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Sample records for wheat straw composition

  1. Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mengeloglu, Fatih; Karakus, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF) filled thermoplastic composites were measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF in thermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WF and one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs and thermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improved adhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seen on the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties of WF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensile and flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties of thermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPP coupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with the combination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with the use of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties required by the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

  2. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol is a biobased oxygenated fuel. In the USA, the production of fuel ethanol from corn starch reached 4.0 billion gallons in 2005. Wheat straw, an abundant byproduct of wheat production, contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for conversion to fuel ethanol. R...

  3. Production of fuel ethanol from wheat straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. The pretreatment of wheat straw is essential prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Research needs to be carried out to develop an efficient pretreatment method which can greatly help enzyme...

  4. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  5. Effect of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw on cell wall composition, hydrophobicity and cellulase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Heiss-Blanquet, Senta; Zheng, Dan; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas; Lapierre, Catherine; Baumberger, Stéphanie

    2011-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the impact of cell wall composition and lignin content on enzyme adsorption and degradability. Thioacidolysis analysis of residual lignins in wheat straw after steam-explosion or organosolv pretreatment revealed an increase in lignin condensation degree of 27% and 33%, respectively. Surface hydrophobicity assessed through wettability tests decreased after the pretreatments (contact angle decrease of 20-50%), but increased with enzymatic conversion (30% maximum contact angle increase) and correlatively to lignin content. Adsorption of the three major cellulases Cel7A, Cel6A and Cel7B from Trichoderma reesei decreased with increasing hydrolysis time, down to 7%, 31% and 70% on the sample with the highest lignin content, respectively. The fraction of unspecifically bound enzymes was dependent both on the enzyme and the lignin content. Adsorption and specific activity were shown to be inversely proportional to lignin content and hydrophobicity, suggesting that lignin is one of the factors restricting enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:21450460

  6. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 μm) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 μm) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  7. Biodegradation of wheat straw by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-01-01

    Wheat straw pretreated with chemicals as well as hot water was subjected to degradation by edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses component of both chemically as well as hot water treated wheat straw was degraded by the fungus and in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body of the mushroom was produced. Biodegradation of wheat straw in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During vegetative growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the wheat straw decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated wheat straw supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency (BE) of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrate. Degradation of the hot water treated wheat straw was better and faster than chemically treated substrate. PMID:25535709

  8. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP, OMD, MCP, cellulolytic bacteria population, VFA, and propionic acid increased ( < 0.05), whereas the acetic acid to propionic acid ratio decreased ( < 0.05). Overall, ensiling potato with wheat straw at a 57:43 ratio DM basis was possible; nevertheless, the fermentation quality of PWSS was lesser than that of CS. However, addition of molasses and molasses + LAB improved fermentation quality of PWSS. PMID:26440338

  9. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  10. Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process.

    PubMed

    Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Benjelloun-Mlayah, Bouchra; Huijgen, Wouter J J; de Wild, Paul J; Gosselink, Richard J A; Gerritsma, Jort; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing. PMID:24508905

  11. Power plant intake quantification of wheat straw composition for 2nd generation bioethanol optimization--a Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lomborg, Carina J; Thomsen, Mette H; Jensen, Erik Steen; Esbensen, Kim H

    2010-02-01

    Optimization of 2nd generation bioethanol production from wheat straw requires comprehensive knowledge of plant intake feedstock composition. Near Infrared Spectroscopy is evaluated as a potential method for instantaneous quantification of the salient fermentation wheat straw components: cellulose (glucan), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinan), and lignin. Aiming at chemometric multivariate calibration, 44 pre-selected samples were subjected to spectroscopy and reference analysis. For glucan and xylan prediction accuracies (slope: 0.89, 0.94) and precisions (r(2): 0.87) were obtained, corresponding to error of prediction levels at 8-9%. Models for arabinan and lignin were marginally less good, and especially for lignin a further expansion of the feasibility dataset was deemed necessary. The results are related to significant influences from sub-sampling/mass reduction errors in the laboratory regimen. A relative high proportion of outliers excluded from the present models (10-20%) may indicate that comminution sample preparation is most likely always needed. Different solutions to these issues are suggested. PMID:19837584

  12. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

  13. Coproduction of xylose, lignosulfonate and ethanol from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengdong; Huang, Wangxiang; Huang, Wenjing; Wang, Ke; Chen, Qiming; Wu, Yuanxin

    2015-06-01

    A novel integrated process to coproduce xylose, lignosulfonate and ethanol from wheat straw was investigated. Firstly, wheat straw was treated by dilute sulfuric acid and xylose was recovered from its hydrolyzate. Its optimal conditions were 1.0wt% sulfuric acid, 10% (w/v) wheat straw loading, 100°C, and 2h. Then the acid treated wheat straw was treated by sulfomethylation reagent and its hydrolyzate containing lignosulfonate was directly recovered. Its optimal conditions were 150°C, 15% (w/v) acid treated wheat straw loading, and 5h. Finally, the two-step treated wheat straw was converted to ethanol through enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Under optimal conditions, 1kg wheat straw could produce 0.225kg xylose with 95% purity, 4.16kg hydrolyzate of sulfomethylation treatment containing 5.5% lignosulfonate, 0.183kg ethanol and 0.05kg lignin residue. Compared to present technology, this process is a potential economically profitable wheat straw biorefinery. PMID:25770471

  14. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  15. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  16. Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glucose benefits from improved enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw solids; (2) xylose benefits from the solubilization of xylan to the liquid phase during the pretreatment; (3) maleic acid replenishment costs; (4) neutralization costs of pretreated material; (5) costs due to furfural production; and (6) heating costs of the input materials. For each response factor, experimental data were fitted mathematically. After data translation to €/Mg dry straw, determining the relative contribution of each response factor, an economic optimization was calculated within the limits of the design variables. Results When costs are disregarded, an almost complete glucan conversion to glucose can be reached (90% from solids, 7%-10% in liquid), after enzymatic hydrolysis. During the pretreatment, up to 90% of all xylan is converted to monomeric xylose. Taking cost factors into account, the optimal process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with 46 mM maleic acid, resulting in a yield of 65 €/Mg (megagram = metric ton) dry straw, consisting of 68 €/Mg glucose benefits (from solids: 85% of all glucan), 17 €/Mg xylose benefits (from liquid: 80% of all xylan), 17 €/Mg maleic acid costs, 2.0 €/Mg heating costs and 0.68 €/Mg NaOH costs. In all but the most severe of the studied conditions, furfural formation was so limited that associated costs are considered negligible. Conclusions After the dilute maleic acid pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, almost complete conversion of wheat straw glucan and xylan is possible. Taking maleic acid replenishment, heating, neutralization and furfural formation into account, the optimum in the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw in this study is 65 €/Mg dry feedstock. This is reached when process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with a maleic acid concentration of 46 mM. Maleic acid replenishment is the most important of the studied cost factors. PMID:20025730

  17. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw. PMID:26980627

  18. Optimizing feeding composition and carbon-nitrogen ratios for improved methane yield during anaerobic co-digestion of dairy, chicken manure and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the possibilities of improving methane yield from anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates, using a mixture of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and wheat straw (WS), based on optimized feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Co-digestion of DM, CM and WS performed better in methane potential than individual digestion. A larger synergetic effect in co-digestion of DM, CM and WS was found than in mixtures of single manures with WS. As the C/N ratio increased, methane potential initially increased and then declined. C/N ratios of 25:1 and 30:1 had better digestion performance with stable pH and low concentrations of total ammonium nitrogen and free NH(3). Maximum methane potential was achieved with DM/CM of 40.3:59.7 and a C/N ratio of 27.2:1 after optimization using response surface methodology. The results suggested that better performance of anaerobic co-digestion can be fulfilled by optimizing feeding composition and the C/N ratio. PMID:22784956

  19. Effect of Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat Grain and Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global impact of increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere on plants has been studied extensively recently but little information has been published on the effect of enrichment of atmospheric CO2 on the development of nutritive value of grain and straw for ruminant feeds. This paper re...

  20. Organic molecular compositions and size distributions of chinese summer and autumn aerosols from nanjing: characteristic haze event caused by wheat straw burning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Waston, John G; Chow, Judith C

    2009-09-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in urban Nanjing, China during summer and autumn of 2007 including a period of hazy days during June 1-5. Organic aerosols in the haze event were characterized by elevated concentrations of levoglucosan, high molecular weight (HMW) n-alkanes, and HMW fatty acids due to the emissions from field burning of wheat straw. In contrast, organic aerosols on nonhazy days were characterized by a predominance of fossil fuel combustion products. Levoglucosan (4030 n g m(-3)), n-alkanes (1520 ng m(-3)), fatty acids (2629 ng m(-3)), and PAHs (57 ng m(-3)) in the haze samples were 3-40 times more abundant than those in nonevent samples. Approximately 30-90% ofthe organics during the haze period can be attributed to wheat straw burning. Concentrations of particulate material (PM) mass, n-alkanes, and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs showed a unimodal size distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 microm during the hazy days, and a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 microm and 4.7-5.8 microm during nonhazy days. The geometric mean diameters (GMDs) of organic aerosols are larger in the fine mode (<2.1 microm) during the hazy days, suggesting aerosols emitted from the wheat straw burning are larger than those from fossil fuel combustion, and fine particle coagulation and organic compound repartitioning were enhanced. PMID:19764207

  1. Quantification of wheat straw lignin structure by comprehensive NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jijiao; Helms, Gregory L; Gao, Xin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-11-20

    A further understanding of the structure of lignin from herbaceous crops is needed for advancing technologies of lignocellulosic biomass processing and utilization. A method was established in this study for analyzing structural motifs found in milled straw lignin (MSL) and cellulase-digested lignin (CEL) isolated from wheat straw by combining quantitative (13)C and HSQC NMR spectral analyses. The results showed that guaiacyl (G) was the predominant unit in wheat straw cell wall lignin over syringyl (S) and hydroxyphenyl (H) units. Up to 8.0 units of tricin were also detected in wheat straw lignin per 100 aromatic rings. Various interunit linkages, including β-O-4, β-5, β-β', β-1, α, β-diaryl ether, and 5-5'/4-O-β' as well as potential lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds, were identified and quantified. These findings provide useful information for the development of biofuels and lignin-based materials. PMID:24143908

  2. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw to increase methane production.

    PubMed

    Sambusiti, C; Ficara, E; Rollini, M; Manzoni, M; Malpei, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the chemical composition and the methane production of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw. NaOH pretreatment was conducted in closed bottles, at 40 °C for 24 h. Samples were soaked in a NaOH solution at different dosages (expressed in terms of total solids (TS) content) of 1 and 10% gNaOH/gTS, with a TS concentration of 160 gTS/L. At the highest NaOH dosage the reduction of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 31, 66 and 44%, and 13, 45 and 3% for sorghum and wheat straw, respectively. The concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) in the liquid phase after the pretreatment was also improved both for wheat straw and sorghum (up to 24 and 33%, respectively). Total sugars content increased up to five times at 10% gNaOH/gTS with respect to control samples, suggesting that NaOH pretreatment improves the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests showed that the NaOH pretreatment favoured the anaerobic degradability of both substrates. At 1 and 10% NaOH dosages, the methane production increased from 14 to 31% for ensiled sorghum forage and from 17 to 47% for wheat straw. The first order kinetic constant increased up to 65% for sorghum and up to 163% for wheat straw. PMID:23032777

  3. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW HYDROLYSATE USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 48.9 gL**-1 glucose was used to produce 20.1 gL**-1 ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 gL**-1h**-1 and 0....

  4. Fuel ethanol production from microwave pretreated wheat straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of temperature (160-240 deg C, 5 min) and duration (5-20 min at 200 deg C) of microwave pretreatment of wheat straw (8.6%, w/v, in water) on its enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars were evaluated. The yield of monomeric sugars from microwave (200 deg C, 10 min) pretreated w...

  5. Continuous Production of Ethanol from Wheat Straw Hydrolyzate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous production of ethanol from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically saccharified wheat straw hydrolyzate by ethanologenic recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 was investigated under various conditions at controlled pH 6.5 and 35 deg C. The average ethanol yield from the availabl...

  6. Prospects of winter wheat straw for energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As more types of biomass feedstocks are used for bioenergy and value-added product production, observations need to be made regarding influence of genetic variability. In this study, straw from 22 varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) were assessed for their ash, carbon, nitrogen, biomass yi...

  7. Effect of bio-treatment on the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Qin, M H; Xu, Q H; Shao, Z Y; Gao, Y; Fu, Y J; Lu, X M; Gao, P J; Holmbom, B

    2009-06-01

    Wheat straw, an important papermaking raw material in China, was treated with a white-rot fungus of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446, and the lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives from the control and bio-treated samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Bio-treatment of wheat straw could alter the chemical composition of both the lipophylic and hydrophilic extractives. Sugars and phenolic substances such as coniferyl alcohol, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 1-guaiacylglycerol and ferulic acid were substantially degraded or consumed by the fungus. More lipophilic substances such as wax, glycerides and steryl esters were degraded into the corresponding components, resulting in much higher concentrations of fatty acids and sterols in the bio-treated samples. Obviously, the bio-treatment of wheat straw was of benefit to pitch control in pulping and papermaking processes, in the view of degradation of the more lipophilic substances. In addition, the bio-treatment could increase the lignin concentration in hot-water extractives of wheat straw. PMID:19268580

  8. Fermentation of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production: comparison of fermentative microorganisms and process configurations.

    PubMed

    López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo Alejandro; Lema, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi to produce bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used physico-chemical processes. After biological pretreatment, a solid substrate composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the two latter with a composition lower than that of the initial substrate, is obtained. In this study, six microorganisms and four process configurations were utilised to ferment a hydrolysate obtained from wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus. To enhance total sugars utilisation, five of these microorganisms are able to metabolise, in addition to glucose, most of the pentoses obtained after the hydrolysis of wheat straw by the application of a mixture of hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. The highest overall ethanol yield was obtained with the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus. Its application in combination with the best process configuration yielded 163 mg ethanol per gram of raw wheat straw, which was between 23 and 35 % greater than the yields typically obtained with a conventional bioethanol process, in which wheat straw is pretreated using steam explosion and fermented with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23754562

  9. Study of pozzolanic properties of wheat straw ash

    SciTech Connect

    Biricik, H.; Akoez, F.; Berktay, I.; Tulgar, A.N.

    1999-05-01

    As an agricultural product, wheat straw contains considerable amounts of SiO{sub 2}. When burned it leaves an ash very rich in SiO{sub 2} that has a pozzolanic character. Wheat is an important agricultural product in Turkey. In this study, wheat straws are ground to 1--5-mm size and subjected to preburning treatment. The preburned material is later burned in controller conditions for 5 hours at 570 and 670 C. The ash is cooled suddenly and ground to 90--200 {micro} size. The standard test specimens are produced from ash and mechanically, chemically, and physically tested for determination of its pozzolanic properties. It is obtained that the ash has pozzolanic activity.

  10. Wheat straw biomass: a resource for high-value chemicals.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Morris; Monreal, Carlos M; Powell, Erin E

    2014-01-01

    Two methods are proposed for increasing the commercial value of wheat straw based on its chemical constituents. The first method involves the determination and extraction of the major organic components of wheat straw, and the second involves those found and extracted in the aqueous and viscous biooils derived from the straw by fast pyrolysis. We used pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry to identify the fine chemicals, which have high commercial values. The most abundant organic compounds in the wheat straw and biooil used as precursors for green chemicals are N-heterocycles (16 to 29% of the Total Ion Intensities, TII) and fatty acids (19 to 26% of TIIs), followed by phenols and lignins (12 to 23% of TIIs). Other important precursors were carbohydrates and amino acids (1 to 8% TIIs), n-alkyl benzenes (3 to 5% of TIIs), and diols (4 to 9% TIIs). Steroids and flavonoids represented 1 to 5% of TIIs in the three materials. Examples of valuable chemical compounds that can be extracted from the wheat straw and biooils are m/z 256, 270, 278, 280, 282 and 284, which are the n-C16 and n-C17 fatty acids respectively, and the C18:3, C18:2 and C18:1 unsaturated fatty acids. In particular, the C18:2 (linoleic acid) is present at a concentration of 1.7% of TIIs. Pyrazole, pyrazine, pyridine, indoles, quinolines, carbazoles, and their identified derivatives are found in relatively high concentrations (1 to 8% of TIIs). Other useful compounds are sterols such as m/z 412 (stigmasterol), m/z 414 (β-sitosterol), and steroids such m/z 394 (stigmastatriene), m/z 398 (stigmastene) and m/z 410 (stigmastadienone). Relative to the wheat straw, the relative concentration of all flavonoids such as m/z 222 (flavone) and m/z 224 (flavonone) doubled in the biooils. The conversion of wheat straw by fast pyrolysis, followed by chemical characterization with mass spectrometry, and extraction of fine chemicals, opens up new possibilities for increasing the monetary value of crop residues. PMID:24138469

  11. Growth of Pleurotus ostreatus on wheat straw and wheat-grain-based media: Biochemical aspects and preparation of mushroom inoculum.

    PubMed

    Sainos, E; Díaz-Godínez, G; Loera, O; Montiel-González, A M; Sánchez, C

    2006-10-01

    Mycelial growth, intracellular activity of proteases, laccases and beta-1,3-glucanases, and cytoplasmic protein were evaluated in the vegetative phase of Pleurotus ostreatus grown on wheat straw and in wheat-grain-based media in Petri dishes and in bottles. The productivity of the wheat straw and wheat-grain-based spawn in cylindrical polyethylene bags containing 5 kg of chopped straw was also determined. We observed high activity of proteases and high content of intracellular protein in cultures grown on wheat straw. This suggests that the proteases are not secreted into the medium and that the protein is an important cellular reserve. On the contrary, cultures grown on wheat straw secreted laccases into the medium, which could be induced by this substrate. P. ostreatus grown on media prepared with a combination of wheat straw and wheat grain showed a high radial growth rate in Petri dishes and a high level of mycelial growth in bottles. The productivities of wheat straw and wheat-grain-based spawn were similar. Our results show that cheaper and more productive mushroom spawn can be prepared by developing the mycelium on wheat straw and wheat-grain-based substrates. PMID:16586105

  12. Cavitation assisted delignification of wheat straw: a review.

    PubMed

    Iskalieva, Asylzat; Yimmou, Bob Mbouyem; Gogate, Parag R; Horvath, Miklos; Horvath, Peter G; Csoka, Levente

    2012-09-01

    Wheat is grown in most of the Indian and Chinese regions and after harvesting, the remaining straw offers considerable promise as a renewable source most suitable for papermaking and as a pulping resource. Delignification of wheat straw offers ample scope for energy conservation by way of the application of the process intensification principles. The present work reviews the pretreatment techniques available for improving the effectiveness of the conventional approach for polysaccharide component separation, softening and delignification. A detailed overview of the cavitation assisted delignification process has been presented based on the earlier literature illustrations and important operational guidelines have been presented for overall low-cost and amenable energy utilization in the processes. The effectiveness of the methods has been evaluated according to yield and properties of the isolated fibers in comparison to the conventional treatment. Also the experimental results of one such non-conventional treatment scheme based on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation have been presented for the pulping of wheat straw. The effect of hydrodynamically induced cavitation on cell wall matrix and its components have been characterized using FT-IR analysis with an objective of understanding the cavitation assisted digestion mechanism on straws. It has been observed that the use of hydrodynamic cavitation does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes relocalisation and partial removal of lignin. Overall it appears that considerable improvement can be obtained due to the use of pretreatment or alternate techniques for delignification, which is an energy intensive step in the paper making industries. PMID:22410399

  13. Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than effective tissue disruption. PMID:23590820

  14. Enhanced saccharification of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Lpez-Abelairas, M; Lu-Chau, T A; Lema, J M

    2013-02-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi for the production of bioethanol is an alternative to the most used physico-chemical processes. After biological treatment, a solid composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin-this latter is with a composition lower than that found in the initial substrate-is obtained. On the contrary, after applying physico-chemical methods, most of the hemicellulose fraction is solubilized, while cellulose and lignin fractions remain in the solid. The optimization of the combination of cellulases and hemicellulases required to saccharify wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus was carried out in this work. The application of the optimal dosage made possible the increase of the sugar yield from 33 to 54%, and at the same time the reduction of the quantity of enzymatic mixture in 40%, with respect to the initial dosage. The application of a pre-hydrolysis step with xylanases was also studied. PMID:23306886

  15. Induction of wheat straw delignification by Trametes species.

    PubMed

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Stajić, Mirjana; Jovanović, Vladimir M; Kovačević, Višnja; Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Milovanović, Ivan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw is the major crop residue in European countries which makes it the most promising material for bioconversion into biofuels. However, cellulose and hemicellulose are protected with lignin, so delignification is an inevitable phase in lignocellulose processing. The organisms predominantly responsible for its degradation are white-rot fungi and among them Trametes species represent promising degraders due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Although numerous studies have confirmed that low molecular weight compounds can induce the production and activity of ligninolytic enzymes it is not clear how this reflects on the extent of delignification. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of p-anisidine and veratryl alcohol to induce the production and activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccases, and wheat straw delignification by six Trametes species. Significant inter- and intraspecific variations in activity and features of these enzymes were found, as well as differences in the potential of lignocellulose degradation in the presence or absence of inducers. Differences in the catalytic properties of synthesized enzyme isoforms strongly affected lignin degradation. Apart from enhanced lignin degradation, the addition of p-anisidine could significantly improve the selectivity of wheat straw ligninolysis, which was especially evident for T. hirsuta strains. PMID:27216645

  16. Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native β-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

  17. Fungal pretreatment: An alternative in second-generation ethanol from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Salvacha, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; Lpez-Abelairas, Mara; Lu-Chau, Thelmo; Martnez, Angel T; Martnez, Mara Jess

    2011-08-01

    The potential of a fungal pretreatment combined with a mild alkali treatment to replace or complement current physico-chemical methods for ethanol production from wheat straw has been investigated. Changes in substrate composition, secretion of ligninolytic enzymes, enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and ethanol yield after 7, 14 and 21 days of solid-state fermentation were evaluated. Most fungi degraded lignin with variable selectivity degrees, although only eight of them improved sugar recovery compared to untreated samples. Glucose yield after 21 days of pretreatment with Poria subvermispora and Irpex lacteus reached 69% and 66% of cellulose available in the wheat straw, respectively, with an ethanol yield of 62% in both cases. Conversions from glucose to ethanol reached around 90%, showing that no inhibitors were generated during this pretreatment. No close correlations were found between ligninolytic enzymes production and sugar yields. PMID:21646018

  18. Degradation of Wheat Straw by Fibrobacter succinogenes S85: a Liquid- and Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    PubMed Central

    Matulova, M.; Nouaille, R.; Capek, P.; Péan, M.; Forano, E.; Delort, A.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Wheat straw degradation by Fibrobacter succinogenes was monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and chemolytic methods to investigate the activity of an entire fibrolytic system on an intact complex substrate. In situ solid-state NMR with 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning was used to monitor the modification of the composition and structure of lignocellulosic fibers (of 13C-enriched wheat straw) during the growth of bacteria on this substrate. There was no preferential degradation either of amorphous regions of cellulose versus crystalline regions or of cellulose versus hemicelluloses in wheat straw. This suggests either a simultaneous degradation of the amorphous and crystalline parts of cellulose and of cellulose and hemicelluloses by the enzymes or degradation at the surface at a molecular scale that cannot be detected by NMR. Liquid-state two-dimensional NMR experiments and chemolytic methods were used to analyze in detail the various sugars released into the culture medium. An integration of NMR signals enabled the quantification of oligosaccharides produced from wheat straw at various times of culture and showed the sequential activities of some of the fibrolytic enzymes of F. succinogenes S85 on wheat straw. In particular, acetylxylan esterase appeared to be more active than arabinofuranosidase, which was more active than α-glucuronidase. Finally, cellodextrins did not accumulate to a great extent in the culture medium. PMID:15746325

  19. Hydrotreating of wheat straw in toluene and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Murnieks, Raimonds; Kampars, Valdis; Malins, Kristaps; Apseniece, Lauma

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, wheat straw was hydroliquefied at a temperature of 300°C for 4h in ethanol or toluene in order to obtain bio-components which are useful for fuel purposes. The experiments were performed in a 100mL batch reactor under hydrogen pressure of 70 bar. Typically, 2g of straw and 0.1g of catalyst (66%Ni/SiO2-Al2O3) were dispersed in 15 g of solvent. The main compounds of the oil produced during the liquefaction of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin of wheat straw in both solvents are: tetrahydrofuran-2-methanol, 1,2-butanediol and butyrolactone. Besides the mentioned compounds, ethanol favoured the decomposition of bigger molecules to short-chain alcohols such as 1-butanol, 1,2-propanediol and 1,2-ethanediol. Toluene contributes to the production of furans and other cyclic compounds. The light fractions distilled together with the solvent also contain the following: 1-propanol, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. PMID:24787323

  20. Pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide for increasing enzymatic and microbial degradability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoying; Zicari, Steven M; Liu, Guangqing; Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong

    2015-06-01

    The pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at ambient temperature (20°C) was investigated. The pretreatment effects on chemical composition and physical structures, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion were evaluated. Wheat straw at 10% total solids (TS) was treated with KOH solution for 24h at a wide range of KOH loadings from 2% to 50% (w/w dry basis). Higher KOH loading resulted in higher lignin reduction from the straw and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the resulting black liquor. Maximum lignin reduction of 54.7% was observed at 50% KOH loading. In comparison to untreated straw, specific hydrolysis yields achieved 14.0-92.3% over the range of 2-50% KOH loading, and methane yields increased 16.7-77.5% for KOH loadings of 10-50%, respectively. Accounting for losses during pretreatment, 20% KOH loading resulted in maximum overall reducing sugar yield and methane yield and therefore is the recommended loading for pretreatment under these conditions. PMID:25768417

  1. Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw: product distribution and generation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiqiang; Wang, Wenlong; Liu, Hongzhen; Ma, Chunyuan; Song, Zhanlong

    2014-04-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw is studied, combined with analysis of products, the distribution and generation pathway of products are investigated. Only a small amount of volatiles released when microwave pyrolysis of pure straw. Mixtures of adding CuO and Fe3O4 can pyrolyze, and the majority in pyrolysis products is in liquid-phase. Severe pyrolysis occur after adding carbon residue, the CO content in pyrolysis gas products is high, and the maximum volume content of H2 can exceed 35 vol.%. The high-temperature is helpful for increasing the yield of combustible gas in gaseous products, in particular the H2 production, but also helpful for improving the conversion of sample. Pyrolysis is carried out layer by layer from the inside to outside. As the internal material firstly pyrolyze and pyrolysis products released pass through the low temperature zone, the chance of occurrence of secondary reactions is reduced. PMID:24607465

  2. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  3. Scale-up of wheat straw conversion to fuel ethanol at 100 liter scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw can serve as low cost feedstock for conversion to ethanol. Pretreatment is crucial prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. We have used dilute H2SO4 pretreatment at a high temperature for pretreatment of wheat straw. The pretreated hydrolyzate was bioabated using a novel fungal strain able to ...

  4. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION OF LIME PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW TO ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw used in this study contained 44.24 +/- 0.28% cellulose and 25.23 +/- 0.11% hemicellulose. Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from ...

  5. Use of ground wheat straw in container nursery substrates to overwinter daylily divisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) straw is being evaluated as a potential component in soilless container mixes either alone or combined with compost to replace a significant portion of the substrate currently supplied by pine bark and peat moss. The objective of this study was to evaluate wheat straw and horse...

  6. Flowability parameters for chopped switchgrass, wheat straw and corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, A.R.; Bitra, V.S.P.; Yoder, D.C.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-02-01

    A direct shear cell to measure the shear strength and flow properties of chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover was designed, fabricated, and tested. Yield loci (r2=0.99) determined at pre-consolidation pressures of 3.80 kPa and 5.02 kPa indicated that chopped biomass followed Mohr-Coulomb failure. Normal stress significantly affected the displacement required for shear failure, as well as the friction coefficient values for all three chopped biomass types. Displacement at shear failure ranged from 30 to 80 mm, and depended on pre-consolidation pressure, normal stress, and particle size. Friction coefficient was inversely related to normal stress, and was highest for chopped corn stover. Also, chopped corn stover exhibited the highest angle of internal friction, unconfined yield strength, major consolidation strength, and cohesive strength, all of which indicated increased challenges in handling chopped corn stover. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength indicated that chopped biomass cannot be handled by gravity alone. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength were 43 and 0.75 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 44 and 0.49 kPa for chopped wheat straw; and 48 and 0.82 kPa for chopped corn stover. Unconfined yield strength and major consolidation strength used for characterization of bulk flow materials and design of hopper dimensions were 3.4 and 10.4 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 2.3 and 9.6 kPa for chopped wheat straw and 4.2 and 11.8 kPa for chopped corn stover. These results are useful for development of efficient handling, storage, and transportation systems for biomass in biorefineries.

  7. Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

  8. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py-GC-MS), thermogravimetric (TG) /differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the fungal secretomes and composition, functional groups, and structural changes of the fungal spent wheat straw lignin were determined. Milled wood lignin (MWL) was extracted from biological treated and untreaed wheat straw. Detailed structural analysis through two dimentional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonances (2D HMQC NMR) of the pretreated lignin (acetylated) revealed low abundances of the substructures dibenzodioxacin and cinnamyl alcohol. Further analysis of lignin by Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) demonstrated the significant decrease of guaiacyl units. The results support previous findings on the biodegradation of wheat straw as analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). Revealing the characteristic behavior of P. chrysosporium-mediated biomass degradation, the information presented in this paper offers new insight into the understanding of biological lignin degradation of wheat straw by P. chrysosporium.

  9. Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes.

    PubMed

    Gyalai-Korpos, Miklós; Mangel, Réka; Alvira, Pablo; Dienes, Dóra; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Réczey, Kati

    2011-07-01

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid, and formic acid). The aim of our study was to utilize the liquid fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw as a carbon source for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30. Results showed that without detoxification, the fungus failed to utilize any dilution of the hydrolyzate; however, after a two-step detoxification process, it was able to grow on a fourfold dilution of the treated liquid fraction. Supplementation of the fourfold-diluted, treated liquid fraction with washed pretreated wheat straw or ground wheat grain led to enhanced cellulase (filter paper) activity. Produced enzymes were tested in hydrolysis of washed pretreated wheat straw. Supplementation with ground wheat grain provided a more efficient enzyme mixture for the hydrolysis by means of the near-doubled β-glucosidase activity obtained. PMID:20734107

  10. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation-alkaline pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules.

  11. Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment. PMID:25613555

  12. [Isotope compositions of elemental carbon in the smoke and ash from crop straw combustion].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Li, Jiu-Hai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Dan; Liu, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Six genotypes of straws for rice, maize and wheat, respectively, were combusted under flaming and smoldering conditions, and the isotope compositions for elemental carbon ( EC) in the straw smoke and ash were investigated with an isotopic mass spectrometer. The results showed that the mean delta 13C values for EC in the flaming and smoldering smoke of rice straw were - 28. 3 per thousand and - 28.7 per thousand, with depletions of 2.7 per thousand and 3. 0 per thousand relative to that of total carbon (TC) in the straw, respectively. The mean delta 13C values for EC in the flaming and smoldering smoke of wheat straw were -28.5 per thousand and - 28. 0 per thousand, with a depletion of 0. 1 per thousand and enrichment of 0. 4 per thousand comparing to TC in the straw, respectively. The average values in two types of maize straw smoke were -17.2 per thousand and - 13. 6 per thousand,with a depletion of 3.4 per thousand and an enrichment of 0. 2 per thousand relative to TC in the straw, respectively. The mean delta 13C ratios for EC in the flaming and smoldering ash of rice straw were -27. 5 per thousand and -27. 3 per thousand, with depletions of 1.8 per thousand and 1. 6 per thousand comparing with TC in the straw, respectively. In the flaming and smoldering ash of wheat straw, the mean ratios were -27.4 per thousand and -26.0 per thousand, with enrichments of 0. 9 per thousand and 2. 4 per thousand relative to TC in the straw, respectively. In the two types of ash for maize straw, the average delta13 C values for EC were - 15. 0 per thousand and - 14. 8 per thousand,which were 1. 2 per thousand and 1.0 per thousand lighter than those of the straw TC. In general, evident isotope fractionations occur between EC in both smoke and ash and TC in the corresponding straws, especially for rice and maize straws. The isotopic ratios may be useful in identifying and estimating the contribution of EC from straw combustion to ambient aerosol. PMID:25055653

  13. Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.L.; Tengerdy, R.P.; Murphy, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at 0.12 L/h/g; substrate thickness of 1 to 2 cm; and duration of three days. Technical parameters for this optimized fermentation were: degree of substance utilization, 27.2%; protein yield/substrate, 0.09 g; biomass yield/bioconverted substrate, 0.40 g; degree of bioconversion of total available sugars in the substrate, 60.5%; specific efficiency of bioconversion, 70.8%; and overall efficiency of biomass production from substrate, 42.7%. Mixed culturing of Candida utilis further increased biomass production by 20%. The best mode of fermentation was a semicontinuous fed-batch fermentation where one-half of the fermented material was removed at three-day intervals and replaced by fresh substrate. In this mode, protein production was 20% higher than in batch mode, protein productivity was maintained over 12 days, and sporulation was prevented. 10 references.

  14. Sugar recoveries from wheat straw following treatments with the fungus Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; Vaquero, María Eugenia; Martínez, Ángel T; Martínez, María Jesús

    2013-03-01

    Irpex lacteus is a white-rot fungus capable of increasing sugar recovery from wheat straw; however, in order to incorporate biopretreatment in bioethanol production, some process specifications need to be optimized. With this objective, I. lacteus was grown on different liquid culture media for use as inoculums. Additionally, the effect of wheat straw particle size, moisture content, organic and inorganic supplementations, and mild alkali washing during solid-state fermentation (SSF) on sugar yield were investigated. Wheat thin stillage was the best medium for producing inoculums. Supplementation of wheat straw with 0.3mM Mn(II) during SSF resulted in glucose yields of 68% as compared to yields of 62% and 33% for cultures grown without supplementation or on untreated raw material, respectively after 21 days. Lignin loss, wheat straw digestibility, peroxidase activity, and fungal biomass were also correlated with sugar yields in the search for biopretreatment efficiency indicators. PMID:23347930

  15. Stereoselective separation and determination of triadimefon and triadimenol in wheat, straw, and soil by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongwu; Qiu, Jing; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fengmao; Qiu, Lihong

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of triadimefon (TF) and triadimenol (TN) stereoisomers in wheat, straw, and soil by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The direct enantioseparation of TF and TN was performed on a Lux cellulose-1 column packed with cellulose-tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). The effects of mobile-phase composition on the separation were investigated and stereoisomeric elution orders were confirmed with a polarimeter detector. The pesticides were extracted from samples with acetonitrile and cleaned up by solid-phase extraction or activated carbon. Based on the developed stereoselective LC-MS/MS method, for TF and TN stereoisomers, good linearities were obtained over the concentration range of 0.003-4 mg/L; recoveries were 84.2-102.7% in wheat, 84.0-104.0% in straw, and 85.2-106.8% in soil at spiked concentrations of 0.007-2.0 mg/kg; intra-day and inter-day assay precisions were below 12.2%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) in wheat, straw, and soil were 0.001-0.005 mg/kg and 0.007-0.02 mg/kg, respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to detect TF and TN stereoisomers in wheat, straw, and soil samples from residual trials in farm. PMID:22102610

  16. [Process fundamentals and field demonstration of wheat straw enhanced biodegradation of petroleum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Hua, Xiu-fu; Miao, Chang-chun; Han, Hui-long; Yang, Jian-min; Zhang, Hong; Huang, Zhen-dong; Liu, Yong-min; Jin, Wen-biao; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    A new bioaugmentation method utilizing wheat straw to enhance salt leaching and the subsequent petroleum biodegradation by consortia of bacteria and fungi was proposed. The present study aimed at the effects of wheat straw on the growth and the degradation behavior of E. cloacae and Cun. echinulata, the two species of the consortia. In the laboratory experiments, it was shown that the addition of 5% (mass fraction) straw led to an increase of biomass by 25- and 3-fold to the bacteria and fungi, respectively. The biodegradation ratio of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was elevated from 29.2% to 48.0% after 468 h treatment. The biodegradation ratio of alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum were increased from 31.5% and 39.1%, to 55.7% and 55.9%, respectively. The field demonstration was carried in an area of 6400 m2, in which the bacteria and fungi were inoculated after salt leaching in the presence of wheat straw. The addition of wheat straw in the contaminated soil led to an increase by 158- and 9-fold to the bacteria and fungi, as compared to their counterpart in the controlland without wheat straw, at 25 days after the inoculation. The content of TPH was down to below 0.3% while the maximum biodegradation ratio of TPH reached 75% after 45 days treatment. These results demonstrated the effectiveness and high potential of the wheat straw enhanced bioaugmentation of petroleum-salt contaminated soil. PMID:19353887

  17. Wet explosion of wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure: effect on the methane productivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K

    2009-11-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary feedstock but their economical profitable operation relies on the addition of other biomass products with a high biogas yield. Wheat straw is the major crop residue in Europe and the second largest agricultural residue in the world. So far it has been used in several applications, i.e. pulp and paper making, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on (a) the sugars release and (b) the methane potential of the pretreated wheat straw compared to that of the raw biomass. It was found that, although a high release of soluble sugars was observed after wet explosion, the methane obtained from the wet-exploded wheat straw was slightly lower compared to that from the raw biomas s. On the other hand, the results from the codigestion of raw (non-pretreated) wheat straw with swine manure were very promising, suggesting that 4.6 kg of straw added to 1t of manure increase the methane production by 10%. Thus, wheat straw can be considered as a promising, low-cost biomass for increasing the methane productivity of biogas plants that are based mainly on swine manure. PMID:19666217

  18. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Results Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Conclusions Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs. PMID:23945109

  19. Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biomass recalcitrance is affected by a number of chemical, physical and biological factors. In this study we looked into the differences in recalcitrance between two major anatomical fractions of wheat straw biomass, leaf and stem. A set of twenty-one wheat cultivars was fractionated and illustrated the substantial variation in leaf-to-stem ratio between cultivars. The two fractions were compared in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic convertibility, cellulose crystallinity and glucan accessibility. The use of water as a probe for assessing glucan accessibility was explored using low field nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy in combination with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Results Leaves were clearly more degradable by lignocellulolytic enzymes than stems, and it was demonstrated that xylose removal was more linked to glucose yield for stems than for leaves. Comparing the locations of water in leaf and stem by low field NMR and FT-IR revealed that the glucan hydroxyl groups in leaves were more accessible to water than glucan hydroxyl groups in stems. No difference in crystallinity between leaf and stem was observed using wide angle x-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated by the accessibility of the hydroxyl groups to water. This suggests that water may be used to assess glucan accessibility in biomass samples. PMID:24860617

  20. A multi-scale biomechanical model based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longjian; Li, Aiwei; He, Xueqin; Han, Lujia

    2015-11-20

    Biomechanical behavior is a fundamental property for the efficient utilization of wheat straw in such applications as fuel and renewable materials. Tensile experiments and lignocellulose analyses were performed on three types of wheat straw. A multi-scale finite element model composed of the microscopic model of the microfibril equivalent volume element and the macroscopic model of straw tissue was proposed based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw. The tensile properties of wheat straw were simulated by ANSYS software. The predicted stress-strain data were compared with the observed data, and good correspondence was achieved for all three types of wheat straw. The validated multi-scale finite-element (FE) model was then used to investigate the effect of the lignocellulose components on the biomechanical properties of wheat straw. More than 80% of stress is carried by the cellulose fiber, whereas the strain is mainly carried by the amorphous cellulose. PMID:26344265

  1. Acid precipitation and purification of wheat straw lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Oliet, M.; Revenga, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    The acid precipitation and purification of lignin from wheat straw soda pulping effluent were studied. Prior to lignin precipitation, the suspended solids and dissolved silica were removed from the effluent to avoid lignin contamination. Suspended solids and dissolved silica were removed by centrifugation and selective precipitation at pH 5, respectively. After these treatments, the pH of the effluent was reduced to an optimum pH value of 3.5 with sulfuric acid in order to precipitate lignin. About 80% of the total lignin was recovered. Effluent color and COD were simultaneously reduced by 82 and 71%, respectively. Lignin precipitate purification was carried out by washing with aqueous acidic solutions. Only the time and the agitation rate influenced the washing process. The purity of the lignin was very high when the time and rate of agitation during washing were low. Under optimum conditions, lignin with a purity of 99.5% can be obtained.

  2. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. PMID:26231127

  3. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties) connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter) hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C. PMID:21269447

  4. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  5. On-combine Sensing Technique for Mapping Straw Yield within Wheat Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw from production of wheat is available for conversion to bioenergy. However, not all of this straw is available for conversion because a certain amount must be returned to the soil for conservation. County and state-wide inventories do not account for variation within farm fields. In this st...

  6. Microwave Pretreatment, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Fermentation of Wheat Straw to Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw used in this study contained 38.8±0.5% cellulose and 31.0±0.3% hemicellulose. The effects of temperature (160-240 deg C, 5 min) and duration (5-20 min at 200 deg C) of microwave pretreatment of wheat straw (8.6%, w/v, in water) on its enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars wer...

  7. Recovery of ammonium onto wheat straw to be reused as a slow-release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lihua; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Lan

    2013-04-10

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact of nitrogen pollution, a new multifunctional slow-release fertilizer was prepared by recovery of ammonium from aqueous solutions onto a superabsorbent composite. An eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS) was synthesized and used as the carrier to control the release of nutrients. The adsorption studies with NH₄⁺ indicated that the superabsorbent composite showed good affinity for NH₄⁺, with an adsorption capacity of 7.15 mmol g⁻¹ when 20 wt % of WS was incorporated and that the adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 40 min. Afterward, the feasibility of reusing the composite as a multifunctional slow-release nitrogen fertilizer was investigated. The results showed that the product with good water-retention and slow-release capacities could regulate soil acidity and was economical and eco-friendly for application in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:23495955

  8. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw.

    PubMed

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-12-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, approximately 48% (g g-1), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing a glucose yield of approximately 39% (g g-1). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on barley straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid-impregnated samples. PMID:18057455

  9. Fuel Ethanol Production from Wheat Straw: Demonstration of Technology at the 100 Liter Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw, a globally abundant byproduct of wheat production, contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for conversion to fuel ethanol. It was pretreated at high solids loading with dilute acid at a high temperature for a short period of time. The pretreated hydrolyza...

  10. Fermentation technologies for ethanol production from wheat straw by a recombinant bacterium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw, a globally abundant byproduct of wheat production, contains about 70% carbohydrate that could potentially be used as a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Typically four process steps are involved in the production of ethanol from any lignocellulosic feedstock – pretreat...

  11. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulos, I A; Bakker, R R; de Vrije, T; Claassen, P A M; Koukios, E G

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of 93.4 g/L, while dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw led to a hydrolysate with sugar concentration 23.0 g/L. Wheat grain hydrolysate was not suitable for hydrogen production by the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus at glucose concentrations of 10 g/L or higher, and wheat straw hydrolysate showed good fermentability at total sugar concentrations of up to 10 g/L. The mixed hydrolysates showed good fermentability at the highest tested sugar concentration of 20 g/L, with a hydrogen production of 82-97% of that of the control with pure sugars. Mixing wheat grain hydrolysate with wheat straw hydrolysate would be beneficial for fermentative hydrogen production in a biorefinery. PMID:23196256

  12. Enhanced bioaugmentation of petroleum- and salt-contaminated soil using wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Hua, Xiu-Fu; Han, Hui-Long; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Jian-Min; Jin, Wen-Biao; Liu, Yong-Min; Liu, Zheng

    2008-11-01

    A new bioaugmentation method for petroleum- and salt-contaminated soil was presented, in which wheat straw was used to enhance salt leaching and subsequent petroleum degradation by a bacteria-fungi consortium of Enterobacter cloacae and Cunninghamella echinulata. The effectiveness of a coarse wheat straw layer in inhibiting capillary-induced upward salt movement and in enhancing growth of E. cloacae and C. echinulata was shown in the laboratory and a 7000-m(2) field study in Henan Province, China. In the field study, the Na(+) concentration in remediated soil at 1-25 cm depth decreased from 1597 394 to 543 217 mg kg(-1), while Cl(-) decreased from 1520 922 to 421 253 mg kg(-1). The wheat straw increased bacterial biomass by 170-fold and fungi 11-fold compared to control soil without wheat straw. The concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons decreased from 6320 1180 to 2260 420 mg kg(-1) after 45 d of treatment. Wheat was cultivated on remediated soil and grain yield reached 72% of that obtained in normal farmland adjacent to the study site. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of wheat straw in enhancing bioaugmentation of the petroleum- and salt-contaminated soil and indicated a high application potential. PMID:18842285

  13. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibrils from wheat straw using steam explosion coupled with high shear homogenization.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Anupama; Singh, Mandeep

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils of diameter 10-50nm were obtained from wheat straw using alkali steam explosion coupled with high shear homogenization. High shear results in shearing of the fiber agglomerates resulting in uniformly dispersed nanofibrils. The chemical composition of fibers at different stages were analyzed according to the ASTM standards and showed increase in α-cellulose content and decrease in lignin and hemicellulose. Structural analysis of steam exploded fibers was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal stability was higher for cellulose nanofibrils as compared to wheat straw and chemically treated fibers. The fiber diameter distribution was obtained using image analysis software. Characterization of the fibers by AFM, TEM, and SEM showed that fiber diameter decreases with treatment and final nanofibril size was 10-15nm. FT-IR, XRD, and TGA studies confirmed the removal of hemicellulose and lignin during the chemical treatment process. PMID:21094489

  14. Purification, structural characterization, and modification of organosolv wheat straw lignin.

    PubMed

    Mbotchak, Laurie; Le Morvan, Clara; Duong, Khanh Linh; Rousseau, Brigitte; Tessier, Martine; Fradet, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Biolignin, a wheat straw lignin produced by acetic acid/formic acid/water hydrolysis, was characterized by (31)P and (13)C-(1)H 2D NMR spectroscopy and by size-exclusion chromatography. Biolignin is a mixture of low molar mass compounds (Mn = 1660 g/mol) made up of S, G, and H units and of coumaric and ferulic acid units. β-5 and β-O-4 interunit linkages are partially acylated in the γ-position by acetate and p-coumarate groups. Deacylated samples with a low content of contaminants were obtained by combining alkaline hydrolysis and solvent extraction. The high phenolic OH content found by (31)P NMR reflects the presence of condensed aromatic units, such as 5-5 units. Reaction of purified lignin with ethanol and ethane-1,2-diol yielded esterified lignins much more soluble than Biolignin in common organic solvents. During this reaction, the secondary OH of β-O-4 linkages was simultaneously etherified. Phenol hydroxyethylation by 2-chloroethanol yielded samples containing only aliphatic hydroxyl groups. PMID:25961961

  15. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Serrano, Mara; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-05-01

    The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0 ml-H(2)/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were further used to produce methane with the yields of 0.324 and 0.381 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)(added), respectively. Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus, multiple biofuels production from wheat straw can increase the efficiency for material and energy and can presumably be more economical process for biomass utilization. PMID:19135361

  16. Acidic pretreatment of wheat straw in decanol for the production of surfactant, lignin and glucose.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Sinisa; Le Bras, Jean; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Agach, Mickaël; Estrine, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals. PMID:22312256

  17. Acidic Pretreatment of Wheat Straw in Decanol for the Production of Surfactant, Lignin and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Sinisa; Le Bras, Jean; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Agach, Mickaël; Estrine, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals. PMID:22312256

  18. Properties of Wheat-Straw Boards with Frw Based on Interface Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. D.; Wang, F. H.; Liu, Y.

    This paper explored the effect of MDI, UF and FRW content on the mechanical and fire retardant property of straw based panels with surface alkali liquor processing. In order to manufacture the straw based panel with high quality, low toxic and fire retardant, the interface of wheat-straw was treated with alkaline liquid, and the orthogonal test was carried out to optimize the technical parameters. The conductivity and diffusion coefficient K of the straw material after alkaline liquid treatment increased obviously. This indicated that alkaline liquid treatment improved the surface wet ability of straw, which is helpful for the infiltration of resin. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized treating condition was alkaline liquid concentration as 0.4-0.8%, alkaline dosage as 1:2.5-1:4.5, alkalinetreated time as 12h-48 h.The physical and mechanical properties of wheat-straw boards after treated increased remarkably and it could satisfy the national standard. The improvement of the straw surface wet ability is helpful to the forming of chemical bond. Whereas the variance analysis of the fire retardant property of straw based panel showed that TTI, pkHRR and peak value appearance time were not affected by the MDI, UF and FRW content significantly. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized processing condition was MDI content as 3%, UF resin content as 6% and the FRW content as 10%.

