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1

Effect of hydrolysing and oxidizing agents on the composition and degradation of wheat straw monosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw (WS) was treated with 5% sodium hydroxide, ozone and 5% sulfur dioxide at 70°C for 72 h, and the effect of treatments on monosaccharide composition and in vitro degradability by rumen microorganisms was studied. The major sugars, glucose and xylose, comprising about 90% of the total monosaccharides in the untreated WS were mainly confined to the cell walls.

J. Miron; D. Ben-Ghedalia

1982-01-01

2

Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites  

PubMed Central

Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF) filled thermoplastic composites were measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF in thermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WF and one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs and thermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improved adhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seen on the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties of WF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensile and flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties of thermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPP coupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with the combination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with the use of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties required by the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

Mengeloglu, Fatih; Karakus, Kadir

2008-01-01

3

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were\\u000a investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw\\u000a was made of the chemical composition, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and\\u000a fractionated into pulp (cellulose),

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

4

Investigation of wheat straw biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from biomass requires an efficient pretreatment technology, which further depends on better understanding of biodegradation process of such lignocellulosic biomass. The biodegradation of wheat straw by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated in this study. The fungal secretomes and compositional, functional groups and structural changes of the fungal spent wheat straw lignin were determined. The result

Deepak Singh; Jijiao Zeng; Dhrubojyoti D. Laskar; Lee Deobald; William C. Hiscox; Shulin Chen

2011-01-01

5

Effect of Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) on the chemical composition and nutritive value of wheat grain and straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global impact of an increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere on plants has been studied extensively, but little information has been published on the effect of enrichment of atmospheric CO2 on the nutritive value of grain and straw used as ruminant feeds. This paper reports the chemical composition and nutritive value of grain and straw harvested from the

F. Porteaus; J. Hill; A. S. Ball; P. J. Pinter; B. A. Kimball; G. W. Wall; F. J. Adamsen; D. J. Hunsaker; R. L. LaMorte; S. W. Leavitt; T. L. Thompson; A. D. Matthias; T. J. Brooks; C. F. Morris

2009-01-01

6

Bioethanol production from ammonia percolated wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effectiveness of ammonia percolation pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production. Ground wheat\\u000a straw at a 10% (w\\/v) loading was pretreated with a 15% (v\\/v) ammonia solution. The experiments were performed at treatment\\u000a temperature of 50?170°C and residence time of 10?150 min. The solids treated with the ammonia solution showed high lignin\\u000a degradation and sugar availability.

Minhee Han; Se-Kwon Moon; Yule Kim; Youngran Kim; Bongwoo Chung; Gi-Wook Choi

2009-01-01

7

Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m?3) was the most abundant compound

Gehui Wang; Chunlei Chen; Jianjun Li; Bianhong Zhou; Mingjie Xie; Shuyuan Hu; Kimitaka Kawamura; Yan Chen

2011-01-01

8

Plasma-assisted pretreatment of wheat straw.  

PubMed

O? generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined with a CO? detector and an online technique for O? measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O?. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O? consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content and milled particle size (the extent to which the wheat straw was milled) were investigated and optimized. The developed methodology offered the advantage of a simple and relatively fast (0.5-2 h) pretreatment allowing a dry matter concentration of 45-60%. FTIR measurements did not suggest any structural effects on cellulose and hemicellulose by the O? treatment. The cost and the energy consumption for lignin degradation of 100 g of wheat straw were calculated. PMID:20725803

Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

2010-08-20

9

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw was made of the chemical com- position, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and fractionated into pulp

Xue-Jun PanYoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

10

Nutraceutical and functional scenario of wheat straw.  

PubMed

In the era of nutrition, much focus has been remunerated to functional and nutraceutical foodstuffs. The health endorsing potential of such provisions is attributed to affluent phytochemistry. These dynamic constituents have functional possessions that are imperative for cereal industry. The functional and nutraceutical significance of variety of foods is often accredited to their bioactive molecules. Numerous components have been considered but wheat straw and its diverse components are of prime consideration. In this comprehensive dissertation, efforts are directed to elaborate the functional and nutraceutical importance of wheat straw. Wheat straw is lignocellulosic materials including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It hold various bioactive compounds such as policosanols, phytosterols, phenolics, and triterpenoids, having enormous nutraceutical properties like anti-allergenic, anti-artherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects, antiviral, and anticancer. These compounds are protecting against various ailments like hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, wheat straw has demonstrated successfully, low cost, renewable, versatile, widely distributed, easily available source for the production of biogas, bioethanol, and biohydrogen in biorefineries to enhance the overall effectiveness of biomass consumption in protected and eco-friendly environment. Furthermore, its role in enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of bakery products through reducing the progression of staling and retrogradation is limelight of the article. PMID:23216000

Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Waqas, Khalid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Umair

2013-01-01

11

Structure and morphology of cellulose in wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and morphology of cellulose extracted from wheat were studied. It was found that the extraction process is effective and hemicelluloses and lignin can be extracted completely. Cellulose in wheat straw was identified as cellulose I allomorph with low crystallinity and the crystallinity of cellulose from different parts of the wheat straw has little difference. There was no metastable

Ruigang Liu; Hui Yu; Yong Huang

2005-01-01

12

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v\\/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H2SO4 (w\\/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L\\/S) 10 (v\\/w), pulping temperature 105°C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15%

Xuejun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

2005-01-01

13

Power plant intake quantification of wheat straw composition for 2nd generation bioethanol optimization--a Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) feasibility study.  

PubMed

Optimization of 2nd generation bioethanol production from wheat straw requires comprehensive knowledge of plant intake feedstock composition. Near Infrared Spectroscopy is evaluated as a potential method for instantaneous quantification of the salient fermentation wheat straw components: cellulose (glucan), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinan), and lignin. Aiming at chemometric multivariate calibration, 44 pre-selected samples were subjected to spectroscopy and reference analysis. For glucan and xylan prediction accuracies (slope: 0.89, 0.94) and precisions (r(2): 0.87) were obtained, corresponding to error of prediction levels at 8-9%. Models for arabinan and lignin were marginally less good, and especially for lignin a further expansion of the feasibility dataset was deemed necessary. The results are related to significant influences from sub-sampling/mass reduction errors in the laboratory regimen. A relative high proportion of outliers excluded from the present models (10-20%) may indicate that comminution sample preparation is most likely always needed. Different solutions to these issues are suggested. PMID:19837584

Lomborg, Carina J; Thomsen, Mette H; Jensen, Erik Steen; Esbensen, Kim H

2009-10-17

14

SELECTIVE HARVEST OF HIGHER VALUE WHEAT STRAW COMPONENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, millions of tons of agricultural residues such as wheat straw are produced worldwide. In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges to using this straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these challenges, silica in straw forms a low-melting point eutectic with potassium, causing excessive slagging deposits in boilers. The presence of chlorine

David N. Thompson; Thomas D. Foust; J. Richard Hess; Reed L. Hoskinson; Tracy P. Houghton; Jeffrey A. Lacey

