoic acids in wheat straw and its smoke].  

PubMed

Wheat straws of six genotypes were burned under different conditions, and n-alkanoic acids in the straw and its smoke were measured by GC/MS. The results showed that the carbon number of the fatty acids in all the smoke ranged from C8 to C32. In the flaming smoke, the total amounts of the compounds varied from 1,509.3 to 10,543.7 mg x kg(- ), with a mean value of 5,871.2 mg x kg(-1). And the content ratio values of n-alkanoic acids with low carbon number (C8 to C16) to those with high carbon number (C17 to C32) (L/H) were between 0.8 and 5.3, with an average of 2.8. In addition, the mean values for C14/C16, C28/C16 and C30/C16 were 16.5%,14.1% and 11.4%, respectively. The distribution of the compounds in the smoke was bimodal with the peak carbon number of C16 followed by C28 or C30, and it showed an even carbon number preference. The mean values of carbon preference index (CPI) and average carbon chain length (ACL) were 19.8 and 18.2, respectively. In the smoldering smoke,the total amounts of the fatty acids were in the range of 5,799.3 to 37,244 mg x kg(-1), and the mean was 15,838.6 mg x kg(-1). Moreover, the L/H ratios varied from 1.2 to 5.6, with a mean value of 4.2. The average ratio values for C14/C16, C28/C16 and C30/C16 were 12.7% , 10.1% and 6.0%, respectively. The content distribution pattern of the compounds was similar to that in the flaming smoke, and the mean values of CPI and ACL were 24.7 and 17.7, respectively. In general, n-alkanoic acids in both wheat straw and its two types of smoke had similar distribution modes, both with even carbon number preference, but there was prominent distinction among the chemical compositions of the compounds in the straw and the smokes. This is maybe useful in identifying the organic matter from wheat straw or its smoke in the atmospheric aerosol. PMID:24720188

Liu, Gang; Li, Jiu-Hai; Wu, Dan; Xu, Hui

2014-01-01

4

[Chemical composition of n-alkanes in wheat straw and smoke].  

PubMed

Straw of six wheat species was burned under flaming and smoldering conditions. Chemical compositions of n-alkanes in the straw and its smoke were measured with GC/MS. The results showed, the main compounds in all samples were C16 to C33, and the total amounts of n-alkanes in the straw were between 19.6 and 62.3 mg x kg(-1), with a mean value of 36.0 mg x kg(-1). Moreover, the ratios of the contents of n-alkanes with low carbon number (< C23) to the total n-alkanes varied from 1.4% to 31.6%. The C27/C29 values in straws ranged from 20.2% to 47.4% with an average of 33.7%, and the C31/C29 values ranged from 22.9% to 48.1% with a mean value of 32.7%. In the flaming smoke, the total contents were 764.2 to 5 304.1 mg x kg(-1), with a mean value of 2 854.2 mg x kg(-1). And the contribution of the compounds with low carbon number to the total contents was 2.0% to 19.4%, the mean of which was 7.1%. Furthermore, the C27/C29 ratios changed from 10.0% to 31.6% with an average of 20.2%, and the C31/C29 values ranged from 47.1% to 98.9% with a mean of 71.2%. In the smoldering smoke, the total contents were in the range of 5 126 to 15 898 mg x kg(-1), and the mean value was 9 220.8 mg kg(-1). The ratios of the content of n-alkanes with low carbon number to the total n-alkanes varied from 1.9% to 13.0%, and the average value was 5.5%. In addition, the C27/C29 values ranged from 8.6% to 23.0% with a mean of 13.8%, and C31/C29 ratios varied from 42.5% to 90.2% with an average of 62.2%. In both the straw and the smoke, n-alkanes showed unimodal distribution with a peak at C29. The compounds with high carbon number (> C21) in all samples had evident odd to even carbon number predominance. The carbon predominance index (CPI) for the straw ranged from 4.0 to 33.6 with a mean value of 19. 2, and the corresponding average carbon chain length (ACL) varied from 25.2 to 29.0 with a mean of 28.0. The CPI for flaming smoke was between 4.4 and 27.1 with a mean value of 12.4, and the corresponding ACL varied from 27.6 to 29.4 with an average value of 28.8. The CPI values for smoldering smoke ranged from 5.5 to 29.6 with a mean of 18.0, and the ACL was from 28.0 to 29.5 with an average value of 28.9. In short, there were visible differentiations among the chemical compositions of n-alkanes in wheat straw and its smoke, which are helpful for identifying the organic contaminants in ambient aerosol from wheat straw burning. PMID:24455921

Liu, Gang; Li, Jiu-Hai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Dan

2013-11-01

5

The effect of white-rot basidiomycetes on chemical composition and in Vitro digestibility of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five white-rot basidiomycetes were evaluated for their potential to improve ruminal degradation of wheat straw.Polyorus brumalis, Lyophyllum ulmarium III,Trametes gibbosa, Pleurotus ostreatus, and aPleurotus ostreatus mutant were incubated on wheat straw for 30 d at 28°C. Detergent fiber, crude protein andin vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were determined. The results showed increasing crude protein and ash contents in fungus-treated\\u000a straw.

D. Jal?; F. Nerud; R. Žit?an; P. Siroka

1996-01-01

6

Biomethanation of rice and wheat straw.  

PubMed

When rice or wheat straw was added to cattle dung slurry and digested anaerobically, daily gas production increased from 176 to 331 l/kg total solids with 100% rice straw and to 194 l/kg total solids with 40% wheat straw. Not only was methane production enhanced by adding chopped crop residues but a greater biodegradability of organic matter in the straws was achieved. PMID:24421124

Somayaji, D; Khanna, S

1994-09-01

7

Addition of rice straw or\\/and wheat bran on composition, ruminal degradability and voluntary intake of bamboo shoot shells silage fed to sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the quality of bamboo shoot shell silage prepared with or without rice straw (RS) or\\/and wheat bran (WB), and to evaluate their nutritive value in terms of chemical composition, ruminal degradation characteristics, and voluntary intake by lambs. The bamboo shoot shells silages were prepared in experimental silos to create four treatments: (1) 100% (fresh basis) bamboo shoot

Jian-Xin Liu; Xiao-Qin Wang; Zhan-Quan Shi

2001-01-01

8

Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 ?m) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 ?m) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

2011-05-01

9

Nutritional bioactive components of wheat straw as affected by genotype and environment.  

PubMed

Policosanol (PC) and phytosterol (PS) enriched dietary supplements and functional foods are marketed for their low density lipoprotein lowering properties. The presence of PC and PS in wheat straw has been reported previously. Wheat straw can be a potential source for recovery of high value components. A fundamental understanding of variations in chemical composition of feedstock is the key for designing efficient processes for value-added product development. Information on variations in the PC and PS content and composition in wheat straw is limited. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of genotype and environment on PC and PS contents and compositions in wheat straw. Samples were collected from three varieties, Jagger, Trego, and Intrada grown at two locations Balko, and Goodwell, OK in 2006. Total PC and PS contents and compositions in the samples were determined by using a gas chromatography system. This study showed that wheat straw contains significant amount of PC (approximately 137-274 mg/kg) and PS (approximately 834-1206 mg/kg). Octacosanol, tetracosanol, docosanol, hexacosanol, and tricontanol were the main PC components. Approximately 60-76% of the total PS consisted of beta-sitosterol. Genotype and environment had a significant effect on PC and PS contents in wheat straw. This is the first study examining the effect of environment and genotype on wheat straw chemical composition. A fundamental understanding of variations of PC and PS contents and compositions in wheat straw requires further research involving samples collected over several years. PMID:19716291

Dunford, Nurhan T; Edwards, Jeff

2010-01-01

10

Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were conducted as a completely randomized design and analysed using one-way ANOVA. Enzyme activities of the extracts,

M. A. M. Rodrigues; P. Pinto; R. M. F. Bezerra; A. A. Dias; C. V. M. Guedes; V. M. G. Cardoso; J. W. Cone; L. M. M. Ferreira; J. Colaço; C. A. Sequeira

2008-01-01

11

Nutraceutical and functional scenario of wheat straw.  

PubMed

In the era of nutrition, much focus has been remunerated to functional and nutraceutical foodstuffs. The health endorsing potential of such provisions is attributed to affluent phytochemistry. These dynamic constituents have functional possessions that are imperative for cereal industry. The functional and nutraceutical significance of variety of foods is often accredited to their bioactive molecules. Numerous components have been considered but wheat straw and its diverse components are of prime consideration. In this comprehensive dissertation, efforts are directed to elaborate the functional and nutraceutical importance of wheat straw. Wheat straw is lignocellulosic materials including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It hold various bioactive compounds such as policosanols, phytosterols, phenolics, and triterpenoids, having enormous nutraceutical properties like anti-allergenic, anti-artherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects, antiviral, and anticancer. These compounds are protecting against various ailments like hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, wheat straw has demonstrated successfully, low cost, renewable, versatile, widely distributed, easily available source for the production of biogas, bioethanol, and biohydrogen in biorefineries to enhance the overall effectiveness of biomass consumption in protected and eco-friendly environment. Furthermore, its role in enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of bakery products through reducing the progression of staling and retrogradation is limelight of the article. PMID:23216000

Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Waqas, Khalid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Umair

2013-01-01

12

Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process.  

PubMed

To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing. PMID:24508905

Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Benjelloun-Mlayah, Bouchra; Huijgen, Wouter J J; de Wild, Paul J; Gosselink, Richard J A; Gerritsma, Jort; Courtin, Christophe M

2014-03-01

13

Structure and morphology of cellulose in wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and morphology of cellulose extracted from wheat were studied. It was found that the extraction process is effective and hemicelluloses and lignin can be extracted completely. Cellulose in wheat straw was identified as cellulose I allomorph with low crystallinity and the crystallinity of cellulose from different parts of the wheat straw has little difference. There was no metastable

Ruigang Liu; Hui Yu; Yong Huang

2005-01-01

14

Levulinic acid production from wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out on the effects of temperature, acid concentration, liquid:solid ratio and reaction time on levulinic acid production from wheat straw using response surface methodology. The P-value of the coefficient for acid concentration was 0.0002, suggesting that this was highly significant. The quadratic effects of temperature and liquid:solid ratio were also significant and their P-values were <0.0001 and

Chun Chang; Peilin Cen; Xiaojian Ma

2007-01-01

15

Explosion pulping of bagasse and wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse and wheat straw were soda-pulped in a digester at 200 degrees under N pressure of up to 13.8 MPa, followed by explosive discharge through nozzles to give pulp having lower yield and higher initial freeness than batch soda pulp. Explosion pulping required less NaOH than conventional batch soda pulping, and the properties of explosion pulp obtained were similar to those of batch soda pulp at a given freeness.

Mamers, H.; Yuritta, J.P.; Menz, D.J.

1981-01-01

16

Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has\\u000a been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars.\\u000a A fixed bed reactor was used combined with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in

Nadja Schultz-Jensen; Frank Leipold; Henrik Bindslev; Anne Belinda Thomsen

2011-01-01

17

Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal  

PubMed Central

Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated.

2010-01-01

18

A comprehensive characterization of lipids in wheat straw.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the lipids in wheat straw was studied in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Important discrepancies with the data reported in previous papers were found. The predominant lipids identified were series of long-chain free fatty acids (25% of total extract), followed by series of free fatty alcohols (ca. 20%). High molecular weight esters of long chain fatty acids esterified to long chain fatty alcohols were also found (11%), together with lower amounts of other aliphatic series, such as n-alkanes, n-aldehydes, and glycerides (mono-, di-, and triglycerides). Relatively high amounts of ?-diketones (10%), particularly 14,16-hentriacontanedione, which is the second most abundant single compound among the lipids in wheat straw, were also identified. Finally, steroid compounds (steroid hydrocarbons, steroid ketones, free sterols, sterol esters, and sterol glycosides) were also found, with sterols accounting for nearly 14% of all identified compounds. PMID:23373527

del Río, José C; Prinsen, Pepijn; Gutiérrez, Ana

2013-02-27

19

Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project  

SciTech Connect

Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

N /A

2004-09-30

20

Efficient conversion of wheat straw wastes into biohydrogen gas by cow dung compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient conversion of wheat straw wastes into biohydrogen gas by cow dung compost was reported for the first time. Batch tests were carried out to analyze influences of several environmental factors on biohydrogen production from wheat straw wastes. The performance of biohydrogen production using the raw wheat straw and HCl pretreated wheat straw was then compared in batch fermentation tests.

Yao-Ting Fan; Ya-Hui Zhang; Shu-Fang Zhang; Hong-Wei Hou; Bao-Zeng Ren

2006-01-01

21

Comparison of sodium carbonate pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf to produce fermentable sugars.  

PubMed

The specific characteristics of biomass structure and chemical composition of straw stem and leaf may result in different behavior of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, sodium carbonate (SC) was employed as a pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw. The chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf (sheath included) were investigated comparatively. Most of the polysaccharides are kept in the solid fractions after SC pretreatment, while the stem has better delignification selectivity than leaf at high temperature. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw leaf is significantly higher than that of stem. The maximum total sugar yield from SC pretreated leaf was about 16% higher than stem. The results show that sodium carbonate is of great potential to be used as a pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from straw handling waste in a straw pulp mill with a low feedstock cost. PMID:23587832

Jin, Yongcan; Huang, Ting; Geng, Wenhui; Yang, Linfeng

2013-06-01

22

Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w\\/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w\\/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at

A. L. Abdullah; R. P. Tengerdy; V. G. Murphy

1985-01-01

23

Wheat straw cellulose dissolution and isolation by tetra-n-butylammonium hydroxide.  

PubMed

In this article, a novel and high efficient solvent, tetra-n-Butylammonium Hydroxide (TBAH), was used for dissolution and isolation of straw cellulose from wheat straw. The composition analysis with gas chromatography (GC) and the spectroscopic characterization analysis conducted by X-Ray diffraction (XRD)/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that straw cellulose can be directly dissolved and isolated by TBAH without derivatization. The investigation on the properties of straw cellulose isolation was based on the results of single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments, with optimum conditions for straw cellulose isolation being obtained as follow: reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 40 min, concentration of TBAH 50% and ratio of TBAH to straw 10:1 (m/m). In addition, as a solvent for cellulose, TBAH could be recycled several times with high activity being retained. PMID:23544507

Zhong, Chao; Wang, Chunming; Huang, Fan; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping

2013-04-15

24

Hydrolysis of solubilized hemicellulose derived from wet-oxidized wheat straw by a mixture of commercial fungal enzyme preparations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The enzymatic hydrolysis of the solubilized hemicellulose fraction from wet-oxidized wheat straw was investigated for quantification purposes. An optimal hydrolysis depends on factors such as composition of the applied enzyme mixture and the hydrolysis co...

A. Skammelsen Schmidt A. B. Thomsen A. Woidemann M. Tenkanen

1998-01-01

25

Quantification of wheat straw lignin structure by comprehensive NMR analysis.  

PubMed

A further understanding of the structure of lignin from herbaceous crops is needed for advancing technologies of lignocellulosic biomass processing and utilization. A method was established in this study for analyzing structural motifs found in milled straw lignin (MSL) and cellulase-digested lignin (CEL) isolated from wheat straw by combining quantitative (13)C and HSQC NMR spectral analyses. The results showed that guaiacyl (G) was the predominant unit in wheat straw cell wall lignin over syringyl (S) and hydroxyphenyl (H) units. Up to 8.0 units of tricin were also detected in wheat straw lignin per 100 aromatic rings. Various interunit linkages, including ?-O-4, ?-5, ?-?', ?-1, ?, ?-diaryl ether, and 5-5'/4-O-?' as well as potential lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds, were identified and quantified. These findings provide useful information for the development of biofuels and lignin-based materials. PMID:24143908

Zeng, Jijiao; Helms, Gregory L; Gao, Xin; Chen, Shulin

2013-11-20

26

Ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated enzymatically saccharified wheat straw.  

PubMed

Wheat straw used in this study contained 44.24 +/- 0.28% cellulose and 25.23 +/- 0.11% hemicellulose. Alkaline H(2)O(2) pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by alkaline peroxide pretreatment (2.15% H(2)O(2), v/v; pH 11.5; 35 degrees C; 24 h) and enzymatic saccharification (45 degrees C, pH 5.0, 120 h) by three commercial enzyme preparations (cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase) using 0.16 mL of each enzyme preparation per g of straw was 672 +/- 4 mg/g (96.7% yield). During the pretreatment, no measurable quantities of furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural were produced. The concentration of ethanol (per L) from alkaline peroxide pretreated enzyme saccharified wheat straw (66.0 g) hydrolyzate by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 at pH 6.5 and 37 degrees C in 48 h was 18.9 +/- 0.9 g with a yield of 0.46 g per g of available sugars (0.29 g/g straw). The ethanol concentration (per L) was 15.1 +/- 0.1 g with a yield of 0.23 g/g of straw in the case of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by the E. coli strain at pH 6.0 and 37 degrees C in 48 h. PMID:16599561

Saha, Badal C; Cotta, Michael A

2006-01-01

27

Complete and efficient enzymic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fractionation of wheat straw components in a two-step chemical pretreatment is proposed. Hemicelluloses were hydrolysed by dilute sulphuric acid, allowing a substantial recovery of crystalline xylose. Lignin was removed by means of a mild alkaline\\/oxidative solubilisation procedure, involving no sulphite or chlorine and its derivatives. The use of diluted reagents and relatively low temperatures, was both cheap and environmentally

Nicoletta Curreli; Mario Agelli; Brunella Pisu; Antonio Rescigno; Enrico Sanjust; Augusto Rinaldi

2002-01-01

28

Fermentation of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production: comparison of fermentative microorganisms and process configurations.  

PubMed

The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi to produce bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used physico-chemical processes. After biological pretreatment, a solid substrate composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the two latter with a composition lower than that of the initial substrate, is obtained. In this study, six microorganisms and four process configurations were utilised to ferment a hydrolysate obtained from wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus. To enhance total sugars utilisation, five of these microorganisms are able to metabolise, in addition to glucose, most of the pentoses obtained after the hydrolysis of wheat straw by the application of a mixture of hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. The highest overall ethanol yield was obtained with the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus. Its application in combination with the best process configuration yielded 163 mg ethanol per gram of raw wheat straw, which was between 23 and 35 % greater than the yields typically obtained with a conventional bioethanol process, in which wheat straw is pretreated using steam explosion and fermented with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23754562

López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo Alejandro; Lema, Juan Manuel

2013-08-01

29

[Effect of pretreatment on storage and biogas production of baling wheat straw].  

PubMed

Long-term storage of crop straw is very important for biogas plant while pretreatment is always used to improve biogas production of crop straw. Feasibility of integrating the storage with pretreatment of baling wheat straw was studied. Changes of physicochemical properties and the biogas productivity of wheat straw obtained before and after 120 days storage were analyzed. The results showed that it was feasible to directly bale wheat straw for storage (control) and storage treatment had little effect on the physicochemical properties, structure and biogas productivity of wheat straw. After 120 day's storage, biogas production potential of the surface wheat straw of pile was decreased by 7.40%. Integrating NaOH pretreatment with straw storage was good for biogas production of wheat straw and the total solid (TS) biogas yield was increased by 7.02%-8.31% (compared to that of wheat straw without storage) and 5.68% -16.96% (compared to that of storage without alkaline pretreatment), respectively. Storage with urea treatment was adverse to biogas production of wheat straw and the contents of cellulose and hemicellulose of wheat straw were decreased by 18.25%-27.22% and 5.31%-16.15% and the TS biogas yield was decreased by 2.80%-7.71% after 120 day's storage. Exposing wheat straw to the air during the storage process was adverse to the conserving of organic matter and biogas utilization of wheat straw, but the influence was very slight and the TS biogas yield of wheat straw obtained from pile surface of control and urea treatment was decreased by 7.40% and 4.25%, respectively. PMID:24191580

Ma, Hui-Juan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Du, Jing; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Ye, Xiao-Mei

2013-08-01

30

Feeding value of wet tomato pomace ensiled with wheat straw and wheat grain for Awassi sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two experiments were conducted to preserve tomato pomace (TP) by ensiling it with different levels of wheat straw (WS) and wheat grain (WG) to improve feeding value, digestibility, and acceptability of this source. Experiment I was arranged in a 3×4 factorial in which WS level (10, 15, and 20%) and WG (ground) level (0, 2, 4, and

N. Denek; A. Can

2006-01-01

31

Characterisation of spruce, salix, miscanthus and wheat straw for pyrolysis applications.  

PubMed

This research details the characterisation of four Irish-grown lignocellulosic biomasses for pyrolysis by biomass composition analysis, TGA, and Py-GC/MS-FID. Ash content (mf) increased in the order spruce (0.26 wt.%) < salix (1.16 wt.%) < miscanthus (3.43 wt.%) < wheat straw (3.76 wt.%). Analysis of hydrolysis-derived sugar monomers showed that xylose concentrations (4.69–26.76 wt.%) ranged significantly compared to glucose concentrations (40.98–49.82 wt.%). Higher hemicellulose and ash contents probably increased non-volatile matter, and decreased the temperature of maximum degradation by TGA as well as yields of GC-detectable compounds by Py-GC/MS-FID. Differences in composition and degradation were reflected in the pyrolysate composition by lower quantities of sugars (principally levoglucosan), pyrans, and furans for salix, miscanthus, and wheat straw compared to spruce, and increased concentrations of cyclopentenones and acids. PMID:23347928

Butler, Eoin; Devlin, Ger; Meier, Dietrich; McDonnell, Kevin

2013-03-01

32

Cavitation assisted delignification of wheat straw: a review.  

PubMed

Wheat is grown in most of the Indian and Chinese regions and after harvesting, the remaining straw offers considerable promise as a renewable source most suitable for papermaking and as a pulping resource. Delignification of wheat straw offers ample scope for energy conservation by way of the application of the process intensification principles. The present work reviews the pretreatment techniques available for improving the effectiveness of the conventional approach for polysaccharide component separation, softening and delignification. A detailed overview of the cavitation assisted delignification process has been presented based on the earlier literature illustrations and important operational guidelines have been presented for overall low-cost and amenable energy utilization in the processes. The effectiveness of the methods has been evaluated according to yield and properties of the isolated fibers in comparison to the conventional treatment. Also the experimental results of one such non-conventional treatment scheme based on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation have been presented for the pulping of wheat straw. The effect of hydrodynamically induced cavitation on cell wall matrix and its components have been characterized using FT-IR analysis with an objective of understanding the cavitation assisted digestion mechanism on straws. It has been observed that the use of hydrodynamic cavitation does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes relocalisation and partial removal of lignin. Overall it appears that considerable improvement can be obtained due to the use of pretreatment or alternate techniques for delignification, which is an energy intensive step in the paper making industries. PMID:22410399

Iskalieva, Asylzat; Yimmou, Bob Mbouyem; Gogate, Parag R; Horvath, Miklos; Horvath, Peter G; Csoka, Levente

2012-09-01

33

Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than effective tissue disruption.

2013-01-01

34

Lime pretreatment of crop residues bagasse and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lime (calcium hydroxide) was used as a pretreatment agent to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of two common crop residues:\\u000a bagasse and wheat straw. A systematic study of pretreatment conditions suggested that for short pretreatment times (1–3 h),\\u000a high temperatures (85-135°C) were required to achieve high sugar yields, whereas for long pretreatment times (e.g., 24 h),\\u000a low temperatures (50–65°C) were effective.

Vincent S. Chang; Murlidhar Nagwani; Mark T. Holtzapple

1998-01-01

35

Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of wheat straw for ethanol production after pretreatment with O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature followed by fermentation was investigated. We found that\\u000a cellulose and hemicellulose remained unaltered after ozonisation and a subsequent washing step, while lignin was degraded\\u000a up to 95% by O3. The loss of biomass after washing could be explained

Nadja Schultz-Jensen; Zsófia Kádár; Anna Belinda Thomsen; Henrik Bindslev; Frank Leipold

36

Adhesive properties of modified soybean flour in wheat straw particleboard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to improve mechanical properties and water resistance of wheat straw–soy flour particleboard by chemically modifying soy flour. Urea and urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) were used to modify the proteins. Boric acid and citric acid along sodium hypophosphite monohydrate were used to modify soy carbohydrates. Sodium hydroxide was used to unfold protein molecules.

Enzhi Cheng; Xiuzhi Sun; Greggory S Karr

2004-01-01

37

Ethanol production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production was evaluated from wheat straw (WS) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate using an adapted and parent strain of Pichiastipitis. NRRL Y-7124. The treatment by boiling and overliming with Ca(OH)2 significantly improved the fermentability of the hydrolysate. Ethanol yield (Yp\\/s) and productivity (Qp av) were increased 2.4±0.10 and 5.7±0.24 folds, respectively, compared to neutralized hydrolysate. Adaptation of the yeast to the

J. N Nigam

2001-01-01

38

Enhanced saccharification of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production.  

PubMed

The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi for the production of bioethanol is an alternative to the most used physico-chemical processes. After biological treatment, a solid composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin-this latter is with a composition lower than that found in the initial substrate-is obtained. On the contrary, after applying physico-chemical methods, most of the hemicellulose fraction is solubilized, while cellulose and lignin fractions remain in the solid. The optimization of the combination of cellulases and hemicellulases required to saccharify wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus was carried out in this work. The application of the optimal dosage made possible the increase of the sugar yield from 33 to 54 %, and at the same time the reduction of the quantity of enzymatic mixture in 40 %, with respect to the initial dosage. The application of a pre-hydrolysis step with xylanases was also studied. PMID:23306886

López-Abelairas, M; Lu-Chau, T A; Lema, J M

2013-02-01

39

Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei.  

PubMed

We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native ?-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

Jovanovi?, Birgit; Mach, Robert L; Mach-Aigner, Astrid R

2014-01-01

40

Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei  

PubMed Central

We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native ?-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw.

2014-01-01

41

Bioavailability of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from wheat straw and chaff in pigs.  

PubMed

Fusarium infections do not only affect the grain, but also the rest of the plant, which result in contamination of plants with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The bioavailability of DON may be influenced by the matrix due to the differences in nutrient composition between grain and straw, particularly the high fibre component in straw. The experiment was carried out by exposing 18 male castrated pigs (30-40 kg live weight) with a single dose of DON from wheat grain, straw and chaff in the diet. The courses of DON serum concentrations were evaluated using toxicokinetic methods. The absorption of DON was not influenced by the source of DON. The invasion half-life of DON from grain, straw and chaff amounted to 0.76, 0.77 and 0.48 h, respectively, and were not significantly different. The elimination of DON was also not affected by the DON source. The bioavailability of DON, calculated by the dose corrected area under the curve of the serum-DON-concentrations, amounted to 81.9, 87.3 and 109.8% for straw, grain and chaff, respectively, without significant differences. Thus, the uptake of DON from straw may contribute comparably to the overall exposure of animals. PMID:23336299

Rohweder, Dirk; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Sondermann, Sarah; Schollenberger, Margit; Drochner, Winfried; Dänicke, Sven

2013-02-01

42

Power requirement for particle size reduction of wheat straw as a function of straw threshing unit parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw at moisture content of 8.5 % w.b. was threshed using a straw thresher machine. Power requirement for size reduction of the straw was measured at different conditions. The thresher parameters were: drum speed at three levels: 400, 540, and 800 rpm, two screen sizes (2.5 and 4 cm), and two states for number of blades on each flange

H. Tavakoli; S. S. Mohtasebi; A. Jafari; D. Mahdavinejad

43

The influence of thermochemical treatments on the lignocellulosic structure of wheat straw as studied by natural abundance 13C NMR.  

PubMed

The effects of thermochemical treatments (aquathermolysis, pyrolysis, and combinations thereof) on the lignocellulosic structure and composition of wheat straw were studied with (13)C and (1)H solid state NMR spectroscopy and proton T1? relaxation measurements. Results show that aquathermolysis removes hemicellulose, acetyl groups, and ash minerals. As a result, the susceptibility of lignocellulose to pyrolysis is reduced most likely due to the removal of catalytically active salts, although recondensation of lignin during aquathermolysis treatment can also play a role. In contrast to pyrolysis of wheat straw, pyrolysis of aquathermolysed wheat straw leaves traces of cellulose in the char as well as more intense lignin methoxy peaks. Finally, it was found that both pyrolysis chars contain aliphatic chains, which were attributed to the presence of cutin or cutin-like materials, a macromolecule that covers the aerial surface of plants, not soluble in water and seemingly stable under the pyrolysis conditions applied. PMID:23973979

Habets, S; de Wild, P J; Huijgen, W J J; van Eck, E R H

2013-10-01

44

Comparison of sodium carbonate-oxygen and sodium hydroxide-oxygen pretreatments on the chemical composition and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of wheat straw with a combination of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with oxygen (O2) 0.5MPa was evaluated for its delignification ability at relatively low temperature 110°C and for its effect on enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. In the pretreatment, the increase of alkali charge (as Na2O) up to 12% for Na2CO3 and 6% for NaOH, respectively, resulted in enhancement of lignin removal, but did not significantly degrade cellulose and hemicellulose. When the pretreated solid was hydrolyzed with a mixture of cellulases and hemicellulases, the sugar yield increased rapidly with the lignin removal during the pretreatment. A total sugar yield based on dry matter of raw material, 63.8% for Na2CO3-O2 and 71.9% for NaOH-O2 was achieved under a cellulase loading of 20FPU/g-cellulose. The delignification efficiency and total sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis were comparable to the previously reported results at much higher temperature without oxygen. PMID:24686372

Geng, Wenhui; Huang, Ting; Jin, Yongcan; Song, Junlong; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

2014-06-01

45

Hydrotreating of wheat straw in toluene and ethanol.  

PubMed

In the present work, wheat straw was hydroliquefied at a temperature of 300°C for 4h in ethanol or toluene in order to obtain bio-components which are useful for fuel purposes. The experiments were performed in a 100mL batch reactor under hydrogen pressure of 70bar. Typically, 2g of straw and 0.1g of catalyst (66%Ni/SiO2-Al2O3) were dispersed in 15g of solvent. The main compounds of the oil produced during the liquefaction of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin of wheat straw in both solvents are: tetrahydrofuran-2-methanol, 1,2-butanediol and butyrolactone. Besides the mentioned compounds, ethanol favoured the decomposition of bigger molecules to short-chain alcohols such as 1-butanol, 1,2-propanediol and 1,2-ethanediol. Toluene contributes to the production of furans and other cyclic compounds. The light fractions distilled together with the solvent also contain the following: 1-propanol, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. PMID:24787323

Murnieks, Raimonds; Kampars, Valdis; Malins, Kristaps; Apseniece, Lauma

2014-07-01

46

Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibrils from wheat straw using steam explosion coupled with high shear homogenization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose nanofibrils of diameter 10–50nm were obtained from wheat straw using alkali steam explosion coupled with high shear homogenization. High shear results in shearing of the fiber agglomerates resulting in uniformly dispersed nanofibrils. The chemical composition of fibers at different stages were analyzed according to the ASTM standards and showed increase in ?-cellulose content and decrease in lignin and hemicellulose.

Anupama Kaushik; Mandeep Singh

2011-01-01

47

Production of lactic acid from xylose and wheat straw by Rhizopus oryzae.  

PubMed

Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5378 was the best among 56 strains of R. oryzae for the production of lactic acid from xylose. This strain produced lactic acid from wheat straw powder by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, with a yield of 0.23 g/g from cellulose and hemicellulose in wheat straw. PMID:22578599

Saito, Katsuichi; Hasa, Yasuhiro; Abe, Hideyuki

2012-08-01

48

Co-refining of wheat straw pulp and hardwood kraft pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw has been used as a pulping resource in China for many years. Wheat straw pulp (WSP) was widely used to substitute high quality chemical pulps such as those made from wood in producing writing and printing paper to reduce production cost of the resultant paper products and to improve paper smoothness without sacrificing paper strength. In this study,

Qingxi Hou; Bo Yang; Wei Liu; Hongbin Liu; Yimei Hong; Ruixia Zhang

2011-01-01

49

Production of bioethanol from wheat straw: An overview on pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw is an abundant agricultural residue with low commercial value. An attractive alternative is utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. However, production costs based on the current technology are still too high, preventing commercialization of the process. In recent years, progress has been made in developing more effective pretreatment and hydrolysis processes leading to higher yield of sugars.

Farid Talebnia; Dimitar Karakashev; Irini Angelidaki

2010-01-01

50

Short-chain fatty acids as growth inhibitors in decomposing wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous extract of decomposing wheat straw in water was inhibitory to the seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The major compounds isolated from the toxic fractions were salts of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Amounts of these acids increased gradually up to 12 days and the toxicity of the straw extract increased accordingly. Traces of isobutyric, pentanoic, and

C. S. Tang; A. C. Waiss

1978-01-01

51

Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw: product distribution and generation mechanism.  

PubMed

Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw is studied, combined with analysis of products, the distribution and generation pathway of products are investigated. Only a small amount of volatiles released when microwave pyrolysis of pure straw. Mixtures of adding CuO and Fe3O4 can pyrolyze, and the majority in pyrolysis products is in liquid-phase. Severe pyrolysis occur after adding carbon residue, the CO content in pyrolysis gas products is high, and the maximum volume content of H2 can exceed 35 vol.%. The high-temperature is helpful for increasing the yield of combustible gas in gaseous products, in particular the H2 production, but also helpful for improving the conversion of sample. Pyrolysis is carried out layer by layer from the inside to outside. As the internal material firstly pyrolyze and pyrolysis products released pass through the low temperature zone, the chance of occurrence of secondary reactions is reduced. PMID:24607465

Zhao, Xiqiang; Wang, Wenlong; Liu, Hongzhen; Ma, Chunyuan; Song, Zhanlong

2014-04-01

52

Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py-GC-MS), thermogravimetric (TG) /differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the fungal secretomes and composition, functional groups, and structural changes of the fungal spent wheat straw lignin were determined. Milled wood lignin (MWL) was extracted from biological treated and untreaed wheat straw. Detailed structural analysis through two dimentional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonances (2D HMQC NMR) of the pretreated lignin (acetylated) revealed low abundances of the substructures dibenzodioxacin and cinnamyl alcohol. Further analysis of lignin by Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) demonstrated the significant decrease of guaiacyl units. The results support previous findings on the biodegradation of wheat straw as analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). Revealing the characteristic behavior of P. chrysosporium-mediated biomass degradation, the information presented in this paper offers new insight into the understanding of biological lignin degradation of wheat straw by P. chrysosporium.

Zeng, Jijiao

53

Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes.  

PubMed

Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid, and formic acid). The aim of our study was to utilize the liquid fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw as a carbon source for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30. Results showed that without detoxification, the fungus failed to utilize any dilution of the hydrolyzate; however, after a two-step detoxification process, it was able to grow on a fourfold dilution of the treated liquid fraction. Supplementation of the fourfold-diluted, treated liquid fraction with washed pretreated wheat straw or ground wheat grain led to enhanced cellulase (filter paper) activity. Produced enzymes were tested in hydrolysis of washed pretreated wheat straw. Supplementation with ground wheat grain provided a more efficient enzyme mixture for the hydrolysis by means of the near-doubled ?-glucosidase activity obtained. PMID:20734107

Gyalai-Korpos, Miklós; Mangel, Réka; Alvira, Pablo; Dienes, Dóra; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Réczey, Kati

2011-07-01

54

Metataxonomic profiling and prediction of functional behaviour of wheat straw degrading microbial consortia  

PubMed Central

Background Mixed microbial cultures, in which bacteria and fungi interact, have been proposed as an efficient way to deconstruct plant waste. The characterization of specific microbial consortia could be the starting point for novel biotechnological applications related to the efficient conversion of lignocellulose to cello-oligosaccharides, plastics and/or biofuels. Here, the diversity, composition and predicted functional profiles of novel bacterial-fungal consortia are reported, on the basis of replicated aerobic wheat straw enrichment cultures. Results In order to set up biodegradative microcosms, microbial communities were retrieved from a forest soil and introduced into a mineral salt medium containing 1% of (un)treated wheat straw. Following each incubation step, sequential transfers were carried out using 1 to 1,000 dilutions. The microbial source next to three sequential batch cultures (transfers 1, 3 and 10) were analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS1 pyrosequencing. Faith’s phylogenetic diversity values became progressively smaller from the inoculum to the sequential batch cultures. Moreover, increases in the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Flavobacteriales and Sphingobacteriales were noted along the enrichment process. Operational taxonomic units affiliated with Acinetobacter johnsonii, Pseudomonas putida and Sphingobacterium faecium were abundant and the underlying strains were successfully isolated. Interestingly, Klebsiella variicola (OTU1062) was found to dominate in both consortia, whereas K. variicola-affiliated strains retrieved from untreated wheat straw consortia showed endoglucanase/xylanase activities. Among the fungal players with high biotechnological relevance, we recovered members of the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Coniochaeta and Trichosporon. Remarkably, the presence of peroxidases, alpha-L-fucosidases, beta-xylosidases, beta-mannases and beta-glucosidases, involved in lignocellulose degradation, was indicated by predictive bacterial metagenome reconstruction. Reassuringly, tests for specific (hemi)cellulolytic enzymatic activities, performed on the consortial secretomes, confirmed the presence of such gene functions. Conclusion In an in-depth characterization of two wheat straw degrading microbial consortia, we revealed the enrichment and selection of specific bacterial and fungal taxa that were presumably involved in (hemi) cellulose degradation. Interestingly, the microbial community composition was strongly influenced by the wheat straw pretreatment. Finally, the functional bacterial-metagenome prediction and the evaluation of enzymatic activities (at the consortial secretomes) revealed the presence and enrichment of proteins involved in the deconstruction of plant biomass.

2014-01-01

55

Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at 0.12 L/h/g; substrate thickness of 1 to 2 cm; and duration of three days. Technical parameters for this optimized fermentation were: degree of substance utilization, 27.2%; protein yield/substrate, 0.09 g; biomass yield/bioconverted substrate, 0.40 g; degree of bioconversion of total available sugars in the substrate, 60.5%; specific efficiency of bioconversion, 70.8%; and overall efficiency of biomass production from substrate, 42.7%. Mixed culturing of Candida utilis further increased biomass production by 20%. The best mode of fermentation was a semicontinuous fed-batch fermentation where one-half of the fermented material was removed at three-day intervals and replaced by fresh substrate. In this mode, protein production was 20% higher than in batch mode, protein productivity was maintained over 12 days, and sporulation was prevented. 10 references.

Abdullah, A.L.; Tengerdy, R.P.; Murphy, V.G.

1985-01-01

56

[Removal of Heterosigma akashiwo by modified wheat straw].  

PubMed

The modified wheat straw (MWS) was prepared and used to investigate the removal and the mechanism of Heterosigma akashiwo. The results showed that under the same loading of 0.10 g/L, the algal removal efficiency could reach 80% by MWS in 120 minutes, while 10% by the unmodified wheat straw. To investigate the mechanism, we measured the optical density of the supernatant at 260 nm. The result showed that the nucleotides were released, which meant disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. More than 15% of the nucleotides were released from the cytoplasm under the effect of 0.15 g/L of MWS, indicating the irreversible damage on the cellular membrane, which resulted in the disintegration of the harmful algal cells. It is suggested that the low concentration of MWS might adsorb onto the algal cell surface and bind to the cytoplasmic membrane, which resulted in the flocculation. While the high concentration might cause the penetration into the cellular membrane, which resulted in the leakage of cytoplasm material and hence the death of cell. PMID:20391693

Wang, Hong-liang; Yu, Zhi-ming; Song, Xiu-xian; Cao, Xi-hua

2010-02-01

57

Pretreatment and fractionation of wheat straw using various ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids (ILs) is a promising and challenging process for an alternative method of biomass processing. The present work emphasizes the examination of wheat straw pretreatment using ILs, namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogensulfate ([bmim][HSO4]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim][SCN]), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][N(CN)2]). Only [bmim][HSO4] was found to achieve a macroscopic complete dissolution of wheat straw during pretreatment. The fractionation process demonstrated to be dependent on the IL used. Using [bmim][SCN], a high-purity lignin-rich material was obtained. In contrast, [bmim][N(CN)2] was a good solvent to produce high-purity carbohydrate-rich fractions. When [bmim][HSO4] was used, a different behavior was observed, exhibiting similarities to an acid hydrolysis pretreatment, and no hemicellulose-rich material was recovered during fractionation. A capillary electrophoresis (CE) technique allowed for a better understanding of this phenomenon. Hydrolysis of carbohydrates was confirmed, although an extended degradation of monosaccharides to furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was observed. PMID:23876219

Lopes, André M da Costa; João, Karen G; Bogel-?ukasik, Ewa; Roseiro, Luísa B; Bogel-?ukasik, Rafa?