  19. Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

    2014-08-01

    The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6% urea and 5.8% molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3??2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3??2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p??0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?

  20. Chemical characterization of hydrothermally pretreated and enzyme-digested wheat straw: An evaluation of recalcitrance.

    PubMed

    Merali, Zara; Marjamaa, Kaisa; Käsper, Andres; Kruus, Kristiina; Gunning, A Patrick; Morris, Vic J; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    There is great interest in understanding changes that occur to cell wall constituents during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulose, particularly in relation to recalcitrance of the residues. This paper reports the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzyme hydrolysis on the extractability and properties of recalcitrant wheat straw polymers. The results show that the undigested residue had lost much of its archestructure. Compositional analysis portrayed a considerable loss of cross-linking di-ferulic acid phenolics, hemicellulosic and cellulosic sugars. The remaining cellulosic and non-cellulosic polysaccharides were much more readily extractable in alkali and molecular profiling revealed the presence of low Mw oligomers in the fractions suggesting the partial enzyme hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and cellulose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pretreated and enzyme-digested residues surprisingly resulted in ethanol yields of up to 99% of the theoretical. This is discussed in relation to the "recalcitrant" nature of the original pretreated and enzyme digested biomass. PMID:26769515

  1. Enzymatic saccharification of biologically pre-treated wheat straw with white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Dias, Albino A; Freitas, Gil S; Marques, Guilhermina S M; Sampaio, Ana; Fraga, Irene S; Rodrigues, Miguel A M; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Bezerra, Rui M F

    2010-08-01

    Wheat straw was submitted to a pre-treatment by the basidiomycetous fungi Euc-1 and Irpex lacteus, aiming to improve the accessibility of cellulose towards enzymatic hydrolysis via previous selective bio-delignification. This allowed the increase of substrate saccharification nearly four and three times while applying the basidiomycetes Euc-1 and I. lacteus, respectively. The cellulose/lignin ratio increased from 2.7 in the untreated wheat straw to 5.9 and 4.6 after the bio-treatment by the basidiomycetes Euc-1 and I. lacteus, respectively, thus evidencing the highly selective lignin biodegradation. The enzymatic profile of both fungi upon bio-treatment of wheat straw have been assessed including laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, avicelase and feruloyl esterase activities. The difference in efficiency and selectivity of delignification within the two fungi treatments was interpreted in terms of specific lignolytic enzyme profiles and moderate xylanase and cellulolytic activities. PMID:20307975

  2. Effect of a magnetic field on the adsorptive removal of methylene blue onto wheat straw biochar.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoting; Zhu, Weiyong; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Lili; Zhu, Lingfeng; Zhao, Weigao

    2016-04-01

    Biochar pyrolyzed from wheat straw was innovatively used for the adsorptive removal of cationic dye methylene blue through exposure to a magnetic field. The adsorption capability of the biochar pyrolyzed at 200°C exceeded that of samples pyrolyzed at higher temperatures. The surface acidic functional groups of wheat straw biochar were deduced to be more sensitive to the effects of the external magnetic field. The enhancement of the magnetic field achieved by increases in the initial dye concentration, and a decrease in the biochar dosage and solution pH, were more significant compared with those caused by other conditions. Kinetic experiments indicated that chemisorption occurred during adsorption. The qmax values for dye adsorption without, and with, an external magnetic field were found to be 46.6 and 62.5mg/g, respectively. These demonstrated that wheat straw biochar could be used for the efficient adsorption of pollutants when assisted by an external magnetic field. PMID:26845216

  3. Preparation and characterization of durum wheat (Triticum durum) straw cellulose nanofibers by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Montaño-Leyva, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Felix, Francisco; Torres-Chávez, Patricia; Ramirez-Wong, Benjamin; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sanchez-Machado, Dalia

    2011-02-01

    Cellulose nanofibers from durum wheat straw ( Triticum durum ) were produced and characterized to study their potential as reinforcement fibers in biocomposites. Cellulose was isolated from wheat straw by chemical treatment. Nanofibers were produced via an electrospinning method using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the solvent. The nanofibers were 270 ± 97 nm in diameter. Analysis of the FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the chemical treatment of the wheat straw removed hemicellulose and lignin. XRD revealed that the crystallinity of the cellulose was reduced after electrospinning, but nanofibers remained highly crystalline. The glass transition temperature (T(g) value) of the fibers was 130 °C, higher than that of cellulose (122 °C), and the degradation temperature of the fibers was 236 °C. Residual TFA was not present in the nanofibers as assessed by the FT-IR technique. PMID:21207978

  4. Composting of tannery effluent with cow manure and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ramos, S M; Alvarez-Bernal, D; Trujillo-Tapia, N; Dendooven, L

    2004-09-01

    Wastewater from the leather industry in León (Guanajuato, México) is discharged into the Turbio river without treatment. Tannery wastewater contains utilizable nutrients, but also toxic organic compounds which might affect soil processes and plant growth, and pathogens, which might pose a threat to the local farming community. Tannery effluent was composted with cow manure and wheat straw for 90 days to reduce pathogens and toxic organic compounds and monitored. The compost was characterized by an electrolytic conductivity (EC) of 28.1 ms cm(-1), cation exchange capacity of 17.7 meq 100 g(-1), an absorbance at 645 nm of 0.0175, a respiration rate of 0.062 mg CO2-C kg(-1) compost-C day(-1), pH 8.5 and C:N ratio 7:1 with a germination index for cress (Lepidium sativum) of 48% after 90 days. Less than 10 faecal coliforms and no Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. or eggs of helminthes were detected in the compost while total coliforms decreased by log10 of 2. Total concentrations of lead (Pb) were 8.9 mgkg(-1) dry compost, chromium (Cr) 77 mg kg(-1) dry compost, cadmium (Cd) 0.4 mg kg(-1) dry compost, copper (Cu) 10.3 mg kg(-1) dry compost and sodium (Na) 14,377 mg kg(-1) dry compost. The compost characteristics indicated that it was mature, but the germination index for cress of less than 50% suggested possible remaining phytotoxic compounds. However, the large salt concentrations (especially Na), might have inhibited cress development and thus reduced the germination index. The large salt concentration might thus limit the use of this kind of compost. PMID:15158518

  5. Strong cellulase inhibitors from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose with subsequent fermentation to ethanol provides a green alternative for the production of transportation fuels. Because of its recalcitrant nature, the lignocellulosic biomass must be pretreated before enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the pretreatment often results in the formation of compounds that are inhibitory for the enzymes or fermenting organism. Although well recognized, little quantitative information on the inhibition of individual cellulase components by identified inhibitors is available. Results Strong cellulase inhibitors were separated from the liquid fraction of the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw. HPLC and mass-spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the inhibitors were oligosaccharides (inhibitory oligosaccharides, IOS) with a degree of polymerization from 7 to 16. The IOS are composed of a mixture of xylo- (XOS) and gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS). We propose that XOS and GOS are the fragments of the xylan backbone and mixed-linkage β-glucans, respectively. The IOS were approximately 100 times stronger inhibitors for Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) than cellobiose, which is one of the strongest inhibitors of these enzymes reported to date. Inhibition of endoglucanases (EGs) by IOS was weaker than that of CBHs. Most of the tested cellulases and hemicellulases were able to slowly degrade IOS and reduce the inhibitory power of the liquid fraction to some extent. The most efficient single enzyme component here was T. reesei EG TrCel7B. Although reduced by the enzyme treatment, the residual inhibitory power of IOS and the liquid fraction was strong enough to silence the major component of the T. reesei cellulase system, CBH TrCel7A. Conclusions The cellulase inhibitors described here may be responsible for the poor yields from the enzymatic conversion of the whole slurries from lignocellulose pretreatment under conditions that do not favor complete degradation of hemicellulose. Identification of the inhibitory compounds helps to design better enzyme mixtures for their degradation and to optimize the pretreatment regimes to minimize their formation. PMID:24053778

  6. Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass,wheat straw, and corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, A.R.; Bitra, V.S.P.; Igathinathane, C.; Yang, Y.T.; Miu, P.I; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-08-01

    Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5 18.4 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 36.1 8.6 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 52.1 10.8 kg/m3 for corn stover. Mean tapped bulk densities were 81.8 26.2 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 42.8 11.7 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 58.9 13.4 kg/m3 for corn stover. Percentage changes in compressibility due to variation in particle size obtained from a knife mill ranged from 64.3 to 173.6 for chopped switchgrass, 22.2 51.5 for chopped wheat straw and 42.1 117.7 for chopped corn stover within the tested consolidation pressure range of 5 120 kPa. Pressure and volume relationship of chopped biomass during compression with application of normal pressure can be characterized by the Walker model and Kawakita and Ludde model. Parameter of Walker model was correlated to the compressibility with Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Relationship between volume reduction in chopped biomass with respect to number of tappings studied using Sone s model indicated that infinite compressibility was highest for chopped switchgrass followed by chopped wheat straw and corn stover. Degree of difficulty in packing measured using the parameters of Sone s model indicated that the chopped wheat straw particles compacted very rapidly by tapping compared to chopped switchgrass and corn stover. These results are very useful for solving obstacles in handling bulk biomass supply logistics issues for a biorefinery.

  7. Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Hermanson, R.E.

    1999-08-01

    Analysis of the use of a wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from liquid manure was conducted in both a laboratory and a pilot system. Two straw covers with different thicknesses (5 cm and 10 cm) were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing odorous gas emissions. The rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the treatments were monitored; concentrations of ammonia, dissolved sulfide, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH of the liquid manure were measured. Additionally, the overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were calculated for the conditions of the experiment. The results demonstrated that both the 5-cm and 10-cm straw covers were effective in reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from manure storage. In the laboratory tests, when a crust formed on the manure surface within three to four weeks after the straw application, ammonia emissions were reduced by up to 95%. A similar trend was observed in the pilot experiments in the field. Hydrogen sulfide emissions were suppressed by 95% with the wheat straw cover. The mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulfide with the straw covers were significantly lower than those of the control, which indicated the effectiveness of a straw cover as a physical barrier for reducing hydrogen sulfide emissions. Reduced pH and decreased ammonia that biological reactions might also be a factor contributing to the emission reductions.

  8. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn’s formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  9. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn's formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  10. Autohydrolysis pretreatment of waste wheat straw for cellulosic ethanol production in a co-located straw pulp mill.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiang; Jin, Yanbin; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Park, Sunkyu

    2015-01-01

    Waste wheat straw (WWS) is the waste product from feedstock preparation process in a straw pulp mill. It has a significant annual production rate and no commercial value has been explored on this material. In this study, waste wheat straw was pretreated using an autohydrolysis process followed by mechanical refining, and the pretreated materials were further enzymatically hydrolyzed to evaluate the total sugar recovery for bioethanol production. Results show that autohydrolysis at 170 °C for 40 min followed by 6000 revolution PFI refining provided the best result in this study, where a total sugar recovery (total sugars in autohydrolysis filtrate and enzymatic hydrolyzate over total carbohydrates on raw WWS) of 70 % at 4 filter paper unit per oven dry gram (FPU/OD g) substrate enzyme charge could be obtained. The economic evaluation of this biorefinery process indicates that cellulosic ethanol production from autohydrolysis of WWS is a very profitable business, with 28.4 % of internal rate of return can be achieved based on current ethanol wholesale price in China. PMID:25374142

  11. Performance Monitoring: Evaluating a Wheat Straw PRB for Nitrate Removal at an Agricultural Operation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is conducting long-term monitoring of a wheat straw permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for remediation of ground water contaminated with nitrate from a now-closed swine concentrat...

  12. BIOCONVERSION OF WHEAT STRAW TO BUTANOL (A SUPERIOR LIQUID FUEL): SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION, FERMENTATION, AND PRODUCT RECOVERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of the increasing price of transportation fuel, we have intensified our research on butanol production from agricultural residues using Clostridium beijerinckii. Butanol has superior fuel properties compared to ethanol. In this paper, wheat straw was evaluated as a feedstock for butano...

  13. Ethanol production from wheat straw by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 at high solid loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production by a recombinant bacterium from wheat straw (WS) at high solid loading by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. The yield of total sugars from dilute acid pretreated WS (150 g/L) after enzymatic saccharific...

  14. Generation of low cost sugars from wheat straw: Progress, opportunities, and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw (WS) is a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. It contains about 35-45% cellulose, 20-30% hemicelluloses, and 8-15% lignin. Generation of sugars from WS involves pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Pretreatment is crucial as native WS is very resistant to enzymatic...

  15. Performance Monitoring: Evaluating a Wheat Straw PRB for Nitrate Removal at an Agricultural Operation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Developments National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is conducting long-term monitoring of a wheat straw permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for remediation of ground water contaminated with nitrate from a now-closed swine concentrat...

  16. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Siniša; Kádár, Zsófia; Márová, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw into ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively in the presence of catalyst. Red yeast strain S. roseus produced 1.73-2.22 mg g(-1) of ergosterol on the filter cake, 1.15-4.17 mg g(-1) of ergosterol and 1.23-1.56 mg g(-1) of β-carotene on pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and also the highest amount of carotenoids and ergosterol on untreated wheat straw (1.70 and 4.17 mg g(-1), respectively). PMID:23434815

  17. Continuous ethanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate by recombinant ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain FBR5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous production of ethanol from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically saccharified wheat straw hydrolyzate by ethanologenic recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 was investigated under various conditions at controlled pH 6.5 and 35 deg C. The strain FBR5 was chosen because of its a...

  18. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a novel approach for delignification of wheat straw for paper manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Badve, Mandar P; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Csoka, Levente

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with application of hydrodynamic cavitation for intensification of delignification of wheat straw as an essential step in the paper manufacturing process. Wheat straw was first treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 48 h and subsequently alkali treated wheat straw was subjected to hydrodynamic cavitation. Hydrodynamic cavitation reactor used in the work is basically a stator and rotor assembly, where the rotor is provided with indentations and cavitational events are expected to occur on the surface of rotor as well as within the indentations. It has been observed that treatment of alkali treated wheat straw in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for 10-15 min increases the tensile index of the synthesized paper sheets to about 50-55%, which is sufficient for paper board manufacture. The final mechanical properties of the paper can be effectively managed by controlling the processing parameters as well as the cavitational parameters. It has also been established that hydrodynamic cavitation proves to be an effective method over other standard digestion techniques of delignification in terms of electrical energy requirements as well as the required time for processing. Overall, the work is first of its kind application of hydrodynamic cavitation for enhancing the effectiveness of delignification and presents novel results of significant interest to the paper and pulp industry opening an entirely new area of application of cavitational reactors. PMID:23968577

  19. Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2012-07-01

    After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether (137)Cs and (90)Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with (137)Cs and (90)Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. PMID:22248931

  20. Exposure to ammoniated wheat straw as suckling calves improves performance of mature beef cows wintered on ammoniated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wiedmeier, R D; Provenzat, F D; Burritt, E A

    2002-09-01

    We studied how exposure to ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) early in life affected the performance of 32 mature crossbred beef cows (Bos taurus) (mean BW = 615 kg) wintered on AWS. Half (16) of these cows had been exposed as suckling calves to AWS for 66 d (Exposed), while the other 16 cows had no previous exposure to AWS (Naïve). Five years after the initial exposure, cows were stratified by BW and bred into 8 groups of 4 cows each. Exposed and Naïve cows occurred in each group, and groups of 4 cows were randomly assigned to one of eight pens. Cows were fed in these pens for a 150-d wintering period from December to May for 3 consecutive years. All cows were allowed ad libitum access to AWS and supplemented with alfalfa hay, vitamins, and minerals. Cows and their calves grazed irrigated meadow pastures for the remainder of the year. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS) were monitored monthly during the 3-yr study. Milk production was measured monthly from June to November of each year using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. For all 3 yr, yearly average BW (P = 0.06, 0.03, 0.07) and BCS (P=0.07,0.001,0.01)were higher for Exposed than Naïve cows. Postpartum interval (PPI) to rebreeding, monitored using consecutive calving dates, was shorter for Exposed than Naïve cows during yr 1 and 2 (P = 0.004 and 0.02, respectively), but similar in yr 3 (P = 0.19). Exposed cows also produced more milk than Naïve cows during yr 1 and 2 (P = 0.04 and 0.07, respectively), but milk production was similar in yr 3 (P = 0.74). Collectively, calves exposed to AWS briefly early in life performed better as cows when reexposed to AWS from 5 to 8 yr later in life. Thus, researchers and managers should consider previous exposure to low-quality forages (LQF) when assigning cattle to studies involving the use of LQF or when considering using LQF to reduce food costs. PMID:12350011

  1. Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun Hong, Sung; Taek Lee, Jae; Lee, Sungbeom; Gon Wi, Seung; Ju Cho, Eun; Singh, Sudhir; Sik Lee, Seung; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2014-01-01

    Pretreating wheat straw with a combination of dilute acid and gamma irradiation was performed in an attempt to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The glucose yield was significantly affected by combined pretreatment (3% sulfuric acid-gamma irradiation), compared with untreated wheat straw and individual pretreatment. The increasing enzymatic hydrolysis after combined pretreatment is resulting from decrease in crystallinity of cellulose, loss of hemicelluloses, and removal or modification of lignin. Therefore, combined pretreatment is one of the most effective methods for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw biomass.

  2. Bioconversion of wheat straw cellulose/hemicellulose to ethanol by Saccharomyces uvarum and Pachysolen tannophilus.

    PubMed

    Detroy, R W; Cunningham, R L; Bothast, R J; Bagby, M O; Herman, A

    1982-05-01

    The information presented in this publication represents current research findings on the production of glucose and xylose from straw and subsequent direct fermentation of both sugars to ethanol. Agricultural straw was subjected to thermal or alkali pulping prior to enzymatic saccharification. When wheat straw (WS) was treated at 170 degrees C for 30-60 min at a water-to-solids ratio of 7:1, the yield of cellulosic pulp was 70-82%. A sodium hydroxide extration yielded a 60% cellulosic pulp and a hemicellulosic fraction available for fermentation to ethanol. The cellulosic pulps were subjected to cellulase hydrolysis at 55 degrees C for production of sugars to support a 6-C fermentation. Hemicellulose was recovered from the liquor filtrates by acid/alcohol precipitation followed by acid hydrolysis to xylose for fermentation. Subsequent experiments have involved the fermentation of cellulosic and hemicelluosic hydrolysates to ethanol. Apparently these fermentations were inhibited by substances introduced by thermal and alkali treatment of the straws, because ethanol efficiencies of only 40-60% were achieved. Xylose from hydrolysis of wheat straw pentosans supported an ethanol fermentation by Pachysolen tannophilus strain NRRL 2460. This unusual yeast is capable of producing ethanol from both glucose and xylose. Ethanol yields were not maximal due to deleterious substances in the WS hydrolysates. PMID:18546403

  3. Development of low-cost wheat-straw insulation board

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, L.K.; Glicksman, L.R.; Harvey, H.S. Jr.; Charlson, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg/m{sup 3}, and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m{center_dot}K/W [R3 to R4 per inch (h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu{center_dot}in)]. The initial effort focused on straw insulation boards suitable for use in buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation. The possible methods of fabrication initially evaluated were (1) containing the straw in panels with wire and battens, (2) pulping the straw, and (3) binding with adhesive. Starch, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and sodium silicate were evaluated as adhesives for both uncut and shredded straw. Methods of application included spraying, foaming, and dipping, at various adhesive-loading rates. Small samples were formed at a range of densities and tested for structural and thermal properties. All three approaches can succeed structurally and thermally, but are unable to compete economically with existing insulation board. A final batch of boards was made by spraying methane di-isocyanate (MDI), a synthetic resin, into a rotating tumbler that contained shredded straw. The boards, made over a range of densities and resin contents, and using straw with and without the fine particles, were tested thermally and structurally. Good mechanical properties were obtained at resin contents as low as 2% by mass. At densities of 128 and 160 kg/m{sup 3}, the boards had thermal resistivities of 24 to 26 m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W. The pressure required to compress the 160 kg/m{sup 3} boards to 10% of their original thickness was approximately 100 kPa, and the modulus of rupture in bending was about 340 kPa. Removing the fine particles from the straw improved board strength markedly. The final boards at a density of 160 kg/m{sup 3} and 2 to 4% resin content have an estimated materials cost of $1.22 per unit of thermal resistance (m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W) per square metre of area (2{cents} per R per ft{sup 2}). This cost is substantially less than either the cost of the expanded polystyrene available in Pakistan or the retail cost of any rigid board insulation sold in North America.

  4. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  5. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  6. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14–19% and the ambient radiation by 9–16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  7. Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing carbon source for enzyme production. Results We have examined and compared the transcriptome of T. reesei growing on wheat straw and lactose as carbon sources under otherwise similar conditions. Gene expression on wheat straw exceeded that on lactose, and 1619 genes were found to be only induced on wheat straw but not on lactose. They comprised 30% of the CAZome, but were also enriched in genes associated with phospholipid metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, iron homeostatis and autophagy. Two thirds of the CAZome was expressed both on wheat straw as well as on lactose, but 60% of it at least >2-fold higher on the former. Major wheat straw specific genes comprised xylanases, chitinases and mannosidases. Interestingly, the latter two CAZyme families were significantly higher expressed in a strain in which xyr1 encoding the major regulator of cellulase and hemicellulase biosynthesis is non-functional. Conclusions Our data reveal several major differences in the transcriptome between wheat straw and lactose which may be related to the higher enzyme formation on the former and their further investigation could lead to the development of methods for increasing enzyme production on lactose. PMID:24016404

  8. Sodium borohydrate (NaBH4) pretreatment for efficient enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Cöpür, Yalçin; Tozluoglu, Ayhan; Ozyürek, Omer

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the aim was to examine bioethanol production of wheat straw residues using an alternative chemical, sodium borohydrate (NaBH(4)) in chemical pretreatment step. The obtained results showed that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and NaBH(4) treated straw resulted in 87.8% and 83.3% glucan conversion in enzymatic hydrolysis, but hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (74.7%) and sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) (71.7%) had lower glucan conversion. The highest ethanol yield from untreated straw (115 g/kg) was observed for 4% NaBH(4) pretreated sample (60 min) and the theoretical yield (86.9%) was also calculated to be highest for the sample. PMID:22244903

  9. Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: biomass production and substrate biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Salmones, Dulce; Mata, Gerardo; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

    2005-03-01

    The results of the cultivation of six strains of Pleurotus (P. djamor (2), P. ostreatus (2) and P. pulmonarius (2)) on coffee pulp and wheat straw are presented. Metabolic activity associated with biomass of each strain was determined, as well as changes in lignin and polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose), phenolic and caffeine contents in substrate samples colonized for a period of up to 36 days. Analysis were made of changes during the mycelium incubation period (16 days) and throughout different stages of fructification. Greater metabolic activity was observed in the wheat straw samples, with a significant increase between 4 and 12 days of incubation. The degradation of polysaccharide compounds was associated with the fruiting stage, while the reduction in phenolic contents was detected in both substrates samples during the first eight days of incubation. A decrease was observed in caffeine content of the coffee pulp samples during fruiting stage, which could mean that some caffeine accumulates in the fruiting bodies. PMID:15501659

  10. An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost estimation study was performed for a biological butanol production plant with a capacity of 150 x 10**6 kg butanol/year. Wheat straw was used as a feedstock. In addition to butanol, acetone (78.05 x 10**6 kg/year) and ethanol (28.54 x 10**6 kg/year) would also be produced. The total capital c...

  11. Products of alkaline peroxide attack on wheat straw, oak, and keraf

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.; Peterson, R.

    1985-07-01

    Wheat straw, oak, and kenaf were partially delignified by treatment with hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.0, and the water-soluble degradation products were characterized. Forty to sixty percent of the solubilized products were larger than 1000 molecular weight (MW), as determined by membrane ultrafiltration. Lignin degradation products in the low-molecular-weight fraction (is less than 1000) consisted primarily of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids. 14 references.

  12. Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-01-01

    Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here “Biotech Feed” was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI: 3.74 Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50 g more daily body weight. PMID:25269679

  13. Fermentable hexose production from corn stalks and wheat straw with combined supercritical and subcritical hydrothermal technology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hong-Tao; Yang, Jin-Long

    2009-12-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes, including corn stalks and wheat straw, were pretreated and hydrolyzed with combined supercritical and subcritical hydrothermal technology. Soluble sugars were collected by pre-washing the crushed materials before hydrolysis. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, temperature, and reaction time on oligosaccharide production were investigated and the optimum supercritical conditions were found to be 20 mg/2.5 ml water, 384 degrees C, 17 s for corn stalks and 20 mg/2.5 ml water, 384 degrees C, 19 s for wheat straw. Subsequent subcritical processing of the hydrolyzate (with or without the water extract) from supercritical treatment was guided by a previous analysis of cellulose hydrolysis kinetics. The highest yield of fermentable hexoses from corn stalks (27.4% of raw material) was obtained at 280 degrees C, 27 s, and from wheat straw (6.7% of raw material) at 280 degrees C, 54 s. This study provides novel key parameters for fermentable hexose production from lignocellulosic feedstocks using combined supercritical and subcritical hydrothermal treatment. PMID:19616938

  14. Optimization of ethanol production from microfluidized wheat straw by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Ozge; Isci, Asli; Mert, Behic; Sakiyan, Ozge; Donmez, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, wheat straw was pretreated with a microfluidizer to improve its enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol yields. The pretreatment was performed at various pressures (500, 1000, and 1500 bar) and solid loadings (1, 2, and 3%). The microfluidized biomass was then subjected to hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) experiments at different enzyme loadings (5, 10, and 15 FPU/g dry wheat straw) using a mutant yeast. The results indicated that the microfluidization method alters the structure of biomass and leads to a reduction in lignin content. The samples pretreated at 1% solid loading contained the minimum lignin concentration and provided the maximum sugar and ethanol yields. These results signified that the microfluidization method is more effective on biomass at low solid loadings. The process conditions were optimized for higher ethanol and sugar yields using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum pressure and solid and enzyme loadings were found as 1500 bar, 1%, and 15 FPU/g dry wheat straw, respectively. The yields obtained at this condition were 82%, 94%, and 65% for glucose, xylose, and ethanol, respectively. High sugar yields implied that microfluidization is an effective pretreatment method for cellulosic ethanol production. On the other hand, low ethanol yield may indicate that the microorganism was sensitive to inhibitory compounds present in the fermentation medium. PMID:25181638

  15. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition. PMID:21714234

  16. Kinetics of cadmium, chromium, and lead sorption onto chemically modified sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Mahmood-ul-Hassan, M; Suthar, V; Rafique, E; Ahmad, R; Yasin, M

    2015-07-01

    In this study, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) adsorption potential of unmodified and modified sugarcane bagasse and ground wheat straw was explored from aqueous solution through batch equilibrium technique. Both the materials were chemically modified by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) alone and in combination with nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Two kinetic models, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order were used to follow the adsorption process and reaction fallowed the later model. The Pb removal by both the materials was highest and followed by Cr and Cd. The chemical treatment invariably increased the adsorption capacity and NaOH treatment proved more effective than others. Langmuir maximum sorption capacity (q m) of Pb was utmost (12.8-23.3 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 14.5-22.4 mg/g of wheat straw) and of Cd was least (1.5-2.2 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 2.5-3.8 mg/g of wheat straw). The q m was in the order of Pb > Cr > Cd for all the three adsorbents. Results demonstrate that agricultural waste materials used in this study could be used to remediate the heavy metal-polluted water. PMID:26116198

  17. Enhancement of methane yield from wheat straw, miscanthus and willow using aqueous ammonia soaking.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N; Skiadas, Ioannis V

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for methane production cannot be satisfied by the use of anaerobic digestion only from waste/wastewater treatment. Perennial energy crops, such as miscanthus and willow, as well as agricultural residues can be considered as options for increasing the methane production through biomass digestion, due to their high organic content and biomass yield. These materials present a great potential, which is only limited by the rigid lignocellulosic structure. In this case, it is possible to apply a pretreatment step in order to achieve increased biogas production. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been investigated as a method to disrupt the lignocellulosic structure and increase the methane yield of wheat straw, miscanthus and willow. Among the three biomasses tested, wheat straw and miscanthus were the most promising in terms of methane production, yielding around 200 and 230 ml of methane per gram of total solids. In all three cases, AAS resulted to an increase in methane yield of 37-41%, 25-27% and 94-162% for wheat straw, miscanthus and willow, respectively. A comparison of the methane yields after 20 and 50 days of anaerobic digestion revealed that AAS affected positively the methane production rate as well. AAS also resulted to a low solubilization of sugars, with a 15.4% and 8.9% increase in soluble xylose concentration in miscanthus and willow, respectively, and a 5% solubilization of glucose in AAS-pretreated miscanthus. PMID:24350460

  18. Optimization and kinetic analysis on the sulfuric acid - Catalyzed depolymerization of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian-Qian; Ma, Yu-Long; Chang, Xuan; Sun, Yong-Gang

    2015-09-20

    The objectives of this work were to optimize the experimental condition and to study the kinetic behavior of wheat straw depolymerization with sulfuric acid (2 wt%, 3 wt%, and 4 wt%) at different temperatures (120°C, 130°C, and 140°C). The two-fraction kinetic model was obtained for the prediction of the generations of product and by-product during depolymerization. The kinetic parameters of the two-fraction model were analyzed using an Arrhenius-type equation. Applying the kinetic two-fraction model, the optimum condition for wheat straw depolymerization was 3 wt% H2SO4 at 130°C for 75 min, which yielded a high concentration of fermentable sugars (xylose 8.934 g/L, glucose 1.363 g/L, and arabinose 1.203 g/L) and low concentrations of microbial inhibitors (furfural 0.526 g/L and acetic acid 1.192 g/L). These results suggest that the model obtained in this study can satisfactorily describe the formation of degradation products and the depolymerization mechanism of wheat straw. PMID:26050891

  19. Physical and thermochemical properties of cereal straws

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E. ); Al-Taweel, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Cereal straws are one of the most commonly available lignocellulosic materials that can be converted to different types of fuels and chemical feedstocks through a variety of thermochemical conversion processes. This study provides information on moisture content, bulk density, particle size, heating values, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, ash composition, and ash feasibility characteristics for four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye). The type of straw and the crop variety have significant effects on the chemical properties of straw.

  20. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; de Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health. PMID:26102585

  1. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; de Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health. PMID:26102585

  2. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull

    PubMed Central

    Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

    2013-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  3. Utilization of the water soluable fraction of wheat straw as a plant nutrient source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight was removed from wheat straw and roots, although the recovery of individual nutrients varied. Leaching also removed about 20 percent of the total organic carbon from the biomass. In terms of dry weight, the leachate was comprised of approximately 60 percent organic and 40 percent inorganic compounds. Direct use of wheat straw leachate in static hydroponic systems had an inhibitory effect on wheat growth, both in the presence and absence of microorganisms. Biological treatment of leachate either with a mixed microbial community or the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus L., prior to use in hydroponic solutions, significantly reduced both the organic content and the inhibitory effects of the leachate. The inhibitory effects of unprocessed leachate appear to be a result of rapidly acting phytotoxic compounds that are detoxified by microbial activity. Leaching holds considerable promise as a method for nutrient recycling in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

  4. Evaluation of selected white-rot fungal isolates for improving the sugar yield from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Cianchetta, Stefano; Di Maggio, Barbara; Burzi, Pier Luigi; Galletti, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by fungi can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to physicochemical methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal metabolism can cause cellulose loss and it is therefore necessary to use the appropriate fungal strain-biomass type combination. In this work, the effects of biological pretreatments carried out by five different fungi on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw were investigated. The best results were obtained with a Ceriporiopsis subvermispora strain, which minimized weight and cellulose losses and gave the highest net sugar yield (calculated with respect to the holocellulose content of the untreated straw), up to 44 % after a 10-week pretreatment, more than doubling the yields obtained with the other isolates. Moreover, prolonging the pretreatment from 4 up to 10 weeks produced a 2-fold increase, up to 60 %, in digestibility (sugar yield, calculated considering the holocellulose content of the pretreated material). The hemicellulose content of the pretreated material resulted inversely correlated with digestibility, and it could thus be utilized as an index of the pretreatment efficacy. Finally, a correlation was also found between digestibility and the difference between the absorbance values at 290 and 320 nm of pretreated wheat straw extracts. PMID:24691881

  5. Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

  6. Enhanced biomethane potential from wheat straw by low temperature alkaline calcium hydroxide pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2015-08-01

    A factorially designed experiment to examine the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, enzyme addition and particle size, on the mesophilic (35 °C) anaerobic digestion of wheat straw was conducted. Experiments used a 48 h pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2 7.4% (w/w), addition of Accellerase®-1500, with four particle sizes of wheat straw (1.25, 2, 3 and 10mm) and three digestion time periods (5, 15 and 30 days). By combining particle size reduction and Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, the average methane potential was increased by 315% (from 48 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1) to 202 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1)) after 5 days of anaerobic digestion compared to the control. Enzyme addition or Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment with 3, 2 and 1.25 mm particle sizes had 30-day batch yields of between 301 and 335 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Alkali pre-treatment of 3mm straw was shown to have the most potential as a cost effective pre-treatment and achieved 290 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1), after only 15 days of digestion. PMID:25898087

  7. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mnica; Gonzlez-Benito, Gerardo; Garca-Cubero, Mara Teresa

    2014-09-01

    ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40 g/g ABE yield and 127.71 g ABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32 g/g ABE yield and 79.65 g ABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media. PMID:24983690

  8. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  9. Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

    2002-04-01

    Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950°C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

  10. Size exclusion chromatography for the removal of pigments from extracellular ligninolytic enzyme extracts from decayed wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dharmendra; Patel, Bhavesh; Modi, Hasmukh; Vyas, Bharat Rajiv Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Solid-state fermentation of wheat straw was carried out by a native white rot basidiomycete Daedaleopsis flavida strain 5A. Extract prepared from the 12-day decayed wheat straw contained extracellular ligninolytic enzymes like manganese peroxidase (MnP), manganese-independent peroxidase (MIP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase along with straw-degraded products and pigments. Sephacryl S-200 size exclusion chromatography in 16/100 column was used for the separation of these ligninolytic enzymes and straw-degraded products and pigments. Recovery of pigment-free ligninolytic enzyme activities as protein was 40% of the total proteins loaded and specific LiP activity increased 34 fold after size exclusion chromatography. Thus accurate estimation of LiP by veratryl alcohol oxidation assay was possible only after the removal of interfering pigments. The reproducibility of size exclusion chromatography is adjudged satisfactory from the consistent results obtained after seven repetitive uses of matrices. PMID:22471206

  11. Removal of Fermentation Inhibitors from Alkaline Peroxide Pretreated and Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Wheat Straw: Production of Butanol from Hydrolysate Using Clostridium beijerinckii in Batch Reactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw was investigated. Pretreated wheat straw was hydrolyzed using celluloytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and the hydrolysate was used to produce butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The culture produced less than 2.59 gL**-1 acetone...

  12. Pretreatment and fractionation of wheat straw for production of fuel ethanol and value-added co-products in a biorefinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment condi...

  13. Effect of four pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of wheat straw. Influence of inhibitors and washing.

    PubMed

    Toquero, Cristina; Bolado, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Pretreatment is essential in the production of alcohol from lignocellulosic material. In order to increase enzymatic sugar release and bioethanol production, thermal, dilute acid, dilute basic and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were applied to wheat straw. Compositional changes in pretreated solid fractions and sugars and possible inhibitory compounds released in liquid fractions were analysed. SEM analysis showed structural changes after pretreatments. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Pichia stipitis of unwashed and washed samples from each pretreatment were performed so as to compare sugar and ethanol yields. The effect of the main inhibitors found in hydrolysates (formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was first studied through ethanol fermentations of model media and then compared to real hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of washed alkaline peroxide pretreated biomass provided the highest sugar concentrations, 31.82g/L glucose, and 13.75g/L xylose, their fermentation yielding promising results, with ethanol concentrations reaching 17.37g/L. PMID:24531149

  14. Water-saving techniques in Chinese agriculture: water-saving irrigation and straw mulching for winter wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guoqiang; Zhu, Zixi; Zheng, Youfei; Fang, Wensong

    2004-01-01

    Based on the relationship between water balance and crop-water, water-saving irrigation model was integrated with monitoring and prediction of soil moisture, forming a system of decision-making of irrigation. It is demonstrated that straw mulching for winter wheat is an effective way to reduce soil evaporation at early stages and increase yield and improve water utilization efficiency. Combination of water-saving irrigation and straw mulching plays an important role in China water-saving agriculture.

  15. Persistence of Pendimethalin in/on Wheat, Straw, Soil and Water.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Indu; Chauhan, Reena; Kumari, Beena

    2015-11-01

    Pendimethalin, a dinitroaniline group of organic herbicide compounds used as pre emergence weed control in wheat, onion and soyabean crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the harvest time residues of pendimethalin in wheat grain and straw its dissipation behaviour in soil and water. At harvest time, the residues of pendimethalin in wheat grain and straw were found to be below determination limit of 0.001 mg kg(-1) following single application of the herbicide at the rate of 1 (T1/single dose) and 2 (T2/double dose) kg a.i. ha(-1). Soil samples from the field were collected periodically and analysed by GC-ECD system. In soil, initial deposits of 4.069 and 10.473 mg kg(-1) of pendimethalin persisted up to 90 days and dissipation followed first order kinetics with half life period of 12.03 days in T1 and 13.00 days in T2. Residues of pendimethalin studied in water under laboratory conditions at 0.5 (T1) and 1.0 (T2) mg L(-1) levels persisted up to 90 days. Dissipation kinetics followed first order kinetics with half-life values of 12.70 and 13.78 days at single and double dose, respectively. Limit of determination in grain, straw and soil were 0.001 mg kg(-1) and in water was 0.001 mg L(-1). Application of the herbicide is considered quite safe from consumer and environmental point of view. PMID:26193835

  16. Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a), CBH2 (Cel6a), EG1 (Cel7b), EG2 (Cel5a), as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a) were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25%) which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw. PMID:22373423

  17. Bulk density of wet and dry wheat straw and switchgrass particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Naimi, L.J.; Hoque, M.; Mani, Sudhagar; Narayan, S.

    2008-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Bulk density is a major physical property in designing the logistic system for biomass handling. The size, shape, moisture content, individual particle density, and surface characteristics are few factors affecting the bulk density. This research investigates the effects of true particle lengths ranging from 6 to 50 mm and moisture contents ranging from 8% to 60% wet basis (wb) on the bulk density of wheat straw and switchgrass. Three types of particle densities of straw and switchgrass measured were: a hollow particle density assuming a hollow cylindrical geometry, a solid particle density assuming a solid cylindrical geometry, and a particle density measured using a gas pycnometer at a gas pressure of 40 kPa. The bulk density of both loose fill and packed fill biomass samples was examined. The calculated wet and dry bulk density ranged from 24 to 111 kg m 3 for straw and from 49 to 266 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The corresponding tapped bulk density ranged from 34 to 130 kg m 3 for straw and 68 to 323 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The increase in bulk density due to tapping the container was from 10% for short 6 mm particles to more than 50% for long 50 mm particles. An equation relating the bulk density of stems as a function of moisture content, dry bulk density, and particle size was developed. After the validation of this bulk density equation, the relationship would be highly useful in designing the logistics system for large scale transport of biomass to a biorefinery. The bulk density and particle density data of uniform particles would be important, if straw and switchgrass is used for pulping and paper making.

  18. Evaluation of Fusarium oxysporum cellulolytic system for an efficient hydrolysis of hydrothermally treated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Xiros, Charilaos; Katapodis, Petros; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2009-11-01

    The crude multienzyme extract produced by Fusarium oxysporum cultivated under submerged conditions in 20 L bioreactor using brewers spent grain and corn cobs in a ratio 2:1 as the carbon source was evaluated with regard to an efficient saccharification of hydrothermally treated wheat straw. Several factors concerning the obtained hydrolysis yield and reaction rate were investigated. The takeout of product sugars (in situ) was effective at reducing end-product inhibition and lead to a bioconversion about 80% of the theoretical. A kinetic model incorporating dynamic adsorption, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product inhibition was developed. The model predicted very satisfactorily the experimental data. PMID:19540758

  19. Nutritional evaluation of wheat straw treated with Crinipellis sp. in Sahiwal calves.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Munnurpal Satyanarayana; Mohini, Madhu; Jha, Pankaj; Sawant, Sanjay Pandurang; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-11-01

    Wheat straw was subjected to solid-state fermentation (SSF) with lignolytic white-rot fungus (WRF) Crinipellis sp. for 5 days to improve the nutritive value and digestibility. The fungal treatment caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in cell wall constituents viz., neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose, lignin, and cellulose to the extent of 10.4, 11.2, 8.7, 8.7, and 12.1 %, respectively, with increase (P < 0.05) in crude protein (CP) (51.6%) and ash (25.8%) contents in fungal treated wheat straw (FT-WS) than untreated wheat straw (UT-WS). Further, in vitro gas production, in vitro true dry matter digestibility and in vitro true organic matter digestibility at 48 h, metabolizable energy (ME) content, microbial biomass production, and short-chain fatty acids synthesis were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in FT-WS. In vivo feeding trial in 10 Sahiwal calves (8-12 months) comprised of (1) control group (T1) fed with ad libitum chopped UT-WS and (2) treatment group (T2) offered with ad libitum chopped FT-WS, in addition to supplementation of groundnut cake and green berseem (Trifolium alexandrium) forage to both groups. Digestibility of nutrients for dry matter (DM), organic matter, CP, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, and total carbohydrates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in T2 compared to T1. Moreover, daily DM (P < 0.05), digestible crude protein (P < 0.01), and ME intakes were also higher (P < 0.05) in group T2 with higher (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) retention, which resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) higher average daily gain in body weight (135 vs. 102 g/day). It was concluded that SSF with WRF Crinipellis sp. holds potential in upgrading the nutritional worth of wheat straw for feeding growing calves. PMID:23839599

  20. Enzymic saccharification of pretreated wheat straw. [Trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Vallander, L.; Eriksson, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of pretreatment of wheat and its subsequent saccharification by Trichoderma reesei cellulases are reported. Steam explosion was found to be the most effective of the pretreatment methods tested. Data are presented describing the effect of enzyme and substrate concentration on the rate and degree of hydrolysis. Significant inhibition of the cellulases was observed when sugar concentrations were 6% or higher. This inhibition increased when glucose and ethanol were present simultaneously. Adsorption of enzymes to the substrate was followed during a 24-h hydrolysis period. An initial rapid and extensive adsorption occurred, followed by a short desorption period that was followed in turn by a further increased adsorption peaking after 3 h. Intermediate removal of hydrolysate, particularly in combination with a second addition of enzyme, clearly improved the yield of saccharification compared to an uninterrupted hydrolysis over a 24-h period. Thus, a 74% yield of reducing sugars was obtained. Furthermore, an increase in the amount of recoverable enzymes was observed under these conditions. Evidence is presented that suggests that a countercurrent technique, whereby free enzymes in recovered hydrolysate are adsorbed onto new substrate, may provide a means of recirculating dissolved enzymes.

  1. Analysis of methane potentials of steam-exploded wheat straw and estimation of energy yields of combined ethanol and methane production.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Alexander; Bösch, Peter; Friedl, Anton; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Agrarian biomass as a renewable energy source can contribute to a considerable CO(2) reduction. The overriding goal of the European Union is to cut energy consumption related greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% until the year 2020. This publication aims at optimising the methane production from steam-exploded wheat straw and presents a theoretical estimation of the ethanol and methane potential of straw. For this purpose, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different time/temperature combinations. Specific methane yields were analyzed according to VDI 4630. Pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion significantly increased the methane yield from anaerobic digestion by up to 20% or a maximum of 331 l(N)kg(-1) VS compared to untreated wheat straw. Furthermore, the residual anaerobic digestion potential of methane after ethanol fermentation was determined by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw using cellulase. Based on the resulting glucose concentration the ethanol yield and the residual sugar available for methane production were calculated. The theoretical maximum ethanol yield of wheat straw was estimated to be 0.249 kg kg(-1) dry matter. The achievable maximum ethanol yield per kg wheat straw dry matter pretreated by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis was estimated to be 0.200 kg under pretreatment conditions of 200 degrees C and 10 min corresponding to 80% of the theoretical maximum. The residual methane yield from straw stillage was estimated to be 183 l(N)kg(-1) wheat straw dry matter. Based on the presented experimental data, a concept is proposed that processes wheat straw for ethanol and methane production. The concept of an energy supply system that provides more than two forms of energy is met by (1) upgrading obtained ethanol to fuel-grade quality and providing methane to CHP plants for the production of (2) electric energy and (3) utility steam that in turn can be used to operate distillation columns in the ethanol production process. PMID:19480947

  2. Ozonation and alkaline-peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw for Cryptococcus curvatus fermentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J. B.; Lin, S.; McKenzie, S.; Denvir, A.

    2000-01-01

    Crop residues in an Advanced Life Support System (ALS) contain many valuable components that could be recovered and used. Wheat is 60% inedible, with approximately 90% of the total sugars in the residue cellulose and hemicellulose. To release these sugars requires pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Cryptococcus curvatus, an oleaginous yeast, uses the sugars in cellulose and hemicellulose for growth and production of storage triglycerides. In this investigation, alkaline-peroxide and ozonation pretreatment methods were compared for their efficiency to release glucose and xylose to be used in the cultivation of C. curvatus. Leaching the biomass with water at 65 degrees C for 4 h prior to pretreatment facilitated saccharification. Alkaline-peroxide and ozone pretreatment were almost 100% and 80% saccharification efficient, respectively. The sugars derived from the hydrolysis of alkaline-peroxide-treated wheat straw supported the growth of C. curvatus and the production of edible single-cell oil.