15

Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project  

SciTech Connect

Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

Hess, J.R

2005-01-31

16

Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project  

SciTech Connect

Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

N /A

2004-09-30

17

Alkali pretreated of wheat straw and its enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be improved by various pretreatments of the substrate. In order to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification of the wheat straw, we determined the effect of different pretreatments on the physical structure, chemical components and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Our results showed that combination of grinding and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment had high effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straws. The optimal pretreatment condition was to grind the wheat straws into the sizes of 120 meshes followed by treatment with 1.0% NaOH for 1.5 h (121°C/15psi). Under this condition, the cellulose content of wheat straw was increased by 44.52%, while the content of hemicellulose and lignin was decreased by 44.15% and 42.52%, respectively. Scanning Electronic Microscopy and infrared spectrum analyses showed that significant changes occurred in the structure of wheat straws after pretreatment, which is favorable for the hydrolysis and saccharification. Cellulase produced by Penicillium waksmanii F10-2 was used to hydrolyze the pretreated wheat straw and the optimal condition was determined to be 30 h of enzymatic reaction under the temperature of 55°C, pH 5.5 and substrate concentration of 3%. PMID:24031803

Han, Lirong; Feng, Juntao; Zhang, Shuangxi; Ma, Zhiqing; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

2012-06-01

18

Alkali pretreated of wheat straw and its enzymatic hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be improved by various pretreatments of the substrate. In order to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification of the wheat straw, we determined the effect of different pretreatments on the physical structure, chemical components and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Our results showed that combination of grinding and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment had high effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straws. The optimal pretreatment condition was to grind the wheat straws into the sizes of 120 meshes followed by treatment with 1.0% NaOH for 1.5 h (121°C/15psi). Under this condition, the cellulose content of wheat straw was increased by 44.52%, while the content of hemicellulose and lignin was decreased by 44.15% and 42.52%, respectively. Scanning Electronic Microscopy and infrared spectrum analyses showed that significant changes occurred in the structure of wheat straws after pretreatment, which is favorable for the hydrolysis and saccharification. Cellulase produced by Penicillium waksmanii F10–2 was used to hydrolyze the pretreated wheat straw and the optimal condition was determined to be 30 h of enzymatic reaction under the temperature of 55°C, pH 5.5 and substrate concentration of 3%.

Han, Lirong; Feng, Juntao; Zhang, Shuangxi; Ma, Zhiqing; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

2012-01-01

19

Ethanol Production from Alkaline Peroxide Pretreated Enzymatically Saccharified Wheat Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw used in this study contained 44.24 ( 0.28% cellulose and 25.23 ( 0.11% hemicellulose. Alkaline H2O2 pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w\\/v) by alkaline peroxide pretreatment (2.15% H2O2, v\\/v; pH 11.5; 35 °C; 24 h) and

Badal C. Saha; Michael A. Cotta

2006-01-01

20

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process.  

PubMed

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H(2)SO(4) (w/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L/S) 10 (v/w), pulping temperature 105 degrees C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15% and 35%, respectively. Acetic acid pulp from the straw had an acceptable strength for paper and could be bleached to a high brightness over 85% with a short bleaching sequence. Acetic acid pulp was also a potential feedstock for fuels and chemicals. The acetic acid process separated pentose and hexose in wheat straw to a large extent. Most of the pentose (xylan) was dissolved, whereas the hexose (glucan) remained in the pulp. Approximately 30% of carbohydrates in wheat straw were hydrolyzed to monosaccharides during acetic acid pulping, of which xylose accounted for 70% and glucose for 12%. The acetic acid lignin from wheat straw showed relatively lower molecular weight and fusibility, which made the lignin a promising raw material for many products, such as adhesive and molded products. PMID:15734313

Pan, Xuejun; Sano, Yoshihiro

2004-12-19

21

Comparison of sodium carbonate pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf to produce fermentable sugars.  

PubMed

The specific characteristics of biomass structure and chemical composition of straw stem and leaf may result in different behavior of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, sodium carbonate (SC) was employed as a pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw. The chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf (sheath included) were investigated comparatively. Most of the polysaccharides are kept in the solid fractions after SC pretreatment, while the stem has better delignification selectivity than leaf at high temperature. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw leaf is significantly higher than that of stem. The maximum total sugar yield from SC pretreated leaf was about 16% higher than stem. The results show that sodium carbonate is of great potential to be used as a pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from straw handling waste in a straw pulp mill with a low feedstock cost. PMID:23587832

Jin, Yongcan; Huang, Ting; Geng, Wenhui; Yang, Linfeng

2013-03-28

22

Inoculation with Trichoderma saturnisporum accelerates wheat straw decomposition on soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues such as straw are a favourable habitat of many pathogenic fungi in the soil. Therefore, the undesired accumulation of straw at the soil surface, which occurs regularly in conservation tillage systems, must be mitigated. The present study investigated the effects of an inoculation with the saprotrophic microfungus and potential biocontrol agent Trichoderma saturnisporum on the decomposition of wheat

Denny Wiedow; Christel Baum; Peter Leinweber

2007-01-01

23

Organic molecular compositions and size distributions of chinese summer and autumn aerosols from nanjing: characteristic haze event caused by wheat straw burning.  

PubMed

Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in urban Nanjing, China during summer and autumn of 2007 including a period of hazy days during June 1-5. Organic aerosols in the haze event were characterized by elevated concentrations of levoglucosan, high molecular weight (HMW) n-alkanes, and HMW fatty acids due to the emissions from field burning of wheat straw. In contrast, organic aerosols on nonhazy days were characterized by a predominance of fossil fuel combustion products. Levoglucosan (4030 n g m(-3)), n-alkanes (1520 ng m(-3)), fatty acids (2629 ng m(-3)), and PAHs (57 ng m(-3)) in the haze samples were 3-40 times more abundant than those in nonevent samples. Approximately 30-90% ofthe organics during the haze period can be attributed to wheat straw burning. Concentrations of particulate material (PM) mass, n-alkanes, and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs showed a unimodal size distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 microm during the hazy days, and a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 microm and 4.7-5.8 microm during nonhazy days. The geometric mean diameters (GMDs) of organic aerosols are larger in the fine mode (<2.1 microm) during the hazy days, suggesting aerosols emitted from the wheat straw burning are larger than those from fossil fuel combustion, and fine particle coagulation and organic compound repartitioning were enhanced. PMID:19764207

Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Waston, John G; Chow, Judith C