2013-08-21

58

Immobilization of chlorobenzenes in soil using wheat straw biochar.  

PubMed

Biochar has shown great potential for immobilizing organic contaminants in soil. In this study, pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,4,5-TeCB), and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) artificially spiked soil was amended with wheat straw biochar at 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% application rates, respectively. The sorption, dissipation, and bioavailability of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil were investigated. The sorption of PeCB by biochar was significantly higher than that of its sorption by both biochar-amended and unamended soil (p < 0.05). The dissipation and volatilization of CBs from biochar-amended soil significantly decreased relative to unamended soil (p < 0.05). Bioavailability of CBs, expressed as butanol extraction efficiency and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) bioaccumulation factor, significantly decreased with increasing aging time and biochar application rate. The effect of biochar content in soil on the bioavailability of CBs was more pronounced for 1,2,4-TCB relative to other CBs. This study suggested that wheat straw biochar, even at low application rates, could effectively immobilize the semivolatile CBs in soil and thus reduce their volatilization and bioavailability. PMID:23578388

Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

2013-05-01

59

A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw.  

PubMed

This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B; Du, Chenyu

2013-12-01

60

Composting of goat manure and wheat straw using pine cones as a bulking agent.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of pine cones, goat manure and wheat straw and obtained optimal Free Air Space (FAS) values for composting. For this aim, pine cones were added at different ratios into goat manure and wheat straw mixtures. So, the FAS value of mixtures was fixed at four different levels. According to the results, the highest organic matter degradation and temperature value were obtained at the mixture ratio of 10% pine cones, 45% goat manure and 45% wheat straw. FAS value of this mixture was 32.8. PMID:17092713

Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

2007-10-01

61

Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Results Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Conclusions Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs.

2013-01-01

62

Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Biomass recalcitrance is affected by a number of chemical, physical and biological factors. In this study we looked into the differences in recalcitrance between two major anatomical fractions of wheat straw biomass, leaf and stem. A set of twenty-one wheat cultivars was fractionated and illustrated the substantial variation in leaf-to-stem ratio between cultivars. The two fractions were compared in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic convertibility, cellulose crystallinity and glucan accessibility. The use of water as a probe for assessing glucan accessibility was explored using low field nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy in combination with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Results Leaves were clearly more degradable by lignocellulolytic enzymes than stems, and it was demonstrated that xylose removal was more linked to glucose yield for stems than for leaves. Comparing the locations of water in leaf and stem by low field NMR and FT-IR revealed that the glucan hydroxyl groups in leaves were more accessible to water than glucan hydroxyl groups in stems. No difference in crystallinity between leaf and stem was observed using wide angle x-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated by the accessibility of the hydroxyl groups to water. This suggests that water may be used to assess glucan accessibility in biomass samples.

2014-01-01

63

Preparation of lignopolyols from wheat straw soda lignin.  

PubMed

Wheat straw soda lignin was modified and characterized by several qualitative and quantitative methods such as (31)P NMR spectroscopy to evaluate its potential as a substitute for polyols in view of polyurethane applications. Chemical modification of the lignin was achieved with propylene oxide to form lignopolyol derivatives. This was performed by a two-step reaction of lignin with maleic anhydride followed by propylene oxide and by direct oxyalkylation under acidic and alkaline conditions. The physical and chemical properties of lignopolyols from each method and the subsequent chain-extended hydroxyl groups were evaluated. Direct oxyalkylation of lignin under alkaline conditions was found to be more efficient than acidic conditions and more effective than the two-step process for preparing lignopolyol with higher aliphatic hydroxyl contents. PMID:21854019

Ahvazi, Behzad; Wojciechowicz, Olivia; Ton-That, Tan-Minh; Hawari, Jalal

2011-10-12

64

Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties) connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter) hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C.

2011-01-01

65

Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41g-ethanol\\/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0ml-H2\\/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were

Prasad Kaparaju; María Serrano; Anne Belinda Thomsen; Prawit Kongjan; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

66

Uranium removal from aqueous solutions by wood powder and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of initial uranium concentration, solution pH, contact time and adsorbent mass was investigated for removal\\u000a of uranium from aqueous solutions by pine wood powder and wheat straw using a batch technique. The maximum removal efficiency\\u000a of uranium achieved at pH 8 and 7 for pine wood powder and wheat straw, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and three

Saeed Bagherifam; Amir Lakzian; Seyed Javad Ahmadi; Mohammad Farhad Rahimi; Akram Halajnia

2010-01-01

67

Recovery of ammonium onto wheat straw to be reused as a slow-release fertilizer.  

PubMed

With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact of nitrogen pollution, a new multifunctional slow-release fertilizer was prepared by recovery of ammonium from aqueous solutions onto a superabsorbent composite. An eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS) was synthesized and used as the carrier to control the release of nutrients. The adsorption studies with NH?? indicated that the superabsorbent composite showed good affinity for NH??, with an adsorption capacity of 7.15 mmol g?¹ when 20 wt % of WS was incorporated and that the adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 40 min. Afterward, the feasibility of reusing the composite as a multifunctional slow-release nitrogen fertilizer was investigated. The results showed that the product with good water-retention and slow-release capacities could regulate soil acidity and was economical and eco-friendly for application in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:23495955

Xie, Lihua; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Lan

2013-04-10

68

Solid-state fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum and Trichoderma lignorum  

SciTech Connect

A novel solid-state fermentation process has been developed for converting wheat straw into protein-enriched ruminant feed with a mixed culture of Chaetomium cellulolyticum or Trichoderma lignorum and Candida lipolytica. Fermentations were conducted in 3-L horizontal stirred fermentors for 7 days at 30/sup 0/C. The straw fermented with the mixed cultures contained 16 to 18% protein, compared to 12 to 14% in straw fermented with either mold alone. Cellulose degradation in the fermented straw was 33%; its in vitro rumen digestibility was 50%.

Viesturs, U.E. (Inst. of Microbiology, Riga, USSR); Apsite, A.F.; Laukevics, J.J.; Ose, V.P.; Bekers, M.J.; Tengerdy, R.P.

1981-01-01

69

Integration of first and second generation biofuels: fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw.  

PubMed

Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of 93.4 g/L, while dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw led to a hydrolysate with sugar concentration 23.0 g/L. Wheat grain hydrolysate was not suitable for hydrogen production by the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus at glucose concentrations of 10 g/L or higher, and wheat straw hydrolysate showed good fermentability at total sugar concentrations of up to 10 g/L. The mixed hydrolysates showed good fermentability at the highest tested sugar concentration of 20 g/L, with a hydrogen production of 82-97% of that of the control with pure sugars. Mixing wheat grain hydrolysate with wheat straw hydrolysate would be beneficial for fermentative hydrogen production in a biorefinery. PMID:23196256

Panagiotopoulos, I A; Bakker, R R; de Vrije, T; Claassen, P A M; Koukios, E G

2013-01-01

70

Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibrils from wheat straw using steam explosion coupled with high shear homogenization.  

PubMed

Cellulose nanofibrils of diameter 10-50nm were obtained from wheat straw using alkali steam explosion coupled with high shear homogenization. High shear results in shearing of the fiber agglomerates resulting in uniformly dispersed nanofibrils. The chemical composition of fibers at different stages were analyzed according to the ASTM standards and showed increase in ?-cellulose content and decrease in lignin and hemicellulose. Structural analysis of steam exploded fibers was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal stability was higher for cellulose nanofibrils as compared to wheat straw and chemically treated fibers. The fiber diameter distribution was obtained using image analysis software. Characterization of the fibers by AFM, TEM, and SEM showed that fiber diameter decreases with treatment and final nanofibril size was 10-15nm. FT-IR, XRD, and TGA studies confirmed the removal of hemicellulose and lignin during the chemical treatment process. PMID:21094489

Kaushik, Anupama; Singh, Mandeep

2011-01-01

71

Properties of Wheat-Straw Boards with Frw Based on Interface Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explored the effect of MDI, UF and FRW content on the mechanical and fire retardant property of straw based panels with surface alkali liquor processing. In order to manufacture the straw based panel with high quality, low toxic and fire retardant, the interface of wheat-straw was treated with alkaline liquid, and the orthogonal test was carried out to optimize the technical parameters. The conductivity and diffusion coefficient K of the straw material after alkaline liquid treatment increased obviously. This indicated that alkaline liquid treatment improved the surface wet ability of straw, which is helpful for the infiltration of resin. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized treating condition was alkaline liquid concentration as 0.4-0.8%, alkaline dosage as 1:2.5-1:4.5, alkalinetreated time as 12h-48 h.The physical and mechanical properties of wheat-straw boards after treated increased remarkably and it could satisfy the national standard. The improvement of the straw surface wet ability is helpful to the forming of chemical bond. Whereas the variance analysis of the fire retardant property of straw based panel showed that TTI, pkHRR and peak value appearance time were not affected by the MDI, UF and FRW content significantly. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized processing condition was MDI content as 3%, UF resin content as 6% and the FRW content as 10%.

Zhu, X. D.; Wang, F. H.; Liu, Y.

72

Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6 % urea and 5.8 % molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p??0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?

Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

2014-08-01

73

White-rot fungal conversion of wheat straw to energy rich cattle feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the digestibility and nutrient availability in rumen, wheat straw was subjected to solid state fermentation\\u000a (SSF) with white-rot fungi (i.e. Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor) and the fermented biomass (called myco-straw) was evaluated for biochemical, enzymatic and nutritional parameters. The fungal\\u000a treatment after 30 days led to significant decrease (P < 0.05) in cell wall constituents viz, acid detergent

Bhuvnesh Shrivastava; Shilpi Thakur; Yogender Pal Khasa; Akshaya Gupte; Anil Kumar Puniya; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2011-01-01

74

Laccase detoxification of steam-exploded wheat straw for second generation bioethanol.  

PubMed

In this work we compared the efficiency of a laccase treatment performed on steam-exploded wheat straw pretreated under soft conditions (water impregnation) or harsh conditions (impregnation with diluted acid). The effect of several enzymatic treatment parameters (pH, time of incubation, laccase origin and loading) was analysed. The results obtained indicated that severity conditions applied during steam explosion have an influence on the efficiency of detoxification. A reduction of the toxic effect of phenolic compounds by laccase polymerization of free phenols was demonstrated. Laccase treatment of steam-exploded wheat straw reduced sugar recovery after enzymatic hydrolysis, and it should be better performed after hydrolysis with cellulases. The fermentability of hydrolysates was greatly improved by the laccase treatment in all the samples. Our results demonstrate the action of phenolic compounds as fermentation inhibitors, and the advantages of a laccase treatment to increase the ethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw. PMID:19683434

Jurado, Miguel; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez-Alcalá, Angeles; Martínez, Angel T; Martínez, María Jesús

2009-12-01

75

Synthesis, characterization and swelling behavior of superabsorbent wheat straw graft copolymers.  

PubMed

Swelling behavior is an important characteristic for superabsorbents. A wheat straw-based superabsorbent (WS-SAB) was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid, acrylic amide and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride onto the cellulose of wheat straw, and its swelling and deswelling behavior was investigated. The product had a water absorbency of 133.76 g/g in distilled water and 33.83 g/g in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the monomers were successfully grafted onto the wheat straw. The largest swelling capacity was at pH 6. The effect of ions on the swelling was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+) and Cl(-)>SO(4)(2-). The swelling capacity did not change after several times of water absorption and release. PMID:22705525

Li, Qian; Ma, Zuohao; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Wenhong; Xu, Xing

2012-08-01

76

Strong cellulase inhibitors from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background The use of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose with subsequent fermentation to ethanol provides a green alternative for the production of transportation fuels. Because of its recalcitrant nature, the lignocellulosic biomass must be pretreated before enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the pretreatment often results in the formation of compounds that are inhibitory for the enzymes or fermenting organism. Although well recognized, little quantitative information on the inhibition of individual cellulase components by identified inhibitors is available. Results Strong cellulase inhibitors were separated from the liquid fraction of the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw. HPLC and mass-spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the inhibitors were oligosaccharides (inhibitory oligosaccharides, IOS) with a degree of polymerization from 7 to 16. The IOS are composed of a mixture of xylo- (XOS) and gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS). We propose that XOS and GOS are the fragments of the xylan backbone and mixed-linkage ?-glucans, respectively. The IOS were approximately 100 times stronger inhibitors for Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) than cellobiose, which is one of the strongest inhibitors of these enzymes reported to date. Inhibition of endoglucanases (EGs) by IOS was weaker than that of CBHs. Most of the tested cellulases and hemicellulases were able to slowly degrade IOS and reduce the inhibitory power of the liquid fraction to some extent. The most efficient single enzyme component here was T. reesei EG TrCel7B. Although reduced by the enzyme treatment, the residual inhibitory power of IOS and the liquid fraction was strong enough to silence the major component of the T. reesei cellulase system, CBH TrCel7A. Conclusions The cellulase inhibitors described here may be responsible for the poor yields from the enzymatic conversion of the whole slurries from lignocellulose pretreatment under conditions that do not favor complete degradation of hemicellulose. Identification of the inhibitory compounds helps to design better enzyme mixtures for their degradation and to optimize the pretreatment regimes to minimize their formation.

2013-01-01

77

Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.  

PubMed

Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5+/-18.4 kg/m(3) for switchgrass, 36.1+/-8.6 kg/m(3) for wheat straw, and 52.1+/-10.8 kg/m(3) for corn stover. Mean tapped bulk densities were 81.8+/-26.2 kg/m(3) for switchgrass, 42.8+/-11.7 kg/m(3) for wheat straw, and 58.9+/-13.4 kg/m(3) for corn stover. Percentage changes in compressibility due to variation in particle size obtained from a knife mill ranged from 64.3 to 173.6 for chopped switchgrass, 22.2-51.5 for chopped wheat straw and 42.1-117.7 for chopped corn stover within the tested consolidation pressure range of 5-120 kPa. Pressure and volume relationship of chopped biomass during compression with application of normal pressure can be characterized by the Walker model and Kawakita and Ludde model. Parameter of Walker model was correlated to the compressibility with Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Relationship between volume reduction in chopped biomass with respect to number of tappings studied using Sone's model indicated that infinite compressibility was highest for chopped switchgrass followed by chopped wheat straw and corn stover. Degree of difficulty in packing measured using the parameters of Sone's model indicated that the chopped wheat straw particles compacted very rapidly by tapping compared to chopped switchgrass and corn stover. These results are very useful for solving obstacles in handling bulk biomass supply logistics issues for a biorefinery. PMID:19699634

Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, Alvin R; Bitra, Venkata S P; Igathinathane, C; Yang, Yuechuan T; Miu, Petre I; Sokhansanj, Shahab

2010-01-01

78

Fractional characterization of wheat straw lignin components by alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation and FT-IR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A method was developed for the isolation and fractional characterization of phenolic monomers in wheat staw lignin using: methanol/toluene, ethanol/toluene, or chloroform extraction for isolation of free phenolic monomers; treatments with various alkalis and hydrogen peroxide for different lengths of time to extract loosely bound phenolic acids and aldehydes; and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation of lignin in the residue of alkali treated wheat straw, extracted hemicellulose, and cellulose for determination of tightly bound phenolics.

Lawther, J.M.; Sun, R.; Banks, W.B. [Univ. of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom)

1996-05-01

79

Screening of white-rot fungi for biological pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty two basidiomycetes, mostly white rot fungi, were grown on wheat straw. Lignin-, cellulose-, and hemicellulose-degradation was recorded in order to find a species growing on lignin preferably. The “oyster-mushroom”Pleurotus sp. “florida” showed fastest delignification of all tested fungi.

H. W. Miiller; W. Trfisch

1986-01-01

80

Physical properties of briquettes from waste paper and wheat straw mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briquetting may be considered as a good idea to utilise low grade combustible materials obtained from biomass sources. Studies demonstrated that waste paper and wheat straw or their mixtures can be compressed to a relative density greater than unity and stabilised at that density without binder material. A reduction in the volume of the material also provides its technological benefit,

A Demirba?

1999-01-01

81

Green nanocomposites based on thermoplastic starch and steam exploded cellulose nanofibrils from wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to characterize the properties of cellulose nanofibril\\/TPS based nanocomposites. The cellulose nanofibrils were extracted from wheat straw using steam explosion, acidic treatment and high shear mechanical treatment. These nanofibrils were dispersed in thermo plastic starch (TPS) using a Fluko high shear mixer in varying proportions and films were casted out of these nanocomposites. The cellulose nanofibrils were

Anupama Kaushik; Mandeep Singh; Gaurav Verma

2010-01-01

82

Pretreatment of wheat straw and conversion of xylose and xylan to ethanol by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw was pretreated by wet oxidation (oxygen pressure, alkaline conditions, elevated temperature) or hydrothermal processing (without oxygen) in order to solubilize the hemicellulose, facilitating bio-conversion. The effect of oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate addition on hemicellulose solubilization was investigated. The two process parameters had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose. However, alkaline conditions affected the furfural formation, whereas

B. K. Ahring; K. Jensen; P. Nielsen; A. B. Bjerre; A. S. Schmidt

1996-01-01

83

Forecasting agrobiological properties of wheat straw with different additives—multiple regression models including chemical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agrobiological properties of 37 composts prepared from wheat straw with a series of organic or mineral additives have been determined through standard chemical analyses and greenhouse experiments with soils of different carbonate content and in the presence, or absence of mineral fertilization. Plant yield on soils treated with the composts was studied in successive stages of development of rye

G. Almendros

1995-01-01

84

Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional

Jan B Kristensen; Lisbeth G Thygesen; Claus Felby; Henning Jørgensen; Thomas Elder

2008-01-01

85

Examining the potential of plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw for enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei.  

PubMed

Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0.5 filter paper units (FPU) ml(-1)). Addition of Avicel boosted enzyme titers with the highest cellulase titers (1.5 FPU ml(-1)) found with addition of 50 % w/w Avicel and with the highest xylanase production (350 IU ml(-1)) reached in the presence of 10 % w/w Avicel. Comparison with enzyme titers from other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production. PMID:22415783

Rodriguez-Gomez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Hobley, Timothy John

2012-04-01

86

HYDROLYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW HEMICELLULOSE AND DETOXIFICATION OF THE HYDROLYSATE FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylitol can be obtained from wheat straw hemicellulose containing a high content of xylan. This study describes a new system of hydrolysis, utilizing a mixed solution of formic acid and hydrochloric acid in which xylan can be hydrolyzed effectively. The hydrolysate contains a high content of formic acid, which markedly inhibits the fermentation. One of the most efficient methods for

Junping Zhuang; Ying Liu; Zhen Wu; Yong Sun; Lu Lin

87

Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw.  

PubMed

After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether (137)Cs and (90)Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with (137)Cs and (90)Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. PMID:22248931

Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

2012-07-01

88

Enhanced ethanol production from wheat straw by integrated storage and pre-treatment (ISP).  

PubMed

Integrated storage and pre-treatment (ISP) combines biopreservation of moist material under airtight conditions and pre-treatment. Moist wheat straw was inoculated with the biocontrol yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus, the xylan degrading yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis or a co-culture of both. The samples and non-inoculated controls were stored at 4 or 15 °C. The non-inoculated controls were heavily contaminated with moulds, in contrast to the samples inoculated with W. anomalus or S. stipitis. These two yeasts were able to grow on wheat straw as sole source of nutrients. When ethanol was produced from moist wheat straw stored for four weeks at 4 °C with S. stipitis, an up to 40% enhanced yield (final yield 0.15 g ethanol per g straw dry weight) was obtained compared to a dry sample (0.107 g/g). In all other moist samples, stored for four weeks at 4 °C or 15 °C, 6-35% higher yields were obtained. Thus, energy efficient bio-preservation can improve the pre-treatment efficiency for lignocellulose biomass, which is a critical bottleneck in its conversion to biofuels. PMID:23273279

Passoth, Volkmar; Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Nair, Harikrishnan A S; Olstorpe, Matilda; Tiukova, Ievgeniia; Ståhlberg, Jerry

2013-02-01

89

Straw Production and Grain Yield Relationships in Winter Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

use of traditional intensive tillage practices during fallow (Papendick, 1998). During most years, use of summer Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) -fallow is the predominant fallow allows growers to sow winter wheat into adequate cropping system in low-precipitation regions (,250 mm annually) of the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the USA. Wind erosion is a carryover soil water for seed

Edwin Donaldson; William F. Schillinger; Stephen M. Dofing

2001-01-01

90

Wheat straw as ruminant feed. Effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw increased in vitro degradation if the ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the substrate was below 60-100 mg\\/l. No effect of

S. J. Oosting

1993-01-01

91

Compositional analysis of lignocellulosic materials: evaluation of methods used for sugar analysis of waste paper and straw.  

PubMed

To determine the overall efficiency of processes designed to convert lignocellulosic polysaccharides to ethanol, it is first necessary to determine the composition of the lignocellulosic substrates. Three standard methods routinely referenced in the literature for this purpose are monoethanolamine, trifluoroacetic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid-based methods. However, in the course of our studies, the suitability of these standard methods for analysis of wastepaper and wheat straw came into question. This paper details our investigations in this area, together with recommendations for appropriate modifications to one of the standard methods for reproducible and representative lignocellulosic compositional analysis of waste paper and cereal straw. PMID:17142038

Foyle, Thomas; Jennings, Linda; Mulcahy, Patricia

2007-11-01

92

[Effects of different maize straw-returning modes on the soil respiration in a winter wheat field].  

PubMed

By using static chamber-TGC method, an in situ observation was conducted in a 10-year conservation tillage winter wheat field to study the effects of different maize straw-returning modes on the soil respiration. The soil respiration had a significant positive correlation with the stubble height of maize straw, and two peaks were observed in wheat growth period. Under no tillage and no straw-returning, the soil respiration was 72.5% of that under no tillage with all straw-returning, and the soil respiration under conventional tillage and no straw- returning was 76.5% of that under conventional tillage with all straw-returning. The soil respiration was significantly positively correlated with the soil temperature and soil organic carbon at 20 cm depth, but no significant correlation with the soil organic carbon at 40 cm depth. A correlation was also observed between the soil respiration and soil moisture. The diurnal soil respiration in the treatments of all straw-returning presented a single-peak curve, with the peak at 18:00. There was a similar variation trend of soil temperature and soil respiration at the depth of 20 cm. Among the treatments of different straw-returning amounts, straw-returning with the stubble of 1 m height could reduce the soil respiration significantly, being a reasonable straw-returning mode. PMID:24015558

Wang, Bing-Wen; Chi, Shu-Yun; Tian, Shen-Zhong; Ning, Tang-Yuan; Han, Hui-Fang; Zhao, Hong-Xiang; Li, Zeng-Jia

2013-05-01

93

Removal of nitrite from aqueous solution using sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were applied for the removal of nitrite ions from water samples. Batch experiments were conducted to establish optimum pH (5), initial nitrite concentration (5 mg/L), adsorbent dose (3 mg/L) and contact time (90 min). Under the optimized conditions, raw sugarcane bagasse was found to be a more effective (removal efficiency 90 %) adsorbent in removing nitrite ions than wheat straw (removal efficiency 63 %). Adsorption isotherms and kinetic parameters were also studied. The correlation coefficient values for Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were 0.9625 and 0.9590, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption of nitrite fairly fits both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms for both adsorbents. The kinetics of the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetic model. PMID:24845426

Diriba, Dereje; Hussen, Ahmed; Rao, Vegi Maheswara

2014-07-01

94

Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: biomass production and substrate biodegradation.  

PubMed

The results of the cultivation of six strains of Pleurotus (P. djamor (2), P. ostreatus (2) and P. pulmonarius (2)) on coffee pulp and wheat straw are presented. Metabolic activity associated with biomass of each strain was determined, as well as changes in lignin and polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose), phenolic and caffeine contents in substrate samples colonized for a period of up to 36 days. Analysis were made of changes during the mycelium incubation period (16 days) and throughout different stages of fructification. Greater metabolic activity was observed in the wheat straw samples, with a significant increase between 4 and 12 days of incubation. The degradation of polysaccharide compounds was associated with the fruiting stage, while the reduction in phenolic contents was detected in both substrates samples during the first eight days of incubation. A decrease was observed in caffeine content of the coffee pulp samples during fruiting stage, which could mean that some caffeine accumulates in the fruiting bodies. PMID:15501659

Salmones, Dulce; Mata, Gerardo; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

2005-03-01

95

Bioavailability assessment of hexachlorobenzene in soil as affected by wheat straw biochar.  

PubMed

Biochar incorporation with soil could increase sorption of organic contaminants, thereby reducing their bioavailability. In this study, the effects of wheat straw biochar on the sorption, dissipation and bioavailability of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a typical persistent organic pollutant (POP), were investigated in laboratory experiments. We observed that HCB sorption by biochar was 42 times higher than that by soil and the sorption isotherm was linear for the concentration range studied. Biochar amendments reduced HCB dissipation, volatilization and earthworm (Eisenia foetida) uptake of HCB from soil. Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin extraction correlated better with the earthworm bioassay than butanol extraction of HCB in biochar-amended soil. The results of both chemical extraction and earthworm bioassay indicate that biochar amendment of soil resulted in a rapid reduction in the bioavailability of HCB, even for the 0.1% biochar application rate. This suggested that wheat straw biochar could potentially be used in immobilizing POPs in contaminated sites. PMID:22483599

Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Bian, Yongrong; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jia, Mingyun; Xie, Zubin; Jiang, Xin

2012-05-30

96

Ammonia treatment of wheat straw. 2. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, rumen microbial protein pool size and turnover, and small intestinal protein digestion in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia-treated wheat straw (AWS) was compared with untreated wheat straw (UWS) and untreated wheat straw supplemented with urea (SWS) in an experiment with 6 wether sheep. Microbial protein synthesis increased after ammonia treatment due to the higher intake of rumen degradable organic matter (OM). The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was low for all diets, averaging 22.1 g N\\/kg apparently

S. J. Oosting; T. C. Viets; S. C. W. Lammers-Wienhoven; Bruchem van J

1993-01-01

97

Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing  

PubMed Central

Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

2010-01-01

98

Synthesis and characterization of a novel super-absorbent based on wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an eco-friendly polymer, a novel super-absorbent polymer was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acrylic amide (AM) and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC) onto the pretreatment wheat straw (PTWS). The molecular structure of the super-absorbent was confirmed by FTIR. The factors that can influence absorbencies of the super-absorbent resin (SAR) were investigated, such as

Zuohao Ma; Qian Li; Qinyan Yue; Baoyu Gao; Xing Xu; Qianqian Zhong

2011-01-01

99

Optimization of biogas production from wheat straw stillage in UASB reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage was investigated. Methane potential of stillage was determined in batch experiments at two different substrate concentrations. Results showed that higher methane yields of 324ml\\/g-(volatile solids) VSadded were obtained at stillage concentrations of 12.8g-VS\\/L than at 25.6g-VS\\/l. Continuous anaerobic digestion of stillage was performed in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket

Prasad Kaparaju; María Serrano; Irini Angelidaki

2010-01-01

100

Thermostable xylanase production and partial purification by solid-state fermentation using agricultural waste wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A locally isolated strain of Trichoderma harzianum was studied for production of xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) using lignocellulosic substrates for solid-state fermentation. Among the different substrates used, wheat straw produced the highest yields (146 IU\\/ml). The influence of temperature, pH, moistening agents, moisture level, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, pretreatments and metal ions were evaluated with respect to xylanase production. Highest xylanase

Gaurav V. Sanghvi; Rina D. Koyani; Kishore S. Rajput

2010-01-01

101

Comparison of SHF and SSF processes for the bioconversion of steam-exploded wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Two processes for ethanol production from wheat straw have been evaluated — separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and\\u000a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The study compares the ethanol yield for biomass subjected to varying\\u000a steam explosion pretreatment conditions: temperature and time of pretreatment was 200°C or 217°C and at 3 or 10 min. A rinsing\\u000a procedure with water and NaOH

F Alfani; A Gallifuoco; A Saporosi; A Spera; M Cantarella

2000-01-01

102

Nutritional evaluation of wheat straw treated with Crinipellis sp. in Sahiwal calves.  

PubMed

Wheat straw was subjected to solid-state fermentation (SSF) with lignolytic white-rot fungus (WRF) Crinipellis sp. for 5 days to improve the nutritive value and digestibility. The fungal treatment caused a significant (P?wheat straw (FT-WS) than untreated wheat straw (UT-WS). Further, in vitro gas production, in vitro true dry matter digestibility and in vitro true organic matter digestibility at 48 h, metabolizable energy (ME) content, microbial biomass production, and short-chain fatty acids synthesis were significantly (P?wheat straw for feeding growing calves. PMID:23839599

Mahesh, Munnurpal Satyanarayana; Mohini, Madhu; Jha, Pankaj; Sawant, Sanjay Pandurang; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2013-11-01

103

A New and Environmentally Friendly Route for Preparation of Carbon Microspheres from Wheat Straw  

PubMed Central

The reactions were performed to synthesize carbon materials using wheat straw powder as raw material. The wheat straw powder was first hydrolyzed at the absence of a catalyst at 190°C for 1?h, then the hydrolyzate solution was used as carbon source to prepare carbon materials via hydrothermal carbonization at 180°C in the absence of a catalyst for 8?h. The influence of solid-liquid-ratio of wheat straw to water on the morphology of the product was investigated. The samples were examined by a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the product was carbon microspheres with a large number of O–H, CHO, and other functional groups, and the diameters of carbon microspheres noticeably depended on the solid-liquid ratio. When the solid-liquid ratio was 1?:?60, the diameters of carbon microspheres were in the range of 100 to 300?nm when the solid-liquid ratio was 1?:?40, carbon microspheres with larger and more uniform diameters mostly about 250?nm were obtained, and when the solid-liquid-ratio was 1?:?20, there were more larger carbon microspheres with diameters about 800?nm in the product and the surface of these carbon microspheres is smoother, whereas; the uniformity of the product deteriorates.

Leishan, Chen; Yu, Miao; Gairong, Chen

2013-01-01

104

Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.  

PubMed

Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned. PMID:19015937

Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

2009-06-01

105

Novel bioconversion of wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer in a solid-state bioreactor.  

PubMed

In order to increase the eco-efficiency and overall availability of naturally renewable resource, the novel bioconversion of steam-exploded wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer containing N(2)-fixer, P and K solubilizers was investigated. The conversion was performed in solid-state fermentation (SSF) with periodic air-forced pressure oscillation (PAPO). The results showed that SSF-PAPO was competitive with the conventional solid-state fermentation (cSSF) in biomass accumulation and wheat straw digestion. With solid-liquid ratio 1:3, microbial biomass production at 72 h was high up to 2 x 10(11) cfu g(-1), nearly twice as that in cSSF. The degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin after fermentation in SSF-PAPO reached 48.57 +/- 10.66, 84.77 +/- 2.75 and 2.15 +/- 10.11, respectively, which was greater than that of 29.30 +/- 10.28%, 33.47 +/- 4.85% and 0.53 +/- 9.07% in cSSF, correspondingly. The SSF-PAPO system displayed unique advantage, by a novel gas phase control strategy on gas concentration and heat gradient, on the bioconversion of wheat straw to the bio-organic fertilizer. PMID:17225993

Chen, Hongzhang; Sun, Fubao

2007-03-01

106

Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull  

PubMed Central

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length.

Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

2013-01-01

107

Utilization of the water soluable fraction of wheat straw as a plant nutrient source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight was removed from wheat straw and roots, although the recovery of individual nutrients varied. Leaching also removed about 20 percent of the total organic carbon from the biomass. In terms of dry weight, the leachate was comprised of approximately 60 percent organic and 40 percent inorganic compounds. Direct use of wheat straw leachate in static hydroponic systems had an inhibitory effect on wheat growth, both in the presence and absence of microorganisms. Biological treatment of leachate either with a mixed microbial community or the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus L., prior to use in hydroponic solutions, significantly reduced both the organic content and the inhibitory effects of the leachate. The inhibitory effects of unprocessed leachate appear to be a result of rapidly acting phytotoxic compounds that are detoxified by microbial activity. Leaching holds considerable promise as a method for nutrient recycling in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.

1990-01-01

108

Evaluation of selected white-rot fungal isolates for improving the sugar yield from wheat straw.  

PubMed

Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by fungi can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to physicochemical methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal metabolism can cause cellulose loss and it is therefore necessary to use the appropriate fungal strain-biomass type combination. In this work, the effects of biological pretreatments carried out by five different fungi on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw were investigated. The best results were obtained with a Ceriporiopsis subvermispora strain, which minimized weight and cellulose losses and gave the highest net sugar yield (calculated with respect to the holocellulose content of the untreated straw), up to 44 % after a 10-week pretreatment, more than doubling the yields obtained with the other isolates. Moreover, prolonging the pretreatment from 4 up to 10 weeks produced a 2-fold increase, up to 60 %, in digestibility (sugar yield, calculated considering the holocellulose content of the pretreated material). The hemicellulose content of the pretreated material resulted inversely correlated with digestibility, and it could thus be utilized as an index of the pretreatment efficacy. Finally, a correlation was also found between digestibility and the difference between the absorbance values at 290 and 320 nm of pretreated wheat straw extracts. PMID:24691881

Cianchetta, Stefano; Di Maggio, Barbara; Burzi, Pier Luigi; Galletti, Stefania

2014-05-01

109

Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.  

PubMed

Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonene found to inhibit succinate and acetate generation and bacterial growth were 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.06% (v/v), respectively. Both pre-treated orange peel by steam distillation to remove D: -limonene and intact wheat straw were used as feedstocks. Increasing the substrate concentrations of both feedstocks, from 5 to 60 g/L, elevated succinate concentration and productivity but lowered the yield. In addition, pre-treated orange peel generated greater succinate productivities than wheat straw but had similar resultant titres. The greatest succinate titres were 1.9 and 2.0 g/L for pre-treated orange peel and wheat straw, respectively. This work demonstrated that agricultural waste such as wheat straw and orange peel can be biotransformed to succinic acid by a one-step consolidated bioprocessing. Measures to increase fermentation efficiency are also discussed. PMID:20645087

Li, Qiang; Siles, Jose A; Thompson, Ian P

2010-10-01

110

Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: Efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates.  

PubMed

ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40g/g ABE yield and 127.71gABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32g/g ABE yield and 79.65gABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media. PMID:24983690

Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa

2014-09-01

111

Artificial construction and characterization of a fungal consortium that produces cellulolytic enzyme system with strong wheat straw saccharification.  

PubMed

A consortium-APcT2 composed of 92% of Trichoderma sp. T-1, 6.7% of P. chrysosporium and 1.3% of A. oryzae A-4 that produces cellulolytic enzyme system with strong wheat straw saccharification was constructed using Taguchi design combined with variance analysis (ANOVA). Among 32 consortia constructed from 6 fungi using Taguchi design, consortium 20 with the strongest composition was selected. The inhibitive fungal constituent in consortium 20 was subsequently removed according to the ANOVA results. The finally optimized consortium-APcT2 yielded 805.12 mg gds(-1) sugars, 26.98% higher than the pure Trichoderma sp. T-1. Protein profile analysis of the cellulolytic enzyme systems, sugar composition analysis of the hydrolysates and compatibility evaluation of the fungal constituents showed that the enhanced straw saccharification of the consortium-APcT2 could be mainly attributed to the enhancement of the co-cultivation for enzyme production and the synergistic action of different types of enzymes in the hydrolysis process. PMID:21924894

Lin, Hui; Wang, Bing; Zhuang, Renyao; Zhou, Qifa; Zhao, Yuhua

2011-11-01

112

Size exclusion chromatography for the removal of pigments from extracellular ligninolytic enzyme extracts from decayed wheat straw.  

PubMed

Solid-state fermentation of wheat straw was carried out by a native white rot basidiomycete Daedaleopsis flavida strain 5A. Extract prepared from the 12-day decayed wheat straw contained extracellular ligninolytic enzymes like manganese peroxidase (MnP), manganese-independent peroxidase (MIP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase along with straw-degraded products and pigments. Sephacryl S-200 size exclusion chromatography in 16/100 column was used for the separation of these ligninolytic enzymes and straw-degraded products and pigments. Recovery of pigment-free ligninolytic enzyme activities as protein was 40% of the total proteins loaded and specific LiP activity increased 34 fold after size exclusion chromatography. Thus accurate estimation of LiP by veratryl alcohol oxidation assay was possible only after the removal of interfering pigments. The reproducibility of size exclusion chromatography is adjudged satisfactory from the consistent results obtained after seven repetitive uses of matrices. PMID:22471206

Shukla, Dharmendra; Patel, Bhavesh; Modi, Hasmukh; Vyas, Bharat Rajiv Manuel

2011-11-01

113

Progression of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone concentrations in straw of wheat infected artificially withFusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

This investigation aimed at the progression of the contamination of theFusarium toxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) within the fractions straw, glumes and spindles from non-inoculated andFusarium-inoculated wheat. TheFusarium head blight (FHB)-susceptible wheat cultivar Ritmo was cultivated after the pre-crop maize and artificially infected withFusarium culmorum. Samples of whole wheat plants were taken once a week from anthesis until harvest and fractionated into straw, glumes and spindles. Samples were examined for deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) and fluorescence detection, respectively. Additionally, the impact of theFusarium inoculation on the crude protein content was scrutinised.Differences in the formation of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone with respect to date and concentration are shown by this trial. Deoxynivalenol was produced in higher concentrations and at earlier stages, whereas zearalenone was formed later and in smaller amounts. Furthermore, a rise of the deoxynivalenol concentration up to a maximum during the growing season, followed by a sudden decline at later stages until harvest, was observed. ThisFusarium infection resulted in an increased crude protein content in all of the three fractions. PMID:23605266

Brinkmeyer, U; Dänicke, S; Valenta, H; Flachowsky, G

2005-06-01

114

Effect of four pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of wheat straw. Influence of inhibitors and washing.  