  3. Effects of wheat straw incorporation on the availability of soil nutrients and enzyme activities in semiarid areas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Ke; Ding, Ruixia; Yang, Baoping; Nie, Junfeng; Jia, Zhikuan; Han, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Soil infertility is the main barrier to dryland agricultural production in China. To provide a basis for the establishment of a soil amelioration technical system for rainfed fields in the semiarid area of northwest China, we conducted a four-year (2007-2011) field experiment to determine the effects of wheat straw incorporation on the arid soil nutrient levels of cropland cultivated with winter wheat after different straw incorporation levels. Three wheat straw incorporation levels were tested (H: 9000 kg hm(-2), M: 6000 kg hm(-2), and L: 3000 kg hm(-2)) and no straw incorporation was used as the control (CK). The levels of soil nutrients, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil labile organic carbon (LOC), and enzyme activities were analyzed each year after the wheat harvest. After straw incorporation for four years, the results showed that variable straw amounts had different effects on the soil fertility indices, where treatment H had the greatest effect. Compared with CK, the average soil available N, available P, available K, SOC, and LOC levels were higher in the 0-40 cm soil layers after straw incorporation treatments, i.e., 9.1-30.5%, 9.8-69.5%, 10.3-27.3%, 0.7-23.4%, and 44.4-49.4% higher, respectively. On average, the urease, phosphatase, and invertase levels in the 0-40 cm soil layers were 24.4-31.3%, 9.9-36.4%, and 42.9-65.3% higher, respectively. Higher yields coupled with higher nutrient contents were achieved with H, M and L compared with CK, where these treatments increased the crop yields by 26.75%, 21.51%, and 7.15%, respectively. PMID:25880452

  4. Effects of Wheat Straw Incorporation on the Availability of Soil Nutrients and Enzyme Activities in Semiarid Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Ke; Ding, Ruixia; Yang, Baoping; Nie, Junfeng; Jia, Zhikuan; Han, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Soil infertility is the main barrier to dryland agricultural production in China. To provide a basis for the establishment of a soil amelioration technical system for rainfed fields in the semiarid area of northwest China, we conducted a four—year (2007–2011) field experiment to determine the effects of wheat straw incorporation on the arid soil nutrient levels of cropland cultivated with winter wheat after different straw incorporation levels. Three wheat straw incorporation levels were tested (H: 9000 kg hm-2, M: 6000 kg hm-2, and L: 3000 kg hm-2) and no straw incorporation was used as the control (CK). The levels of soil nutrients, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil labile organic carbon (LOC), and enzyme activities were analyzed each year after the wheat harvest. After straw incorporation for four years, the results showed that variable straw amounts had different effects on the soil fertility indices, where treatment H had the greatest effect. Compared with CK, the average soil available N, available P, available K, SOC, and LOC levels were higher in the 0–40 cm soil layers after straw incorporation treatments, i.e., 9.1–30.5%, 9.8–69.5%, 10.3–27.3%, 0.7–23.4%, and 44.4–49.4% higher, respectively. On average, the urease, phosphatase, and invertase levels in the 0–40 cm soil layers were 24.4–31.3%, 9.9–36.4%, and 42.9–65.3% higher, respectively. Higher yields coupled with higher nutrient contents were achieved with H, M and L compared with CK, where these treatments increased the crop yields by 26.75%, 21.51%, and 7.15%, respectively. PMID:25880452

  5. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  6. Effects of straw mulch on soil water and winter wheat production in dryland farming.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhang; Ting, Wei; Haixia, Wang; Min, Wang; Xiangping, Meng; Siwei, Mou; Rui, Zhang; Zhikuan, Jia; Qingfang, Han

    2015-01-01

    The soil water supply is the main factor that limits dryland crop production in China. In a three-year field experiment at a dryland farming experimental station, we evaluated the effects of various straw mulch practices on soil water storage, grain yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Field experiments were conducted with six different mulch combinations (two different mulch durations and three different mulch amounts): high (SM1; 9000 kg ha(-1)), medium (SM2; 6000 kg ha(-1)), and low (SM3; 3000 kg ha(-1)) straw mulch treatments for the whole period; and high (SM4), medium (SM5) and low (SM6) straw mulch treatments during the growth period only, where the control was the whole period without mulch (CK). Throughout the whole growth period of the three-year experiment, the average soil water content in the 0-200 cm soil layer increased by 0.7-22.5% compared with CK, while the WUE increased significantly by 30.6%, 32.7% and 24.2% with SM1, SM2, and SM3, respectively (P < 0.05). The yield increased by 13.3-23.0% when mulch was provided during the growth period, while the WUE increased by 15.2%, 17.2% and 18.0% with SM4, SM5, and SM6, respectively, compared with CK. PMID:26035528

  7. Effect of Additions on Ensiling and Microbial Community of Senesced Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    David N. Thompson; Joni M. Barnes; Tracy P. Houghton

    2005-04-01

    Crop residues collected during or after grain harvest are available once per year and must be stored for extended periods. The combination of air, high moisture, and high microbial loads leads to shrinkage during storage and risk of spontaneous ignition. Ensiling is a wet preservation method that could be used to store these residues stably. To economically adapt ensiling to biomass that is harvested after it has senesced, the need for nutrient, moisture, and microbial additions must be determined. We tested the ensiling of senesced wheat straw in sealed columns for 83 d. The straw was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and amended with several levels of water and free sugars. The ability to stabilize the straw polysaccharides was strongly influenced by both moisture and free sugars. Without the addition of sugar, the pH increased from 5.2 to as much as 9.1, depending on moisture level, and losses of 22% of the cellulose and 21% of the hemicellulose were observed. By contrast, when sufficient sugars were added and interstitial water was maintained, a final pH of 4.0 was attainable, with correspondingly low (<5%) losses of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results show that ensiling should be considered a promising method for stable storage of wet biorefinery feedstocks.

  8. SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw with the addition of saccharified or fermented wheat meal in integrated bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integration of second-generation (2G) bioethanol production with existing first-generation (1G) production may facilitate commercial production of ethanol from cellulosic material. Since 2G hydrolysates have a low sugar concentration and 1G streams often have to be diluted prior to fermentation, mixing of streams is beneficial. Improved ethanol concentrations in the 2G production process lowers energy demand in distillation, improves overall energy efficiency and thus lower production cost. There is also a potential to reach higher ethanol yields, which is required in economically feasible ethanol production. Integrated process scenarios with addition of saccharified wheat meal (SWM) or fermented wheat meal (FWM) were investigated in simultaneous saccharification and (co-)fermentation (SSF or SSCF) of steam-pretreated wheat straw, while the possibility of recovering the valuable protein-rich fibre residue from the wheat was also studied. Results The addition of SWM to SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw, using commercially used dried baker’s yeast, S. cerevisiae, resulted in ethanol concentrations of about 60 g/L, equivalent to ethanol yields of about 90% of the theoretical. The addition of FWM in batch mode SSF was toxic to baker’s yeast, due to the ethanol content of FWM, resulting in a very low yield and high accumulation of glucose. The addition of FWM in fed-batch mode still caused a slight accumulation of glucose, but the ethanol concentration was fairly high, 51.2 g/L, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 90%, based on the amount of glucose added. In batch mode of SSCF using the xylose-fermenting, genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain KE6-12, no improvement was observed in ethanol yield or concentration, compared with baker’s yeast, despite the increased xylose utilization, probably due to the considerable increase in glycerol production. A slight increase in xylose consumption was seen when glucose from SWM was fed at a low feed rate, after 48 hours, compared with batch SSCF. However, the ethanol yield and concentration remained in the same range as in batch mode. Conclusion Ethanol concentrations of about 6% (w/v) were obtained, which will result in a significant reduction in the cost of downstream processing, compared with SSF of the lignocellulosic substrate alone. As an additional benefit, it is also possible to recover the protein-rich residue from the SWM in the process configurations presented, providing a valuable co-product. PMID:24286350

  9. Rapid Assessment of In Situ Wheat Straw Residue Via Remote Sensing Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. G.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J.; Wersinger, J. M.; Guertal, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    Crop residues influence near surface soil organic carbon content (SOC), impact our ability to remotely assess soil properties, and play a role in global carbon budgets. Methods that measure crop residues are laborious, and largely inappropriate for regional estimates. The objective of this study was to evaluate remote sensing (RS) data for rapid quantification of residue cover. In March 2000 and April 2001, residue plots (15 m x 15 m) were established in the Coastal Plain and Appalachian Plateau physiographic regions of Alabama. Treatments consisted of five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw cover rates (0, 10, 20, 50, and 80%) replicated 3 times. Soil water content and residue decomposition were monitored. Spectral measurements were acquired via spectroradiometer (350 - 1050 nm), Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) (400 - 12,500 nm), airborne color photography (400 - 600 nm), and IKONOS satellite (450 - 900 nm). Spectroradiometer data were acquired monthly, aircraft images yearly, and satellite per availability. Results showed all platforms successfully estimated residue cover variability using red, near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) regions of the spectrum. Airborne ATLAS imagery was best explaining as much as 98% of the variability in wheat straw cover. Spectroradiometer, color infrared photography, and IKONOS imagery accounted for 84, 56, and 24% of the variability, respectively.

  10. Wheat straw biochar amendments on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanan; Yang, Baoshan; Song, Ziheng; Wang, Hui; He, Fei; Han, Xuemei

    2016-08-01

    Soil amendments of wheat straw biochar (BC), lignocellulosic substrate (LS), BC+LS, and BC+LS+BR (surfactant Brij30) were investigated for the first time in order to remedy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-polluted soil using pilot scale microcosm incubation. We hypothesized that the removal of PAHs could be inhibited due to the adsorption and immobilization of biochar and the inhibition depends on the molecular-weight of PAHs. The removal rates of phenanthrene (PHE) and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranked as C=BC>LS=LS+BC=LS+BC+BR and C=BC=LS+BC+BR>LS=LS+BC. Wheat straw biochar inhibited the removal of PHE and accelerated BaP removal. The activity of Dehydrogenase (DH) was depressed by the addition of the biochar while the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was stimulated. Lignocellulose and surfactant are favourable to sustain soil microbiological activity and the removal of PAHs although the diversity of bacterial community was not significantly changed. The findings implied that the components of PAHs are necessary to consider when the amendments are implemented by associated biochar in PAH-polluted soil. PMID:27151675

  11. Development and characterization of an environmentally friendly process sequence (autohydrolysis and organosolv) for wheat straw delignification.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Héctor A; Ruzene, Denise S; Silva, Daniel P; da Silva, Fernando F Macieira; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A

    2011-07-01

    The present work describes the delignification of wheat straw through an environmentally friendly process resulting from sequential application of autohydrolysis and organosolv processes. Wheat straw autohydrolysis was performed at 180°C during 30 min with a liquid-solid ratio of 10 (v/w); under these conditions, a solubilization of 44% of the original xylan, with 78% of sugars as xylooligosaccharides of the sum of sugars solubilized in the autohydrolysis liquors generated by the hemicellulose fraction hydrolysis. The corresponding solid fraction enrichment with 63.7% of glucan and 7.55% of residual xylan was treated with a 40% ethanol and 0.1% NaOH aqueous solution at a liquid-solid ratio of 10 (v/w), with the best results obtained at 180°C during 20 min. The highest lignin recovery, measured by acid precipitation of the extracted lignin, was 3.25 g/100 ml. The lignin obtained by precipitation was characterized by FTIR, and the crystallinity indexes from the native cellulose, the cellulose recovered after autohydrolysis, and the cellulose obtained after applying the organosolv process were obtained by X-ray diffraction, returning values of 21.32%, 55.17%, and 53.59%, respectively. Visualization of the fibers was done for all the processing steps using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:21274658

  12. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  13. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART II - FED-BATCH FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolyzate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable u...

  14. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART I-BATCH FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simult...

  15. Differential proteomic analysis of the secretome of Irpex lacteus and other white-rot fungi during wheat straw pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying new high-performance enzymes or enzyme complexes to enhance biomass degradation is the key for the development of cost-effective processes for ethanol production. Irpex lacteus is an efficient microorganism for wheat straw pretreatment, yielding easily hydrolysable products with high sugar content. Thus, this fungus was selected to investigate the enzymatic system involved in lignocellulose decay, and its secretome was compared to those from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus which produced different degradation patterns when growing on wheat straw. Extracellular enzymes were analyzed through 2D-PAGE, nanoLC/MS-MS, and homology searches against public databases. Results In wheat straw, I. lacteus secreted proteases, dye-decolorizing and manganese-oxidizing peroxidases, and H2O2 producing-enzymes but also a battery of cellulases and xylanases, excluding those implicated in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation to their monosaccharides, making these sugars poorly available for fungal consumption. In contrast, a significant increase of β-glucosidase production was observed when I. lacteus grew in liquid cultures. P. chrysosporium secreted more enzymes implicated in the total hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and P. ostreatus produced, in proportion, more oxidoreductases. Conclusion The protein pattern secreted during I. lacteus growth in wheat straw plus the differences observed among the different secretomes, justify the fitness of I. lacteus for biopretreatment processes in 2G-ethanol production. Furthermore, all these data give insight into the biological degradation of lignocellulose and suggest new enzyme mixtures interesting for its efficient hydrolysis. PMID:23937687

  16. Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of spent mushroom substrate with yard trimmings and wheat straw for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunqin; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a biomass waste generated from mushroom production. About 5 kg of SMS is generated for every kg of mushroom produced. In this study, solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of SMS, wheat straw, yard trimmings, and their mixtures was investigated at different feedstock to effluent ratios. SMS was found to be highly degradable, which resulted in inhibition of SS-AD due to volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and a decrease in pH. This issue was addressed by co-digestion of SMS with either yard trimmings or wheat straw. SS-AD of SMS/yard trimmings achieved a cumulative methane yield of 194 L/kg VS, which was 16 and 2 times higher than that from SMS and yard trimmings, respectively. SS-AD of SMS/wheat straw obtained a cumulative methane yield of 269 L/kg VS, which was 23 times as high as that from SMS and comparable to that from wheat straw. PMID:25084045

  17. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw. PMID:26264398

  18. Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerre, A.B.; Olesen, A.B.; Fernqvist, T.; Ploeger, A.; Schmidt, A.S.

    1996-03-05

    The wet oxidation process of wheat straw has been studied as a pretreatment method to attain the main goal: to break down cellulose to glucose enzymatic, and secondly, to dissolve hemicellulose (e.g., for fermentation) without producing microbial inhibitors. Wet oxidation combined with base addition readily oxidizes lignin from wheat straw facilitating the polysaccharides for enzymatic hydrolysis. By using a specially constructed autoclave system, the wet oxidation process was optimized with respect to both reaction time and temperature. The best conditions (20 g/L straw, 170 C, 5 to 10 min) gave about 85% w/w yield of converting cellulose to glucose. The process water, containing dissolved hemicellulose and carboxylic acids, has proven to be a direct nutrient source for the fungus Aspergillus niger producing exo-{beta}-xylosidase. Furfural and hydroxymethyl-furfural, known inhibitors of microbial growth when other pretreatment systems have been applied, were not observed following the wet oxidation treatment.

  19. Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) Productivity and Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Profiles during Wheat Straw and Tree Leaf Bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil D

    2015-01-01

    Two commercial strains of Lentinus edodes have been comparatively evaluated for their productivity and lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles in mushroom cultivation using wheat straw or tree leaves as the growth substrates. Both substrates are profitable for recycling into shiitake fruit bodies. L. edodes 3715 gave the lowest yield of mushroom during tree leaves bioconversion with the biological efficiency (BE) 74.8% while the L. edodes 3721 BE achieved 83.4%. Cultivation of shiitake on wheat straw, especially in the presence of additional nitrogen source, increased the L. edodes 3721 BE to 92-95.3% owing to the high hydrolases activity and favorable conditions. Despite the quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had a similar pattern for secreting enzymes into the wheat straw and tree leaves. The mushrooms laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during primordia appearance and fruit body development. While oxidase activity decreased, during the same period cellulases and xylanase activity raised sharply. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruit body stage. When mushrooms again shifted to the vegetative growth, oxidase activity gradually increased, whereas the hydrolases activity dropped rapidly. The MnP, CMCase, and FP activities of L. edodes 3721 during cultivation on wheat straw were higher than those during mushroom growth on tree leaves whereas the laccase activity was rather higher in fermentation of tree leaves. Enrichment of wheat straw with an additional nitrogen source rather favored to laccase, MnP, and FPA secretion during the vegetative stage of the L. edodes 3721 growth. PMID:25746408

  20. Comparison of mechanistic models in the initial rate enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Different mechanistic models have been used in the literature to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. Although these different models have been applied to different substrates, most of these mechanistic models fit into two- and three-parameter mechanistic models. The purpose of this study is to compare the models and determine the activation energy and the enthalpy of adsorption of Trichoderma reesei enzymes on ammonia fibre explosion (AFEX)-treated wheat straw. Experimental enzymatic hydrolysis data from AFEX-treated wheat straw were modelled with two- and three-parameter mechanistic models from the literature. In order to discriminate between the models, initial rate data at 49°C were subjected to statistical analysis (analysis of variance and scatter plots). Results For three-parameter models, the HCH-1 model best fitted the experimental data; for two-parameter models Michaelis-Menten (M-M) best fitted the experimental data. All the three-parameter models fitted the data better than the two-parameter models. The best three models at 49°C (HCH-1, Huang and M-M) were compared using initial rate data at three temperatures (35°, 42° and 49°C). The HCH-1 model provided the best fit based on the F values, the scatter plot and the residual sum of squares. Also, its kinetic parameters were linear in Arrhenius/van't Hoff's plots, unlike the other models. The activation energy (Ea) is 47.6 kJ/mol and the enthalpy change of adsorption (ΔH) is -118 kJ/mol for T. reesei enzymes on AFEX-treated wheat straw. Conclusion Among the two-parameter models, Michaelis-Menten model provided the best fit compared to models proposed by Humphrey and Wald. For the three-parameter models, HCH-1 provided the best fit because the model includes a fractional coverage parameter (ϕ) which accounts for the number of reactive sites covered by the enzymes. PMID:20331857

  1. Abiotic and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw cell wall: a biochemical and ultrastructural investigation.

    PubMed

    Lequart, C; Ruel, K; Lapierre, C; Pollet, B; Kurek, B

    2000-07-14

    The action of an abiotic lignin oxidant and a diffusible xylanase on wheat straw was studied and characterized at the levels of the molecular structures by chemical analysis and of the cell wall ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. While distinct chemical changes in the target polymers were observed when each system was used separately, a combination of the two types of catalysts did not significantly increase either lignin oxidation or hemicellulose hydrolysis. Microscopic observations however revealed that the supramolecular organization of the cell wall polymers was significantly altered. This suggests that the abiotic Mn-oxalate complex and the xylanase cooperate in modifying the cell wall architecture, without noticeably enhancing the degradation of the constitutive polymers. PMID:10949315

  2. Anaerobic digestion of wheat straw--performance of continuous solid-state digestion.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Marcel; Heeg, Kathrin; Mumme, Jan

    2013-10-01

    In this study the upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor was operated at various conditions to optimize the process parameters for anaerobically digesting wheat straw in a continuous process. Additionally, particle size effects have been studied in the operation at 55 and 60°C. Moreover, the incremental effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) to the system was examined from 2.5 to 8 gVS L(-1) d(-1). It was found that the UASS operating at 60 °C with a small OLR yields highest methane production, but the advantage over thermophilic operation is negligible. The rise in OLR reduces the systems yields, as expected. From OLR=8 gVS L(-1) d(-1) a second stage is necessary to circumvent volatile fatty acids accumulation. PMID:23954246

  3. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS) unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS), resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L) did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and second-generation processes also increases the ethanol concentration, resulting in a reduction in the cost of the distillation step, thus improving the process economics. PMID:22410131

  4. Effects of pig manure and wheat straw on growth of mung bean seedlings grown in aluminium toxicity soil.

    PubMed

    Shen, Q R; Shen, Z G

    2001-02-01

    Crop production in red soil areas may be limited by Al toxicity. A possible alternative to ameliorate Al toxicity is the application of such organic manure as crop straw and animal manure. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic materials on the alleviation of Al toxicity in acid red soil. Ground wheat straw, pig manure or CaCO3 were mixed with the soil and incubated, at 85% of water holding capacity and 25 degrees C, for 8 weeks. After the incubation, 14 seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus aures Roxb) were allowed to grow for 12 days. Results showed that application of organic material or CaCO3 increased soil pH and decreased soil monomeric inorganic Al concentrations. Growth of mung bean seedling was improved sustantially by the application of organic material or CaCO3. Pig manure or wheat straw was more effective in ameliorating Al toxicity than was CaCO3. Mung bean plants receiving pig manure or wheat straw contained relatively high concentrations of P, Ca and K in their leaves. It is suggested that the beneficial effect of organic manure on mung bean is likely due to decreasing concentrations of monomeric inorganic Al concentrations in soil solution and improvement of mineral nutrition. PMID:11198175

  5. Effects of pig manure and wheat straw on growth of mung bean seedlings grown in aluminium toxicity soil.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Shen QR; Shen ZG

    2001-02-01

    Crop production in red soil areas may be limited by Al toxicity. A possible alternative to ameliorate Al toxicity is the application of such organic manure as crop straw and animal manure. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic materials on the alleviation of Al toxicity in acid red soil. Ground wheat straw, pig manure or CaCO3 were mixed with the soil and incubated, at 85% of water holding capacity and 25 degrees C, for 8 weeks. After the incubation, 14 seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus aures Roxb) were allowed to grow for 12 days. Results showed that application of organic material or CaCO3 increased soil pH and decreased soil monomeric inorganic Al concentrations. Growth of mung bean seedling was improved sustantially by the application of organic material or CaCO3. Pig manure or wheat straw was more effective in ameliorating Al toxicity than was CaCO3. Mung bean plants receiving pig manure or wheat straw contained relatively high concentrations of P, Ca and K in their leaves. It is suggested that the beneficial effect of organic manure on mung bean is likely due to decreasing concentrations of monomeric inorganic Al concentrations in soil solution and improvement of mineral nutrition.

  6. [Biogas yield and its relations with the duration and temperature of mixed anaerobic fermentation of livestock dungs and wheat straw].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-li; Li, Yi-bing; Bu, Dong-sheng; Yang, Gai-he

    2008-08-01

    To approach the relationships between the biogas yield ot mixed anaerobic termentation of livestock dungs and crop straw and the fermentation duration and temperature is the key of selecting fermentation materials for rural household biogas, determining optimal fermentation temperature, and improving the reuse efficiency of agricultural residues. In this paper, a batch of experiments under the condition of 8% mass fraction of total solid were conducted in a self-manufactured anaerobic fermentation reactor, with pig dung, cattle dung, and wheat straw as fermentation materials, and the substrate of constant temperature fermentation pool as inoculation substance. The biogas yield, fermentation duration, and optimal temperature were determined. It was shown that the cumulative biogas yield of mixed anaerobic fermentation of pig dung and wheat straw was 2.4 times higher than that of the fermentation of pig dung alone, but no significant difference was observed between the cumulative biogas yields of the mixed fermentation of cattle dung and wheat straw and the fermentation of cattle dung alone. The optimal fermentation temperature for the mixed anaerobic fermentation was above 30 degrees C, and the fermentation duration was about 60 days. The fermentation duration was not always shortened by increasing temperature, and it would be not feasible to only use temnerature to determine the duration of anaerobic fermentation. PMID:18975763

  7. Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

    2013-01-01

    Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost <0.16% C as CO over the 90-d incubation period. Biomass yields were not significantly modified by biochar treatments, except for a slight decrease at the 144 kg N ha rate. Foliar N concentrations were significantly reduced by biochar application. Biochar significantly increased soil water content; however, this increase did not result in increased biomass yield. In conclusion, our kiln-produced biochar was highly aromatic and appeared quite recalcitrant in soil but had no overall significant impact on ryegrass yields. PMID:23673835

  8. Enhanced bioproduction of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from wheat straw lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Cesário, M Teresa; Raposo, Rodrigo S; de Almeida, M Catarina M D; van Keulen, Frederik; Ferreira, Bruno S; da Fonseca, M Manuela R

    2014-01-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bioplastics that can replace conventional petroleum-derived products in various applications. One of the major barriers for their widespread introduction in the market is the higher production costs compared with their petrochemical counterparts. In this work, a process was successfully implemented with high productivity based on wheat straw, a cheap and readily available agricultural residue, as raw material. The strain Burkholderia sacchari DSM 17165 which is able to metabolise glucose, xylose and arabinose, the main sugars present in wheat straw hydrolysates (WSHs), was used. Results in shake flask showed that B. sacchari cells accumulated about 70%gpoly(3-hydroxybutyrate)(P(3HB))/g cell dry weight (CDW) with a yield of polymer on sugars (YP/S) of 0.18g/g when grown on a mixture of commercial C6 and C5 sugars (control), while these values reached about 60%gP(3HB)/g CDW and 0.19g/g, respectively, when WSHs were used as carbon source. In fed-batch cultures carried out in 2L stirred-tank reactors (STRs) on WSH, a maximum polymer concentration of 105 g/L was reached after 61 hours of cultivation corresponding to an accumulation of 72% of CDW. Polymer yield and productivity were 0.22 gP(3HB)/g total sugar consumed and 1.6g/L hour, respectively. The selected feeding strategy successfully overcame the carbon catabolite repression (CCR) phenomenon observed with sugar mixtures containing hexoses and pentoses. This is the first work describing fed-batch cultivations aiming at PHA production using real lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Additionally, the P(3HB) volumetric productivities attained are by far the highest ever achieved on agricultural waste hydrolysates. PMID:24157713

  9. Sequential pretreatment strategies under mild conditions for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Arturo; Gil, Juan Carlos; Rojas-Rejón, Oscar A; de Alba, Ana P; Medina, Andrea; Flores, Roberto; Puente, Ramón

    2015-06-01

    This work studies the sequential execution of dilute sulfuric acid (DAP) (0.1-0.75 %, v/v) and dilute sodium hydroxide (AKP) (0.25-3 %, w/v) [i.e., DAP followed by AKP (DAP+AKP) and vice versa (AKP+DAP)] at low temperatures (<121 °C) and short reaction times (5-60 min) for maximizing sugar recovery in the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw with low enzyme dosage. The pretreatment effectiveness was measured by the sum of the severity factors of both pretreatments and the saccharification yield achieved in the subsequent stage of enzymatic hydrolysis. Degradation compounds were quantified and mass balance calculations were carried out for each pretreatment sequence to verify the correct account of the input biomass and output products. Results show that sequential pretreatments (AKP+DAP and DAP+AKP) had a positive effect in enzyme accessibility thus improving monosaccharide yields compared to single DAP and AKP pretreatments. DAP+AKP achieved a high xylose yield (ca. 0.867 of theoretical) at the DAP stage, while no xylose monosaccharides were detected in the subsequent AKP. After enzyme saccharification of double-pretreated solids, the total monosaccharide yield was 0.786 (of theoretical). For AKP+DAP sequence, lower results were obtained (total monosaccharide yield 0.783 of theoretical). Sequential pretreatments total yields increased by 21 % compared to single pretreatments. AKP removed more than half of the lignin from the wheat straw in all cases. Acid and alkali concentrations played a relevant role in all pretreatment sequences, while reaction time and temperature were less important with an almost-linear effect on the total monosaccharide yields. PMID:25601570

  10. Release of D-xylose from wheat straw by acid and xylanase hydrolysis and purification of xylitol.

    PubMed

    Liavoga, Allan B; Bian, Ying; Seib, Paul A

    2007-09-19

    Xylitol is a valuable sweetener produced from xylose-rich biomass. Our objective was to optimize conditions for maximum release of D-xylose from wheat straw by acid or enzyme hydrolysis with minimal release of other monosaccharides, and to purify xylitol from three other alditols. Ground straw was treated with 10 parts of 0.2-0.4 M sulfuric acid at 110-130 degrees C for 15-45 min or at reflux with 0.75-1.25 M sulfuric acid for 1.5-3 h. Under optimum conditions of either 0.3 M acid at 123 degrees C for 28 min or 1.0 M acid at 100 degrees C for 3 h, 18 or 19% of D-xylose plus approximately 6% other sugars were produced from straw (dry basis). A 16% yield of D-xylose plus 6% other sugars was obtained when hydrothermally (10% straw, 160 degrees C, 1 h) treated straw was incubated with a commercial xylanase. The lack of enzyme specificity for D-xylose release was attributed to the autohydrolysis of polysaccharides during the pretreatment plus slow hydrolysis of cellulose during enzyme digestion. Xylitol with a purity of 95% was obtained in 10% yield from straw after the reduction of an acid-hydrolyzate followed by fractional crystallization. Purification of the mixture of four alditols by open-column chromatography on a strongly basic anion-exchange resin in hydroxide form gave 7% xylitol crystals with a purity of 99%. PMID:17722873

  11. Bioprocessing of wheat and paddy straw for their nutritional up-gradation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Daljit Singh

    2014-07-01

    Solid-state bioprocessing of agricultural residues seems to be an emerging and effective method for the production of high quality animal feed. Seven strains of white-rot fungi were selected to degrade wheat and paddy straw (PS) under solid-state conditions. Degradation of different components, i.e., hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was evaluated along with nutritional parameters including; in vitro digestibility, crude protein, amino acids, total phenolic contents (TPC) etc. Effect of nitrogen-rich supplements on degradation of lignocellulosics was evaluated using two best selected fungal strains (Phlebia brevispora and Phlebia floridensis). The best selected conditions were used to upscale the process up to 200 g batches of wheat and PS. Lignin was selectively degraded up to 30 % with a limited loss of 11-12 % in total organic matter. Finally, the degraded agro-residues demonstrated 50-62 % enhancement in their digestibility. Two-threefold enhancement in other nutritional quality (amino acids, TPCs and antioxidant activity) fortifies the process. Thus the method is quite helpful to design an effective solid-state fermentation system to improve the nutritive quality of agricultural residues by simultaneous production of lignocellulolytic enzyme production and antioxidants. PMID:24390610

  12. White-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biohydrogen production: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Zelun; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    This paper demonstrates biohydrogen production was enhanced by white-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw (WS) through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Wheat straw was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium at 30 °C under solid state fermentation for 12 days, and lignin was removed about 28.5 ± 1.3 %. Microscopic structure observation combined thermal gravity and differential thermal gravity analysis further showed that the lignocellulose structure obviously disrupted after fungal pretreatment. Subsequently, the pretreated WS and crude cellulases prepared from Trichoderma atroviride were applied in SSF for hydrogen production using Clostridium perfringens. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained to be 78.5 ± 3.4 ml g(-1)-pretreated WS, which was about 1.8-fold than the unpretreated group. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz model was applied study the progress of cumulative H(2) production. This work developed a novel bio-approach to improve fermentative H(2) yield from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24429553

  13. Removal of dyes from a synthetic textile dye effluent by biosorption on apple pomace and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T; Chandran, B; Nigam, P

    2002-06-01

    This paper deals with two low-cost, locally available, renewable biosorbents; apple pomace and wheat straw for textile dye removal. Experiments at total dye concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l were carried out with a synthetic effluent consisting of an equal mixture of five textile dyes. The effect of initial dye concentration, biosorbent particle size, quantity of biosorbent, effective adsorbance, dye removal and the applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined. One gram apple pomace was found to be a better biosorbent, removing 81% of dyes from the synthetic effluent at a particle size of 2 mm x 4 mm and 91% at 600 microm. Adsorption of dyes by apple pomace occurred at a faster rate in comparison to wheat straw. Both the isotherms were found to be applicable in the case of dye adsorption using apple pomace. PMID:12146870

  14. Growth, carcass yield and meat quality attributes of Red Maasai sheep fed wheat straw-based diets.

    PubMed

    Safari, John G; Mushi, Daniel E; Mtenga, Louis A; Kifaro, George C; Eik, Lars O

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two castrated Red Maasai sheep (12.7 kg initial body weight, aged 12-18 months), were used in an 84-day experiment to evaluate diets based on treated straw upon growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality. The animals were blocked by weight into four similar groups and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with eight individually fed animals per treatment. The dietary treatments were ad libitum untreated wheat straw (UTS), wheat straw treated with urea and lime (TS), straw and ad libitum hay (UTSH), and TS and ad libitum hay (TSH). In addition, each experimental animal received 220 g/day (on as fed basis) of a concentrate diet. Treatment of straw increased (P < 0.05) dry matter intake (42.3 vs. 33.7 g/kg W (75)/day), energy intake (4.6 vs. 3.7 MJ ME/d) and the average daily gain (40.7 vs. 23.1 g). Animals on TS produced heavier (P < 0.05) carcasses (6.6 vs. 5.4 kg) with superior conformation than animals on UTS. Percentage cooking loss was higher in carcasses from animals fed TS compared to those from other diets. Except M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosus, tenderness of muscles was not affected by diet but ageing of meat improved (P < 0.001) tenderness. Overall, straw treatment increased carcass yields with limited effects on meat quality attributes. PMID:20640886

  15. VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

    1999-02-01

    Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

  16. [Effects of nitrogen application rates on apparent soil nitrogen surplus of late sowing wheat with straw returning in rice-wheat rotation].

    PubMed

    Shi, Zu-Liang; Gu, Dong-Xiang; Gu, Ke-Jun; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Zhang, Si-Mei; Yu, Jian-Guang; Yang, Si-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of varying rates of nitrogen application on soil mineral nitrogen content, amount of nitrogen released from the straw, and grain yield of late sowing wheat with straw returning. The result showed that a high nitrogen fertilizer application rate enhanced the mineral nitrogen content in the soil layer of 0 to 50 cm, and also in the lower soil layers when using N at 270 and 360 kg · hm(-2) with the advance of growth stages. The amount of nitrogen released form the straw increased as the nitrogen application rate increased; the lowest appeared from overwintering to jointing, and the highest from jointing to maturity. During the whole growing season, apparent nitrogen surplus occurred when the nitrogen application rate was higher than 180 kg · hm(-2). The N surplus before jointing was significantly higher than that from jointing to maturity. Grain yield reached the highest at a nitrogen application rate of 270 kg · hm(-2), and a higher application rate obviously decreased the nitrogen use efficiency. It could be concluded that applying nitrogen at 270 kg · him(-2) could improve the grain yield of late sowing wheat with straw returning with the optimal ecological benefit. PMID:25898615

  17. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:22730900

  18. Response surface optimization of methane potentials in anaerobic co-digestion of multiple substrates: dairy, chicken manure and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Li, Fang; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2013-01-01

    Dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and wheat straw were used to investigate the possibility of optimizing the methane (CH4) potentials in anaerobic co-digestion of multiple substrates. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of four variables [carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, the feeding composition (DM/CM), initial substrate loading and inoculum-to-substrate ratio (ISR)] in the digestion process. All four variables had significant effects on CH(4) potentials. Interactive effects of C/N and DM/CM ratios, C/N ratio and ISR, initial substrate loading and ISR were significant The optimum conditions were a C/N ratio of 26.31, a DM/CM ratio of 42.96:57.04, an initial loading of 15.90 g volatile solids (VS)/l and an ISR ratio of 2.34, with the maximum CH4 potential being 394 ml/g VS. The RSM model was appropriate for optimizing CH4 production in the process of anaerobic co-digestion of multiple substrates. PMID:23188713

  19. Photo-biohydrogen production potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK from wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biotechnological exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass is promising for sustainable and environmentally sound energy provision strategy because of the abundant availability of the renewable resources. Wheat straw (WS) comprising of 75-80% cellulose and hemicellulose is one of widely available, inexpensive and renewable lignocellulosic biomass types. The cellulosic and hemicellulose substrate can be hydrolyzed into monomeric sugars by chemical and/or biological methods. Results This study examined comparative potential of dilute acid and pre-ammonia pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw (WS) for hydrogen production by purple non sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK. Gas production became noticeable after 14 h of inoculation in WS pretreated with 4% H2SO4. The detoxified liquid hydrolyzate (DLH) after overliming attained a production level of 372 mL-H2/L after 16 h under illumination of 120-150 W/m2 at 30 ± 2.0°C. Whereas the non-detoxified acid pretreated hydrolyzate (NDLH) of WS could produce only upto 254 mL-H2/L after 21 h post inoculation. Evolution of H2 became observable just after 10 ± 2.0 h of inoculation by employing 48 h age inoculum on the WS pretreated with 30% ammonia, hydrolyzed with cellulase 80 FPU/g and β-glucosidase 220 CbU/ml at 50°C. Upto 712 ml/L of culture was measured with continuous shaking for 24 h. The 47.5% and 64.2% higher hydrogen volume than the DLH and NDLH substrates, respectively appeared as a function of significantly higher monomeric sugar contents of the enzymatically hydrolyzed substrate and lesser/zero amounts of toxic derivatives including pH reducing agents. Conclusion Photofermentative hydrogen production from lignocellulosic waste is a feasible approach for eco-friendly sustainable supply of bioenergy in a cost-effective way. Results of this study provide new insight for addressing biotechnological exploitation of abundantly available and low-cost cellulosic substrates. PMID:24099439

  20. Mineral Compositions of Korean Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chon-Sik; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Lee, Choon-Ki; Park, Kwang-Geun

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine Korean wheat cultivars were analyzed for 8 important minerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K, Mg and P) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied to classify wheat cultivars, which has a similarity in mineral compositions. The concentration ranges of the micro-minerals Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn: 0.12~0.71 mg/100 g, 2.89~5.89 mg/100 g, 1.65~4.48 mg/100 g, and 2.58~6.68 mg/100 g, respectively. The content ranges of the macro-minerals Ca, K, Mg and P: 31.3~46.3 mg/100 g, 288.2~383.3 mg/100 g, 113.6~168.6 mg/100 g, and 286.2~416.5 mg/100 g, respectively. The HCA grouped 6 clusters from all wheat samples and a significant variance was observed in the mineral composition of each group. Among the 6 clusters, the second group was high in Fe and Ca, whereas the fourth group had high Cu, Mn and K concentrations; the fifth cluster was high in Zn, Mg and P. The variation in mineral compositions in Korean wheat cultivars can be used in the wheat breeding program to develop a new wheat cultivar with high mineral content, thus to improve the nutritional profile of wheat grains. PMID:24471135

  1. Relationship of Deoxynivalenol Content in Grain, Chaff, and Straw with Fusarium Head Blight Severity in Wheat Varieties with Various Levels of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fang; Wu, Jirong; Zhao, Hongyan; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON) content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation. PMID:25751146

  2. KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Igathinathane, C.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for small knife mill screen sizes (12.7 to 25.4 mm) and distributions classified as 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for the large screen size (50.8 mm). Total and effective specific energy values per unit size reduction of wheat straw were greater compared to those for switchgrass. Corn stover resulted in reduced total and effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to wheat straw for the same operating conditions, but higher total specific energy per unit size reduction and lesser effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to switchgrass. Data on minimized total specific energy with corresponding particle spectra will be useful for preparing feed material with a knife mill for subsequent grinding with finer size reduction devices.

  3. Unveiling the metabolic potential of two soil-derived microbial consortia selected on wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Based on the premise that plant biomass can be efficiently degraded by mixed microbial cultures and/or enzymes, we here applied a targeted metagenomics-based approach to explore the metabolic potential of two forest soil-derived lignocellulolytic microbial consortia, denoted RWS and TWS (bred on wheat straw). Using the metagenomes of three selected batches of two experimental systems, about 1.2 Gb of sequence was generated. Comparative analyses revealed an overrepresentation of predicted carbohydrate transporters (ABC, TonB and phosphotransferases), two-component sensing systems and β-glucosidases/galactosidases in the two consortia as compared to the forest soil inoculum. Additionally, “profiling” of carbohydrate-active enzymes showed significant enrichments of several genes encoding glycosyl hydrolases of families GH2, GH43, GH92 and GH95. Sequence analyses revealed these to be most strongly affiliated to genes present on the genomes of Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides, Flavobacterium and Pedobacter spp. Assembly of the RWS and TWS metagenomes generated 16,536 and 15,902 contigs of ≥10 Kb, respectively. Thirteen contigs, containing 39 glycosyl hydrolase genes, constitute novel (hemi)cellulose utilization loci with affiliation to sequences primarily found in the Bacteroidetes. Overall, this study provides deep insight in the plant polysaccharide degrading capabilities of microbial consortia bred from forest soil, highlighting their biotechnological potential. PMID:26343383

  4. Pilot scale conversion of wheat straw to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Badal C; Nichols, Nancy N; Qureshi, Nasib; Kennedy, Gregory J; Iten, Loren B; Cotta, Michael A

    2014-10-18

    The production of ethanol from wheat straw (WS) by dilute acid pretreatment, bioabatement of fermentation inhibitors by a fungal strain, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the bio-abated WS to ethanol using an ethanologenic recombinant bacterium was studied at a pilot scale without sterilization. WS (124.2g/L) was pretreated with dilute H2SO4 in two parallel tube reactors at 160°C. The inhibitors were bio-abated by growing the fungus aerobically. The maximum ethanol produced by SSF of the bio-abated WS by the recombinant Escherichia coli FBR5 at pH 6.0 and 35°C was 36.0g/L in 83h with a productivity of 0.43gL(-1)h(-1). This value corresponds to an ethanol yield of 0.29g/g of WS which is 86% of the theoretical ethanol yield from WS. This is the first report on the production of ethanol by the recombinant bacterium from a lignocellulosic biomass at a pilot scale. PMID:25459799

  5. Optimisation of the biological pretreatment of wheat straw with white-rot fungi for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    López-Abelairas, M; Álvarez Pallín, M; Salvachúa, D; Lú-Chau, T; Martínez, M J; Lema, J M

    2013-09-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the most frequently used process, steam explosion (SE). However, this pretreatment can still not be industrially implemented due to long incubation times. The main objective of this work was to test the viability of and optimise the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which uses ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus eryngii and Irpex lacteus) in a solid-state fermentation of sterilised wheat straw complemented with a mild alkali treatment. In this study, the most important parameters of the mechanical and thermal substrate conditioning processes and the most important parameters of the fungal fermentation process were optimised to improve sugar recovery. The largest digestibilities were achieved with fermentation with I. lacteus under optimised conditions, under which cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility increased after 21 days of pretreatment from 16 to 100 % and 12 to 87 %, respectively. The maximum glucose yield (84 %) of cellulose available in raw material was obtained after only 14 days of pretreatment with an overall ethanol yield of 74 % of the theoretical value, which is similar to that reached with SE. PMID:23232963

  6. Production of cellulase in solid-state fermentation with Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 on wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Chahal, P.S.; Chahal, D.S.; Le, G.B.B.

    1996-12-31

    It is an accepted fact that ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is not economical as yet because of the high cost of cellulose production. To reduce the cost of cellulose production, lignocellulosic material (wheat straw [WS]), a comparatively much cheaper substrate, was used instead of costly substrates (pure cellulose or lactose). A pan bioreactor was developed for solid-state fermentation (SSF) that required a small capital investment. High yields of complete cellulose system were obtained compared to that in the liquid-state fermentation (LSF) from WS, when treated with 4.25% NaOH at 121{degrees}C for 1 h and mixed with Mandels` medium. A complete cellulose system is defined as one in which the ratio of {beta} glucosidase activity to filter paper activity in the enzyme solution is close to 1.0. The cellulose system derived from SSF using the pan bioreactor gave more than 85% hydrolysis of delignified WS. The prototype pan bioreactor requires further improvements so that optimum quantity of substrate can be fermented to obtain high yields of complete cellulose system per unit space. The SSF process provides a means for the production of complete cellulose system for the economical bioconversion of renewable biomass into ethanol. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Synergic Effect of Wheat Straw Ash and Rice-Husk Ash on Strength Properties of Mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Ajay; Kunio, Hattori; Ogata, Hidehiko; Garg, Monika; Anwar, A. M.; Ashraf, M.; Mandula

    Pozzolan materials obtained from various sources; when used as partial replacement for Portland cement in cement based applications play an important role not only towards sustainable development but in reducing the construction costs as well. Present study was conducted to investigate the synergic effect of Rice-Husk Ash (RHA) and Wheat Straw Ash (WSA) on the strength properties of ash substituted mortar. Ash materials were obtained after burning the wastes at 600°C for 5 h at a control rate of 2°C min. Two binary blends of mortar substituting 15% cement with WSA and RHA and three combinations of ternary blend with (10+5)%, (5+10)% and (7.5+7.5)% mix ratios of WSA and RHA, together with a control specimen were subjected to destructive (compressive and flexural strength) as well as non-destructive (ultrasonic pulse velocity) tests till 180 days of curing. Ternary blend with (7.5 + 7.5)% combination of WSA and RHA showed better strength results than control and other blends and proved to be the optimum combination for achieving maximum synergic effect.

  8. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor. PMID:25637386

  9. Particle-Scale Modeling of Methane Emission during Pig Manure/Wheat Straw Aerobic Composting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2016-04-19

    Inefficient aerobic composting techniques significantly contribute to the atmospheric methane (CH4) levels. Macro-scale models assuming completely aerobic conditions cannot be used to analyze CH4 generation in strictly anaerobic environments. This study presents a particle-scale model for aerobic pig manure/wheat straw composting that incorporates CH4 generation and oxidation kinetics. Parameter estimation revealed that pig manure is characterized by high CH4 yield coefficient (0.6414 mol CH4 mol(-1) Cman) and maximum CH4 oxidation rate (0.0205 mol CH4 kg(-1) VSaero h(-1)). The model accurately predicted CH4 emissions (R(2) = 0.94, RMSE = 2888 ppmv, peak time deviation = 0 h), particularly in the self-heating and cooling phases. During mesophilic and thermophilic stages, a rapid increase of CH4 generation (0.0130 mol CH4 kg(-1) VS h(-1)) and methanotroph inactivation were simulated, implying that additional measures should be performed during these phases to mitigate CH4 emissions. Furthermore, CH4 oxidation efficiency was related to oxygen permeation through the composting particles. Reducing the ambient temperature and extending the aeration duration can decrease CH4 emission, but the threshold temperature is required to trigger the self-heating phase. These findings provide insights into CH4 emission during composting and may inform responsible strategies to counteract climate change. PMID:27045933

  10. Identification and characterization of fermentation inhibitors formed during hydrothermal treatment and following SSF of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-06-01

    A pilot plant for hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw was compared in reactor systems of two steps (first, 80 degrees C; second, 190-205 degrees C) and of three steps (first, 80 degrees C; second, 170-180 degrees C; third, 195 degrees C). Fermentation (SSF) with Sacharomyces cerevisiae of the pretreated fibers and hydrolysate from the two-step system gave higher ethanol yield (64-75%) than that obtained from the three-step system (61-65%), due to higher enzymatic cellulose convertibility. At the optimal conditions (two steps, 195 degrees C for 6 min), 69% of available C6-sugar could be fermented into ethanol with a high hemicellulose recovery (65%). The concentration of furfural obtained during the pretreatment process increased versus temperature from 50 mg/l at 190 degrees C to 1,200 mg/l at 205 degrees C as a result of xylose degradation. S. cerevisiae detoxified the hydrolysates by degradation of several toxic compounds such as 90-99% furfural and 80-100% phenolic aldehydes, which extended the lag phase to 5 h. Acetic acid concentration increased by 0.2-1 g/l during enzymatic hydrolysis and 0-3.4 g/l during fermentation due to hydrolysis of acetyl groups and minor xylose degradation. Formic acid concentration increased by 0.5-1.5 g/l probably due to degradation of furfural. Phenolic aldehydes were oxidized to the corresponding acids during fermentation reducing the inhibition level. PMID:19194701

  11. Two approaches for introduction of wheat straw lignin into rigid polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshanitsa, A.; Paberza, A.; Vevere, L.; Cabulis, U.; Telysheva, G.

    2014-05-01

    In present work the BIOLIGNIN{trade mark, serif} obtained in the result of wheat straw organosolv processing in CIMV pilot plant (France) was investigated as a component of rigid polyurethanes (PUR) foam systems. Different separate approaches of lignin introduction into PUR foam system were studied: as filler without chemical preprocessing and as liquid lignopolyol obtained by lignin oxypropylation in alkali conditions. The incorporation of increasing amount of lignin as filler into reference PUR foam systems on the basis of mixture of commercial polyethers Lupranol 3300 and Lupranol 3422 steadily decreased the compression characteristics of foams, their dimensional stability and hydrophobicity. The complete substitution of Lupranol 3300 by lignopolyol increases its cell structure uniformity and dimensional stability and does not reduce the physical-mechanical properties of foam. In both cases the incorporation of lignin into PUR foam leads to the decreasing of maximum values of thermodegradation rates. The lignin filler can be introduced into lignopolyol based PUR foam in higher quantity than in the reference Lupranol based PUR without reduction of compression characteristics of material. In this work the optimal lignin content in the end product - PUR foam as both polyol and filler is 16%.

  12. Unveiling the metabolic potential of two soil-derived microbial consortia selected on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Based on the premise that plant biomass can be efficiently degraded by mixed microbial cultures and/or enzymes, we here applied a targeted metagenomics-based approach to explore the metabolic potential of two forest soil-derived lignocellulolytic microbial consortia, denoted RWS and TWS (bred on wheat straw). Using the metagenomes of three selected batches of two experimental systems, about 1.2 Gb of sequence was generated. Comparative analyses revealed an overrepresentation of predicted carbohydrate transporters (ABC, TonB and phosphotransferases), two-component sensing systems and β-glucosidases/galactosidases in the two consortia as compared to the forest soil inoculum. Additionally, "profiling" of carbohydrate-active enzymes showed significant enrichments of several genes encoding glycosyl hydrolases of families GH2, GH43, GH92 and GH95. Sequence analyses revealed these to be most strongly affiliated to genes present on the genomes of Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides, Flavobacterium and Pedobacter spp. Assembly of the RWS and TWS metagenomes generated 16,536 and 15,902 contigs of ≥10 Kb, respectively. Thirteen contigs, containing 39 glycosyl hydrolase genes, constitute novel (hemi)cellulose utilization loci with affiliation to sequences primarily found in the Bacteroidetes. Overall, this study provides deep insight in the plant polysaccharide degrading capabilities of microbial consortia bred from forest soil, highlighting their biotechnological potential. PMID:26343383

  13. Microbiota of Soil-Like Substrate Depending on Wheat Straw Processing Method in Experimental LSS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, Lyalya; Sysoeva, Olga

    In previous experiments conducted in the closed environmental system BIOS-3 plant waste and test persons' exometabolites were carried away from the life-support system (LSS). It is possible to create a new-generation LSS with a higher degree of matter cycle closure by adding to the soil-like substrate inedible plant waste used for cultivation of plants in the experimental LSS model. Using single-factor analysis of variance, we estimated the effect of the introduced inedible plant waste on the microbiota of the soil-like substrate (SLS). The plant waste was used: to increase the degree of matter cycle closure in the system; to replace the volume of soil-like substrate in the system; as a fertilizer for growing higher plants in the experimental LSS model. A statistically significant effect of wheat straw processing method on the number of all microorganism groups was observed in different variants of the experiment. The obtained results can be used in planning and carrying out of subsequent experiments with higher plants cultivated on SLS with waste in a closed environmental system including humans.