2009-09-01

24

Effects of variety, cropping year, location and fertilizer application on nutritive value of durum wheat straw.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the effects of variety, year, location and level of fertilizer application on chemical composition and in sacco dry matter (DM) degradability of durum wheat straw as well as to understand the relationship between straw quality and agronomic traits of the crop and to assess the possibilities of selecting wheat varieties that combine high grain yield with desirable straw quality. Two local (Arendeto and Tikur sinde) and two improved (Boohai and Gerardo) varieties of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) were used in the experiment. The four varieties were grown at two locations (Akaki and Ejere) in the years 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 in 5 x 5 m plots in three replications. Diammonium phosphate and urea fertilizers were applied at four levels (0/0, 32/23, 41/23 and 64/46 kg/ha of nitrogen/phosphorus). Straw quality was assessed based on chemical composition and in sacco DM degradability. Correlation of straw quality with grain and straw yield and with other agronomic characteristics of the crop was determined. The potential utility index (a measure that integrates grain and digestible straw yield) was used for ranking of the varieties. The local varieties had higher crude protein (CP) and lower neutral detergent fibre contents and higher digestibility than the improved varieties. The cropping year and location had significant effect on CP content and degradability of the straw, which could be due to climatic variation. However, the fertilizer level did not have any significant effect on straw quality except that the CP content of the straw tended to increase with increasing level of fertilizer application. Based on the potential utility index the varieties ranked, in a decreasing order, as Tikur sinde > Arendeto > Gerardo > Boohai and the ranking was consistent across years and locations. Except the CP content, straw quality was not negatively correlated with grain and straw yield. This indicates that there is a possibility of selecting varieties of wheat that combine high grain and straw yield with desirable straw quality. PMID:18336408

Tolera, A; Tsegaye, B; Berg, T

2008-04-01

25

Straw-reinforced polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual crop fibres are rich in cellulose and they are a cheap and rapidly renewable source of fibres with potential for polymer reinforcement. Straw fibres have been incorporated in a polyester resin matrix and the properties of the fibre and composite determined. The fibres have a Young's modulus of approximately 8 GN m-2 and an effective density of 5.1 kN

N. M. White; M. P. Ansell

1983-01-01

26

Conversion of Wheat Straw to Ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive substitute for oil with low net carbon dioxide emission. This work investigated the potential of wheat straw as raw materials for ethanol production. Ethanol cooking at 190°C for 60 min was adopted as pretreatment method for acetic acid impregnated wheat straw. From the pretreated wheat straw, ethanol was produced by simultaneous saccharification and

Peng Luo; Zhong Liu

2010-01-01

27

Biotransformation of wheat straw to bacterial cellulose and its mechanism.  

PubMed

An ionic liquid [AMIM]Cl was used to pretreat wheat straw with an aim to remarkably improve enzymatic hydrolysis rate and yield of fermentable sugars. Some influence factors including dosage of straw, particle size of straw meal as well as pretreatment time and temperature were investigated. After optimization, the hydrolytic efficiency of regenerated straw increased obviously as compared to untreated materials, and the sugar yield of straw was 71.2% after pretreatment in [AMIM]Cl at 110 °C for 1.5 h with a 3 w/w% straw dosage, 3.6 times higher than that of untreated straw (19.6%). The reason behind the acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis was discussed by the analysis of SEM, XRD and FTIR. The yield of bacterial cellulose obtained in straw hydrolysates was higher than that in glucose-based media. This may be due to the presence of other complex components in the hydrolysate that would enhance the formation of bacterial cellulose. PMID:23186663

Chen, Lin; Hong, Feng; Yang, Xue-xia; Han, Shi-fen

2012-10-17

28

Growth of Pleurotus ostreatus on wheat straw and wheat-grain-based media: biochemical aspects and preparation of mushroom inoculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycelial growth, intracellular activity of proteases, laccases and ?-1,3-glucanases, and cytoplasmic protein were evaluated in the vegetative phase of Pleurotus ostreatus grown on wheat straw and in wheat-grain-based media in Petri dishes and in bottles. The productivity of the wheat straw and wheat-grain-based spawn in cylindrical polyethylene bags containing 5 kg of chopped straw was also determined. We observed high activity

E. Sainos; G. Díaz-Godínez; O. Loera; AM Montiel-González; C. Sánchez

2006-01-01

29

Prospects of winter wheat straw for energy production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As more types of biomass feedstocks are used for bioenergy and value-added product production, observations need to be made regarding influence of genetic variability. In this study, straw from 22 varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) were assessed for their ash, carbon, nitrogen, biomass yi...

30

The inorganic chemistry of the combustion of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium calculations of the combustion of wheat straw in an excess of air at 1 atm were carried out at temperatures ranging from 500–1200°C. A low melting molten silicate was present at all temperatures which, in addition to a large concentration of silica (76–83 mol%) and potassium (10–12 mol%) contained small concentrations (

Milton Blander; Arthur D. Pelton

1997-01-01

31

Wheat straw biomass: A resource for high-value chemicals.  

PubMed

Two methods are proposed for increasing the commercial value of wheat straw based on its chemical constituents. The first method involves the determination and extraction of the major organic components of wheat straw, and the second involves those found and extracted in the aqueous and viscous biooils derived from the straw by fast pyrolysis. We used pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry to identify the fine chemicals, which have high commercial values. The most abundant organic compounds in the wheat straw and biooil used as precursors for green chemicals are N-heterocycles (16 to 29% of the Total Ion Intensities, TII) and fatty acids (19 to 26% of TIIs), followed by phenols and lignins (12 to 23% of TIIs). Other important precursors were carbohydrates and amino acids (1 to 8% TIIs), n-alkyl benzenes (3 to 5% of TIIs), and diols (4 to 9% TIIs). Steroids and flavonoids represented 1 to 5% of TIIs in the three materials. Examples of valuable chemical compounds that can be extracted from the wheat straw and biooils are m/z 256, 270, 278, 280, 282 and 284, which are the n-C16 and n-C17 fatty acids respectively, and the C18:3, C18:2 and C18:1 unsaturated fatty acids. In particular, the C18:2 (linoleic acid) is present at a concentration of 1.7% of TIIs. Pyrazole, pyrazine, pyridine, indoles, quinolines, carbazoles, and their identified derivatives are found in relatively high concentrations (1 to 8% of TIIs). Other useful compounds are sterols such as m/z 412 (stigmasterol), m/z 414 (?-sitosterol), and steroids such m/z 394 (stigmastatriene), m/z 398 (stigmastene) and m/z 410 (stigmastadienone). Relative to the wheat straw, the relative concentration of all flavonoids such as m/z 222 (flavone) and m/z 224 (flavonone) doubled in the biooils. The conversion of wheat straw by fast pyrolysis, followed by chemical characterization with mass spectrometry, and extraction of fine chemicals, opens up new possibilities for increasing the monetary value of crop residues. PMID:24138469

Schnitzer, Morris; Monreal, Carlos M; Powell, Erin E

2014-01-01

32

Lactic fermentation of poultry droppings with molasses and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH of wastelage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus faecalis was more than 5.4 and the off-flavour of poultry droppings, at 51% of dry matter, was not completely removed after 20 days' fermentation. By varying the amount of poultry droppings from 15 to 45% in the pre-mix and by including wheat straw, the pH and total volatile fatty acid

D. N. Kamra; S. K. Srivastava

1991-01-01

33

Ethanol production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production was evaluated from wheat straw (WS) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate using an adapted and parent strain of Pichiastipitis. NRRL Y-7124. The treatment by boiling and overliming with Ca(OH)2 significantly improved the fermentability of the hydrolysate. Ethanol yield (Yp\\/s) and productivity (Qp av) were increased 2.4±0.10 and 5.7±0.24 folds, respectively, compared to neutralized hydrolysate. Adaptation of the yeast to the

J. N Nigam

2001-01-01

34

Bioavailability of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from wheat straw and chaff in pigs.  