PubMed

Pretreatment is essential in the production of alcohol from lignocellulosic material. In order to increase enzymatic sugar release and bioethanol production, thermal, dilute acid, dilute basic and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were applied to wheat straw. Compositional changes in pretreated solid fractions and sugars and possible inhibitory compounds released in liquid fractions were analysed. SEM analysis showed structural changes after pretreatments. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Pichia stipitis of unwashed and washed samples from each pretreatment were performed so as to compare sugar and ethanol yields. The effect of the main inhibitors found in hydrolysates (formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was first studied through ethanol fermentations of model media and then compared to real hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of washed alkaline peroxide pretreated biomass provided the highest sugar concentrations, 31.82g/L glucose, and 13.75g/L xylose, their fermentation yielding promising results, with ethanol concentrations reaching 17.37g/L. PMID:24531149

Toquero, Cristina; Bolado, Silvia

2014-04-01

115

Nutritive value of lentil and vetch straws as compared with alfalfa hay and wheat straw for replacement ewe lambs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the nutritive value of lentil straw (LS) and vetch straws (VS) with alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS). Forty Awassi ewes (body weight (BW)=56.2kg) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments (10 ewes per treatment) for 6 weeks using a complete randomize design. In each dietary treatment, ewes were fed 550g per day of concentrate mix formulated to supply 40% of the metabolizable energy requirement. After the consumption of the concentrate mix, ewes had ad libtum access to AH, LS, VS, or WS. Forage intake, total dry matter intake (DMI), and organic matter intake (OMI) were higher for AH and LS and lowest for WS. Final weight of ewes fed AH and LS diets were higher (P<0.05) than VS and WS diets. However, ewes fed VS diet gained more weight (2.5kg) than ewes on WS diet (0.2kg). Dry matter digestibility was higher for the AH and LS diets (59.4%), and lowest for WS diet (49.6%). The VS diet had an intermediate value (54.4%). Ruminal passage rate was higher for AH and LS (3.4% per hour) compared with WS (1.9% per hour). Eating time for the AH diet was lowest compared with the rest of the forages. Eating time, expressed as minutes per kilogram NDF intake, was highest for WS and VS diets (680min) compared with AH and LS diets (535min). WS diet required more time for rumination (395min per day) compared to AH, LS, and VS diets. However, ewes on VS diet spent more time ruminating per kilogram NDF consumed (954min) compared with WS, LS, and AH diets (901, 617, and 597min, respectively). These results were significant and demonstrate that the nutritive value of LS is greater than VS and close to the nutritive value of AH. VS nutritive value is slightly greater than WS. PMID:11323210

Haddad, S G.; Husein, M Q.

2001-06-01

116

Comparison of mechanistic models in the initial rate enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Different mechanistic models have been used in the literature to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. Although these different models have been applied to different substrates, most of these mechanistic models fit into two- and three-parameter mechanistic models. The purpose of this study is to compare the models and determine the activation energy and the enthalpy of adsorption of Trichoderma reesei enzymes on ammonia fibre explosion (AFEX)-treated wheat straw. Experimental enzymatic hydrolysis data from AFEX-treated wheat straw were modelled with two- and three-parameter mechanistic models from the literature. In order to discriminate between the models, initial rate data at 49°C were subjected to statistical analysis (analysis of variance and scatter plots). Results For three-parameter models, the HCH-1 model best fitted the experimental data; for two-parameter models Michaelis-Menten (M-M) best fitted the experimental data. All the three-parameter models fitted the data better than the two-parameter models. The best three models at 49°C (HCH-1, Huang and M-M) were compared using initial rate data at three temperatures (35°, 42° and 49°C). The HCH-1 model provided the best fit based on the F values, the scatter plot and the residual sum of squares. Also, its kinetic parameters were linear in Arrhenius/van't Hoff's plots, unlike the other models. The activation energy (Ea) is 47.6 kJ/mol and the enthalpy change of adsorption (?H) is -118 kJ/mol for T. reesei enzymes on AFEX-treated wheat straw. Conclusion Among the two-parameter models, Michaelis-Menten model provided the best fit compared to models proposed by Humphrey and Wald. For the three-parameter models, HCH-1 provided the best fit because the model includes a fractional coverage parameter (?) which accounts for the number of reactive sites covered by the enzymes.

2010-01-01

117

Bulk density of wet and dry wheat straw and switchgrass particles  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT. Bulk density is a major physical property in designing the logistic system for biomass handling. The size, shape, moisture content, individual particle density, and surface characteristics are few factors affecting the bulk density. This research investigates the effects of true particle lengths ranging from 6 to 50 mm and moisture contents ranging from 8% to 60% wet basis (wb) on the bulk density of wheat straw and switchgrass. Three types of particle densities of straw and switchgrass measured were: a hollow particle density assuming a hollow cylindrical geometry, a solid particle density assuming a solid cylindrical geometry, and a particle density measured using a gas pycnometer at a gas pressure of 40 kPa. The bulk density of both loose fill and packed fill biomass samples was examined. The calculated wet and dry bulk density ranged from 24 to 111 kg m 3 for straw and from 49 to 266 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The corresponding tapped bulk density ranged from 34 to 130 kg m 3 for straw and 68 to 323 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The increase in bulk density due to tapping the container was from 10% for short 6 mm particles to more than 50% for long 50 mm particles. An equation relating the bulk density of stems as a function of moisture content, dry bulk density, and particle size was developed. After the validation of this bulk density equation, the relationship would be highly useful in designing the logistics system for large scale transport of biomass to a biorefinery. The bulk density and particle density data of uniform particles would be important, if straw and switchgrass is used for pulping and paper making.

Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Naimi, L.J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Hoque, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Narayan, S. [Lambton College, Sarnia, Ontario

2008-05-01

118

Solid state fermentation of a Mycelia Sterilia laccase using steam-exploded wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycelia Sterilia YY-5, an endophytic fungus isolated from Rhus Chinensis Mill, was used in SSF for laccase production using steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS). The fermentation period of YY-5 in\\u000a solid state fermentation (SSF) shortened to 4 days compared with 5 days of submerged liquid fermentation (SmF) and the maximum\\u000a laccase activity was 678.1 IU g?1 substrate. The steam-explosion intensity (Log10\\u000a R\\u000a 0) of SEWS

Weihua Qiu; Hongzhang Chen

2008-01-01

119

Novel bioconversion of wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer in a solid-state bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase the eco-efficiency and overall availability of naturally renewable resource, the novel bioconversion\\u000a of steam-exploded wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer containing N2-fixer, P and K solubilizers was investigated. The conversion was performed in solid-state fermentation (SSF) with periodic\\u000a air-forced pressure oscillation (PAPO). The results showed that SSF-PAPO was competitive with the conventional solid-state\\u000a fermentation (cSSF) in biomass

Hongzhang Chen; Fubao Sun

2007-01-01

120

Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter mathranii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g\\/l sodium carbonate, and 12 bar oxygen at 195 °C) was used for pre-treating wheat straw (60 g\\/l), resulting in a hemicellulose-rich hydrolysate and a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (9 g\\/l), aliphatic carboxylic acids (6 g\\/l), phenols (0.27 g\\/l or 1.7 mM), and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g\\/l). The wet-oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol

H. B. Klinke; A. B. Thomsen; B. K. Ahring

2001-01-01

121

Investigation of process of decomposition of wheat straw under artificial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat straw degradation under artificial conditions was studied. During the 28 day study dry matter losses were 26%. Dissolved organic substances were accumulated during the first 4 days and remained practically unaltered thereon. Minerals were dissolved during the first 2 days. The degradation occurred with a distinct periodicity reaching maximum on days 2 to 4 and 14 to 16 and was associated with a change in the predominant microorganisms. The intensity of microbial development and carbon dioxide production during degradation was linearly correlated. The growth of coleoptiles was inhibited by wheat degradation products due to phenylcarbonic acid. As the degradation continued, the structure of dissolved organic substances became more complicated and the condensation of aromatic nuclei increased.

Deshevaya, Y. A.; Kryuchkova, I. V.; Shaydorov, Y. I.; Popov, V. V.

1983-03-01

122

Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

2014-01-01

123

Effect of Additions on Ensiling and Microbial Community of Senesced Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect

Crop residues collected during or after grain harvest are available once per year and must be stored for extended periods. The combination of air, high moisture, and high microbial loads leads to shrinkage during storage and risk of spontaneous ignition. Ensiling is a wet preservation method that could be used to store these residues stably. To economically adapt ensiling to biomass that is harvested after it has senesced, the need for nutrient, moisture, and microbial additions must be determined. We tested the ensiling of senesced wheat straw in sealed columns for 83 d. The straw was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and amended with several levels of water and free sugars. The ability to stabilize the straw polysaccharides was strongly influenced by both moisture and free sugars. Without the addition of sugar, the pH increased from 5.2 to as much as 9.1, depending on moisture level, and losses of 22% of the cellulose and 21% of the hemicellulose were observed. By contrast, when sufficient sugars were added and interstitial water was maintained, a final pH of 4.0 was attainable, with correspondingly low (<5%) losses of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results show that ensiling should be considered a promising method for stable storage of wet biorefinery feedstocks.

David N. Thompson; Joni M. Barnes; Tracy P. Houghton

2005-04-01

124

Modification of wheat straw lignin by solid state fermentation with white-rot fungi.  

PubMed

The potential of crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state cultivation of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma applanatum and Phlebia rufa), was exploited to modify wheat straw cell wall. At different fermentation times, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), avicelase, xylanase and feruloyl esterase activities were screened and the content of lignin as well as hydroxycinnamic acids in fermented straw were determined. All fungi secreted feruloyl esterase while LiP was only detected in crude extracts from B. adusta. Since no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in remaining lignin content of fermented straw, LiP activity was not a limiting factor of enzymatic lignin removal process. The levels of esterified hydroxycinnamic acids degradation were considerably higher than previous reports with lignocellulosic biomass. The data show that P. rufa, may be considered for more specific studies as higher ferulic and p-coumaric acids degradation was observed for earlier incubation times. PMID:19450975

Dinis, Maria J; Bezerra, Rui M F; Nunes, Fernando; Dias, Albino A; Guedes, Cristina V; Ferreira, Luís M M; Cone, John W; Marques, Guilhermina S M; Barros, Ana R N; Rodrigues, Miguel A M

2009-10-01

125

Preference for flavored wheat straw by lambs conditioned with intraruminal infusions of acetate and propionate.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid are feedback signals that can condition food preferences or aversions in sheep. Three predictions were tested based on this hypothesis: 1) low doses of sodium propionate or sodium acetate condition preferences, but high doses condition aversions (Exp. 1 and 2); 2) preferences are not caused by osmotic load (Exp. 3 and 4); and 3) low doses of mixtures of acetate:propionate condition preferences (Exp. 4). In Exp. 1, 2, and 4, lambs were divided into four groups (10 lambs/group), and lambs in Exp. 3 were divided into two groups (five lambs/group). In all experiments, alfalfa pellets were the basal diet. On even days, half of the lambs were offered chopped wheat straw containing a distinctive flavor, whereas the other half received straw with a different flavor. During straw ingestion, different groups of lambs received intraruminal infusions of different concentrations (4, 8, or 12% of the daily DE received) of sodium propionate (Exp. 1), sodium acetate (Exp. 2), NaCl at osmotic loads equivalent to those when propionate supplied 4% of the daily DE received (Exp. 3), or different proportions of sodium acetate:sodium propionate (55:45 or 75:25% of the DE of the infusion [4% of the daily DE received]), or equimolar amounts of NaCl (Exp. 4). On odd days, the flavors were switched, and no infusions were administered. After 8 d of conditioning, lambs were offered a choice of wheat straw with the two distinctive flavors. Lambs preferred the flavor paired with the lowest doses of propionate (P = .07) and acetate (P = .08) but avoided the highest doses (P < .001). Excesses of VFA may condition aversions due to increases in rumen fluid osmolality and(or) excessive rates of supply of energy or sodium to the rumen. Lambs also preferred flavored straw associated with combinations of acetate and propionate (P < .001), especially at the highest concentration of propionate (P = .10). Lambs avoided NaCl in Exp. 3 (P < .001) and did not form preferences for NaCl in Exp. 4 (P > .05). Thus, osmolalities were not responsible for flavor preferences. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that food preferences and aversions reside along a continuum that depends on the amount of VFA infused. PMID:9374303

Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D

1997-11-01

126

Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension supplemented with NH4NO3, MgSO4, and KH2PO4 was used as cultivation medium aiming to obtain an enzyme mixture optimal for enzymatic hydrolysis of wet-oxidised wheat

Anders Thygesen; Anne Belinda Thomsen; Anette S. Schmidt; Henning Jørgensen; Birgitte K. Ahring; Lisbeth Olsson

2003-01-01

127

Rapid Assessment of In Situ Wheat Straw Residue Via Remote Sensing Platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crop residues influence near surface soil organic carbon content (SOC), impact our ability to remotely assess soil properties, and play a role in global carbon budgets. Methods that measure crop residues are laborious, and largely inappropriate for regional estimates. The objective of this study was to evaluate remote sensing (RS) data for rapid quantification of residue cover. In March 2000 and April 2001, residue plots (15 m x 15 m) were established in the Coastal Plain and Appalachian Plateau physiographic regions of Alabama. Treatments consisted of five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw cover rates (0, 10, 20, 50, and 80%) replicated 3 times. Soil water content and residue decomposition were monitored. Spectral measurements were acquired via spectroradiometer (350 - 1050 nm), Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) (400 - 12,500 nm), airborne color photography (400 - 600 nm), and IKONOS satellite (450 - 900 nm). Spectroradiometer data were acquired monthly, aircraft images yearly, and satellite per availability. Results showed all platforms successfully estimated residue cover variability using red, near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) regions of the spectrum. Airborne ATLAS imagery was best explaining as much as 98% of the variability in wheat straw cover. Spectroradiometer, color infrared photography, and IKONOS imagery accounted for 84, 56, and 24% of the variability, respectively.

Sullivan, D. G.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J.; Wersinger, J. M.; Guertal, E. A.

2003-01-01

128

Enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw after combined steam explosion and laccase pretreatment.  

PubMed

Laccase, capable of selectively degrading lignin while keeping cellulose intact, has been widely applied for the modification and bio-bleaching of pulp. In this study Sclerotium sp. laccase (MSLac) was employed in combination with steam explosion to evaluate the effect of this treatment on cellulose hydrolysis. Combined steam explosion with laccase pretreatment enhanced the cellulose conversion rate of wheat straw no matter in the case of successive (MSLac-Cel) and simultaneous (MSLac+Cel) MSLac and cellulase hydrolysis. The highest cellulose conversion rate of 84.23% was obtained when steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS) (1.3 MPa, 5 min) was treated by MSLac+Cel at a laccase loading of 0.55 U g(-1) substrate. FT-IR and SEM analyses indicated that MSLac oxidized the phenol and changed electron configuration of the ring, which contributed to loosening the compact wrap of lignin-carbohydrate complex and consequently enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose. This article provided a promising method for lignocellulose bio-pretreatment. PMID:22695139

Qiu, Weihua; Chen, Hongzhang

2012-08-01

129

Nitrogen utilization by lambs fed wheat straw alone or with supplements containing dried poultry waste, cottonseed meal or urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three male lambs were used in a 3 x 3 latin square to determine utilization of N from diets containing wheat straw supplement with dried poultry waste (DPW) cottonseed meal (CSM), or urea. Supplements formulated from the three N sources provided 85% of the total dietary N. The DPW and CSM provided over 90% and urea over 70% of the

R. A. Swingle; A. Araiza; A. R. Urias

1977-01-01

130

Pyrolysis products as markers in the chemical characterization of paperboards from waste paper and wheat straw pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical pyrolysis was used to characterize paperboard prepared with wheat straw subjected either to semichemical or biomechanical pulping (the latter including solid-state fermentation with the ligninolytic fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and P. floridanus) and variable proportions of waste paper. Pyrolysis products were also quantified and selected in attempt to match the industrial and laboratory parameters used in the assessment of pulp

G. C. Galletti; P. Bocchini; M. E. Guadalix; G. Almendros; S. Camarero; A. T. Martínez

1997-01-01

131

Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part I—Batch fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of WS without agitation (Process III), simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation with additional sugar supplementation (Process IV),

Nasib Qureshi; Badal C. Saha; Ronald E. Hector; Stephen R. Hughes; Michael A. Cotta

2008-01-01

132

Enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for bioethanol production by a combined cellulase xylanase and feruloyl esterase treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was to improve conditions of use of fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars for the production of bioethanol.Wheat straw was pre-treated by acid treatment with diluted sulfuric acid followed by steam explosion. Several enzymatic treatments implementing hydrolases (cellulases and xylanases from Trichoderma reesei, recombinant feruloyl esterase (FAE) from Aspergillus niger

M. G. Tabka; I. Herpoël-Gimbert; F. Monod; M. Asther; J. C. Sigoillot

2006-01-01

133

Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose.  

PubMed

The wet oxidation process of wheat straw has been studied as a pretreatment method to attain our main goal: To break down cellulose to glucose enzymatic, and secondly, to dissolve hemicellulose (e.g., for fermentation) without producing microbial inhibitors. Wet oxidation combined with base addition readily oxidizes lignin from wheat straw facilitating the polysaccharides for enzymatic hydrolysis. By using a specially constructed autoclave system, the wet oxidation process was optimized with respect to both reaction time and temperature. The best conditions (20 g/L straw, 170 degrees C, 5 to 10 min) gave about 85% w/w yield of converting cellulose to glucose. The process water, containing dissolved hemicellulose and carboxylic acids, has proven to be a direct nutrient source for the fungus Aspergillus niger producing exo-beta-xylosidase. Furfural and hydroxymethyl-furfural, known inhibitors of microbial growth when other pretreatment systems have been applied, were not observed following the wet oxidation treatment. PMID:18623619

Bjerre, A B; Olesen, A B; Fernqvist, T; Plöger, A; Schmidt, A S

1996-03-01

134

Degradation of lignin in wheat straw during growth of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide and solid-state (13)C NMR.  

PubMed

The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is widely cultivated on wheat straw (Triticum aestivum); however, there is a need to better understand the relationship between the chemical composition of the compost and mushroom growth. Wheat straw was degraded over a period of 63 days by P. ostreatus during which time it was sampled at weekly intervals. Off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide and solid-state (13)C NMR were then used in the molecular characterization of the undegraded wheat straw and the degraded samples. The degraded wheat straw samples had a lower proportion of syringyl- to guaiacyl-derived moieties and cinnamyl- to guaiacyl-derived moieties than the undegraded control. There were increases in both guaiacyl and syringyl acid to aldehyde ratios with composting time, which showed that side-chain oxidation has been mediated by P. ostreatus. The (13)C NMR spectra confirmed the increase in carboxyl content but indicated that the overall lignin and methoxyl contents remained relatively constant, although some nonsystematic variations were observed. The spectra also showed a decrease in amorphous noncellulosic polysaccharides in relation to the crystalline cellulose upon degradation. PMID:11409955

Vane, C H; Martin, S C; Snape, C E; Abbott, G D

2001-06-01

135

Effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw additions on selected properties of petroleum-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Current bioremediation techniques for petroleum-contaminated soils are designed to remove contaminants as quickly and efficiently as possible, but not necessarily with postremediation soil biological quality as a primary objective. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw to petroleum land-farm soil and measured biological quality of the soil as responses in plant growth, soil respiration, and oil and grease (O&G) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. Results indicated that plant growth was greater in earthworm-treated land-farm soil. Furthermore, addition of wheat straw resulted in greater total respiration in all soils tested (land-farm soil, noncontaminated reference soil, and a 1:1 mixture of land-farm and reference soils). We observed a 30% increase in soil respiration in straw-amended oily soil, whereas respiration increased by 246% in straw-amended reference soil. Much of the difference between oily and reference soils was attributable to higher basal respiration rates of nonamended oily soil compared to nonamended reference soil. Addition of earthworms resulted in greater total respiration of all soil and straw treatments except two (the land-farm and the 1:1 mixture soil treatments without straw). Straw and earthworm treatments did not affect O&G or TPH concentrations. Nevertheless, our findings that earthworm additions improved plant growth and that straw additions enhanced microbial activity in land-farm soil suggest that these treatments may be compatible with plant-based remediation techniques currently under evaluation in field trials, and could reduce the time required to restore soil ecosystem function. PMID:12152766

Callaham, Mac A; Stewart, Arthur J; Alarcón, Clara; McMillen, Sara J

2002-08-01

136

Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS) unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS), resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L) did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and second-generation processes also increases the ethanol concentration, resulting in a reduction in the cost of the distillation step, thus improving the process economics.

2012-01-01

137

[Effects of different tillage methods and straw-returning on soil organic carbon content in a winter wheat field].  

PubMed

A two growth seasons experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage methods, straw-returning, and their interaction on the dynamic change of organic carbon content in 0-20 cm soil layer during the whole growth period of winter wheat. An obvious change was observed in the soil organic carbon content. Treatments with straw-returning had higher soil organic carbon content than treatments with no straw-returning, and conservation tillage induced higher soil organic carbon content than conventional tillage. In all treatments except conventional tillage, the organic carbon content in 0-10 cm soil layer was higher than that in 10-20 cm soil layer. In treatments with straw-returning, the organic carbon content in 0-10 cm soil layer decreased in order of deep soiling (PS) > rotary tillage (PR) > no tillage (PZ) > normal ploughing (PH) > conventional tillage (PC), while that in 10-20 cm soil layer was PC > PS > PR > PH > PZ, suggesting that conservation tillage could improve the organic carbon content in 0-10 cm soil layer. Multi factor variance analysis showed that tillage method, straw-returning, and their interaction had significant effects on the organic carbon content in 0-20 cm soil layer at various growth stages of winter wheat. PMID:20462008

Tian, Shen-Zhong; Ning, Tang-Yuan; Wang, Yu; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhong, Wei-Lei; Li, Zeng-Jia

2010-02-01

138

Electron and fluorescence microscopy of extracellular glucan and aryl-alcohol oxidase during wheat-straw degradation by Pleurotus eryngii.  

PubMed

The ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus eryngii grown in liquid medium secreted extracellular polysaccharide (87% glucose) and the H2O2-producing enzyme aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO). The production of both was stimulated by wheat-straw. Polyclonal antibodies against purified AAO were obtained, and a complex of glucanase and colloidal gold was prepared. With these tools, the localization of AAO and extracellular glucan in mycelium from liquid medium and straw degraded under solid-state fermentation conditions was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence microscopy. These studies revealed that P. eryngii produces a hyphal sheath consisting of a thin glucan layer. This sheath appeared to be involved in both mycelial adhesion to the straw cell wall during degradation and AAO immobilization on hyphal surfaces, with the latter evidenced by double labelling. AAO distribution during differential degradation of straw tissues was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Finally, TEM immunogold studies confirmed that AAO penetrates the plant cell wall during P. eryngii degradation of wheat straw. PMID:9435085

Barrasa, J M; Gutiérrez, A; Escaso, V; Guillén, F; Martínez, M J; Martínez, A T

1998-01-01

139

Synthesis and characterization of a novel super-absorbent based on wheat straw.  

PubMed

In order to develop an eco-friendly polymer, a novel super-absorbent polymer was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acrylic amide (AM) and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC) onto the pretreatment wheat straw (PTWS). The molecular structure of the super-absorbent was confirmed by FTIR. The factors that can influence absorbencies of the super-absorbent resin (SAR) were investigated, such as weight ratio between the monomers, the ratio of PTWS to monomers, the amount of initiator and cross-linker, temperature reaction time and neutralization degree of AA. The SAR has the water absorbency of 133.76 g/g in distilled water and 33.83 g/g in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution. PMID:21074415

Ma, Zuohao; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing; Zhong, Qianqian

2011-02-01

140

Anaerobic digestion of wheat straw--performance of continuous solid-state digestion.  

PubMed

In this study the upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor was operated at various conditions to optimize the process parameters for anaerobically digesting wheat straw in a continuous process. Additionally, particle size effects have been studied in the operation at 55 and 60°C. Moreover, the incremental effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) to the system was examined from 2.5 to 8 gVS L(-1) d(-1). It was found that the UASS operating at 60 °C with a small OLR yields highest methane production, but the advantage over thermophilic operation is negligible. The rise in OLR reduces the systems yields, as expected. From OLR=8 gVS L(-1) d(-1) a second stage is necessary to circumvent volatile fatty acids accumulation. PMID:23954246

Pohl, Marcel; Heeg, Kathrin; Mumme, Jan

2013-10-01

141

Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated wheat straw: comparison of solids-recycling, sequential hydrolysis and batch hydrolysis.  

PubMed

In the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose materials, the recycling of the solid residue has previously been considered within the context of enzyme recycling. In this study, a steady state investigation of a solids-recycling process was made with pretreated wheat straw and compared to sequential and batch hydrolysis at constant reaction times, substrate feed and liquid and enzyme consumption. Compared to batch hydrolysis, the recycling and sequential processes showed roughly equal hydrolysis yields, while the volumetric productivity was significantly increased. In the 72h process the improvement was 90% due to an increased reaction consistency, while the solids feed was 16% of the total process constituents. The improvement resulted primarily from product removal, which was equally efficient in solids-recycling and sequential hydrolysis processes. No evidence of accumulation of enzymes beyond the accumulation of the substrate was found in recycling. A mathematical model of solids-recycling was constructed, based on a geometrical series. PMID:24333697

Pihlajaniemi, Ville; Sipponen, Satu; Sipponen, Mika H; Pastinen, Ossi; Laakso, Simo

2014-02-01

142

Photo-biohydrogen production potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK from wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Biotechnological exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass is promising for sustainable and environmentally sound energy provision strategy because of the abundant availability of the renewable resources. Wheat straw (WS) comprising of 75-80% cellulose and hemicellulose is one of widely available, inexpensive and renewable lignocellulosic biomass types. The cellulosic and hemicellulose substrate can be hydrolyzed into monomeric sugars by chemical and/or biological methods. Results This study examined comparative potential of dilute acid and pre-ammonia pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw (WS) for hydrogen production by purple non sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK. Gas production became noticeable after 14 h of inoculation in WS pretreated with 4% H2SO4. The detoxified liquid hydrolyzate (DLH) after overliming attained a production level of 372 mL-H2/L after 16 h under illumination of 120-150 W/m2 at 30?±?2.0°C. Whereas the non-detoxified acid pretreated hydrolyzate (NDLH) of WS could produce only upto 254 mL-H2/L after 21 h post inoculation. Evolution of H2 became observable just after 10?±?2.0 h of inoculation by employing 48 h age inoculum on the WS pretreated with 30% ammonia, hydrolyzed with cellulase 80 FPU/g and ?-glucosidase 220 CbU/ml at 50°C. Upto 712 ml/L of culture was measured with continuous shaking for 24 h. The 47.5% and 64.2% higher hydrogen volume than the DLH and NDLH substrates, respectively appeared as a function of significantly higher monomeric sugar contents of the enzymatically hydrolyzed substrate and lesser/zero amounts of toxic derivatives including pH reducing agents. Conclusion Photofermentative hydrogen production from lignocellulosic waste is a feasible approach for eco-friendly sustainable supply of bioenergy in a cost-effective way. Results of this study provide new insight for addressing biotechnological exploitation of abundantly available and low-cost cellulosic substrates.

2013-01-01

143

Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.  

PubMed

Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost <0.16% C as CO over the 90-d incubation period. Biomass yields were not significantly modified by biochar treatments, except for a slight decrease at the 144 kg N ha rate. Foliar N concentrations were significantly reduced by biochar application. Biochar significantly increased soil water content; however, this increase did not result in increased biomass yield. In conclusion, our kiln-produced biochar was highly aromatic and appeared quite recalcitrant in soil but had no overall significant impact on ryegrass yields. PMID:23673835

O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

2013-01-01

144

Enhanced bioproduction of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from wheat straw lignocellulosic hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bioplastics that can replace conventional petroleum-derived products in various applications. One of the major barriers for their widespread introduction in the market is the higher production costs compared with their petrochemical counterparts. In this work, a process was successfully implemented with high productivity based on wheat straw, a cheap and readily available agricultural residue, as raw material. The strain Burkholderia sacchari DSM 17165 which is able to metabolise glucose, xylose and arabinose, the main sugars present in wheat straw hydrolysates (WSHs), was used. Results in shake flask showed that B. sacchari cells accumulated about 70%gpoly(3-hydroxybutyrate)(P(3HB))/g cell dry weight (CDW) with a yield of polymer on sugars (YP/S) of 0.18g/g when grown on a mixture of commercial C6 and C5 sugars (control), while these values reached about 60%gP(3HB)/g CDW and 0.19g/g, respectively, when WSHs were used as carbon source. In fed-batch cultures carried out in 2L stirred-tank reactors (STRs) on WSH, a maximum polymer concentration of 105 g/L was reached after 61 hours of cultivation corresponding to an accumulation of 72% of CDW. Polymer yield and productivity were 0.22 gP(3HB)/g total sugar consumed and 1.6g/L hour, respectively. The selected feeding strategy successfully overcame the carbon catabolite repression (CCR) phenomenon observed with sugar mixtures containing hexoses and pentoses. This is the first work describing fed-batch cultivations aiming at PHA production using real lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Additionally, the P(3HB) volumetric productivities attained are by far the highest ever achieved on agricultural waste hydrolysates. PMID:24157713

Cesário, M Teresa; Raposo, Rodrigo S; de Almeida, M Catarina M D; van Keulen, Frederik; Ferreira, Bruno S; da Fonseca, M Manuela R

2014-01-25

145

Effect of long-term un-treated domestic wastewater re-use on soil quality, wheat grain and straw yields and attributes of fodder quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 a comprehensive sampling program was undertaken in two pre-selected peri-urban villages in Faisalabad, Pakistan to\\u000a evaluate the soil and agronomic impacts of long-term (25–30 years) untreated wastewater re-use on wheat grain and straw yields\\u000a and attributes of wheat straw fodder quality. Soil SAR, ESP, RSC and ECe were 63%, 37%, 31%, and 50% higher under wastewater\\u000a (WW) as compared

Robert W. Simmons; Waqas Ahmad; Andrew D. Noble; Michael Blummel; Alexandra Evans; Philipp Weckenbrock

2010-01-01

146

Bioprocessing of wheat and paddy straw for their nutritional up-gradation.  

PubMed

Solid-state bioprocessing of agricultural residues seems to be an emerging and effective method for the production of high quality animal feed. Seven strains of white-rot fungi were selected to degrade wheat and paddy straw (PS) under solid-state conditions. Degradation of different components, i.e., hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was evaluated along with nutritional parameters including; in vitro digestibility, crude protein, amino acids, total phenolic contents (TPC) etc. Effect of nitrogen-rich supplements on degradation of lignocellulosics was evaluated using two best selected fungal strains (Phlebia brevispora and Phlebia floridensis). The best selected conditions were used to upscale the process up to 200 g batches of wheat and PS. Lignin was selectively degraded up to 30 % with a limited loss of 11-12 % in total organic matter. Finally, the degraded agro-residues demonstrated 50-62 % enhancement in their digestibility. Two-threefold enhancement in other nutritional quality (amino acids, TPCs and antioxidant activity) fortifies the process. Thus the method is quite helpful to design an effective solid-state fermentation system to improve the nutritive quality of agricultural residues by simultaneous production of lignocellulolytic enzyme production and antioxidants. PMID:24390610

Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Daljit Singh

2014-07-01

147

White-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biohydrogen production: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates biohydrogen production was enhanced by white-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw (WS) through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Wheat straw was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium at 30 °C under solid state fermentation for 12 days, and lignin was removed about 28.5 ± 1.3 %. Microscopic structure observation combined thermal gravity and differential thermal gravity analysis further showed that the lignocellulose structure obviously disrupted after fungal pretreatment. Subsequently, the pretreated WS and crude cellulases prepared from Trichoderma atroviride were applied in SSF for hydrogen production using Clostridium perfringens. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained to be 78.5 ± 3.4 ml g(-1)-pretreated WS, which was about 1.8-fold than the unpretreated group. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz model was applied study the progress of cumulative H2 production. This work developed a novel bio-approach to improve fermentative H2 yield from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24429553

Zhi, Zelun; Wang, Hui

2014-07-01

148

An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22.  

PubMed

A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain's promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid-liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12g LA could be produced from 100g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose. PMID:24679663

Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

2014-04-01

149

Policosanol contents and compositions of wheat varieties.  

PubMed

Policosanol (PC) is the common name for a mixture of high molecular weight (20-36 carbon) aliphatic primary alcohols, which are constituents of plant epicuticular waxes. Wheat germ oil has been reported to improve human physical fitness, and this effect is attributed to its high PC, specifically its high octacosanol (OC) content. Although the PC composition of wheat leaves has been studied extensively, information on PC content and composition of wheat grain fractions is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the PC contents and compositions of wheat grain fractions of 31 varieties grown in Oklahoma. PC compositions of the samples were identified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. The PC content of wheat bran was higher than that of the germ, shorts, and flour. The Trego and Intrada varieties had the highest PC content among the 31 wheat varieties studied. Tetracosanol (C24), hexacosanol (C26), and OC (C28) were the major PC components in all varieties. This study showed that wheat varieties grown under identical growing conditions and management differ significantly in PC content and composition. PMID:15998118

Irmak, Sibel; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

2005-07-13

150

Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta.  

PubMed

The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49, 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol production with a yield of 0.44 g/g. T. hirsuta was capable of directly fermenting starch, wheat bran and rice straw to ethanol without acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum ethanol concentrations of 9.1, 4.3 and 3.0 g/l, corresponding to 89.2%, 78.8% and 57.4% of the theoretical yield, were obtained when the fungus was grown in a medium containing 20 g/l starch, wheat bran or rice straw, respectively. The fermentation of rice straw pretreated with ball milling led to a small improvement in the ethanol yield: 3.4 g ethanol/20 g ball-milled rice straw. As T. hirsuta is an efficient microorganism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to fermentable sugars and directly converting them to ethanol, it may represent a suitable microorganism in consolidated bioprocessing applications. PMID:22112911

Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

2011-03-01

151

Cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw after solid-state pre-treatment by Trametes trogii: a factorial study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical use of the polysaccharidic fraction of lignocellulosic material is limi- ted by its high lignin content. In this study the lignin-degrading white-rot fungus Trametes trogii Berk. in Trog. was used in the solid-state pre-treatment of wheat straw and the effi- ciency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual cellulose after pre-treatment was analy- sed. Glucose, mineral nitrogen and yeast

P. CACCHIO; C. ERCOLE; F. VEGLIO; A. LEPIDI

152

Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste\\u000a orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using\\u000a a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains d-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85

Qiang Li; Jose A. Siles; Ian P. Thompson

2010-01-01

153

VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD  

SciTech Connect

Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

1999-02-01

154

Bleach boosting effect of xylanase A from Bacillus halodurans C-125 in ECF bleaching of wheat straw pulp.  

PubMed

Past studies have revealed major difficulties in applications of xylanase in the pulp and paper industry as enzymes isolated from many different species could not tolerate high temperatures or highly alkaline conditions. The thermostable xylanase A from Bacillus halodurans C-125 (C-125 xylanase A) was successfully cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris with a yield as high as 3361 U/mL in a 2 L reactor. Its thermophilic and basophilic properties (optimal activity at 70 °C and pH 9.0), together with the fact it is cellulase-free, render this enzyme attractive for compatible applications in the pulp and paper industry. The pretreatment of wheat straw pulp with C-125 xylanase A at pH 9.0 and 70 °C for 90 min induced the release of both chromophores (Ab(237), Ab(254), Ab(280)) and hydrophobic compounds (Ab(465)) into the filtrate as well as sugar degradation. Moreover, the addition of 10 U xylanase to 1 g wheat straw pulp (dry weight) as pretreatment improved brightness by 5.2% ISO and decreased the kappa number by 5.0% when followed by hydrogen peroxide bleaching. In addition, compared with two commercial enzymes, Pulpzyme HC and AU-PE89, which are normally incorporated in ECF bleaching of wheat straw pulp, C-125 xylanase A proved to be more effective in enhancing brightness as well as preserving paper strength properties. When evaluating the physical properties of pulp samples, such as tensile index, tearing index, bursting index, and post-color (PC) number, the enzymes involved in pretreating pulps exhibited better or the same performances as chemical treatment. Compared with chemical bleaching, chlorine consumption can be significantly reduced by 10% for xylanase-pretreated wheat straw pulp while maintaining the brightness together with the kappa number at the same level. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant surface modification of enzyme-pretreated pulp fibers with no marked fiber disruptions. PMID:23273277

Lin, Xiao-qiong; Han, Shuang-yan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hui; Zheng, Sui-ping; Ye, Yan-rui; Lin, Ying

2013-02-01

155

Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part II—Fed-batch fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone–butanol–ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolysate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable under present conditions) and fermentation to butanol is possible. In addition to WS, the reactor was fed

Nasib Qureshi; Badal C. Saha; Michael A. Cotta

2008-01-01

156

Removal of dyes from a synthetic textile dye effluent by biosorption on apple pomace and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with two low-cost, locally available, renewable biosorbents; apple pomace and wheat straw for textile dye removal. Experiments at total dye concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150, and 200mg\\/l were carried out with a synthetic effluent consisting of an equal mixture of five textile dyes. The effect of initial dye concentration, biosorbent particle size, quantity

T Robinson; B Chandran; P Nigam

2002-01-01

157

Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g\\/L) and hexoses (4.9g\\/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia

Xiaochen Yu; Yubin Zheng; Kathleen M. Dorgan; Shulin Chen

2011-01-01

158

Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.  

PubMed

With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:22730900

Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

2012-07-18

159

KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for small knife mill screen sizes (12.7 to 25.4 mm) and distributions classified as 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for the large screen size (50.8 mm). Total and effective specific energy values per unit size reduction of wheat straw were greater compared to those for switchgrass. Corn stover resulted in reduced total and effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to wheat straw for the same operating conditions, but higher total specific energy per unit size reduction and lesser effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to switchgrass. Data on minimized total specific energy with corresponding particle spectra will be useful for preparing feed material with a knife mill for subsequent grinding with finer size reduction devices.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University

2010-01-01

160

Synergic Effect of Wheat Straw Ash and Rice-Husk Ash on Strength Properties of Mortar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pozzolan materials obtained from various sources; when used as partial replacement for Portland cement in cement based applications play an important role not only towards sustainable development but in reducing the construction costs as well. Present study was conducted to investigate the synergic effect of Rice-Husk Ash (RHA) and Wheat Straw Ash (WSA) on the strength properties of ash substituted mortar. Ash materials were obtained after burning the wastes at 600°C for 5 h at a control rate of 2°C min. Two binary blends of mortar substituting 15% cement with WSA and RHA and three combinations of ternary blend with (10+5)%, (5+10)% and (7.5+7.5)% mix ratios of WSA and RHA, together with a control specimen were subjected to destructive (compressive and flexural strength) as well as non-destructive (ultrasonic pulse velocity) tests till 180 days of curing. Ternary blend with (7.5 + 7.5)% combination of WSA and RHA showed better strength results than control and other blends and proved to be the optimum combination for achieving maximum synergic effect.

Goyal, Ajay; Kunio, Hattori; Ogata, Hidehiko; Garg, Monika; Anwar, A. M.; Ashraf, M.; Mandula

161

Optimisation of the biological pretreatment of wheat straw with white-rot fungi for ethanol production.  