  14. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    PubMed Central

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l−1 of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v−1) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60–80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g−1 of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9–1.0 g g−1 of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. PMID:26230610

  15. Effects of tillage practices and straw returning methods on greenhouse gas emissions and net ecosystem economic budget in rice-wheat cropping systems in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. S.; Guo, L. J.; Liu, T. Q.; Li, C. F.; Cao, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Significant efforts have been devoted to assess the effects of conservation tillage (no-tillage [NT] and straw returning) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and net economic budget in crop growing seasons. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effects conservation tillage on the net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB) in a rice-wheat cropping system. Therefore, a split-plot field experiment was performed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of tillage practices (i.e., conventional intensive tillage [CT] and NT) and straw returning methods (i.e., straw returning or removal of preceding crop) on the soil total organic carbon (TOC), GHG emissions, GWP, GHGI, and NEEB of sandy loam soil in a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Conservation tillage did not affect rice and wheat grain yields. Compared with CT and straw removal, NT and straw returning significantly increased the TOC of 0-5 cm soil layer by 2.9% and 7.8%, respectively. However, the TOC of 0-20 cm soil layer was not affected by tillage practices and straw returning methods. NT did not also affect the N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons; NT significantly decreased the annual CH4 emissions by 7.5% and the annual GWP by 7.8% compared with CT. Consequently, GHGI under NT was reduced by 8.1%. Similar to NT, straw returning did not affect N2O emissions during the rice and wheat seasons. Compared with straw removal, straw returning significantly increased annual CH4 emissions by 35.0%, annual GWP by 32.0%, and annual GHGI by 31.1%. Straw returning did not also affect NEEB; by contrast, NT significantly increased NEEB by 15.6%. NT without straw returning resulted in the lowest GWP, the lowest GHGI, and the highest NEEB among all treatments. This finding suggested that NT without straw returning may be applied as a sustainable technology to increase economic and environmental benefits. Nevertheless, environmentally straw returning methods should be considered in future studies.

  16. Selection of strains of Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana adapted for efficient mycelial growth on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Mata, G; Delpech, P; Savoie, J M

    2001-09-01

    Mycelial growth rates are presented for 11 strains of Lentinula edodes and six strains of Lentinula boryana cultivated on solid media: derived from malt extract (MEA); malt yeast extract (YMEA); and, YMEA plus soluble lignin derivatives (YMEA+WSLD). The results were compared with data for mycelial growth rates, of the same strains cultivated on substrates derived from wheat straw treated at different temperatures (50, 65, 75 and autoclaving at 121 degrees C). In general, the addition of WSLD significantly reduced mycelial growth rates in both species. The greatest mycelial growth rate was obtained on sterilized straw at 121 degrees C for the majority of strains. However, this growth was not significantly different from that obtained at 75 degrees C. L. edodes showed greater growth rates than L. boryana. The feasibility of using estimates of mycelial growth rate on YMEA and YMEA+WSLD are discussed as possible indicators of a strain's potential for mycelial growth on substrates derived from wheat straw. PMID:15487920

  17. Microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic bioreactor fed by fruit vegetable wastes and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Zuo, Jiane; Chen, Xiaojie; Xing, Wei; Xing, Linan; Li, Peng; Lu, Xiangyang; Li, Chao

    2014-12-01

    The microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor (ITPAR) were investigated by 16S rDNA clone library technology. The 75L reactor was designed with a 25L rotating acidogenic unit at the top and a 50L conventional upflow methanogenic unit at the bottom, with a recirculation connected to the two units. The reactor had been operated for 21 stages to co-digest fruit/vegetable wastes and wheat straw, which showed a very good biogas production and decomposition of cellulosic materials. The results showed that many kinds of cellulose and glycan decomposition bacteria related with Bacteroidales, Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales were dominated in the reactor, with more bacteria community diversities in the acidogenic unit. The methanogens were mostly related with Methanosaeta, Methanosarcina, Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium; the predominating genus Methanosaeta, accounting for 40.5%, 54.2%, 73.6% and 78.7% in four samples from top to bottom, indicated a major methanogenesis pathway by acetoclastic methanogenesis in the methanogenic unit. The beta diversity indexes illustrated a more similar distribution of bacterial communities than that of methanogens between acidogenic unit and methanogenic unit. The differentiation of methanogenic community composition in two phases, as well as pH values and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations confirmed the phase separation of the ITPAR. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that the special designing of ITPAR maintained a sufficient number of methanogens, more diverse communities and stronger syntrophic associations among microorganisms, which made two phase anaerobic digestion of cellulosic materials more efficient. PMID:25499496

  18. Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw to improve methane yields: investigation of the degradation kinetics of structural compounds during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Lizasoain, Javier; Lefever, Christopher; Saylor, Molly K; Enguidanos, Ramon; Weran, Nikolaus; Gronauer, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Wheat straw can serve as a low-cost substrate for energy production without competing with food or feed production. This study investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the biological methane potential and the degradation kinetics of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion. It was observed that the biological methane potential of the non steam exploded, ground wheat straw (276 l(N) kg VS(-1)) did not significantly differ from the best steam explosion treated sample (286 l(N) kg VS(-1)) which was achieved at a pretreatment temperature of 140°C and a retention time of 60 min. Nevertheless degradation speed was improved by the pretreatment. Furthermore it was observed that compounds resulting from chemical reactions during the pretreatment and classified as pseudo-lignin were also degraded during the anaerobic batch experiments. Based on the rumen simulation technique, a model was developed to characterise the degradation process. PMID:25549903

  19. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui Ling; Chen, Yong; Xu, Xiao Li; Yang, Yu Xia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields (p≤0.001). However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001). The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05). Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01) with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001) by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001) increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L) allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L. PMID:25049818

  20. Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Manríquez, O. M.; Montano, M. F.; Calderon, J. F.; Valdez, J. A.; Chirino, J. O.; Gonzalez, V. M.; Salinas-Chavira, J.; Mendoza, G. D.; Soto, S.; Zinn, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Eight Holstein steers (216±48 kg body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous 4×4 Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (p<0.01) and total tract (p = 0.03) organic matter (OM) digestion. As expected, increasing wheat straw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p<0.05) ruminal and total tract digestion of OM. Digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch, per se, were not affected (p>0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect (p≥0.48) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (p<0.01), and total-tract starch (p = 0.05) digestion were greater for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p<0.01) ruminal pH, although ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and estimated methane were not affected (p≥0.27). Ruminal digestion of OM and starch, and post-ruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal NDF digestion was greater (p = 0.02) for dry rolled than for steam-flaked corn, although total tract NDF digestion was unaffected (p = 0.94). Ruminal microbial efficiency and ruminal degradation of feed N were not affected (p>0.14) by corn processing. However, microbial N flow to the small intestine and ruminal N efficiency (non-ammonia N flow to the small intestine/N intake) were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration were not affected (p≥ 0.16) by corn processing method. Compared with dry rolled corn, steam-flaked corn-based diets resulted in decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.02). It is concluded that at 7% or 14% straw inclusion rate, changes in physical characteristics of wheat straw brought about by pelleting negatively impact OM digestion of both steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets. This effect is due to decreased post-ruminal starch digestion. Replacement of ground straw with pelleted straw also may decrease ruminal pH. PMID:26954187

  1. Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Manríquez, O M; Montano, M F; Calderon, J F; Valdez, J A; Chirino, J O; Gonzalez, V M; Salinas-Chavira, J; Mendoza, G D; Soto, S; Zinn, R A

    2016-06-01

    Eight Holstein steers (216±48 kg body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous 4×4 Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (p<0.01) and total tract (p = 0.03) organic matter (OM) digestion. As expected, increasing wheat straw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p<0.05) ruminal and total tract digestion of OM. Digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch, per se, were not affected (p>0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect (p≥0.48) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (p<0.01), and total-tract starch (p = 0.05) digestion were greater for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p<0.01) ruminal pH, although ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and estimated methane were not affected (p≥0.27). Ruminal digestion of OM and starch, and post-ruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal NDF digestion was greater (p = 0.02) for dry rolled than for steam-flaked corn, although total tract NDF digestion was unaffected (p = 0.94). Ruminal microbial efficiency and ruminal degradation of feed N were not affected (p>0.14) by corn processing. However, microbial N flow to the small intestine and ruminal N efficiency (non-ammonia N flow to the small intestine/N intake) were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration were not affected (p≥ 0.16) by corn processing method. Compared with dry rolled corn, steam-flaked corn-based diets resulted in decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.02). It is concluded that at 7% or 14% straw inclusion rate, changes in physical characteristics of wheat straw brought about by pelleting negatively impact OM digestion of both steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets. This effect is due to decreased post-ruminal starch digestion. Replacement of ground straw with pelleted straw also may decrease ruminal pH. PMID:26954187

  2. Composting of poultry manure and wheat straw in a closed reactor: optimum mixture ratio and evolution of parameters.

    PubMed

    Petric, Ivan; Selimbasić, Vahida

    2008-02-01

    The main objectives of this work were to investigate the evolution of some principal physico-chemical properties (temperature, carbon dioxide, oxygen, ammonia, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter) and microbial population (mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria and fungi) during composting poultry manure with wheat straw in a reactor system, and to evaluate the optimum mixture ratio for organic substrate production. The experiments were carried out in four small laboratory reactors (1 l) and one large reactor (32 l) under adiabatic conditions over 14 days. During the process the highest temperature was 64.6 degrees C, pH varied between 7.40 and 8.85, electrical conductivity varied between 3.50 and 4.31 dS m(-1) and the highest value of organic matter (dry weight) degradation was 47.6%. Mesophilic bacteria and fungi predominated in the beginning, and started the degradation with generation of metabolic heat. By increasing the temperature in reactors, the number of thermophilic microorganisms also increased, which resulted in faster degradation of substrate. The application of a closed reactor showed a rapid degradation of manure/straw mixture as well as a good control of the emissions of air polluting gases into atmosphere. The results showed that the ratio of manure to straw 5.25:1 (dry weight) was better for composting process than the other mixture ratios. PMID:17387619

  3. Fractionation of wheat straw by prehydrolysis, organosolv delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis for production of sugars and lignin.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, W J J; Smit, A T; de Wild, P J; den Uil, H

    2012-06-01

    Wheat straw was fractionated using a three-step biorefining approach: (1) aqueous pretreatment for hemicellulose prehydrolysis into sugars, (2) organosolv delignification, and (3) enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis into glucose. Prehydrolysis was applied to avoid degradation of hemicellulose sugars during organosolv delignification. Maximum xylose yield obtained was 67% or 0.17 kg/kg straw (prehydrolysis: 175 °C, 30 min, 20mM H(2)SO(4)) compared to 4% in case of organosolv without prehydrolysis (organosolv: 200 °C, 60 min, 60% w/w aqueous ethanol). Prehydrolysis was found to reduce the lignin yield by organosolv delignification due to the formation of 'pseudo-lignin' and lignin recondensation during prehydrolysis. This reduction could partly be compensated by increasing the temperature of the organosolv delignification step. Prehydrolysis substantially improved the enzymatic cellulose digestibility from 49% after organosolv without prehydrolysis to 80% (20 FPU/g substrate). Increasing the organosolv delignification temperature to 220 °C resulted in a maximum enzymatic glucose yield of 93% or 0.36 kg/kg straw. PMID:22446052

  4. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) intake was in sheep fed T1 and T4 diets, while the lowest was in those fed T2 and T5 diets. Sheep fed T1 and T2 diets had greater (P < 0.05) DM and OM digestibility than those fed T4 and T5 diets. The highest (P < 0.05) digestibility of N was for the T2, T4, and T5 diets, while the lowest was for the T1 diet. The highest N retention was in T4 diet, whereas the lowest was in T3 diet. In conclusion, in urban and peri-urban areas where atella, poultry litter, or coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds. PMID:19882225

  5. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from open burning of wheat straw and corn stover in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

    2009-10-01

    Field measurements were conducted to determine the characteristics of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) emitted from open burning of wheat straw and maize stover, two major agricultural residues in China. The headfire ignition technique was used with sampling downwind from the agricultural fire. Fifty-two NMHC species were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A carbon mass balance method was used to determine NMHC emission factors. The emission factors of the total speciated NMHCs from wheat straw and maize stover are 1690 ± 580 mg kg-1 and 1590 ± 430 mg kg-1, respectively. Propane, n-pentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, propene, benzene and toluene are the main species, together accounting for 55.3%-68.0% of the total NMHCs. On the basis of measured emission factors and the published maximum incremental reactivity values for NMHCs, we estimated the ozone forming potential (OFP) of speciated NMHCs. The results indicate that propene, 1-butene, isoprene, toluene and m,p-xylene have high OFP values and account for about 50% of the total OFP. Alkenes played the most important role in potential ozone formation, followed by aromatics and alkanes.

  6. Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

    2011-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance. PMID:21110091

  7. Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Shen, Fei; Su, Yi; Khan, Rashid; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-07-01

    Bacillus coagulans IPE22 was used to produce lactic acid (LA) from mixed sugar and wheat straw hydrolysates, respectively. All fermentations were conducted under non-sterilized conditions and sodium hydroxide was used as neutralizing agent to avoid the production of insoluble CaSO4. In order to eliminate the sequential utilization of mixed sugar and feedback inhibition during batch fermentation, membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was used to improve LA productivity. With MIRB, a high cell density was obtained and the simultaneous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose was successfully realized. The separation of LA from broth by membrane in batch fermentation also decreased feedback inhibition. MIRB was carried out using wheat straw hydrolysates (29.72 g/L glucose, 24.69 g/L xylose and 5.14 g/L arabinose) as carbon source, LA productivity was increased significantly from 1.01 g/L/h (batch 1) to 2.35 g/L/h (batch 6) by the repeated batch fermentation. PMID:24811443

  8. Comparison of separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes for ethanol production from wheat straw by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 from dilute acid pretreated wheat straw (WS) by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. The WS used in this study contained 32.0±0% cellulose, 32.1±1.3% hemicellulo...

  9. Methane enhancement through co-digestion of chicken manure and thermo-oxidative cleaved wheat straw with waste activated sludge: A C/N optimization case.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Shi, Zhendan; Zhao, Sanqin

    2016-07-01

    The present study emphasized the co-digestion of the thermal-H2O2 pretreated wheat straw (WS) and chicken manure (CM) with the waste activated sludge at four levels of C/N (35:1, 30:1, 25:1 and 20:1). All C/N compositions were found significant (P<0.05) to enhance methane generation and process stability during the anaerobic co-digestion of WS and CM. The experimental results revealed that the composition having C/N value of 20:1 was proved as optimum treatment with the methane enhancing capability of 85.11%, CODs removal efficiency of 48.55% and 66.83% VS removal as compared with the untreated WS. The other compositions having C/N of 25:1, 30:1 and 35:1 provided 75.85%, 63.04% and 59.96% enhanced methane respectively as compared with the control. Pretreatment of the WS reduced its C/N value up to 65%. Moreover, to optimize the most suitable C/N composition, the process stability of the co-digestion of WS and CM was deeply monitored. PMID:27038262

  10. Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Wheat Gluten and Wheat Starch Co-filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to different abilities of wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG to WS as a co-filler. This study shows that the co-filler composites became more temperature dependent as the WG co...

  11. Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil fuel; and on the other hand, it provides a means for ''exporting'' geothermal energy from the well site. The primary goal of the work discussed in this report was to investigate the effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. In assessing the relative merits of various sets of conditions, we considered both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, we also investigated the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge. Phenol was selected for study because it was reported (8) to be effective in suppressing repolymerization of reactive lignin fragments. Aluminum sulfate, on the other hand, was chosen as a representative of the Lewis acids which, we hoped, would catalyze the delignification reactions.

  12. Hydrothermal pretreatment of several lignocellulosic mixtures containing wheat straw and two hardwood residues available in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Duarte, Luís Chorão; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Loureiro-Dias, Maria Conceição; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    This work studied the processing of biomass mixtures containing three lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe, eucalyptus residues (ER), wheat straw (WS) and olive tree pruning (OP). The mixtures were chemically characterized, and their pretreatment, by autohydrolysis, evaluated within a severity factor (logR0) ranging from 1.73 up to 4.24. A simple modeling strategy was used to optimize the autohydrolysis conditions based on the chemical characterization of the liquid fraction. The solid fraction was characterized to quantify the polysaccharide and lignin content. The pretreatment conditions for maximal saccharides recovery in the liquid fraction were at a severity range (logR0) of 3.65-3.72, independently of the mixture tested, which suggests that autohydrolysis can effectively process mixtures of lignocellulosic materials for further biochemical conversion processes. PMID:25742753

  13. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  14. Effects of different pre-extractions combining with chemi-thermomechanical treatments on the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinping; Liu, Wei; Hou, Qingxi; Chen, Junwei; Xu, Ningpan; Ji, Fuzeng

    2014-10-19

    Three different pre-extraction methods (i.e., acetic acid, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide) were used for the pretreatment followed by chemi-thermomechanical treatments and then enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw to produce fermentable sugars. The performance of enzymatic hydrolysis by the synergistic effect of pre-extractions and chemi-thermomechanical treatments was remarkable. Results showed that the pre-extraction combining with the chemi-thermomechanical treatments shorten the enzymatic hydrolysis time and improved the glucose yield at the same enzyme loadings. The chemical components, swelling ability, and crystallinity, as well as the surface morphology of the substrates were changed obviously. All of these changes can affect the accessibility of enzymes to cellulose in the substrates to a certain extent. PMID:25459806

  15. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required to foster tolerance towards industrial wheat straw hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, Miguel C; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-12-01

    The presence of toxic compounds derived from biomass pre-treatment in fermentation media represents an important drawback in second-generation bio-ethanol production technology and overcoming this inhibitory effect is one of the fundamental challenges to its industrial production. The aim of this study was to systematically identify, in industrial medium and at a genomic scale, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for simultaneous and maximal tolerance to key inhibitors of lignocellulosic fermentations. Based on the screening of EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection, 242 and 216 determinants of tolerance to inhibitory compounds present in industrial wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) and in inhibitor-supplemented synthetic hydrolysate were identified, respectively. Genes associated to vitamin metabolism, mitochondrial and peroxisomal functions, ribosome biogenesis and microtubule biogenesis and dynamics are among the newly found determinants of WSH resistance. Moreover, PRS3, VMA8, ERG2, RAV1 and RPB4 were confirmed as key genes on yeast tolerance and fermentation of industrial WSH. PMID:25287021

  16. Potential of European wild strains of Agaricus subrufescens for productivity and quality on wheat straw based compost.

    PubMed

    Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Largeteau, Michèle L; Farnet, Anne-Marie; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Ferrer, Nathalie; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2013-07-01

    The Brazilian almond mushroom is currently cultivated for its medicinal properties but cultivars are suspected all to have a common origin. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of wild isolates of Agaricus subrufescens Peck (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus brasiliensis) as a source of new traits to improve the mushroom yield and quality for developing new cultures under European growing conditions. The wild European strains analysed showed a good ability to be commercially cultivated on wheat straw and horse manure based compost: shorter time to fruiting, higher yield, similar antioxidant activities when compared to cultivars. They have a valuable potential of genetic and phenotypic diversity and proved to be interfertile with the original culture of the Brazilian almond mushroom. Intercontinental hybrids could be obtained and combine properties from both Brazilian and European germplasm for increasing the choice of strains cultivated by the mushroom growers. PMID:23417262

  17. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    PubMed Central

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M.; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus’ mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  18. Biogas production from wheat straw in batch and UASB reactors: the roles of pretreatment and seaweed hydrolysate as a co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Murto, Marika

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated biogas production in batch and UASB reactors from pilot-scale acid catalysed steam pretreated and enzymatic hydrolysed wheat straw. The results showed that the pretreatment was efficient and, a sugar yield of 95% was obtained. The pretreatment improved the methane yield (0.28 m(3)/kg VS(added)) by 57% compared to untreated straw. Treatment of the straw hydrolysate with nutrient supplementation in a UASB reactor resulted in a high methane production rate, 2.70 m(3)/m(3).d at a sustainable OLR of 10.4 kg COD/m(3).d and with a COD reduction of 94%. Alternatively, co-digestion of the straw and seaweed hydrolysates in a UASB reactor also maintained a stable anaerobic process and can thus reduce the cost of nutrients addition. We have shown that biogas production from wheat straw can be competitive by pretreatment, high methane production rate in UASB reactors and also by co-digestion with seaweed hydrolysate. PMID:23196235

  19. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) andmore » higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.« less

  20. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) and higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  1. The addition of ground wheat straw as a fiber source in the gestation diet of sows and the effect on sow and litter performance for three successive parities.

    PubMed

    Veum, T L; Crenshaw, J D; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Easter, R A; Ewan, R C; Nelssen, J L; Miller, E R; Pettigrew, J E; Ellersieck, M R

    2009-03-01

    A regional experiment was conducted at 8 experiment stations, with a total of 320 sows initially, to evaluate the efficacy of adding 13.35% ground wheat straw to a corn-soybean meal gestation diet for 3 successive gestation-lactation (reproductive) cycles compared with sows fed a control diet without straw. A total of 708 litters were farrowed over 3 reproductive cycles. The basal gestation diet intake averaged 1.95 kg daily for both treatments, plus 0.30 kg of straw daily for sows fed the diet containing ground wheat straw (total intake of 2.25 kg/d). During lactation, all sows on both gestation treatments were fed ad libitum the standard lactation diet used at each station. Response criteria were sow farrowing and rebreeding percentages, culling factors and culling rate, weaning-to-estrus interval, sow BW and backfat measurements at several time points, and litter size and total litter weight at birth and weaning. Averaged over 3 reproductive cycles, sows fed the diet containing wheat straw farrowed and weaned 0.51 more pigs per litter (P wheat straw consumed more (P = 0.01) lactation diet per day than control sows. There were no gestation diet treatment differences for any sow fate criterion (farrowing and rebreeding percentages, and culling rate), any sow BW and backfat measurement, or the weaning-to-estrus interval. Lactation diet intake and all sow BW and backfat measurements increased with increasing parity. In conclusion, when the daily intake of the basal gestation diet was equalized for both treatments, the addition of 13.35% ground wheat straw to the gestation diet improved sow and litter performance, with increases in litter size and total litter weight at birth and weaning compared with control sows and litters. PMID:18952734

  2. The effect of Pleurotus spp. fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Jafari, M A; Nikkhah, A; Sadeghi, A A; Chamani, M

    2007-08-01

    This study was carried out to test the potentially of using rice straw substrate for the cultivation of four Pleurotus species including Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus ostreatus and the effect of these species on the chemical composition, cell wall degradation and digestibility of rice straw. Rice straw soaked in water for 24 h and then it was pasteurized at 100 degrees C for 6 h. Rice straw was inoculated with spawns of four Pleurotus fungi (Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus ostreatus) and packed in the plastic bags and incubated in a fermentation chamber at 23-27 degrees C and 75-85% relative humidity. After 60th day, rice straw samples from all groups were taken and analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. The data obtained were analyzed according to the complete randomized design model consisting of four treatments plus one control and four replicates. The results of this study showed that fungal treatment increased (p<0.05) the Crude Protein (CP), silica, Ca and P contents of the rice straw but the hemicellulose, Organic Matter (OM), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) contents decreased. However, the ability of the fungi to degrade these components varied among the species. The ability of Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus ostreatus were higher than the other species in decreasing the hemicellulose, NDF, ADF and ADL contents. The highest Biological Efficiency (BE) was produced by sajor-caju species with 56.02 and the lowest was belong to Pleurotus djamor species with an average 51.17%. All species of fungi incubated on rice straw showed increased (p<0.05) the in vitro dry mater and organic matter digestibility. Rice straw treated with sajor-caju fungus had the highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) with 80.10 and 82.18%, respectively. In general this experiment cleared that treatment with sajor-caju can improve the quality of rice straw to be useful feed for ruminant nutrition. PMID:19070114

  3. Microbial fermentation of rice straw: nutritive composition and in vitro digestibility of the fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Han, Y W

    1975-04-01

    Rice straw was fermented with Cellulomonas sp. and Alcaligenes faecalis. Microbial cells and undigested residue, as well as chemically treated (NaOH or NH4OH) and untreated straws, were analyzed for nutrient composition and in vitro digestibility. In a typical fermentation, 75% of the rice straw substrate was digested, and 18.6% of the total substrate weight that disappeared was recovered as microbial protein. The microbial cell fraction was 37% protein and 5% crude fiber; the residue was 12% protein and 45% crude fiber. The microbial protein amino acid profile was similar to alfalfa, except for less cysteins. The microbial cells had more thiamine and less niacin than Torula yeast. In vitro digestibility of the microbial protein was 41.2 to 55%, that of cellulose was 52%. PMID:804853

  4. Treatment of wheat straw using tannase and white-rot fungus to improve feed utilization by ruminants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current research to enrich cattle feed has primarily focused on treatment using white rot fungi, while there are scarce reports using the enzyme tannase, which is discussed only in reviews or in the form of a hypothesis. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of tannase on wheat straw (WS) and also the effect of lyophilized tannase at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% (w/w) on WS followed by fermentation with Ganoderma sp. for 10 d and compared in relation to biochemical parameters, crude protein (CP) content, and nutritional value by calculating the C/N ratio in order to improve the nutritional value of cattle feed. Results Penicillium charlesii, a tannase-producing microorganism, produced 61.4 IU/mL of tannase in 54 h when 2% (w/v) tannic acid (TA) was initially used as a substrate in medium containing (% w/v) sucrose (1.0), NaNO3 (1.0), and MgSO4 (0.08 pH, 5.0) in a 300-L fermentor (working volume 220 L), and concomitantly fed with 1.0% (w/v) TA after 24 h. The yield of partially purified and lyophilized tannase was 5.8 IU/mg. The tannin-free myco-straw at 0.1% (w/w) tannase showed 37.8% (w/w) lignin degradation with only a 20.4% (w/w) decrease in cellulose content and the in vitro feed digestibility was 32.2%. An increase in CP content (up to 1.28-fold) along with a lower C/N ratio of 25.0%, as compared to myco-straw, was obtained. Conclusions The use of tannin-free myco-straw has potential to improve the nutritional content of cattle feed. This biological treatment process was safe, eco-friendly, easy to perform, and was less expensive as compared to other treatment methods. PMID:24555694

  5. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, F.; Abdullah, M.; Chaudhry, A. S.; Bhatti, J. A.; Jabbar, M. A.; Ahmed, F.; Mehmood, T.; Asim, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kamran, Z.; Irshad, I.; Tahir, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves. PMID:26950866

  6. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, F; Abdullah, M; Chaudhry, A S; Bhatti, J A; Jabbar, M A; Ahmed, F; Mehmood, T; Asim, M; Ahmed, S; Kamran, Z; Irshad, I; Tahir, M N

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves. PMID:26950866

  7. Physicochemical properties of wheat-canna and wheat-konjac composite flours.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of composite flours made of wheat from low to high protein contents and canna or konjac at different levels of substitution (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) were prepared and analyzed. Compared to that of wheat flour alone, increasing levels of canna inclusions significantly increased the amount of resistant starch (RS) but decreased the protein content of composite flours. This substitution did not alter the total starch (TS), amylase and amylopectin contents of these mixtures. Changes in physicochemical properties were also observed in wheat-konjac composite flours. Increasing amounts of konjac flour decreased the TS, amylase, amylopectin, and protein content of the mixtures, but increased the amount of RS. Substitution of wheat flour with 75 % of canna or konjac flours in HPWC (High Protein Wheat-Canna), HPWK (High Protein Wheat-Konjac), and LPWK (Low Protein Wheat-Konjac) increased the swelling power of these mixtures at 80 and 90 °C. In general, substitution of wheat flour with up to 50 % of canna or konjac flours did not cause any other observable decline. In addition, the substitution of wheat flour with canna or konjac flours increased the gelatinization temperature of all composite flours. PMID:25190833

  8. Effect of pretreatment severity in continuous steam explosion on enzymatic conversion of wheat straw: Evidence from kinetic analysis of hydrolysis time courses.

    PubMed

    Monschein, Mareike; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on continuous steam explosion, the influence of pretreatment severity due to varied acid loading on hydrolysis of wheat straw by Trichoderma reesei cellulases was investigated based on kinetic evaluation of the saccharification of each pretreated substrate. Using semi-empirical descriptors of the hydrolysis time course, key characteristics of saccharification efficiency were captured in a quantifiable fashion. Not only hydrolysis rates per se, but also the transition point of their bi-phasic decline was crucial for high saccharification degree. After 48h the highest saccharification was achieved for substrate pretreated at relatively low severity (1.2% acid). Higher severity increased enzyme binding to wheat straw, but reduced the specific hydrolysis rates. Higher affinity of the lignocellulosic material for cellulases does not necessarily result in increased saccharification, probably because of lignin modifications occurring at high pretreatment severities. At comparable severity, continuous pretreatment produced a substrate more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than the batch process. PMID:26496218

  9. NO formation during agricultural straw combustion.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Xiaoping

    2011-07-01

    NO formation during combustion of four typical kinds of straw (wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and corn stalk) which belong to soft straw and hard straw was studied in a tubular quartz fixed bed reactor under conditions relevant to grate boiler combustion. Regarding the real situation in biomass fired power plants in China, NO formation from blended straw combustion was also investigated. Nitrogen transfer during blended straw pyrolysis was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results show that NO conversion for the four straws during combustion is distinctive. Over 70% fuel-N converts into NO for cotton stalk, while only 37% for wheat straw under the same condition. When wheat straw and cotton stalk were mixed, N-NO conversion increases. The limestone addition promotes NO emission during cotton stalk combustion. The presence of SO(2) in atmosphere suppresses NO formation from straw combustion. PMID:21592786

  10. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput. PMID:21896164

  11. On-site cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei 3EMS35 mutant and same vessel saccharification and fermentation of acid treated wheat straw for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Zia-ullah; Syed, Qurat-ul-Ain; Wu, Jing; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials involves process steps like pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and distillation. In this study, wheat straw was explored as feedstock for on-site cellulase production by T. reesei 3EMS35 mutant, and as a substrate for second generation bioethanol production from baker yeast. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractography (XRD) of untreated wheat straw (UWS) and acid treated wheat straw (TWS) were done to understand the structural organization and changes in the cellulase accessibility and reactivity. The effect of delignification and structural modification for on-site cellulase enzyme production was comparably studied. The efficiency of crude cellulase enzyme for digestion of UWS and TWS and then production of ethanol from TWS was studied using same-vessel saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) technique, both in shaking flasks as well as in fermenters. Two different methods of operation were tested, i.e. the UWSEnz method, where UWS was used for on-site enzyme production, and TWSEnz method where TWS was applied as substrate for cellullase production. Results obtained showed structural modifications in cellulose of TWS due to delignification, removal of wax and change of crystallinity. UWS was better substrate than TWS for cellulase production due to the fact that lignin did not hinder the enzyme production by fungus but acted as a booster. On-site cellulase enzyme produced by T. reesei 3EMS35 mutant hydrolyzed most of cellulose (91 %) in TWS within first 24 hrs. Shake flasks experiments showed that ethanol titers and yields with UWSEnz were 2.9 times higher compared to those obtained with TWSEnz method respectively. Comparatively, titer of ethanol in shake flask experiments was 10 % higher than this obtained in 3 L fermenter with UWSEnz. Outcomes from this investigation clearly demonstrated the potential of on-site cellulase enzyme production and SVSF for ethanol production from wheat straw. PMID:26417244

  12. On-site cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei 3EMS35 mutant and same vessel saccharification and fermentation of acid treated wheat straw for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Zia-Ullah; Syed, Qurat-Ul-Ain; Wu, Jing; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials involves process steps like pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and distillation. In this study, wheat straw was explored as feedstock for on-site cellulase production by T. reesei 3EMS35 mutant, and as a substrate for second generation bioethanol production from baker yeast. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractography (XRD) of untreated wheat straw (UWS) and acid treated wheat straw (TWS) were done to understand the structural organization and changes in the cellulase accessibility and reactivity. The effect of delignification and structural modification for on-site cellulase enzyme production was comparably studied. The efficiency of crude cellulase enzyme for digestion of UWS and TWS and then production of ethanol from TWS was studied using same-vessel saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) technique, both in shaking flasks as well as in fermenters. Two different methods of operation were tested, i.e. the UWSEnz method, where UWS was used for on-site enzyme production, and TWSEnz method where TWS was applied as substrate for cellullase production. Results obtained showed structural modifications in cellulose of TWS due to delignification, removal of wax and change of crystallinity. UWS was better substrate than TWS for cellulase production due to the fact that lignin did not hinder the enzyme production by fungus but acted as a booster. On-site cellulase enzyme produced by T. reesei 3EMS35 mutant hydrolyzed most of cellulose (91 %) in TWS within first 24 hrs. Shake flasks experiments showed that ethanol titers and yields with UWSEnz were 2.9 times higher compared to those obtained with TWSEnz method respectively. Comparatively, titer of ethanol in shake flask experiments was 10 % higher than this obtained in 3 L fermenter with UWSEnz. Outcomes from this investigation clearly demonstrated the potential of on-site cellulase enzyme production and SVSF for ethanol production from wheat straw. PMID:26417244

  13. Possibility of using waste tire composites reinforced with rice straw as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Kang, Chun-Won

    2004-10-01

    Agricultural lignocellulosic fiber (rice straw)-waste tire particle composite boards were manufactured for use as insulation boards in construction, using the same method as that used in the wood-based panel industry. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.8 and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of rice straw/waste tire particle). A commercial polyurethane adhesive for rubber was used as the composite binder. The water proof, water absorption and thickness swelling properties of the composite boards were better than those of wood particleboard. Furthermore, the flexibility and flexural properties of the composite boards were superior to those of other wood-based panel products. The composite boards also demonstrated good acoustical insulation, electrical insulation, anti-caustic and anti-rot properties. These boards can be used to prevent impact damage, are easily modifiable and are inexpensive. They are able to be used as a substitute for insulation boards and other flexural materials in construction. PMID:15207296

  14. Characterization of wheat straw-degrading anaerobic alkali-tolerant mixed cultures from soda lake sediments by molecular and cultivation techniques.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Katharina; Wirth, Balázs; Tóth, Erika M; Schattenberg, Florian; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment has the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas. However, the elevated pH of the substrate may require alkalitolerant microbial communities for an effective digestion. Three mixed anaerobic lignocellulolytic cultures were enriched from sediments from two soda lakes with wheat straw as substrate under alkaline (pH 9) mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The gas production of the three cultures ceased after 4 to 5 weeks, and the produced gas was composed of carbon dioxide and methane. The main liquid intermediates were acetate and propionate. The physiological behavior of the cultures was stable even after several transfers. The enrichment process was also followed by molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and of the mcrA/mrtA functional gene for methanogens. The main shift in the microbial community composition occurred between the sediment samples and the first enrichment, whereas the structure was stable in the following transfers. The bacterial communities mainly consisted of Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales and Spirochaeta, but differed at genus level. Methanothermobacter and Methanosarcina genera and the order Methanomicrobiales were predominant methanogenes in the obtained cultures. Additionally, single cellulolytic microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures and identified as members of the alkaliphilic or alkalitolerant genera. The results show that anaerobic alkaline habitats harbor diverse microbial communities, which can degrade lignocellulose effectively and are therefore a potential resource for improving anaerobic digestion. PMID:25737100

  15. Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate within a two-phase solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Heeg, Kathrin; Pohl, Marcel; Sontag, Mario; Mumme, Jan; Klocke, Michael; Nettmann, Edith

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate were investigated. Anaerobic digestion was carried out within an up-flow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor connected to an anaerobic filter (AF) by liquor recirculation. Two lab-scale reactor systems were operated simultaneously at 37 °C and 55 °C. The UASS reactors were fed at a fixed organic loading rate of 2.5 g L(-1) d(-1), based on volatile solids. Molecular genetic analyses of the bacterial and archaeal communities within the UASS reactors (digestate and effluent liquor) and the AFs (biofilm carrier and effluent liquor) were conducted under steady-state conditions. The thermophilic UASS reactor had a considerably higher biogas and methane yield in comparison to the mesophilic UASS, while the mesophilic AF was slightly more productive than the thermophilic AF. When the thermophilic and mesophilic community structures were compared, the thermophilic system was characterized by a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequence analysis. The composition of the archaeal communities was phase-separated under thermophilic conditions, but rather stage-specific under mesophilic conditions. Family- and order-specific real-time PCR of methanogenic Archaea supported the taxonomic distribution obtained by rrs sequence analysis. The higher anaerobic digestion efficiency of the thermophilic compared to the mesophilic UASS reactor was accompanied by a high abundance of Firmicutes and Methanosarcina sp. in the thermophilic UASS biofilm. PMID:25467556

  16. Characterization of wheat straw-degrading anaerobic alkali-tolerant mixed cultures from soda lake sediments by molecular and cultivation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Porsch, Katharina; Wirth, Balázs; Tóth, Erika M; Schattenberg, Florian; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline pretreatment has the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas. However, the elevated pH of the substrate may require alkalitolerant microbial communities for an effective digestion. Three mixed anaerobic lignocellulolytic cultures were enriched from sediments from two soda lakes with wheat straw as substrate under alkaline (pH 9) mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The gas production of the three cultures ceased after 4 to 5 weeks, and the produced gas was composed of carbon dioxide and methane. The main liquid intermediates were acetate and propionate. The physiological behavior of the cultures was stable even after several transfers. The enrichment process was also followed by molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and of the mcrA/mrtA functional gene for methanogens. The main shift in the microbial community composition occurred between the sediment samples and the first enrichment, whereas the structure was stable in the following transfers. The bacterial communities mainly consisted of Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales and Spirochaeta, but differed at genus level. Methanothermobacter and Methanosarcina genera and the order Methanomicrobiales were predominant methanogenes in the obtained cultures. Additionally, single cellulolytic microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures and identified as members of the alkaliphilic or alkalitolerant genera. The results show that anaerobic alkaline habitats harbor diverse microbial communities, which can degrade lignocellulose effectively and are therefore a potential resource for improving anaerobic digestion. PMID:25737100

  17. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140C for 10 min. The maximal enzymatic glucose and xylose yields from the solid, pretreated wheat straw fraction were obtained after pretreatments at the most extreme pH values (pH 1 or pH 13) at the maximum pretreatment temperature of 140C. Surface response models revealed significantly correlating interactions of the pretreatment pH and temperature on the enzymatic liberation of both glucose and xylose from pretreated, solid wheat straw. The influence of temperature was most pronounced with the acidic pretreatments, but the highest enzymatic monosaccharide yields were obtained after alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T ? 140C, time ? 10 min). Alkaline pretreatments generally induced higher enzymatic glucose and xylose release and did so at lower pretreatment temperatures than required with acidic pretreatments. PMID:21569460

  18. [Effects of irrigation mode on winter wheat yield and water- and nutrient use efficiencies under maize straw returning to field].

    PubMed

    Dang, Jian-you; Pei, Xue-xia; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jiao-ai; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-yi

    2011-10-01

    In 2008-2010, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes on the grain yield, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of winter wheat under maize straw returning to the field in a semi-arid and semi-humid monsoon region of Linfen, Shanxi Province of Northwest China. Irrigation at wintering time promoted tillering, irrigation at jointing stage increased the total tiller number and the fertile spike rate per tiller, whereas irrigation at booting stage promoted the dry matter accumulation in spike and increased the 1000-kernel mass. When the irrigation was implemented at two growth stages and the second irrigation time was postponed, both the dry matter translocation to leaf and the kernels per spike increased. Irrigation twice throughout the whole growth season induced a higher NUE and higher dry matter accumulation in spike, as compared to irrigation once. The irrigation amount at wintering time and the total irrigation amount had lesser effects on the tillering and the dry matter accumulation in spike. Increasing irrigation amount at jointing stage or booting stage more benefited the nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and translocation, and grain WUE, which in turn made the yield-formation factors be more balance and the grain yield be higher. It was concluded that to guarantee the irrigation amount at wintering time could achieve stabilized yield, and the optimal irrigation mode was irrigation at wintering time plus an additional irrigation at jointing stage (900 m3 hm(-2)), which could satisfy the water demand of winter wheat at its mid and later growth stage and increase the WUE of grain, and realize water-saving and high-yielding cultivation. PMID:22263451

  19. Phytochemical composition and anticancer activity of germinated wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination is a natural method to increase bioactive components that have beneficial effects on human health. Germinated wheat flour samples of a hard red wheat cultivar (Rampart) were prepared after germination of three and five days and investigated for phytochemical composition and anticanc...

  20. Effects of changes in straw chemical properties and alkaline soils on bacterial communities engaged in straw decomposition at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhang, Congzhi; Feng, Youzhi; Chen, Lin; Yu, Zhenghong; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the composition of a bacterial community engaged in decomposing wheat straw in a fluvo-aquic soil at 15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C were identified using barcode pyrosequencing. Functional carbon groups in the decomposing wheat straw were evaluated by (13)C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were more abundant, whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were less abundant, at higher temperatures during the later stages of decomposition. Differences in the chemical properties of straw accounted for 19.3% of the variation in the community composition, whereas soil properties accounted for more (24.0%) and temperature, for less (7.4%). Carbon content of the soil microbial biomass and nitrogen content of straw were significantly correlated with the abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The chemical properties of straw, especially the NCH/OCH3, alkyl O-C-O, and O-alkyl functional groups, exercised a significant effect on the composition of the bacterial community at different temperatures during decomposition-results that extend our understanding of bacterial communities associated with the decomposition of straw in agro-ecosystems and of the effects of temperature and chemical properties of the decomposing straw and soil on such communities. PMID:26916902

  1. Effects of changes in straw chemical properties and alkaline soils on bacterial communities engaged in straw decomposition at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhang, Congzhi; Feng, Youzhi; Chen, Lin; Yu, Zhenghong; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the composition of a bacterial community engaged in decomposing wheat straw in a fluvo-aquic soil at 15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C were identified using barcode pyrosequencing. Functional carbon groups in the decomposing wheat straw were evaluated by 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were more abundant, whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were less abundant, at higher temperatures during the later stages of decomposition. Differences in the chemical properties of straw accounted for 19.3% of the variation in the community composition, whereas soil properties accounted for more (24.0%) and temperature, for less (7.4%). Carbon content of the soil microbial biomass and nitrogen content of straw were significantly correlated with the abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The chemical properties of straw, especially the NCH/OCH3, alkyl O-C-O, and O-alkyl functional groups, exercised a significant effect on the composition of the bacterial community at different temperatures during decomposition—results that extend our understanding of bacterial communities associated with the decomposition of straw in agro-ecosystems and of the effects of temperature and chemical properties of the decomposing straw and soil on such communities. PMID:26916902

  2. Biorefining strategy for maximal monosaccharide recovery from three different feedstocks: eucalyptus residues, wheat straw and olive tree pruning.

    PubMed

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Duarte, Luís Chorão; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Marques, Susana; Loureiro-Dias, Maria Conceição; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    This work proposes the biorefining of eucalyptus residues (ER), wheat straw (WS) and olive tree pruning (OP) combining hydrothermal pretreatment (autohydrolysis) with acid post-hydrolysis of the liquid fraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction towards maximal recovery of monosaccharides from those lignocellulose materials. Autohydrolysis of ER, WS and OP was performed under non-isothermal conditions (195-230°C) and the non-cellulosic saccharides were recovered in the liquid fraction while cellulose and lignin remained in the solid fraction. The acid post-hydrolysis of the soluble oligosaccharides was studied by optimizing sulfuric acid concentration (1-4%w/w) and reaction time (10-60 min), employing a factorial (2(2)) experimental design. The solids resulting from pretreatment were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis by applying commercial cellulolytic enzymes Celluclast® 1.5L and Novozyme® 188 (0.225 and 0.025 g/g solid, respectively). This strategy provides high total monosaccharide recovery or high glucose recovery from lignocellulosic materials, depending on the autohydrolysis conditions applied. PMID:25742752

  3. Co-consumption of glucose and xylose for organic acid production by Aspergillus carbonarius cultivated in wheat straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Lübeck, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius exhibits excellent abilities to utilize a wide range of carbon sources and to produce various organic acids. In this study, wheat straw hydrolysate containing high concentrations of glucose and xylose was used for organic acid production by A. carbonarius. The results indicated that A. carbonarius efficiently co-consumed glucose and xylose and produced various types of organic acids in hydrolysate adjusted to pH 7. The inhibitor tolerance of A. carbonarius to the hydrolysate at different pH values was investigated and compared using spores and recycled mycelia. This comparison showed a slight difference in the inhibitor tolerance of the spores and the recycled mycelia based on their growth patterns. Moreover, the wild-type and a glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutant were compared for their abilities to produce organic acids using the hydrolysate and a defined medium. The two strains showed a different pattern of organic acid production in the hydrolysate where the Δgox mutant produced more oxalic acid but less citric acid than the wild-type, which was different from the results obtained in the defined medium This study demonstrates the feasibility of using lignocellulosic biomass for the organic acid production by A. carbonarius. PMID:26925619

  4. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system. PMID:25391347

  5. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater. PMID:25710573

  6. Ethanol-based organosolv fractionation of wheat straw for the production of lignin and enzymatically digestible cellulose.

    PubMed

    Wildschut, Jelle; Smit, Arjan T; Reith, Johannes H; Huijgen, Wouter J J

    2013-05-01

    Wheat straw fractionation by ethanol organosolv was studied as pretreatment for enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. A parametric study focusing on temperature, reaction time, acid catalyst dose, solvent concentration, and particle size was performed to determine their influence on delignification, xylan hydrolysis, and enzymatic cellulose digestibility. Major process parameters were found to be temperature, ethanol concentration, and acid dose. Optimisation of the process towards enzymatic digestibility resulted in a maximum glucose yield of 86% without the use of a catalyst (lignin yield 84%, organosolv at 210 °C, 50% w/w aqueous EtOH). Using 30 mM H2SO4 as catalyst resulted in similar glucose and lignin yields at a lower temperature (190 °C, 60% w/w aqueous EtOH). Lowering the pretreatment temperature by using an acid catalyst substantially improved the yield of the hemicellulose derivatives xylose and furfural. A systematic approach in pretreatment optimisation is vital for development of efficient lignocellulosic biorefineries. PMID:23186666

  7. Yield and nutritional content of Pleurotus sajor caju on wheat straw supplemented with raw and detoxified mahua cake.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh

    2013-12-15

    The effect of supplementation of wheat straw (WS) with raw/detoxified mahua cake (MC) on yield and nutritional quality of Pleurotus sajor caju was studied. Raw cake significantly enhanced the yield compared to control and could be tolerated up to a 10% addition. Detoxification further improved the mushroom yield giving a maximum of 1024.7 g kg(-1) from WS supplemented with 20% saponin free detoxified mahua cake. Chemical analysis of fruit bodies revealed that they are rich in proteins (27.4-34.8%), soluble sugars (28.6-32.2%) and minerals. Glucose, trehalose and glutamic acid, alanine were the major sugars and amino acids detected by HPLC analysis, respectively. HPLC studies further confirmed the absence of saponins (characteristic toxins present in MC) in both fruit bodies and spent. Degradation of complex molecules in spent was monitored via FTIR. The study proved beneficial for effective management of agricultural wastes along with production of nutrient rich and saponin free fruit bodies/spent. PMID:23993610

  8. Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation of High Dry Matter Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw at Low Enzyme Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O2 as oxidizing agent was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%.

  9. Assessment of the potential for biogas production from wheat straw leachate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters.