PubMed

Fusarium infections do not only affect the grain, but also the rest of the plant, which result in contamination of plants with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The bioavailability of DON may be influenced by the matrix due to the differences in nutrient composition between grain and straw, particularly the high fibre component in straw. The experiment was carried out by exposing 18 male castrated pigs (30-40 kg live weight) with a single dose of DON from wheat grain, straw and chaff in the diet. The courses of DON serum concentrations were evaluated using toxicokinetic methods. The absorption of DON was not influenced by the source of DON. The invasion half-life of DON from grain, straw and chaff amounted to 0.76, 0.77 and 0.48 h, respectively, and were not significantly different. The elimination of DON was also not affected by the DON source. The bioavailability of DON, calculated by the dose corrected area under the curve of the serum-DON-concentrations, amounted to 81.9, 87.3 and 109.8% for straw, grain and chaff, respectively, without significant differences. Thus, the uptake of DON from straw may contribute comparably to the overall exposure of animals. PMID:23336299

Rohweder, Dirk; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Sondermann, Sarah; Schollenberger, Margit; Drochner, Winfried; Dänicke, Sven

2013-01-21

35

Fungal pretreatment: An alternative in second-generation ethanol from wheat straw.  

PubMed

The potential of a fungal pretreatment combined with a mild alkali treatment to replace or complement current physico-chemical methods for ethanol production from wheat straw has been investigated. Changes in substrate composition, secretion of ligninolytic enzymes, enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and ethanol yield after 7, 14 and 21 days of solid-state fermentation were evaluated. Most fungi degraded lignin with variable selectivity degrees, although only eight of them improved sugar recovery compared to untreated samples. Glucose yield after 21 days of pretreatment with Poria subvermispora and Irpex lacteus reached 69% and 66% of cellulose available in the wheat straw, respectively, with an ethanol yield of 62% in both cases. Conversions from glucose to ethanol reached around 90%, showing that no inhibitors were generated during this pretreatment. No close correlations were found between ligninolytic enzymes production and sugar yields. PMID:21646018

Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo; Martínez, Angel T; Martínez, María Jesús

2011-05-19

36

The influence of thermochemical treatments on the lignocellulosic structure of wheat straw as studied by natural abundance (13)C NMR.  

PubMed

The effects of thermochemical treatments (aquathermolysis, pyrolysis, and combinations thereof) on the lignocellulosic structure and composition of wheat straw were studied with (13)C and (1)H solid state NMR spectroscopy and proton T1? relaxation measurements. Results show that aquathermolysis removes hemicellulose, acetyl groups, and ash minerals. As a result, the susceptibility of lignocellulose to pyrolysis is reduced most likely due to the removal of catalytically active salts, although recondensation of lignin during aquathermolysis treatment can also play a role. In contrast to pyrolysis of wheat straw, pyrolysis of aquathermolysed wheat straw leaves traces of cellulose in the char as well as more intense lignin methoxy peaks. Finally, it was found that both pyrolysis chars contain aliphatic chains, which were attributed to the presence of cutin or cutin-like materials, a macromolecule that covers the aerial surface of plants, not soluble in water and seemingly stable under the pyrolysis conditions applied. PMID:23973979

Habets, S; de Wild, P J; Huijgen, W J J; van Eck, E R H

2013-07-29

37

Effect of straw extract on water absorption and germination of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. variety RR21) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Freshly prepared straw extract inhibited wheat seed germination by about 18 per cent but did not affect water absorption by germinating wheat seeds. The maximum germination inhibition (47 per cent) was noticed with extract of straw rotted for 15 days. The germination inhibitory effect of rotting straw was over at 31 days of straw rotting.

P. C. Srivastava; N. G. Totey; Om Prakash

1986-01-01

38

A novel method of utilizing the biomass resource: Rapid liquefaction of wheat straw and preparation of biodegradable polyurethane foam (PUF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, wheat straw was rapidly liquefied in the mild condition. The optimum liquefaction effect was obtained at steam-explosion pre-treatment of wheat straw, liquefaction temperature of 140°C, solvent\\/wheat straw ratio of 6:1, glycol (EG):glycerol=5, sulfuric acid of 5%, and wheat straw of water content of 150%. During the liquefaction, cellulose, semi-cellulose and lignin are decomposed, which results in changes

Hui Wang; Hong-Zhang Chen

2007-01-01

39

Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions  

SciTech Connect

Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

1987-06-01

40

Production of lactic acid from xylose and wheat straw by Rhizopus oryzae.  

PubMed

Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5378 was the best among 56 strains of R. oryzae for the production of lactic acid from xylose. This strain produced lactic acid from wheat straw powder by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, with a yield of 0.23 g/g from cellulose and hemicellulose in wheat straw. PMID:22578599

Saito, Katsuichi; Hasa, Yasuhiro; Abe, Hideyuki

2012-05-10

41

Pressurized thermogravimetric reactivity study of wheat straw combustion and COâ-gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass fuel reactivity is interesting since biomass, as e.g. wheat straw, is a relevant fuel for advanced pressurized power plants due to the COâ neutrality. In this study combustion and COâ-gasification reactivities of pulverized wheat straw char up to 40 bar were investigated by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, and the results were compared to a typical subbituminous coal. A recently built

O. Rathmann; J. B. Illerup

1995-01-01

42

The Resistivity Property of Nikel Loaded Winter Wheat Straw Char  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of nickel ions concentration (4.0 wt%, 4.5 wt%, 5.0 wt%), carbonization temperature (700°C, 800°C, 900°C), heating rate (5°C\\/min, 15°C\\/min, 20°C\\/min) and particle size (0.1-0.2 mm, 0.2-0.3 mm, 0.3-0.38 mm) on resistivity of char derived from winter wheat straw were studied. The result showed that when nickel loading is 5.0 wt%, carbonization temperature is 900°C, heat

Changqing Dong; Jun Tao; Junjiao Zhang; Yongping Yang; Shuhui Sheng

2010-01-01

43

Butanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures\\u000a using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation 48.9 g L?1 glucose (initial sugar 62.0 g L?1) was used to produce 20.1 g L?1 ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 g L?1 h?1 and 0.41, respectively. In a similar experiment where WSH (60.2 g L?1 total sugars obtained from hydrolysis of

Nasib Qureshi; Badal C. Saha; Michael A. Cotta

2007-01-01

44

[Removal of Heterosigma akashiwo by modified wheat straw].  