PubMed

The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the most frequently used process, steam explosion (SE). However, this pretreatment can still not be industrially implemented due to long incubation times. The main objective of this work was to test the viability of and optimise the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which uses ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus eryngii and Irpex lacteus) in a solid-state fermentation of sterilised wheat straw complemented with a mild alkali treatment. In this study, the most important parameters of the mechanical and thermal substrate conditioning processes and the most important parameters of the fungal fermentation process were optimised to improve sugar recovery. The largest digestibilities were achieved with fermentation with I. lacteus under optimised conditions, under which cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility increased after 21 days of pretreatment from 16 to 100 % and 12 to 87 %, respectively. The maximum glucose yield (84 %) of cellulose available in raw material was obtained after only 14 days of pretreatment with an overall ethanol yield of 74 % of the theoretical value, which is similar to that reached with SE. PMID:23232963

López-Abelairas, M; Álvarez Pallín, M; Salvachúa, D; Lú-Chau, T; Martínez, M J; Lema, J M

2013-09-01

162

Biorefinery valorization of autohydrolysis wheat straw hemicellulose to be applied in a polymer-blend film.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were the extraction of hemicellulose from wheat straw (WS) and its utilization in the reinforcement of a ?-carrageenan/locust bean gum (?-car/LBG) polymeric blend films (PBFs). WS hemicellulose extraction was performed under autohydrolysis process and hemicellulose extracted (HE) under optimum condition was used in PBFs. PBFs were prepared varying different proportions of HE into the ?-car/LBG film-forming solutions. Barrier properties (water vapor permeability, WVP), mechanical properties (tensile-strength, TS and elongation-at-break, EB), moisture content, opacity and thermal properties of the resulting PBFs were determined and related with the incorporation of HE. The 2-3-2 proportion (in the high ratio) of PBF (?-car/LBG/HE) causes a slight decrease of WVP and an increase of the TS, thus resulting in an improvement of the physical properties of PBFs. HE showed to be a promising material in order to reinforce ?-car/LBG PBF and can be an alternative in the application of hemicellulose according to biorefinery concept. PMID:23399271

Ruiz, Héctor A; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Silva, Hélder D; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A

2013-02-15

163

Fusarium verticillioides secretome as a source of auxiliary enzymes to enhance saccharification of wheat straw.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides secretes enzymes (secretome), some of which might be potentially useful for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass since supplementation of commercial cellulases from Trichoderma reesei with the F. verticillioides secretome improved the enzymatic release of glucose, xylose and arabinose from wheat straw by 24%, 88% and 68%, respectively. Determination of enzymatic activities revealed a broad range of hemicellulases and pectinases poorly represented in commercial cocktails. Proteomics approaches identified 57 proteins potentially involved in lignocellulose breakdown among a total of 166 secreted proteins. This analysis highlighted the presence of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) targeting pectin (from glycoside hydrolase families GH5, GH27, GH28, GH43, GH51, GH54, GH62, GH88 and GH93, polysaccharide lyase family PL4 and carbohydrate esterase family CE8) and hemicelluloses (from glycoside hydrolase families GH3, GH10, GH11, GH30, GH39, GH43 and GH67). These data provide a first step towards the identification of candidates to supplement T. reesei enzyme preparations for lignocellulose hydrolysis. PMID:22459963

Ravalason, Holy; Grisel, Sacha; Chevret, Didier; Favel, Anne; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle

2012-06-01

164

Two approaches for introduction of wheat straw lignin into rigid polyurethane foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present work the BIOLIGNIN{trade mark, serif} obtained in the result of wheat straw organosolv processing in CIMV pilot plant (France) was investigated as a component of rigid polyurethanes (PUR) foam systems. Different separate approaches of lignin introduction into PUR foam system were studied: as filler without chemical preprocessing and as liquid lignopolyol obtained by lignin oxypropylation in alkali conditions. The incorporation of increasing amount of lignin as filler into reference PUR foam systems on the basis of mixture of commercial polyethers Lupranol 3300 and Lupranol 3422 steadily decreased the compression characteristics of foams, their dimensional stability and hydrophobicity. The complete substitution of Lupranol 3300 by lignopolyol increases its cell structure uniformity and dimensional stability and does not reduce the physical-mechanical properties of foam. In both cases the incorporation of lignin into PUR foam leads to the decreasing of maximum values of thermodegradation rates. The lignin filler can be introduced into lignopolyol based PUR foam in higher quantity than in the reference Lupranol based PUR without reduction of compression characteristics of material. In this work the optimal lignin content in the end product - PUR foam as both polyol and filler is 16%.

Arshanitsa, A.; Paberza, A.; Vevere, L.; Cabulis, U.; Telysheva, G.

2014-05-01

165

Extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production from wheat straw hydrolysate using mixed culture fermentation: effect of reactor configuration.  

PubMed

Hydrogen production from hemicellulose-rich wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR), up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, and anaerobic filter (AF) reactor. The CSTR was operated at an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, and the UASB and AF reactors were operated at 1 day HRT, using mixed extreme thermophiles at 70 °C. The highest hydrogen production yield of 212.0±6.6 mL-H?/g-sugars, corresponding to a hydrogen production rate of 821.4±25.5 mL-H?/dL was achieved with the UASB reactor. Lowering the HRT to 2.5 days caused cell mass washout in the CSTR, while the UASB and AF reactors gave fluctuating and reducing hydrogen production at a 0.5-day HRT. The original rate and yield were recovered when the HRT was increased back to 1 day. These results demonstrate that reactor configuration is an important factor for enhancing and stabilizing H? production. PMID:20554199

Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

2010-10-01

166

Gluten Protein Composition in Individual Wheat Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been well established (by ion-exchange chromatography1,2, moving boundary electrophoresis3 and gel electrophoresis1,4,5) that the protein composition of the acetic acid-soluble material (gluten) is dependent on the variety of wheat from which the protein is extracted. This communication describes the extraction and electrophoretic separation on polyacrylamide of gluten proteins of individual grains from single ears of wheat.

J. W. Lee

1964-01-01

167

Selection of strains of Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana adapted for efficient mycelial growth on wheat straw.  

PubMed

Mycelial growth rates are presented for 11 strains of Lentinula edodes and six strains of Lentinula boryana cultivated on solid media: derived from malt extract (MEA); malt yeast extract (YMEA); and, YMEA plus soluble lignin derivatives (YMEA+WSLD). The results were compared with data for mycelial growth rates, of the same strains cultivated on substrates derived from wheat straw treated at different temperatures (50, 65, 75 and autoclaving at 121 degrees C). In general, the addition of WSLD significantly reduced mycelial growth rates in both species. The greatest mycelial growth rate was obtained on sterilized straw at 121 degrees C for the majority of strains. However, this growth was not significantly different from that obtained at 75 degrees C. L. edodes showed greater growth rates than L. boryana. The feasibility of using estimates of mycelial growth rate on YMEA and YMEA+WSLD are discussed as possible indicators of a strain's potential for mycelial growth on substrates derived from wheat straw. PMID:15487920

Mata, G; Delpech, P; Savoie, J M

2001-09-01

168

EVALUACIÓN DE UN MODELO PREDICTIVO SOBRE EL EFECTO DE LA TEMPERATURA Y HUMEDAD EN LA DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE RASTROJO DE TRIGO1 Evaluation of a predictive model of the effect of temperature and humidity on wheat straw decomposition1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this work were to evaluate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw decomposition rates under different temperature and humidity levels in two locations, and to compare the actual measurements with predictions made with the crop growth simulator CropSyst. The decomposition rate was evaluated for three quantities of wheat straw (3; 6; and 9 t ha-1) left on the soil

Víctor García de Cortázar

169

Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250 g\\/calf\\/d of barley grain or with 250 g\\/calf\\/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi- tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish

Giulio Cozzi; Flaviana Gottardo; Franco Mutinelli; Barbara Contiero; Gianluca Fregolent; Severino Segato; Igino Andrighetto

2010-01-01

170

Performance of hemicellulolytic enzymes in culture supernatants from a wide range of fungi on insoluble wheat straw and corn fiber fractions.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are a good source of hemicellulolytic enzymes for biomass degradation. Enzyme preparations were obtained as culture supernatants from 78 fungal isolates grown on wheat straw as carbon source. These enzyme preparations were utilized in the hydrolysis of insoluble wheat straw and corn fiber xylan rich fractions. Up to 14% of the carbohydrates in wheat straw and 34% of those in corn fiber were hydrolyzed. The degree of hydrolysis by the enzymes depended on the origin of the fungal isolate and on the complexity of the substrate to be degraded. Penicillium, Trichoderma or Aspergillus species, and some non-identified fungi proved to be the best producers of hemicellulolytic enzymes for degradation of xylan rich materials. This study proves that the choice for an enzyme preparation to efficiently degrade a natural xylan rich substrate, is dependent on the xylan characteristics and could not be estimated by using model substrates. PMID:22497710

van Gool, M P; Toth, K; Schols, H A; Szakacs, G; Gruppen, H

2012-06-01

171

Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields (p?0.001). However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001). The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05). Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01) with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001) by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001) increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L) allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L.

Zhang, Hui Ling; Chen, Yong; Xu, Xiao Li; Yang, Yu Xia

2013-01-01

172

Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions.  

PubMed

Bacillus coagulans IPE22 was used to produce lactic acid (LA) from mixed sugar and wheat straw hydrolysates, respectively. All fermentations were conducted under non-sterilized conditions and sodium hydroxide was used as neutralizing agent to avoid the production of insoluble CaSO4. In order to eliminate the sequential utilization of mixed sugar and feedback inhibition during batch fermentation, membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was used to improve LA productivity. With MIRB, a high cell density was obtained and the simultaneous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose was successfully realized. The separation of LA from broth by membrane in batch fermentation also decreased feedback inhibition. MIRB was carried out using wheat straw hydrolysates (29.72g/L glucose, 24.69g/L xylose and 5.14g/L arabinose) as carbon source, LA productivity was increased significantly from 1.01g/L/h (batch 1) to 2.35g/L/h (batch 6) by the repeated batch fermentation. PMID:24811443

Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Shen, Fei; Su, Yi; Khan, Rashid; Wan, Yinhua

2014-07-01

173

Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from open burning of wheat straw and corn stover in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements were conducted to determine the characteristics of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) emitted from open burning of wheat straw and maize stover, two major agricultural residues in China. The headfire ignition technique was used with sampling downwind from the agricultural fire. Fifty-two NMHC species were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A carbon mass balance method was used to determine NMHC emission factors. The emission factors of the total speciated NMHCs from wheat straw and maize stover are 1690 ± 580 mg kg-1 and 1590 ± 430 mg kg-1, respectively. Propane, n-pentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, propene, benzene and toluene are the main species, together accounting for 55.3%-68.0% of the total NMHCs. On the basis of measured emission factors and the published maximum incremental reactivity values for NMHCs, we estimated the ozone forming potential (OFP) of speciated NMHCs. The results indicate that propene, 1-butene, isoprene, toluene and m,p-xylene have high OFP values and account for about 50% of the total OFP. Alkenes played the most important role in potential ozone formation, followed by aromatics and alkanes.

Li, Xinghua; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

2009-10-01

174

Preparation of wheat straw based superabsorbent resins and their applications as adsorbents for ammonium and phosphate removal.  

PubMed

A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) was prepared by graft copolymerization. The structure and performance of the WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR was studied and compared with those of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) SAR. The effects of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4(+) and PO4(3-) removal from solutions were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm data of adsorption of both NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were well fitted to the Freundlich model. Kinetic analysis showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was more suitable for describing the whole adsorption process of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) on SARs. Overall, WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR showed better properties in comparison with WSC-g-PKA SAR and it could be considered as one efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer. PMID:23786713

Liu, Jia; Su, Yuan; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

2013-09-01

175

Synthesis of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/PVA semi-IPNs superabsorbent resin.  

PubMed

To better use wheat straw and minimize its negative impact on environment, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) composed of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) network and linear polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was prepared by polymerization in the presence of a redox initiating system. The structure and morphology of semi-IPNs SAR were characterized by means of FTIR, SEM and TGA, which confirmed that WSC and PVA participated in the graft polymerization reaction with acrylic acid (AA). The factors that can influence the water absorption of the semi-IPNs SAR were investigated and optimized, including the weight ratios of AA to WSC and PVA to WSC, the content of initiator and crosslinker, neutralization degree (ND) of AA, reaction temperature and time. The semi-IPNs SAR prepared under optimized synthesis condition gave the best water absorption of 266.82 g/g in distilled water and 34.32 g/g in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. PMID:23544572

Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Rui

2013-04-15

176

Ethanol production from wheat straw by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis co-culture in batch and continuous system.  

PubMed

In this research, Scheffersomyces stipitis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in immobilized and suspended state were used to convert pentose and hexose sugars to ethanol. In batch and continuous systems, S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae co-culture performance was better than S. cerevisiae. Continuous ethanol production was performed in packed bed immobilized cell reactor (ICR). In ICR, S. stipitis cells were found to be more sensitive to oxygen concentration and other possible mass transfer limitations as compared to S. cerevisiae. Use of co-immobilized S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae resulted in maximum xylose consumption (73.92%) and 41.68g/Lday ethanol was produced at HRT (hydraulic retention time) of 6h with wheat straw hydrolysate. At HRT of 0.75h, the highest amount of ethanol with the values of 356.21 and 235.43g/Lday was produced when synthetic medium and wheat straw hydrolysate were used as feeding medium in ICR, respectively. PMID:24614063

Karagöz, P?nar; Ozkan, Melek

2014-04-01

177

The utilization of teff ( Eragrotis tef) straw by sheep fed supplementary forage legumes with or without either crushed maize grain or wheat bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the interaction of high energy substrates (ES; crushed maize grain (MG) and wheat bran (WB)) with forage legumes (FLs), such as Lablab purpureus hay, sun dried leaves of Sesbania sesban and tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis), on ruminal microbial activity (indexed by the degradability and digestibility of teff (Eragrotis tef) straw (TS), urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD)) and

I. V Nsahlai; N. N Umunna; M. L. K Bonsi

1998-01-01

178

NITROGEN UTILIZATION BY LAMBS FED WHEAT STRAW ALONE OR WITH SUPPLEMENTS CONTAINING DRIED POULTRY WASTE, COTTONSEED MEAL OR UREA 1 ,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Three growing ram lambs were used in a 3 x 3 latin square to determine utilization of nitrogen (N) from diets containing wheat straw supplemented with dried poultry waste (DPW) cottonseed meal (CSM) or urea. Supplements formulated from the three N sources provided 85% of the total dietary N. The DPW and CSM provided over 90% and urea over

R. S. Swingle; A. Araiza; A. R. Urias

2010-01-01

179

Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw ( Triticum aestivum L.) – The impact of lignin relocation and plant tissues on enzymatic accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw is a potential feedstock for bioethanol production. This paper investigates tissues from whole internode sections subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment at 185°C and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis up to 144h. Analyses revealed an increase in surface lignin as hydrolysis progressed, which could be coupled to the gradual decrease in hydrolysis rate over time. The data support the hypothesis of lignin

Mads A. T. Hansen; Jan Bach Kristensen; Claus Felby; Henning Jørgensen

2011-01-01

180

Steam pretreatment of dilute H 2SO 4-impregnated wheat straw and SSF with low yeast and enzyme loadings for bioethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of lignocellulosic material to monomeric sugars and finally ethanol must be performed at low cost, i.e. with limited consumption of chemicals, yeast and enzymes while still reaching high yields, if it is to compete with other fuel conversion processes. The objective of this study was thus to investigate ethanol production from steam-pretreated wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

Marie Linde; Eva-Lena Jakobsson; Mats Galbe; Guido Zacchi

2008-01-01

181

Biotechnological Potential of Cereal (Wheat and Rice) Straw and Bran Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal straw, one of the most abundant renewable lignocellulose resources which possess valuable components, has gradually\\u000a become the research hot spot as a promising substitute for both the fossil fuel resource and petroleum-based industry with\\u000a the increasing calling for bio-fuel and green chemistry. However, existing technologies of straw utilization unilaterally\\u000a emphasize the primary utilization of the whole plant or some

Hongzhang Chen; Ye Yang; Jianxing Zhang

182

Comparison of some new pretreatment methods for second generation bioethanol production from wheat straw and water hyacinth.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic residues like water hyacinth (WH) and wheat straw (WS) using crude glycerol (CG) and ionic liquids (IL) pretreatment was evaluated and compared with conventional dilute acid pretreatment (DAT) in terms of enzymatic hydrolysis yield and fermentation yield of pretreated samples. In the case of WS, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment was found to be the best method. The hydrolysis yields of glucose and total reducing sugars were 2.1 and 3.3 times respectively higher by IL pretreatment than DAT, while it was 1.4 and 1.9 times respectively higher with CG pretreatment. For WH sample, CG pretreatment was as effective as DAT and more effective than IL pretreatment regarding hydrolysis yield. The fermentation inhibition was not noticeable with both types of pretreatment methods and feedstocks. Besides, CG pretreatment was found as effective as pure glycerol pretreatment for both feedstocks. This opens up an attractive economic route for the utilization of CG. PMID:21273061

Guragain, Yadhu Nath; De Coninck, Joelle; Husson, Florence; Durand, Alain; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

2011-03-01

183

Cellulase stability, adsorption/desorption profiles and recycling during successive cycles of hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw.  

PubMed

The potential of enzymes recycling after hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw under a variety of conditions was investigated, monitoring the activity of the enzymes in the solid and liquid fractions, using low molecular weight substrates. A significant amount of active enzymes could be recovered by recycling the liquid phase. In the early stage of the process, enzyme adsorb to the substrate, then gradually returning to the solution as the saccharification proceeds. At 50°C, normally regarded as an acceptable operational temperature for saccharification, the enzymes (Celluclast) significantly undergo thermal deactivation. The hydrolysis yield and enzyme recycling efficiency in consecutive recycling rounds can be increased by using high enzyme loadings and moderate temperatures. Indeed, the amount of enzymes in the liquid phase increased with its thermostability and hydrolytic efficiency. This study contributes towards developing effective enzymes recycling strategies and helping to reduce the enzyme costs on bioethanol production. PMID:24502914

Rodrigues, Ana Cristina; Felby, Claus; Gama, Miguel

2014-03-01

184

Bleaching of wheat straw-rich soda pulp with xylanase from a thermoalkalophilic Streptomyces cyaneus SN32.  

PubMed

An alkalistable endoxylanase from Streptomyces cyaneus SN32 was applied in bleaching of wheat straw enriched soda pulp. The xylanase dose of 10 IUg(-1) moisture free pulp exhibited maximum bleach boosting of soda pulp (pH 9.5-10.0) optimally at 65 degrees C after 2 h of reaction time. Pre-treatment of pulp with xylanase and its subsequent treatment with 6% hypochlorite reduced the kappa number by 8.7%, enhanced the brightness index by 3.56% and improved other paper properties such as tear index and burst index. The enzymatically-prebleached pulp when treated with 10% reduced level of hypochlorite (5.4%) gave comparable brightness of resultant hand sheets to the fully bleached pulp (6% hypochlorite). PMID:16337374

Ninawe, Suchita; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2006-12-01

185

Lignin Peroxidases, Manganese Peroxidases, and Other Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Phlebia radiata during Solid-State Fermentation of Wheat Straw  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Phlebia radiata 79 (ATCC 64658) produces lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), glyoxal oxidase (GLOX), and laccase in the commonly used glucose low-nitrogen liquid medium. However, the enzymes which this fungus utilizes for selective removal of lignin during degradation of different lignocellulosic substrates have not been studied before. Multiple forms of LiP, MnP, GLOX, and laccase were purified from P. radiata culture extracts obtained after solid-state fermentation of wheat straw. However, the patterns of extracellular lignin-modifying enzymes studied were different from those of the enzymes usually found in liquid cultures of P. radiata. Three LiP isoforms were purified. The major LiP isoform from solid-state cultivation was LiP2. LiP3, which has usually been described as the major isoenzyme in liquid cultures, was not expressed during straw fermentation. New MnP isoforms have been detected in addition to the previously reported MnPs. GLOX was secreted in rather high amounts simultaneously with LiP during the first 2 weeks of growth. GLOX purified from P. radiata showed multiple forms, with pIs ranging from 4.0 to 4.6 and with a molecular mass of ca. 68 kDa.

Vares, T.; Kalsi, M.; Hatakka, A.

1995-01-01

186

The impact of particle size and initial solid loading on thermochemical pretreatment of wheat straw for improving sugar recovery.  

PubMed

This work studies the effect of initial solid load (4-32 %; w/v, DS) and particle size (0.41-50 mm) on monosaccharide yield of wheat straw subjected to dilute H2SO4 (0.75 %, v/v) pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a full factorial design (FFD) was used for the statistical analysis of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest xylose yield obtained during pretreatment (ca. 86 %; of theoretical) was achieved at 4 % (w/v, DS) and 25 mm. The solid fraction obtained from the first set of experiments was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at constant enzyme dosage (17 FPU/g); statistical analysis revealed that glucose yield was favored with solids pretreated at low initial solid loads and small particle sizes. Dynamic experiments showed that glucose yield did not increase after 48 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Once established pretreatment conditions, experiments were carried out with several initial solid loading (4-24 %; w/v, DS) and enzyme dosages (5-50 FPU/g). Two straw sizes (0.41 and 50 mm) were used for verification purposes. The highest glucose yield (ca. 55 %; of theoretical) was achieved at 4 % (w/v, DS), 0.41 mm and 50 FPU/g. Statistical analysis of experiments showed that at low enzyme dosage, particle size had a remarkable effect over glucose yield and initial solid load was the main factor for glucose yield. PMID:24390576

Rojas-Rejón, Oscar A; Sánchez, Arturo

2014-07-01

187

The role of acetyl xylan esterase in the solubilization of xylan and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw and giant reed  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the complexity of lignocellulosic materials, a complete enzymatic hydrolysis into fermentable sugars requires a variety of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. Addition of xylanases has been shown to significantly improve the performance of cellulases and to increase cellulose hydrolysis by solubilizing xylans in lignocellulosic materials. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) originating from Trichoderma reesei on xylan solubilization and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Results The solubilization of xylan in pretreated wheat straw and giant reed (Arundo donax) by xylanolytic enzymes and the impact of the sequential or simultaneous solubilization of xylan on the hydrolysis of cellulose by purified enzymes were investigated. The results showed that the removal of acetyl groups in xylan by AXE increased the accessibility of xylan to xylanase and improved the hydrolysis of xylan in pretreated wheat straw and giant reed. Solubilization of xylan led to an increased accessibility of cellulose to cellulases and thereby increased the hydrolysis extent of cellulose. A clear synergistic effect between cellulases and xylanolytic enzymes was observed. The highest hydrolysis yield of cellulose was obtained with a simultaneous use of cellulases, xylanase and AXE, indicating the presence of acetylated xylan within the cellulose matrix. Acetylated xylobiose and acetylated xylotriose were produced from xylan without AXE, as confirmed by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry. Conclusions The results in this paper demonstrate that supplementation of xylanase with AXE enhances the solubilization of xylan to some extent and, consequently, increases the subsequent hydrolysis of cellulose. The highest hydrolysis yield was, however, obtained by simultaneous hydrolysis of xylan and cellulose, indicating a layered structure of cellulose and xylan chains in the cell wall substrate. AXE has an important role in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials containing acetylated xylan.

2011-01-01

188

NO formation during agricultural straw combustion.  

PubMed

NO formation during combustion of four typical kinds of straw (wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and corn stalk) which belong to soft straw and hard straw was studied in a tubular quartz fixed bed reactor under conditions relevant to grate boiler combustion. Regarding the real situation in biomass fired power plants in China, NO formation from blended straw combustion was also investigated. Nitrogen transfer during blended straw pyrolysis was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results show that NO conversion for the four straws during combustion is distinctive. Over 70% fuel-N converts into NO for cotton stalk, while only 37% for wheat straw under the same condition. When wheat straw and cotton stalk were mixed, N-NO conversion increases. The limestone addition promotes NO emission during cotton stalk combustion. The presence of SO(2) in atmosphere suppresses NO formation from straw combustion. PMID:21592786

Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Xiaoping

2011-07-01

189

Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans : neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial\\u000a fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme\\u000a preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314. Decrease in pH because of lactic acid formation was partially adjusted by automatic addition of the alkaline substrate.\\u000a After 55 h of incubation, the polymeric

Ronald H. W. Maas; Robert R. Bakker; Mickel L. A. Jansen; Diana Visser; Ed de Jong; Gerrit Eggink; Ruud A. Weusthuis

2008-01-01

190

Effects of Mixing Broiler Litter with Wheat Straw Before Deep-Stacking and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment on Feed Intake, Digestibility and Performance in Mature Wethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandebvu, P., Goetsch, A.L., Kellogg, D.W., Park, K.K., Kouakou, B., Wang, Z., Galloway, D. L., Sr., Patil, A.R. and Johnson, Z.B. 1996. Effects of mixing broiler litter with wheat straw before deep-stacking and alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment on feed intake, digestibility and performance in mature wethers. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 9: 153–174Mature wethers (32, 17 mo of age and 41±1.3

P. Mandebvu; A. L. Goetsch; D. W. Kellogg; K. K. Park; B. Kouakou; Z. S. Wang; D. L. Galloway Sr; A. R. Patil; Z. B. Johnson

1996-01-01

191

EFFECT OF GRADED LEVELS OF SOYBEAN MEAL AND OF A NONPROTEIN NITROGEN-MOLASSES SUPPLEMENT ON CONSUMPTION AND DIGESTIBILITY OF WHEAT STRAW 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A study was made of the voluntary intake of wheat straw by cattle fed soybean meal (trial 1) or a liquid supplement (trial 2) containing urea and ammonium polyphosphate as nonprotein N sources in a molasses base. Supplementary crude protein was fed at 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 g crude protein\\/kg BW'TS\\/day. Digestibility data were obtained by means

D. C. Church; Ariel Santos

192

Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

2011-01-01

193

Hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw at pilot plant scale using a three-step reactor system aiming at high hemicellulose recovery, high cellulose digestibility and low lignin hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot plant (IBUS) consisting of three reactors was used for hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw (120–150kg\\/h) aiming at co-production of bioethanol (from sugars) and electricity (from lignin). The first reactor step was pre-soaking at 80°C, the second extraction of hemicellulose at 170–180°C and the third improvement of the enzymatic cellulose convertibility at 195°C. Water added to the third reactor

Mette Hedegaard Thomsen; Anders Thygesen; Anne Belinda Thomsen

2008-01-01

194

[Effects of no-tillage plus inter-planting and remaining straw on the field on cropland eco-environment and wheat growth].  

PubMed

The studies showed that under no-tillage plus inter-planting rice and wheat, the height of rice stubble remained on the field significantly affected light transmission rate, with an optimal height of 20-30 cm. No-tillage and straw-remaining decreased soil temperature at noon in sunny days, but slightly increased it in the morning and evening, led to a less diurnal difference of soil temperature. The average diurnal soil temperature under no-tillage was higher in cloudy but lower in sunny days. Under no-tillage and straw-remaining, both the bulk density and the penetration resistance of topsoil increased, but no apparent adverse effect of them was observed on wheat growth. Under no-tillage, soil water content was higher under drought condition, and soil permeability after irrigation was better, which was propitious to the wheat growth. Straw-remaining significantly inhibited weeds, but led to the decrease of basic seedlings and enhanced the damage of freezing. Under no-tillage plus inter-planting, the individuals of effective ears decreased, while the kilo-grain weight increased. The grain yield was slightly but not significantly low under no-tillage plus inter-planting. PMID:15852946

Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Hongcheng; Dai, Qigen; Huo, Zhongyang; Xu, Ke; Ruan, Huifang

2005-02-01

195

Polysaccharide synthesis by capsular microorganisms in coculture with cellulolytic fungi on straw and stabilization of soil aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies using cocultures of a cellulolytic fungus with a capsular organism show that microbial polysaccharides can be synthesized during the degradation of wheat straw. Polysaccharide accounted for up to 1.6% (w\\/w) of the initial straw weight but the sugar composition and viscosity indicated that a large fraction was low molecular weight material of plant origin. Nevertheless several cocultures produced sufficient

S. J. Chapman; J. M. Lynch

1985-01-01

196

Possibility of using waste tire composites reinforced with rice straw as construction materials.  

PubMed

Agricultural lignocellulosic fiber (rice straw)-waste tire particle composite boards were manufactured for use as insulation boards in construction, using the same method as that used in the wood-based panel industry. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.8 and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of rice straw/waste tire particle). A commercial polyurethane adhesive for rubber was used as the composite binder. The water proof, water absorption and thickness swelling properties of the composite boards were better than those of wood particleboard. Furthermore, the flexibility and flexural properties of the composite boards were superior to those of other wood-based panel products. The composite boards also demonstrated good acoustical insulation, electrical insulation, anti-caustic and anti-rot properties. These boards can be used to prevent impact damage, are easily modifiable and are inexpensive. They are able to be used as a substitute for insulation boards and other flexural materials in construction. PMID:15207296

Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Kang, Chun-Won

2004-10-01

197

Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation of High Dry Matter Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw at Low Enzyme Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O2 as oxidizing agent was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%.

Georgieva, Tania I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K.

198

Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g/L) and hexoses (4.9 g/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia lipolytica, were evaluated by using this hydrolysate as substrates. The results showed that all of these strains could use the detoxified hydrolysate to produce lipids while except R. toruloides non-detoxified hydrolysate could also be used for the growth of all of the selective yeast strains. C. curvatus showed the highest lipid concentrations in medium on both the detoxified (4.2g/L) and non-detoxified (5.8 g/L) hydrolysates. And the inhibitory effect studies on C. curvatus indicated HMF had insignificant impacts at a concentration of up to 3g/L while furfural inhibited cell growth and lipid content by 72.0% and 62.0% at 1g/L, respectively. Our work demonstrates that lipid production is a promising alternative to utilize hemicellulosic sugars obtained during pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21463940

Yu, Xiaochen; Zheng, Yubin; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Chen, Shulin

2011-05-01

199

Yield and nutritional content of Pleurotus sajor caju on wheat straw supplemented with raw and detoxified mahua cake.  

PubMed

The effect of supplementation of wheat straw (WS) with raw/detoxified mahua cake (MC) on yield and nutritional quality of Pleurotus sajor caju was studied. Raw cake significantly enhanced the yield compared to control and could be tolerated up to a 10% addition. Detoxification further improved the mushroom yield giving a maximum of 1024.7 g kg(-1) from WS supplemented with 20% saponin free detoxified mahua cake. Chemical analysis of fruit bodies revealed that they are rich in proteins (27.4-34.8%), soluble sugars (28.6-32.2%) and minerals. Glucose, trehalose and glutamic acid, alanine were the major sugars and amino acids detected by HPLC analysis, respectively. HPLC studies further confirmed the absence of saponins (characteristic toxins present in MC) in both fruit bodies and spent. Degradation of complex molecules in spent was monitored via FTIR. The study proved beneficial for effective management of agricultural wastes along with production of nutrient rich and saponin free fruit bodies/spent. PMID:23993610

Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh

2013-12-15

200

Effect and modeling of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal during enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw.  

PubMed

The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw with the cellulolytic enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L, from Trichoderma reesei, supplemented with a beta-glucosidase, Novozym 188, from Aspergillus niger. Addition of glucose (0-40 g/L) significantly decreased the enzyme-catalyzed glucose formation rates and final glucose yields, in a dose-dependent manner, during 96 h of reaction. When glucose was removed by dialysis during the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion rates and glucose yields increased. In fact, with dialytic in situ glucose removal, the rate of enzyme-catalyzed glucose release during 48-72 h of reaction recovered from 20-40% to become approximately 70% of the rate recorded during 6-24 h of reaction. Although Michaelis-Menten kinetics do not suffice to model the kinetics of the complex multi-enzymatic degradation of cellulose, the data for the glucose inhibition were surprisingly well described by simple Michaelis-Menten inhibition models without great significance of the inhibition mechanism. Moreover, the experimental in situ removal of glucose could be simulated by a Michaelis-Menten inhibition model. The data provide an important base for design of novel reactors and operating regimes which include continuous product removal during enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. PMID:19165628

Andri?, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S; Jensen, Peter A; Dam-Johansen, Kim

2010-01-01

201

Optimization of liquid fermentation of microbial consortium WSD-5 followed by saccharification and acidification of wheat straw.  

PubMed

The microbial consortium WSD-5 is composed of bacteria and fungi, and the cooperation and symbiosis of the contained microbes enhance the degradation ability of WSD-5. Experiment results showed that the highest cellulase and hemicellulase were obtained when ventilation volume was 4 L/min, stirring rate was 0 rpm, and substrate loading rate was 3%. After 6 days of cultivation, a 67.60% loss in wheat straw dry weight was observed. The crude enzyme secreted from WSD-5 after optimization was evaluated by experiments of saccharification and acidification. The maximum concentration of reducing sugars was 3254 mg/L after 48 h saccharification. The concentration of sCOD peaked on day 2 with a value of 4345 mg/L during acidification, and the biogas yield and methane yield were 22.3% and 32.3% higher than un-acidified samples. This study is the first attempt to explore both the saccharification and the acidification ability of crude enzymes secreted by microbial consortium. PMID:22705517

Wen, Boting; Yuan, Xufeng; Cao, Yanzhuan; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

2012-08-01

202

Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and gas production of straws from different varieties and accessions of chickpea.  

PubMed

Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and gas production of straw from four different varieties of Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum) were studied. Kinetics of fermentation of straws from 19 different accessions of chickpea was also evaluated using gas production technique. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in the yield of straw [from 1041 to 1174 kg dry matter (DM)/ha] from different varieties. The proportion of seed/straw from different varieties varied from 0.61 to 0.93. Crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of straw ranged from 28.1 to 35.8, 598.6 to 645.4 and 459.2 to 473.4 g/kg DM respectively. Organic matter digestibility was different (p < 0.05) among varieties and varied from 471.4 to 535.5 g/kg DM. Potential gas production (A), the rate constants (c and d) and lag times of straws from different chickpea varieties were not different (p > 0.05). However, the rate constants (c and d) and lag times were different (p < 0.05) among accessions. Potential gas production (A) differed (p < 0.05) approximately twofold among different accessions. The results emphasized that in any evaluation of chickpea varieties or accessions, where straw of this legume seed is used as an animal feed, not only seed yield but also yield and quality of straw should be taken into consideration. PMID:21320177

Kafilzadeh, F; Maleki, E

2012-02-01

203

Response of Fumaric Acid Addition on Methanogenesis, Rumen Fermentation, and Dry Matter Degradability in Diets Containing Wheat Straw and Sorghum or Berseem as Roughage Source  

PubMed Central

An in vitro incubation system was used to evaluate effect of supplementation of fumaric acid at 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM concentration in high-, medium-, and low-fiber wheat straw containing total mixed diets with sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on rumen fermentation, methane production, and gas kinetics parameters. Three types of diets were prepared with different roughage and concentrate ratio (80?:?20, 50?:?50, and 20?:?80) by taking the representative samples. The roughage part composed of wheat straw (70?parts) and sorghum (30?parts) or berseem (30?parts) and the concentrate part composed of maize (33%), GNC (21%), mustard cake (12%), wheat bran (20%), deoiled rice bran (11%), mineral mixture (2%), and salt (1%). Fumaric acid was added in incubation medium to achieve final concentration of 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM. All the treatment combinations were arranged in 4 × 3 factorial designs with three replicates. It was concluded from the study that fumaric acid addition (5–15?mM) in diets varying in roughage to concentrate ratio significantly (P ? 0.05) reduced the methane production without affecting dry matter digestibility and maximum reduction was noticed at 5?mM concentration.

Sirohi, S. K.; Pandey, Poonam; Goel, Navneet

2012-01-01

204

Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH) and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH). The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11?mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production.

2012-01-01

205

Effects of green liquor pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.  

PubMed

Green liquor (Na2S+Na2CO3, GL) pretreatment is a proven pathway to improve the enzymatic saccharification for the production of bioethanol. In this work, the effects of GL pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw at various total titratable alkali (TTA) charge and temperature were investigated. The GL pretreatment showed excellent performance in high polysaccharides retention and delignification selectivity. Under the optimized GL pretreatment condition (4% TTA charge, 20% sulfidity and 140°C), 92.5% of glucan, 82.4% of xylan and 81.6% of arabinan in rice straw were recovered with a delignification of 39.4%. The maximum sugar yields of 83.9%, 69.6% and 78.0%, respectively for glucan, xylan and total sugar, were achieved at the same GL pretreatment condition with an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate. The results suggested that GL pretreatment is a practicable method for rice straw to enhance enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production. PMID:24128400

Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

2013-12-01

206

Hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw at pilot plant scale using a three-step reactor system aiming at high hemicellulose recovery, high cellulose digestibility and low lignin hydrolysis.  

PubMed

A pilot plant (IBUS) consisting of three reactors was used for hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw (120-150 kg/h) aiming at co-production of bioethanol (from sugars) and electricity (from lignin). The first reactor step was pre-soaking at 80 degrees C, the second extraction of hemicellulose at 170-180 degrees C and the third improvement of the enzymatic cellulose convertibility at 195 degrees C. Water added to the third reactor passed countercurrent to straw. The highest water addition (600 kg/h) gave the highest hemicellulose recovery (83%). With no water addition xylose degradation occurred resulting in low hemicellulose recovery (33%) but also in high glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis (72 g/100g glucose in straw). Under these conditions most of the lignin was retained in the fibre fraction, which resulted in a lignin rich residue with high combustion energy (up to 31 MJ/kg) after enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose. PMID:17936621

Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

2008-07-01

207

Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep.  

PubMed

Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy. PMID:19386013

Nurfeta, A; Tolera, A; Eik, L O; Sundstøl, F

2009-02-01

208

Characterization of a Novel Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP)-Type Enzyme from Irpex lacteus and Its Application in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw  

PubMed Central

Irpex lacteus is a white rot basidiomycete proposed for a wide spectrum of biotechnological applications which presents an interesting, but still scarcely known, enzymatic oxidative system. Among these enzymes, the production, purification, and identification of a new dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type enzyme, as well as its physico-chemical, spectroscopic, and catalytic properties, are described in the current work. According to its N-terminal sequence and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses, I. lacteus DyP showed high homology (>95%) with the hypothetical (not isolated or characterized) protein cpop21 from an unidentified species of the family Polyporaceae. The enzyme had a low optimal pH, was very stable to acid pH and temperature, and showed improved activity and stability at high H2O2 concentrations compared to other peroxidases. Other attractive features of I. lacteus DyP were its high catalytic efficiency oxidizing the recalcitrant anthraquinone and azo dyes assayed (kcat/Km of 1.6 × 106 s-1 M-1) and its ability to oxidize nonphenolic aromatic compounds like veratryl alcohol. In addition, the effect of this DyP during the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw was checked. The results suggest that I. lacteus DyP displayed a synergistic action with cellulases during the hydrolysis of wheat straw, increasing significantly the fermentable glucose recoveries from this substrate. These data show a promising biotechnological potential for this enzyme.

Salvachua, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia

2013-01-01

209

Novel xylanase from a holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library and its application in xylooligosaccharide and ferulic Acid production from wheat straw.  

PubMed

A novel gene fragment containing a xylanase was identified from a Holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library. The novel xylanase (Xyln-SH1) belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and exhibited a maximum of 44% identity to the glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Xyln-SH1 was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized. A high level of activity was obtained under the optimum conditions of pH 6.5 and 40 °C. A substrate utilization study indicated that Xyln-SH1 was cellulase-free and strictly specific to xylan from softwood. The synergistic effects of Xyln-SH1 and feruloyl esterase (FAE-SH1) were observed for the release of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and ferulic acid (FA) from wheat straw. In addition, a high dose of Xyln-SH1 alone was observed to improve the release of FA from wheat straw. These features suggest that this enzyme has substantial potential to improve biomass degradation and industrial applications. PMID:23134352

Cheng, Fansheng; Sheng, Jiping; Dong, Rubo; Men, Yejun; Gan, Lin; Shen, Lin

2012-12-26

210

Ethanol Production from Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw Hydrolysate by Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 in a Continuous Immobilized Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermophilic ethanol fermentation of wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in a continuous immobilized reactor system. The experiments were carried out in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at 70°C. Undetoxified wheat straw hydrolysate was used (3-12% dry matter), corresponding to sugar mixtures of glucose and xylose ranging from 12 to 41 g/1. The organism, thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1, exhibited significant resistance to high levels of acetic acid (up to 10 g/1) and other metabolic inhibitors present in the hydrolysate. Although the hydrolysate was not detoxified, ethanol yield in a range of 0.39-0.42 g/g was obtained. Overall, sugar efficiency to ethanol was 68-76%. The reactor was operated continuously for approximately 143 days, and no contamination was seen without the use of any agent for preventing bacterial infections. The tested microorganism has considerable potential to be a novel candidate for lignocellulose bioconversion into ethanol. The work reported here also demonstrates that the use of FBR configuration might be a viable approach for thermophilic anaerobic ethanol fermentation.

Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie J.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

211

[Chemical compositions of n-alkanols in smoke from rice and maize straw combustion].  

PubMed

Six genotypes of rice straw and four genotypes of maize straw were burned under different conditions, and the smoke was collected and n-alkanol in it was measured by GC-MS. Results showed that, in the smoke from rice straw flaming combustion, n-alkanol was composed of individual compounds from C14 to C34, and total contents(sigma) changed in the range of 1 604.4 to 13 889.7 mg x kg(-1). The ratio values of amount for n-alkanol with lower carbon number to that for one with higher carbon number (L/H) were in the range of 0.02 to 0.09. The values for C24/C30, C32/C30, C30/sigma, CPI, and ACL varied from 3.3% to 19.6%, 8.4% to 19.9%, 53.9% to 72.6%, 8.7 to 21.5, and 29.0 to 30.1, respectively. The abundance distribution for the compounds was bimodal with the maximal and the second peaks at C30 and C24, respectively. In smoldering smoke of rice straw, individual n-alkanol from C14 to C34 were also analyzed, with sigma values varying in the range of 1 688.7 to 5 168.2 mg x kg(-1). The ratios for L/H, C24/C30, C32/ C30, and C30/sigma ranged from 0.08 to 0.14, 31.0% to 70.5%, 6.9% to 17.6%, 39.5% to 57.8%, respectively. In addition, the CPI and ACL values varied from 10.7 to 17. 5, and 27.2 to 28.5, respectively. Moreover, the distribution pattern was similar to that in flaming smoke. In flaming smoke of maize straw, n-alkanol from C12 to C34 were identified, with sigma values being in the range of 852.3 to 2 667.9 mg x kg(-1). The values for L/H, C24/C28, C32/C28, C28/sigma, CPI, and ACL varied from 0.2 to 1.0, 104.3% to 293.3%, 42.2% to 61.4%, 7.3% to 16.5%, 5.6 to 9.7, and 23.1 to 26.9, respectively. Besides, the abundance distribution pattern was mainly bimodal with a maximal peak at C30, C24 or C22. In the smoldering smoke for maize straw, the same individual n-alkanols were found, and the sigma values changed from 1493.0 to 8386.9 mg x kg(-1). The values for L/H, C24/C28, C32/C28, C28/sigma, CPI and ACL were in the range of 0.2 to 0.3, 53.6% to 217.6%, 21.7% to 75.9%, 8.8% to 27.3%, 4.2 to 6.5, and 26.3 to 27.2, respectively. Furthermore, the distribution pattern was bimodal as well with the highest peak mainly at C30 and the second one at C24. In brief, obvious discrimination exists among chemical compositions of n-alkanol in the straw and smoke. C24/C30, C32/C30, and C30/sigma are useful proxies in distinguishing between n-alkanol in airborne aerosol deriving from rice straw and one released in rice straw combustion process. L/H, C24/C28, C32/C28, and C28/sigma may have a potential in discriminating the compounds from maize straw and its burning. L/H is possibly used to makea distinction between the organic compounds from rice and maize straws, and/or from combustion of the straws. PMID:24881372

Liu, Gang; Li, Jiu-Hai; Wu, Dan; Xu, Hui

2014-03-01

212

Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.  

PubMed

This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. PMID:24440253

Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

2014-03-01

213

Biogas Potential of Manure and Straw Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw or manure or both were converted to a methane-rich gas mixture. Anaerobic biomethane production is an effective process for conversion of a broad variety of lignocellulosic materials to methane to substitute natural gas and medium calorific value gases. Methane generating bacteria (methanogens) and other microbes help digest dying plants in anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions. Wheat straw wastes represent

Ayhan Demirbas

2006-01-01

214

Nutritional composition of lentil straw, vetch hay, olive leaves, and saltbush leaves and their digestibility as measured in fat-tailed sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several less researched forages from various Mediterranean plants may be superior, or at least equivalent, in forage value to barley (Hordeum vulgare) straw. These include lentil (Lens culinaris) straw, vetch (Vicia sativa) hay, dried olive (Olea europea L.) leaves, and saltbush (Atriplex halimus). Using in vitro, in sacco and in vivo methods, we tested (i) the nutritional composition, (ii) digestibility

S. Abbeddou; S. Rihawi; H. D. Hess; L. Iñiguez; A. C. Mayer; M. Kreuzer

2011-01-01

215

Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: wet oxidation and fermentation by yeast.  

PubMed

Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/L sodium carbonate and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degrees C) was used as pretreatment method for wheat straw (60 g/L), resulting in a hydrolysate and a cellulosic solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (8 g/L), low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids (3.9 g/L), phenols (0.27 g/L = 1.7 mM) and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/L). The wet oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present in the hydrolysate, were each tested in concentrations of 50-100 times the concentration found in the hydrolysate for their effect on fermentation by yeast. At these high concentrations (10 mM), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, 4-hydroxyacetophenone and acetovanillone caused a 53-67% decrease in the volumetric ethanol productivity in S. cerevisiae compared to controls with an ethanol productivity of 3.8 g/L. The phenol acids (4-hydroxy, vanillic and syringic acid), 2-furoic acid, syringaldehyde and acetosyringone were less inhibitory, causing a 5-16% decrease in ethanol productivity. By adding the same aromatic compounds to hydrolysate (10 mM), it was shown that syringaldehyde and acetovanillone interacted negatively with hydrolysate components on the ethanol productivity. Fermentation in WO hydrolysate, that had been concentrated 6 times by freeze-drying, lasted 4 hours longer than in regular hydrolysate; however, the ethanol yield was the same. The longer fermentation time could not be explained by an inhibitory action of phenols alone, but was more likely caused by inhibitory interactions of phenols with carboxylic acids, such as acetic and formic acid. PMID:12529889

Klinke, H B; Olsson, L; Thomsen, A B; Ahring, B K

2003-03-20

216

Effects of wheat bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) infestation in preharvest period on wheat technological quality and gluten composition.  

PubMed

The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75?kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing. PMID:24550692

Torbica, Aleksandra M; Mastilovi?, Jasna S; Poji?, Milica M; Kevrešan, Zarko S

2014-01-01

217

Effects of Wheat Bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) Infestation in Preharvest Period on Wheat Technological Quality and Gluten Composition  

PubMed Central

The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75?kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing.

Torbica, Aleksandra M.; Mastilovic, Jasna S.; Pojic, Milica M.; Kevresan, Zarko S.

2014-01-01

218

Straw- and slurry-associated prokaryotic communities differ during co-fermentation of straw and swine manure.  

PubMed

Anaerobic co-fermentation of straw and manure is widely used for waste treatment and biogas production. However, the differences between the straw- and slurry-associated prokaryotic communities, their dynamic changes throughout the co-fermentation process, and their correlations with bioreactor performance are not fully understood. To address these questions, we investigated the prokaryotic community compositions and the dynamics of prokaryotes attached to the straw and in the slurry during co-fermentation of wheat straw and swine manure using pyrosequencing technique. The results showed that straw- and slurry-associated prokaryotes were different in their structure and function. Straw-associated prokaryotic communities were overrepresented by the phyla Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, while Synergistetes and Euryarchaeota were more abundant in the slurry. The straw-associated candidate class TG3, genera Fibrobacter, Bacteroides, Acetivibrio, Clostridium III, Papillibacter, Treponema, Sedimentibacter, and Lutispora may specialize in substrate hydrolysis. Propionate was the most abundant volatile fatty acid in the slurry, and it was probably degraded through syntrophic oxidation by the genera Pelotomaculum, Methanoculleus, and Methanosaeta. The protein-fermenting bacteria Aminobacterium and Cloacibacillus were much abundant in the slurry, indicating that proteins are important substrates in the co-fermentation. This study provided a better understanding of the anaerobic co-fermentation process that is driven by spatially differentiated microbiota. PMID:24633443

Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Pei, Zhaojun; Sun, Xiaori; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Zhiying; Wang, Yuanpeng; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Tao; Li, Xiangzhen

2014-05-01

219

Comparative investigations of gluten proteins from different wheat speciesI. Qualitative and quantitative composition of gluten protein types  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the hexaploid common (bread) wheat, little information is available on the qualitative and quantitative compositions\\u000a of gluten proteins from other cultivated wheat species. Therefore, representatives of hexaploid spelt, tetraploid durum wheat\\u000a and emmer, and diploid einkorn were compared with three classes of common wheat (winter wheat, spring wheat, wheat rye hybrid).\\u000a The flours were extracted to yield

Herbert Wieser

2000-01-01

220

Effect of nitrogen content and additional straw on changes in chemical composition, volatile losses, and ammonia emissions from dairy manure during long-term storage.  

PubMed

Twelve 200-L barrels were used to determine the effects of N content and straw addition on changes in chemical composition and volatile losses measured by mass balance of dairy manure during a 136-d storage period. In addition, on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 28, 56, and 136, rate of NH?-N emission was measured, and core samples were collected to characterize fermentation pattern. High N (3.06% N, HN) and low N (2.75% N, LN) manures were obtained from cows fed diets with 17.2 and 15.2% crude protein (dry matter basis), respectively. On d 0, manure scraped from a freestall barn floor was diluted with water to 10% dry matter and loaded in barrels with (+S) or without (-S) mixing 22g of chopped wheat straw per kilogram of undiluted manure. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 3 replications. We observed no interaction between treatments for the reported measurements, but several day-of-storage by treatment interactions were found. Throughout storage, total NH?-N (TAN, NH?-N + NH??-N; 71.9 vs. 104.3 mg/dL), pH (6.40 vs. 6.74), and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA, starting on d 12) were lower for LN relative to HN manure. In the presence of straw, crust formation occurred between d 12 and 28, and pH became lower and TVFA became higher starting on d 56, compared with no straw. Treatments did not influence loss of organic matter, organic N, organic C, or N, which averaged 31, 29, 26, and 20%, respectively. However, neutral detergent fiber loss was 44% higher for +S relative to -S manure. Consistent reductions in the C:N ratio indicated proportionally higher volatile C loss than volatile N loss during storage. Overall rate of NH?-N emission was 36% lower for LN than for HN manure. In the presence of straw, rate of NH?-N emission did not differ until after crust formation, but was 67% lower on d 56 and 95% lower on d 136, when it was barely detectable, compared with manure with no straw. Manure pH was highly correlated with TVFA:TAN ratio (r=-0.78), and rate of NH?-N emission was correlated with pH, TVFA:TAN, TVFA, and TAN (r=0.47, -0.44, -0.23, and 0.28, respectively). In this trial, both microbial fermentation and crust formation influenced NH?-N emission rate and other measured responses, highlighting the importance of long-term sampling to evaluate treatment effects in manure storage studies. PMID:22612981

Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A; Hunt, T; Lobos, N E

2012-06-01

221

Selective production of hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates from wheat straw using dilute HCl or FeCl3 solutions under mild conditions. X-ray and thermo-gravimetric analysis of the solid residues.  

PubMed

The present work explores the combined production of hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates and an upgraded solid residue from wheat straw using a dilute-acid pretreatment at mild temperature. Dilute aqueous HCl solutions were studied at temperatures of 100 and 120°C, and they were compared to dilute FeCl(3) under the same conditions. Comparable yields of soluble sugars and acetic acid were obtained, affording an almost complete removal of pentoses when using 200 mM aqueous solutions at 120°C. The solid residues of pretreatment were characterized showing a preserved crystallinity of the cellulose, and a almost complete removal of ash forming matter other than Si. Results showed upgraded characteristic of the residues for thermal conversion applications compared to the untreated wheat straw. PMID:21421304

Marcotullio, G; Krisanti, E; Giuntoli, J; de Jong, W

2011-05-01

222

Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.

Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

223

Amino Acid Composition and In Vitro Protein Digestibility of Selected Ancient Wheats and their End Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total protein, amino acid composition and in vitro protein digestibility of selected ancient wheats and their pasta, breakfast cereal and bread products were determined and compared with those produced from durum and common wheat. The protein values in the whole meals varied among wheats with einkorn and hard spelt having the highest content (17.7%). Slight differences in amino acid

E.-S. M. Abdel-Aal; P. Hucl

2002-01-01

224

Environmental Influences on Flour Composition, Dough Rheology, and Baking Quality of Spring Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(4):507-511 The highly variable environmental conditions across the Pacific North- west (PNW) influence the milling and baking quality of wheat grain produced in this region. This study was conducted to compare the flour composition, dough rheology, and baking quality of soft and hard spring wheat grain produced in diverse environments. Thirteen soft and five hard spring wheat cultivars

G. G. Mikhaylenko; Z. Czuchajowska; B.-K. Baik; K. K. Kidwell

2000-01-01

225

Fed-batch SSCF using steam-exploded wheat straw at high dry matter consistencies and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain: effect of laccase supplementation  

PubMed Central

Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol is expected to play an important role in fossil fuel replacement in the short term. Process integration, improvements in water economy, and increased ethanol titers are key considerations for cost-effective large-scale production. The use of whole steam-pretreated slurries under high dry matter (DM) conditions and conversion of all fermentable sugars offer promising alternatives to achieve these goals. Results Wheat straw slurry obtained from steam explosion showed high concentrations of degradation compounds, hindering the fermentation performance of the evolved xylose-recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE6-12 strain. Fermentability tests using the liquid fraction showed a higher number of colony-forming units (CFU) and higher xylose consumption rates when treating the medium with laccase. During batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) processes, cell growth was totally inhibited at 12% DM (w/v) in untreated slurries. However, under these conditions laccase treatment prior to addition of yeast reduced the total phenolic content of the slurry and enabled the fermentation. During this process, an ethanol concentration of 19 g/L was obtained, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 39% of the theoretical yield. By changing the operation from batch mode to fed-batch mode, the concentration of inhibitors at the start of the process was reduced and 8 g/L of ethanol were obtained in untreated slurries with a final consistency of 16% DM (w/v). When fed-batch SSCF medium was supplemented with laccase 33 hours after yeast inoculation, no effect on ethanol yield or cell viability was found compared to untreated fermentations. However, if the laccase supplementation (21 hours after yeast inoculation) took place before the first addition of substrate (at 25 hours), improved cell viability and an increased ethanol titer of up to 32 g/L (51% of the theoretical) were found. Conclusions Laccase treatment in SSCF processes reduces the inhibitory effect that degradation compounds have on the fermenting microorganism. Furthermore, in combination with fed-batch operational mode, laccase supplementation allows the fermentation of wheat straw slurry at high DM consistencies, improving final ethanol concentrations and yields.

2013-01-01

226

Impact of steam explosion on biogas production from rape straw in relation to changes in chemical composition.  

PubMed

An 81day trial compared the cumulative production of methane from rape straw pre-treated by steam explosion at 15 levels of severity. The final methane yields were similar. The temporal variation in production rate exhibited two peaks: maximum production occurred in the first peak at around 21days with heights that increased with severity; the height of the second peak reduced with severity and peaked between 32 and 36days. Changes in the straw composition were investigated using mid-infrared spectroscopy. These were also strongly related to the degree of severity, allowing good predictive models to be built of severity and subsequently the rate of methane production. The main spectral changes showed the degradation of cellulose and xylose-containing hemicelluloses and production of furfural-like components commonly associated with biomass pre-treatments. Only small changes to lignin were associated with increased methane generation suggesting a structural rather than chemical role in this process. PMID:22947446

Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Ryden, Peter; Horn, Svein J; Tapp, Henri S; Wellner, Nikolaus; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Waldron, Keith W

2012-11-01

227

Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49, 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47g\\/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol production with a yield of 0.44g\\/g. T. hirsuta was capable of directly fermenting starch, wheat bran and

Kenji Okamoto; Yasuyuki Nitta; Nitaro Maekawa; Hideshi Yanase

2011-01-01

228

[Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].  

PubMed

Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N. PMID:23189681

Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

2012-08-01

229

Improving the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by laccase during ethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw at high-substrate loadings.  

PubMed

Operating the saccharification and fermentation processes at high-substrate loadings is a key factor for making ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass economically viable. However, increasing the substrate loading presents some disadvantages, including a higher concentration of inhibitors (furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds) in the media, which negatively affect the fermentation performance. One strategy to eliminate soluble inhibitors is filtering and washing the pretreated material. In this study, it was observed that even if the material was previously washed, inhibitory compounds were released during the enzymatic hydrolysis step. Laccase enzymatic treatment was evaluated as a method to reduce these inhibitory effects. The laccase efficiency was analyzed in a presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process at high-substrate loadings. Water-insoluble solids fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermenting microorganism. Laccase supplementation reduced strongly the phenolic content in the media, without affecting weak acids and furan derivatives. This strategy resulted in an improved yeast performance during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, increasing significantly ethanol productivity. PMID:23143932

Alvira, Pablo; Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

2013-01-01

230

Straw Kazoo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make some music by constructing a kazoo out of a simple plastic drinking straw. Use this activity to explore sound, vibrations, and music. Learners can experiment with pitch by modifying the length of the straw.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

231

Composition and Functional Properties of Apogee and Perigee Compared to Common Terrestrial Wheat Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long duration space missions may include dwarf wheat cultivars to meet closed-loop food system constraints. Composition and functional properties of dwarf wheats (Apogee, Perigee) were characterized and compared to terrestrial cultivars (Parshall, Yecora Rojo, Yavaros 79). Proximate composition was determined using standard methods, and functional attributes were evaluated by mixograph and pasting profiles. Additional analyses measured antioxidant capacity, protein profiles,

Adam M. Stoklosa; Ilan Weiss; Bruce Bugbee; Michele H. Perchonok; Lisa J. Mauer

2010-01-01

232

Composition and Functional Properties of Apogee and Perigee Compared to Common Terrestrial Wheat Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long duration space missions may include dwarf wheat cultivars to meet closed-loop food system constraints. Composition and functional properties of dwarf wheats (Apogee, Perigee) were characterized and compared to terrestrial cultivars (Parshall, Yecora Rojo, Yavaros 79). Proximate composition was determined using standard methods, and functional attributes were evaluated by mixograph and pasting profiles. Additional analyses measured antioxidant capacity, protein profiles,

Adam M. Stoklosa; Ilan Weiss; Bruce Bugbee; Michele H. Perchonok; Lisa J. Mauer

2011-01-01

233

Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity.  

PubMed

The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H(2)S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples taken from different composting ingredients (r=0.83 and 0.76-0.87, P<0.01, for log(e)-transformed data). Differences in N availability, in terms of NH(3) and N losses during composting, were found between different N sources. Materials in which the N was less available (chipboard and digester wastes, cocoa shells, ammonium sulfate) produced lower mushroom yields than materials in which the N was more readily available (poultry manure, urea, brewers' grains, hop and molasses wastes, cocoa meal). Replacement of poultry manure with the other N sources at 50-100% or wheat straw with rape, bean, or linseed straw in aerated tunnel or windrow composts reduced the OC and emissions of odorous sulfur-containing compounds, but also reduced yield. Urea and cocoa meal may be suitable for "low odor" prewetting of straw, with addition of poultry manure immediately before aerated tunnel composting. Rape straw in compost reduces the formation of anaerobic zones and resulting odorous emissions, since it maintains its structure and porosity better than wheat straw. PMID:12242630

Noble, R; Hobbs, P J; Mead, A; Dobrovin-Pennington, A

2002-09-01

234

Production of Manganese Peroxidase and Organic Acids and Mineralization of 14C-Labelled Lignin (14C-DHP) during Solid-State Fermentation of Wheat Straw with the White Rot Fungus Nematoloma frowardii  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycetous fungus Nematoloma frowardii produced manganese peroxidase (MnP) as the predominant ligninolytic enzyme during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 50 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.2. In addition to MnP, low levels of laccase and lignin peroxidase were detected. Synthetic 14C-ring-labelled lignin (14C-DHP) was efficiently degraded during SSF. Approximately 75% of the initial radioactivity was released as 14CO2, while only 6% was associated with the residual straw material, including the well-developed fungal biomass. On the basis of this finding we concluded that at least partial extracellular mineralization of lignin may have occurred. This conclusion was supported by the fact that we detected high levels of organic acids in the fermented straw (the maximum concentrations in the water phases of the straw cultures were 45 mM malate, 3.5 mM fumarate, and 10 mM oxalate), which rendered MnP effective and therefore made partial direct mineralization of lignin possible. Experiments performed in a cell-free system, which simulated the conditions in the straw cultures, revealed that MnP in fact converted part of the 14C-DHP to 14CO2 (which accounted for up to 8% of the initial radioactivity added) and 14C-labelled water-soluble products (which accounted for 43% of the initial radioactivity) in the presence of natural levels of organic acids (30 mM malate, 5 mM fumarate).

Hofrichter, Martin; Vares, Tamara; Kalsi, Mika; Galkin, Sari; Scheibner, Katrin; Fritsche, Wolfgang; Hatakka, Annele

1999-01-01

235

Whole genome sequence of Clostridium bornimense strain M2/40 isolated from a lab-scale mesophilic two-phase biogas reactor digesting maize silage and wheat straw.  

PubMed

The bacterium Clostridium bornimense M2/40 is a mesophilic, anaerobic bacterium isolated from a two-phase biogas reactor continuously fed with maize silage and 5% wheat straw. Grown on glucose, it produced H2, CO2, formiate, lactate and propionate as the main fermentation products, of which some compounds serve as substrates for methanogenic Archaea to form methane. Here, the whole genome sequence of the bacterium consisting of two circular replicons is reported. This genome information provides the basis for further studies addressing metabolic features of the isolate and its role in anaerobic biomass degradation. PMID:24905146

Hahnke, Sarah; Wibberg, Daniel; Tomazetto, Geizecler; Pühler, Alfred; Klocke, Michael; Schlüter, Andreas

2014-08-20

236

Effect of Heat Shock During Grain Filling on the Gluten Protein Composition of Bread Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine the role of the variation of the temperature during grain filling on the protein composition of bread wheat evaluated by SE–HPLC. Four cultivars were grown in four typical areas of wheat cultivation in Italy; at each location, four different temperature profiles were imposed during grain filling by anticipating or delaying sowing date in

M. Ciaffi; L. Tozzi; B. Borghi; M. Corbellini; D. Lafiandra

1996-01-01

237

Yield and elemental composition of wheat grain as influenced by source and rate of nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of sewage sludges to winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a possible mechanism to supply nutrients to the crop while simultaneously reducing the need for more expensive and less desirable disposal strategies. Research was conducted during 1986 and 1987 to determine the effect of fall applied sewage sludges on yield, N recovery, and elemental composition of wheat grain. The

G. Menelik; R. B. Reneau Jr; D. C. Martens; T. W. Simpson

1991-01-01

238

Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.  

PubMed

The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

2013-09-01

239

Evaluation of straw treatment with ammonia sources on growing bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energetical and ecological aspects of straw ammoniation were calculated based on five feeding trials with growing bulls consuming untreated, ammonia or urea treated wheat straw.Dry straw was gased with ammonia (3.0–3.2%) and wet straw (38.1–56.3% dry matter, DM) was treated with urea (2.5–5% on DM base). In digestibility experiments with sheep and feeding trials with 104 growing bulls fed treated

G. Flachowsky; W. I. Ochrimenko; M. Schneider; G. H. Richter

1996-01-01

240

Degradation of Lignocelluloses in Rice Straw by BMC-9, a Composite Microbial System.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential utility of pretreatment of raw biomass with a complex microbial system, we investigated the degradation of rice straw by BMC-9, a lignocellulose decomposition strain obtained from a biogas slurry compost environment. The degradation characteristics and corresponding changes in the bacterial community were assessed. The results showed that rapid degradation occurred from day 0 to day 9, with a peak total biomass bacterium concentration of 3.3 × 10(8) copies/ml on day 1. The pH of the fermentation broth declined initially and then increased, and the mass of rice straw decreased steadily. The highest concentrations of volatile fatty acid contents (0.291 mg/l lactic acid, 0.31 mg/l formic acid, 1.93 mg/l acetic acid, and 0.73 mg/l propionic acid) as well as the highest xylanse activity (1.79 U/ml) and carboxymethyl cellulase activity (0.37 U/ml) occurred on day 9. The greatest diversity among the microbial community also occurred on day 9, with the presence of bacteria belonging to Clostridium sp., Bacillus sp., and Geobacillus sp. Together, our results indicate that BMC-9 has a strong ability to rapidly degrade the lignocelluloses of rice straw under relatively inexpensive conditions, and the optimum fermentation time is 9 days. PMID:24548929

Zhao, Hongyan; Yu, Hairu; Yuan, Xufeng; Piao, Renzhe; Li, Hulin; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

2014-05-28

241

The preparation of high-grade bio-oils through the controlled, low temperature microwave activation of wheat straw.  

PubMed

The low temperature microwave activation of biomass has been investigated as a novel, energy efficient route to bio-oils. The properties of the bio-oil produced were considered in terms of fuel suitability. Water content, elemental composition and calorific value have all been found to be comparable to and in many cases better than conventional pyrolysis oils. Compositional analysis shows further differences with conventional pyrolysis oils including simpler chemical mixtures, which have potential as fuel and chemical intermediates. The use of simple additives, e.g. HCl, H(2)SO(4) and NH(3), affects the process product distribution, along with changes in the chemical composition of the oils. Clearly the use of our low temperature technology gives significant advantages in terms of preparing a product that is much closer to that which is required for transport fuel applications. PMID:19615895

Budarin, Vitaly L; Clark, James H; Lanigan, Brigid A; Shuttleworth, Peter; Breeden, Simon W; Wilson, Ashley J; Macquarrie, Duncan J; Milkowski, Kris; Jones, Jenny; Bridgeman, Toby; Ross, Andy

2009-12-01

242

Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum eating time and eating bouts tended to be greater by WS than for OG, and postpartum eating time per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber intake tended to be greater for WS than for OG. Results indicate that forage source and amount of DM fed prepartum affected postpartum performance and tended to alter the behavior of cows in tie-stall barns. PMID:23040018

Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

2012-12-01

243

Fatty acids composition and rheology properties of wheat and wheat and white or brown rice flour mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing of bread from rice flour only presents technological difficulty because the rice is gluten-free and gluten is\\u000a the most important structure forming protein. By using wheat and rice flour mixture, this problem can be avoided, and end\\u000a product is enriched by rice-oil constituents. In this paper fatty acids composition, with an emphasis on total saturated,\\u000a and total unsaturated fatty

Nada Nikoli?; Niko Radulovi?; Goran Nikoli?; Miodrag Lazi?; Zoran Todorovic

2008-01-01

244

Potato Straw  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics demonstration, learners are challenged to insert a straw the furthest into a potato. After learners explore different techniques, the demonstrator can show them how to hold the straw firmly about 2/3 of the way up and use a sharp thrusting movement. Use this activity to explore force and surface area. This activity guide includes a helpful video that demonstrates each step of the demonstration.

Physics, Institute O.

2012-07-12

245

Protein Content and Amino Acid Composition in Grains of Wheat-Related Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein content and amino acid composition for 17 wheat-related species (WRS) and three common wheats (control) were determined and analyzed, and the essential amino acids (EAAs) in WRS were evaluated according to FAO\\/WHO amino acid recommendations. The results showed that the mean protein content for WRS was 16.67%, which was 23.21% higher than that for the control. The mean

Xiao-ling JIANG; Ji-chun TIAN; Zhi HAO; Wei-dong ZHANG

2008-01-01

246

Biodiversity and composition of methanogenic populations in the rumen of cows fed alfalfa hay or triticale straw.  

PubMed

It is clear that methanogens are responsible for ruminal methane emissions, but quantitative information about the composition of the methanogenic community in the bovine rumen is still limited. The diversity and composition of rumen methanogens in cows fed either alfalfa hay or triticale straw were examined using a full-cycle rRNA approach. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization undertaken applying oligonucleotide probes designed here identified five major methanogenic populations or groups in these animals: the Methanobrevibacter TMS group (consisting of Methanobrevibacter thaueri, Methanobrevibacter millerae and Methanobrevibacter smithii), Methanbrevibacter ruminantium-, Methanosphaera stadtmanae-, Methanomicrobium mobile-, and Methanimicrococcus-related methanogens. The TMS- and M. ruminantium-related methanogens accounted for on average 46% and 41% of the total methanogenic cells in liquid (Liq) and solid (Sol) phases of the rumen contents, respectively. Other prominent methanogens in the Liq and Sol phases included members of M. stadtmanae (15% and 33%), M. mobile (17% and 12%), and Methanimicrococcus (23% and 9%). The relative abundances of these methanogens in the community varied among individual animals and across diets. No clear differences in community composition could be observed with dietary change using cloning techniques. This study extends the known biodiversity levels of the methanogenic communities in the rumen of cows. PMID:23278338

Kong, Yunhong; Xia, Yun; Seviour, Robert; Forster, Robert; McAllister, Tim A

2013-05-01

247

Effects of prepartum controlled-energy wheat straw and grass hay diets supplemented with starch or sugar on periparturient dairy cow performance and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of a forage source [wheat straw (WS) versus grass hay (GH)] prepartum and supplemental carbohydrate source [corn (dry feed; DF) versus molasses (liquid feed; LF)] on pre- and postpartum intake, digestibility, selective particle consumption, milk yield, and lipid metabolism. The objectives were to determine if forage or pre- and postpartum supplement alters periparturient intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Sixty (n=15) multiparous dairy cows were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare WS versus GH diets supplemented with either DF or LF. Dietary treatments were (1) WS prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (WSDF), 2) WS prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (WSLF), (3) GH prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (GHDF), and (4) GH prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (GHLF). Treatments began at dry-off, × before expected calving. During the prepartum phase, cows maintained dry matter intake (DMI) at 2.0% of body weight and prepartum energy balance remained positive for all treatments until calving. Prepartum GH diets had a more positive energy balance compared with WS diets. On week -5, energy balance was more positive for GHDF than for WSDF or GHLF. Energy balance for WSLF, however, was lower on week -3 and -1 than GHDF. Liquid feed decreased dry matter digestibility and increased prepartum liver triglyceride, serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and tended to increase ?-hydroxybutyrate. After calving, LF decreased DMI and energy balance, but not yield of milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk, resulting in greater feed efficiency compared with DF. Forage did not affect postpartum DMI, but milk yield tended to be higher for WS versus GH. The DMI expressed as percentage of body weight was not affected by supplement or prepartum forage type. Cows fed WS had lower serum NEFA, higher liver glycogen, and tended to have a lower triglyceride to glycogen ratio postpartum than GH. Serum NEFA peaked on d 14 for all treatments and then declined thereafter. In postpartum diets, more particles were retained on the top screen for LF (>19.0mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator, which also tended to have more particles in the second screen (particles 19.0-8.0mm). Supplement had minimal effect on postpartum selective particle consumption. In conclusion, feeding diets containing WS resulted in lower postpartum serum NEFA, higher liver glycogen, and a tendency for greater milk production and lower liver triglyceride to glycogen than those containing GH. Liquid feed reduced postpartum DMI but not yield of milk yield or 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, resulting in an improvement in feed efficiency. Future research should continue to investigate the use of single dry cow diet feeding strategies as they affect pre- and postpartum animal responses. PMID:23498001

Litherland, N B; da Silva, D N L; Hansen, W P; Davis, L; Emanuele, S; Blalock, H

2013-05-01

248

Engineered hydrochar composites for phosphorus removal/recovery: Lanthanum doped hydrochar prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of lanthanum pretreated rice straw.  

PubMed

Engineered hydrochar composites (EHC) were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of lanthanum pretreated rice straw. The as-prepared composite with about 30% lanthanum content showed greater P removal potential than La(OH)3, indicating the synergistic effect of hydrochar and lanthanum in P removal. The adsorption results showed that EHC showed great P adsorption capacities (>50mgPg(-1)) in the pH range of 2.5-10.5, and the presence of competing anions had little negative effects on P adsorption on EHC. The equilibrium time for P adsorption on EHC was considerably reduced under acid condition (12h) compared to alkaline condition (48h). The maximum adsorption capacity was 61.57mgPg(-1) according to Langmuir isotherms. These results suggested that EHC was highly effective in P adsorption in a wide range of pH and the presence of competing anions, thus EHC could be a promising adsorbent for phosphorus removal/recovery from wastewater. PMID:24727355

Dai, Lichun; Wu, Bo; Tan, Furong; He, Mingxiong; Wang, Wenguo; Qin, Han; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun

2014-06-01

249

Studies on untreated and urea-treated rice straw from three cultivation seasons: 1. Physical and chemical measurements in straw and straw fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven rice varieties selected according to three cultivation seasons were examined with regard to their grain and straw production, and the chemical composition of straw. Weather conditions, fertiliser application and harvesting time were major factors affecting grain yield and straw composition. The following correlations were found: grain yield and straw length (r=0.82, p<0.05), grain yield and ear length (r=0.90, p<0.01),

H. Sh Shen; D. B Ni; F Sundstøl

1998-01-01

250

Straw Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working as engineering teams, students design and create model beam bridges using plastic drinking straws and tape as their construction materials. Their goal is to build the strongest bridge with a truss pattern of their own design, while meeting the design criteria and constraints. They experiment with different geometric shapes and determine how shapes affect the strength of materials. Let the competition begin!

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

251

SEAFOOD PROCESSING WASTES ENSILED WITH STRAW: UTILIZATION AND INTAKE BY SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensiled mixtures of seafd processing wastes and wheat straw were evaluated. Thirty- six crossbred wethers (average BW = 34 kg) were fed 1) a basal diet (hay and concentrate) alone, or a 1:l ratio (DM basis) of basal and 2) ensiled fish waste plus straw (70:30, wet basis), 3) ensiled fish waste and straw (51:49), 4) ensiled crab waste plus

W. A. Samuels; J. P. Fontenot; V. G. Allen; M. D. A. Abazinge

2010-01-01

252

Influence of a Fusarium culmorum inoculation of wheat on the progression of mycotoxin accumulation, ingredient concentrations and ruminal in sacco dry matter degradation of wheat residues.  

PubMed

The Fusarium head blight (FHB)-susceptible winter wheat cv. Ritmo was inoculated with spores of Fusarium culmorum at the beginning of full blossom. Samples of whole wheat plants were taken once weekly from anthesis until harvest and subsequently fractionated into straw, glumes and spindles, which were examined for deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON). Additionally, the content of crude protein (CP) and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was scrutinized. Synthesis of the Fusarium toxins DON and ZON generally differed in terms of date of formation and concentration. Final mean DON concentrations of 37.5, 28.1 and 5.0 mg/kg DM were measured in glumes, spindles and straw, respectively, at the time of harvest. At this time, maximal mean ZON concentrations of 587, 396 and 275 microg/kg DM in spindles, glumes and straw, respectively, were determined. Moreover, Fusarium infected wheat residues contained higher CP but lower NSP contents at the last three sampling dates. In addition, collective samples of wheat straw and chaff were taken to investigate the effect of the Fusarium contamination on their in sacco DM degradation in dairy cows. Samples were analysed for mycotoxins and selected quality parameters. The dried and milled collective samples of straw and chaff were weighed into nylon bags and subjected to ruminal incubation for 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h in two dairy cows equipped with a permanent rumen cannula. Marked differences in level of mycotoxin contamination as well as in ingredient composition between the variants of straw and chaff were detected. Moreover, after 120 h rumen incubation the in sacco DM degradation of inoculated straw and chaff were lower compared to the accordant controls. The soluble fraction was increased in inoculated samples, whereas a diminishment in the potentially degradable but insoluble fraction was more pronounced. Thereby, a decrease in the potential degradability was obtained for inoculated straw and even if less pronounced for chaff compared to the non inoculated corresponding controls. In conclusion, infection with F. culmorum of wheat involves an increased risk of mycotoxin contamination in straw. Also, a Fusarium infection may have an impact on chemical composition and may result in Fusarium growth-related modifications of host cell wall components. PMID:16649577

Brinkmeyer, Ute; Dänicke, Sven; Lehmann, Mauricio; Valenta, Hana; Lebzien, Peter; Schollenberger, Margit; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Weinert, Joachim; Flachowsky, Gerhard

2006-04-01

253

Effects of Maturity Stages on the Nutritive Composition and Silage Quality of Whole Crop Wheat  

PubMed Central

The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2) were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×105 colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) content (p<0.05) of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05) and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages.

Xie, Z. L.; Zhang, T. F.; Chen, X. Z.; Li, G. D.; Zhang, J. G.

2012-01-01

254

Opportunities for manipulating the seed protein composition of wheat and barley in order to improve quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat and barley are the major temperate cereals, being used for food, feed and industrial raw material. However, in all cases the quality may be limited by the amount, composition and properties of the grain storage proteins. We describe how a combination of biochemical and molecular studies has led to an understanding of the molecular basis for breadmaking quality in

Peter R. Shewry; Arthur S. Tatham; Nigel G. Halford; Jackie H. A. Barker; Ulrich Hannappel; P. Gallois; M. Thomas; Martin Kreis

1994-01-01

255

Durum wheat breadmaking quality: Effects of gluten strength, protein composition, semolina particle size and fermentation time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of particle size of granulars (semolina and flour combined), gluten strength, protein composition and fermentation time on the breadmaking performance were compared for eleven durum wheat genotypes of diverse strength from North America and Italy grown in the same environment. All genotypes were ?-gliadin 45 types (low-molecular weight glutenin subunit 2 patterns) associated with superior pasta-making quality. Three

H. D. Sapirstein; P. David; K. R. Preston; J. E. Dexter

2007-01-01

256

Effect of Plant Nutrition on the Amino-Acid Composition of Wheat Proteins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conditions of nitrogen and potassium-phosphorus nutrition of plants have a substantial effect on the amino-acid composition of protein substances in wheat. With a nitrate source of nitrogen, the content of the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine ...

I. A. Poltavskaya

1965-01-01

257

Wheat transformation: current technology and applications to grain development and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenesis is a powerful research tool that can be adapted to investigate many aspects of gene function. It has been used widely in model plants such as Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice but until recently, bottlenecks in DNA-delivery and tissue culture meant that it could not be used routinely for wheat research. However, many aspects of grain development and composition are

Huw D. Jones

2005-01-01

258

Fat-soluble nutraceuticals and their composition in heat-processed wheat germ and wheat bran.  

PubMed

Nutraceuticals availability in heat-processed foods is considered to be the index for healthy food. This study has made an attempt to optimize the temperature to retain nutraceuticals in wheat bran (WB) and wheat germ (WG). Heated WG (130?°C & 140?°C) and WB (140?°C & 150?°C) were analyzed for sensory profiles. Extracted oils were subjected to physicochemical parameter as well as its nutraceuticals. Increased oil yield, color values and reduced free fatty acids were found with varied temperatures. Fat-soluble compounds total tocols, steryl ferulates and carotenoids found in WG (0.316, 0.058 and 0.011%) and WB (0.228, 0.595 and 0.015%) and maximum reductions started in WG (0.183%, 0.034% and 0.004%) at 130?°C. The free radical-scavenging activities of control samples showed high EC50 values than processed samples; however, no differences were observed between two temperatures. Study may clearly spell out that the reduced nutraceuticals observed after subjecting food raw materials to optimum temperature eventually lead to its quality. PMID:24328437

Kumar, G Suresh; Swathi, R; Krishna, A G Gopala

2014-05-01

259

Carbohydrate composition of wheat, wheat bran, sorghum and bajra with good chapati\\/roti (Indian flat bread) making quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varieties of wheat, sorghum and bajra having good chapati\\/roti making quality were studied for carbohydrate profile. Polysaccharide fractions (water-soluble, barium hydroxide-soluble, alkali-soluble and insoluble) were isolated from these cereals and wheat bran and their carbohydrate profiles were studied. Arabinoxylans were the major polysaccharides, other than starch and cellulose. The ratio of arabinose to xylose in whole-wheat flour and wheat bran

Chilkunda D Nandini; Paramahans V Salimath

2001-01-01

260

The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

261

Properties of aged montmorillonite-wheat gluten composite films.  