    PubMed

    Idrus, S; Banks, C J; Heaven, S

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is a major potential source of waste biomass for renewable energy production, but its high salt content causes problems in combustion. The salts can be removed by washing, but this process also removes a proportion of the organic material which could potentially be recovered by anaerobic digestion of the washwater leachate. This approach would maximise the overall energy yield in an integrated process in which washwater could be recycled after further desalting. Leachate from cold water washing with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1.2 g l⁻¹ was fed to mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters at a loading rate of 1 g COD l⁻¹ day⁻¹ to determine the energy yield and any detrimental effects of the leached salts on the process. The specific methane production was 0.29 l CH₄ g⁻¹ COD(added), corresponding to a COD removal rate of 84%. Light metal cations in the leachate, especially potassium, were found to accumulate in the digesters and appeared to have a synergistic effect up to a concentration of ∼6.5 mg K g⁻¹ wet weight of the granular sludge, but further accumulation caused inhibition of methanogenesis. It was shown that gas production in the inhibited digesters could be restored within 12 days by switching the feed to a synthetic sewage, which washed the accumulated K out of the digesters. PMID:23109593

  10. Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaochen; Zheng, Yubin; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Chen, Shulin

    2011-05-01

    This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g/L) and hexoses (4.9 g/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia lipolytica, were evaluated by using this hydrolysate as substrates. The results showed that all of these strains could use the detoxified hydrolysate to produce lipids while except R. toruloides non-detoxified hydrolysate could also be used for the growth of all of the selective yeast strains. C. curvatus showed the highest lipid concentrations in medium on both the detoxified (4.2g/L) and non-detoxified (5.8 g/L) hydrolysates. And the inhibitory effect studies on C. curvatus indicated HMF had insignificant impacts at a concentration of up to 3g/L while furfural inhibited cell growth and lipid content by 72.0% and 62.0% at 1g/L, respectively. Our work demonstrates that lipid production is a promising alternative to utilize hemicellulosic sugars obtained during pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21463940

  11. Impact of organic loading rate on the performance of psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and wheat straw: long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Development of efficient processes for valorising animal wastes would be a major advancement in cold-climate regions. This paper reports the results of long term (315 days experiment) of novel psychrophilic (20°C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces and wheat straw in laboratory scale sequence batch reactor operated at increasing organic loading rate. The PDAD process fed with a mixture of feces and straw (TS of 27%) over a treatment cycle length of 21 days at organic loading rate (OLR) 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) (of 2.9 ± 0.1, 3.7 ± 0.1, and 4.4 ± 0.1g VS kg(-1) inoculum d(-1), respectively) resulted in average specific methane yield (SMY) of 187.3 ± 18.1, 163.6 ± 39.5, 150.8 ± 32.9 N L CH4 kg(-1)VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.4 at OLR of 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. PMID:25681795

  12. Comparative study of lignin characteristics from wheat straw obtained by soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment and effect on the following enzymatic hydrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haitao; Xie, Yimin; Zheng, Xing; Pu, Yunqiao; Huang, Fang; Meng, Xianzhi; Wu, Weibing; Ragauskas, Arthur; Yao, Lan

    2016-05-01

    To understand the structural changes of lignin after soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment, milled straw lignin, black liquor lignin and residual lignin extracted from wheat straw were characterized by FT-IR, UV, GPC and NMR. The results showed that the main lignin linkages were β-aryl ether substructures (β-O-4'), followed by phenylcoumaran (β-5') and resinol (β-β') substructures, while minor content of spirodienone (β-1'), dibenzodioxocin (5-5') and α,β-diaryl ether linkages were detected as well. After pretreatment, most lignin inter-units and lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) linkages were degraded and dissolved in black liquor, with minor amount left in residual pretreated biomass. In addition, through quantitative (13)C and 2D-HSQC NMR spectral analysis, lignin and LCC were found to be more degraded after kraft pretreatment than soda-AQ pretreatment. Furthermore, the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis results showed that more cellulose in wheat straw was converted to glucose after kraft pretreatment, indicating that LCC linkages were important in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. PMID:26897415

  13. Priming effect of 13C-labelled wheat straw in no-tillage soil under drying and wetting cycles in the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enke; Wang, Jianbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Angers, Denis A.; Yan, Changrong; Oweis, Theib; He, Wenqing; Liu, Qin; Chen, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drying and wetting (DW) cycles on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation and on the priming effect (PE) induced by the addition of 13C-labelled wheat straw to long-term no-tillage (NT) and conventional-tillage (CT) soils. We observed that the SOC mineralisation rate in rewetted soils was greater than that in soils that were kept at constant water content. The proportion of CO2 derived from the straw declined dramatically during the first 10 days. The priming direction was first positive, and then became slightly negative. The PE was higher under DW cycles than under constant water content. There was no significant effect of the tillage system on the SOC mineralisation rate or PE. The data indicate that the DW cycles had a significant effect on the SOC mineralisation rate and on the PE, demonstrating a positive combined effect between wheat straw and moisture fluctuations. Further research is needed to study the role of microbial communities and C pools in affecting the SOC mineralisation response to DW cycles. PMID:26345303

  14. Priming effect of (13)C-labelled wheat straw in no-tillage soil under drying and wetting cycles in the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enke; Wang, Jianbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Angers, Denis A; Yan, Changrong; Oweis, Theib; He, Wenqing; Liu, Qin; Chen, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drying and wetting (DW) cycles on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation and on the priming effect (PE) induced by the addition of (13)C-labelled wheat straw to long-term no-tillage (NT) and conventional-tillage (CT) soils. We observed that the SOC mineralisation rate in rewetted soils was greater than that in soils that were kept at constant water content. The proportion of CO2 derived from the straw declined dramatically during the first 10 days. The priming direction was first positive, and then became slightly negative. The PE was higher under DW cycles than under constant water content. There was no significant effect of the tillage system on the SOC mineralisation rate or PE. The data indicate that the DW cycles had a significant effect on the SOC mineralisation rate and on the PE, demonstrating a positive combined effect between wheat straw and moisture fluctuations. Further research is needed to study the role of microbial communities and C pools in affecting the SOC mineralisation response to DW cycles. PMID:26345303

  15. Priming effect of 13C-labelled wheat straw in no-tillage soil under drying and wetting cycles in the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Enke; Wang, Jianbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Angers, Denis A.; Yan, Changrong; Oweis, Theib; He, Wenqing; Liu, Qin; Chen, Baoqing

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drying and wetting (DW) cycles on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation and on the priming effect (PE) induced by the addition of 13C-labelled wheat straw to long-term no-tillage (NT) and conventional-tillage (CT) soils. We observed that the SOC mineralisation rate in rewetted soils was greater than that in soils that were kept at constant water content. The proportion of CO2 derived from the straw declined dramatically during the first 10 days. The priming direction was first positive, and then became slightly negative. The PE was higher under DW cycles than under constant water content. There was no significant effect of the tillage system on the SOC mineralisation rate or PE. The data indicate that the DW cycles had a significant effect on the SOC mineralisation rate and on the PE, demonstrating a positive combined effect between wheat straw and moisture fluctuations. Further research is needed to study the role of microbial communities and C pools in affecting the SOC mineralisation response to DW cycles.

  16. Response of fumaric Acid addition on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, and dry matter degradability in diets containing wheat straw and sorghum or berseem as roughage source.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, S K; Pandey, Poonam; Goel, Navneet

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro incubation system was used to evaluate effect of supplementation of fumaric acid at 0, 5, 10, and 15 mM concentration in high-, medium-, and low-fiber wheat straw containing total mixed diets with sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on rumen fermentation, methane production, and gas kinetics parameters. Three types of diets were prepared with different roughage and concentrate ratio (80 : 20, 50 : 50, and 20 : 80) by taking the representative samples. The roughage part composed of wheat straw (70 parts) and sorghum (30 parts) or berseem (30 parts) and the concentrate part composed of maize (33%), GNC (21%), mustard cake (12%), wheat bran (20%), deoiled rice bran (11%), mineral mixture (2%), and salt (1%). Fumaric acid was added in incubation medium to achieve final concentration of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mM. All the treatment combinations were arranged in 4 × 3 factorial designs with three replicates. It was concluded from the study that fumaric acid addition (5-15 mM) in diets varying in roughage to concentrate ratio significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the methane production without affecting dry matter digestibility and maximum reduction was noticed at 5 mM concentration. PMID:23738126

  17. Response of Fumaric Acid Addition on Methanogenesis, Rumen Fermentation, and Dry Matter Degradability in Diets Containing Wheat Straw and Sorghum or Berseem as Roughage Source

    PubMed Central

    Sirohi, S. K.; Pandey, Poonam; Goel, Navneet

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro incubation system was used to evaluate effect of supplementation of fumaric acid at 0, 5, 10, and 15 mM concentration in high-, medium-, and low-fiber wheat straw containing total mixed diets with sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on rumen fermentation, methane production, and gas kinetics parameters. Three types of diets were prepared with different roughage and concentrate ratio (80 : 20, 50 : 50, and 20 : 80) by taking the representative samples. The roughage part composed of wheat straw (70 parts) and sorghum (30 parts) or berseem (30 parts) and the concentrate part composed of maize (33%), GNC (21%), mustard cake (12%), wheat bran (20%), deoiled rice bran (11%), mineral mixture (2%), and salt (1%). Fumaric acid was added in incubation medium to achieve final concentration of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mM. All the treatment combinations were arranged in 4 × 3 factorial designs with three replicates. It was concluded from the study that fumaric acid addition (5–15 mM) in diets varying in roughage to concentrate ratio significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the methane production without affecting dry matter digestibility and maximum reduction was noticed at 5 mM concentration. PMID:23738126

  18. Effects of green liquor pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

    2013-12-01

    Green liquor (Na2S+Na2CO3, GL) pretreatment is a proven pathway to improve the enzymatic saccharification for the production of bioethanol. In this work, the effects of GL pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw at various total titratable alkali (TTA) charge and temperature were investigated. The GL pretreatment showed excellent performance in high polysaccharides retention and delignification selectivity. Under the optimized GL pretreatment condition (4% TTA charge, 20% sulfidity and 140°C), 92.5% of glucan, 82.4% of xylan and 81.6% of arabinan in rice straw were recovered with a delignification of 39.4%. The maximum sugar yields of 83.9%, 69.6% and 78.0%, respectively for glucan, xylan and total sugar, were achieved at the same GL pretreatment condition with an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate. The results suggested that GL pretreatment is a practicable method for rice straw to enhance enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production. PMID:24128400

  19. Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P; Womac, A.R.; Chevanan, Nehru; Miu, P.I.; Smith, D.R.; Igathinathane, C.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-07-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic particles. Uniformity coefficient was < 4.0 for wheat straw, which indicated uniform mix of particles, and it was about 4.0 for switchgrass and corn stover, which indicated a moderate assortment of particles. Size-related parameters, namely, geometric mean diameter, Rosin Rammler size parameter, median diameter, and effective size had strong correlation among themselves and good negative correlation with speed. Distribution-related parameters, namely, Rosin Rammler distribution parameter, mass relative span, inclusive graphic skewness, graphic kurtosis, uniformity index, uniformity coefficient, coefficient of gradation and distribution geometric standard deviation had strong correlation among themselves and a weak correlation with mill speed. Results of this extensive analysis of specific energy and particle sizes can be applied to selection of hammer mill operating factors to produce a particular size of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grind, and will serve as a guide for relations among the energy and various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

  20. Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH) and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH). The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11 mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production. PMID:22824058

  1. Improving simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of pretreated wheat straw using both enzyme and substrate feeding

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) has been recognized as a feasible option for ethanol production from xylose-rich lignocellulosic materials. To reach high ethanol concentration in the broth, a high content of water-insoluble solids (WIS) is needed, which creates mixing problems and, furthermore, may decrease xylose uptake. Feeding of substrate has already been proven to give a higher xylose conversion than a batch SSCF. In the current work, enzyme feeding, in addition to substrate feeding, was investigated as a means of enabling a higher WIS content with a high xylose conversion in SSCF of a xylose-rich material. A recombinant xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (TMB3400) was used for this purpose in fed-batch SSCF experiments of steam-pretreated wheat straw. Results By using both enzyme and substrate feeding, the xylose conversion in SSCF could be increased from 40% to 50% in comparison to substrate feeding only. In addition, by this design of the feeding strategy, it was possible to process a WIS content corresponding to 11% in SSCF and obtain an ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.35 g g-1. Conclusion A combination of enzyme and substrate feeding was shown to enhance xylose uptake by yeast and increase overall ethanol yield in SSCF. This is conceptually important for the design of novel SSCF processes aiming at high-ethanol titers. Substrate feeding prevents viscosity from becoming too high and thereby allows a higher total amount of WIS to be added in the process. The enzyme feeding, furthermore, enables keeping the glucose concentration low, which kinetically favors xylose uptake and results in a higher xylose conversion. PMID:20678195

  2. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Kamil, Alison; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 µg/g and was correlated with whole wheat content (r = 0.9248; p = 0.0083). Ferulic acid (FerA) was the dominant phenolic at 99.9-316.0 µg/g and mostly bound tightly to the wheat matrix. AR-C21 and total FerA predicted the whole wheat content in each product (R(2 )= 0.9933). Total phytosterol content ranged from 562.6 to 1035.5 µg/g. Total tocol content ranged from 19.3 to 292.7 µg/g. Phytosterol and tocol contents were independent of whole wheat content. Whole wheat biscuits and pasta were the most potent products to induce QR in Hepa1c1c7 cells. This study provides a platform to characterize the relationship between the phytochemical composition of whole wheat and products formulated with this whole grain. PMID:25578763

  3. Hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw at pilot plant scale using a three-step reactor system aiming at high hemicellulose recovery, high cellulose digestibility and low lignin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-07-01

    A pilot plant (IBUS) consisting of three reactors was used for hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw (120-150 kg/h) aiming at co-production of bioethanol (from sugars) and electricity (from lignin). The first reactor step was pre-soaking at 80 degrees C, the second extraction of hemicellulose at 170-180 degrees C and the third improvement of the enzymatic cellulose convertibility at 195 degrees C. Water added to the third reactor passed countercurrent to straw. The highest water addition (600 kg/h) gave the highest hemicellulose recovery (83%). With no water addition xylose degradation occurred resulting in low hemicellulose recovery (33%) but also in high glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis (72 g/100g glucose in straw). Under these conditions most of the lignin was retained in the fibre fraction, which resulted in a lignin rich residue with high combustion energy (up to 31 MJ/kg) after enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose. PMID:17936621

  4. Measurement of process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw using FT-NIR spectroscopy and synergy interval PLS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hui; Liu, Guohai; Mei, Congli; Yu, Shuang; Xiao, Xiahong; Ding, Yuhan

    2012-11-01

    The feasibility of rapid determination of the process variables (i.e. pH and moisture content) in solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw using Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was studied. Synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithm was implemented to calibrate regression model. The number of PLS factors and the number of subintervals were optimized simultaneously by cross-validation. The performance of the prediction model was evaluated according to the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the correlation coefficient (R). The measurement results of the optimal model were obtained as follows: RMSECV = 0.0776, Rc = 0.9777, RMSEP = 0.0963, and Rp = 0.9686 for pH model; RMSECV = 1.3544% w/w, Rc = 0.8871, RMSEP = 1.4946% w/w, and Rp = 0.8684 for moisture content model. Finally, compared with classic PLS and iPLS models, the siPLS model revealed its superior performance. The overall results demonstrate that FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with siPLS algorithm can be used to measure process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw, and NIR spectroscopy technique has a potential to be utilized in SSF industry.

  5. Characterization of a novel dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type enzyme from Irpex lacteus and its application in enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Salvacha, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; Martnez, ngel T; Martnez, Mara Jess

    2013-07-01

    Irpex lacteus is a white rot basidiomycete proposed for a wide spectrum of biotechnological applications which presents an interesting, but still scarcely known, enzymatic oxidative system. Among these enzymes, the production, purification, and identification of a new dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type enzyme, as well as its physico-chemical, spectroscopic, and catalytic properties, are described in the current work. According to its N-terminal sequence and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses, I. lacteus DyP showed high homology (>95%) with the hypothetical (not isolated or characterized) protein cpop21 from an unidentified species of the family Polyporaceae. The enzyme had a low optimal pH, was very stable to acid pH and temperature, and showed improved activity and stability at high H2O2 concentrations compared to other peroxidases. Other attractive features of I. lacteus DyP were its high catalytic efficiency oxidizing the recalcitrant anthraquinone and azo dyes assayed (kcat/Km of 1.6 10(6) s(-1) M(-1)) and its ability to oxidize nonphenolic aromatic compounds like veratryl alcohol. In addition, the effect of this DyP during the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw was checked. The results suggest that I. lacteus DyP displayed a synergistic action with cellulases during the hydrolysis of wheat straw, increasing significantly the fermentable glucose recoveries from this substrate. These data show a promising biotechnological potential for this enzyme. PMID:23666335

  6. Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, A; Tolera, A; Eik, L O; Sundstøl, F

    2009-02-01

    Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy. PMID:19386013

  7. Characterization of a Novel Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP)-Type Enzyme from Irpex lacteus and Its Application in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Salvacha, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Irpex lacteus is a white rot basidiomycete proposed for a wide spectrum of biotechnological applications which presents an interesting, but still scarcely known, enzymatic oxidative system. Among these enzymes, the production, purification, and identification of a new dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type enzyme, as well as its physico-chemical, spectroscopic, and catalytic properties, are described in the current work. According to its N-terminal sequence and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses, I. lacteus DyP showed high homology (>95%) with the hypothetical (not isolated or characterized) protein cpop21 from an unidentified species of the family Polyporaceae. The enzyme had a low optimal pH, was very stable to acid pH and temperature, and showed improved activity and stability at high H2O2 concentrations compared to other peroxidases. Other attractive features of I. lacteus DyP were its high catalytic efficiency oxidizing the recalcitrant anthraquinone and azo dyes assayed (kcat/Km of 1.6 106 s-1 M-1) and its ability to oxidize nonphenolic aromatic compounds like veratryl alcohol. In addition, the effect of this DyP during the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw was checked. The results suggest that I. lacteus DyP displayed a synergistic action with cellulases during the hydrolysis of wheat straw, increasing significantly the fermentable glucose recoveries from this substrate. These data show a promising biotechnological potential for this enzyme. PMID:23666335

  8. Impact of steam explosion on the wheat straw lignin structure studied by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Harri; Elder, Thomas; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rovio, Stella; Rahikainen, Jenni; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja

    2014-10-29

    Chemical changes of lignin induced by the steam explosion (SE) process were elucidated. Wheat straw was studied as the raw material, and lignins were isolated by the enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) procedure before and after the SE treatment for analyses mainly by two-dimensional (2D) [heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)] and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The ?-O-4 structures were found to be homolytically cleaved, followed by recoupling to ?-5 linkages. The homolytic cleavage/recoupling reactions were also studied by computational methods, which verified their thermodynamic feasibility. The presence of the tricin bound to wheat straw lignin was confirmed, and it was shown to participate in lignin reactions during the SE treatment. The preferred homolytic ?-O-4 cleavage reaction was calculated to follow bond dissociation energies: G-O-G (guaiacyl) (69.7 kcal/mol) > G-O-S (syringyl) (68.4 kcal/mol) > G-O-T (tricin) (67.0 kcal/mol). PMID:25290760

  9. Studies on the nutraceuticals composition of wheat derived oils wheat bran oil and wheat germ oil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Suresh; Krishna, A G Gopala

    2015-02-01

    Fat-soluble nutraceuticals of cereals are known for number of disease preventive activities. Hence wheat bran oil (WBO) and wheat germ oil (WGO) were extracted from wheat bran and germ which yielded 3.35 % and 7.35 % of oil, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (64 %, 61.2 %) respectively. Both oils contained tocopherols and carotenoids, which were higher in wheat germ oil (273 mg/100 g, 12.23 mg/100 g) than wheat bran oil (190 mg/100 g, 2.21 mg/100 g). Steryl ferulates were also present in both the oils, but their content was eight-fold higher in WBO than in WGO. Three major steryl ferulates identified by HPLC were campesteryl ferulate and sitostenyl ferulate, campestanyl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate as in γ-oryzanol and another ferulate, viz., sitostanyl ferulate. A strong IC50 value of 7.5 mg/mL and 21.6 mg/mL DPPH free radicals scavenging for wheat germ oil for wheat bran oil was observed. NMR ((13)C and (1)H) profile explored the evidence of distribution of antioxidant molecules in the unsaponifiable matter of wheat derived oil. Since oils rich in PUFA and minor components are required for the normal physiological activities, blending such oils with other edible oils of the diet in wheat growing countries like India may be useful to provide health benefits. PMID:25694731

  10. Fungicide Effects on Fungal Community Composition in the Wheat Phyllosphere

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied. PMID:25369054

  11. Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Khan; Alam, Zeb

    2007-08-01

    Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%-10.27%, 2.15%-2.55% total fats, 1.72%-1.85% dietary fibers, 77.65x10(-6)-84.25x10(-6) of potassium and 7.70x10(-6)-35.90x10(-6) of sodium ions concentration, 0.24x10(-6)-0.84x10(-6) of phosphorus, 1.44%-2.10% ash, 31.108-43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%-9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes. PMID:17657856

  12. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment. PMID:26642223

  13. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Supplementation and Anhydrous Ammonia Treatment of Wheat Straw on In-situ Degradability and, Rumen Fermentation and Growth Performance of Yearling Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Özelçam, Hülya; Baykal, Gülşah Yeğenoğlu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation (6.6×108 cfu) and anhydrous ammonia treatment (3%) of wheat straw (WS) were investigated on in-situ dry matter (DM) degradability, and on rumen fermentation and growth performance of lambs. Rumen-fistulated Menemen sheep fed a diet with and without live yeast were used to assess the DM degradability characteristics of WS and ammonia-treated wheat straw (WSNH3). Twenty-six yearling Menemen male lambs were fed in four groups. Lambs of control group (WS) received untreated WS without supplemental yeast, whereas other three groups were fed WS treated with anhydrous ammonia (WSNH3 group), untreated WS and yeast (WS+YEAST group) or WS treated with anhydrous ammonia and yeast (WSNH3+YEAST group). Supplemented live yeast (4 g/d) was added in the diet. Lambs were offered untreated or ammonia treated WS ad-libitum and concentrate was fed at 1% of live body weight. The degradability of the water-insoluble (fraction B) was significantly increased by all of the treatment groups. Potential degradability (A+B), effective DM degradability’s (pe2, pe5, and pe8) and average daily weight gain increased only in WSNH3+YEAST group (p<0.05). Voluntary DM intake was not increased by the treatments (p>0.05), but voluntary metabolizable energy and crude protein intake were increased by WSNH3 and by WSNH3+YEAST (p<0.05). Average daily rumen pH was not affected by any of the treatments, but average daily NH3-N was significantly higher in the WSNH3 and WSNH3+YEAST groups, and total volatile fatty acids were significantly higher in the WS+YEAST and WSNH3+YEAST groups. In conclusion, the improvement of feed value of WS was better by the combination of ammonia-treatment and yeast supplementation compared to either treatment alone. PMID:25656177

  14. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Ronald HW; Bakker, Robert R; Boersma, Arjen R; Bisschops, Iemke; Pels, Jan R; de Jong, Ed; Weusthuis, Ruud A; Reith, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight) is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52%) in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (in)organic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane), whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion), yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per kilogram (dry basis). PMID:18699996

  15. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

  16. Effects of Wheat Bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) Infestation in Preharvest Period on Wheat Technological Quality and Gluten Composition

    PubMed Central

    Torbica, Aleksandra M.; Mastilović, Jasna S.; Pojić, Milica M.; Kevrešan, Žarko S.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75 kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing. PMID:24550692

  17. Effects of wheat bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) infestation in preharvest period on wheat technological quality and gluten composition.

    PubMed

    Torbica, Aleksandra M; Mastilović, Jasna S; Pojić, Milica M; Kevrešan, Zarko S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75 kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing. PMID:24550692

  18. Effect of Wheat Flour Pre-cooking on the Composite Modulus of Wheat Flour and Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Latex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial wheat flours with two different concentrations of insoluble protein were used as fillers to reinforce styrene-butadiene latex composites and their viscoelastic properties were examined. Both wheat flours were also cooked at 55, 70, or 95 deg C for one hour in an aqueous dispersion prior ...

  19. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

  20. Effect of Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch Ratio on the Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrolyzed wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) showed substantial reinforcement effects in rubber composites. Due to different abilities of WG and WS to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG and WS as a co-filler. The...

  1. Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Wheat Gluten and Starch Co-filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to different abilities of wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG to WS as a co-filler. This study shows that the co-filler composites became more temperature dependent as the WG co...

  2. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

  3. The kinetics of inhibitor production resulting from hydrothermal deconstruction of wheat straw studied using a pressurised microwave reactor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of a microwave synthesis reactor has allowed kinetic data for the hydrothermal reactions of straw biomass to be established from short times, avoiding corrections required for slow heating in conventional reactors, or two-step heating. Access to realistic kinetic data is important for predictions of optimal reaction conditions for the pretreatment of biomass for bioethanol processes, which is required to minimise production of inhibitory compounds and to maximise sugar and ethanol yields. Results The gravimetric loss through solubilisation of straw provided a global measure of the extent of hydrothermal deconstruction. The kinetic profiles of furan and lignin-derived inhibitors were determined in the hydrothermal hydrolysates by UV analysis, with concentrations of formic and acetic acid determined by HPLC. Kinetic analyses were either carried out by direct fitting to simple first order equations or by numerical integration of sequential reactions. Conclusions A classical Arrhenius activation energy of 148 kJmol−1 has been determined for primary solubilisation, which is higher than the activation energy associated with historical measures of reaction severity. The gravimetric loss is primarily due to depolymerisation of the hemicellulose component of straw, but a minor proportion of lignin is solubilised at the same rate and hence may be associated with the more hydrophilic lignin-hemicellulose interface. Acetic acid is liberated primarily from hydrolysis of pendant acetate groups on hemicellulose, although this occurs at a rate that is too slow to provide catalytic enhancement to the primary solubilisation reactions. However, the increase in protons may enhance secondary reactions leading to the production of furans and formic acid. The work has suggested that formic acid may be formed under these hydrothermal conditions via direct reaction of sugar end groups rather than furan breakdown. However, furan degradation is found to be significant, which may limit ultimate quantities generated in hydrolysate liquors. PMID:24678822

  4. Impact of steam explosion on biogas production from rape straw in relation to changes in chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Ryden, Peter; Horn, Svein J; Tapp, Henri S; Wellner, Nikolaus; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Waldron, Keith W

    2012-11-01

    An 81day trial compared the cumulative production of methane from rape straw pre-treated by steam explosion at 15 levels of severity. The final methane yields were similar. The temporal variation in production rate exhibited two peaks: maximum production occurred in the first peak at around 21days with heights that increased with severity; the height of the second peak reduced with severity and peaked between 32 and 36days. Changes in the straw composition were investigated using mid-infrared spectroscopy. These were also strongly related to the degree of severity, allowing good predictive models to be built of severity and subsequently the rate of methane production. The main spectral changes showed the degradation of cellulose and xylose-containing hemicelluloses and production of furfural-like components commonly associated with biomass pre-treatments. Only small changes to lignin were associated with increased methane generation suggesting a structural rather than chemical role in this process. PMID:22947446

  5. Fed-batch SSCF using steam-exploded wheat straw at high dry matter consistencies and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain: effect of laccase supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol is expected to play an important role in fossil fuel replacement in the short term. Process integration, improvements in water economy, and increased ethanol titers are key considerations for cost-effective large-scale production. The use of whole steam-pretreated slurries under high dry matter (DM) conditions and conversion of all fermentable sugars offer promising alternatives to achieve these goals. Results Wheat straw slurry obtained from steam explosion showed high concentrations of degradation compounds, hindering the fermentation performance of the evolved xylose-recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE6-12 strain. Fermentability tests using the liquid fraction showed a higher number of colony-forming units (CFU) and higher xylose consumption rates when treating the medium with laccase. During batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) processes, cell growth was totally inhibited at 12% DM (w/v) in untreated slurries. However, under these conditions laccase treatment prior to addition of yeast reduced the total phenolic content of the slurry and enabled the fermentation. During this process, an ethanol concentration of 19 g/L was obtained, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 39% of the theoretical yield. By changing the operation from batch mode to fed-batch mode, the concentration of inhibitors at the start of the process was reduced and 8 g/L of ethanol were obtained in untreated slurries with a final consistency of 16% DM (w/v). When fed-batch SSCF medium was supplemented with laccase 33 hours after yeast inoculation, no effect on ethanol yield or cell viability was found compared to untreated fermentations. However, if the laccase supplementation (21 hours after yeast inoculation) took place before the first addition of substrate (at 25 hours), improved cell viability and an increased ethanol titer of up to 32 g/L (51% of the theoretical) were found. Conclusions Laccase treatment in SSCF processes reduces the inhibitory effect that degradation compounds have on the fermenting microorganism. Furthermore, in combination with fed-batch operational mode, laccase supplementation allows the fermentation of wheat straw slurry at high DM consistencies, improving final ethanol concentrations and yields. PMID:24219973

  6. Wheat aleurone: separation, composition, health aspects, and potential food use.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Fred; Hemery, Youna; Price, Ruth; Anson, Nuria Mateo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades substantial attention has been given to the role of dietary fiber in health and disease, in particular diabetes, cardiovascular disease, intestinal health, and some types of cancer. As a result the food industry started to add back fiber to refined foods and develop fiber rich foods. Scientists suggested that whole grain foods are superior to foods enriched with fibers obtained/synthesized using enzyme treatment, and thermal or chemical processing because the content of bioactive components and micronutrients in whole grain is more abundant. This triggered interest in how to isolate the micronutrient rich aleurone fiber fraction from wheat. Aleurone is a single cell layer at the inner site of the bran. It contains most of the minerals, vitamins, phenolic antioxidants, and lignans of the wheat grain. Novel milling and dry-fractionation techniques have recently allowed for full-scale separation of aleurone cells from the other layers of wheat bran, yielding a fiber rich concentrate which potentially contains many of the "whole grain kernel bioactives," which recently have been used in a variety of studies. The present review highlights available data on aleurone isolation, composition, intestinal physiology, and its metabolism and potential health benefits as well as its use in food. PMID:22452734

  7. A start-up of psychrophilic anaerobic sequence batch reactor digesting a 35 % total solids feed of dairy manure and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-12-01

    Zero liquid discharge is currently an objective in livestock manure management to minimize water pollution. This paper reports the start-up phase of a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure with bedding fed at 35 % total solids and an organic loading rate of 3.0 g total chemical oxygen demand kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) in anaerobic sequence batch reactors. The specific methane (CH4) yield ranged from 165.4 ± 9.8 to 213.9 ± 13.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) with an overall average of 188 ± 17 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS during 11 successive start-up cycles (231 days) and a maximum CH4 production rate of 10.2 ± 0.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS day(-1). The inoculum-to-substrate (VS-based) ratio ranged from 4.06 to 4.47. Although methanogenesis proceeded fairly well the hydrolysis seemed to be the rate limiting step. It is possible start up psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces and wheat straw at feed TS of 35 % within 7-10 successive cycles (147-210 days). PMID:26289773

  8. Effect of additives on adsorption and desorption behavior of xylanase on acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanfei; Ge, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zongping; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-06-01

    The competitive adsorption between cellulases and additives on lignin in the hydrolysis of lignocelluloses has been confirmed, whereas the effect of additives on the interaction between xylanase and lignin is not clear. In this work, the effects of additives, poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, poly(ethylene glycol) 6000, Tween 20, and Tween 80, on the xylanase adsorption/desorption onto/from acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover (CS-lignin) and wheat straw (WS-lignin) were investigated. The results indicated that the additives could adsorb onto isolated lignin and reduce the xylanase adsorption onto lignin. Compared to CS-lignin, more additives could adsorb onto WS-lignin, making less xylanase adsorbed onto WS-lignin. In addition, the additives could enhance desorption of xylanase from lignin, which might be due to the competitive adsorption between xylanase and additives on lignin. The released xylanase from lignin still exhibited hydrolytic capacity in the hydrolysis of isolated xylan and xylan in corn stover. PMID:25818260

  9. Combination of RNA sequencing and metabolite data to elucidate improved toxic compound tolerance and butanol fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum from wheat straw hydrolysate by supplying sodium sulfide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Huang, Mengjun; Sun, Jiaolong; Huang, Yuhong; Gao, Xiaofeng; Li, Renqiang; He, Kaize; Zhao, Hai

    2015-12-01

    Sodium sulfide (SS) was added to the non-detoxified wheat straw hydrolysate for ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum CICC8012. Biochemical measurements demonstrated that supplementation with SS promoted earlier and enhanced conversion of acid to ABE and led to a 27.48% improvement in sugar consumption, a 20.48% improvement in the sugar-based ABE yield, a 47.63% improvement in the butanol titer, and a 53.50% improvement in the ABE concentration. The response of C. acetobutylicum CICC8012 at the mRNA level was examined by a transcriptional analysis performed with RNA sequencing. The expression of genes involved in the membrane transport of carbohydrates, glycolysis, and ABE formation increased following SS-supplemented fermentation, whereas the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in acid formation decreased, which indicates that supplemental SS affected the central fermentative pathway, down-regulated the metabolic flux toward the acid formation branches, and up-regulated the metabolic flux toward the ABE formation branches. PMID:26364231

  10. Improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated wheat straw by metal ion blocking of non-productive cellulase adsorption on lignin.

    PubMed

    Akimkulova, Ardak; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Xuebing; Liu, Dehua

    2016-05-01

    Eleven salts were selected to screen the possible metal ions for blocking the non-productive adsorption of cellulase onto the lignin of dilute acid pretreated wheat straw. Mg(2+) was screened finally as the promising candidate. The optimal concentration of MgCl2 was 1mM, but the beneficial action was also dependent on pH, hydrolysis time and cellulase loading. Significant improvement of glucan conversion (19.3%) was observed at low cellulase loading (5FPU/g solid). Addition of isolated lignins, tannic acid and lignin model compounds to pure cellulose hydrolysis demonstrated that phenolic hydroxyl group (Ph-OH) was the main active site blocked by Mg(2+). The interaction between Mg(2+) and Ph-OH of lignin monomeric moieties followed an order of p-hydroxyphenyl (H)>guaiacyl (G)>syringyl (S). Mg(2+) blocking made the lignin surface less negatively charged, which might weaken the hydrogen bonding and electrostatically attractive interaction between lignin and cellulase enzymes. PMID:26930032

  11. A mutated xylose reductase increases bioethanol production more than a glucose/xylose facilitator in simultaneous fermentation and co-fermentation of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are able to ferment xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass. However, better xylose fermenting strains are required to reach complete xylose uptake in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. In the current study, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing a heterologous xylose pathway including either the native xylose reductase (XR) from P. stipitis, a mutated variant of XR (mXR) with altered co-factor preference, a glucose/xylose facilitator (Gxf1) from Candida intermedia or both mXR and Gxf1 were assessed in SSCF of acid-pretreated non-detoxified wheat straw. The xylose conversion in SSCF was doubled with the S. cerevisiae strain expressing mXR compared to the isogenic strain expressing the native XR, converting 76% and 38%, respectively. The xylitol yield was less than half using mXR in comparison with the native variant. As a result of this, the ethanol yield increased from 0.33 to 0.39 g g-1 when the native XR was replaced by mXR. In contrast, the expression of Gxf1 only slightly increased the xylose uptake, and did not increase the ethanol production. The results suggest that ethanolic xylose fermentation under SSCF conditions is controlled primarily by the XR activity and to a much lesser extent by xylose transport. PMID:21906329

  12. [Effect of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil potassium content and stratification ratio in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang-lan; Li, Xiu-shuang; Wang, Shu-juan; Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    Soil stratified sampling method and potassium chemical fractionation analysis were used to investigate effects of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil K contents and stratification ratios in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain of Northwest China. The results showed that after 13-year continuous shallow tillage and straw returning, surface accumulation and stratification effect obviously occurred for soil available K (SAK) and non-exchangeable K (NEK), which was particularly remarkable for SAK and its fractions. Serious depletion of SAK occurred in 15-30 cm soil layer, and the SAK value was lower than the critical value of soil potassium deficiency. Meanwhile, significant differences were found between SR1 and SR2 values of SAK and its fractions, SR was obtained by values of topsoil layer (0-5 cm) divided by corresponding values of lower soil layers (5-15 cm layer, SR1, or 15-30 cm layer, SR2). However, no significant difference was observed between SR values of NEK and mineral K. In conclusion, returning of all straw over 10 years in the winter wheat/summer maize rotation system contributed greatly to maintaining soil K pool balance, while special attention should be paid to the negative effects of surface accumulation and stratification of SAK on soil K fertility. PMID:26915186

  13. One-step, green, and economic synthesis of water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw, and their bio-applications in labeling, imaging, and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ming; Zhong, Ruibo; Gao, Haiyang; Li, Wanrong; Yun, Xiaoling; Liu, Jingran; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhao, Guofen; Zhang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    The use of biomass as renewable and sustainable energy source has attracted the attention of politics and research and development (R&D) facilities around the world. Agricultural straw acts as a typical biowaste, which still needs highly effective recycling to save the biomass urgently at present. Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) are novel biocompatible nanomaterials that have been proved to be produced from many carbon-abundant materials and hold great promise for the modern nanobiomedicine. In order to realize a "one-stone-two-birds" strategy, we report a green, economic, one-pot method in this article for synthesizing photoluminescent C-dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), we show that the as-prepared C-dots are amorphous in structure and are mainly composed of carbon. Their tiny size (<2 nm), combined with the characteristic excitation-dependent relatively bright emission, and robust photostability made the C-dots a potential biocompatible nanomaterial for bio-applications. We have experimentally demonstrated their potential applications in biomedical labeling, imaging, and sensing/detecting. The high yield (∼20%) of C-dots from wheat straw may suggest a new economic strategy for recycling biowaste.

  14. Heteroplasmy and paternally oriented shift of the organellar DNA composition in barley-wheat hybrids during backcrosses with wheat parents.

    PubMed

    Aksyonova, Elena; Sinyavskaya, Marina; Danilenko, Nina; Pershina, Lidia; Nakamura, Chiharu; Davydenko, Oleg

    2005-10-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (ct) genome inheritance was studied in barley-wheat hybrids, as were their progenies obtained from backcrosses with different common wheat cultivars, by monitoring the composition of 4 mtDNA (coxI, a 5'-flanking region of cob, nad3-orf156, and 5'-upstream region of 18S/5S) and 2 ctDNA (simple-sequence repeat locus downstream of trnS and a 3'-flanking region of rbcL) loci. In male sterile F1 and BC1 plants, maternal barley mtDNA fragments were mainly detected and very low levels of paternal wheat fragments were occasionally detected by PCR in coxI, a 5'-flanking region of cob and nad3-orf156, whereas a 5'-upstream region of 18S/5S showed clear heteroplasmy, containing both maternal and paternal copies, with maternal copies prevailing. Plants showing such heteroplasmic mtDNA composition remained either semisterile or became completely sterile in the later backcross generations. Only maternal ctDNA copies were detected in these plants. In 3 stable, self-fertile, and vigourous lines obtained in the advanced backcross generations and possessing recombinant wheat nuclear genome, however, only mt- and ctDNA copies of wheat parents were detected; thus, the original alloplasmic condition appeared to be lost. Our results suggest that transmission followed by selective replication of the paternal wheat organellar DNA leads to a paternally oriented shift of the organellar DNA composition in barley-wheat hybrids, which correlates with the restoration of fertility and plant vigour. These 2 processes seem to be related to nucleocytoplasmic compatibility and to be under the control of the nuclear genome composition. PMID:16391682

  15. Heterologous production of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina and their effect on saccharification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Turbe-Doan, Annick; Arfi, Yonathan; Record, Eric; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Levasseur, Anthony

    2013-06-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular glycosylated haemoflavoenzymes produced by many different wood-degrading and phytopathogenic fungi. Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase genes are recurrently discovered by genome sequencing projects in various phylogenetically distinct fungi. The genomes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina were screened for candidate cdh genes, and one and three putative gene models were evidenced, respectively. Two putative cdh genes were selected and successfully expressed for the first time in Aspergillus niger. CDH activity was measured for both constructions (CDHcc and CDHpa), and both recombinant CDHs were purified to homogeneity and subsequently characterised. Kinetic constants were determined for several carbohydrates including β-1,4-linked di- and oligosaccharides. Optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 5 for CDHcc and 65-70 °C and 6 for CDHpa. Both CDHs showed a broad range of pH stability between 4 and 8. The effect of both CDHs on saccharification of micronized wheat straw by an industrial Trichoderma reesei secretome was determined. The addition of each CDH systematically decreased the release of total reducing sugars, but to different extents and according to the CDH concentration. Analytical methods were carried out to quantify the release of glucose, xylose and gluconic acid. An increase of glucose and xylose was measured at a low CDHcc concentration. At moderated and high CDHcc and CDHpa concentrations, glucose was severely reduced with a concomitant increase of gluconic acid. In conclusion, these results give new insights into the physical and chemical parameters and diversity of basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDHs. These findings also demonstrated that CDH drastically influenced the saccharification on a natural substrate, and thus, CDH origin, concentration and potential enzymatic partners should be carefully considered in future artificial secretomes for biofuel applications. PMID:22940800

  16. Modification in the properties of paper by using cellulase-free xylanase produced from alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 in biobleaching of wheat straw pulp.

    PubMed

    Walia, Abhishek; Mehta, Preeti; Guleria, Shiwani; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-09-01

    Alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 isolated from mushroom compost is an actinomycete that produces industrially important and environmentally safer thermostable cellulase-free xylanase, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as an alternative to the use of toxic chlorinated compounds. Strain CKMX1 was previously characterized by metabolic fingerprinting, whole-cell fatty acids methyl ester analysis, and 16S rDNA and was found to be C. cellulans CKMX1. Crude enzyme (1027.65 U/g DBP) produced by C. cellulans CKMX1, having pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively, in solid state fermentation of apple pomace, was used in the production of bleached wheat straw pulp. Pretreatment with xylanase at a dose of 5 U/g after pulping decreased pulp kappa points by 1.4 as compared with the control. Prebleaching with a xylanase dose of 5 U/g pulp reduced the chlorine charge by 12.5%, increased the final brightness points by approximately 1.42% ISO, and improved the pulp strength properties. Xylanase could be substituted for alkali extraction in C-Ep-D sequence and used for treating chemically bleached pulp, resulting in bleached pulp with higher strength properties. Modification of bleached pulp with 5 U of enzyme/g increased pulp whiteness and breaking length by 1.03% and 60 m, respectively; decreased tear factor of pulp by 7.29%; increased bulk weight by 3.99%, as compared with the original pulp. Reducing sugars and UV-absorbing lignin-derived compound values were considerably higher in xylanase-treated samples. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 has a potential application in the pulp and paper industries. PMID:26220821

  17. Celluclast and Cellic® CTec2: Saccharification/fermentation of wheat straw, solid-liquid partition and potential of enzyme recycling by alkaline washing.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Cristina; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Lindedam, Jane; Felby, Claus; Gama, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    The hydrolysis/fermentation of wheat straw and the adsorption/desorption/deactivation of cellulases were studied using Cellic(®) CTec2 (Cellic) and Celluclast mixed with Novozyme 188. The distribution of enzymes - cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A), endoglucanase I (Cel7B) and β-glucosidase - of the two formulations between the residual substrate and supernatant during the course of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated. The potential of recyclability using alkaline wash was also studied. The efficiency of hydrolysis with an enzyme load of 10 FPU/g cellulose reached >98% using Cellic(®) CTec2, while for Celluclast a conversion of 52% and 81%, was observed without and with β-glucosidase supplementation, respectively. The decrease of Cellic(®) CTec2 activity observed along the process was related to deactivation of Cel7A rather than of Cel7B and β-glucosidase. The adsorption/desorption profiles during hydrolysis/fermentation revealed that a large fraction of active enzymes remained adsorbed to the solid residue throughout the process. Surprisingly, this was the case of Cel7A and β-glucosidase from Cellic, which remained adsorbed to the solid fraction along the entire process. Alkaline washing was used to recover the enzymes from the solid residue. This method allowed efficient recovery of Celluclast enzymes; however, this may be achieved only when minor amounts of cellulose remain present. Regarding the Cellic formulation, neither the presence of cellulose nor lignin restricted an efficient desorption of the enzymes at alkaline pH. This work shows that the recycling strategy must be customized for each particular formulation, since the enzymes found e.g. in Cellic and Celluclast bear quite different behaviour regarding the solid-liquid distribution, stability and cellulose and lignin affinity. PMID:26320717

  18. DISTRIBUTION OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN BREAD WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS AND RELATIONSHIP TO BREADMAKING QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat protein quantity and composition are important parameters for wheat baking quality. The objective of this study was to use fractionation techniques to separate the proteins of flour mill streams into various protein fractions, to examine the distribution of these protein fractions, and to esta...

  19. Distribtuion of Protein Composition in Bread Wheat Flour Mill Streams and Reltationship to Breadmaking Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat protein quantity and composition are important parameters for wheat baking quality. The objective of this study was to use fractionation techniques to separate the proteins of flour mill streams into various protein fractions, to examine the distribution of these protein fractions, and to esta...

  20. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

  1. Influence of variables in the hydrothermal treatment of rice straw on the composition of the resulting fractions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Sánchez, Rafael; Requejo, Ana; Jiménez, Luis

    2009-10-01

    The influence of the hydrothermal treatment conditions of rice straw (temperature--150-190 degrees C , time--0-20 min after reaching the operation temperature, and liquid/solid ratio--6-8), on the composition of liquid and solid fractions was studied. Polynomial models were found for to reproduce the experimental results with errors less than 6%. Operating to 190 degrees C, 15 min and 9 liquid/solid ratio was obtained high values of glucose (1.92 g/L), xylose (3.97 g/L), arabinose (0.99 g/L) and acetic acid (1.96 g/L), what allows to save capital when not operating with the maximum time and/or liquid/solid ratio; yield in the solid fraction is 88.1% and lignin content 24.43%. If what it is required to obtain good values of yield (96.46%) and lignin content, is necessary to operate to 150 degrees C, obtaining lower concentrations glucose (1.11%), xylose (2.78%), arabinose (0.56%) and acetic acid (0.39%). Ethanolamine pulping of solid fraction of hydrothermal treatment provides pulp with higher or similar properties to those obtained of pulping rice straw with ethanolamine or soda. PMID:19467587

  2. The preparation of high-grade bio-oils through the controlled, low temperature microwave activation of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Budarin, Vitaly L; Clark, James H; Lanigan, Brigid A; Shuttleworth, Peter; Breeden, Simon W; Wilson, Ashley J; Macquarrie, Duncan J; Milkowski, Kris; Jones, Jenny; Bridgeman, Toby; Ross, Andy

    2009-12-01

    The low temperature microwave activation of biomass has been investigated as a novel, energy efficient route to bio-oils. The properties of the bio-oil produced were considered in terms of fuel suitability. Water content, elemental composition and calorific value have all been found to be comparable to and in many cases better than conventional pyrolysis oils. Compositional analysis shows further differences with conventional pyrolysis oils including simpler chemical mixtures, which have potential as fuel and chemical intermediates. The use of simple additives, e.g. HCl, H(2)SO(4) and NH(3), affects the process product distribution, along with changes in the chemical composition of the oils. Clearly the use of our low temperature technology gives significant advantages in terms of preparing a product that is much closer to that which is required for transport fuel applications. PMID:19615895

  3. Comparison of TLUD and atmospherically-controlled retort methods of preparing biochar using corn stover and wheat straw feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a very versatile and useful material in many applications beyond carbon sequestration in soils. Rubber composite filler, sorptive media for toxic or other undesirable species in water, and peat moss replacement are just three examples of biochar applications we have studied at our laborat...

  4. Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation of sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    You, Xiang; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Sixta, Herbert; Iakovlev, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation was determined for sugarcane (SC) straw in terms of pulp composition (non-carbohydrate components, cellulose, hemicelluloses) and properties (kappa number, pulp intrinsic viscosity in CED and cellulose degree of polymerization). Effect of temperature (135-165°C) and time (18-118min) was studied at fixed liquor composition (SO2/ethanol/water=12:22.5:65.5, w/w) and a liquor-to-solid ratio (4Lkg(-1)). Interpretation is given in terms of major fractionation reactions, removal of non-carbohydrate components and xylan, as well as acid hydrolysis of cellulose, and is compared to other lignocellulosic substrates (beech, spruce and wheat straw). Overall, SO2-ethanol-water process efficiently fractionates SC straw by separating cellulose from both non-carbohydrate components and xylan while reducing cellulose DP. PMID:27089426

  5. Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative activities of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Yu, Lu; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Liu, Linwei; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-11-15

    Ten soft wheat varieties grown in Maryland were compared for their phytochemical compositions, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities. Free radical scavenging capacities were examined against DPPH(·), oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS(·+) radicals. Significant radical scavenging capacities were detected in all wheat flour extracts. Total phenolic content ranged from 1.66 to 2.01 mg of GAE/g wheat flour. The wheat flours contained 172.91-297.55 μg/g insoluble bound ferulic acid, contributing 89.74-94.29% of total ferulic acid on a per weight basis. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were 0.27-0.46 and 0.08-0.13 μg/g, respectively. In addition, the wheat flours had 0.30-0.59 and 0.07-0.29 μg/g α- and δ-tocopherols, respectively. Four wheat flour extracts were further examined for their antiproliferative activities. The Jamestown wheat flour showed significant antiproliferative activity against both HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells at the initial treatment concentration of 50 mg flour equivalents/ml, while USG3555 flour showed inhibitive effect only in HT-29 cancer cells, suggesting the different and possible selective antiproliferative property of the wheat flours. These results may be used to direct the breeding effects to produce soft winter wheat varieties with improved health properties. PMID:22868094

  6. Nitrogen fixation associated with development and localization of mixed populations of Cellulomonas species and Azospirillium brasilense grown on cellulose or wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Halsall, D.M.; Goodchild, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    Mixed cultures of Cellulomonas sp. and Azospirillum brasilense were grown with straw or cellulose as the carbon source under conditions favoring the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Rapid increases in cell numbers, up to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate, were evident after 4 and 5 days of incubation at 30 degrees C for cellulose and straw, respectively. Nitrogen fixation (detected by acetylene reduction measured on parallel cultures) commenced after 2 and 4 days of incubation for straw and cellulose, respectively, and continued for the duration of the experiment. Pure cultures of Cellulomonas sp. showed an increase in cell numbers, but CO/sub 2/ production was low, and acetylene reduction was not detected on either cellulose or straw. Pure cultures of A. brasilense on cellulose showed an inital increase in cell numbers (10/sup 7/ cells per g of substrate) over 4 days, followed by a decline presumably caused by the exhaustion of available carbon substrate. On straw, A. brasilense increased to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate over 5 days and then declined slowly; this growth was accompanied by acetylene reduction. Scanning electron micrographs of straw incubated with a mixture under the above conditions for 8 days showed cells of both species in close proximity to each other. Evidence was furnished that the close spatial relatioship of cells from the two species facilitated the mutally beneficial association between them and thus increased the efficiency with which the products of straw breakdown were used for nitrogen fixation. 17 references.