PubMed

The modified wheat straw (MWS) was prepared and used to investigate the removal and the mechanism of Heterosigma akashiwo. The results showed that under the same loading of 0.10 g/L, the algal removal efficiency could reach 80% by MWS in 120 minutes, while 10% by the unmodified wheat straw. To investigate the mechanism, we measured the optical density of the supernatant at 260 nm. The result showed that the nucleotides were released, which meant disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. More than 15% of the nucleotides were released from the cytoplasm under the effect of 0.15 g/L of MWS, indicating the irreversible damage on the cellular membrane, which resulted in the disintegration of the harmful algal cells. It is suggested that the low concentration of MWS might adsorb onto the algal cell surface and bind to the cytoplasmic membrane, which resulted in the flocculation. While the high concentration might cause the penetration into the cellular membrane, which resulted in the leakage of cytoplasm material and hence the death of cell. PMID:20391693

Wang, Hong-liang; Yu, Zhi-ming; Song, Xiu-xian; Cao, Xi-hua

2010-02-01

45

Pretreatment and fractionation of wheat straw using various ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids (ILs) is a promising and challenging process for an alternative method of biomass processing. The present work emphasizes the examination of wheat straw pretreatment using ILs, namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogensulfate ([bmim][HSO4]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim][SCN]), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][N(CN)2]). Only [bmim][HSO4] was found to achieve a macroscopic complete dissolution of wheat straw during pretreatment. The fractionation process demonstrated to be dependent on the IL used. Using [bmim][SCN], a high-purity lignin-rich material was obtained. In contrast, [bmim][N(CN)2] was a good solvent to produce high-purity carbohydrate-rich fractions. When [bmim][HSO4] was used, a different behavior was observed, exhibiting similarities to an acid hydrolysis pretreatment, and no hemicellulose-rich material was recovered during fractionation. A capillary electrophoresis (CE) technique allowed for a better understanding of this phenomenon. Hydrolysis of carbohydrates was confirmed, although an extended degradation of monosaccharides to furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was observed. PMID:23876219

da Costa Lopes, André M; João, Karen G; Bogel-?ukasik, Ewa; Roseiro, Luísa B; Bogel-?ukasik, Rafa?

2013-08-07

46

Immobilization of chlorobenzenes in soil using wheat straw biochar.  

PubMed

Biochar has shown great potential for immobilizing organic contaminants in soil. In this study, pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,4,5-TeCB), and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) artificially spiked soil was amended with wheat straw biochar at 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% application rates, respectively. The sorption, dissipation, and bioavailability of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil were investigated. The sorption of PeCB by biochar was significantly higher than that of its sorption by both biochar-amended and unamended soil (p < 0.05). The dissipation and volatilization of CBs from biochar-amended soil significantly decreased relative to unamended soil (p < 0.05). Bioavailability of CBs, expressed as butanol extraction efficiency and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) bioaccumulation factor, significantly decreased with increasing aging time and biochar application rate. The effect of biochar content in soil on the bioavailability of CBs was more pronounced for 1,2,4-TCB relative to other CBs. This study suggested that wheat straw biochar, even at low application rates, could effectively immobilize the semivolatile CBs in soil and thus reduce their volatilization and bioavailability. PMID:23578388

Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

2013-04-25

47

A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw.  

PubMed

This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2±0.13U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0±1.76U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B; Du, Chenyu

2013-09-23

48

Sugar recoveries from wheat straw following treatments with the fungus Irpex lacteus.  

PubMed

Irpex lacteus is a white-rot fungus capable of increasing sugar recovery from wheat straw; however, in order to incorporate biopretreatment in bioethanol production, some process specifications need to be optimized. With this objective, I. lacteus was grown on different liquid culture media for use as inoculums. Additionally, the effect of wheat straw particle size, moisture content, organic and inorganic supplementations, and mild alkali washing during solid-state fermentation (SSF) on sugar yield were investigated. Wheat thin stillage was the best medium for producing inoculums. Supplementation of wheat straw with 0.3mM Mn(II) during SSF resulted in glucose yields of 68% as compared to yields of 62% and 33% for cultures grown without supplementation or on untreated raw material, respectively after 21 days. Lignin loss, wheat straw digestibility, peroxidase activity, and fungal biomass were also correlated with sugar yields in the search for biopretreatment efficiency indicators. PMID:23347930

Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; Vaquero, María Eugenia; Martínez, Ángel T; Martínez, María Jesús

2012-12-20

49

[Process fundamentals and field demonstration of wheat straw enhanced biodegradation of petroleum].  

PubMed

A new bioaugmentation method utilizing wheat straw to enhance salt leaching and the subsequent petroleum biodegradation by consortia of bacteria and fungi was proposed. The present study aimed at the effects of wheat straw on the growth and the degradation behavior of E. cloacae and Cun. echinulata, the two species of the consortia. In the laboratory experiments, it was shown that the addition of 5% (mass fraction) straw led to an increase of biomass by 25- and 3-fold to the bacteria and fungi, respectively. The biodegradation ratio of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was elevated from 29.2% to 48.0% after 468 h treatment. The biodegradation ratio of alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum were increased from 31.5% and 39.1%, to 55.7% and 55.9%, respectively. The field demonstration was carried in an area of 6400 m2, in which the bacteria and fungi were inoculated after salt leaching in the presence of wheat straw. The addition of wheat straw in the contaminated soil led to an increase by 158- and 9-fold to the bacteria and fungi, as compared to their counterpart in the controlland without wheat straw, at 25 days after the inoculation. The content of TPH was down to below 0.3% while the maximum biodegradation ratio of TPH reached 75% after 45 days treatment. These results demonstrated the effectiveness and high potential of the wheat straw enhanced bioaugmentation of petroleum-salt contaminated soil. PMID:19353887

Zhang, Kun; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Hua, Xiu-fu; Miao, Chang-chun; Han, Hui-long; Yang, Jian-min; Zhang, Hong; Huang, Zhen-dong; Liu, Yong-min; Jin, Wen-biao; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zheng

2009-01-01

50

Wet explosion of wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure: effect on the methane productivity.  

PubMed

The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary feedstock but their economical profitable operation relies on the addition of other biomass products with a high biogas yield. Wheat straw is the major crop residue in Europe and the second largest agricultural residue in the world. So far it has been used in several applications, i.e. pulp and paper making, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on (a) the sugars release and (b) the methane potential of the pretreated wheat straw compared to that of the raw biomass. It was found that, although a high release of soluble sugars was observed after wet explosion, the methane obtained from the wet-exploded wheat straw was slightly lower compared to that from the raw biomas s. On the other hand, the results from the codigestion of raw (non-pretreated) wheat straw with swine manure were very promising, suggesting that 4.6 kg of straw added to 1t of manure increase the methane production by 10%. Thus, wheat straw can be considered as a promising, low-cost biomass for increasing the methane productivity of biogas plants that are based mainly on swine manure. PMID:19666217

Wang, G; Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K

2009-08-08

51

Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Results Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Conclusions Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs.

2013-01-01

52

Acid precipitation and purification of wheat straw lignin  

SciTech Connect

The acid precipitation and purification of lignin from wheat straw soda pulping effluent were studied. Prior to lignin precipitation, the suspended solids and dissolved silica were removed from the effluent to avoid lignin contamination. Suspended solids and dissolved silica were removed by centrifugation and selective precipitation at pH 5, respectively. After these treatments, the pH of the effluent was reduced to an optimum pH value of 3.5 with sulfuric acid in order to precipitate lignin. About 80% of the total lignin was recovered. Effluent color and COD were simultaneously reduced by 82 and 71%, respectively. Lignin precipitate purification was carried out by washing with aqueous acidic solutions. Only the time and the agitation rate influenced the washing process. The purity of the lignin was very high when the time and rate of agitation during washing were low. Under optimum conditions, lignin with a purity of 99.5% can be obtained.

Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Oliet, M. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Revenga, J.A. [Univ. San Pablo CEU, Madrid (Spain)

1998-06-01

53

Preparation of lignopolyols from wheat straw soda lignin.  

PubMed

Wheat straw soda lignin was modified and characterized by several qualitative and quantitative methods such as (31)P NMR spectroscopy to evaluate its potential as a substitute for polyols in view of polyurethane applications. Chemical modification of the lignin was achieved with propylene oxide to form lignopolyol derivatives. This was performed by a two-step reaction of lignin with maleic anhydride followed by propylene oxide and by direct oxyalkylation under acidic and alkaline conditions. The physical and chemical properties of lignopolyols from each method and the subsequent chain-extended hydroxyl groups were evaluated. Direct oxyalkylation of lignin under alkaline conditions was found to be more efficient than acidic conditions and more effective than the two-step process for preparing lignopolyol with higher aliphatic hydroxyl contents. PMID:21854019

Ahvazi, Behzad; Wojciechowicz, Olivia; Ton-That, Tan-Minh; Hawari, Jalal

2011-09-12

54

Butanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii.  

PubMed

In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation 48.9 g L(-1) glucose (initial sugar 62.0 g L(-1)) was used to produce 20.1 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.41, respectively. In a similar experiment where WSH (60.2 g L(-1) total sugars obtained from hydrolysis of 86 g L(-1) wheat straw) was used, the culture produced 25.0 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.60 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.42, respectively. These results are superior to the control experiment and productivity was improved by 214%. When WSH was supplemented with 35 g L(-1) glucose, a reactor productivity was improved to 0.63 g L(-1 )h(-1) with a yield of 0.42. In this case, ABE concentration in the broth was 28.2 g L(-1). When WSH was supplemented with 60 g L(-1) glucose, the resultant medium containing 128.3 g L(-1) sugars was successfully fermented (due to product removal) to produce 47.6 g L(-1) ABE, and the culture utilized all the sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose). These results demonstrate that C. beijerinckii P260 has excellent capacity to convert biomass derived sugars to solvents and can produce over 28 g L(-1) (in one case 41.7 g L(-1) from glucose) ABE from WSH. Medium containing 250 g L(-1) glucose resulted in no growth and no ABE production. Mixtures containing WSH + 140 g L(-1) glucose (total sugar approximately 200 g L(-1)) showed poor growth and poor ABE production. PMID:17609986

Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C; Cotta, Michael A

2007-07-03

55

Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties) connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter) hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C.

2011-01-01

56

Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass.  

PubMed

In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw into ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively in the presence of catalyst. Red yeast strain S. roseus produced 1.73-2.22 mg g(-1) of ergosterol on the filter cake, 1.15-4.17 mg g(-1) of ergosterol and 1.23-1.56 mg g(-1) of ?-carotene on pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and also the highest amount of carotenoids and ergosterol on untreated wheat straw (1.70 and 4.17 mg g(-1), respectively). PMID:23434815

Petrik, Siniša; Kádár, Zsófia; Márová, Ivana

2013-02-08

57

Characteristics of degraded hemicellulosic polymers obtained from steam exploded wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fractionation of wheat straw was studied using a two-stage process based on a steam explosion pre-treatment followed by alkaline peroxide post-treatment. Straw was steamed at temperatures comprised between 200°C for 10 and 33min and 220°C for 3, 5, and 8min. The steamed straw was washed with water to yield a solution rich in hemicelluloses-derived mono- and oligosaccharides (20.5–28.5%) together

X. F. Sun; F. Xu; R. C. Sun; Z. C. Geng; P. Fowler; M. S. Baird

2005-01-01

58

Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

59

Study of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for steam exploded wheat straw to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has been investigated extensively, the optimum condition for\\u000a SSF of wheat straw has not yet been determined. Dilute sulfuric acid impregnated and steam explosion pretreated wheat straw\\u000a was used as a substrate for the production of ethanol by SSF through orthogonal experiment design in this study. Cellulase\\u000a mixture (Celluclast 1.5 l and ?-glucosidase Novozym

Peng Luo; Zhong Liu; Chuanmin Yang; Gaosheng Wang

2008-01-01

60

Effect of reactor configuration on biogas production from wheat straw hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of wheat straw hydrolysate for biogas production was investigated in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. The hydrolysate originated as a side stream from a pilot plant pretreating wheat straw hydrothermally (195°C for 10–12min) for producing 2nd generation bioethanol [Kaparaju, P., Serrano, M., Thomsen, A.B., Kongjan, P., Angelidaki, I., 2009. Bioethanol, biohydrogen

Prasad Kaparaju; María Serrano; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

61

Availability of soil and fertilizer nitrogen to wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) following rice-straw amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to study the N availability to wheat and the loss of 15N-labelled fertilizer N as affected by the rate of rice-straw applied. The availability of soil N was also studied. The straw was incorporated in the soil 2 or 4 weeks before a sowing of wheat and allowed to decompose at a moisture content of

F. Azam; M. Ashraf; Asma Lodhi; M. I. Sajjad

1990-01-01

62

Solid-state fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum and Trichoderma lignorum  

SciTech Connect

A novel solid-state fermentation process has been developed for converting wheat straw into protein-enriched ruminant feed with a mixed culture of Chaetomium cellulolyticum or Trichoderma lignorum and Candida lipolytica. Fermentations were conducted in 3-L horizontal stirred fermentors for 7 days at 30/sup 0/C. The straw fermented with the mixed cultures contained 16 to 18% protein, compared to 12 to 14% in straw fermented with either mold alone. Cellulose degradation in the fermented straw was 33%; its in vitro rumen digestibility was 50%.

Viesturs, U.E. (Inst. of Microbiology, Riga, USSR); Apsite, A.F.; Laukevics, J.J.; Ose, V.P.; Bekers, M.J.; Tengerdy, R.P.

1981-01-01

63

Detoxification of Wheat Straw Hydrolysis in Formic Acid Reaction System by D311 Ion-exchange Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formic acid hydrolysis is widely used in lignocellulose pretreatment. However, formic acid hydrolysis wheat straw cannot be directly used as a fermentation substrate owing to various fermentation inhibitors, especially the formic acid in reaction system and released during pretreatment. Study found treatment of wheat straw hydrolysate with D311 ion-exchange resin had a good result on reduction formic acid. We investigated

Junping Zhuang; Lu Lin; Chunsheng Pang; Zhen Wu; Ying Liu

2010-01-01

64

Availability of soil and fertilizer nitrogen to wetland rice following wheat straw amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to study the availability of soil and fertilizer N to wetland rice as influenced by wheat straw amendment (organic amendment) and to establish the relative significance of the two sources in affecting crop yield. Straw was incorporated in soil at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% before transplanting rice. Inorganic N as 15N-ammonium sulphate was applied at

F. Azam; A. Lodhi; M. Ashraf

1991-01-01

65

Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.  