PubMed

The properties of new and aged glycerol-plasticized vital wheat gluten films containing < or =4.5 wt % natural or quaternary ammonium salt modified montmorillonite clay were investigated. The films were cast from pH 4 or pH 11 ethanol/water solutions. The films, aged for < or =120 days, were characterized by tensile testing, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, water vapor permeability (11% relative humidity) and the content of volatile components were measured. The large reduction in the water vapor permeability with respect to the pristine polymer suggests that the clay platelets were evenly distributed within the films and oriented preferably with the platelet long axis parallel to the film surface. The film prepared from pH 11 solution containing natural clay was, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, almost completely exfoliated. This film was consequently also the strongest, the stiffest, and the most brittle and, together with the pH 11 film containing modified clay, it also showed the greatest decrease in water vapor permeability. The large blocking effect of the clay had no effect on the aging kinetics of the films. During aging, the pH 4 and pH 11 film strength and the pH 4 film stiffness increased and the pH 4 film ductility decreased at the same rate with or without clay. This suggests that the aging was not diffusion rate limited, that is, that the loss of volatile components or the migration of glycerol or glycerol/wheat gluten phase separation was not limited by diffusion kinetics. The aging rate seemed to be determined by slow structural changes, possibly involving protein denaturation and aggregation processes. PMID:16478249

Olabarrieta, Idoia; Gällstedt, Mikael; Ispizua, Iban; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

2006-02-22

262

Production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9 in wheat bran-rice straw mixed substrate and use of cocktail enzymes for deinking of waste office paper pulp.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology was employed to optimize mixed substrate solid state fermentation for the production of cellulases and xylanase by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9. Among 11 different parameters, fermentation time (86-88 h), medium pH (6.1-6.2), substrate amount (10.0-10.5 g) and substrate ratio (wheat bran:rice straw) (1.1) had significantly influences on enzyme production. Under these conditions endoglucanase, ?-glucosidase, FPase (filter paper degrading activity) and xylanase activities of 826.2, 255.16, 102.5 and 1130.4 U/g, respectively were obtained. The enzyme cocktail extracted (solid to water ratio of 1:10) from the ferments increased brightness of waste office paper pulp by 82.8% ISO, Ink(D) value by 82.1%, removed chromophores (2.53 OD; A(237)nm) and hydrophobic compounds (1.15 OD; A(465)nm) and also decreased the kappa number to 13.5 from 16.8. PMID:23196251

Das, Arpan; Paul, Tanmay; Halder, Suman K; Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K; Pati, Bikas R; Mondal, Keshab C

2013-01-01

263

Protein accumulation and composition in wheat grains: Effects of mineral nutrients and high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of mineral nutrition and temperature on accumulation and composition of protein in wheat grains and on baking quality were studied under controlled environments. Under a moderate temperature regimen of 24°C days and 17°C nights (24\\/17°C), post-anthesis N:P:K 20:20:20 (NPK) supplied by continuous drip irrigation increased the rate of protein accumulation, doubled flour protein percentage and slightly increased final single

Frances M. Dupont; William J. Hurkman; William H. Vensel; Charlene Tanaka; Kerry M. Kothari; Okkyung K. Chung; Susan B. Altenbach

2006-01-01

264

Breadmaking Quality of Selected Durum Wheat Genotypes and Its Relationship with High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits Allelic Variation and Gluten Protein Polymeric Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(2):230-236 Twenty-seven durum wheat genotypes originating from different geo- graphical areas, all expressing LMW-2 at Glu-B3, and five bread wheats were evaluated for flour mixing properties, dough physical character- istics, and baking performance. Gluten polymeric composition was studied using size-exclusion HPLC of unreduced flour protein extracts. As a group, durum wheats had poorer baking quality than bread wheats

Karim Ammar; Warren E. Kronstad; Craig F. Morris

2000-01-01

265

Mycological composition in the rhizosphere of winter wheat in different crop production systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem as decomposers of plant residues, releasing nutrients that sustain and stimulate processes of plant growth. Some fungi possess antagonistic properties towards plant pathogens. The structure of plant and soil communities is influenced by the interactions among its component species and also by anthropogenic pressure. In the study of soil fungi, particular attention is given to the rhizosphere. Knowledge of the structure and diversity of the fungal community in the rhizosphere lead to the better understanding of pathogen-antagonist interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycological composition of the winter wheat rhizosphere in two different crop production systems. The study was based on a field experiment established in 1994 year at the Experimental Station in South-East Poland. The experiment was conducted on grey-brown podzolic soil. In this experiment winter wheat were grown in two crop production systems: ecological and conventional - monoculture. The research of fungi composition was conducted in 15th year of experiment. Rhizosphere was collected two times during growing season, in different development stage: shooting phase and full ripeness phase. Martin medium and the dilutions 10-3 and 10-4 were used to calculate the total number cfu (colony forming units) of fungi occurring in the rhizosphere of winter wheat. The fungi were identified using Czapeka-Doxa medium for Penicillium, potato dextrose agar for all fungi and agar Nirenberga (SNA) for Fusarium. High number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of wheat in ecological system. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of the phytosanitary condition of the soil. However, the decrease of the antagonistic microorganism number in the crop wheat in monoculture can be responsible for appearance higher number of the potentially phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp.). Further research, using molecular technique, will help better understanding interactions between plant and microorganisms in the wheat rhizosphere under different soil management conditions.

Frac, Magdalena; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

2010-05-01

266

Amino Acid Composition of Selected Strains of Diploid Wheat, Triticum monococcum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 72(2):213-216 Diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L., einkorn) is of interest both species of wheat and among diploid wheat strains were minimal, especially as a crop and as a source of genes unavailable in the more widely grown after amino acid values were adjusted to a common protein level. One wheat species, T. aestivum L. (common wheat) and T.

R. ACQUISTUCCI; M. G. D'EGIDIO; V. VALLEGA

267

Lipid Composition and Protein Dynamics in Thylakoids of Two Wheat Cultivars Differently Sensitive to Drought.  

PubMed Central

Two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars with different sensitivities to drought were either grown under regular irrigation or subjected to water deficit by withholding water for 14 d. Water-stressed plants of both cultivars underwent similar decreases in leaf water potential, but the drought-tolerant cultivar showed higher relative water content and turgor. Neither osmotic nor elastic adjustment mechanisms appeared to be active under the conditions described here. Thylakoids isolated from the stressed, drought-tolerant wheat showed an increase in lipid-to-protein ratio, in comparison with the control, whereas this ratio remained unchanged in the sensitive wheat. In both cultivars, water deficit determined different rearrangements in the composition of the thylakoid individual polar lipids, but their unsaturation level remained unaffected with the exception of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. In the drought-sensitive cultivar, an accumulation of free fatty acids together with a reduction in polar lipid amount was observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of spin-labeled proteins of stressed plants from the sensitive cv Adamello showed a higher spin label rotational correlation time together with lower sulphydryl group and mobile proteic portion levels, in comparison with the control. In the tolerant cv Ofanto, the first two parameters changed to a lesser extent following water depletion, and the mobile proteic portion was not altered.

Quartacci, M. F.; Pinzino, C.; Sgherri, CLM.; Navari-Izzo, F.

1995-01-01

268

Effect of Temperature and BASF 13 338 on the Lipid Composition and Respiration of Wheat Roots  

PubMed Central

The fatty acid composition of wheat seedling roots changed in response to temperature. As temperature declined, the level of linolenic acid increased and the level of linoleic acid decreased. The distribution of phospholipid classes was not influenced by temperature. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine were the predominant phospholipids isolated and comprised 85% of the total lipid phosphorus. Smaller quantities of phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidyl serine were isolated. The fatty acid composition of phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine were the same and temperature affected the fatty acid composition of both phospholipids in the same manner. Growth in the presence of the substituted pyridazinone, BASF 13 338 (4-chloro-5-dimethylamino-2-phenyl-3(2H)pyridazinone), reduced the level of linolenic acid and increased the level of linoleic acid in the phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and total polar lipid fractions. BASF 13 338 did not affect the levels of palmitate, stearate, and oleate or the distribution of phospholipid classes. Respiration rates of wheat root tips were measured over a range of temperatures. The respiration rate declined as the temperature decreased. Neither the temperature at which the tissue was grown nor BASF 13 338 treatment influenced the ability of root tips to respire at any temperature from 4 to 30 C. The results indicated that the relative proportion of linolenic acid to linoleic acid did not influence the plants ability to grow and respire over the range of temperatures tested.

Ashworth, Edward N.; Christiansen, Meryl N.; John, Judith B. St.; Patterson, Glenn W.

1981-01-01

269

Straw as Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research explains the properties of straw used as fuel and the applicability of different furnace types and burning methods for the burning of straw. Comparisons between the costs for straw heating and those for the use of other solid domestic fuels ...

J. Ahokas P. Staahlberg I. Maaskola

1983-01-01

270

The effect of microwave pretreatment on biogas production from agricultural straws.  

PubMed

Biogas production from microwave-pretreated agricultural residual straws that are used as feedstock was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Barley, spring wheat, winter wheat and oat straw were examined. To investigate the effect of changing the physicochemical structure of the straws on biogas production, the pretreatment processes were applied to two sample groups. The first group contained milled straw and the second group comprised milled wet straw that was prepared by the addition of deionized water. Both groups were subjected to microwave irradiation until oven temperatures of 200 or 300 °C were attained. Sixty-six identical batch anaerobic reactors were run under mesophilic conditions for 60 days. Preliminary test results showed that the microwave pretreatment of the different straws did not improve their anaerobic digestion. An increase in the treatment temperature led to lower biogas production levels. An inverse relationship between the thermal conversion yield and cumulative biogas production was observed. PMID:23201904

Sapci, Zehra

2013-01-01

271

[Effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on soil labile organic carbon].  

PubMed

A six-year field plot experiment of rice-wheat rotation was conducted to study the effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on cropland soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon. Five treatments were installed, i.e., CK, straw mulch (M), straw mulch plus earthworm inoculation (ME), incorporated straw with soil (I), and incorporated straw with soil plus earthworm inoculation (IE). The results showed that soil organic carbon content increased significantly after six years straw application, and treatment I was more efficient than treatment M. Earthworm inoculation under straw application had no significant effects on soil organic carbon content. Straw application, whether straw mulch or incorporated straw with soil, increased the content of soil labile organic carbon, and incorporated straw with soil was more beneficial to the increase of the contents of hot water-extractable carbon, potentially mineralizable carbon, acid-extractable carbon, readily oxidizable carbon, particulate organic carbon, and light fraction organic carbon. There was a little relationship between the quantitative variations of soil dissoluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon and the patterns of straw application. Among the treatments, the activity of soil organic carbon was decreased in the order of IF > I > M > ME > CK. Straw application pattern was the main factor affecting soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon, while earthworm inoculation was not universally significanfly effective to all kinds of soil labile organic carbon. PMID:17615878

Yu, Jian-Guang; Li, Hui Xin; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Feng

2007-04-01

272

Building with straw bales  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the outgrowth of The Canelo Project, one of the first straw bale workshops in southeastern Arizona. At the time it started the only straw bale buildings were a few scattered historic structures, mostly in Nebraska, and a handful of simple structures built by modern straw bale pioneers.not the new straw bale structures exceeds 400. Straw bale structures are solid, rugged, inexpensive, energy efficient, and significantly more fireproof than conventional lumber. How structures are build, handling moisture problems and questions, bale sizes and characteristics, bale wall options (load bearing, in-fill systems, hybrid options, wall finishes) are all described in detail.

Steen, B.; Steen, A.

1996-01-01

273

Controlling pesticide loss by natural porous micro/nano composites: straw ash-based biochar and biosilica.  

PubMed

Pesticide sprayed onto plant leaves tends to discharge into the environment through rainwater washing, leaching, and volatilization, resulting in severe pollution to soil, water, and air. Here, to control pesticide loss, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BCS) to traditional pesticide. BCS possesses a porous micro/nano structure and thus can adsorb a large amount of pesticide molecules to form pesticide-BCS complexes that tend to be retained by the rough surface of plant leaves, displaying a high adhesion performance on the leaves; therefore, the pesticide loss decreases, sufficient pesticide for the plant is supplied, and the pollution risk of the pesticide can be substantially lowered. PMID:24001024

Cai, Dongqing; Wang, Longhai; Zhang, Guilong; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Zhengyan

2013-09-25

274

Effect of emulsifiers on wheat-potato composite flour for the production of leavened flat bread (naan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The present study was designed to enhance the nutritional and calorific value of food without affecting quality of final product with the use of emulsifiers. Lysine contents in potatoes are similar to animal protein and its flour can be utilized to overcome protein and calorie malnutrition. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Composite flours were prepared by substituting wheat flour with potato

Faqir M. Anjum; Imran Pasha; Sarfraz Ahmad; M. Issa Khan; Zafar Iqbal

2008-01-01

275

Influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat.  

PubMed

The present study in a two-year experiment investigated the influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat whole meal of two genotypes differing in their water requirements. Different thermal conditions prevailing during the grain filling period under different sowing time generated a large effect on the amount of total soluble proteins. Late sown conditions offered higher protein content accompanied by increased albumin-globulin but decreased glutenin content. Fe content was increased to 20-23%; however, tannin decreased to 18-35% under early sown rain-fed conditions as compared to irrigated timely sown conditions in both the genotypes. Activity of trypsin inhibitor was decreased under rain-fed conditions in both genotypes. This study inferred that variable sowing times and irrigation practices can be used for inducing variation in different wheat whole meal quality characteristics. Lower temperature prevailing under early sown rain-fed conditions; resulted in higher protein content. Higher Fe and lower tannin contents were reported under early sown rain-fed conditions however, late sown conditions offered an increase in phytic acid accompanied by decreased micronutrients and glutenin contents. PMID:22629143

Singh, Sondeep; Gupta, Anil K; Kaur, Narinder

2012-01-01

276

Methanogenic Pathway and Archaeal Communities in Three Different Anoxic Soils Amended with Rice Straw and Maize Straw  

PubMed Central

Addition of straw is common practice in rice agriculture, but its effect on the path of microbial CH4 production and the microbial community involved is not well known. Since straw from rice (C3 plant) and maize plants (C4 plant) exhibit different ?13C values, we compared the effect of these straw types using anoxic rice field soils from Italy and China, and also a soil from Thailand that had previously not been flooded. The temporal patterns of production of CH4 and its major substrates H2 and acetate, were slightly different between rice straw and maize straw. Addition of methyl fluoride, an inhibitor of acetoclastic methanogenesis, resulted in partial inhibition of acetate consumption and CH4 production. The ?13C of the accumulated CH4 and acetate reflected the different ?13C values of rice straw versus maize straw. However, the relative contribution of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis to total CH4 production exhibited a similar temporal change when scaled to CH4 production irrespectively of whether rice straw or maize straw was applied. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal communities was characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and was quantified by quantitative PCR targeting archaeal 16S rRNA genes or methanogenic mcrA genes. The size of the methanogenic communities generally increased during incubation with straw, but the straw type had little effect. Instead, differences were found between the soils, with Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriales dominating straw decomposition in Italian soil, Methanosarcinaceae, Methanocellales, and Methanobacteriale in China soil, and Methanosarcinaceae and Methanocellales in Thailand soil. The experiments showed that methanogenic degradation in different soils involved different methanogenic population dynamics. However, the path of CH4 production was hardly different between degradation of rice straw versus maize straw and was also similar for the different soil types.

Conrad, Ralf; Klose, Melanie; Lu, Yahai; Chidthaisong, Amnat

2011-01-01

277

Change in Grain Protein Composition of Winter Wheat Cultivars Under Different Levels of N and Water Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard white winter (HWW) wheat cultivars in the U.S. must have superior protein quality and consistent processing quality to\\u000a be successful in the Asian market. Dough rheological properties, baking quality, and end-product attributes are significantly\\u000a affected by grain protein content and composition. Protein composition, in terms of size and solubility, has been found to\\u000a be determined by both genetics and

C. SAINT PIERRE; C. Peterson; A. Ross; J. Ohm; M. Verhoeven; M. Larson; B. Hoefer

278

Green composites and coatings from agricultural feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green composites have been produced from natural oils and agricultural co-products or residues. A variety of natural oil-based resins, both free radically- and cationically-cured, and agricultural filler\\/fiber reinforcements have been utilized in their production. The natural oils and agricultural filler\\/fibers of interest include tung, corn, soybean, fish, and linseed oils and spent germ, corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass. The

Daniel Patrick Pfister

2010-01-01

279

Review of straw chambers  

SciTech Connect

This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed.

Toki, W.H.

1990-03-01

280

Association study of wheat grain protein composition reveals that gliadin and glutenin composition are trans-regulated by different chromosome regions.  

PubMed

Wheat grain storage protein (GSP) content and composition are the main determinants of the end-use value of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain. The accumulation of glutenins and gliadins, the two main classes of GSP in wheat, is believed to be mainly controlled at the transcriptional level through a network of transcription factors. This regulation network could lead to stable cross-environment allometric scaling relationships between the quantity of GSP classes/subunits and the total quantity of nitrogen per grain. This work conducted a genetic mapping study of GSP content and composition and allometric scaling parameters of grain N allocation using a bread wheat worldwide core collection grown in three environments. The core collection was genotyped with 873 markers for genome-wide association and 167 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in 51 candidate genes for candidate association. The candidate genes included 35 transcription factors (TFs) expressed in grain. This work identified 74 loci associated with 38 variables, of which 19 were candidate genes or were tightly linked with candidate genes. Besides structural GSP genes, several loci putatively trans-regulating GSP accumulation were identified. Seven candidate TFs, including four wheat orthologues of barley TFs that control hordein gene expression, were associated or in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers associated with the composition or quantity of glutenin or gliadin, or allometric grain N allocation parameters, confirming the importance of the transcriptional control of GSP accumulation. Genome-wide association results suggest that the genes regulating glutenin and gliadin compositions are mostly distinct from each other and operate differently. PMID:23881399

Plessis, Anne; Ravel, Catherine; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Martre, Pierre

2013-09-01

281

Variability in dehydrodiferulic acid composition of durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf.) and distribution in milling fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dehydrodiferulic acid content of different common and durum wheat grains and milling fractions was determined by an HPLC procedure. The 8-O-4?, 5–8? benzofuran, 5–8? and 5-5? dehydrodimers were identified in all samples studied and occurred in decreasing relative amounts, respectively. Durum wheats were twice as concentrated in dimers as common wheats. An important genetic variation for dehydrodiferulic acid content

I. Lempereur; A. Surget; X. Rouau

1998-01-01

282

Compositional analysis of lignocellulosic materials: Evaluation of methods used for sugar analysis of waste paper and straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the overall efficiency of processes designed to convert lignocellulosic polysaccharides to ethanol, it is first necessary to determine the composition of the lignocellulosic substrates. Three standard methods routinely referenced in the literature for this purpose are monoethanolamine, trifluoroacetic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid-based methods. However, in the course of our studies, the suitability of these standard methods for

Thomas Foyle; Linda Jennings; Patricia Mulcahy

2007-01-01

283

N- and S-fertiliser effects on grain composition, industrial quality and end-use in durum wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain composition, industrial and end-use qualities were analysed in four cultivars of durum wheat subjected to four different nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) fertiliser treatments in field trials conducted in two successive years in soils not deficient in S:N1S1 (both N and S applied), N1S0 (N application only), N0S1 (S application only) and N0S0 (no fertiliser application). Characters analysed were

S. E. Lerner; M. L. Seghezzo; E. R. Molfese; N. R. Ponzio; M. Cogliatti; W. J. Rogers

2006-01-01

284

Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.  

PubMed

Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites. PMID:20499931

Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

2010-06-14

285

Inclusion of Tithonia diversifolia in multinutrient blocks for WestAfrican dwarf goats fed Brachiaria straw.  

PubMed

Recent investigations suggest that the development of multinutrient feed blocks with inclusion of tree and shrub leaves could improve the nutritive value and digestibility of straw. In order to test these possibilities, three types of multinutrient blocks (MNB) namely: MNB0 (wheat bran?=?100 %; Tithonia diversifolia leaf?=?0 %), MNB50 (wheat bran?=?50 %; T. diversifolia leaf?=?50 %) and MNB100 (wheat bran?=?0 %; T. diversifolia leaf?=?100 %) were fed for 15 days in a 3?×?3 Latin square arrangement to West African dwarf goats consuming Brachiaria ruziziensis straw. The blocks presented a good cohesion and a good hardness. The inclusion of T. diversifolia improved levels of crude protein, mineral, feed unit for milk production (UFL) and feed unit for meat production (UFV), but decreased palatability. The effects on the digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw were evaluated in nine West African dwarf goats fed individually with MNB0 + straw, MNB50 + straw and MNB100 + straw. The dry matter, organic matter and crude fibre digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw increased slightly with increasing level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. The apparent digestibility of nitrogen was comparable for all diets independent of the level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. This study showed that the inclusion of T. diversifolia leaves in the MNBs can be recommended to improve the feeding of goats during periods of drought. PMID:24792078

Tendonkeng, Fernand; Fogang Zogang, Bienvenu; Sawa, Camara; Boukila, Benoît; Pamo, Etienne Tedonkeng

2014-08-01

286

Alterations of wheat root plasma membrane lipid composition induced by copper stress result in changed physicochemical properties of plasma membrane lipid vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A response when wheat is grown in excess copper is an altered lipid composition of the root plasma membrane (PM). With detailed characterisation of the root PM lipid composition of the copper-treated plants as a basis, in the present study, model systems were used to gain a wider understanding about membrane behaviour, and the impact of a changed lipid composition.PMs

Anna H Berglund; Mike F Quartacci; Lucia Calucci; Flavia Navari-Izzo; Calogero Pinzino; Conny Liljenberg

2002-01-01

287

Chemical composition and nutritional value of different wheat cultivars for broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was carried out on 90 Ross 308 broiler chickens (9 groups of 10 birds each) kept in individual cages. Nine diets based on Polish wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars: Zebra, Bryza, Vinjett, Torka, Rysa, Mikula, Turnia, Satyna and Bombona were prepared. The diets contained 732.6 g\\/kg wheat grain, soyabean meal, fi sh meal, lysine, methionine, vitamins and minerals. Broilers

J. Barteczko; R. Augustyn; O. Lasek; S. Smulikowska

288

Drinking Straw Pulse Measurer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this health activity, learners create a device so that they not only feel their heartbeat, but also see it, using a straw and some clay. Learners calculate their pulse rate (beats per minute) while at rest and after exercise.

Boston, Wgbh

2003-01-01

289

Whelmer #11: Straw Oboes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the concept of resonance and the relationship between pitch and the length and diameter of the straw. The Content section provides an explanation of Hertz which is equal to cycles per second.

2010-01-01

290

Chemical composition, cell wall features and degradability of stem, leaf blade and sheath in untreated and alkali-treated rice straw.  

PubMed

Three dominant morphological fractions (i.e. leaf blade (LB), leaf sheath (LS) and stem) were analysed for chemical composition and ruminal degradability in three rice straw varieties. In one variety treated with alkali, cell wall features were also characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The highest concentrations of cell wall carbohydrates (hemicellulose and cellulose) were observed in LS, whereas the highest concentrations of non-fibre (silica, phenolic compounds and CP) and lignin were recorded for LB. The stem had the lowest silica and hemicellulose contents but intermediate levels of other components. In terms of ruminal degradability, stem ranked higher than LB, which was followed by LS. Hemicellulose was found to be less degradable than either dry matter or cellulose in all the three fractions investigated. FTIR results indicated that the highest levels of hydrogen bonding, esterification and crystallinity within the cell wall components belonged to LS. In the alkaline treatment, these indices decreased to a larger extent for leaf fractions and a greater improvement was achieved in the degradability of LB and LS compared with that of stem. In the 24-h ruminal incubation, the silicified layer of epidermis and the underlying cell walls showed a rigid structure in the control fractions, whereas the treatment with NaOH resulted in crimping of the silicified cuticle layer and the loss of integrity in cell structure. Despite the highest silica and lignin contents observed in LB, LS showed the lowest degradability, which might be due to its high level of hydrogen bonding, crystallinity and esterification within its cell wall components as well as its high hemicellulose content. PMID:23473105

Ghasemi, E; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Emami, M R; Karimi, K

2013-07-01

291

Drinking Straw Oboe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will construct an oboe-like instrument from a plastic drinking straw by cutting the end to split it into two loose flaps, like reeds on an oboe. Blowing hard makes a sound. Cutting the straws to different lengths provides an opportunity for learners to predict how length will affect sound. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Music and Sound.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

292

Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stok?osa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

2013-01-01

293

Manuring and residue management effects on physical properties of a soil under the rice–wheat system in Punjab, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability of the rice–wheat rotation is important to Asia's food security. Intensive cropping with no return of crop residues and other organic materials results in loss of soil organic matter and is not sustainable. We evaluated effect of eight treatments comprised of various combinations of green manure (GM), wheat straw (WS), rice straw (RS), farmyard manure (FYM) and urea alone

Gurpreet Singh; S. K. Jalota; Yadvinder Singh

2007-01-01

294

FT-Raman Spectra of Unsoaked and NaOH-Soaked Wheat Kernels, Bran, and Ferulic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(2):188-192 The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) test for determining wheat color class depends on the observation that on soaking in NaOH, red wheat turns a darker red and white wheat turns straw yellow. To understand the mechanism of this test, Raman spectra of wheat bran, wheat starch, ferulic acid, and whole kernels of wheat, before and after NaOH soak,

M. S. Ram; Floyd E. Dowell; Larry M. Seitz

2003-01-01

295

Lignocarbohydrate Solubilization from Straw by Actinomycetes  

PubMed Central

Actinomycetes grown on wheat straw solubilized a lignocarbohydrate fraction which could be recovered by acid precipitation. Further characterization of this product (APPL) during growth of Streptomyces sp. strain EC1 revealed an increase in carboxylic acid and phenolic hydroxyl content, suggesting progressive modification. This was also observed in dioxane-extracted lignin fractions of degraded straw, and some similarity was further suggested by comparative infrared spectroscopy. However, the molecular weight profile of APPL was relatively constant during growth of Streptomyces sp. strain EC1 on straw, while analysis of the dioxane-extracted lignin fractions appeared to show fragmentation followed by repolymerization. Lignocarbohydrate solubilization could be monitored in all cultures by routine assay of APPL-associated protein, which accounted for up to 20% of the extracellular culture protein in some cases. Interestingly, this protein fraction was found to include active hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulose, and specific enzyme activities were often increased in the acid-insoluble fractions of culture supernatants. This was particularly important for peroxidase and veratryl oxidase activities, which could be readily detected in the acid-precipitable lignocarbohydrate complex but were virtually undetectable in untreated culture supernatants.

Ball, A. S.; Godden, B.; Helvenstein, P.; Penninckx, M. J.; McCarthy, A. J.

1990-01-01

296

Fractional and AminoAcid Composition of Wheat Grain Cultivated in Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat grain cultivated in Uzbekistan had an increased content of water-soluble proteinaceous and relatively low gliadin and glutelin fractions. The amino-acid content in the studied varieties depended on the amount of protein in the grain.

D. A. Gafurova; P. M. Tursunkhodzhaev; T. D. Kasymova; P. Kh. Yuldashev

2002-01-01

297

Microscopic Structural Changes in Paddy Straw Pretreated with Trichoderma reesei MTCC 164 and Coriolus versicolor MTCC 138.  

PubMed

The present study reports the pretreatment of paddy straw by Trichoderma reesei MTCC 164 and Coriolus versicolor MTCC 138 to observe the changes in chemical composition and its correlation with change of surface structure, morphology and porosity of paddy straw. Compared with untreated straw, cellulose decreased by 15.9 and 19.3 % in T. reesei MTCC 164 and C. versicolor MTCC 138 pretreated paddy straw respectively. Lignin content increased by 41.4 % in T. reesei pretreated paddy straw whereas decreased by 19.1 % in C. versicolor pretreated straw. The microscopic structural changes were examined by scanning electron microscopy under reasonable conditions. Results showed that digestibility of paddy straw are increased by treating paddy straw with both the cultures. Both surface area and pore size of treated straw were increased partially due to solubilization of silica components. PMID:24426113

Phutela, Urmila Gupta; Sahni, Nidhi

2013-06-01

298

Gluten Protein Composition in Several Fractions Obtained by Shear Induced Separation of Wheat Flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it was found that applying curvilinear shear flow in a cone?cone shearing device to wheat flour dough induces separation, resulting in a gluten-enriched fraction in the apex of the cone and gluten-depleted fraction at the outer part. This article describes whether fractionation of the various proteineous components occurs during and after separation of Soissons wheat flour. Sodium dodecyl sulfate?polyacrylamide

Zalm van der E. E. J; K. J. Grabowska; M. Strubel; Goot van der A. J; R. J. Hamer; R. M. Boom

2010-01-01

299

Effects of Fusarium infection on the amino acid composition of winter wheat grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter wheat (susceptible cultivar Ritmo) was grown in 2006 near Kiel and in 2007 near Heide in northern Germany. Plants were inoculated at anthesis using a Fusarium graminearum macroconidial suspension. The percentage of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) ranged from 0±2% to 28±2%. The contents of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and wheat amino acids were determined in the grain. Levels of

Marco Beyer; Jens Aumann

2008-01-01

300

Aragonite straw stalactite collected in Minamidaito-Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally, the crystal structure of the straw stalactite forms a calcite type. However, the straw of aragonite type was found at Hoshino cave in Minamidaito-Island, Okinawa, Japan. We have been trying to characterize the factor of forming aragonite straw in cave environment. The growth rate of the straw was measured using by 210Pb excess method, and the average growth rate was estimated to be 3.5 mm/year which is similar to that of calcite straw collected from the same cave. From the results of powder X-ray diffractometry, aragonite straws contain partly calcite phase with high Mg. The chemical compositions in the dripping water were also measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography. Concentrations of Mg in the dripping water from aragonite straws were not very high compared with that from calcite. This could indicate that Mg may not be a main factor of forming aragonite in this cave environment. The results of crystal structure of host rock by powder X-ray diffractometry showed calcite type. Because the forming aragonite straws seem to have various factors, continued observation and study is currently in progress.

Terukina, A.; Tanahara, A.

2012-12-01

301

Soil microbial activity, aggregation and nutrient responses to straw pulping liquor in corn cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cereal and grass seed cropping systems of the Pacific northwestern USA generate a valuable fiber source for papermaking.\\u000a Pulping straw with KOH produces black liquor, an organic waste effluent with potential as a K source and soil amendment. The\\u000a objectives of this study were to determine if black liquor from wheat straw pulping with KOH improves soil quality including

C. Xiao; R. Stevens; M. Fauci; R. Bolton; M. Lewis; W. T. McKean; D. F. Bezdicek; W. L. Pan

2007-01-01

302

Cerebroside C Increases Tolerance to Chilling Injury and Alters Lipid Composition in Wheat Roots  

PubMed Central

Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4°C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4°C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25°C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.62–62.26%, 13.54–63.93% and 13.90–61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.69–46.06%, 3.37–37.96%, and ?7.00–178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC.

Li, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Yu; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xu; Li, Cong; Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Ye, Yong-Hao

2013-01-01

303

Cerebroside C increases tolerance to chilling injury and alters lipid composition in wheat roots.  

PubMed

Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4 °C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4 °C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25 °C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.62-62.26%, 13.54-63.93% and 13.90-61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.69-46.06%, 3.37-37.96%, and -7.00-178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC. PMID:24058471

Li, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Yu; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xu; Li, Cong; Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Ye, Yong-Hao

2013-01-01

304

Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective  

PubMed Central

The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t?1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals.

Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P.

2013-01-01

305

Effect of light on the nucleotide composition of rRNA of wheat seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both qualitative and quantitative differences in the minor nucleotide constituents of rRNA from normally grown and from etiolated wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) were established. Using different degradation methods and separation techniques the 18S+26S RNA of 8-day-old wheat seedlings grown in the light was found to contain 5-methylcytidine, 3-methylcytidine, 5-methyluridine, 3-methyluridine, 5-carboxymethyluridine, 1-methyladenine, N-methyladenine, 5-hydroxymethylcytidine, O2'-methyluridine, O2'-methylcytidine, pseudouridine, O2'-methylpseudouridine, N2,N2-dimethylguanine,

Ilona Rficz; I. Király; D. Lásztily

1978-01-01

306

Composition and Quality of Wheat Grown Under Different Shoot and Root Temperatures During Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(3):397-403 Diminished quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from high temperature during maturation is usually attributed to direct effects of the stress on the shoots or grain. However, the upper soil temperature approaches the air temperature, and roots are highly sensitive and interact profoundly with other plant parts. The objective of this study was to determine the effect

Mohammed Guedira; Patrick J. McCluskey; Finlay MacRitchie; Gary M. Paulsen

2002-01-01

307

Improving the end use properties of wheat by manipulating the grain protein composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wheat storage proteins account for up to about 60% of the totalgrain proteins. They correspond to the gluten proteins, which form avisco-elastic network that enables dough to be processed into bread, pastaand other products. We are using a range of biochemical, biophysical andmolecular approaches to characterize gluten proteins and to understandtheir role in determining the grain processing properties, focusing

P. R Shewry; A. S Tatham; R. Fido; H. Jones; P. Barcelo; P. A. Lazzeri

2001-01-01

308

Effects of blackpoint on grain composition and baking quality of New Zealand wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of Takahe and Kopara wheat affected by black point were separated into classes of different severity. Kernel weight, nitrogen content, alpha-amylase, and proteolytic activity of each class were determined. Kernel weight and nitrogen content increased with higher degree of infection. Alpha-amylase activity was higher, but proteolytic activity was lower in kernels from the highest severity class compared to sound

K. Lorenz

1986-01-01

309

Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant capacity of acid and alkali hydrolysed wheat bran fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acid concentrations, profiles and antioxidant capacity of acid and alkali hydrolysates from the bran of six wheat cultivars representing six Canadian market classes were determined. Aqueous ethanol was used to extract the free phenolics (FP) and diethyl ether to extract the insoluble bound phenolics released after acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the bran. Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) reagent was used to

B. Verma; P. Hucl; R. N. Chibbar

2009-01-01

310

The hemicellulolytic enzyme arsenal of Thermobacillus xylanilyticus depends on the composition of biomass used for growth  

PubMed Central

Background Thermobacillus xylanilyticus is a thermophilic and highly xylanolytic bacterium. It produces robust and stable enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and esterases, which are of special interest for the development of integrated biorefineries. To investigate the strategies used by T. xylanilyticus to fractionate plant cell walls, two agricultural by-products, wheat bran and straw (which differ in their chemical composition and tissue organization), were used in this study and compared with glucose and xylans. The ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on these substrates was studied. When the bacteria used lignocellulosic biomass, the production of enzymes was evaluated and correlated with the initial composition of the biomass, as well as with the evolution of any residues during growth. Results Our results showed that T. xylanilyticus is not only able to use glucose and xylans as primary carbon sources but can also use wheat bran and straw. The chemical compositions of both lignocellulosic substrates were modified by T. xylanilyticus after growth. The bacteria were able to consume 49% and 20% of the total carbohydrates in bran and straw, respectively, after 24 h of growth. The phenolic and acetyl ester contents of these substrates were also altered. Bacterial growth on both lignocellulosic biomasses induced hemicellulolytic enzyme production, and xylanase was the primary enzyme secreted. Debranching activities were differentially produced, as esterase activities were more important to bacterial cultures grown on wheat straw; arabinofuranosidase production was significantly higher in bacterial cultures grown on wheat bran. Conclusion This study provides insight into the ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on abundant agricultural by-products, which are inexpensive carbon sources for enzyme production. The composition of the biomass upon which the bacteria grew influenced their growth, and differences in the biomass provided resulted in dissimilar enzyme production profiles. These results indicate the importance of using different biomass sources to encourage the production of specific enzymes.

2012-01-01

311

Biochars derived from various crop straws: Characterization and Cd(II) removal potential.  

PubMed

Five types of biochars prepared from four crop straws and one wood shaving at 600°C were characterized, and their sorption to Cd(II) were determined to investigate the differences in capacity to function as sorbents to heavy metals. Surface areas and pore volumes of the biochars were inversely correlated to the lignin content of raw biomass. The biochars derived from crop straws displayed more developed pore structure than wood char due to the higher lignin content of wood. Sorption capacity of the biochars to Cd(II) followed the order of corn straw>cotton straw>wheat straw>rice straw>poplar shaving, which was not strictly consistent with the surface area of the chars. The surface characteristics of chars before and after Cd(II) sorption were investigated with scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which suggested that the higher sorption of Cd(II) on corn straw chars was mainly attributed to cation exchange, surface precipitation of carbonate, and surface complexation with oxygen-containing groups. This study indicated that crop straw biochars exhibit distinct sorption capacities to heavy metals due to various surface characteristics, and thus the sorption efficiency should be carefully evaluated specific to target contaminant. PMID:24859708

Sun, Jingkuan; Lian, Fei; Liu, Zhongqi; Zhu, Lingyan; Song, Zhengguo

2014-08-01

312

Growth, carcass and meat quality characteristics of Small East African goats fed straw based diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two castrated male goats of Small East African breed (13.8kg BW, 12–18months of age) were used to evaluate the potential of using treated-wheat straw alone or in combination with grass hay as dry season feeds. Animals were allotted into four dietary treatments with eight animals per treatment for 84days. The dietary treatments were either ad libitum amount of untreated wheat

J. Safari; D. E. Mushi; L. A. Mtenga; G. C. Kifaro; L. O. Eik

2011-01-01

313

Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Certain wheat gluten proteins form large protein polymers that are extractable in 0.5% SDS only after sonication. Although there is a strong relationship between the amounts of these polymers in the flour and bread-making quality, the protein components of these polymers have not been thoroughly investigated. Results Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication. Proteins were further separated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) into monomeric and polymeric fractions and analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). When proteins in select 2-DE spots were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), overlapping spots from the different protein fractions often yielded different identifications. Most high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) partitioned into the polymer fractions, while most gliadins were found in the monomer fractions. The exceptions were alpha, gamma and omega gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues. These proteins were detected in all fractions, but comprised the largest proportion of the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. Several types of non-gluten proteins also were found in the polymer fractions, including serpins, triticins and globulins. All three types were found in the largest proportions in the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. Conclusions This is the first study to report the accumulation of gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues in the SDS-extractable glutenin polymer fraction, supporting the hypothesis that these gliadins serve as chain terminators of the polymer chains. These data make it possible to formulate hypotheses about how protein composition influences polymer size and structure and provide a foundation for future experiments aimed at determining how environment affects glutenin polymer distribution. In addition, the analysis revealed additional layers of complexity to the wheat flour proteome that should be considered when evaluating quantitative 2-DE data.