  7. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum eating time and eating bouts tended to be greater by WS than for OG, and postpartum eating time per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber intake tended to be greater for WS than for OG. Results indicate that forage source and amount of DM fed prepartum affected postpartum performance and tended to alter the behavior of cows in tie-stall barns. PMID:23040018

  8. Mechanical Properties of Green Composites with Poly(caprolactone) and Wheat Gluten

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) was incorporated into poly(caprolactone) (PCL) up to 50% w/w as a filler to form a biodegradable polymer composite. Microscopic examination showed a well-dispersed particle-matrix system. The composite was evaluated for tensile properties. The tensile strength of the composite d...

  9. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases. PMID:26088282

  10. Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

  11. Biodiversity and composition of methanogenic populations in the rumen of cows fed alfalfa hay or triticale straw.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yunhong; Xia, Yun; Seviour, Robert; Forster, Robert; McAllister, Tim A

    2013-05-01

    It is clear that methanogens are responsible for ruminal methane emissions, but quantitative information about the composition of the methanogenic community in the bovine rumen is still limited. The diversity and composition of rumen methanogens in cows fed either alfalfa hay or triticale straw were examined using a full-cycle rRNA approach. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization undertaken applying oligonucleotide probes designed here identified five major methanogenic populations or groups in these animals: the Methanobrevibacter TMS group (consisting of Methanobrevibacter thaueri, Methanobrevibacter millerae and Methanobrevibacter smithii), Methanbrevibacter ruminantium-, Methanosphaera stadtmanae-, Methanomicrobium mobile-, and Methanimicrococcus-related methanogens. The TMS- and M. ruminantium-related methanogens accounted for on average 46% and 41% of the total methanogenic cells in liquid (Liq) and solid (Sol) phases of the rumen contents, respectively. Other prominent methanogens in the Liq and Sol phases included members of M. stadtmanae (15% and 33%), M. mobile (17% and 12%), and Methanimicrococcus (23% and 9%). The relative abundances of these methanogens in the community varied among individual animals and across diets. No clear differences in community composition could be observed with dietary change using cloning techniques. This study extends the known biodiversity levels of the methanogenic communities in the rumen of cows. PMID:23278338

  12. Effects of Decomposition on Remotely Sensed Estimates of Wheat Residue Cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of crop residue cover is required to assess the extent of conservation tillage. Our objectives were to measure the changes in wheat straw composition and spectral reflectance during decomposition and to assess impact of these changes on remotely sensed estimates of residue cover. Mesh...

  13. Phytochemical Composition, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiproliferative Activity of Whole Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five wheat cultivars (Macon, Louise, WestBred 936, Alpowa, and Blanca Grande) were evaluated for phenolics composition, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition, anti-inflammatory activity, and antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells. Total ferulic acid ranged from 451.7-731.3 µg/g , with the ...

  14. Wheat gluten influences oil droplet size and mobility in jet-cooked starch-oil composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jet cooked starch-lipid composites have been developed as a technology for suspending micron-size lipid droplets in aqueous cooked starch dispersions. Normally oil droplets are independent and freely mobile in such liquid composites. When wheat flour was used as the starch source, unusual behavior...

  15. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  16. Process intensification through microbial strain evolution: mixed glucose-xylose fermentation in wheat straw hydrolyzates by three generations of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignocellulose hydrolyzates present difficult substrates for ethanol production by the most commonly applied microorganism in the fermentation industries, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High resistance towards inhibitors released during pretreatment and hydrolysis of the feedstock as well as efficient utilization of hexose and pentose sugars constitute major challenges in the development of S. cerevisiae strains for biomass-to-ethanol processes. Metabolic engineering and laboratory evolution are applied, alone and in combination, to adduce desired strain properties. However, physiological requirements for robust performance of S. cerevisiae in the conversion of lignocellulose hydrolyzates are not well understood. The herein presented S. cerevisiae strains IBB10A02 and IBB10B05 are descendants of strain BP10001, which was previously derived from the widely used strain CEN.PK 113-5D through introduction of a largely redox-neutral oxidoreductive xylose assimilation pathway. The IBB strains were obtained by a two-step laboratory evolution that selected for fast xylose fermentation in combination with anaerobic growth before (IBB10A02) and after adaption in repeated xylose fermentations (IBB10B05). Enzymatic hydrolyzates were prepared from up to 15% dry mass pretreated (steam explosion) wheat straw and contained glucose and xylose in a mass ratio of approximately 2. Results With all strains, yield coefficients based on total sugar consumed were high for ethanol (0.39 to 0.40 g/g) and notably low for fermentation by-products (glycerol: ≤0.10 g/g; xylitol: ≤0.08 g/g; acetate: 0.04 g/g). In contrast to the specific glucose utilization rate that was similar for all strains (qGlucose ≈ 2.9 g/gcell dry weight (CDW)/h), the xylose consumption rate was enhanced by a factor of 11.5 (IBB10A02; qXylose = 0.23 g/gCDW/h) and 17.5 (IBB10B05; qXylose = 0.35 g/gCDW/h) as compared to the qXylose of the non-evolved strain BP10001. In xylose-supplemented (50 g/L) hydrolyzates prepared from 5% dry mass, strain IBB10B05 displayed a qXylose of 0.71 g/gCDW/h and depleted xylose in 2 days with an ethanol yield of 0.30 g/g. Under the conditions used, IBB10B05 was also capable of slow anaerobic growth. Conclusions Laboratory evolution of strain BP10001 resulted in effectively enhanced qXylose at almost complete retention of the fermentation capabilities previously acquired by metabolic engineering. Strain IBB10B05 is a sturdy candidate for intensification of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol processes. PMID:24708666

  17. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on growth performance and sorting behaviors of holstein dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for pregnant Holstein heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake (DMI) by heifers by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems co...

  18. Classification of spelt cultivars based on differences in storage protein compositions from wheat.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Annette; Konitzer, Katharina; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Wholemeal flours from 62 spelt and 13 wheat cultivars were studied. The quantitative protein compositions of the Osborne fractions determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, showed that the chromatograms of the reduced gliadin fractions were most suitable for the distinction of spelt from wheat and for the classification of spelt. The patterns of the reduced spelt gliadins showed one to three markers that were not present in wheat. Based on these markers, spelt cultivars were classified into three groups ranging from 'typical spelt' to 'similar to common wheat'. Marker 1 was identified as ω1,2-gliadin and markers 2, 3a and 3b were identified as γ-gliadins by means of N-terminal sequence analysis and determination of the relative molecular mass by mass spectrometry. As glutenin-bound ω-gliadins were present in wheat and absent in spelt, this protein type may be used to detect and quantitate small amounts of wheat in spelt products. PMID:25172697

  19. Effects of Maturity Stages on the Nutritive Composition and Silage Quality of Whole Crop Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Z. L.; Zhang, T. F.; Chen, X. Z.; Li, G. D.; Zhang, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2) were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×105 colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) content (p<0.05) of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05) and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages. PMID:25049492

  20. The effect of a combined biological and thermo-mechanical pretreatment of wheat straw on energy yields in coupled ethanol and methane generation.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Blomqvist, Johanna; Lizasoain, Javier; Klietz, Lena; Potthast, Antje; Horn, Svein Jarle; Nilsen, Paal J; Gronauer, Andreas; Passoth, Volkmar; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol and biogas are energy carriers that could contribute to a future energy system independent of fossil fuels. Straw is a favorable bioenergy substrate as it does not compete with food or feed production. As straw is very resistant to microbial degradation, it requires a pretreatment to insure efficient conversion to ethanol and/or methane. This study investigates the effect of combining biological pretreatment and steam explosion on ethanol and methane yields in order to improve the coupled generation process. Results show that the temperature of the steam explosion pretreatment has a particularly strong effect on possible ethanol yields, whereas combination with the biological pretreatment showed no difference in overall energy yield. The highest overall energy output was found to be 10.86 MJ kg VS(-1) using a combined biological and steam explosion pretreatment at a temperature of 200°C. PMID:26176820

  1. STRAW UTILIZATION IN REGION 10 STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While agricultural burning has been going on for many years in Oregon, Idaho and Washington among grass seed and wheat growers as a means for reducing or eliminating straw wastes, over these years it has become more apparent that ag burning has adverse environmental and human hea...

  2. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    PubMed Central

    Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrné, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin) added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w) according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread. PMID:26904595

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical compositions of some agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1994-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of different doses of γ irradiation on the changes in the crude fibre contents of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs. Ground samples of the 6 residues were irradiated by γ irradiation at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 100 kilogray (kGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for total nitrogen (N), crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that γ irradiation has no effect on total N whereas it decreased CF contents especially at the highest dose (100 kGy) reaching 30% for cottonwood, 21% for wheat straw and maize straw, and about 16% for barley straw, lentils straw and maize cobs. NDF decreased by about 6% for cottonwood, wheat straw and barley straw, 11% for maize straw and 9% for maize cobs. γ Irradiation (100 kGy) also decreased ADF by 8% for cottonwood, 7% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 6% for wheat straw and barley straw. No effects on NDF and ADF in lentils straw were observed. ADL content was also decreased by 8% in cottonwood, 21% in wheat straw, 18% in barley straw and maize straw, and by 30% in maize cobs, with no effect in lentils straw. The percentage of cellulose (CL):CF ratio increased by 31, 25, 13, 18, 19 and 15% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. Also hemicellulose (HCL):CF ratios increased by 48, 18, 15, 17, 5 and 4% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, and 48%, 18%, 15%, 17%, 5% and 4% in the HCL:CF ratio for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. CL:ADL ratios increased by γ irradiation (100 kGy) by 23, 16, 14 and 38% for wheat straw, barley straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, with no changes in the ratios for cottonwood and lentils straw. HCL:ADL ratios also increased in 4 residues reaching: 11, 16, 17 and 25% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw and maize cobs, respectively, with no changes in the ratio for lentils straw and maize straw.

  4. Study on allelopathic effects of Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate on several plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Fu, Wenting; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

    Rice and wheat are the traditional food of Chinese people, and therefore the main crop candidates for bio-regenerative life-support systems. Recycling rice and wheat straw is an important issue concerning the system. In order to decide if the mixed-substrate made of rice and wheat straw is suitable of plant cultivation, Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate was tested in an aqueous extract germination experiment. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract on seed vigor, seedling growth and development situations and the physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat, lettuce and pumpkin were studied, and the presence and degrees of allelopathic effects were analyzed. The test results showed that this type of SLS exerted different degrees of allelopathic effect on wheat and lettuce; this allelopathic effect was related to the concentration of SLS aqueous extract. The most significant phenomenon is that with the increase of aqueous extract concentration, the seed germination, root length and shoot fresh weight of wheat decreased; and every concentration of aqueous extract showed significant inhibition on the root length and root fresh weight of lettuce. However, this type of SLS showed little effect on the growth of pumpkin seedlings. Contents changes of chlorophyll and endogenous hormones in wheat and lettuce seedlings, and the chemical compositions of SLS were measured, and the mechanism of allelopathic effect was preliminarily analyzed.

  5. Influence of whole wheat and xylanase on broiler performance and microbial composition and activity in the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Engberg, R M; Hedemann, M S; Steenfeldt, S; Jensen, B B

    2004-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of different forms of wheat (airtight silo stored whole wheat, conventionally stored whole wheat, and ground wheat included in pellets) and dietary xylanase addition on production results and gastrointestinal characteristics of broiler chickens. Ileal viscosity, pancreatic digestive enzyme activities, and the composition and activity of the intestinal microflora were considered as response parameters. Differences between the 2 types of whole wheat with respect to the various measured parameters were marginal, whereas distinct differences were found between pellet-fed birds and birds receiving whole wheat. Whole wheat feeding improved feed conversion ratio and reduced water consumption (P < 0.001). Compared with pellets, whole wheat increased the relative weight of pancreas and gizzard and the dry matter concentration of gizzard content (P < 0.001). Whole wheat feeding reduced the pH in the gizzard contents (P < 0.01) and increased ileal viscosity. The addition of xylanase reduced ileal viscosity in birds receiving whole wheat to the same level as in pellet-fed birds. Whole wheat feeding resulted in lower activities of amylase in pancreatic tissue (P = 0.054), whereas xylanase addition increased chymotrypsin (P = 0.030) and lipase activities (P = 0.052). Whole wheat feeding resulted in lower intestinal numbers of lactose-negative enterobacteria (P < 0.05) and tended to reduce the ileal and cecal numbers of Clostridium perfringens (P < or = 0.08). It is concluded that whole wheat feeding stimulates gizzard function, which in turn prevents potentially pathogenic bacteria from entering the intestinal tract. PMID:15206619

  6. The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

    The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

  7. The effects of wheat bran composition on the production of biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes by Penicillium decumbens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

    2008-03-01

    The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production. PMID:18421592

  8. Optimization of methane production in anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different percentages of total solid and volatile solid using a developed response surface model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-03-20

    Poultry litter (PL) can be good feedstock for biogas production using anaerobic digestion. In this study, methane production from batch co-digestion of PL and wheat straw (WS) was investigated for two factors, i.e., total solid (2%, 5%, and 10%) and volatile solid (0, 25, and 50% of WS), constituting a 3 × 3 experimental design. The results showed that the maximum specific methane volume [197 mL (g VS)(‑1)] was achieved at 50% VS from WS at 5% TS level. It was estimated that the inhibitory threshold of free ammonia was about 289 mg L(--1), beyond which reduction of methanogenic activity by at least 54% was observed. The specific methane volume and COD removal can be expressed using two response surface models (R(2) = 0.9570 and 0.9704, respectively). Analysis of variance of the experimental results indicated that the C/N ratio was the most significant factor influencing the specific methane volume and COD removal in the co-digestion of these two materials. PMID:26745738

  9. Effect of white rot basidiomycetes on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of oat straw and alfalfa stems.

    PubMed

    Jung, H G; Valdez, F R; Abad, A R; Blanchette, R A; Hatfield, R D

    1992-06-01

    Five white rot basidiomycetes were evaluated for their potential to improve ruminal degradation of oat straw and alfalfa stems. Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PC), Scytinostroma galactinum (SG), Phlebia tremellosa (PT), Phellinus pini (PP), and Pholiota mutabilis (PM) were incubated on oat straw and alfalfa stems for 30 d at 28 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. Detergent fiber and total fiber components (neutral sugars, uronic acids, Klason lignin [KL], and ester- and ether-linked non-core lignin phenolics), core lignin nitrobenzene oxidation products, and IVDMD were determined. Electron microscopy of KMnO4-stained and cellulase/colloidal gold-labeled sections was used to monitor fungal activity. Large losses of DM were noted for all fungal species on both substrates. Lignin (KL and ADL) was removed (P less than .05) from oat straw by PC and PT treatment, but no net loss of lignin was observed for fungal treatment of alfalfa stems. Cell-wall polysaccharides were removed from both substrates by fungal activity. Only PC increased (P less than .05) IVDMD of oat straw, and SG, PT, PP, and PC treatment decreased (P less than .05) IVDMD of alfalfa stems, presumably because the fungi removed the most readily fermentable polysaccharides. Transmission electron microscopy using KMnO4 staining showed a nonselective white rot attack. Cytochemical studies using colloidal gold-labeled exo- and endocellulases were used to map the location of cellulose in the cell wall before and after decay by the white rot fungi. All the white rot fungi tested had eroded and thinned cell walls. Residual cell walls were well-labeled; both endo- and exocellulose-colloidal gold identified the cellulosic wall material that remained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1321801

  10. Factors affecting the physical properties of edible composite film prepared from zein and wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingfeng; Lu, Yanan; Cui, Heping; Jia, Xiangxing; Bai, Hongchao; Ma, Yuxiang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of zein ratio, concentration of glycerol, liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH and heat-treatment temperature on the properties of zein/wheat gluten composite films were researched. The results showed that elongation (E) increased with an increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, but it first increased and then decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat-treatment temperature, pH and the ratio of liquid to solid; Tensile strength (TS) increased with the increase in heat-treatment temperature and pH, and decreased with the increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, and it reached a maximum value when the ratio of zein/wheat gluten was 20%, but had a minimum value when the ratio of liquid to solid was 8:1; Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) increased with an increase of glycerol concentration and the ratio of liquid to solid and ethanol concentration, but it decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat treatment temperature, and pH of the film forming solution. PMID:22453930

  11. Matematical modelling of straw bale combustion in cigar burners

    SciTech Connect

    Bech, N.; Germann, L.; Wolff, L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a computer model for the calculation of the steady and non-steady behaviour of straw bales subject to surface combustion in cigar burners. The mathematical formulation is one-dimensional and the flow of gas through the straw bales is described by means of Darcy`s law for flow through a porous medium. The computer model is able to predict flow rate, temperature and composition of gas and straw as function of axial length and time. Calculated results are compared to measurements of temperature and gas composition profiles within the burning straw bales. It is observed that the straw bale temperatures as well as the outlet gas composition are predicted reasonably well. Calculations have been carried out in order to assess the implication of a straw bale feed stop in a 3 MW district heating plant fueled with Heston straw bales. The results indicate serious disturbances in the performance of the burner.

  12. Mycological composition in the rhizosphere of winter wheat in different crop production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frac, Magdalena; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

    2010-05-01

    Fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem as decomposers of plant residues, releasing nutrients that sustain and stimulate processes of plant growth. Some fungi possess antagonistic properties towards plant pathogens. The structure of plant and soil communities is influenced by the interactions among its component species and also by anthropogenic pressure. In the study of soil fungi, particular attention is given to the rhizosphere. Knowledge of the structure and diversity of the fungal community in the rhizosphere lead to the better understanding of pathogen-antagonist interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycological composition of the winter wheat rhizosphere in two different crop production systems. The study was based on a field experiment established in 1994 year at the Experimental Station in South-East Poland. The experiment was conducted on grey-brown podzolic soil. In this experiment winter wheat were grown in two crop production systems: ecological and conventional - monoculture. The research of fungi composition was conducted in 15th year of experiment. Rhizosphere was collected two times during growing season, in different development stage: shooting phase and full ripeness phase. Martin medium and the dilutions 10-3 and 10-4 were used to calculate the total number cfu (colony forming units) of fungi occurring in the rhizosphere of winter wheat. The fungi were identified using Czapeka-Doxa medium for Penicillium, potato dextrose agar for all fungi and agar Nirenberga (SNA) for Fusarium. High number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of wheat in ecological system. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of the phytosanitary condition of the soil. However, the decrease of the antagonistic microorganism number in the crop wheat in monoculture can be responsible for appearance higher number of the potentially phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp.). Further research, using molecular technique, will help better understanding interactions between plant and microorganisms in the wheat rhizosphere under different soil management conditions.

  13. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  14. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  15. Thermal degradation of cereal straws in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the thermogravimetric behavior of four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye) at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50{degrees}C/min) in air examined. The thermal degradation rate, the initial degradation temperature, the active and passive pyrolysis zones, and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were determined. Increasing the heating rate increased the thermal degradation rate and decreased both the initial degradation temperature and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The higher the cellulosic content of the straw, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the straw resulted in higher residual weight at 600{degrees}C.

  16. Prediction of true metabolizable energy from chemical composition of wheat milling by-products for ducks.

    PubMed

    Wan, H F; Chen, W; Qi, Z L; Peng, P; Peng, J

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical composition of wheat by-products on the TME value to ducks and to establish the prediction models estimating TME. Seven representative samples were selected from 23 wheat by-products millings samples based on the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content. According to the Sibbald method, male Cherry Valley ducks were chosen to assay the TME of 7 representative samples. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to establish the prediction equations of TME using CP, ether extract (EE), NDF, acid detergent fiber, crude fiber, and gross energy (GE) as independent variables. The NDF, CP, and DM of 23 samples of wheat by-product averaged to be 33.39 +/- 11.04%, 19.2 +/- 3.25%, 87.17 +/- 0.95%, respectively. The TME values of 7 representative samples averaged 12.02 MJ/kg, with much larger CV than GE (17.72 vs. 2.82%). The crude fiber, NDF, acid detergent fiber were highly but negatively correlated with TME (P < 0.01), in which the greatest correlation coefficient (r = -0.969) was observed between NDF and TME. No significant correlation of CP, EE, ash, and GE to TME was found among the 7 representative samples. The optimal equation in terms of R(2) from using a single chemical analysis was obtained in the total group: TME = -0.1564NDF + 17.4696 (R(2) = 0.94, P = 0.0003), and the TME prediction equation was improved by the addition of the EE and CP content to sequential analysis: TME = -0.17NDF + 0.98EE - 0.27CP + 19.31 (R(2) = 0.99, residual SD = 0.35, P < 0.01). The results of present study suggest that NDF could be used as an effective indicator for the prediction of the TME value of wheat by-products for ducks. PMID:19096062

  17. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    PubMed Central

    Eduardo, Maria; Ahrné, Lilia

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW) breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), and lecithin (LC); and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin) were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50). Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13%) and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27%) compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking. PMID:26904634

  18. FT-RAMAN SPECTRA OF UNSOAKED AND NAOH-SOAKED WHEAT KERNELS, BRAN AND FERULIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) test for determining wheat color class depends on the observation that upon soaking in NaOH, red wheat turns a darker red and white wheat turns straw yellow. To understand the mechanism of this test, Raman spectra of wheat bran, wheat starch, ferulic acid, and whole kern...

  19. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further study is thus needed. PMID:20722954

  20. Size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles during a straw burning period at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain) of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kui; Yin, Yan; Kong, Shaofei; Xiao, Hui; Wu, Yixiao; Chen, Jianghua; Li, Aihua

    2014-02-01

    The particle size spectra and chemical composition of aerosol particles at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a background site of southeastern China, were investigated using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and other aerosol monitoring instruments. The field campaign was conducted from Sep. 29 to Oct. 9, 2012, to observe the influence of straw burning on the size distribution, chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols at a background site. Results showed that K-Secondary and K-EC particles were the dominant particle types during this period, with their number concentrations totally accounting for 74% of all the particles. From long-range transport analysis of air masses, six types of particles all contained high concentrations of 39 [K]+ ion (known as the tracer for biomass burning) which indicate that biomass burning may represent as a significant source of aerosols for air masses originated from the north of Mt. Huang. The sampling period could be classified into three sub-periods according to the backward trajectories. During sub-period 1, the K-Secondary particles exhibited the highest concentrations, accounting for 74.2% and 55.4%, respectively, of the submicron and super-micron particles. In sub-period 3, K-EC dominated the submicron particles, indicating that more particles had anthropogenic sources, especially industrial emissions. The results obtained in this study will enrich the database of aerosol chemical composition in the background sites of southeast China and could be of important applications in environmental and climate research.

  1. Amino Acid Composition Along the Transport Pathway during Grain Filling in Wheat 1

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Donald B.; Macnicol, Peter K.

    1986-01-01

    The amino acid composition of endosperm cavity sap and of sieve tube saps from the flag leaf, peduncle, rachis, grain pedicel, and grain were determined for wheat plants just past the mid-half of grain filling. On a mole percent basis, glutamine accounted for almost half of the amino acids in sieve tube sap from the peduncle and ear. Other protein amino acids, plug γ-aminobutyrate, were present in varying, but mostly low (a few mole percent) proportions. The amino acid composition of phloem exudate resembled that of the mature wheat grain. The proportions of amino acids in the endosperm cavity were generally similar to those of the sieve tube sap supplying the grain. Cysteine, however, while virtually absent from sieve tube sap, comprised 1 to 2 mole percent of amino acids in the endosperm cavity, suggesting it is transported in a different form. Also, alanine and, to a lesser extent, glutamate were relatively more prominent in endosperm cavity sap than in the sieve tube sap. Thus, while most amino acids were more concentrated in the sieve tube sap than in the endosperm cavity sap, alanine and glutamate appeared to be moving from the sieve tube to the endosperm cavity in the absence of, or perhaps even against, their concentration gradients. PMID:16665128

  2. Rheological and functional properties of composite sweet potato - wheat dough as affected by transglutaminase and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Ndayishimiye, Jean Bernard; Huang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Chen, Yong-Zheng; Letsididi, Rebaone; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Ndahetuye, Jean Baptiste; Tang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Effect of transglutaminase (TGM) and ascorbic acid (AA) on composite sweet potato - wheat dough functional and rheological properties was studied. Partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour at the level of 20 % significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced glutenin, gliadin, dough stability, protein weakening, storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″). Mixolab revealed that both TGM and AA treated dough had stability and protein weakening closed to wheat dough (control), with TGM treated dough having the highest values. TGM Introduced new cross-link bonds as shown by the change of amino acid concentration, leading to an increase in storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″), with G' being higher at all levels of TGM concentration. The opposite was observed for composite dough treated with AA as measured by controlled - stress rheometer. TGM treatment increased glutenin and gliadin content. Compared with the control, dough treated with AA exhibited high molecular weight of polymers than TGM treated dough. The results indicate that the TGM and AA modification of the mixolab and dynamic rheological characteristics (G' and G″) dependent on the changes of GMP, glutenin, gliadin and protein weakening in the composite dough. TGM and AA treatment could improve functional and rheological properties of sweet potato - wheat dough to levels that might be achieved with normal wheat bread. However, it's extremely important to optimize the concentrations of both additives to obtain the optimum response. PMID:27162397

  3. Mapping straw yield using on-combine light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw is not only important for long-term soil productivity, but also as a raw material for biofuel, livestock feed, building, packing, and bedding. Inventory figures in the United States for potential straw availability are largely based on whole states and counties. ...

  4. Cell-wall architecture and lignin composition of wheat developed in a microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Levine, L H; Heyenga, A G; Levine, H G; Choi, J; Davin, L B; Krikorian, A D; Lewis, N G

    2001-07-01

    The microgravity environment encountered during space-flight has long been considered to affect plant growth and developmental processes, including cell wall biopolymer composition and content. As a prelude to studying how microgravity is perceived - and acted upon - by plants, it was first instructive to investigate what gross effects on plant growth and development occurred in microgravity. Thus, wheat seedlings were exposed to microgravity on board the space shuttle Discovery (STS-51) for a 10 day duration, and these specimens were compared with their counterparts grown on Earth under the same conditions (e.g. controls). First, the primary roots of the wheat that developed under both microgravity and 1 g on Earth were examined to assess the role of gravity on cellulose microfibril (CMF) organization and secondary wall thickening patterns. Using a quick freeze/deep etch technique, this revealed that the cell wall CMFs of the space-grown wheat maintained the same organization as their 1 g-grown counterparts. That is, in all instances, CMFs were randomly interwoven with each other in the outermost layers (farthest removed from the plasma membrane), and parallel to each other within the individual strata immediately adjacent to the plasma membranes. The CMF angle in the innermost stratum relative to the immediately adjacent stratum was ca 80 degrees in both the space and Earth-grown plants. Second, all plants grown in microgravity had roots that grew downwards into the agar; they did not display "wandering" and upward growth as previously reported by others. Third, the space-grown wheat also developed normal protoxylem and metaxylem vessel elements with secondary thickening patterns ranging from spiral to regular pit to reticulate thickenings. Fourthly, both the space- and Earth-grown plants were essentially of the same size and height, and their lignin analyses revealed no substantial differences in their amounts and composition regardless of the gravitational field experienced, i.e. for the purposes of this study, all plants were essentially identical. These results suggest that the microgravity environment itself at best only slightly affected either cell wall biopolymer synthesis or the deposition of CMFs, in contrast to previous assertions. PMID:11423135

  5. Cell-wall architecture and lignin composition of wheat developed in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Heyenga, A. G.; Levine, H. G.; Choi, J.; Davin, L. B.; Krikorian, A. D.; Lewis, N. G.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The microgravity environment encountered during space-flight has long been considered to affect plant growth and developmental processes, including cell wall biopolymer composition and content. As a prelude to studying how microgravity is perceived - and acted upon - by plants, it was first instructive to investigate what gross effects on plant growth and development occurred in microgravity. Thus, wheat seedlings were exposed to microgravity on board the space shuttle Discovery (STS-51) for a 10 day duration, and these specimens were compared with their counterparts grown on Earth under the same conditions (e.g. controls). First, the primary roots of the wheat that developed under both microgravity and 1 g on Earth were examined to assess the role of gravity on cellulose microfibril (CMF) organization and secondary wall thickening patterns. Using a quick freeze/deep etch technique, this revealed that the cell wall CMFs of the space-grown wheat maintained the same organization as their 1 g-grown counterparts. That is, in all instances, CMFs were randomly interwoven with each other in the outermost layers (farthest removed from the plasma membrane), and parallel to each other within the individual strata immediately adjacent to the plasma membranes. The CMF angle in the innermost stratum relative to the immediately adjacent stratum was ca 80 degrees in both the space and Earth-grown plants. Second, all plants grown in microgravity had roots that grew downwards into the agar; they did not display "wandering" and upward growth as previously reported by others. Third, the space-grown wheat also developed normal protoxylem and metaxylem vessel elements with secondary thickening patterns ranging from spiral to regular pit to reticulate thickenings. Fourthly, both the space- and Earth-grown plants were essentially of the same size and height, and their lignin analyses revealed no substantial differences in their amounts and composition regardless of the gravitational field experienced, i.e. for the purposes of this study, all plants were essentially identical. These results suggest that the microgravity environment itself at best only slightly affected either cell wall biopolymer synthesis or the deposition of CMFs, in contrast to previous assertions.

  6. Antioxidant, functional and rheological properties of optimized composite flour, consisting wheat and amaranth seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Awolu, Olugbenga Olufemi; Osemeke, Richard Onyemaechi; Ifesan, Beatrice O Temilade

    2016-02-01

    Consumer's interest in functional food has continued to increase due to its potential health benefits. This study therefore is aimed at developing a functional wheat based flour comprising, amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace. The statistical analyses were carried out using response surface methodology (RSM). For the experimental design, the composite flour components were the variables while the proximate and mineral compositions were the responses. After the statistical optimisation process, the best three blends were chosen for further analyses; determination of antioxidant, functional and rheological properties. From the results, the best blends were Runs 11, 13 and 19, with percentages composition of wheat, amaranth seed, brewers, spent grain and apple pomace of 65 %, 30 %, 2 %, 3 %; 60.43 %, 29.68 %, 4.1 %, 5.79 % and 81.94 %, 6.75 %, 3.39 %, 7.92 % respectively. The ANOVA, R(2) and R(2) adjusted values for the proximate and mineral compositions showed that the composite flours were statistically satisfactory. The results also indicated that the antioxidant, functional and rheological properties of the three best blends showed good and acceptable nutritional and rheological properties. Composite flours with acceptable and excellent nutritional composition, functional properties and rheological behaviour can be obtained from composite blends consisting wheat, amaranth seed, brewers, spent grain and apple pomace flours. PMID:27162395

  7. The effects of composite photosynthetic bacterial inoculant PS21 on the biochemical characteristics of wheat seedlings under tetrabromobisphenol A stress

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hong-Lian; Zhang, Fu-Li

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the composite photosynthetic bacterial inoculant PS21 alleviate the damage inflicted on wheat seedlings by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). The biochemical characteristics of wheat seedlings were analysed through laboratory simulation after co-treating seedlings with PS21 and 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg kg−1 TBBPA, respectively. The results showed that TBBPA reduced the total chlorophyll content and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. TBBPA increased the soluble sugar content, soluble protein content and activate superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC: 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC: 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD; EC: 1.11.1.7) at low concentrations, while it reduced soluble sugar content, soluble protein content and decreased the activities of SOD, CAT and POD at high concentrations. At the concentration of 107 CFU mL−1, PS21 could markedly relieve the toxicity of different concentrations of TBBPA on wheat seedlings. Wheat seedlings treated with both TBBPA and PS21 showed a higher soluble sugar content, higher soluble protein content, higher SOD, CAT and POD activities, and a lower MDA content as compared to those treated only with TBBPA. The composite photosynthetic bacterial inoculant PS21 significantly alleviates the damage inflicted on wheat seedlings by TBBPA. PMID:26019643

  8. Effect of wheat forage maturity and preservation method on forage chemical composition and performance of growing calves fed mixed diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three 2.4-ha wheat (Triticum aestivum L) fields were used to test the effects of maturity at harvest (boot vs dough) and preservation method (hay vs silage) on forage yield, chemical composition, and animal performance when fed in mixed diets. Forages were incorporated into 4 diets in a 2 x 2 factor...

  9. EFFECT OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS ON DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BREAD CRUMB CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour mill streams, obtained from three samples of Nekota, a hard red winter wheat, were used in this study. The objective was to assess the contribution of protein composition on dough rheological properties and bread crumb characteristics of bread made from the mill streams. Flour proteins were fr...

  10. Influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sondeep; Gupta, Anil K; Kaur, Narinder

    2012-01-01

    The present study in a two-year experiment investigated the influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat whole meal of two genotypes differing in their water requirements. Different thermal conditions prevailing during the grain filling period under different sowing time generated a large effect on the amount of total soluble proteins. Late sown conditions offered higher protein content accompanied by increased albumin-globulin but decreased glutenin content. Fe content was increased to 20-23%; however, tannin decreased to 18-35% under early sown rain-fed conditions as compared to irrigated timely sown conditions in both the genotypes. Activity of trypsin inhibitor was decreased under rain-fed conditions in both genotypes. This study inferred that variable sowing times and irrigation practices can be used for inducing variation in different wheat whole meal quality characteristics. Lower temperature prevailing under early sown rain-fed conditions; resulted in higher protein content. Higher Fe and lower tannin contents were reported under early sown rain-fed conditions however, late sown conditions offered an increase in phytic acid accompanied by decreased micronutrients and glutenin contents. PMID:22629143

  11. Toughness of natural rubber composites reinforced with hydrolyzed and modified wheat gluten aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toughness of natural rubber can be improved by using fillers for various rubber applications. Dry wheat gluten is a protein from wheat flour and is sufficiently rigid for rubber reinforcement. The wheat gluten was hydrolyzed to reduce its particle size and microfluidized to reduce and homogenize...

  12. Effect of raw material on cooking quality and nutritional composition of durum wheat spaghetti.

    PubMed

    Padalino, L; Mastromatteo, M; Lecce, L; Spinelli, S; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the effect of semolina and wholemeal flour from six durum wheat cultivars on the pasta cooking and nutritional quality was evaluated. The wholemeal spaghetti samples showed an improvement in the chemical composition (high protein and insoluble dietary fibre content) but they have a decline in the cooking quality (high cooking loss) with respect to the semolina spaghetti. In particular, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli and Core samples recorded the highest protein and insoluble dietary fibre content, respectively. As compared to the other samples, the wholemeal spaghetti Iride recorded a higher cooking loss. Moreover, the wholemeal spaghetti showed the lowest overall quality due to the low score of elasticity, firmness and colour. Specifically, the wholemeal Cappelli recorded a slight rise of the overall quality with respect to other wholemeal samples. In conclusion, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli was found to be an optimum compromise between the sensory and nutritional quality. PMID:25666412

  13. Association study of wheat grain protein composition reveals that gliadin and glutenin composition are trans-regulated by different chromosome regions

    PubMed Central

    Plessis, Anne; Ravel, Catherine; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Martre, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Wheat grain storage protein (GSP) content and composition are the main determinants of the end-use value of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain. The accumulation of glutenins and gliadins, the two main classes of GSP in wheat, is believed to be mainly controlled at the transcriptional level through a network of transcription factors. This regulation network could lead to stable cross-environment allometric scaling relationships between the quantity of GSP classes/subunits and the total quantity of nitrogen per grain. This work conducted a genetic mapping study of GSP content and composition and allometric scaling parameters of grain N allocation using a bread wheat worldwide core collection grown in three environments. The core collection was genotyped with 873 markers for genome-wide association and 167 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in 51 candidate genes for candidate association. The candidate genes included 35 transcription factors (TFs) expressed in grain. This work identified 74 loci associated with 38 variables, of which 19 were candidate genes or were tightly linked with candidate genes. Besides structural GSP genes, several loci putatively trans-regulating GSP accumulation were identified. Seven candidate TFs, including four wheat orthologues of barley TFs that control hordein gene expression, were associated or in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers associated with the composition or quantity of glutenin or gliadin, or allometric grain N allocation parameters, confirming the importance of the transcriptional control of GSP accumulation. Genome-wide association results suggest that the genes regulating glutenin and gliadin compositions are mostly distinct from each other and operate differently. PMID:23881399

  14. Association study of wheat grain protein composition reveals that gliadin and glutenin composition are trans-regulated by different chromosome regions.

    PubMed

    Plessis, Anne; Ravel, Catherine; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Martre, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Wheat grain storage protein (GSP) content and composition are the main determinants of the end-use value of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain. The accumulation of glutenins and gliadins, the two main classes of GSP in wheat, is believed to be mainly controlled at the transcriptional level through a network of transcription factors. This regulation network could lead to stable cross-environment allometric scaling relationships between the quantity of GSP classes/subunits and the total quantity of nitrogen per grain. This work conducted a genetic mapping study of GSP content and composition and allometric scaling parameters of grain N allocation using a bread wheat worldwide core collection grown in three environments. The core collection was genotyped with 873 markers for genome-wide association and 167 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in 51 candidate genes for candidate association. The candidate genes included 35 transcription factors (TFs) expressed in grain. This work identified 74 loci associated with 38 variables, of which 19 were candidate genes or were tightly linked with candidate genes. Besides structural GSP genes, several loci putatively trans-regulating GSP accumulation were identified. Seven candidate TFs, including four wheat orthologues of barley TFs that control hordein gene expression, were associated or in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers associated with the composition or quantity of glutenin or gliadin, or allometric grain N allocation parameters, confirming the importance of the transcriptional control of GSP accumulation. Genome-wide association results suggest that the genes regulating glutenin and gliadin compositions are mostly distinct from each other and operate differently. PMID:23881399

  15. Chemometrics of Wheat Composites with Hemp, Teff, and Chia Flour: Comparison of Rheological Features

    PubMed Central

    Hrušková, Marie; Švec, Ivan; Jurinová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The mixolab, a rheological device developed recently, combines approved farinograph and amylograph test procedures. Analysing wheat flour composites with hemp, teff, or chia in terms of all three mentioned rheological methods, correspondence of farinograph, and amylograph versus mixolab features was examined by principal component analysis. The first two principal components, PC1 and PC2, explained 75% of data scatter and allowed a satisfying confirmation of presumed relationships between farinograph or amylograph and mixolab parameters. Dough development time and stability were associated with gluten strength (C1 torque point) and also dough softening (mixing tolerance index) had a link to protein weakening (C1-C2 difference). In the second mentioned case, amylograph viscosity maximum and amylase activity (C3-C4) closeness was verified. Starch and starch gel properties during mixing (C3, C3-C2, and C4) affect dough viscosity (C1) and rheological behaviour (dough development time and stability). Another important finding is unequivocal distinguishing of the composite subsets (of hemp, teff, and chia ones) by the used rheological methods and statistical treatment of multivariable data. PMID:26953606

  16. The influence of chitosan on the structural properties of whey protein and wheat starch composite systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Natasha; Ashton, John; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-07-15

    The structural properties of medium molecular weight chitosan (CHT), whey protein isolate (WPI) and native wheat starch (WS) from low- to intermediate-solid single systems and composite matrices were investigated. Analysis involved monitoring the thermal behavior of these biopolymers during controlled heating from 25 up to 95 °C and subsequent cooling to 5 °C under small deformation dynamic oscillation in-shear and micro differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Further information regarding the molecular interactions of components and overall network morphology of the systems was revealed through subjecting thermally developed gels to large deformation compression testing, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Our study found a significant change in the structure of WPI networks upon incorporation of CHT in preparations due to electrostatic forces developing between the two polymeric constituents. In the tertiary system, the presence of low levels of starch contributed to a reduction in the firmness of the gel matrix. However, at higher additions of the polysaccharide, a recovery in the stored energy of composite materials was apparent, as recorded in the thermomechanical protocol. PMID:25722139

  17. Wheat bran: its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Wheat bran is a concentrated source of insoluble fibre. Fibre intakes are generally lower than recommendations. This paper reviews the physiological effects of wheat bran and the health benefits it may provide in terms of the prevention of diseases such as colon and breast cancers, cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal diseases. In recognition of the weight of evidence, the European Food Safety Authority has recently approved two health claims for wheat bran and gastrointestinal health. PMID:22716911

  18. Wheat bran: its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Leo; Phillips, Frankie; O'Sullivan, Kathryn; Walton, Jenny

    2012-12-01

    Wheat bran is a concentrated source of insoluble fibre. Fibre intakes are generally lower than recommendations. This paper reviews the physiological effects of wheat bran and the health benefits it may provide in terms of the prevention of diseases such as colon and breast cancers, cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal diseases. In recognition of the weight of evidence, the European Food Safety Authority has recently approved two health claims for wheat bran and gastrointestinal health. PMID:22716911

  19. Chemical composition, cell wall features and degradability of stem, leaf blade and sheath in untreated and alkali-treated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, E; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Emami, M R; Karimi, K

    2013-07-01

    Three dominant morphological fractions (i.e. leaf blade (LB), leaf sheath (LS) and stem) were analysed for chemical composition and ruminal degradability in three rice straw varieties. In one variety treated with alkali, cell wall features were also characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The highest concentrations of cell wall carbohydrates (hemicellulose and cellulose) were observed in LS, whereas the highest concentrations of non-fibre (silica, phenolic compounds and CP) and lignin were recorded for LB. The stem had the lowest silica and hemicellulose contents but intermediate levels of other components. In terms of ruminal degradability, stem ranked higher than LB, which was followed by LS. Hemicellulose was found to be less degradable than either dry matter or cellulose in all the three fractions investigated. FTIR results indicated that the highest levels of hydrogen bonding, esterification and crystallinity within the cell wall components belonged to LS. In the alkaline treatment, these indices decreased to a larger extent for leaf fractions and a greater improvement was achieved in the degradability of LB and LS compared with that of stem. In the 24-h ruminal incubation, the silicified layer of epidermis and the underlying cell walls showed a rigid structure in the control fractions, whereas the treatment with NaOH resulted in crimping of the silicified cuticle layer and the loss of integrity in cell structure. Despite the highest silica and lignin contents observed in LB, LS showed the lowest degradability, which might be due to its high level of hydrogen bonding, crystallinity and esterification within its cell wall components as well as its high hemicellulose content. PMID:23473105

  20. Physico-mechanical and tribological properties of Grewia Optiva fiber/bio-particulates hybrid polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gangil, Brijesh; Patel, Vinay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Lack of resources and increasing environmental issues has received widespread attention for the development of natural fiber/ particulate reinforced hybrid polymer composites. In the present investigation the authors use (GO) Grewia Optiva as the main reinforcement and rice husk/wheat straw as additional particulates for improving the mechanical and wear properties of polymer composites. The samples were prepared by hand layup technique according to ASTM standards. The results indicated that incorporation of wheat straw with GO polymer materials exhibited better hardness (2.5 times harder) and less wear (0.85 times) than mono GO fiber polymer composites (GOFRP). Moreover, Rice husk filled GOFRP shows superior impact energy among the all set of composites. Water absorption behavior was also discussed in this investigation.

  1. Phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from the whole-meal flour of Italian durum wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D'Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

  2. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D’Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

  3. Use of Near-Isogenic Wheat Lines to Determine the Glutenin Composition and Functionality in Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L) the synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins (GS) is controlled by three heterologous genetic loci present on the long arms of group 1 wheat chromosomes. The loci Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-D1 and their allelic variants play important roles in the functional propert...

  4. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites. PMID:20499931

  5. Bioethanol production from rice straw by popping pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice straw has considerable potential as a raw material for bioethanol production. Popping pretreatment of rice straw prior to downstream enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was found to increase cellulose to glucose conversion efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of popping pretreatment and determine the optimal enzyme loading using a surface response design. Results The optimal doses of cellulase and xylanase enzymes were 23 FPU and 62 IU/g biomass, respectively. Using the optimized enzyme condition and popping pretreatment of rice straw (15% substrate loading, w/v), a sugar recovery of 0.567 g/g biomass (glucose; 0.394 g/g) was obtained in 48 h, which was significantly higher than that from untreated rice straw (total sugar recovery; 0.270 g/g biomass). Fermentation of the hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in 0.172 g ethanol/g biomass after 24 h, equivalent to 80.9% of the maximum theoretical yield (based on the amount of glucose in raw material). Changes in the chemical composition and surface area of rice straw were also investigated before and after popping pretreatment. The results showed little or no difference in chemical composition between the pretreated rice straw and the control. However, the surface area of pretreated rice straw increased twofold compared to the control. Conclusion Popping pretreatment of rice straw can effectively improve downstream saccharification and fermentation, important for bioethanol production. PMID:24286244

  6. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  7. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming].

    PubMed

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on soil microbial community structure in water soil. PMID:26911016

  8. Heavy metals and trace elements in atmospheric fall-out: their relationship with topsoil and wheat element composition.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Jasan, Raquel; Plá, Rita; Pignata, María L

    2012-04-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the average concentrations and deposition rates of 28 elements in atmospheric bulk deposition and to elucidate associations among topsoil, bulk deposition and wheat element composition. The fluxes of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) deposition in Córdoba were higher than in other agro-ecosystems, which reflects both natural (geochemistry and topsoil removal) and anthropogenic sources. High lanthanide, uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations revealed the impact of an open cast uranium mine. The highest enrichment factors (EF) were those of Cu, Pb, Zn and nickel (Ni), with calcium (Ca) being the most prominent in the surroundings of a cement plant. Industries and the transport of airborne urban pollutants were the main anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and antimony (Sb). The concentrations of metals in wheat grain were predicted using the topsoil and atmospheric fall-out composition with R(2)=0.90, with the latter being the best explanatory variable. The present study highlights the potential health hazards of wheat consumption (Environmental Protection Agency) by the assessment of heavy metals in bulk atmospheric deposition. PMID:22390956

  9. Organically vs conventionally grown winter wheat: effects on grain yield, technological quality, and on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of bran and refined flour.