PubMed

In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations. PMID:23535542

Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

2013-01-01

66

Technoeconomic analysis of wheat straw densification in the Canadian Prairie Province of Manitoba.  

PubMed

This study presents a technoeconomic analysis of wheat straw densification in Canada's prairie province of Manitoba as an integral part of biomass-to-cellulosic-ethanol infrastructure. Costs of wheat straw bale and pellet transportation and densification are analysed, including densification plant profitability. Wheat straw collection radius increases nonlinearly with pellet plant capacity, from 9.2 to 37km for a 2-35tonnesh(-1) plant. Bales are cheaper under 250km, beyond which the cheapest feedstocks are pellets from the largest pellet plant that can be built to exploit economies of scale. Feedstocks account for the largest percentage of variable costs. Marginal and average cost curves suggest Manitoba could support a pellet plant up to 35tonnesh(-1). Operating below capacity (75-50%) significantly erodes a plant's net present value (NPV). Smaller plants require higher NPV break-even prices. Very large plants have considerable risk under low pellet prices and increased processing costs. PMID:22330599

Mupondwa, Edmund; Li, Xue; Tabil, Lope; Phani, Adapa; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Stumborg, Mark; Gruber, Margie; Laberge, Serge

2012-01-28

67

Laccase detoxification of steam-exploded wheat straw for second generation bioethanol.  

PubMed

In this work we compared the efficiency of a laccase treatment performed on steam-exploded wheat straw pretreated under soft conditions (water impregnation) or harsh conditions (impregnation with diluted acid). The effect of several enzymatic treatment parameters (pH, time of incubation, laccase origin and loading) was analysed. The results obtained indicated that severity conditions applied during steam explosion have an influence on the efficiency of detoxification. A reduction of the toxic effect of phenolic compounds by laccase polymerization of free phenols was demonstrated. Laccase treatment of steam-exploded wheat straw reduced sugar recovery after enzymatic hydrolysis, and it should be better performed after hydrolysis with cellulases. The fermentability of hydrolysates was greatly improved by the laccase treatment in all the samples. Our results demonstrate the action of phenolic compounds as fermentation inhibitors, and the advantages of a laccase treatment to increase the ethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw. PMID:19683434

Jurado, Miguel; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez-Alcalá, Angeles; Martínez, Angel T; Martínez, María Jesús

2009-08-14

68

Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the use of a wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from liquid manure was conducted in both a laboratory and a pilot system. Two straw covers with different thicknesses (5 cm and 10 cm) were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing odorous gas emissions. The rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the treatments were monitored; concentrations of ammonia, dissolved sulfide, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH of the liquid manure were measured. Additionally, the overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were calculated for the conditions of the experiment. The results demonstrated that both the 5-cm and 10-cm straw covers were effective in reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from manure storage. In the laboratory tests, when a crust formed on the manure surface within three to four weeks after the straw application, ammonia emissions were reduced by up to 95%. A similar trend was observed in the pilot experiments in the field. Hydrogen sulfide emissions were suppressed by 95% with the wheat straw cover. The mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulfide with the straw covers were significantly lower than those of the control, which indicated the effectiveness of a straw cover as a physical barrier for reducing hydrogen sulfide emissions. Reduced pH and decreased ammonia that biological reactions might also be a factor contributing to the emission reductions.

Xue, S.K.; Hermanson, R.E.

1999-08-01

69

Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5±18.4kg\\/m3 for switchgrass, 36.1±8.6kg\\/m3 for wheat

Nehru Chevanan; Alvin R. Womac; Venkata S. P. Bitra; C. Igathinathane; Yuechuan T. Yang; Petre I. Miu; Shahab Sokhansanj

2010-01-01

70

Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw.  

PubMed

After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether (137)Cs and (90)Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with (137)Cs and (90)Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. PMID:22248931

Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

2012-01-15

71

Involvement of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase in degradation and selective ligninolysis of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some white-rot fungi have been studied to evaluate their potential to degrade wheat straw with specific reference to their ligninolytic ability and associated enzymes, viz. lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase. The data have been compared with the much studied Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In the present study, Daedalea flavida and two of the Phlebia spp. were found to be capable of

Daljit Singh Arora; Mukesh Chander; Paramjit Kaur Gill

2002-01-01

72

Acrylated Epoxidized Soy Oil as an Alternative to UreaFormaldehyde in Making Wheat Straw Particleboards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw particleboards were made using urea-formaldehyde (UF) and acrylated epoxidized soy oil (AESO) resins with two resin content levels: 8% and 13%, and three pressing times: 8, 10 and 12 minutes. Physical and mechanical properties of the boards were investigated. Results showed that AESO bonded particleboards had higher physical and mechanical properties than UF bonded boards, especially in terms

Mohamad Tasooji; Taghi Tabarsa; Abolghasem Khazaeian; Richard P. Wool

2010-01-01

73

TCF bleaching of wheat straw pulp using ozone and xylanase. Part A: paper quality assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The XOAZRP TCF sequence was applied to bleach wheat straw pulp. Following each bleaching stage, the properties of the pulp (viz. kappa number, standard viscosity, borohydride viscosity and brightness) and of the resulting effluents were determined. The performance of the reagents was analyzed through the studies of xylanase treatment and crystallinity and scanning electron microscopy of the pulps. Finally, the

M. B. Roncero; A. L. Torres; J. F. Colom; T. Vidal

2003-01-01

74

Isolation and characterization of nanofibers from agricultural residues: wheat straw and soy hulls.  

PubMed

Cellulose nanofibers were extracted from the agricultural residues, wheat straw and soy hulls, by a chemi-mechanical technique to examine their potential for use as reinforcement fibers in biocomposite applications. The structure of the cellulose nanofibers was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The wheat straw nanofibers were determined to have diameters in the range of 10-80 nm and lengths of a few thousand nanometers. By comparison, the soy hull nanofibers had diameter 20-120 nm and shorter lengths than the wheat straw nanofibers. Chemical characterization of the wheat straw nanofibers confirmed that the cellulose content was increased from 43% to 84% by an applied alkali and acid treatment. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of both fibers demonstrated that this chemical treatment also led to partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin from the structure of the fibers. PXRD results revealed that this resulted in improved crystallinity of the fibers. After mechanical treatments of cryocrushing, disintegration and defibrillation, the thermal properties of the nanofibers were studied by the TGA technique and found to increase dramatically. The degradation temperature of both nanofiber types reached beyond 290 degrees C. This value is reasonably promising for the use of these nanofibers in reinforced-polymer manufacturing. PMID:17566731

Alemdar, Ayse; Sain, Mohini

2007-06-12

75

Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: biomass production and substrate biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the cultivation of six strains of Pleurotus (P. djamor (2), P. ostreatus (2) and P. pulmonarius (2)) on coffee pulp and wheat straw are presented. Metabolic activity associated with biomass of each strain was determined, as well as changes in lignin and polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose), phenolic and caffeine contents in substrate samples colonized for a period