2014-01-01

314

Nutritional evaluation and shelf life studies of papads prepared from wheat-legume composite flours.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to develop papads from wheat and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic acceptability, nutritional quality, and keeping quality. Papad is a dehydrated product prepared from dhals or rice. A firm but pliable dough is made from the flours of dhals or rice with addition of suitable seasoning. It is shaped into balls, rolled out thin, dried and toasted over open fire so as to give a light, crisp product. Mung flour papads were kept as control and wheat flour, chickpea flour, and pea flour were used to supplement mung flour papads. Three different proportions (10, 20, 30%) of each flour were used to supplement Mung flour. Papads with wheat flour (10%), chickpea flour (20%), and pea flour (10%) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these papads were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Protein content significantly increased on supplementation with legume flours at all levels. Fat content was significantly higher in chickpea flour supplemented papads. Ash content varied significantly from 10.17 to 10.78% in papads. Total carbohydrates decreased significantly on supplementation with chickpea flour. Copper content increased significantly on supplementation. A significant decrease in phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor of supplemented papads was found. In vitro protein digestibility significantly increased on supplementation but a significant decrease in in vitro starch digestibility was found in supplemented papads. Storage studies showed that chickpea flour and pea flour supplemented papads can be stored safely for 60 days and wheat flour supplemented papads for 30 days both at room and refrigeration temperatures. PMID:15354789

Garg, R; Dahiya, S

2003-01-01

315

Temporal and spatial changes in cell wall composition in developing grains of wheat cv. Hereward  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of enzyme mapping, FT-IR microscopy and NMR spectroscopy was used to study temporal and spatial aspects of endosperm\\u000a cell wall synthesis and deposition in developing grain of bread wheat cv. Hereward. This confirmed previous reports that changes\\u000a in the proportions of the two major groups of cell wall polysaccharides occur, with ?-glucan accumulating earlier in development\\u000a than arabinoxylan.

G. A. Toole; G. Le Gall; I. J. Colquhoun; C. Nemeth; L. Saulnier; A. Lovegrove; T. Pellny; M. D. Wilkinson; J. Freeman; R. A. C. Mitchell; E. N. C. Mills; P. R. Shewry

2010-01-01

316

Change in wall composition of transfer and aleurone cells during wheat grain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the starchy endosperm, a specialized tissue accumulating storage material, the endosperm of wheat grain, comprises\\u000a the aleurone layer and the transfer cells next to the crease. The transfer cells, located at the ventral region of the grain,\\u000a are involved in nutrient transfer from the maternal tissues to the developing endosperm. Immunolabeling techniques, Raman\\u000a spectroscopy, and synchrotron infrared

P. Robert; F. Jamme; C. Barron; B. Bouchet; L. Saulnier; P. Dumas; F. Guillon

2011-01-01

317

Influence of Added Starch on Mixing of Dough Made with Three Wheat Flours Differing in High Molecular Weight Subunit Composition: Rheological Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(5):633-639 The effect of mixing time (6 and 20 min) and starch content were studied on doughs prepared with three wheat flours differing in high molecular weight subunit composition. Rheological measurements were performed in dynamic oscillation: frequency and strain sweeps, stress relaxation, and in large deformation viscosity measurements. The flours were diluted with starch to cover flour protein

H. Larsson; A.-C. Eliasson; E. Johansson; G. Svensson

2000-01-01

318

Characterization of variation in the lignan content and composition of winter rye, spring wheat, and spring oat.  

PubMed

To characterize the range of variation in lignan content and composition caused by genotype and environment, seven dietary lignans, i.e., 7-hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, medioresinol, and syringaresinol, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in whole-grain extracts of cereal samples collected at eight locations in Finland. In all, 28 winter rye, 73 spring wheat, and 55 spring oat samples were analyzed, representing 6, 9, and 5 cultivars, respectively. The total lignan content showed huge variations within the same cereal species: the range was 2500-6700 microg/100 g in the rye samples, 340-2270 microg/100 g in the wheat samples, and 820-2550 microg/100 g in the oat samples. The variations seemed to depend largely upon genetic differences. In rye, also environmental conditions affected the lignan content through grain size; smaller grains had significantly lower total lignan, syringaresinol, and lariciresinol content than larger grains. This study shows that varying cereal lignan concentrations reported in different studies may be, besides differences in analytical methods, largely dependent upon natural variations. PMID:19496586

Smeds, Annika I; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Tuomola, Elina; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

2009-07-01

319

Polyacrylamide and straw residue effects on irrigation furrow erosion and infiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is a highly effective erosion deterrent in furrow irrigation, but little is known about the effect of plant residues on PAM efficacy. We hypothesized that increasing plant residue in irrigation furrows may alter PAM's ability to control erosion. Furrows with 10 g (485 kg ha-') on treated area and 3o g (1490 kg ha-') wheat straw

R. D. Lentz; D. L. Bjorneberg

2003-01-01

320

Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition and corrosion measurements were conducted at a 10 MW wheat straw fired stoker boiler used for combined power and heat production. The plant experiences major problems with deposits on the heat transfer surfaces, and test probes have shown enhanced corrosion due to selective corrosion for metal temperatures above 520°C. Deposition measurements carried out at a position equal to the

Hanne Philbert Michelsen; Flemming Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Ole Hede Larsen

1998-01-01

321

Effects of compost, coal ash, and straw amendments on restoring the quality of eroded Palouse soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ridgetops in the dryland farming region of eastern Washington suffer from low productivity and poor soil quality from years of erosion. Two studies investigated the effectiveness of soil amendments in restoring soil quality. Study 1 treatments were two rates of compost and a control. Study 2 treatments were compost, coal ash, wheat straw, three rates of inorganic N, and a

Duncan Cox; David Bezdicek; Mary Fauci

2001-01-01

322

Protein Allelic Composition, Dough Rheology, and Baking Characteristics of Flour Mill Streams from Wheat Cultivars with Known and Varied Baking Qualities 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(5):720-725 Flour mill streams obtained by milling grain of 10 bread wheat cultivars grown in the Skopje region of Macedonia were analyzed for rheological and breadmaking quality characteristics and for composition of gliadins and HMW-GS. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between the composition of gluten proteins and bread- making quality, as well as

M. Menkovska; D. Knezevic; M. Ivanoski

2002-01-01

323

Study of chemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification for producing fermentable sugars from rice straw.  

PubMed

This study evaluated a cost-effective approach for the conversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars. The composition of rice straw pretreated with 1 % sulfuric acid or 1 % sodium hydroxide solution was compared to rice straw with no chemical pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification experiments on non-pretreated rice straw (NPRS), pretreated rice straw (PRS), and pretreated rice straw with acid hydrolysate (PRSAH) were conducted in a series of batch reactors. The results indicated that pretreating the rice straw with dilute acid and base increased the cellulose content from 38 % to over 50 %. During enzymatic saccharification, straight aliphatic cellulose was hydrolyzed before branched hemicellulose, and glucose was the major hydrolysis product. The glucose yield was 0.52 g glucose/g for NPRS and was comparable to the yields of 0.50 g glucose/g for PRS and 0.58 g glucose/g for PRSAH. The hydrolysis of rice straw to produce glucose can be described by a first-order reaction with a rate constant of 0.0550 d(-1) for NPRS, 0.0653 d(-1) for PRSAH, and 0.0654 d(-1) for PRS. Overall, the production of fermentable sugars from ground rice straw will be more cost effective if the straw is not pretreated with chemicals. PMID:24346765

Chen, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jih-Gaw

2014-07-01

324

Utilizing straw as a filler in thermoplastic building materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent addition to the list of composite building materials is plastic lumber. While utilizing recycled plastics as building materials promotes recycling, plastic lumber itself is a poor replacement for solid wood. Research is underway to improve the mechanical properties of wood\\/polymer composites. This report investigates the use of Willamette Valley rye grass straw as a filler in the commodity

John Simonsen

1996-01-01

325

Effect of maize straw amendment on formation and translocation of residues of methabenzthiazuron in an orthic luvisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Phenyl?U?C]methabenzthiazuron (MBT) was applied preemer?gence to winter wheat in November 1992 on two lysimeters (1 m, 1.10 m depth) containing undisturbed soil monoliths of an orthic luvisol. One lysimeter was additionally amended with non?labeled maize straw at a rate of 9 t\\/ha. In order to study the fate of the maize straw in soil a third lysimeter was amended with

H. Printz; W. Mittelstaedt; F. Führ

1995-01-01

326

Catalytic effects of Fe, Al and Si on the formation of NO X precursors and HCl during straw pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic effects of iron, aluminum or silicon on the formation of NOX precursors (HCN, NH3 and HNCO) and HCl during wheat straw pyrolysis were studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TG) coupled with a Fourier\\u000a transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer in argon atmosphere. The results show that the presence of iron, aluminum or silicon\\u000a decreases conversion of straw-N into NH3 with

Qiangqiang Ren; Changsui Zhao; Xin Wu; Cai Liang; Xiaoping Chen; Jiezhong Shen; Zheng Wang

2010-01-01

327

Alkylresorcinols in wheat and rye flour and bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkylresorcinol (AR) content and relative homologue composition were determined in Norwegian flours and bread. The following average values for total AR content (?g\\/gdm) were found: wholegrain wheat flour available only to bakers (490) and to both consumers and bakers (710), refined wheat flour (36), wheat bran (3625), wholegrain spelt wheat flour (650), refined spelt wheat flour (80), wholegrain rye

Annica A. M. Andersson; Per Åman; Margareta Wandel; Wenche Frølich

2010-01-01

328

Pretreatment by microwave\\/alkali of rice straw and its enzymic hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combination pretreatment of rice straw using microwave and alkali and its enzymic hydrolysis were investigated and compared with the alkali-alone pretreated process. First, the effect of microwave power and pretreatment time on the weight loss and composition of rice straw was examined. The results show that higher microwave power with shorter pretreatment time and the lower microwave power with longer

Shengdong Zhu; Yuanxin Wu; Ziniu Yu; Jintao Liao; Yan Zhang

2005-01-01

329

Species Composition and Diversity of Parasitoids and Hyper-Parasitoids in Different Wheat Agro-Farming Systems  

PubMed Central

Insect communities depend on both their local environment and features of the surrounding habitats. Diverse plant communities may enhance the abundance and species diversity of local natural enemies, which is possible due to a higher abundance and species diversity in complex landscapes. This hypothesis was tested using cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids by comparing 18 spring wheat fields, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), in structurally-complex landscapes (dominated by semi-natural habitat, > 50%, n = 9) and structurally-simple landscapes dominated by arable landscape (dominated by crop land, > 80%, n = 9). The agricultural landscape structure had significant effects on the number of parasitoid and hyper-parasitoid species, as 26 species (17 parasitoids and 9 hyper-parasitoids) were found in the complex landscapes and 21 were found in the simple landscapes (14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids). Twenty-one species occurred in both landscape types, including 14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids species. The species diversity of parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids were significantly different between the complex and simple landscapes. In addition, arable fields in structurally-simple agricultural landscapes with little semi-natural habitats could support a lower diversity of cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids than structurally-complex landscapes. These findings suggest that cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids need to find necessary resources in structurally-complex landscapes, and generalizations are made concerning the relationship between landscape composition and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Overall, abundance, species richness, and species diversity increased with increasing plant diversity and landscape complexity in spring wheat fields and increasing amounts of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape.

Zhao, Zi-hua; Liu, Jun-He; He, Da-Han; Guan, Xiao-qin; Liu, Wen-Hui

2013-01-01

330

The Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Greek Traditional Wheat Sourdoughs Is Reflected in Both Composition and Metabolite Formation  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and Weissella cibaria. This consortium seems to be unique for the Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs studied. Strains of the species W. cibaria have not been isolated from sourdoughs previously. No Lactobacillus pontis or Lactobacillus panis strains were found. An L. brevis-like isolate (ACA-DC 3411 t1) could not be identified properly and might be a new sourdough LAB species. In addition, fermentation capabilities associated with the LAB detected have been studied. During laboratory fermentations, all heterofermentative sourdough LAB strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. Mannitol was produced from fructose that served as an additional electron acceptor. In addition to glucose, almost all of the LAB isolates fermented maltose, while fructose as the sole carbohydrate source was fermented by all sourdough LAB tested except L. sanfranciscensis. Two of the L. paralimentarius isolates tested did not ferment maltose; all strains were homofermentative. In the presence of both maltose and fructose in the medium, induction of hexokinase activity occurred in all sourdough LAB species mentioned above, explaining why no glucose accumulation was found extracellularly. No maltose phosphorylase activity was found either. These data produced a variable fermentation coefficient and a unique sourdough metabolite composition.

De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

2002-01-01

331

Impact of hydrothermal pre-treatment to chemical composition, enzymatic digestibility and spatial distribution of cell wall polymers.  

PubMed

The effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, microscopic structure and enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw was studied. Wheat straw was pretreated with increasing severity to obtain series of samples with altered chemistry and structure. The hydrothermal pretreatment caused solubilisation of arabinoxylan and phenolic acids and their dimers in a temperature dependent manner with minor effects on the cellulose and Klason lignin content. In the cell wall level, the pretreatment intensified staining of cellulose and relocalised xylan in the cell walls. The distribution, properties and content of the cell wall phenolic compounds was altered as observed with phloroglucinol and autofluorescence imaging. In the enzymatic hydrolysis, the highest yields were obtained from the samples with a low xylan and diferulate content. On the cell wall structural level, the sample with the highest digestibility was observed to have intensified cellulose staining, possibly reflecting the increased accessibility of cellulose. PMID:23612175

Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Marjamaa, Kaisa; Merali, Zara; Käsper, Andres; de Bot, Peter; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina; Waldron, Keith; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja

2013-06-01

332

Influence of site and variety on starch, hemicellulose and cellulose composition of wheats and their digestibilities by adult cockerels  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. It has been shown that both the variety of wheat and the environment under which growth took place influenced the quantities of starch and cell wall carbohydrate contents of wheat.2. The different varieties of wheat investigated contained different proportions of water?soluble to water?insoluble hemicelluloses.3. By comparison of the arabinose to xylose ratios it was concluded that water?soluble and insoluble

Margaret Longstaff; J. M. McNab

1986-01-01

333

Proteome Approach to the Characterisation of Protein Composition in the Developing and Mature Wheat-grain Endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proteomic approach was used for the analysis and characterisation of wheat-grain endosperm proteins at a developmental stage (17 days post-anthesis) of the wheat cultivar Wyuna. This involved the extraction, solubilisation and subsequent two-dimensional separation of total wheat-grain endosperm proteins. About 1300 polypeptides were resolved. Separation in the first dimension was performed using isoelectric focusing across two pH ranges: pH

D. J. Skylas; J. A. Mackintosh; S. J. Cordwell; D. J. Basseal; B. J. Walsh; J. Harry; C. Blumenthal; L. Copeland; C. W. Wrigley; W. Rathmell

2000-01-01

334

Effect of fly-ash application on yield and nutrient composition of rice, wheat and on pH and available nutrient status of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fly-ash application on dry-matter yield and nutrient composition of 60 day-old rice and wheat plants and on pH and available nutrient status of soils. Fly-ash was collected from an old deposit of a thermal power plant and was mixed with seven soils (varying in texture and CaCO3) each at 0,

R. Sikka; B. D. Kansal

1995-01-01

335

Characterization of photosynthetic pigment composition, photosystem II photochemistry and thermal energy dissipation during leaf senescence of wheat plants grown in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic pigment composition and photo- system II (PSII) photochemistry were characterized during the flag leaf senescence of wheat plants grown in the field. During leaf senescence, neo- xanthin and b-carotene decreased concomitantly with chlorophyll, whereas lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments were less affected, leading to increases in lutein\\/chlorophyll and xanthophyll cycle pigments\\/chlorophyll ratios. The chlorophyll a\\/b ratio also increased. With

Congming Lu; Qingtao Lu; Jianhua Zhang; Tingyun Kuang

2001-01-01

336

The Influence of Recovery Temperature on the Effects of a Brief Heat Shock on Wheat. III. Grain Protein Composition and Dough Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, controlled-environment conditions were used to examine the main effects and possible interactions of moderately high (20–32°C) and very high (>32°C) temperature treatments, during grain filling, on wheat protein composition and dough mixing behaviour at maturity. In particular, we wished to examine whether the deleterious effects of a short exposure to very high temperature (40°C) could be compensated

P. J. Stone; P. W. Gras; M. E. Nicolas

1997-01-01

337

Microbial community composition is consistent across anaerobic digesters processing wheat-based fuel ethanol waste streams.  

PubMed

Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted on byproducts from dry-grind wheat-based ethanol plants amended with feedlot manure at two input ratios. Whole stillage (WST), thin stillage (TST) and wet cake (WCK) were tested alone and with 1:1 and 2:1 ratios (VS basis) of byproduct:feedlot manure in bench-scale batch reactors. The addition of manure increased both the rate and consistency of methane production in triplicate reactors. In addition, digesters co-digesting thin stillage and cattle manure at 1:1 and 2:1 stillage:manure produced 125% and 119% expected methane based on the biomethane potential of each substrate digested individually. Bacterial community analysis using universal target amplification and pyrosequencing indicated there was a numerically dominant core of 42 bacteria that was universally present in the reactors regardless of input material. A smaller-scale analysis of the archaeal community showed that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens were present in significant quantities. PMID:24534794

Town, Jennifer; Annand, Holly; Pratt, Dyan; Dumonceaux, Tim; Fonstad, Terrance

2014-04-01

338

Pollution control of swine manure and straw by conversion to chaetomium cellulolyticum SCP feed  

SciTech Connect

Swine manure has a very high pollution potential and obnoxious odor. Large farms particularly are confronted with a manure disposal problem since environmentally acceptable solutions are now required by government regulations. Swine manure was found to be a good source of supplementary nutrients to ferment wheat straw into single-cell protein (SCP) with Chaetomium cellulolyticum when 0.13 g (NH4)2SO4/g solid was used as an additional source of nitrogen. In batch fermentations, inhibitory effects, possibly due to solubles released from the straw during alkali or acid pretreatment, were over come by starting the fermentation at about pH 7.0 and then reducing it to 5.0 during growth. An overall protein productivity of up to 66 mg/L h was obtained from a slurry mixture of 1% w/v solids of manure and straw. This compares favorably with 99 mg/Lh when manure was fermented with glucose instead of straw as the main carbon source. A high protein productivity of 200 mg/L h was obtained from a slurry mixture containing anaerobically prefermented swine manure liquor and 1.5% w/v solids from straw. The final products of the manure and straw fermentations contained 25-30% DW crude protein and 6-20% DW cellulose and the materials were free of the original obnoxious odor and undesirable microbial contamination. (Refs. 17).

Moo-Young, M.; Chahal, D.S.; Stickney, B.

1981-11-01

339

Effect of heat and drought stress on the structure and composition of arabinoxylan and ?-glucan in wheat grain.  

PubMed

The effects of heat (H), drought (D) and H+D (from 12th day after heading for 15 days) on the dietary fiber content and composition (arabinoxylan (AX) and ?-glucan) of three winter wheat varieties (Plainsman V, Mv Magma and Fatima 2) were determined. Results showed that H and D stress decreased the TKW, the ?-glucan contents of the seeds and the quantity of the DP3+DP4 units, while the protein and AX contents increased. The highest amounts of AX and proteins were in the H+D stressed samples with heat stress also increasing the water extractability (WE) of the AX. However, while the content of AX content was generally increased by all stresses, drought stress had negative effect on the AX content of the drought tolerant Plainsman V. Fatima 2 behaved similarly to Plainsman V as regards to its drought tolerance, but was very sensitive to heat stress, while Mv Magma was the most resistant to heat stress. PMID:24507319

Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Balla, Krisztina; Láng, László; Bed?, Zoltán; Veisz, Ottó; Shewry, Peter R

2014-02-15

340

Novel insights into the composition, variation, organization, and expression of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family in common wheat.  

PubMed

Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), encoded by a complex multigene family, play an important role in the processing quality of wheat flour. Although members of this gene family have been identified in several wheat varieties, the allelic variation and composition of LMW-GS genes in common wheat are not well understood. In the present study, using the LMW-GS gene molecular marker system and the full-length gene cloning method, a comprehensive molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes was conducted in a representative population, the micro-core collections (MCC) of Chinese wheat germplasm. Generally, >15 LMW-GS genes were identified from individual MCC accessions, of which 4-6 were located at the Glu-A3 locus, 3-5 at the Glu-B3 locus, and eight at the Glu-D3 locus. LMW-GS genes at the Glu-A3 locus showed the highest allelic diversity, followed by the Glu-B3 genes, while the Glu-D3 genes were extremely conserved among MCC accessions. Expression and sequence analysis showed that 9-13 active LMW-GS genes were present in each accession. Sequence identity analysis showed that all i-type genes present at the Glu-A3 locus formed a single group, the s-type genes located at Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci comprised a unique group, while high-diversity m-type genes were classified into four groups and detected in all Glu-3 loci. These results contribute to the functional analysis of LMW-GS genes and facilitate improvement of bread-making quality by wheat molecular breeding programmes. PMID:23536608

Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Jianghua; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Tong, Yiping; Cui, Dangqun; Zhang, Aimin

2013-04-01

341

Effects of Temperature and Nitrogen Nutrition on the Grain Composition of Winter Wheat: Effects on Gliadin Content and Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two major environmental factors, temperature and nitrogen supply, on grain weight, protein content and especially gliadin content and composition were studied with a new sequential extraction method coupled with RP-HPLC separations. The thermal effects after anthesis were studied at canopy level in climate transparent tunnels in 1993, 1994, 1996 and 1997 under natural light. The nitrogen effects

C. Daniel; E. Triboi

2000-01-01

342

Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus  

PubMed Central

The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health.

Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

2014-01-01

343

The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.  

PubMed

A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains. PMID:23870025

Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

2013-08-01

344

Chemical composition of teff (Eragrostis tef) compared with that of wheat, barley and grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of teff, analyzed from uncontaminated seeds, revealed the superiority of the species in mineral nutritive\\u000a value. Teff’s exceedingly high iron and calcium content was confirmed. The high iron content of teff reported by the Ethiopia\\u000a Nutrition Survey must have been due to certain inherent factors of the species, not only a result of contamination. The magnitude\\u000a of

Melak H. Mengesha

1966-01-01

345

Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P < 0.001), confirmed by fasting plasma alkylrecorsinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05) in parallel to a 53% decrease in the alkylrecorsinol concentration (P < 0.001) in the group consuming refined wheat breads. In this group, the abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, B. plebeius, and Prevotella tannerae decreased, whereas that of bacteria related to Collinsella and members of the Clostridium clusters IV and XI increased. In a multivariate regression analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides spp. was best explained by different fat compounds among dietary variables, whereas the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber. Our results indicate that the quality of grains has a minor effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat. PMID:23514765

Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

2013-05-01

346

The Effect of Variety and Growing Conditions on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat for Broilers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG), in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05) affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F) wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F) wheats. An increase (p<0.1) of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the low seed rate of 40 compared to 640 seeds/m2. It was concluded that the type of wheat sample and environmental growing conditions significantly affects bird performance when fed wheat-based diets.

Ball, M. E. E.; Owens, B.; McCracken, K. J.

2013-01-01

347

Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200°C for 5 minutes and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of

V. P. Puri; G. R. Pearce

1986-01-01

348

Evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are fungal plant pathogens producing toxic secondary metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV). In Luxembourg, the Fusarium species composition isolated from symptomatic winter wheat heads was dominated by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) between the years 2009 and 2012, except for 2011, when Fusarium culmorum strains (genetic NIV chemotype) dominated the pathogen complex. Previous reports indicated that F. graminearum sensu stricto (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) was also most frequently isolated from randomly sampled winter wheat kernels including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic kernels in 2007 and 2008. The annual precipitation (average of 10 weather stations scattered across the country) decreased continuously from 924.31mm in 2007 over 917.15mm in 2008, to 843.38mm in 2009, 736.24mm in 2010, and 575.09mm in 2011. In 2012, the annual precipitation increased again to 854.70mm. Hardly any precipitation was recorded around the time of wheat anthesis in the years 2010 and 2011, whereas precipitation levels >50mm within the week preceding anthesis plus the week post anthesis were observed in the other years. The shift to genetic NIV chemotype F. culmorum strains in 2011 was accompanied by a very minor elevation of average NIV contents (2.9ngg(-1)) in the grain. Our data suggest that high NIV levels in Luxembourgish winter wheat are at present rather unlikely, because the indigenous F. culmorum strains with the genetic NIV chemotype seem to be outcompeted under humid in vivo conditions by F. graminearum DON producing strains on the one hand and seem to be inhibited - even though to a lower extent than DON producing strains - under dry in vivo conditions on the other hand. PMID:24859190

Beyer, Marco; Pogoda, Friederike; Pallez, Marine; Lazic, Joëlle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Pasquali, Matias

2014-07-16

349

Nutrient composition of selected wheats and wheat products. VI. Distribution of manganese, copper, nickel, zinc, magnesium, lead, tin, cadmium, chromium, and selenium as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium and eight trace mineral elements, manganese, copper, nickel, zinc, lead, tin, cadmium, and chromium, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in 11 known wheats or wheat blends, 20 commercially prepared flours from these wheats, and 25 specially prepared products from the flours. The same minerals were determined in ten consumer products from ten different cities. There was significant variation

E. G. Zook; F. E. Greene; E. R. Morris

1970-01-01

350

Mobile Plant for Straw Briquetting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mobile plant should according to this investigation be able to briquet 600 tons of straw each season which should be enough for about 20 ordinary farms. The costs to make briquettes should be 1,300 - 1,600 SEK per m/sup 3/ oil equivalent including the s...

C. Nilsson L. Westgren

1986-01-01

351

The effect of drying temperature on the composition of biomass  

SciTech Connect

The compositional quality of different lignocellulosic feedstocks influences their performance and potential demand at a biorefinery. Many analytical protocols for determining the composition or performance characteristics of biomass involve a drying step, where the drying temperature can vary depending on the specific protocol. To get reliable data, it is important to determine the correct drying temperature to vaporize the water without negatively impacting the compositional quality of the biomass. A comparison of drying temperature between 45 degrees C and 100 degrees C was performed using wheat straw and corn stover. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were taken of the dried samples and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Carbohydrates were analyzed using quantitative saccharification to determine sugar degradation. Analysis of variance was used to determine if there was a significant difference between drying at different temperatures. PCA showed an obvious separation in samples dried at different temperatures due to sample water content. However, quantitative saccharification data shows, within a 95% confidence interval, that there is no significant difference in sugar content for drying temperatures up to 100 degrees C for wheat straw and corn stover.

Houghton, T.P.; Stevens, D.N.; Wright, C.T.; Radtke, C.W.

2008-05-01

352

Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation  

PubMed Central

Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent), biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea) as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4) was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

Feng, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Guo, Yan; Yang, Gaihe; Xi, Jianchao; Ren, Guangxin

2012-01-01

353

Changes in the material characteristics of maize straw during the pretreatment process of methanation.  

PubMed

Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, "result" microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent), biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea) as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4) was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw. PMID:23118505

Feng, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Guo, Yan; Yang, Gaihe; Xi, Jianchao; Ren, Guangxin

2012-01-01

354

Comparison of seven chemical pretreatments of corn straw for improving methane yield by anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Agriculture straw is considered a renewable resource that has the potential to contribute greatly to bioenergy supplies. Chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion can increase the anaerobic digestibility of agriculture straw. The present study investigated the effects of seven chemical pretreatments on the composition and methane yield of corn straw to assess their effectiveness of digestibility. Four acid reagents (H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, and CH3COOH) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% (w/w) and three alkaline reagents (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and NH3·H2O) at concentrations of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) were used for the pretreatments. All pretreatments were effective in the biodegradation of the lignocellulosic straw structure. The straw, pretreated with 3% H2O2 and 8% Ca(OH)2, acquired the highest methane yield of 216.7 and 206.6 mL CH4 g VS -1 in the acid and alkaline pretreatments, which are 115.4% and 105.3% greater than the untreated straw. H2O2 and Ca(OH)2 can be considered as the most favorable pretreatment methods for improving the methane yield of straw because of their effectiveness and low cost. PMID:24695485

Song, Zilin; Gaiheyang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Liao, Yinzhang

2014-01-01

355

Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from a rice-wheat crop rotation under wheat residue incorporation and no-tillage practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop residue incorporation and no-tillage are recommended as management practices and are being increasingly adopted in the agricultural sector. However, few studies have assessed the extent to which these practices integrate annual carbon and nitrogen trace gas fluxes and grain yield. We investigated the effect of wheat straw incorporation and no-tillage on nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes from a rice-wheat system in southeast China, using year-round field measurements. Compared to the treatment with synthetic nitrogen fertilizers alone, the wheat straw incorporation reduced the N2O emissions by 38% (P < 0.05) and increased the CH4 emissions by 74% (P < 0.05) during the annual rotation cycle. Compared to the conventional tillage, no-tillage prior to wheat sowing enhanced the N2O emissions by an average of 61% (P < 0.05), irrespective of residue incorporation. The CH4-C emissions that were induced by the wheat straw comprised 6% of the residue-carbon incorporated during the rice season. As a result of the stimulating effect of wheat straw incorporation on CH4 fluxes, the annual aggregate emissions of N2O and CH4 with straw incorporation (10.7 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 or 725 kg CO2-eq Mg-1 grain yield) were usually higher than those with no residue incorporation (7.6 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 or 545 kg CO2-eq Mg-1 grain yield), irrespective of the tillage practice. Nevertheless, the changes in greenhouse gas emissions are notably only the transient response of the rice-wheat system after crop residue incorporation and tillage conversion, which may not necessarily represent equilibrium conditions for this agro-ecosystem over the long term.

Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Xie, Baohua; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Zhu, Jianguo

2013-11-01

356

Flocculation of high purity wheat straw soda lignin.  

PubMed

In industrial process, acidification causes non-sulfonated lignin insolubility. The flocculants poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) and bovine blood (BB) also caused lignin insolubility while cationic polyacrylamide, chitosan, and soy protein PF 974 were ineffective. Turbidity determined optimal flocculant, but turbidity magnitude with BB was greater than expected. pDADMAC caused negative lignin Zeta potential to became positive, but BB-lignin Zeta potential was always negative. Insoluble lignin did not gravity sediment, and flocculant-lignin mixtures were centrifuged. Pellet and supernatant dry mass and corrected spectroscopic results were in good agreement for optimal pDADMAC and BB. Spectroscopy showed 87-92% loss of supernatant lignin. Nitrogen analysis showed BB concentrated in the pellet until the pellet became saturated with BB. Subtracting ash and BB mass from pellet and supernatant mass confirmed optimal BB. Low levels of alum caused increased lignin flocculation at lower levels of pDADMAC and BB, but alum did not affect optimal flocculant. PMID:24326211

Piazza, G J; Lora, J H; Garcia, R A

2014-01-01

357

Development of Low-Cost WheatStraw Insulation Board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg\\/m (5 to 10 lb\\/ft), and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m·K\\/W [R3

L. K. Norford; L. R. Glicksman; H. S. Harvey; J. A. Charlson

1999-01-01

358

Development of low-cost wheat-straw insulation board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg\\/m³, and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m·K\\/W [R3 to R4 per inch

L. K. Norford; L. R. Glicksman; H. S. Jr. Harvey; J. A. Charlson

2000-01-01

359

Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen

Nóra Szijártó; Emma Horan; Junhua Zhang; Terhi Puranen; Matti Siika-aho; Liisa Viikari

2011-01-01

360

Stereoselective transformation of triadimefon to metabolite triadimenol in wheat and soil under field conditions.  

PubMed

Racemic triadimefon (TF) was applied to wheat and soil at three sites (Beijing, Huaibei, and Zhengzhou in China) under open field conditions. Its enantioselective degradation and stereoselective transformation to the major metabolite, triadimenol (TN), in wheat straw, grain and soil were investigated. At all sites, the degradation of TF enantiomers in straw and soil followed first-order kinetics. In soil from Beijing and Zhengzhou R-(-)-TF was preferentially degraded; however, preferential enantioselective degradations were not recorded in soil from Huaibei or in the straw from all sites. There were noticeable differences in the stereoselective formation of TN stereoisomers in all straw and soil samples. TN diastereomer A with high animal toxicity was preferentially produced via a reductive reaction in straw. In contrast, diastereomer B, was preferential in soil across the experimental period. Different TN concentrations were found in the order of SR-(-)-TN>RR-(+)-TN>RS-(+)-TN>SS-(-)-TN in straw, and RR-(+)-TN>SS-(-)-TN>SR-(-)-TN>RS-(+)-TN in soil. Neither TF nor TN was found in wheat grain at harvest. Because of differences in degradation, formation, and toxicity, the characterization of enantiomers and stereoisomers in this study contributes toward comprehensively assessing the fate and risk of chiral agrochemicals in the environment and food. PMID:23876258

Liang, Hongwu; Li, Li; Qiu, Jing; Li, Wei; Yang, Shuming; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Lihong

2013-09-15

361

Wheat genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat is the largest produced grain crop world-wide and has been extensively studied for a wide range of agronomic traits located across the genome. Its large chromosomes and the capacity of the polyploid genome to tolerate the addition or loss of chromosomes facilitated a fast progress in early wheat genetics using cytogenetic techniques. However, these same characteristics have limited the

Evans S Lagudah; Jorge Dubcovsky; Wayne Powell

2001-01-01

362

Cultivation of Pleurotus florida mushroom on rice straw and biogas production from the spent straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw, used as a substrate for three successive crops of the fruiting bodies ofPleurotus florida having 22% protein, had less cellulose but more nitrogen and ash than the original straw.In vitro digestibility using bacterial cellulase released 4.3-fold more reducing sugars per g cellulose from spent straw than from plain straw. There was 8-fold increase in biogas production from the

V. Mehta; J. K. Gupta; S. C. Kaushal

1990-01-01

363

[Spectral analysis of dissolved organic matter derived from rice straw after chemical treatment].  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to study the chemical composition of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) derived from rice straw in the hydrolysis process with a dilute complex acid solution. The results obtained are as follows. FTIR spectra could indicate the changes of DOM during the hydrolysis process of rice straw. With the progress of rice straw hydrolysis, methyl, methylene, aromatic compounds and carbohydrates decreased, most of aliphatic compounds were oxidized to CO2 and H2O, and others were turned into carbonates. Most of the organic silicon was hydrolyzed into inorganic silicon. The proteins, amino acids and other nitrogen were hydrolyzed to NH4+. All the recalcitrant fractions of rice straw, such as hemi-cellulose, cellulose and silicon sharply decreased during the process of chemical treatment. The results obtained in this paper proposed that the changes of DOM of rice straw in the hydrolysis could be an indication in the changes of chemical composition of rice straw during the hydrolyzation, and FTIR, UV and NMR were good methods to study the changes in the structure of organic compounds. PMID:15856553

Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yong; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Yu, Qing; Zhou, Zhi-Ping

2005-02-01

364

PCDD/F emissions from burning wheat and rice field residue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first known values for emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from combustion of agricultural field biomass. Wheat and rice straw stubble collected from two western US states were tested in a field burn simulation to determine emission factors. The resulting emission factor was approximately 0.5 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg burned for both sources. When coupled with published agricultural data on crop residue burning, about 1 g TEQ/year can be expected from wheat and rice straw residue burning, making this an apparently minor source of PCDDs/Fs in the United States.

Gullett, Brian; Touati, Abderrahmane

365

Environmentally-induced changes in protein composition in developing grains of wheat are related to changes in total protein content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) nutrition, post-anthesis temperature and drought-induced changes in the kinetics of accumu- lation of dry mass, total grain N and protein fractions (albumins-globulins, amphiphils, gliadins, and gluten- ins) contents were examined for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crops were grown in con- trolled environment tunnels in 1994 and 1998. In 1994, five post-anthesis temperatures averaging from 15-25 ?C were

Eugene Triboi; Pierre Martre; Anne-Marie Triboi

2003-01-01

366

Phenolic acid composition of sprouted wheats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and their antioxidant activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic acid profiles of flours from two Canadian wheat classes, Canadian Western Red Spring (CWRS) and Canadian Western Amber Durum (CWAD), were investigated using two different extraction mediums and analysed on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system at different degrees of sprout damage. A sound (non-sprouted) control sample as well as two different sprouted sub-samples, derived from different germination

Pham Van Hung; David W. Hatcher; Wendy Barker

2011-01-01

367

Changes in Leaf Morphology and Composition with Future Increases in CO 2 and Temperature Revisited: Wheat in Field Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether leaf morphology is altered by future increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature has been reexamined over 3 years in wheat grown in field chambers at two levels of nitrogen supply. Flag\\u000a leaf fresh and dry mass, area, volume, and ratios of these parameters, as well as the contents of water, chlorophyll, nonstructural\\u000a carbohydrates, and nitrogen compounds have been determined at

Elena Gutiérrez; Diego Gutiérrez; Rosa Morcuende; Angel L. Verdejo; Svetla Kostadinova; Rafael Martinez-Carrasco; Pilar Pérez

2009-01-01

368

Influence of ligninolytic enzymes on straw saccharification during fungal pretreatment.  

PubMed

Solid state and submerged fermentations in the presence of white-rot basidiomycetes (Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma resinaceum, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor and basidiomycete Euc-1) and the litter-decomposing basidiomycete Lepista nuda were evaluated as a pretreatment to increase enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Enzymatic hydrolysis of holocellulose after solid state pretreatment showed a significant (P<0.05) increase of saccharification process for T. versicolor, Euc-1, G. resinaceum and I. lacteus, being T. versicolor (strain Tv2) the best one with a sugar yield increase of 91% compared with untreated straw. In submerged medium the pretreatment with I. lacteus, Euc-1 and P. chrysosporium enhanced saccharification but at a lesser extent. Covariance analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase) and saccharification increase. Results showed that only the presence of lignin peroxidase during pretreatment can lead to a significant (P<0.05) increase in the saccharification yield. PMID:22406100

Pinto, Paula A; Dias, Albino A; Fraga, Irene; Marques, Guilhermina; Rodrigues, Miguel A M; Colaço, Jorge; Sampaio, Ana; Bezerra, Rui M F

2012-05-01

369

Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150 g), Leucaena (200 or 400 g) or Sesbania (200 or 400 g). The animals

R. J. Kaitho; A. Tegegne; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J Van Bruchem; J. M. Arts

1998-01-01

370

A Comparison between Prolamellar Bodies and Prothylakoid Membranes of Etioplasts of Dark-Grown Wheat Concerning Lipid and Polypeptide Composition 1  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present investigation was to find factors critical for the co-existence of prolamellar bodies and prothylakoids in etioplasts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Starke II). The lipid composition of the prolamellar body and prothylakoid fractions was qualitatively similar. However, the molar ratio of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol to digalactosyl diacylglycerol was higher in the prolamellar body fraction (1.6 ± 0.1), as was the lipid content on a protein basis. Protochlorophyllide was present in both fractions. The dominating protein of the prolamellar body fraction was protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. This protein was present also in prothylakoid fractions. The other major protein of the prothylakoid fraction was the coupling factor 1, subunit of the chloroplast ATPase. From the lipid and protein data, we conclude that prolamellar bodies are formed when monogalactosyl diacylglycerol is present in larger amounts than can be stabilized into planar bilayer prothylakoid membranes by lamellar lipids or proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Selstam, Eva; Sandelius, Anna Stina

1984-01-01

371

Shifts of functional gene representation in wheat rhizosphere microbial communities under elevated ozone.  