    PubMed

    Mazzoncini, Marco; Antichi, Daniele; Silvestri, Nicola; Ciantelli, Giulia; Sgherri, Cristina

    2015-05-15

    Since organic food is widely assumed to have a better nutritional quality than conventional food, our aim was to study the effects of organic vs conventional cropping systems on yield and the phenolic composition of winter wheat cv. 'Bologna'. Although organic wheat yielded less than conventional wheat, mainly due to the nitrogen shortage, and its bread-making quality was lower, the cultivation system did not affect the total amounts of phenolics and phenolic acids. Of the eight phenolic acids identified, only ferulic acid was influenced by the cultivation system. Phenolic composition and quantity were significantly affected by the milling fraction (bran or white flour): phenolics were more concentrated in the bran, which showed the highest antioxidant power. Under the conditions adopted in this study, an organic cropping system can maintain or even increase the health properties of the wheat milled products, provided a reduction in grain yield is accepted. PMID:25577104

  10. [Effects of different straw-returning regimes on soil organic carbon and carbon pool management index in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Wang, Shu-juan; Shi, Jiang-lan; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-04-01

    A four-year (2008-2012) field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different straw-returning regimes on soil total organic carbon (TOC), labile organic carbon (LOC) and the ratio of LOC to TOC (LOC/TOC) as well as TOC stock (SCS) and soil carbon pool management index (CPMI) in a farmland with maize-wheat double cropping system in Guanzhong Plain area, Shaanxi Province, China. The results indicated that soil TOC and LOC contents and SCS were significantly increased when wheat or maize straw was returned to field, and the increasing extent showed the rising order as follows: double straw-returning > single straw-returning > no straw-returning. Compared to no straw returning, a significant increase of TOC and LOC contents and SCS was found in the treatment of wheat straw chopping retention combined with maize straw chopping subsoiling retention (WC-MM), and CPMI of WC-MM was significantly higher than in the other treatments in 0-20 cm soil layer. Compared to no wheat straw returning, soil CPMIs in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer increased by 19.1% and 67.9% for the wheat straw chopping returning treatment, and by 22.6% and 32.4% for the maize straw chopping subsoiling treatment, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that soil CPMI was a more effective index reflecting the sequestration of soil organic carbon in 0-30 cm soil layer than the ratio of LOC to TOC. This study thus suggested that WC-MM regime is the best straw-returning regime for soil organic carbon sequestration. PMID:26259466

  11. Improvement of nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of high-amylose wheat during germination.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Maeda, Tomoko; Morita, Naofumi

    2015-10-01

    High-amylose wheat was subjected to various germination conditions and changes in its nutritional values and antioxidant capacity were investigated. Amounts of soluble dietary fiber, total protein and free lipid of germinated high-amylose wheat increased with increased germination times, whereas no significant changes were observed for insoluble dietary fiber and free fatty acids. Total free amino acid contents of high-amylose wheat gradually increased from 129.7 to 314.4 mg/100 g of grain (db) during 48 h of germination. As compared to ungerminated wheat, essential and functional amino acids including isoleucine, leucine, phenylanaline, valine and gamma-amino butyric acid in the 48 h-germinated wheat increased by 3-10 times. Total phenolic contents of both free and bound phenolics and their antioxidant capacities significantly increased after 24 h of germination and were further improved with prolonged germination times. It appears that nutritional values and bioactive compounds of high amylose wheat significantly improved for enhanced food applications. PMID:26396426

  12. Cerebroside C Increases Tolerance to Chilling Injury and Alters Lipid Composition in Wheat Roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Yu; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xu; Li, Cong; Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Ye, Yong-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 g/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 g/mL CC at 4C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.6262.26%, 13.5463.93% and 13.9061.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.6946.06%, 3.3737.96%, and ?7.00178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC. PMID:24058471

  13. Composition, Assembly, and Trafficking of a Wheat Xylan Synthase Complex1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Wiemels, Richard E.; Soya, Aaron; Whitley, Rebekah; Held, Michael; Faik, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Xylans play an important role in plant cell wall integrity and have many industrial applications. Characterization of xylan synthase (XS) complexes responsible for the synthesis of these polymers is currently lacking. We recently purified XS activity from etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. To further characterize this purified activity, we analyzed its protein composition and assembly. Proteomic analysis identified six main proteins: two glycosyltransferases (GTs) TaGT43-4 and TaGT47-13; two putative mutases (TaGT75-3 and TaGT75-4) and two non-GTs; a germin-like protein (TaGLP); and a vernalization related protein (TaVER2). Coexpression of TaGT43-4, TaGT47-13, TaGT75-3, and TaGT75-4 in Pichia pastoris confirmed that these proteins form a complex. Confocal microscopy showed that all these proteins interact in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but the complexes accumulate in Golgi, and TaGT43-4 acts as a scaffold protein that holds the other proteins. Furthermore, ER export of the complexes is dependent of the interaction between TaGT43-4 and TaGT47-13. Immunogold electron microscopy data support the conclusion that complex assembly occurs at specific areas of the ER before export to the Golgi. A di-Arg motif and a long sequence motif within the transmembrane domains were found conserved at the NH2-terminal ends of TaGT43-4 and homologous proteins from diverse taxa. These conserved motifs may control the forward trafficking of the complexes and their accumulation in the Golgi. Our findings indicate that xylan synthesis in grasses may involve a new regulatory mechanism linking complex assembly with forward trafficking and provide new insights that advance our understanding of xylan biosynthesis and regulation in plants. PMID:26917684

  14. An analysis of lignin removal in a fixed bed reactor by reaction of cereal straws with ozone.

    PubMed

    García-Cubero, M Teresa; Palacín, Luis G; González-Benito, Gerardo; Bolado, Silvia; Lucas, Susana; Coca, Mónica

    2012-03-01

    The chemical pretreatment with ozone of rye and wheat straws was carried out in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of ozone pretreatment time on lignin removal was determined. Glucose and xylose concentrations in the hydrolysates were also measured after the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis step. Acid insoluble lignin reacts with ozone within the first 90 min reaction. Insoluble lignin reduction was about 50%. The higher hydrolysis yields were obtained after 120 min ozonation: the glucose yield ranged from 40% to 50% for rye straw and from 34% to 39% for wheat straw, whereas xylose yields were about 30%, independently of the cereal straw. The glucose yields corresponding to the untreated raw straws were considerably lower, about 10%. Longer ozonation time sharply reduced the production of monosaccharides, probably due to the formation of side products. The kinetic model, with the reaction parameters estimated, predicted reasonably well the experimental data. PMID:22209403

  15. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  16. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiyun; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Shunli; Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  17. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective

    PubMed Central

    Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t−1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. PMID:24926116

  18. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective.

    PubMed

    Glithero, N J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2013-08-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t(-1) the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. PMID:24926116

  19. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and 'Miracle-Wheat'.

    PubMed

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Youssef, Helmy M; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. 'Compositum-Barley' and tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat' (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation 'Miracle-Wheat' produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in 'Compositum-Barley,' i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched head(t) (bh(t)) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat.' Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bh(t) locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of 'Miracle-Wheat.' mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat's yield potential. PMID:26156223

  20. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality. PMID:26471616

  1. Effect of genotype, environment, and their interaction on phytochemical compositions and antioxidant properties of soft winter wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Whent, Monica; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-05-01

    The effect of genotype (G), growing environment (E), and their interaction (G×E) on the antioxidant properties and chemical compositions were investigated using the flour samples of 10 wheat varieties grown in four different locations in Maryland. Lutein content of wheat flour ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 μg/g, and α-tocopherol ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 μg/g. Total carotenoids were primarily affected by E (45.7%), while G×E interaction had a larger effect on the level of total tocopherols (71.6%). E had the largest effect on antioxidant activity against oxygen, hydroxyl, and ABTS(·+) radicals. G had the least influence on the measured phytochemicals and antioxidant activity assays. Total carotenoids had a significant correlation with average low air temperature (r=0.359, p<0.01) as well as precipitation level (r=0.214, p<0.01). ABTS(·+) radical scavenging capacity had a positive correlation with average air temperature (r=0.705, p<0.01), while hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity had a negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.269. p<0.01). These results show that environment, genotype, and their interaction could influence the levels of lipophilic antioxidants and antioxidant activities of wheat flour. PMID:23265511

  2. Adsorption of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions using chemically modified straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxuan; Li, Haijiang; Kan, Xiaowei; Dong, Lei; Yan, Han; Jiang, Ziwen; Yang, Hu; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

    2012-08-01

    The effective disposal of redundant straw is a significant work for environmental protection and full utilization of resource. In this work, the wheat straw has been modified by etherification to prepare a kind of quaternary ammonium straw adsorbents. The adsorption behaviors of the modified straw for methyl orange (MO) and acid green 25(AG25) were studied in both batch and column systems. The adsorption capacity of the straw for both dyes improved evidently after modification. The maximal MO and AG25 uptakes were more than 300 and 950 mg g(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and column studies all indicated that the adsorption behavior was a monolayer chemical adsorption with an ion-exchange process. In addition, after adsorption of anionic dyes, the used adsorbents were successfully applied to adsorb a cationic dye directly at suitable conditions in the secondary adsorption. This was due to the altered surface structures of the used adsorbents. PMID:22609712

  3. A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw☆

    PubMed Central

    Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B.; Du, Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

  4. A straw man's neogenome.

    PubMed

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2012-10-01

    The neogenome has indeed changed how to understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype. However, this does not imply a paradigm shift, but simply a normal development of a young science. Charney creates a straw man out of the myth of an immutable genetics, and conveys the wrong idea that heritability studies and gene association studies are no longer valid. PMID:23095402

  5. Building a Straw Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  6. [Effects of different straw recycling and tillage methods on soil respiration and microbial activity].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-sha; Wu, Ning; Liu, Ling; Feng, Yu-peng; Xu, Xu; Han, Hui-fang; Ning, Tang-yuan; Li, Zeng-jia

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage methods and straw recycling on soil respiration and microbial activity in summer maize field during the winter wheat and summer maize double cropping system, substrate induced respiration method and CO2 release method were used to determine soil microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, soil respiration, and microbial respiratory quotient. The experiment included 3 tillage methods during the winter wheat growing season, i.e., no-tillage, subsoiling and conventional tillage. Each tillage method was companied with 2 straw management patterns, i.e., straw recycling and no straw. The results indicated that the conservation tillage methods and straw recycling mainly affected 0-10 cm soil layer. Straw recycling could significantly improve the microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity, while decrease microbial respiratory quotient. Straw recycling could improve the soil respiration at both seedling stage and anthesis, however, it could reduce the soil respiration at filling stage, wax ripeness, and harvest stage. Under the same straw application, compared with conventional tillage, the soil respiration and microbial respiratory quotient in both subsoiling and no-tillage were reduced, while the microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity were increased. During the summer maize growing season, soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity were increased in straw returning with conservation tillage, while the respiratory quotient was reduced. In 0-10 cm soil layer, compared with conventional tillage, straw recycling with subsoiling and no-tillage significantly increased soil microbial biomass carbon by 95.8% and 74.3%, and increased soil microbial activity by 97.1% and 74.2%, respectively. PMID:26572030

  7. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit allelic composition on wheat flour tortilla quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat cultivars possessing quality attributes needed to produce optimum quality tortillas have not been identified. This study investigated the effect of variations in high molecular weight glutenin subunits encoded at the Glu-1 loci (Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-D1) on dough properties and tortilla quality....

  8. Composition of the Fusarium graminearum species complex populations in wheat cropping environments in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) comprises several toxigenic species that cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. In this study, high number (n=671 isolates) of pathogenic isolates (isolated from infected spikes) was obtained from a 3-year large-scale survey (2009-2011) conducted o...

  9. Variation in polar lipid composition within near-isogenic wheat lines containing different puroindoline haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extensive amount of research has investigated kernel hardness. However, the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Puroindoline-A and puroindoline-B proteins must be present in their wild-type form to create soft textured wheat. Similar to puroindoline proteins, polar lipids are...

  10. COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF PYTHIUM COMMUNITIES FROM WHEAT FIELDS IN EASTERN WASHINGTON STATE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium spp. were isolated from the soil of 80 wheat fields in eastern Washington in summer 2000, from an area encompassing approximately 27,000 km2. These sites covered a range of soil textures (course to fine silty loess), average annual precipitation (200 to 600 mm) and average annual temperature...

  11. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Sorghum, Millet, and Whole Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 2 million people in the United States have celiac disease, or about 1 in 133 individuals. People who have this disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Nutrient profiles were lacking in the USDA Nat...

  12. Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Del Ponte, Emerson M; Spolti, Piérri; Ward, Todd J; Gomes, Larissa B; Nicolli, Camila P; Kuhnem, Paulo R; Silva, Cleiltan N; Tessmann, Dauri J

    2015-02-01

    A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were found among 671 FGSC isolates from Fusarium head blight (FHB)-infected wheat heads: F. graminearum (83%) of the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) genotype, F. meridionale (12.8%) and F. asiaticum (0.4%) of the nivalenol (NIV) genotype, and F. cortaderiae (2.5%) and F. austroamericanum (0.9%) with either the NIV or the 3-ADON genotype. Regional differences in FGSC composition were observed, with F. meridionale and the NIV type being significantly (P<0.001) more prevalent in PR (>28%) than in RS (≤9%). Within RS, F. graminearum was overrepresented in fields below 600 m in elevation and in fields with higher levels of FHB incidence (P<0.05). Species composition was not significantly influenced by previous crop or the stage of grain development at sampling. Habitat-specific differences in FGSC composition were evaluated in three fields by characterizing a total of 189 isolates collected from corn stubble, air above the wheat canopy, and symptomatic wheat kernels. Significant differences in FGSC composition were observed among these habitats (P<0.001). Most strikingly, F. meridionale and F. cortaderiae of the NIV genotype accounted for the vast majority (>96%) of isolates from corn stubble, whereas F. graminearum with the 15-ADON genotype was dominant (>84%) among isolates from diseased wheat kernels. Potential differences in pathogenic fitness on wheat were also suggested by a greenhouse competitiveness assay in which F. graminearum was recovered at much higher frequency (>90%) than F. meridionale from four wheat varieties inoculated with an equal mixture of F. graminearum and F. meridionale isolates. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that FGSC composition and, consequently, the trichothecene contamination in wheat grown in southern Brazil is influenced by host adaptation and pathogenic fitness. Evidence that F. meridionale and F. cortaderiae with the NIV genotype are regionally significant contributors to FHB may have significant implications for food safety and the economics of cereal production. PMID:25121641

  13. The hemicellulolytic enzyme arsenal of Thermobacillus xylanilyticus depends on the composition of biomass used for growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thermobacillus xylanilyticus is a thermophilic and highly xylanolytic bacterium. It produces robust and stable enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and esterases, which are of special interest for the development of integrated biorefineries. To investigate the strategies used by T. xylanilyticus to fractionate plant cell walls, two agricultural by-products, wheat bran and straw (which differ in their chemical composition and tissue organization), were used in this study and compared with glucose and xylans. The ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on these substrates was studied. When the bacteria used lignocellulosic biomass, the production of enzymes was evaluated and correlated with the initial composition of the biomass, as well as with the evolution of any residues during growth. Results Our results showed that T. xylanilyticus is not only able to use glucose and xylans as primary carbon sources but can also use wheat bran and straw. The chemical compositions of both lignocellulosic substrates were modified by T. xylanilyticus after growth. The bacteria were able to consume 49% and 20% of the total carbohydrates in bran and straw, respectively, after 24 h of growth. The phenolic and acetyl ester contents of these substrates were also altered. Bacterial growth on both lignocellulosic biomasses induced hemicellulolytic enzyme production, and xylanase was the primary enzyme secreted. Debranching activities were differentially produced, as esterase activities were more important to bacterial cultures grown on wheat straw; arabinofuranosidase production was significantly higher in bacterial cultures grown on wheat bran. Conclusion This study provides insight into the ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on abundant agricultural by-products, which are inexpensive carbon sources for enzyme production. The composition of the biomass upon which the bacteria grew influenced their growth, and differences in the biomass provided resulted in dissimilar enzyme production profiles. These results indicate the importance of using different biomass sources to encourage the production of specific enzymes. PMID:23241174

  14. Evaluation of various feedstuffs of ruminants in terms of chemical composition and metabolisable energy content

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Datt, Chander; Das, L. K.; Kundu, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition and metabolisable energy (ME) content of feedstuffs used in ruminant animals using in vitro method. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 feedstuffs used for ruminant feeding including cultivated non-leguminous fodders like maize, sorghum, pearl millet, and oat; leguminous fodders like cowpea and berseem; agro-industrial by-products such as wheat bran, deoiled rice bran, rice polish, wheat straw, and concentrates such as mustard oil cake, groundnut cake, soybean meal, cotton seed cake, grains like maize, oat, wheat, and barley were taken for this study. Chemical compositions and cell wall constituents of test feeds were determined in triplicate. The crude protein (CP) content was calculated as nitrogen (N) × 6.25. True dry matter digestibility (TDMD), true organic matter digestibility (TOMD), ME, and partitioning factor (PF) values were determined by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT). Results: The CP content of non-leguminous fodders varied from 7.29% (sorghum) to 9.51% (maize), but leguminous fodders had less variation in CP. Oilseed cakes/meals had high CP and ether extract (EE) content than other feedstuffs except rice polish, which had 12.80% EE. Wheat straw contained highest fiber fractions than the other ingredients. ME content was highest in grains (wheat-12.02 MJ/kg) and lowest in wheat straw (4.65 MJ/kg) and other roughages. TDMD of grains and oilseed cakes/meals were higher than the fodders and agro-industrial by-products. The same trend was observed for TOMD. Conclusions: It was concluded that the energy feeds showed a great variation in chemical composition and ME content. The results of this study demonstrated that the kinetics of gas production of energy feed sources differed among themselves. Evaluation of various feedstuffs is helpful in balanced ration formulation for field animals and under farm conditions for better utilization of these commonly available feed resources. PMID:27047142

  15. Influence of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition at Glu-B1 locus on secondary and micro structures of gluten in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Tianhong; Yu, Jing; Li, Liqun; Feng, Yi; Li, Xuejun

    2016-04-15

    Glutenin is one of the critical gluten proteins that affect the processing quality of wheat dough. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) affect rheological behavior of wheat dough. This research demonstrated the effects of four variations of HMW-GS composition at the Glu-B1 locus on secondary and micro structures of gluten and rheological properties of wheat dough, using the bread wheat Xinong 1330 and its three near-isogenic lines (NILs). Results indicated that the Amide I bands of the four wheat lines shifted slightly, but the secondary structure, such as content of α-helices, β-sheets, disulfide bands, tryptophan bands and tyrosine bands, differed significantly among the four NILs. The micro structure of gluten in NIL 2 (Bx14+By15) and NIL 3 (Bx17+By18) showed more cross linkage, with two contrasting patterns. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the content of β-sheets and disulfide bonds has a significant relationship with dough stability, which suggests that the secondary structures could be used as predictors of wheat quality. PMID:26675856

  16. Renewable bio ionic liquids-water mixtures-mediated selective removal of lignin from rice straw: visualization of changes in composition and cell wall structure.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xue-Dan; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2013-07-01

    Pretreatment of rice straw by using renewable cholinium amino acids ionic liquids ([Ch][AA] ILs)-water mixtures and the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the residues were conducted in the present work. Of the eight mixtures composed of ILs and water, most were found to be effective for rice straw pretreatment. After pretreatment with 50% ILs-water mixtures, the enzymatic digestion of the lignocellulosic biomass was enhanced significantly, thus leading to satisfactory sugar yields of >80% for glucose and approximately 50% for xylose. To better understand the ILs pretreatment mechanism, confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with immunolabeling and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize changes in the contents and distribution of two major components--lignin and xylan. The results coupled with changes in chemical structures (infrared spectra) of the substrates indicated occurrence of extensive delignification, especially in cell corner and compound middle lumen of cell walls, which made polysaccharides more accessible to enzymes. This pretreatment process is promising for large-scale application because of the high sugar yields, easy handling, being environmentally benign and highly tolerant to moisture, and significantly reduced cost and energy consumption. PMID:23404290

  17. Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Certain wheat gluten proteins form large protein polymers that are extractable in 0.5% SDS only after sonication. Although there is a strong relationship between the amounts of these polymers in the flour and bread-making quality, the protein components of these polymers have not been thoroughly investigated. Results Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication. Proteins were further separated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) into monomeric and polymeric fractions and analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). When proteins in select 2-DE spots were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), overlapping spots from the different protein fractions often yielded different identifications. Most high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) partitioned into the polymer fractions, while most gliadins were found in the monomer fractions. The exceptions were alpha, gamma and omega gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues. These proteins were detected in all fractions, but comprised the largest proportion of the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. Several types of non-gluten proteins also were found in the polymer fractions, including serpins, triticins and globulins. All three types were found in the largest proportions in the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. Conclusions This is the first study to report the accumulation of gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues in the SDS-extractable glutenin polymer fraction, supporting the hypothesis that these gliadins serve as chain terminators of the polymer chains. These data make it possible to formulate hypotheses about how protein composition influences polymer size and structure and provide a foundation for future experiments aimed at determining how environment affects glutenin polymer distribution. In addition, the analysis revealed additional layers of complexity to the wheat flour proteome that should be considered when evaluating quantitative 2-DE data. PMID:24517725

  18. Macronutrient composition of nickel-treated wheat under different sulfur concentrations in the nutrient solution.

    PubMed

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Chwil, Stanisław; Chwil, Mirosława

    2016-03-01

    The effect of different sulfate(VI) sulfur (2, 6, and 9 mM S) levels and nickel(II) chloride (0, 0.0004, 0.04 and 0.08 mM Ni) in the nutrient solution on productivity and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) status and accumulation in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Zebra cv. was studied. Ni treatment reduced the biomass and disturbed the balance and accumulation of macronutrients in wheat. Intensive S nutrition, especially with 6 mM S, at least partially increased the biomass, improved ionic equilibrium, and enhanced nutrient accumulation in Ni-exposed plants in spite of increased Ni accumulation. Admittedly, the dose 9 mM S reduced Ni accumulation in shoots but increased accumulation thereof in roots. Compared to 6 mM, the dose 9 mM was less effective in improving the mineral status of Ni-treated wheat. PMID:26593727

  19. Phenolic acid, tocopherol and carotenoid compositions, and antioxidant functions of hard red winter wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kequan; Yin, Jun-Jie; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2005-05-18

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry study was conducted to examine the free radical scavenging properties of bran extracts of Alliance and Wichita wheat using hydroxyl radical (HO*), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH*), and superoxide radical anion (O2*-) and their chelating capacities against Cu2+. Also reported is the radical cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), and chelating property against Fe2+ of the bran extracts measured by the spectrophotometric methods. Significant radical scavenging and chelating capacities were detected in the bran extracts, along with significant levels of phenolic acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Ferulic acid, with a concentration range of 130.60-146.38 microg/g, was the predominant phenolic acid in all of the tested bran samples and accounted for approximately 53-67% of total phenolic acids on a weight basis. Total tocopherol concentration ranged from 1.87 to 2.95 micromol/100 g of bran, whereas total carotenoid level was 0.20-0.33 micromol/100 g of bran. In addition, both wheat variety and growing conditions might significantly alter antioxidant properties and concentrations of beneficial components in wheat bran. PMID:15884817

  20. The relationship between different biotypes and protein composition of Hard Red Winter Wheat flours and their affect on alkaline noodle color and texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five samples of biotypes derived from two hard red winter wheat (HRW) cultivars, Centurk and OK102, were grown in a randomized complete block design at Mead, NE. The biotypes varied in their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition with five different HMW-GS allelic combi...

  1. Enhanced biological straw saccharification through coculturing of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Al-Hothaly, Khalid; Mouradov, Aidyn; Smith, Andrew T; Ball, Andrew S; Adetutu, Eric M

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic waste (LCW) is an abundant, low-cost, and inedible substrate for the induction of lignocellulolytic enzymes for cellulosic bioethanol production using an efficient, environmentally friendly, and economical biological approach. In this study, 30 different lignocellulose-degrading bacterial and 18 fungal isolates were quantitatively screened individually for the saccharification of four different ball-milled straw substrates: wheat, rice, sugarcane, and pea straw. Rice and sugarcane straws which had similar Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy profiles were more degradable, and resulted in more hydrolytic enzyme production than wheat and pea straws. Crude enzyme produced on native straws performed better than those on artificial substrates (such as cellulose and xylan). Four fungal and five bacterial isolates were selected (based on their high strawase activities) for constructing dual and triple microbial combinations to investigate microbial synergistic effects on saccharification. Combinations such as FUNG16-FUNG17 (Neosartorya fischeri-Myceliophthora thermophila) and RMIT10-RMIT11 (Aeromonas hydrophila-Pseudomonas poae) enhanced saccharification (3- and 6.6-folds, respectively) compared with their monocultures indicating the beneficial effects of synergism between those isolates. Dual isolate combinations were more efficient at straw saccharification than triple combinations in both bacterial and fungal assays. Overall, co-culturing can result in significant increases in saccharification which may offer significant commercial potential for the use of microbial consortia. PMID:25724976

  2. Effects of ozone on the grain composition of spring wheat grown in open-top field chambers.

    PubMed

    Fuhrer, J; Lehnherr, B; Moeri, P B; Tschannen, W; Shariat-Madari, H

    1990-01-01

    In a three-year study carried out at a rural site in Switzerland, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Albis) was exposed to different levels of ozone (O(3)) in open-top-field chambers from the two-leaf stage until harvest. Field plots in ambient air (AA) were used for comparison. Grain recovered from the different treatments was analyzed for minerals (Ca, Mg, K, P), starch, protein, amino acids and alpha-tocopherol, in order to investigate the effect of O(3) on grain composition. Chamber-enclosure had small effects on some parameters (K, protein), but not on others (starch), as shown by the comparison of data from the AA and non-filtered-air treatment (NF). Differences between NF and charcoal-filtered air (CF) were very small. At O(3) concentrations higher than in the NF treatment (O(3)-1 = 1.5xNF and O(3)-2 = 2.5xNF), mineral contents were higher than in the NF and CF treatments. Protein content was increased only in the O(3)-2 treatment. Starch contents decreased from about 63% in the CF treatment to 54% in the O(3)-2 tratment. No effect of O(3) on the content of alpha-tocopherol and on the essential amino acid index of the protein was observed. It is concluded that compositional changes in wheat grain in response to O(3) are minor, and that ambient O(3) is not likely to cause important changes. PMID:15092274

  3. Effect of wheat middlings-based total mixed ration on milk production and composition responses of lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Laudadio, V

    2011-01-01

    The effect of feeding pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) containing wheat middlings (WM) from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Appulo) as a corn grain substitute on milk yield and composition performance was measured in Comisana×Leccese crossbred lactating ewes. Forty ewes were divided into 2 equal groups and fed 1 of the 2 experimental diets for 18 wk. The control diet contained 255 g of corn/kg of dry matter (DM) as the main starch source, whereas the experimental diet contained 500 g of WM/kg of DM. To evaluate the in vivo digestibility of pelleted TMR, 4 adult rams were placed in metabolic cages and their individual feces and urine were collected. In the performance trial, ewe milk yield was recorded daily and individual milk samples were analyzed weekly for milk composition and to determine milk renneting parameters. The ewes fed both diets showed similar DM, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes. Digestibility of DM, organic matter, and crude protein of the 2 TMR was similar, but neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher in the WM diet. In the milking trial, the WM diet increased milk fat percentage and yield but had no effect on milk yield, protein, lactose, and clotting properties compared with the control diet. Our findings indicate that WM can be fed to lactating ewes as an alternative to more traditional concentrate sources such as corn. Feeding 50% of WM in a lactation diet supported milking performance in a manner similar a corn-based diet. Moreover, the results may be applied in countries where corn cultivation is adversely affected by the high cost of production. PMID:21183048

  4. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, C. v.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields plant available inorganic phosphate (Pi) and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P-compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four Pi are released, and one oxygen atom from water is incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi is subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ 6 to 10‰), which is similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ∼ 7‰) where less than three Pi are released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ -12‰), again similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ɛ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking substrate-dependency of the isotopic fractionation could be attributed to a difference in the δ18O-values of the C-O-P bridging and non-bridging oxygen atoms in organic phosphate compounds.

  5. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking substrate dependency of the isotopic fractionation could be attributed to a difference in the δ18O values of the C-O-P bridging and non-bridging oxygen atoms in organic phosphate compounds.

  6. Using isotopic tracers to assess the impact of tillage and straw management on the microbial metabolic network in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Groenigen, K.; Forristal, D.; Jones, M. B.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.; Dijkstra, P.

    2013-12-01

    By decomposing soil organic matter, microbes gain energy and building blocks for biosynthesis and release CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, insight into the effect of management practices on microbial metabolic pathways and C use efficiency (CUE; microbial C produced per substrate C utilized) may help to predict long term changes in soil C stocks. We studied the effects of reduced (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) on the microbial central C metabolic network, using soil samples from a 12-year-old field experiment in an Irish winter wheat cropping system. Each year after harvest, straw was removed from half of the RT and CT plots or incorporated into the soil in the other half, resulting in four treatment combinations. We added 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose as metabolic tracer isotopomers to composite soil samples taken at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm) from each treatment and used the rate of position-specific respired 13CO2 to parameterize a metabolic model. Model outcomes were then used to calculate CUE of the microbial community. We found that the composite samples differed in CUE, but the changes were small, with values ranging between 0.757-0.783 across treatments and soil depth. Increases in CUE were associated with a decrease in tricarboxylic acid cycle and reductive pentose phosphate pathway activity and increased consumption of metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Our results indicate that RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage without substantially changing CUE or any of the microbial metabolic pathways. This suggests that at our site, RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage mostly through direct effects such as increased soil C input and physical protection from decomposition, rather than by feedback responses of the microbial community.

  7. Thermal degradation of cereal straws in air and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ergundenler, A.

    1991-12-31

    The termogravimetric behavior of four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50{degrees}C/min) in air and nitrogen atmospheres. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were determined for these straws in both atmospheres. Increasing the heating rate increased the thermal degradation rate, and decreased both the initial degradation temperature and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The higher the cellulosic content of the straw, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the straw resulted in higher residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The thermal degradation rate in active pyrolysis zone was lower in air atmosphere than in nitrogen atmosphere, whereas the thermal degradation rate in passive pyrolysis zone and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were higher in nitrogen atmosphere than in air atmosphere.

  8. Effect of Cd sup 2+ CN lipid composition of thylakoid membranes CF wheat chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, D.; Sheoran, I.S.; Singh, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Cadmium application in wheat plants decreased thylakoid total lipids, total glycolipids, total phospholipids and total neutral lipids by 22, 23, 12 and 25% respectively. MGDG and DGDG were the major glycolipids and their level decreased by 32 and 27%, respectively under cadmium treatment. Sulpholipids were also decreased by 27%. Cadmium application also decreased the concentration of phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) and phosphatidyl choline (PC) to the extent of about 57 and 31%, respectively. Phosphatidic acid, which could not be detected under control, appeared in cadmium treated leaves. Triglycerides, the major constituents of neutral lipids, were decreased by 68%. However, free fatty acid content increased by about 19% under cadmium treatment. These results indicate that cadmium treatment affects the architecture of thylakoid membranes which in turn may adversely affect the light reactions of photosynthesis.

  9. The use of image analysis to investigate C:N ratio in the mixture of chicken manure and straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekała, W.; Dach, J.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Witaszek, K.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of analysis of C:N ratio in the chicken manure and wheat straw mixture. This paper presents preliminary assumptions and parameters of extraction characteristics process. It also presents an introduction of digital image analysis of chicken manure and wheat straw mixture. This work is an introduction to the study on develop computer system that could replace chemical analysis. Good understanding the value of dependence C:N on the basis of image analysis will help in selection of optimal conditions for biological waste treatment.

  10. The Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Greek Traditional Wheat Sourdoughs Is Reflected in Both Composition and Metabolite Formation

    PubMed Central

    De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and Weissella cibaria. This consortium seems to be unique for the Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs studied. Strains of the species W. cibaria have not been isolated from sourdoughs previously. No Lactobacillus pontis or Lactobacillus panis strains were found. An L. brevis-like isolate (ACA-DC 3411 t1) could not be identified properly and might be a new sourdough LAB species. In addition, fermentation capabilities associated with the LAB detected have been studied. During laboratory fermentations, all heterofermentative sourdough LAB strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. Mannitol was produced from fructose that served as an additional electron acceptor. In addition to glucose, almost all of the LAB isolates fermented maltose, while fructose as the sole carbohydrate source was fermented by all sourdough LAB tested except L. sanfranciscensis. Two of the L. paralimentarius isolates tested did not ferment maltose; all strains were homofermentative. In the presence of both maltose and fructose in the medium, induction of hexokinase activity occurred in all sourdough LAB species mentioned above, explaining why no glucose accumulation was found extracellularly. No maltose phosphorylase activity was found either. These data produced a variable fermentation coefficient and a unique sourdough metabolite composition. PMID:12450829

  11. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking. PMID:25286188

  12. Customized optimization of cellulase mixtures for differently pretreated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Jung; Jung, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hee Jin; Park, Hyong Seok; Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-05-01

    Lignocellulose contains a large amount of cellulose but is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis, which yields sugars for fuels or chemicals. Various pretreatment methods are used to improve the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in lignocellulose. Depending on the lignocellulose types and pretreatment methods, biomass compositions and physical properties significantly vary. Therefore, customized enzyme mixtures have to be employed for the efficient hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose. Here, using three recombinant model enzymes consisting of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and xylanase with a fixed amount of β-glucosidase, the optimal formulation of enzyme mixtures was designed for two differently pretreated rice straws (acid-pretreated or alkali-pretreated rice straw) by the mixture design methodology. As a result, different optimal compositions for the enzyme mixtures were employed depending on the type of pretreatment of rice straw. These results suggest that customized enzyme mixtures for pretreated lignocellulosic biomass are necessary to obtain increased sugar yields and should be considered in the industrial utilization of lignocellulose. PMID:25547288

  13. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs) using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work provided new insights into the composition and function of 18 LMW-GS alleles in bread wheat. The variation of i-type genes mainly contributed to the high diversity of Glu-A3 alleles, and the differences among Glu-B3 alleles were mainly derived from the high polymorphism of s-type genes. Among LMW-GS alleles, Glu-A3e and Glu-B3c represented inferior alleles for bread-making quality, whereas Glu-A3d, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g and Glu-B3i were correlated with superior bread-making quality. Glu-D3 alleles played minor roles in determining quality variation in bread wheat. Thus, LMW-GS alleles not only affect dough extensibility but greatly contribute to the dough resistance, glutenin macro-polymers and bread quality. PMID:23259617

  14. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water, subjected to the same effects of evapotranspiration, but which differ in the amount and composition of leaf wax compounds, can exhibit large variation in their n-alkane 2H/1H. Our current work on determining the 2H/1H composition of other n-alkyl lipids from these plants will provide further details regarding the role of biosynthesis in controlling 2H/1H fractionation within leaf waxes.

  15. Effect of fermentation conditions on L-lactic acid production from soybean straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Wenyu; Xiang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Four types of straw, namely, soybean, wheat, corn, and rice, were investigated for use in lactic acid production. These straws were mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. After pretreatment with ammonia, the cellulose content increased, whereas the hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Analytical results also showed that the liquid enzymatic hydrolysates were primarily composed of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. Preliminary experiments showed that a higher lactic acid concentration could be obtained from the wheat and soybean straw. However, soybean straw was chosen as the substrate for lactic acid production owing to its high protein content. The maximum lactic acid yield (0.8 g/g) and lactic acid productivity (0.61 g/(l/h)) were obtained with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 35 g/l at 30°C when using Lactobacillus casei (10% inoculum) for a 42 h fermentation period. Thus, the experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using a soybean straw enzymatic hydrolysate as a substrate for lactic acid production. PMID:25152056

  16. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide from natural algicides: decomposition organic matter from straw.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Liyin; Yang, Jixiang

    2015-08-01

    The ability of decomposition organic matter from three natural algicides (barley, rice, and wheat straw) and natural organic matter (NOM) isolates to generate hydrogen peroxide under simulated solar irradiation was evaluated in order to understand the mechanism of indirect algae inhibition through a photochemical pathway. Specific optical properties (higher phenolic hydroxyl group contents and lower E2/E3) of barley straw organic matter (BSOM) reveal its outstanding ability to produce H2O2 as a photosensitizer. The appearance of a protein-like structure in BSOM indicated that bacteria or fungi probably transformed the structure of BSOM and brought other organic matter, which may account for its distinct optical properties. The ΦH2O2 of BSOM obtained through aerobic decomposition is 14.73 × 10(-5), which is three times the value of SRHA, whereas the ΦH2O2 value of BSOM obtained for non-aerobic decomposition was 5.30 × 10(-5), still higher than that of SRHA. The ΦH2O2 of rice straw organic matter was slightly lower than those of SRHA and SRFA, but much higher than that of wheat straw organic matter. The superior ability of BSOM to generate H2O2 was partly responsible for the outstanding potential and prior choice of barley straw for cyanobacteria or algae inhibition in various plant decomposition products. PMID:26153543

  17. Microbial community composition is consistent across anaerobic digesters processing wheat-based fuel ethanol waste streams.

    PubMed

    Town, Jennifer; Annand, Holly; Pratt, Dyan; Dumonceaux, Tim; Fonstad, Terrance

    2014-04-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted on byproducts from dry-grind wheat-based ethanol plants amended with feedlot manure at two input ratios. Whole stillage (WST), thin stillage (TST) and wet cake (WCK) were tested alone and with 1:1 and 2:1 ratios (VS basis) of byproduct:feedlot manure in bench-scale batch reactors. The addition of manure increased both the rate and consistency of methane production in triplicate reactors. In addition, digesters co-digesting thin stillage and cattle manure at 1:1 and 2:1 stillage:manure produced 125% and 119% expected methane based on the biomethane potential of each substrate digested individually. Bacterial community analysis using universal target amplification and pyrosequencing indicated there was a numerically dominant core of 42 bacteria that was universally present in the reactors regardless of input material. A smaller-scale analysis of the archaeal community showed that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens were present in significant quantities. PMID:24534794

  18. Nanostructural morphology of plasticized wheat gluten and modified potato starch composites: relationship to mechanical and barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Faraz; Andersson, Mariette; Koch, Kristine; Menzel, Carolin; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Plivelic, Tomás S; Kuktaite, Ramune

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we were able to produce composites of wheat gluten (WG) protein and a novel genetically modified potato starch (MPS) with attractive mechanical and gas barrier properties using extrusion. Characterization of the MPS revealed an altered chain length distribution of the amylopectin fraction and slightly increased amylose content compared to wild type potato starch. WG and MPS of different ratios plasticized with either glycerol or glycerol and water were extruded at 110 and 130 °C. The nanomorphology of the composites showed the MPS having semicrystalline structure of a characteristic lamellar arrangement with an approximately 100 Å period observed by small-angle X-ray scattering and a B-type crystal structure observed by wide-angle X-ray scattering analysis. WG has a structure resembling the hexagonal macromolecular arrangement as reported previously in WG films. A larger amount of β-sheets was observed in the samples 70/30 and 30/70 WG-MPS processed at 130 °C with 45% glycerol. Highly polymerized WG protein was found in the samples processed at 130 °C versus 110 °C. Also, greater amounts of WG protein in the blend resulted in greater extensibility (110 °C) and a decrease in both E-modulus and maximum stress at 110 and 130 °C, respectively. Under ambient conditions the WG-MPS composite (70/30) with 45% glycerol showed excellent gas barrier properties to be further explored in multilayer film packaging applications. PMID:25629918

  19. Development of oil-spill sorbent from straw biomass waste: Experiments and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Tijani, Mansour M; Aqsha, Aqsha; Mahinpey, Nader

    2016-04-15

    The recovery of oil spilled on land or water has become an important issue due to environmental regulations. Canadian biomasses as fibrous materials are naturally renewable and have the potential to absorb oil-spills at different ranges. In this work, four Canadian biomasses were examined in order to evaluate their oil affinities and study parameters that could affect oil affinity when used as sorbent, such as average particle size, surface coating and reusability. Moreover, one oil sorption model was adopted and coupled with another developed model to approximate and verify the experimental findings of the oil sorbent biomasses. At an average particle size of 150-1000 μm, results showed that barley straw biomass had the highest absorbency value at 6.07 g/g, while flax straw had the lowest value at 3.69 g/g. Wheat and oat straws had oil absorbency values of 5.49 and 5.00 g/g, respectively. An average particle size of 425-600 μm indicated better absorbency values for oat and wheat straws. Furthermore, the thermal stability study revealed major weight recovery for two flame retardant coatings at hemicellulose and lignocellulose degradation temperature ranges. It was also found that oat straw biomass could be regenerated and used for many sorption/desorption cycles, as the reusability experiment showed only a 18.45% reduction in the oil absorbency value after six consecutive cycles. The developed penetration absorbency (PA) model showed oat straw adsorbed oil at the inter-particle level; and, the results of the sorption capacity model coupled with the PA model excellently predicted the oil sorption of raw and coated oat straws. PMID:26895719

  20. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

  1. Changes in lipid composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici conidia produced on wheat leaves treated with heptanoyl salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Sahraoui, Anissa Lounès-Hadj; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Sancholle, Michel

    2006-06-01

    Treatment of wheat leaves with heptanoyl salicylic acid (HS) and trehalose at concentrations of 0.1 and 15 g l(-1), prior to fungal inoculation, resulted in 40% and 60% protection, respectively, against powdery mildew. The total lipid composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) conidia, the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew, was compared when produced on wheat leaves, respectively, untreated and treated with the two elicitors, HS and trehalose. An obvious effect was observed on lipid composition (sterol and fatty acid (FA)) of Bgt conidia produced on wheat leaves treated with HS. A total of 16 FA (C12-C24 saturated and unsaturated) as well as unusual methoxylated Fatty Acids (mFA) (3-methoxydocosanoic and 3-methoxytetracosanoic acids) were detected in the conidia. Medium chain FA were predominant in HS treated conidia (64.65%) while long chain fatty acids constituted the major compounds in untreated conidia (62%). The long chain/medium chain FA ratio decreased from 1.8 in the conidia produced on untreated leaves to 0.5 in the conidia obtained from HS treated leaves. When comparing the sterol composition of Bgt conidia produced on leaves treated with HS versus conidia obtained from untreated ones, very important changes within the two major classes can be seen. In particular, 24-methylsterols, e.g., 24-methylenecholesterol and 24-methylcholesta-7,24-dien were reduced by about 82% whereas 24-ethylsterols, e.g., 24-ethylcholesterol and 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dienol were increased by about 85%. The 24-methylsterols/24-ethylsterols ratio was reduced by ninefold in the conidia produced from HS treated leaves. PMID:16647727

  2. XPS and IGC characterization of steam treated triticale straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyan; Boluk, Yaman

    2010-10-01

    The surface chemical composition and surface energy of native and steam treated triticale straws have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to reveal the effect of steam treatment temperature and time. The XPS results show that the contents of C elements and C-C group on the exterior surface of native triticale straw are much higher than those on the interior surface, indicating that there was a high quantity of wax on the exterior surface of the native triticale straw. Upon steam treatment, both carbon levels and C-C groups reduce with increasing steam temperature and treatment time of the exterior surfaces. However, the effect of steam treatment on the interior surface is very limited. In terms of the surface acid and base properties, the steam treated samples exhibited higher acid and base properties than the native sample, indicating a more polar surface of the steam treated sample.

  3. Pollution control of swine manure and straw by conversion to chaetomium cellulolyticum SCP feed

    SciTech Connect

    Moo-Young, M.; Chahal, D.S.; Stickney, B.

    1981-11-01

    Swine manure has a very high pollution potential and obnoxious odor. Large farms particularly are confronted with a manure disposal problem since environmentally acceptable solutions are now required by government regulations. Swine manure was found to be a good source of supplementary nutrients to ferment wheat straw into single-cell protein (SCP) with Chaetomium cellulolyticum when 0.13 g (NH4)2SO4/g solid was used as an additional source of nitrogen. In batch fermentations, inhibitory effects, possibly due to solubles released from the straw during alkali or acid pretreatment, were over come by starting the fermentation at about pH 7.0 and then reducing it to 5.0 during growth. An overall protein productivity of up to 66 mg/L h was obtained from a slurry mixture of 1% w/v solids of manure and straw. This compares favorably with 99 mg/Lh when manure was fermented with glucose instead of straw as the main carbon source. A high protein productivity of 200 mg/L h was obtained from a slurry mixture containing anaerobically prefermented swine manure liquor and 1.5% w/v solids from straw. The final products of the manure and straw fermentations contained 25-30% DW crude protein and 6-20% DW cellulose and the materials were free of the original obnoxious odor and undesirable microbial contamination. (Refs. 17).

  4. INTERACTIION OF SOY OIL AND WHEAT GLUTEN IN JET-COOKED FLOUR-SOY OIL COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-oil composites prepared by excess steam jet cooking contain starch-coated oil droplets (1-10 microns in diameter) uniformly suspended in cooked starch. When flour was used as a starch source for food applications, a more complex structure was observed in bulk and by microscopy. This study w...

  5. Novel insights into the composition, variation, organization, and expression of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Jianghua; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Tong, Yiping; Cui, Dangqun; Zhang, Aimin

    2013-04-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), encoded by a complex multigene family, play an important role in the processing quality of wheat flour. Although members of this gene family have been identified in several wheat varieties, the allelic variation and composition of LMW-GS genes in common wheat are not well understood. In the present study, using the LMW-GS gene molecular marker system and the full-length gene cloning method, a comprehensive molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes was conducted in a representative population, the micro-core collections (MCC) of Chinese wheat germplasm. Generally, >15 LMW-GS genes were identified from individual MCC accessions, of which 4-6 were located at the Glu-A3 locus, 3-5 at the Glu-B3 locus, and eight at the Glu-D3 locus. LMW-GS genes at the Glu-A3 locus showed the highest allelic diversity, followed by the Glu-B3 genes, while the Glu-D3 genes were extremely conserved among MCC accessions. Expression and sequence analysis showed that 9-13 active LMW-GS genes were present in each accession. Sequence identity analysis showed that all i-type genes present at the Glu-A3 locus formed a single group, the s-type genes located at Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci comprised a unique group, while high-diversity m-type genes were classified into four groups and detected in all Glu-3 loci. These results contribute to the functional analysis of LMW-GS genes and facilitate improvement of bread-making quality by wheat molecular breeding programmes. PMID:23536608

  6. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  7. Characterization of agronomic and quality traits and HSW-G5 compositions from the progenies of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with different protein content.

    PubMed

    Bian, M; Sun, D K; Sun, D F; Sun, G L

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play an essential role in wheat processing quality. In this study, we evaluated the genetic pattern with HMW-GS composition between generations and examined whether agronomic and quality traits were correlated with each other. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar with high protein content and 2 cultivars with low protein content were subjected to a reciprocal cross. Sixteen agronomic and 4 quality characteristics were investigated. A total of 216 seeds from each F2 generation were chosen randomly and analyzed for HMW-GS composition using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Agronomic and quality characteristics were not significantly different between reciprocal crosses, indicating no cytoplasmic effect on the characteristics studied. The separation ratio of 2 HMW-GS loci was 9:3:3:1, indicating no linkage between any 2 loci. The novel HMW-GS N was detected in cultivar R145, which did not follow the Mendelian segregation ratio. A Glu-A1a(1) band was not detected in 1 individual from Tian8901xR145. Average grain weight per spike was significantly correlated with quality characteristics and may be a suitable criterion for selecting high protein content in wheat breeding programs. PMID:25867343

  8. Biotype composition of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) populations from the southeastern, midwestern, and northwestern United States and virulence to resistance genes in wheat.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, R H; Cambron, S E; Flanders, K L; Bosque-Perez, N A; Clement, S L; Ohm, H W

    2000-08-01

    Twenty-three Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), populations collected in the southeastern (Alabama and Mississippi), midwestern (Indiana), and northwestern (Idaho and Washington) United States from 1995 to 1999 were evaluated for biotype composition based on response to Hessian fly resistance genes H3, H5, H6, and H7H8 in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. Biotypes L and O, combined, made up at least 60% of all Alabama populations. Biotype L was predominant in the northern third of Alabama and biotype O in the southern two-thirds of the state. Based on biotype data, wheat cultivars with H7H8 resistance should be highly effective in central and southern Alabama. Fifty-four percent of the Mississippi population consisted of biotype L, and the remaining virulent biotypes (B, D, E, G, J, and O) ranged in frequency from 1 to 17%. The Mississippi population also contained 4% of the avirulent biotype GP. Only biotypes D and L were found in Indiana populations, but biotype L was predominant. Hessian fly populations from Idaho and Washington contained one or more of the virulent biotypes D-H, J, and L-O; however, only biotypes E, F, and G occurred at frequencies > 12%. The avirulent biotype GP made up 25-57% of Idaho and Washington populations, a much higher percentage than found in populations from the eastern United States. Although the highest level of virulence in Idaho and Washington populations was found to resistance genes H3 and H6, the frequency of biotype GP would indicate that the currently deployed gene H3 would provide a moderate to high level of resistance, depending on location. Nine of the populations, plus populations collected from the mid-Atlantic state area in 1989 and 1996, also were tested against the wheat cultivar 'INW9811' that carries H13 resistance to Hessian fly biotype L and two Purdue wheat lines with unidentified genes for resistance. The H13 resistance in INW9811 was highly effective against all populations tested from the eastern and northwestern U.S. wheat production areas, except Maryland and Virginia. Population studies also indicated that wheat line CI 17960-1-1-2-4-2-10 likely carries the H13 resistance gene, based on the similarity of its response and that of INW9811 to eight fly populations. Continued monitoring of biotype frequency in Hessian fly populations is required for optimal deployment and management of resistance genes in all wheat production areas. PMID:10985049

  9. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. PMID:26174030

  10. Simultaneous bioconversion of barley straw to butanol and product recovery: use of concentrated sugar solution and process integration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of increased gasoline prices, we focused on the production of butanol which contains more energy than ethanol on per gallon (or kg) basis from cellulosic agricultural biomass such as wheat straw using two different systems: i) separate hydrolysis, fermentation, and recovery (SHFR), and ...