PubMed

Although the influence of ozone (O(3)) on plants has been well studied in agroecosystems, little is known about the effect of elevated O(3) (eO(3)) on soil microbial functional communities. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to investigate the functional composition, and structure of rhizosphere microbial communities of Yannong 19 (O(3)-sensitive) and Yangmai 16 (O(3)-relatively sensitive) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under eO(3). Compared with ambient O(3) (aO(3)), eO(3) led to an increase in soil pH and total carbon (C) percentages in grain and straw of wheat plants, and reduced grain weight and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Based on GeoChip hybridization signal intensities, although the overall functional structure of rhizosphere microbial communities did not significantly change by eO(3) or cultivars, the results showed that the abundance of specific functional genes involved in C fixation and degradation, nitrogen (N) fixation, and sulfite reduction did significantly (P<0.05) alter in response to eO(3) and/or wheat cultivars. Also, Yannong 19 appeared to harbor microbial functional communities in the rhizosphere more sensitive in response to eO(3) than Yangmai 16. Additionally, canonical correspondence analysis suggested that the functional structure of microbial community involved in C cycling was largely shaped by soil and plant properties including pH, DOC, microbial biomass C, C/N ratio and grain weight. This study provides new insight into our understanding of the influence of eO(3) and wheat cultivars on soil microbial communities. PMID:23151639

Li, Xinyu; Deng, Ye; Li, Qi; Lu, Caiyan; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

2013-03-01

372

Bioethanol production from rice straw: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw is an attractive lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production since it is one of the most abundant renewable resources. It has several characteristics, such as high cellulose and hemicelluloses content that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. But there occur several challenges and limitations in the process of converting rice straw to ethanol. The presence of high ash

Parameswaran Binod; Raveendran Sindhu; Reeta Rani Singhania; Surender Vikram; Lalitha Devi; Satya Nagalakshmi; Noble Kurien; Rajeev K. Sukumaran; Ashok Pandey

2010-01-01

373

[Composition and potential contribution of iron, calcium and zinc of bread and pasta made with wheat and amaranth flours].  

PubMed

Amaranth, a traditional american crop that is nowadays given renewed importance, has good food potential value. The minerals contributed by the grain are quantitatively important. However, as the flour is obtained by total grinding of the grain, this process leads to the presence of anti-nutritional components, such as fitates, and therefore, the evaluation of the actual availability of the minerals of nutritional interest becomes necessary. The process of bread fermentation, plus the addition of fitases and enhancers of mineral availability such as citric and ascorbic acid, might improve mineral bioavailability. The objective of this work was to assess protein, ash, lipids and total dietary fiber content and evaluate the concentration and dialyzability of Fe, Zn and Ca (as mineral bioavailability indicator) in bread and pasta 100% wheat, and bread and pasta obtained by replacing 20% wheat flour (WF) with whole amaranth flour (WAF). Ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and fitase were used as mineral bioavailability enhancers. The potential contribution of each mineral (PC) was calculated as each mineral concentration times its dialyzability. In 80:20 bread an increase of total dietary fiber and minerals, compared to 100% wheat products was observed. A maximum FePC in 80:20 bread was obtained with CA and fitase (0.55mg%). In pasta, the maximum effect was observed with CA (0.07 mg%). The CaPC was maximum in 80:20 pasta with CA (16.72 mg%). The greatest ZnPC was found in 80:20 bread with CA and fitase (0.40 mg%). The introduction of the WAF in fermented baked products with addition of CA and fitase allows to obtain nutritional advantages. PMID:17824202

Dyner, Luis; Drago, Silvina R; Piñeiro, Adriana; Sánchez, Hugo; González, Rolando; Villaamil, Edda; Valencia, Mirta E

2007-03-01

374

Dissipation and residue of bifenthrin in wheat under field conditions.  

PubMed

Field trials were carried out to investigate the dissipation and residue levels of bifenthrin in wheat. After extraction with acetonitrile, the samples were cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The half-lives of bifenthrin in wheat seedlings ranged from 2.4 to 10.5 days. At harvest time, the terminal residues of bifenthrin were below the maximum residue limit (0.5 mg/kg) set by Codex Alimentarius Committee or European Union in wheat grain, which suggested that the use of this pesticide was safe for humans. However, the relatively high residue levels of bifenthrin in wheat straw should be paid attention to. PMID:23212890

You, Xiangwei; Jiang, Naiwen; Liu, Fengmao; Liu, Congyun; Wang, Suli

2013-02-01

375

Effects of establishment method and fall stocking rate of wheat pasture on forage mass, forage chemical composition, and performance of growing steers.  

PubMed

Stocking rate is a fundamental variable for managing pastures, and there is a distinct relationship between stocking rate and animal performance for each forage type. This research was conducted to determine the effects of fall stocking rate (SR) and method of establishment of wheat pasture planted into dedicated crop fields on animal performance during the fall and subsequent spring. There was a factorial arrangement of tillage methods used in the establishment of wheat pasture and fall stocking rates. Tillage treatments included 1) CT, seed sown into a prepared seedbed, 2) RT, a single pass with a light disk followed by broadcasting of seed, or 3) NT, direct seeding into the undisturbed stubble of the grazed-out wheat pasture from the previous year. The fixed SR during the fall were 1.9, 2.5, and 3.7 growing beef steers (Bos taurus L.)/ha. In the spring all pastures were grazed at the same fixed SR by steers for graze out. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS as a randomized complete block design with field as the experimental unit and year as the block. Forage mass, forage nutritive composition, and animal performance during the fall or spring were not affected (P ? 0.14) by tillage method. During the fall grazing season, with increasing SR there were linear (P < 0.01) decreases in BW of steers upon removal from pasture, BW gain per steer, and ADG, whereas grazing-day per hectare and BW gain per hectare increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing SR. The carryover effects of fall SR into the spring grazing season decreased (P< 0.01) grazing-day per hectare and tended (P ? 0.09) to produce quadratic changes in BW upon removal from pasture and BW gain per hectare. Across the fall and spring grazing seasons, grazing-day per hectare increased linearly (P < 0.01) with greater SR, and BW gain per hectare increased quadratically (P = 0.02) with increased fall SR. A tillage treatment by fall SR interaction (P = 0.10) indicates that although there was no difference (P ? 0.12) due to tillage treatment in BW gain per hectare at 1.9 or 2.5 SR, NT fields produced (P ? 0.04) more BW gain per hectare than CT or RT at the 3.7 SR. Although increasing SR of growing steers leads to reduced animal performance in the fall and reduced carrying capacity in the spring, NT appears to be capable of withstanding greater fall SR with less impact on total production per hectare than CT or RT. PMID:22585811

Morgan, M S; Beck, P A; Hess, T; Hubbell, D S; Gadberry, M S

2012-09-01

376

Physicochemical Characterization of Rice Straw Pretreated with Sodium Hydroxide in the Solid State for Enhancing Biogas Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogas yield of rice straw during anaerobic digestion can be substantially increased through solid-state sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment. This study was conducted to explore the mechanisms of biogas yield enhancement. The chemical compositions of the pretreated rice straw were first analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas permeation chromatography

Yanfeng He; Yunzhi Pang; Yanping Liu; Xiujin Li; Kuisheng Wang

2008-01-01

377

Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.  

PubMed

Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg?¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg?¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg?¹ dw). PMID:23749039

Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

2013-08-01

378

Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200/sup 0/C for 5 minutes and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of a pulp that gave saccharification yields of 80 and 65% in 8 h for bagasse and wheat straw, respectively. By comparison, alkali steaming at 200/sup 0/C (1.72 MPa) for 5 minutes gave saccharification yields of only 58 and 52% in 48 h. The increase in temperature from 140 to 200/sup 0/resulted in a gradual increase in in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD0) for both the substrates. Also, the extent of alkalinity during pretreatment appears to effect the reactivity of the final product towards enzymes. Pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 60 caused a progressive decline in the IVOMD of bagasse and wheat straw by the alkali explosion method and this was accompanied by a progressive decrease in pH values after explosion. In the alkali-steaming method, pretreatment time had no apparent effect with either substrate. An analysis of the alkali-exploded products showed that substantial amounts of hemicellulose and a small proportion of the lignin were solubilized. The percentage crystallinity of the cellulose did not alter in either substrate but there was a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization. The superiority of the alkali-explosion pretreatment is attributed to the efficacy of fiber separation and disintegration; this increases the surface area and reduces the degree of polymerization. 33 references.

Puri, V.P.; Pearce, G.R.

1986-04-01

379

Alkylresorcinols in wheat varieties in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen.  

PubMed

The contents of alkylresorcinols (AR) were analyzed in 131 winter wheats, 20 spring wheats, 10 durum wheats, 5 spelt wheats, and 10 early cultivated forms of wheat (5 diploid einkorn and 5 tetraploid emmer), which are part of the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. AR were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), which provides both total contents and relative homologue compositions, as well as with a Fast Blue colorimetric method that provides only total contents but which is fast and easily screens a large number of samples. There was considerable variation in the total AR content analyzed with GC: winter wheat (220-652 microg/g of dm), spring wheat (254-537 microg/g of dm), durum wheat (194-531 microg/g of dm), spelt (490-741 microg/g of dm), einkorn (545-654 microg/g of dm), and emmer wheat (531-714 microg/g of dm). The relative AR homologue composition was different for different types of wheat, with a C17:0 to C21:0 ratio of 0.1 for winter, spring, and spelt wheats, 0.04 for einkorn and emmer wheat, and 0.01 for durum wheat. The total AR content analyzed with the Fast Blue method was lower than that analyzed with GC but there was a good correlation between the two methods (R(2) = 0.76). PMID:18921971

Andersson, Annica A M; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Fra?, Anna; Boros, Danuta; Aman, Per

2008-11-12

380

Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

2011-01-01

381

Removal of Cr (VI) with wheat-residue derived black carbon: Reaction mechanism and adsorption performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions using black carbon (BC) isolated from the burning residues of wheat straw was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, reaction temperature, supporting electrolyte concentration and analytical initial Cr (VI) concentration in batch studies. The effect of surface properties on the adsorption behavior of Cr (VI) was investigated with scanning electron

Xue Song Wang; Li Fang Chen; Fei Yan Li; Kuan Liang Chen; Wen Ya Wan; Yu Jun Tang

2010-01-01

382

Effect of frost hardening on lipid and Fatty Acid composition of chloroplast thylakoid membranes in two wheat varieties of contrasting hardiness.  

PubMed

Lipid and fatty acid composition of chloroplast thylakoid membranes was determined in two varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the hardy Miranovskaja and the sensitive Penjamo. Plants were grown at room temperature or under frost hardening conditions (1.5 degrees C). Changes in lipid and fatty acid composition of the isolated thylakoids could be related to the temperature dependence of light-stimulated proton uptake. Changes in the thylakoid phospholipids upon hardening of the two varieties did not show any direct relation with low temperature tolerance of light-dependent H(+) uptake; neither did changes in phospholipid fatty acid chain lengthening to 20 and 22 C-atoms in combination with increased desaturation up to 6 double bonds. Increased low temperature tolerance of light-induced H(+) uptake by hardening was correlated with the following glycolipid changes: maintained glycolipid level, a proportionally increased digalactosyl diglyceride fraction, a decrease in thylakoid monogalactosyl diglyceride, increased sulfolipid fatty acid chain lengthening (20 and 22 C-atoms), and increased sulfolipid desaturation (4-6 double bonds). We suggest that the above mentioned changes in glycolipids have adaptive value for low temperature tolerance of light-dependent proton uptake. PMID:16664487

Vigh, L; Horvàth, I; van Hasselt, P R; Kuiper, P J

1985-11-01

383

Effect of Frost Hardening on Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Chloroplast Thylakoid Membranes in Two Wheat Varieties of Contrasting Hardiness 1  

PubMed Central

Lipid and fatty acid composition of chloroplast thylakoid membranes was determined in two varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the hardy Miranovskaja and the sensitive Penjamo. Plants were grown at room temperature or under frost hardening conditions (1.5°C). Changes in lipid and fatty acid composition of the isolated thylakoids could be related to the temperature dependence of light-stimulated proton uptake. Changes in the thylakoid phospholipids upon hardening of the two varieties did not show any direct relation with low temperature tolerance of light-dependent H+ uptake; neither did changes in phospholipid fatty acid chain lengthening to 20 and 22 C-atoms in combination with increased desaturation up to 6 double bonds. Increased low temperature tolerance of light-induced H+ uptake by hardening was correlated with the following glycolipid changes: maintained glycolipid level, a proportionally increased digalactosyl diglyceride fraction, a decrease in thylakoid monogalactosyl diglyceride, increased sulfolipid fatty acid chain lengthening (20 and 22 C-atoms), and increased sulfolipid desaturation (4-6 double bonds). We suggest that the above mentioned changes in glycolipids have adaptive value for low temperature tolerance of light-dependent proton uptake.

Vigh, Laslo; Horvath, Ibi; van Hasselt, Philip R.; Kuiper, Pieter J. C.

1985-01-01

384

Study of wheat protein based materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat gluten is a naturally occurring protein polymer. It is produced in abundance by the agricultural industry, is biodegradable and very inexpensive (less than $0.50/lb). It has unique viscoelastic properties, which makes it a promising alternative to synthetic plastics. The unplasticized wheat gluten is, however, brittle. Plasticizers such as glycerol are commonly used to give flexibility to the articles made of wheat gluten but with the penalty of greatly reduced stiffness. Former work showed that the brittleness of wheat gluten can also be improved by modifying it with a tri-thiol additive with no penalty of reduced stiffness. However, the cost of the customer designed tri-thiol additive was very high and it was unlikely to make a cost effective material from such an expensive additive. Here we designed a new, inexpensive thiol additive called SHPVA. It was synthesized from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) through a simple esterification reaction. The mechanical data of the molded wheat gluten/SHPVA material indicated that wheat gluten was toughened by SHPVA. As a control, the wheat gluten/PVA material showed no improvement compared with wheat gluten itself. Several techniques have been used to characterize this novel protein/polymer blend. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) study showed two phases in both wheat gluten/PVA and wheat gluten/SHPVA material. However, scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures indicated that PVA was macroscopically separated from wheat gluten, while wheat gluten/SHPVA had a homogeneous look. The phase image from the atomic force microscope (AFM) gave interesting contrast based on the difference in the mechanical properties of these two phases. The biodegradation behavior of these protein/polymer blends was examined in soil. SHPVA was not degraded in the time period of the experiment. Wheat gluten/SHPVA degraded slower than wheat gluten. We also developed some other interesting material systems based on wheat gluten, including the wheat gluten/basalt composite and wheat gluten/clay composite materials. Their mechanical properties and biodegradation behaviors were determined.

Ye, Peng

385

Relationship Between the Qualitative and Quantitative Compositions of Gluten Protein Types and Technological Properties of Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Derived from Triticum durum and Aegilops tauschii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(3):247-251 The contribution of the diploid wheat species Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmall to the technological properties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was previously studied by the investigation of synthetic hexaploids derived from tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L.) and three diploid Ae. tauschii lines. The results indicated that bread volume, gluten index, SDS-sedimentation volume, and maximum resistance

Herbert Wieser; Sai L. K. Hsam; Friedrich J. Zeller

2003-01-01

386

Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is\\u000a the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is\\u000a composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid,\\u000a and formic acid). The aim

Miklós Gyalai-Korpos; Réka Mangel; Pablo Alvira; Dóra Dienes; Mercedes Ballesteros; Kati Réczey

2011-01-01

387

Morphological features and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.  

PubMed

Morphological features, granule composition, and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were compared with those of normal wheat starch. The morphologies and granule populations were found to be similar for the two starches. However, waxy wheat starch contained a smaller proportion of B-type granules, had a larger average granule diameter, and a higher degree of crystallinity than normal wheat starch, as measured by particle size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These differences resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature, transition enthalpy, peak viscosity, breakdown, swelling power, lower peak viscosity temperature and final viscosity in waxy wheat starch. These points suggest that waxy wheat starch should have greater resistance to retrogradation during cooling and higher water-holding capacity under dry conditions. Highlighting the differences in physicochemical properties of waxy and normal wheat starches should help point toward effective applications of waxy wheat starch in the food industry. PMID:24076202

Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

2013-11-01

388

Comprehensive study of valuable lipophilic phytochemicals in wheat bran.  

PubMed

Wheat bran, the major side-stream generated in the milling of wheat grains in the production of white flour, contains significant quantities of carbohydrate and proteins. While not interfering with flour utilization, the bran could be considered as an important feedstock within a biorefinery concept. Wheat bran also contains some amounts of lipids that can be used as a source of valuable phytochemicals. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the lipid composition of destarched wheat bran demonstrated that the predominant lipids found in wheat bran were free fatty acids (ca. 40% of total lipids), followed by acylglycerols (40%). Additionally, important amounts of alkylresorcinols (13% of total lipids) and steroid compounds (hydrocarbons, ketones, free sterols, sterol glycosides, sterol esters, and sterol ferulates) (7% of total lipids) were also present among the lipids of wheat bran. The use of wheat bran as a valuable source of phytochemicals of interest in the context of a wheat bran biorefinery is discussed. PMID:24450837

Prinsen, Pepijn; Gutiérrez, Ana; Faulds, Craig B; del Río, José C

2014-02-19

389

Combined nitrogen and sulphur fertilisation and its effect on wheat quality and protein composition measured by SE-FPLC and proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil sulphur deficiency, which is increasingly prevalent in Western Europe, lowers wheat yields, and also affects the gluten quality of the flour. Differences in S availability may change the proportion of S-poor to S-rich gliadins and glutenin subunits. This may cause unpredictable and unwanted variations in wheat quality. The combined effects of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) fertilisers and split

N. E. S. Flæte; K. Hollung; L. Ruud; T. Sogn; E. M. Færgestad; H. J. Skarpeid; E. M. Magnus; A. K. Uhlen

2005-01-01

390

The effect of wheat grain composition, cuticular lipids and kernel surface microstructure on feeding, egg-laying, and the development of the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult feeding intensity, oviposition, and larval development of Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were observed on grain from three Polish wheat varieties (Begra, Korweta, and LGR 896\\/64a) washed with petroleum ether to remove cuticular lipids. Extraction of lipids did not cause any statistically significant changes in the physicochemical, biochemical and technological (milling, rheological and baking) properties of the wheat grain studied.

Jan Nawrot; Magdalena Gawlak; Janusz Szafranek; Beata Szafranek; El?bieta Synak; Jerzy R. Warchalewski; Dorota Piasecka-Kwiatkowska; Wioletta B?aszczak; Tomasz Jeli?ski; Józef Fornal

2010-01-01

391

Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Wheat Transcriptional Activator Spa Influences Its Pattern of Expression and Has Pleiotropic Effects on Grain Protein Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage protein activator (SPA) is a key regulator of the transcription of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain storage protein genes and belongs to the Opaque2 transcription factor subfamily. We analyzed the sequence polymorphism of the three homoeologous Spa genes in hexaploid wheat. The level of polymorphism in these genes was high particularly in the promoter. The deduced protein sequences of each

Catherine Ravel; Pierre Martre; Isabelle Romeuf; Mireille Dardevet; Redouane El-Malki; Jacques Bordes; Nathalie Duchateau; Dominique Brunel; Francois Balfourier; Gilles Charmet

2009-01-01

392

The Impact of Post-Pretreatment Conditioning on Enzyme Accessibility and Water Interactions in Alkali Pretreated Rice Straw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice straw, a high-abundance lignocellulosic residue from rice production has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biofuel production in California. In this study, the impact of post-alkali pretreatment conditioning schemes on enzyme saccharification efficiency was examined, particularly focusing on understanding resulting biomass compositional impacts on water interactions with the biomass and enzyme accessibility to the cellulose fraction. Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide and subsequently washed by two different conditions: 1) by extensive washing with distilled water to reduce the pH to the optimum for cellulases which is pH 5--6, and 2) immediate pH adjustment to pH 5--6 with hydrochloric acid before extensive washing with distilled water. The two post-pretreatment conditions gave significant differences in ash, acid-insoluble lignin, glucan and xylan compositions. Alkali pretreatment improved cellulase digestibility of rice straw, and water washing improved enzymatic digestibility more than neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions with a purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A, a reducing-end specific cellulase, demonstrated that the differences in saccharification are likely due to differences in the accessibility of the cellulose fraction to the cellulolytic enzymes. Further analyses were conducted to study the mobility of the water associated with the rice straw samples by measuring T2 relaxation times of the water protons by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed significant changes in water association with the rice straw due to the pretreatment and due to the two different post-pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment increased the amount of water at the surface of the rice straw samples as indicated by increased amplitude of the shortest T2 time peaks in the relaxation spectra. Moreover, the amount of water in the first T2 pool in the water washed sample was significantly greater than in the neutralized sample. These results suggest that the specific surface area of rice straw accessible to water protons was increased by the alkali pretreatment, likely due to solubilization of alkali-soluble components of the cell walls. Post-pretreatment processes resulted in differences in the specific surface area likely due to re-precipitation of alkali solubilized components during neutralization. The T2 relaxation times of the surface water pool in washed and raw rice straw were not significantly different, at 4.4 and 4.5 ms, respectively, but both T2 times were significantly shorter than that of the neutralized and then washed sample, at 5.5 ms. The expectation was that the T2 times of the surface water peaks would reflect differences in surface composition of the rice straw samples. Further analysis of surface composition is necessary to further interpret the shortest T2 times observed in the samples. The T2 spectra of the rice straw samples contained longer T2 time peaks that were interpreted as differences in porosity of the rice straw due to the treatments. Pretreatment caused physical changes to rice straw that impacted water organization (3 peaks to 4 peaks), but the amount of water in the peaks were greater in the washed rice straw than the neutralized rice straw suggesting that water-washed rice straw had more of the larger pores than the neutralized and then washed rice straw. One possible explanation is that the neutralization caused precipitation of alkali solubilized components that filled the volumes of the pores.

Karuna, Nardrapee

393

Cell Walls of Developing Wheat Starchy Endosperm: Comparison of Composition and RNA-Seq Transcriptome1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The transcriptome of the developing starchy endosperm of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) was determined using RNA-Seq isolated at five stages during grain fill. This resource represents an excellent way to identify candidate genes responsible for the starchy endosperm cell wall, which is dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 70% of the cell wall polysaccharides, with 20% (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan, 7% glucomannan, and 4% cellulose. A complete inventory of transcripts of 124 glycosyltransferase (GT) and 72 glycosylhydrolase (GH) genes associated with cell walls is presented. The most highly expressed GT transcript (excluding those known to be involved in starch synthesis) was a GT47 family transcript similar to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IRX10 involved in xylan extension, and the second most abundant was a GT61. Profiles for GT43 IRX9 and IRX14 putative orthologs were consistent with roles in AX synthesis. Low abundances were found for transcripts from genes in the acyl-coA transferase BAHD family, for which a role in AX feruloylation has been postulated. The relative expression of these was much greater in whole grain compared with starchy endosperm, correlating with the levels of bound ferulate. Transcripts associated with callose (GSL), cellulose (CESA), pectin (GAUT), and glucomannan (CSLA) synthesis were also abundant in starchy endosperm, while the corresponding cell wall polysaccharides were confirmed as low abundance (glucomannan and callose) or undetectable (pectin) in these samples. Abundant transcripts from GH families associated with the hydrolysis of these polysaccharides were also present, suggesting that they may be rapidly turned over. Abundant transcripts in the GT31 family may be responsible for the addition of Gal residues to arabinogalactan peptide.

Pellny, Till K.; Lovegrove, Alison; Freeman, Jackie; Tosi, Paola; Love, Christopher G.; Knox, J. Paul; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A.C.

2012-01-01

394

Effects of relay-intercropping sorghum with winter wheat, alfalfa, and cotton on lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) abundance and species composition.  

PubMed

Creating conditions that enhance the abundance of resident populations of natural enemies in agroecosystems is considered critical to the efficiency of biological control of insect pests. We conducted a study to determine the potential of relay-intercropping for enhancing the abundance of aphidophagous lady beetles in sorghum. A relay-intercropping system consisting of alfalfa, winter wheat, and cotton as intercrops and sorghum as a main crop was compared with sorghum monoculture plots at two study sites in OK from 2003 to 2006. Lady beetles and aphids were sampled throughout the season using sticky traps and field counts on individual sorghum plants. Results from sticky traps and field counts show that differences in abundance and species composition of lady beetles between intercropped and monoculture sorghum were not statistically different during each year of study. Also, the lady beetle-greenbug ratios in relay-intercropped and monoculture plots were not significantly different. Lack of significant effects of relay-intercropping in our study may have been attributable to the confounding effects of spatial and temporal scale and the low number of aphids and other alternative prey in the intercrops compared with high incidence of corn leaf aphids in sorghum early in the season. PMID:20550789

Phoofolo, Mpho W; Giles, Kristopher L; Elliott, Norman C

2010-06-01

395

Mutation of Cellulose Synthase Gene Improves the Nutritive Value of Rice Straw  

PubMed Central

Rice straw is an important roughage resource for ruminants in many rice-producing countries. In this study, a rice brittle mutant (BM, mutation in OsCesA4, encoding cellulose synthase) and its wild type (WT) were employed to investigate the effects of a cellulose synthase gene mutation on rice straw morphological fractions, chemical composition, stem histological structure and in situ digestibility. The morphological fractions investigation showed that BM had a higher leaf sheath proportion (43.70% vs 38.21%, p<0.01) and a lower leaf blade proportion (25.21% vs 32.14%, p<0.01) than WT. Chemical composition analysis showed that BM rice straw was significantly (p<0.01) higher in CP (crude protein), hemicellulose and acid insoluble ash (AIA) contents, but lower in dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADFom) and cellulose contents when compared to WT. No significant difference (p>0.05) was detected in neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and ADL contents for both strains. Histological structure observation indicated that BM stems had fewer sclerenchyma cells and a thinner sclerenchyma cell wall than WT. The results of in situ digestion showed that BM had higher DM, NDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance at 24 or 48 h of incubation (p<0.05). The effective digestibility of BM rice straw DM and NDFom was greater than that of WT (31.4% vs 26.7% for DM, 29.1% vs 24.3% for NDFom, p<0.05), but the rate of digestion of the slowly digested fraction of BM rice straw DM and NDF was decreased. These results indicated that the mutation in the cellulose synthase gene could improve the nutritive value of rice straw for ruminants.

Su, Yanjing; Zhao, Guoqi; Wei, Zhenwu; Yan, Changjie; Liu, Sujiao

2012-01-01

396

Comparison of three technics converting the straw to soil-like substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS), the treatment of inedible biomass of higher plants such as straw is one of the most important aspects for increasing the degree of closure of system. In this research, the straw of wheat and rice which are the candidate plants for BLSS was processed by three pretreating technics and the succedent treatment of worms respectively, and the soil like substrates (SLS) were obtained by those successive biological conversions. Subsequently, the pH, organic matter, available N, P, K and seed germination of the SLS were determined to confirm the feasibility of growing plants on them. Finally, lettuce was planted on them to compare the fertility of the SLS with three different process technics. Through our test, the optimal SLS process technic with short period was selected and the SLS with good "soil" characteristics was obtained. What's more, the results also indicated that the straw of higher plants can be involved into the intra-system turnover by producing SLS, which may improve the closure of BLSS.

Xing, Yidong; Beizhen Xie, Ms; Liu, Professor Hong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu.

397

Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat kernels that were lightly and moderately infected by Fusarium graminearum were analyzed in terms of their carbohydrate, lipid, and protein contents to determine any compositional changes. The significant compositional changes in lightly infected wheat were increases in reducing sugars (24%), non-starch lipids (5%), and decreases in cellulose (17%) and hemicellulose (20%) components. In moderately infected wheat, the increases in

D. Boyacio?lu; N. S. Hettiarachchy

1995-01-01

398

Vacuum straw tracker test beam run  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum of understanding requests beam time at Fermilab during the 2005 Meson Test Beam run to measure the detection inefficiency of vacuum straw tubes. One of the future kaon experiments at J-PARC has the goal to measure the branching ratio of the neutral kaon ''Golden Mode'' K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} with a few hundred event sensitivity. This future J-PARC experiment is a follow up of a current KEK experiment, E391a which has been taking data since February 2004. E391a is a collaboration of five countries (Japan, United States, Russia, Korea, and Taiwan) with ten institutions (KEK, Saga U, Yamagata U, Osaka U, U of Chicago, Pusan U, JINR, NDA, Kyoto U, National Taiwan U, and RCNP). The branching ratio of K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} is small, about 3 x 10{sup -11}. To first order, all kaon decays with final states with charged particles need to be vetoed, and those include K{sub e3}, K{sub {mu}3}, and K{sub {+-}0} (about 80% of all neutral kaon decay). The standard and typical veto power comes from sheet scintillator and may not be adequate. Vacuum straw tubes provides additional, independent and orthogonal veto power, but the detection inefficiency has not been known or measured in a detail way. The inefficiency of the straw has three sources, the electronics, the straw wall/wire, and the gas. We like to perform beam test to measure all three sources. There is much experience in straw detector technology, and some in vacuum straw technology (CKM R&D effort). The possible use of straws in the future K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} experiment will allow absolute photon/electron energy calibration (via K{sub {+-}0} decays), possible measurement of photon inefficiencies (via K{sub 000} with {pi}{sup 0} Dalitz), and as mentioned, charged particle veto. The results of this proposed beam test will provide new knowledge on the absorption cross section and will direct us on design issues for future neutral kaon decay experiments. Regarding the straws, lots of R&D work has been done by the CKM collaboration, and we plan to use as much existing straws setup and related equipment as possible.

Wah, Yau; /Chicago U.

2005-08-01

399

Assessment of straw biomass feedstock resources in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straw that is produced as a coproduct of cereal grain and grass seed production on 24,000km2 in the Pacific Northwest states of Idaho (ID), Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) has potential as a bioenergy feedstock. Previous attempts to develop approaches to convert straw to energy based on transporting straw to a conversion facility were uneconomical. Rising energy prices and the

Gary M. Banowetz; Akwasi Boateng; Jeffrey J. Steiner; Stephen M. Griffith; Vijay Sethi; Hossien El-Nashaar

2008-01-01

400

Bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the closure of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS), the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by mushrooms and worms has been studied. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation and succeeding growth of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus. In this process the total content of lignocellulose in the straw was removed

Chengying Yu; Hong Liu; Yidong Xing; N. S. Manukovsky; V. S. Kovalev; Yu. L. Gurevich

2008-01-01

401

Predicting Protein Composition, Biochemical Properties, and Dough-Handling Properties of Hard Red Winter Wheat Flour by Near-Infrared Reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(4):412-416 Breadmaking quality in wheat is one of several considerations that plant breeders face when developing new cultivars. In routine breeding pro- grams, quality is assessed by small-scale dough-handling and bake tests, and to some extent, by biochemical analysis of gluten proteins. An alterna- tive, not yet fully examined, method for wheat flour qua lity assessment is near-infrared

Stephen R. Delwiche; Robert A. Graybosch; C. James Peterson

1998-01-01

402

Paint removal using wheat starch blast media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

1993-03-01

403

Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread  

PubMed Central

In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples.

Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

2014-01-01

404

Effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with high quality cassava flour on the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, sensory quality, and microbial quality of bread.  

PubMed

IN THE CURRENT STUDY, WHEAT FLOUR WAS MIXED WITH HIGH QUALITY CASSAVA FLOUR (HQCF) IN SEVERAL RATIOS: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×10(3) CFU/mL to 1.4×10(4) CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×10(3) CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R(2)=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R(2)=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R(2)=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

2014-06-01

405

Current and Future Trends of Wheat Quality Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat is one of the main sources of nutrients for humans and animals. Its wide adaptation to diverse agro-ecological conditions,\\u000a its storability, and its complex chemical composition, are main attributes that have made wheat the most widely used crop\\u000a in food processing. Wheat trading is vast, occurs world-wide, and is now more dynamic than ever. Present and predicted shifts\\u000a in

R. J. PEÑA

406

Surface characterization of lignocellulosics for composite manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this research were to form moisture resistant wheat strawboards, either by altering the straw surface characteristics or by changing the chemistry of the polymeric 4, 4' diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI)-based matrix and interface. Part I compared the surface characteristics of wheat, barley, oat, rice, kenaf, hemp and softwood particles. All cereal straws had two surfaces: epidermis and brittle-pith unlike one heterogeneous type observed for bast fibers and softwood particles. The epidermis of cereal straws was not wet by water or aqueous binders, whereas the pith surface allowed the penetration of water, but was not readily wetted by aqueous binders. Between the different surface treatments evaluated for wheat straw in Part II, NaOH selectively peeled-off the epidermis and pith layers. The treated straw particles were formable into strawboards using aqueous phenol-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, and duroplastic acrylic acid binders with good internal bond strength (IBS) and adequate water resistance. In Part III it was shown that, decreasing straw particle sizes and bleaching worsened the mechanical properties of strawboards, but the moisture absorption properties of bleached strawboards were lower than the unbleached ones. Layering of straw particles in strawboards did not seem to affect their mechanical or moisture absorption properties. Part IV showed that the pith surface of wheat straw was fractured on curing with PMDI, providing hollow microcrevices for water accumulation. Furthermore, the cured PMDI formed a network polyurea/polyuretonimine/polycarbodiimide/polyisocyanurate polymer on straw surfaces whose properties dictated the properties of strawboards. Among the different mono-, bi-, and tri-functional alcohols, amines and carboxylic acids evaluated in Part V as H-donor substitutes to moisture for reaction with PMDI on straw surfaces, ethylene glycol, resorcinol, glycerin and citric acid provided IBS values greater than the ANSI recommended minimum (60 psi) and lower thickness swell values than the moisture-cure process. In Part VI, strawboards formed with 2% PMDI and 5% epoxy or duroplastic acrylic acid binders had high IBS values, and their thickness swell after 24 h soaking in water was restricted to 13%, which was much lower than the ˜18--20% values obtained for strawboards made with 5% PMDI.

Iyer, Ananth V.

407

Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451microm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4microm) are independently fed into the burner through two concentric injection tubes, i.e., the centre and annular tubes, respectively. Multiple simulations are performed, using three meshes, two global reaction mechanisms for homogeneous combustion, two turbulent combustion models, and two models for fuel particle conversion. It is found that for pulverized biomass particles of a few hundred microns in diameter the intra-particle heat and mass transfer is a secondary issue at most in their conversion, and the global four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt may be better used in modelling volatiles combustion. The baseline CFD models show a good agreement with the measured maps of main species in the reactor. The straw particles, less affected by the swirling secondary air jet due to the large fuel/air jet momentum and large particle response time, travels in a nearly straight line and penetrate through the oxygen-lean core zone; whilst the coal particles are significantly affected by secondary air jet and swirled into the oxygen-rich outer radius with increased residence time (in average, 8.1s for coal particles vs. 5.2s for straw particles in the 3m high reactor). Therefore, a remarkable difference in the overall burnout of the two fuels is predicted: about 93% for coal char vs. 73% for straw char. As the conclusion, a reliable modelling methodology for pulverized biomass/coal co-firing and some useful co-firing design considerations are suggested. PMID:20117929

Yin, Chungen; Kaer, Søren K; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hvid, Søren L

2010-06-01

408

Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated rice straw and biomass production  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study on the saccharification of pretreated rice straw was brought about by using cellulase enzyme produced by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 52430 and its mutant strain UNGI-40. The effect of enzyme and substrate concentrations on the saccharification rate at 24 and 48 were studied. A syrup with 7% sugar concentration was obtained with a 10% substrate concentration for the mutant case, whereas a syrup with 6.8% sugar concentration was obtained with 3.5 times concentrated enzyme from the wild strain. A high saccharification value was obtained with low substrate concentration; the higher the substrate concentration used, the lower the percent saccharification. The glucose content in the hydrolysate comprised 80-82% of total reducing sugars; the remainder was cellobiose and xylose together. The hydrolysate supported the growth of yeasts Candida utilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 52431. A biomass with a 48% protein content was obtained. The essential amino acid composition of yeast biomass was determined.

Araujo, A.; D'Souza, J.

1986-10-01

409

Structural Analysis of Wheat Stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and development of improved harvesting, preprocessing, and bulk handling systems for biomass requires knowledge of\\u000a the biomechanical properties and structural characteristics of crop residue. Structural analysis of wheat stem cross-sections\\u000a was performed using the theory of composites and finite element analysis techniques. Representative geometries of the stem’s\\u000a structural components including the hypoderm, ground tissue, and vascular bundles were established

Kurt D. Hamman; Richard L. Williamson; Eric D. Steffler; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Peter A. Pryfogle

410

Structural analysis of wheat stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and development of improved harvesting, preprocessing, and bulk handling systems for biomass requires knowledge of\\u000a the biomechanical properties and structural characteristics of crop residue. Structural analysis of wheat stem cross-sections\\u000a was performed using the theory of composites and finite element analysis techniques. Representative geometries of the stem’s\\u000a structural components including the hypoderm, ground tissue, and vascular bundles were established

Kurt D. Hamman; Richard L. Williamson; Eric D. Steffler; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Peter A. Pryfogle

2005-01-01

411

Vernonia amygdalina as a supplement to teff straw ( Eragrostis tef ) fed to Ethiopian Menz sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen rumen fistulated Ethiopian Menz type sheep were used in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) in experiment 1. Unchopped teff straw was fed alone or supplemented with either 100, 150 or 200 g\\/d of sun-dried vernonia leaves. The chemical compositions of fresh, boiled, water-soaked and sun-dried vernonia and soluble carbohydrate (SC) loss by boiling were determined. In experiment 2,25

M. L. K. Bonsi; P. O. Osuji; A. K. Tuah; N. N. Umunna

1995-01-01

412

Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration\\u000a (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale\\u000a (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H2S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples

R Noble; P J Hobbs; A Mead; A Dobrovin-Pennington

2002-01-01

413

Wheat Outlook, April 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), in its March 31 'Prospective Plantings', reported that all-wheat planted area for 2012 is forecast at 55.9 million acres, up 3 percent from the 2011 all-wheat planted area. U.S. wheat ending stocks f...

2012-01-01

414

Wheat Outlook, May 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2012/13 outlook for U.S. wheat is for larger supplies and use, but lower prices. All wheat production is projected at 2,245 million bushels, up 12 percent from last years weather-reduced crop and the highest since 2008/09. The all wheat yield, project...

2012-01-01

415

Bacterial Populations Colonizing and Degrading Rice Straw in Anoxic Paddy Soil  

PubMed Central

Rice straw is a major substrate for the production of methane, a greenhouse gas, in flooded rice fields. The bacterial community degrading rice straw under anoxic conditions was investigated with molecular methods. Rice straw was incubated in paddy soil anaerobically for 71 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the bacterial community changed during the first 15 days but then was stable until the end of incubation. Fifteen DGGE bands with different signal intensities were excised, cloned, and sequenced. In addition, DNA was extracted from straw incubated for 1 and 29 days and the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and cloned. From these clone libraries 16 clones with different electrophoretic mobilities on a DGGE gel were sequenced. From a total of 31 clones, 20 belonged to different phylogenetic clusters of the clostridia, i.e., clostridial clusters I (14 clones), III (1 clone), IV (1 clone), and XIVa (4 clones). One clone fell also within the clostridia but could not be affiliated to one of the clostridial clusters. Ten clones grouped closely with the genera Bacillus (3 clones), Nitrosospira (1 clone), Fluoribacter (1 clones), and Acidobacterium (2 clones) and with clone sequences previously obtained from rice field soil (3 clones). The relative abundances of various phylogenetic groups in the rice straw-colonizing community were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bacteria were detached from the incubated rice straw with an efficiency of about 80 to 90%, as determined by dot blot hybridization of 16S rRNA in extract and residue. The number of active (i.e., a sufficient number of ribosomes) Bacteria detected with a general eubacterial probe (Eub338) after 8 days of incubation was 61% of the total cell counts. This percentage decreased to 17% after 29 days of incubation. Most (55%) of the active cells on day 8 belonged to the genus Clostridium, mainly to clostridial clusters I (24%), III (6%), and XIVa (24%). An additional 5% belonged to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, 4% belonged to the ?, ?, and ? Proteobacteria, and 1.3% belonged to the Bacillus subbranch of the gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content. The results show that the bacterial community colonizing and decomposing rice straw developed during the first 15 days of incubation and was dominated by members of different clostridial clusters, especially clusters I, III, and XIVa.

Weber, Sabine; Stubner, Stephan; Conrad, Ralf

2001-01-01

416