  11. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P < 0.001), confirmed by fasting plasma alkylrecorsinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05) in parallel to a 53% decrease in the alkylrecorsinol concentration (P < 0.001) in the group consuming refined wheat breads. In this group, the abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, B. plebeius, and Prevotella tannerae decreased, whereas that of bacteria related to Collinsella and members of the Clostridium clusters IV and XI increased. In a multivariate regression analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides spp. was best explained by different fat compounds among dietary variables, whereas the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber. Our results indicate that the quality of grains has a minor effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat. PMID:23514765

  12. Process optimization for the preparation of straw feedstuff for rearing yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong

    2012-07-01

    It has been confirmed in our previous work that in bioregenerative life support systems, feeding yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) using fermented straw has the potential to provide good animal protein for astronauts, meanwhile treating with plant wastes. However, since the nitrogen content in straw is very low, T. molitor larvae can not obtain sufficient nitrogen, which results in a relatively low growth efficiency. In this study, wheat straw powder was mixed with simulated human urine before fermentation. Condition parameters, e.g. urine:straw ratio, moisture content, inoculation dose, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and pH were optimized using Taguchi method. Larval growth rate and average individual mass of mature larva increased significantly in the group of T. molitor larvae fed with feedstuff prepared with the optimized process.

  13. The Effect of Variety and Growing Conditions on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat for Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ball, M. E. E.; Owens, B.; McCracken, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG), in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05) affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F) wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F) wheats. An increase (p<0.1) of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the low seed rate of 40 compared to 640 seeds/m2. It was concluded that the type of wheat sample and environmental growing conditions significantly affects bird performance when fed wheat-based diets. PMID:25049800

  14. Phenolic acid composition of sprouted wheats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Hatcher, David W; Barker, Wendy

    2011-06-15

    The phenolic acid profiles of flours from two Canadian wheat classes, Canadian Western Red Spring (CWRS) and Canadian Western Amber Durum (CWAD), were investigated using two different extraction mediums and analysed on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system at different degrees of sprout damage. A sound (non-sprouted) control sample as well as two different sprouted sub-samples, derived from different germination protocols of the control, were prepared for both the CWAD and CWRS. Free phenolic acids were extracted from the ground whole wheat meal using three repetitive 80% ethanol extractions. Bound phenolic compounds were subsequently released from the residue by alkaline hydrolysis followed by triplicate extraction with diethyl ether:ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v). Twelve phenolic acid standards were clearly resolved and quantified using a short 5min elution gradient. Seven phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic) were detected in the CWRS and CWAD alcoholic and alkaline extracts. Syringic acid was the main compound in the free phenolic alcoholic extracts of the wheat meal representing 77.0% and 75.3% of the total amount of detected free phenolic compounds for CWRS and CWAD, respectively. However, the major released phenolic compound detected in the alkaline hydrolysed extracts was ferulic acid accounting for 72.3% and 71.0% for CWRS and CWAD respectively total bound phenolics. During germination, syringic acid levels rose as the length of germination time increased, resulting in the increase in total phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of the sprouted wheat flours. There was an increase in total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the alcoholic extracts from the CWRS and CWAD wheat flours as the germination time was extended. As a result, the sprouted wheats exhibits better nutritional properties than un-germinated wheat and could be used to improve the nutrition value in food products. PMID:25213974

  15. Evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Marco; Pogoda, Friederike; Pallez, Marine; Lazic, Joëlle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Pasquali, Matias

    2014-07-16

    Fusarium species are fungal plant pathogens producing toxic secondary metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV). In Luxembourg, the Fusarium species composition isolated from symptomatic winter wheat heads was dominated by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) between the years 2009 and 2012, except for 2011, when Fusarium culmorum strains (genetic NIV chemotype) dominated the pathogen complex. Previous reports indicated that F. graminearum sensu stricto (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) was also most frequently isolated from randomly sampled winter wheat kernels including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic kernels in 2007 and 2008. The annual precipitation (average of 10 weather stations scattered across the country) decreased continuously from 924.31mm in 2007 over 917.15mm in 2008, to 843.38mm in 2009, 736.24mm in 2010, and 575.09mm in 2011. In 2012, the annual precipitation increased again to 854.70mm. Hardly any precipitation was recorded around the time of wheat anthesis in the years 2010 and 2011, whereas precipitation levels >50mm within the week preceding anthesis plus the week post anthesis were observed in the other years. The shift to genetic NIV chemotype F. culmorum strains in 2011 was accompanied by a very minor elevation of average NIV contents (2.9ngg(-1)) in the grain. Our data suggest that high NIV levels in Luxembourgish winter wheat are at present rather unlikely, because the indigenous F. culmorum strains with the genetic NIV chemotype seem to be outcompeted under humid in vivo conditions by F. graminearum DON producing strains on the one hand and seem to be inhibited - even though to a lower extent than DON producing strains - under dry in vivo conditions on the other hand. PMID:24859190

  16. Evaluation of two local cowpea species for nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions and organoleptic attributes of their wheat-based cookies

    PubMed Central

    Ayogu, Rufina N. B.; Nnam, Ngozi M.; Mbah, Mirabel

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood and adolescent malnutrition is a function of inadequate intake. Cookies are favourite snacks of children and adolescents. Objective This work determined the nutrient, antinutrient, and phytochemical compositions of two local cowpea (oraludi and apama) flours and evaluated the organoleptic properties of their wheat-based cookies. Design The two local cowpea species were processed into flours separately and blended with wheat on a 56-g protein basis. Chemical compositions of the processed cowpea flours were analysed using standard methods. Organoleptic attributes were evaluated with a nine-point Hedonic scale. Statistical analysis, which involved mean and standard deviations, were computed by analysis of variance, and Duncan's new multiple range tests were used to separate and compare group means of sensory evaluation data, with significance accepted at P<0.05. Results The results revealed that oraludi had superior percentage values compared to apama in protein (26.22 and 20.88), fat (7.98 and 6.65), and ash (3.81 and 3.13), while apama proved superior in moisture (9.76 and 7.82), crude fibre (5.49 and 4.91), and carbohydrate (54.09 and 49.26). The values were higher for oraludi than apama in iron (8.62 and 6.49 mg), zinc (1.61 and 0.95 mg), and beta-carotene (223.24 and 190.63 mg) but lower in sodium (34.79 and 56.72 mg), potassium (25.73 and 30.65 mg), phosphorus (13.35 and 18.26 mg), thiamine (5.33 and 9.41 mg), vitamin C (16.63 and 21.09 mg), and vitamin E (0.51 and 0.67 mg). Apama had 0.06 mg phytate, 0.09 mg oxalate, 15.22 mg tannins, 3.59 mg flavonoids, and 0.19 mg saponin. Oraludi had 0.03 mg phytate, 0.32 mg oxalate, 15.94 mg tannins, 3.14 mg flavonoid, and 0.13 mg saponin. Mean scores of general acceptability for wheat:apama (80:20) and wheat:oraludi:apama (60:20:20) cookies (7.71 and 7.41) were superior (P<0.05) to others. Conclusions Oraludi and apama proved nutrient dense. Their use improved the acceptability of some of the wheat-based cookies. Use of these local cowpeas in cookie production is, therefore, encouraged. PMID:26800766

  17. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-03-11

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs.

  18. The variability of biomass burning and its influence on regional aerosol properties during the wheat harvest season in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Li, Xingru; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    The spatial-temporal variation of biomass burning in June during the wheat harvest season in the North China (32-41°N, 111-120°E) and its influence on the regional aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the chemical compositions of size-segregated aerosols in the urban environment were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the burn ban policy and the influence on regional pollution. Fire events that occurred in early and middle June accounted for approximately 89% of the events during the month, and fire points located in mid-eastern China (32.5-35.5°N, 114-120°E) comprised 71%. The occurrences exhibit oscillatory changes with a minimum in 2008 (during the Beijing Olympics) and a peak and explosive growth in 2012. Under high relative humidity and south winds, fire emissions from straw burning combined with high urban/industrial emissions to produce intensive regional haze pollution in the North Plain. The formation of secondary inorganic particles was intensified due to the interactions of smoke plumes and urban/industrial pollutants in an urban environment. Higher concentrations and percentages (79%) of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon in the fine particles under high relative humidity conditions contributed to a deteriorated urban visibility. Therefore, stronger management and a comprehensive ban on wheat straw burning in June are urgently needed, especially during years when the south wind is dominant.

  19. The effect of drying temperature on the composition of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, T.P.; Stevens, D.N.; Wright, C.T.; Radtke, C.W.

    2008-05-01

    The compositional quality of different lignocellulosic feedstocks influences their performance and potential demand at a biorefinery. Many analytical protocols for determining the composition or performance characteristics of biomass involve a drying step, where the drying temperature can vary depending on the specific protocol. To get reliable data, it is important to determine the correct drying temperature to vaporize the water without negatively impacting the compositional quality of the biomass. A comparison of drying temperature between 45 degrees C and 100 degrees C was performed using wheat straw and corn stover. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were taken of the dried samples and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Carbohydrates were analyzed using quantitative saccharification to determine sugar degradation. Analysis of variance was used to determine if there was a significant difference between drying at different temperatures. PCA showed an obvious separation in samples dried at different temperatures due to sample water content. However, quantitative saccharification data shows, within a 95% confidence interval, that there is no significant difference in sugar content for drying temperatures up to 100 degrees C for wheat straw and corn stover.

  20. Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Guo, Yan; Yang, Gaihe; Xi, Jianchao; Ren, Guangxin

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent), biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea) as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4) was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw. PMID:23118505

  1. Comparison of Seven Chemical Pretreatments of Corn Straw for Improving Methane Yield by Anaerobic Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zilin; GaiheYang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Liao, Yinzhang

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture straw is considered a renewable resource that has the potential to contribute greatly to bioenergy supplies. Chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion can increase the anaerobic digestibility of agriculture straw. The present study investigated the effects of seven chemical pretreatments on the composition and methane yield of corn straw to assess their effectiveness of digestibility. Four acid reagents (H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, and CH3COOH) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% (w/w) and three alkaline reagents (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and NH3·H2O) at concentrations of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) were used for the pretreatments. All pretreatments were effective in the biodegradation of the lignocellulosic straw structure. The straw, pretreated with 3% H2O2 and 8% Ca(OH)2, acquired the highest methane yield of 216.7 and 206.6 mL CH4 g VS −1 in the acid and alkaline pretreatments, which are 115.4% and 105.3% greater than the untreated straw. H2O2 and Ca(OH)2 can be considered as the most favorable pretreatment methods for improving the methane yield of straw because of their effectiveness and low cost. PMID:24695485

  2. Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication and further separated by size exclusion chromatography into monomeric and polymeric fractions. Proteins in each fraction were analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel...

  3. Effects of post-anthesis fertilizer on the protein composition of the gluten polymer in a US bread wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both genetic and environmental factors influence the types and amounts of wheat proteins that link together to form polymers essential for flour quality. To understand how plant growth conditions might influence gluten polymer formation, protein fractions containing small and large polymers were se...

  4. Registration of Warhorse wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Warhorse' (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

  5. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid lead to increasing conversion of hemicellulose to xylose. In contrast, increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations degrade the hemicellulose to unknown derivates. Consequently, almost no sugars from hemicellulose remain for fermentation. The hydrolysis of sulfuric acid pretreated straw results in a maximum glucose concentration of 100 g/kg straw and a xylose concentration of nearly 30 g/kg. Sodium hydroxide pretreated and hydrolyzed straw leads to a maximum glucose concentration of 90 g/kg straw and a xylose concentration of nearly 20 g/kg. In comparison to the two chemical pretreatment methods (sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid pretreatment), the steam explosion pretreatment (conditions: temperature 190°C, time 20 minutes) results in a higher glucose concentration of about 190 g/kg straw and a xylose concentration of nearly 75 g/kg straw after enzymatic hydrolysis of the dried straw. Because of the small effect the sodium hydroxide pretreatment has on xylose recovery, this method won't be used for separation and conversion of hemicellulose into xylose and arabinose. Although pretreatment with sulfuric acid achieved promising results, further research and economical considerations have to be performed. In conclusion, the steam explosion method is still the state of the art pretreatment method for the production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Alkaline methods destroy most of the xylose part of the sugar fraction and a loss of up to 25 % of the fermentable sugars is not acceptable for a sustainable biofuel production. The acid pretreatment yields high amounts of accessible hemicellulose and cellulose, but the consumption of chemicals for acid pretreatment and neutralization has to be taken into account when considering technical implementation.

  6. Flocculation of high purity wheat straw soda lignin.

    PubMed

    Piazza, G J; Lora, J H; Garcia, R A

    2014-01-01

    In industrial process, acidification causes non-sulfonated lignin insolubility. The flocculants poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) and bovine blood (BB) also caused lignin insolubility while cationic polyacrylamide, chitosan, and soy protein PF 974 were ineffective. Turbidity determined optimal flocculant, but turbidity magnitude with BB was greater than expected. pDADMAC caused negative lignin Zeta potential to became positive, but BB-lignin Zeta potential was always negative. Insoluble lignin did not gravity sediment, and flocculant-lignin mixtures were centrifuged. Pellet and supernatant dry mass and corrected spectroscopic results were in good agreement for optimal pDADMAC and BB. Spectroscopy showed 87-92% loss of supernatant lignin. Nitrogen analysis showed BB concentrated in the pellet until the pellet became saturated with BB. Subtracting ash and BB mass from pellet and supernatant mass confirmed optimal BB. Low levels of alum caused increased lignin flocculation at lower levels of pDADMAC and BB, but alum did not affect optimal flocculant. PMID:24326211

  7. Flocculation of high purity wheat straw soda lignin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flocculant action on lignocellulose mixtures has been studied, but flocculant action on purified sulfur-free lignin has not been reported. In the last step of the industrial process, the purified lignin solution is acidified with sulfuric acid which causes the lignin to become insoluble. The feasi...

  8. The use of steam explosion to increase the nutrition available from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Chen, Kunjie; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Chao; Shao, Qianjun; Sun, Qian; Li, Hua

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, rice straw was pretreated using steam-explosion (ST) technique to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of potential reducing sugars for feed utilization. The response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize the effects of steam pressure, pressure retention time, and straw moisture content on the yield of reducing sugar. All the investigated variables had significant effects (P < 0.001) on the reducing sugar yield. The optimum yield of 30.86% was obtained under the following pretreatment conditions: steam pressure, 1.54 MPa; pressure retention time, 140.5 Sec; and straw moisture content, 41.6%. The yield after thermal treatment under the same conditions was approximately 16%. Infrared (IR) radiation analysis showed a decrease in the cellulose IR crystallization index. ST noticeably increases reducing sugars in rice straw, and this technique may also be applicable to other cellulose/lignin sources of biomass. PMID:25522759

  9. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    PubMed Central

    Belal, Elsayed B.

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L−1. PMID:24159309

  10. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    PubMed

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

  11. Use of near-isogenic wheat lines to determine the glutenin composition and functionality requirements for flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Suchismita; Tilley, Michael; Alviola, Juma Novi; Waniska, Ralph D; Bean, Scott R; Glover, Karl D; Hays, Dirk B

    2008-01-01

    In wheat ( Triticum aestivum L), the synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins (GS) is controlled by three heterologous genetic loci present on the long arms of group 1 wheat chromosomes. The loci Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 and their allelic variants play important roles in the functional properties of wheat flour. This study focused on understanding the functionality of these protein subunits on tortilla quality. Near-isogenic wheat lines in which one or more of these loci were absent or deleted were used. Tortillas were prepared from each deletion line and the parent lines. The elimination of certain HMW-GS alleles alter distinct but critical aspects of tortilla quality such as diameter, shelf stability, and overall quality. Two deletion lines possessing HMW-GS 17 + 18 at Glu-B1 and deletions in Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 had significantly larger tortilla diameters, yet tortilla shelf life was compromised or unchanged from the parent lines used to develop the deletion lines or the commercial tortilla flour used as a control. Alternatively, a deletion line possessing Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 (HMW-GS 1, 5 + 10) and a deletion in Glu-B1 also significantly improved tortilla diameters. Whereas the increase in diameter was less than the line possessing only HMW-GS 17 + 18 at Glu-B1, the stability of the tortillas were, however, maintained and improved as compared to the parent lines containing a full compliment of HMW-GS. Thus, the presence of subunits 5 + 10 at Glu-D1 alone or in combination with subunit 1 at Glu-A1 appears to provide a compromise of improvement in dough extensibility for improved tortilla diameters while also providing sufficient gluten strength to maintain ideal shelf stability. PMID:18072743

  12. Effects of dried distillers' grains with solubles (wheat-based) in feedlot cattle diets on feces and manure composition.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiying; Benke, Mônica B; Gibb, Darryl J; Stronks, Ashley; Travis, Greg; McAllister, Tim A

    2009-01-01

    The use of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in feedlot cattle (Bos taurus) diets is increasing as the bio-ethanol industry expands. This study investigated how wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DDGS-based diets impact feedlot cattle nutrient and volatile fatty acid (VFA) excretion. Feedlot heifers were fed DDGS at 0 (Control) 20, 40, 60% or 60% + Ca (1% limestone) of dietary dry matter. Feces and manure were sampled monthly over a 133-d finishing period. Total nitrogen (TN) (feces only), total phosphorus (TP), pH (manure only), and water soluble NH(4)(+) and P contents in feces and manure were higher with 40 and 60% DDGS diets than with the Control. Significant increases in isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric VFAs (by far the most odorous in manure) were also observed in the feces with 40 and 60% DDGS diets, although there was no change in the total VFA content with diet. Wheat DDGS manure, with higher N and P contents, should be beneficial to crop production. However, it could potentially increase N and P loading on crop lands after application and contribute to greater NH(3) emission and malodor intensity while manure is in the feedlot pen. Estimated manure N loss while in feedlot pens also increased significantly with dietary DDGS levels. The small (nonsignificant) differences in total and soluble N and P in feces and manure between 20% DDGS and the Control (0% wheat DDGS) suggest that excess nutrient flow to the environment and malodors can be controlled by restricting wheat DDGS to a maximum of 20% in cattle diets. PMID:19549948

  13. Stereoselective transformation of triadimefon to metabolite triadimenol in wheat and soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongwu; Li, Li; Qiu, Jing; Li, Wei; Yang, Shuming; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Lihong

    2013-09-15

    Racemic triadimefon (TF) was applied to wheat and soil at three sites (Beijing, Huaibei, and Zhengzhou in China) under open field conditions. Its enantioselective degradation and stereoselective transformation to the major metabolite, triadimenol (TN), in wheat straw, grain and soil were investigated. At all sites, the degradation of TF enantiomers in straw and soil followed first-order kinetics. In soil from Beijing and Zhengzhou R-(-)-TF was preferentially degraded; however, preferential enantioselective degradations were not recorded in soil from Huaibei or in the straw from all sites. There were noticeable differences in the stereoselective formation of TN stereoisomers in all straw and soil samples. TN diastereomer A with high animal toxicity was preferentially produced via a reductive reaction in straw. In contrast, diastereomer B, was preferential in soil across the experimental period. Different TN concentrations were found in the order of SR-(-)-TN>RR-(+)-TN>RS-(+)-TN>SS-(-)-TN in straw, and RR-(+)-TN>SS-(-)-TN>SR-(-)-TN>RS-(+)-TN in soil. Neither TF nor TN was found in wheat grain at harvest. Because of differences in degradation, formation, and toxicity, the characterization of enantiomers and stereoisomers in this study contributes toward comprehensively assessing the fate and risk of chiral agrochemicals in the environment and food. PMID:23876258

  14. Effects of application of corn straw on soil microbial community structure during the maize growing season.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Lin, Yin-Hua; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Yan-Peng; Tan, Fei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Wang, Miao; Xu, De-Rong; Wang, Xi-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of corn straw application on soil microbial communities and the relationship between such communities and soil properties in black soil. The crop used in this study was maize (Zea mays L.). The five treatments consisted of applying a gradient (50, 100, 150, and 200%) of shattered corn straw residue to the soil. Soil samples were taken from May through September during the 2012 maize growing season. The microbial community structure was determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Our results revealed that the application of corn straw influenced the soil properties and increased the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Applying corn straw to fields also influenced the variation in soil microbial biomass and community composition, which is consistent with the variations found in soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil respiration (SR). However, the soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio had no effect on soil microbial communities. The abundance of PLFAs, TN, and SR was higher in C1.5 than those in other treatments, suggesting that the soil properties and soil microbial community composition were affected positively by the application of corn straw to black soil. A Principal Component Analysis indicated that soil microbial communities were different in the straw decomposition processes. Moreover, the soil microbial communities from C1.5 were significantly different from those of CK (p < 0.05). We also found a high ratio of fungal-to-bacterial PLFAs in black soil and significant variations in the ratio of monounsaturated-to-branched fatty acids with different straw treatments that correlated with SR (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the application of corn straw positively influences soil properties and soil microbial communities and that these properties affect these communities. The individual PLFA signatures were sensitive indicators that reflected the changes in the soil environment condition. PMID:24652702

  15. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  16. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  17. Influence of ligninolytic enzymes on straw saccharification during fungal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula A; Dias, Albino A; Fraga, Irene; Marques, Guilhermina; Rodrigues, Miguel A M; Colao, Jorge; Sampaio, Ana; Bezerra, Rui M F

    2012-05-01

    Solid state and submerged fermentations in the presence of white-rot basidiomycetes (Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma resinaceum, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor and basidiomycete Euc-1) and the litter-decomposing basidiomycete Lepista nuda were evaluated as a pretreatment to increase enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Enzymatic hydrolysis of holocellulose after solid state pretreatment showed a significant (P<0.05) increase of saccharification process for T. versicolor, Euc-1, G. resinaceum and I. lacteus, being T. versicolor (strain Tv2) the best one with a sugar yield increase of 91% compared with untreated straw. In submerged medium the pretreatment with I. lacteus, Euc-1 and P. chrysosporium enhanced saccharification but at a lesser extent. Covariance analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase) and saccharification increase. Results showed that only the presence of lignin peroxidase during pretreatment can lead to a significant (P<0.05) increase in the saccharification yield. PMID:22406100

  18. A novel method for determination of the (15) N isotopic composition of Rubisco in wheat plants exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Avice, Jean Christophe; Bourguignon, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Although ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is mostly known as a key enzyme involved in CO2 assimilation during the Calvin cycle, comparatively little is known about its role as a pool of nitrogen storage in leaves. For this purpose, we developed a protocol to purify Rubisco that enables later analysis of its (15) N isotope composition (δ(15) N) at the natural abundance and (15) N-labeled plants. In order to test the utility of this protocol, durum wheat (Triticum durum var. Sula) exposed to an elevated CO2 concentration (700 vs 400 µmol mol(-1) ) was labeled with K(15) NO3 (enriched at 2 atom %) during the ear development period. The developed protocol proves to be selective, simple, cost effective and reproducible. The study reveals that (15) N labeling was different in total organic matter, total soluble protein and the Rubisco fraction. The obtained data suggest that photosynthetic acclimation in wheat is caused by Rubisco depletion. This depletion may be linked to preferential nitrogen remobilization from Rubisco toward grain filling. PMID:25272325

  19. [Yield increasing and water saving effect under different soil fertility improvements in wheat-corn intercropping field in Huabei Plain].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Wen, J; Wu, W

    2000-04-01

    Water resource in agriculture in Huabei Plain has been increasingly reduced in recent years. In order to reduce water evaporation and improve water utilization efficiency, the field experiment on water saving under different soil fertility improvements was carried out in Huantai county, Shandong Province. The result showed that straw incorporation and organic fertilizer application could increase yield and save water clearly. Under the same amount of irrigation(250 mm), the field with all corn and wheat straw incorporation had a higher yield of 885 kg.hm-2 than the field without straw incorporation, and a higher water efficiency of 3.13. The field with all corn and wheat straw incorporation and organic fertilizer application had a higher yield of 1875 kg.hm-2 than the comparing field, with a higher water efficiency of 3.60. The field with wheat straw incorporation had a higher yield of 675 kg.hm-2 than the comparing field, with a higher water efficiency of 3.24. The field with wheat straw incorporation and organic fertilizer application had a higher yield of 1200 kg.hm-2 than the comparing field, with a higher water efficiency of 3.28. PMID:11767599

  20. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four-field crop rotation. The content of T-2/HT-2 toxins was the highest in 2010 in grain from the three-field crop rotation and it was correlated with the isolation frequency of F. langsethiae. PMID:25705931

  1. EFFECT OF STARCH SWELLING ON THE COMPOSITE MODULUS OF LOW- AND HIGH-GLUTEN WHEAT FLOURS AND CARBOXYLATED STYRENE-BUTADIENE LATEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour is a plentiful renewable resource. The dry flour is rigid and can be used as a potential reinforcement material for soft rubber matrices. Wheat flours with two different gluten contents were investigated and the initial cook temperature of the aqueous wheat flour dispersions was varied...

  2. Fuel Ethanol Production from Barley Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicelluloses, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomer...

  3. [Composition and potential contribution of iron, calcium and zinc of bread and pasta made with wheat and amaranth flours].

    PubMed

    Dyner, Luis; Drago, Silvina R; Piñeiro, Adriana; Sánchez, Hugo; González, Rolando; Villaamil, Edda; Valencia, Mirta E

    2007-03-01

    Amaranth, a traditional american crop that is nowadays given renewed importance, has good food potential value. The minerals contributed by the grain are quantitatively important. However, as the flour is obtained by total grinding of the grain, this process leads to the presence of anti-nutritional components, such as fitates, and therefore, the evaluation of the actual availability of the minerals of nutritional interest becomes necessary. The process of bread fermentation, plus the addition of fitases and enhancers of mineral availability such as citric and ascorbic acid, might improve mineral bioavailability. The objective of this work was to assess protein, ash, lipids and total dietary fiber content and evaluate the concentration and dialyzability of Fe, Zn and Ca (as mineral bioavailability indicator) in bread and pasta 100% wheat, and bread and pasta obtained by replacing 20% wheat flour (WF) with whole amaranth flour (WAF). Ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and fitase were used as mineral bioavailability enhancers. The potential contribution of each mineral (PC) was calculated as each mineral concentration times its dialyzability. In 80:20 bread an increase of total dietary fiber and minerals, compared to 100% wheat products was observed. A maximum FePC in 80:20 bread was obtained with CA and fitase (0.55mg%). In pasta, the maximum effect was observed with CA (0.07 mg%). The CaPC was maximum in 80:20 pasta with CA (16.72 mg%). The greatest ZnPC was found in 80:20 bread with CA and fitase (0.40 mg%). The introduction of the WAF in fermented baked products with addition of CA and fitase allows to obtain nutritional advantages. PMID:17824202

  4. Developmental Changes in Composition and Morphology of Cuticular Waxes on Leaves and Spikes of Glossy and Glaucous Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Hu, Yingang; Chen, Xinhong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The glossy varieties (A14 and Jing 2001) and glaucous varieties (Fanmai 5 and Shanken 99) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were selected for evaluation of developmental changes in the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes on leaves and spikes. The results provide us with two different wax development patterns between leaf and spike. The general accumulation trend of the total wax load on leaf and spike surfaces is first to increase and then decrease during the development growth period, but these changes were caused by different compound classes between leaf and spike. Developmental changes of leaf waxes were mainly the result of variations in composition of alcohols and alkanes. In addition, diketones were the third important contributor to the leaf wax changes in the glaucous varieties. Alkanes and diketones were the two major compound classes that caused the developmental changes of spike waxes. For leaf waxes, β- and OH-β-diketones were first detected in flag leaves from 200-day-old plants, and the amounts of β- and OH-β-diketones were significantly higher in glaucous varieties compared with glossy varieties. In spike waxes, β-diketone existed in all varieties, but OH-β-diketone was detectable only in the glaucous varieties. Unexpectedly, the glaucous variety Fanmai 5 yielded large amounts of OH-β-diketone. There was a significant shift in the chain length distribution of alkanes between early stage leaf and flag leaf. Unlike C28 alcohol being the dominant chain length in leaf waxes, the dominant alcohol chain length of spikes was C24 or C26 depending on varieties. Epicuticular wax crystals on wheat leaf and glume were comprised of platelets and tubules, and the crystal morphology changed constantly throughout plant growth, especially the abaxial leaf crystals. Moreover, our results suggested that platelets and tubules on glume surfaces could be formed rapidly within a few days. PMID:26506246

  5. Developmental Changes in Composition and Morphology of Cuticular Waxes on Leaves and Spikes of Glossy and Glaucous Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Jiahuan; Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Hu, Yingang; Chen, Xinhong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The glossy varieties (A14 and Jing 2001) and glaucous varieties (Fanmai 5 and Shanken 99) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were selected for evaluation of developmental changes in the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes on leaves and spikes. The results provide us with two different wax development patterns between leaf and spike. The general accumulation trend of the total wax load on leaf and spike surfaces is first to increase and then decrease during the development growth period, but these changes were caused by different compound classes between leaf and spike. Developmental changes of leaf waxes were mainly the result of variations in composition of alcohols and alkanes. In addition, diketones were the third important contributor to the leaf wax changes in the glaucous varieties. Alkanes and diketones were the two major compound classes that caused the developmental changes of spike waxes. For leaf waxes, β- and OH-β-diketones were first detected in flag leaves from 200-day-old plants, and the amounts of β- and OH-β-diketones were significantly higher in glaucous varieties compared with glossy varieties. In spike waxes, β-diketone existed in all varieties, but OH-β-diketone was detectable only in the glaucous varieties. Unexpectedly, the glaucous variety Fanmai 5 yielded large amounts of OH-β-diketone. There was a significant shift in the chain length distribution of alkanes between early stage leaf and flag leaf. Unlike C28 alcohol being the dominant chain length in leaf waxes, the dominant alcohol chain length of spikes was C24 or C26 depending on varieties. Epicuticular wax crystals on wheat leaf and glume were comprised of platelets and tubules, and the crystal morphology changed constantly throughout plant growth, especially the abaxial leaf crystals. Moreover, our results suggested that platelets and tubules on glume surfaces could be formed rapidly within a few days. PMID:26506246

  6. Pilot-scale semisolid fermentation of straw.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, G A; Han, Y W; Anderson, A W

    1978-01-01

    Semisolid fermentation of ryegrass straw to increase its animal feed value was successfully performed on a pilot scale. The pilot plant, which could handle 100 kg of straw per batch, was designed so that all major operations could take place in one vessel. The straw was hydrolyzed at 121 degrees C for 30 min with 0.5 N H2SO4 (7:3 liquid:solid), treated with ammonia to raise the pH to 5.0, inoculated with Candida utilis, and fermented in a semisolid state (70% moisture). During fermentation the straw was held stationary with air blown up through it. Batch fermentation times were 12 to 29 h. Semisolid fermentation did not require agitation and supported abundant growth at 20 to 40 degrees C even at near zero oxygen tensions. Fermentation increased the protein content, crude fat content, and in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw. Images PMID:565187

  7. Moisture in a straw bale wall

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.; Fremouw, S.; Kline, J.; Northcutt, D.; Wang, Z.; Weiser, R.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this project was to see if there was sufficient moisture to promote fungus growth within a straw bale wall. To determine the level of moisture, the walls in a straw bale building were instrumented to monitor relative humidity. The year-long monitoring began in August, 1997. During the monitoring period the building's interior relative humidity ranged from 22 to 71% and the exterior relative humidity ranged from 10 to 94%. The maximum straw bale relative humidity recorded was 85%, which occurred on February 21 on the south side of the building in a lower bale on the exterior side. The minimum straw bale relative humidity occurred on August 13 on the east side of the building in a lower bale on the exterior side and was 27%. In the 23 studies of mold growth in straw bales the authors reviewed, mold growth occurred between 70 and 91% relative humidity.

  8. [Effects of tillage and straw returning on microorganism quantity, enzyme activities in soils and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-li; Guo, Hai-bin; Xue, Zhi-wei; Mu, Xin-yuan; Li, Chao-hai

    2015-06-01

    A two-year field study with split plot design was conducted to investigate the effects of different soil tillage (conventional tillage, CT; deep tillage, DT; subsoil tillage, ST) and straw returning (all straw retention, AS; no straw returning, NS) on microorganism quantity, enzyme activities in soil and grain yield. The results showed that, deep or subsoil tillage and straw returning not only reduced the soil bulk density and promoted the content of organic carbon in soil, but increased the soil microbial quantity, soil enzyme activities and grain yield. Furthermore, such influences in maize season were greater than that in wheat season. Compared with CT+NS, DT+AS and ST+AS decreased the soil bulk density at 20-30 cm depth by 8.5% and 6.6%, increased the content of soil organic carbon by 14.8% and 12.4%, increased the microorganism quantity by 45.9% and 33.9%, increased the soil enzyme activities by 34.1% and 25.5%, increased the grain yield by 18.0% and 19.3%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between DT+AS and ST+AS. We concluded that retaining crop residue and deep or subsoil tillage improved soil microorganism quantity, enzyme activities and crop yield. PMID:26572033

  9. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  10. Dissipation kinetics and residues of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl in wheat ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bizhang; Qian, Wei; Hu, Jiye

    2015-02-01

    The dissipation kinetics and residual levels of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl in wheat field ecosystem were determined using a quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged and safe method (QuEChERS) with rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl at three spiking levels in wheat plant, soil, wheat straw and wheat grain ranged from 72.8% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10.1% and 82.5% to 103.8% with RSDs were less than 9.4%, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl for wheat plant, wheat straw, wheat grain and soil were 0.01, 0.01, 0.005, 0.005 mg kg(-1), respectively. The field trials results showed that the half-lives of florasulam were 2.76-10.83 d. Half-lives for tribenuron-methyl were found to be 1.27-5.37 d. The terminal residues in wheat grain were much lower than maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by China (0.01 mg kg(-1) for florasulam and 0.05 mg kg(-1) for tribenuron-methyl), which considered to be safe for human beings. These results will contribute to establishing the scientific basis of the dosage of florasulam and tribenuron-methyl for use in wheat field ecosystems. PMID:25268470

  11. Alterations of wheat root plasma membrane lipid composition induced by copper stress result in changed physicochemical properties of plasma membrane lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Anna H; Quartacci, Mike F; Calucci, Lucia; Navari-Izzo, Flavia; Pinzino, Calogero; Liljenberg, Conny

    2002-08-31

    A response when wheat is grown in excess copper is an altered lipid composition of the root plasma membrane (PM). With detailed characterisation of the root PM lipid composition of the copper-treated plants as a basis, in the present study, model systems were used to gain a wider understanding about membrane behaviour, and the impact of a changed lipid composition.PMs from root cells of plants grown in excess copper (50 microM Cu(2+)) and control (0.3 microM Cu(2+)) were isolated using the two-phase partitioning method. Membrane vesicles were prepared of total lipids extracts from the isolated PMs, and also reference vesicles of phosphatidylcholine (PC). In a series of tests, the vesicle permeability for glucose and for protons was analysed. The vesicles show that copper stress reduced the permeability for glucose of the lipid bilayer barrier. When vesicles from stressed plants were modified by addition of lipids to resemble vesicles from control plants, the permeability for glucose was very similar to that of vesicles from control plants. The permeability for protons did not change upon stress. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of the lipid vesicles spin probed with n-doxylstearic acid (nDSA) was used to explore the lipid rotational freedom at different depth of the bilayer. The EPR measurements supported the permeability data, indicating that the copper stress resulted in more tightly packed bilayers of the PMs with reduced acyl chain motion. PMID:12175930

  12. Shifts of functional gene representation in wheat rhizosphere microbial communities under elevated ozone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinyu; Deng, Ye; Li, Qi; Lu, Caiyan; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

    2013-01-01

    Although the influence of ozone (O3) on plants has been well studied in agroecosystems, little is known about the effect of elevated O3 (eO3) on soil microbial functional communities. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to investigate the functional composition, and structure of rhizosphere microbial communities of Yannong 19 (O3-sensitive) and Yangmai 16 (O3-relatively sensitive) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under eO3. Compared with ambient O3 (aO3), eO3 led to an increase in soil pH and total carbon (C) percentages in grain and straw of wheat plants, and reduced grain weight and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Based on GeoChip hybridization signal intensities, although the overall functional structure of rhizosphere microbial communities did not significantly change by eO3 or cultivars, the results showed that the abundance of specific functional genes involved in C fixation and degradation, nitrogen (N) fixation, and sulfite reduction did significantly (P<0.05) alter in response to eO3 and/or wheat cultivars. Also, Yannong 19 appeared to harbor microbial functional communities in the rhizosphere more sensitive in response to eO3 than Yangmai 16. Additionally, canonical correspondence analysis suggested that the functional structure of microbial community involved in C cycling was largely shaped by soil and plant properties including pH, DOC, microbial biomass C, C/N ratio and grain weight. This study provides new insight into our understanding of the influence of eO3 and wheat cultivars on soil microbial communities. PMID:23151639

  13. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  14. Assessment of Straw Biomass Feedstock Resources in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw is produced as a coproduct of cereal grain and grass seed production on 6.2 million acres in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Some of this straw residue is returned to the soil for conservation purposes, but markets for excess straw are limited. As a consequence, much of this straw was burne...

  15. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  16. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qinyan; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing

    2015-06-15

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH4 emission by 280-1370%, while decreasing N2O emission by 7-13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH4 emission by 7-13% and 6-12%, respectively, whereas reduced N2O emission by 10-27% and 9-24%, respectively. The higher CH4 emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH4 production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N2O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N2O emission was completely offset by increased CH4 emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5-12%) and NPKSJ (5-11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3-6% and 2-4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. PMID:25756676

  17. Hydrothermal pre-treatment of rapeseed straw.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Manuel J; Cara, Cristóbal; Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel; Castro, Eulogio

    2010-04-01

    As a first step for ethanol production from alternative raw materials, rapeseed straw was studied for fermentable sugar production. Liquid hot water was used as a pre-treatment method and the influence of the main pre-treatment variables was assessed. Experimental design and response surface methodology were applied using pre-treatment temperature and process time as factors. The pretreated solids were further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis and the corresponding yields were used as pre-treatment performance evaluation. Liquid fractions obtained from pre-treatment were also characterized in terms of sugars and no-sugar composition. A mathematical model describing pre-treatment effects is proposed. Results show that enzymatic hydrolysis yields near to 100% based on pretreated materials can be achieved at 210-220 degrees C for 30-50 min, equivalent to near 70% of glucose present in the raw material. According to the mathematical model, a softer pre-treatment at 193 degrees C for 27 min results in 65% of glucose and 39% of xylose available for fermentation. PMID:19939678

  18. Effect of rice straw application on microbial community and activity in paddy soil under different water status.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-03-01

    Rice straw application and flooding are common practices in rice production, both of which can induce changes in the microbial community. This study used soil microcosms to investigate the impact of water status (saturated and nonsaturated) and straw application (10 g kg(-1) soil) on soil microbial composition (phospholipid fatty acid analysis) and activity (MicroResp(™) method). Straw application significantly increased total PLFA amount and individual PLFA components independent of soil moisture level. The amount of soil fungal PLFA was less than Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and actinomycete PLFA, except the drained treatment with rice straw application, which had higher fungal PLFA than actinomycete PLFA at the initial incubation stage. Straw amendment and waterlogging had different effects on microbial community structure and substrate-induced pattern. PLFA profiles were primarily influenced by straw application, whereas soil water status had the greater influence on microbial respiration. Of the variation in PLFA and respiration data, straw accounted for 30.1 and 16.7 %, while soil water status explained 7.5 and 29.1 %, respectively. Our results suggest that (1) the size of microbial communities in paddy soil is more limited by carbon substrate availability rather than by the anaerobic conditions due to waterlogging and (2) that soil water status is more important as a control of fungal growth and microbial community activity. PMID:26596827

  19. Vital wheat gluten as a filler for rubber compounds: effects of pH and homogenization on the reinforcement properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vital wheat gluten was evaluated as a reinforcement filler in rubber composites. Previous studies of wheat flours that contained different concentrations of wheat gluten suggested that rubber composite reinforcement was directly proportional to wheat gluten concentration, although this effect may h...

  20. Biomethane production and physicochemical characterization of anaerobically digested teff (Eragrostis tef) straw pretreated by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Chufo, Akiber; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Pang, Yunzhi; Li, Xiujin

    2015-04-01

    The biogas production potential and biomethane content of teff straw through pretreatment by NaOH was investigated. Different NaOH concentrations (1%, 2%, 4% and 6%) were used for each four solid loadings (50, 65, 80 and 95 g/L). The effects of NaOH as pretreatment factor on the biodegradability of teff straw, changes in main compositions and enhancement of anaerobic digestion were analyzed. The result showed that, using 4% NaOH for pretreatment in 80 g/L solid loading produced 40.0% higher total biogas production and 48.1% higher biomethane content than the untreated sample of teff straw. Investigation of changes in chemical compositions and physical microstructure indicated that there was 4.3-22.1% total lignocellulosic compositions removal after three days pretreatment with NaOH. The results further revealed that NaOH pretreatment changed the structural compositions and lignin network, and improved biogas production from teff straw. PMID:25656865

  1. Study of wheat protein based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peng

    Wheat gluten is a naturally occurring protein polymer. It is produced in abundance by the agricultural industry, is biodegradable and very inexpensive (less than $0.50/lb). It has unique viscoelastic properties, which makes it a promising alternative to synthetic plastics. The unplasticized wheat gluten is, however, brittle. Plasticizers such as glycerol are commonly used to give flexibility to the articles made of wheat gluten but with the penalty of greatly reduced stiffness. Former work showed that the brittleness of wheat gluten can also be improved by modifying it with a tri-thiol additive with no penalty of reduced stiffness. However, the cost of the customer designed tri-thiol additive was very high and it was unlikely to make a cost effective material from such an expensive additive. Here we designed a new, inexpensive thiol additive called SHPVA. It was synthesized from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) through a simple esterification reaction. The mechanical data of the molded wheat gluten/SHPVA material indicated that wheat gluten was toughened by SHPVA. As a control, the wheat gluten/PVA material showed no improvement compared with wheat gluten itself. Several techniques have been used to characterize this novel protein/polymer blend. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) study showed two phases in both wheat gluten/PVA and wheat gluten/SHPVA material. However, scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures indicated that PVA was macroscopically separated from wheat gluten, while wheat gluten/SHPVA had a homogeneous look. The phase image from the atomic force microscope (AFM) gave interesting contrast based on the difference in the mechanical properties of these two phases. The biodegradation behavior of these protein/polymer blends was examined in soil. SHPVA was not degraded in the time period of the experiment. Wheat gluten/SHPVA degraded slower than wheat gluten. We also developed some other interesting material systems based on wheat gluten, including the wheat gluten/basalt composite and wheat gluten/clay composite materials. Their mechanical properties and biodegradation behaviors were determined.

  2. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods. PMID:25130676

  3. Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of Fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were fou...

  4. Bioaugmentation with an acetate-type fermentation bacterium Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes improves methane production from corn straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Rong-Bo; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Qiao, Jiang-Tao; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Chuan-Shui

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bioaugmentation with an acetate-type fermentation bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes on the anaerobic digestion of corn straw was evaluated by batch experiments. Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes is a promising strain for bioaugmentation with relatively high growth rate, hydrogen yields and acetate tolerance, which ferments a broad spectrum of pentoses, hexoses and polyoses mainly into acetate and hydrogen. During corn straw digestion, bioaugmentation with A. hydrogenigenes led to 19-23% increase of the methane yield, with maximum of 258.1 mL/g-corn straw achieved by 10% inoculation (control, 209.3 mL/g-corn straw). Analysis of lignocellulosic composition indicated that A. hydrogenigenes could increase removal rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses in corn straw residue by 12% and 5%, respectively. Further experiment verified that the addition of A. hydrogenigenes could improve the methane yields of methyl cellulose and xylan (models for cellulose and hemicelluloses, respectively) by 16.8% and 7.0%. PMID:25549904

  5. The Impact of Post-Pretreatment Conditioning on Enzyme Accessibility and Water Interactions in Alkali Pretreated Rice Straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuna, Nardrapee

    Rice straw, a high-abundance lignocellulosic residue from rice production has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biofuel production in California. In this study, the impact of post-alkali pretreatment conditioning schemes on enzyme saccharification efficiency was examined, particularly focusing on understanding resulting biomass compositional impacts on water interactions with the biomass and enzyme accessibility to the cellulose fraction. Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide and subsequently washed by two different conditions: 1) by extensive washing with distilled water to reduce the pH to the optimum for cellulases which is pH 5--6, and 2) immediate pH adjustment to pH 5--6 with hydrochloric acid before extensive washing with distilled water. The two post-pretreatment conditions gave significant differences in ash, acid-insoluble lignin, glucan and xylan compositions. Alkali pretreatment improved cellulase digestibility of rice straw, and water washing improved enzymatic digestibility more than neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions with a purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A, a reducing-end specific cellulase, demonstrated that the differences in saccharification are likely due to differences in the accessibility of the cellulose fraction to the cellulolytic enzymes. Further analyses were conducted to study the mobility of the water associated with the rice straw samples by measuring T2 relaxation times of the water protons by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed significant changes in water association with the rice straw due to the pretreatment and due to the two different post-pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment increased the amount of water at the surface of the rice straw samples as indicated by increased amplitude of the shortest T2 time peaks in the relaxation spectra. Moreover, the amount of water in the first T2 pool in the water washed sample was significantly greater than in the neutralized sample. These results suggest that the specific surface area of rice straw accessible to water protons was increased by the alkali pretreatment, likely due to solubilization of alkali-soluble components of the cell walls. Post-pretreatment processes resulted in differences in the specific surface area likely due to re-precipitation of alkali solubilized components during neutralization. The T2 relaxation times of the surface water pool in washed and raw rice straw were not significantly different, at 4.4 and 4.5 ms, respectively, but both T2 times were significantly shorter than that of the neutralized and then washed sample, at 5.5 ms. The expectation was that the T2 times of the surface water peaks would reflect differences in surface composition of the rice straw samples. Further analysis of surface composition is necessary to further interpret the shortest T2 times observed in the samples. The T2 spectra of the rice straw samples contained longer T2 time peaks that were interpreted as differences in porosity of the rice straw due to the treatments. Pretreatment caused physical changes to rice straw that impacted water organization (3 peaks to 4 peaks), but the amount of water in the peaks were greater in the washed rice straw than the neutralized rice straw suggesting that water-washed rice straw had more of the larger pores than the neutralized and then washed rice straw. One possible explanation is that the neutralization caused precipitation of alkali solubilized components that filled the volumes of the pores.

  6. Wheat Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is a chapter of a book entitled Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, the 4th edition, K. Khan and P.R. Shewry (eds.), to be published in 2007 following the 3rd edition, Y. Pomeranz (ed.), published in 1988 by AACC International Inc., St. Paul, MN. The chapter covers the subject area of wh...

  7. Cell Walls of Developing Wheat Starchy Endosperm: Comparison of Composition and RNA-Seq Transcriptome1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pellny, Till K.; Lovegrove, Alison; Freeman, Jackie; Tosi, Paola; Love, Christopher G.; Knox, J. Paul; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptome of the developing starchy endosperm of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) was determined using RNA-Seq isolated at five stages during grain fill. This resource represents an excellent way to identify candidate genes responsible for the starchy endosperm cell wall, which is dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 70% of the cell wall polysaccharides, with 20% (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan, 7% glucomannan, and 4% cellulose. A complete inventory of transcripts of 124 glycosyltransferase (GT) and 72 glycosylhydrolase (GH) genes associated with cell walls is presented. The most highly expressed GT transcript (excluding those known to be involved in starch synthesis) was a GT47 family transcript similar to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IRX10 involved in xylan extension, and the second most abundant was a GT61. Profiles for GT43 IRX9 and IRX14 putative orthologs were consistent with roles in AX synthesis. Low abundances were found for transcripts from genes in the acyl-coA transferase BAHD family, for which a role in AX feruloylation has been postulated. The relative expression of these was much greater in whole grain compared with starchy endosperm, correlating with the levels of bound ferulate. Transcripts associated with callose (GSL), cellulose (CESA), pectin (GAUT), and glucomannan (CSLA) synthesis were also abundant in starchy endosperm, while the corresponding cell wall polysaccharides were confirmed as low abundance (glucomannan and callose) or undetectable (pectin) in these samples. Abundant transcripts from GH families associated with the hydrolysis of these polysaccharides were also present, suggesting that they may be rapidly turned over. Abundant transcripts in the GT31 family may be responsible for the addition of Gal residues to arabinogalactan peptide. PMID:22123899

  8. Modeling Grain Nitrogen Accumulation and Protein Composition</