Dulce Salmones; Gerardo Mata; Krzysztof N. Waliszewski

2005-01-01

76

Adsorption behavior of cationic dyes on citric acid esterifying wheat straw: kinetic and thermodynamic profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic and thermodynamic behaviors of cationic dye adsorption onto citric acid esterifying wheat straw (EWS) from aqueous solution were investigated. Two cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV) were selected as adsorbates. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dye adsorption were examined with a batch system by changing various experimental factors (e.g. initial pH, EWS dosage, dye

Renmin Gong; Shengxue Zhu; Demin Zhang; Jian Chen; Shoujun Ni; Rui Guan

2008-01-01

77

Laccase detoxification of steam-exploded wheat straw for second generation bioethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we compared the efficiency of a laccase treatment performed on steam-exploded wheat straw pretreated under soft conditions (water impregnation) or harsh conditions (impregnation with diluted acid). The effect of several enzymatic treatment parameters (pH, time of incubation, laccase origin and loading) was analysed. The results obtained indicated that severity conditions applied during steam explosion have an influence

Miguel Jurado; Alicia Prieto; Ángeles Martínez-Alcalá; Ángel T. Martínez; María Jesús Martínez

2009-01-01

78

Hydrodynamic cavitation as a novel approach for delignification of wheat straw for paper manufacturing.  

PubMed

The present work deals with application of hydrodynamic cavitation for intensification of delignification of wheat straw as an essential step in the paper manufacturing process. Wheat straw was first treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 48h and subsequently alkali treated wheat straw was subjected to hydrodynamic cavitation. Hydrodynamic cavitation reactor used in the work is basically a stator and rotor assembly, where the rotor is provided with indentations and cavitational events are expected to occur on the surface of rotor as well as within the indentations. It has been observed that treatment of alkali treated wheat straw in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for 10-15min increases the tensile index of the synthesized paper sheets to about 50-55%, which is sufficient for paper board manufacture. The final mechanical properties of the paper can be effectively managed by controlling the processing parameters as well as the cavitational parameters. It has also been established that hydrodynamic cavitation proves to be an effective method over other standard digestion techniques of delignification in terms of electrical energy requirements as well as the required time for processing. Overall, the work is first of its kind application of hydrodynamic cavitation for enhancing the effectiveness of delignification and presents novel results of significant interest to the paper and pulp industry opening an entirely new area of application of cavitational reactors. PMID:23968577

Badve, Mandar P; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Csoka, Levente

2013-07-31

79

Screening of white-rot fungi for biological pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty two basidiomycetes, mostly white rot fungi, were grown on wheat straw. Lignin-, cellulose-, and hemicellulose-degradation was recorded in order to find a species growing on lignin preferably. The “oyster-mushroom”Pleurotus sp. “florida” showed fastest delignification of all tested fungi.

H. W. Miiller; W. Trfisch

1986-01-01

80

Properties of wheat straw particleboards bonded with different types of resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw particleboard bonded with a urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin, usually employed in the manufacture of wood-based particleboards, or with a resin based on epoxidised oil was manufactured using a compression molding machine. The effects of resin type on internal bond strength, flexural modulus, and thickness swelling were examined. The properties of boards using UF resins were poor. Internal bond strength

Nicolas Boquillon; Ge’rard Elbez; Uwe SchÖnfeld

2004-01-01

81

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw Irradiated by Electron Beam in Presence of Peracetic Acid Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation pretreatments of wheat straw in the presence of peracetic acid solutions were carried out using an electron beam accelerator, in which the effects of various treatment conditions on the enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated in detail. As irradiation dose was increased, the effect of a combination of peracetic acid and irradiation on the enzymatic hydrolysis was remarkable. The combination of

Lu Zhaoxin; M. Kumakura

1995-01-01

82

Effect of ozonolysis pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility of wheat and rye straw.  

PubMed

Wheat and rye straws were pretreated with ozone to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis extent of potentially fermentable sugars. Through a 2(5-1) factorial design, this work studies the influence of five operating parameters (moisture content, particle size, ozone concentration, type of biomass and air/ozone flow rate) on ozonization pretreatment of straw in a fixed bed reactor under room conditions. The acid insoluble lignin content of the biomass was reduced in all experiments involving hemicellulose degradation. Near negligible losses of cellulose were observed. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields of up to 88.6% and 57% were obtained compared to 29% and 16% in non-ozonated wheat and rye straw respectively. Moisture content and type of biomass showed the most significant effects on ozonolysis. Additionally, ozonolysis experiments in basic medium with sodium hydroxide evidenced a reduction in solubilization and/or degradation of lignin and reliable cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. PMID:18951781

García-Cubero, M A Teresa; González-Benito, Gerardo; Indacoechea, Irune; Coca, Mónica; Bolado, Silvia

2008-10-31

83

Bioconversion of wheat straw cellulose/hemicellulose to ethanol by Saccharomyces uvarum and Pachysolen tannophilus  

SciTech Connect

The information presented in this publication represents current research findings on the production of glucose and xylose from straw and subsequent direct fermentation of both sugars to ethanol. Agricultural straw was subjected to thermal or alkali pulping prior to enzymatic saccharification. When wheat straw (WS) was treated at 170 degrees C for 30-60 min at a water-to-solids ratio fo 7:1, the yield of cellulosic pulp was 70-82%. A sodium hydroxide extraction yielded a 60% cellulosic pulp and a hemicellulosic fraction available for fermentation to ethanol. The cellulosic pulps were subjected to cellulase hydrolysis at 55 degrees C for production of sugars to support a 6-C fermentation. Hemicellulose was recovered from the liquor filtrates by acid/alcohol precipitation followed by acid hydrolysis to xylose for fermentation. Subsequent experiments have involved the fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol. Apparently these fermentations were inhibited by substances introduced by thermal and alkali treatment of the straws, because ethanol efficiencies of only 40-60% were achieved. Xylose from hydrolysis of wheat straw pentosans supported an ethanol fermentation by Pachysolen tannophilus strain NRRL 2460. This unusual yeast is capable of producing ethanol from both glucose and xylose. Ethanol yields were not maximal due to deleterious substances in the WS hydrolysates. (Refs. 16).

Detroy, R.W.; Cunningham, R.L.; Bothast, R.J.; Bagby, M.O.; Herman, A.

1982-05-01

84

The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated wheat straw to ethanol.  

PubMed

Autohydrolysis and ethanol-alkali pulping were used as pretreatment methods of wheat straw for its subsequent saccharification by Trichoderma reesei cellulase. The basic hydrolysis parameters, i.e., reaction time, pH, temperature, and enzyme and substrate concentration, were optimized to maximize sugar yields from ethanol-alkali modified straw. Thus, a 93% conversion of 2.5% straw material to sugar syrup containing 73% glucose was reached in 48 h using 40 filter paper units/g hydrolyzed substrate. The pretreated wheat straw was then fermented to ethanol at 43 degrees C in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process using T. reesei cellulase and Kluyveromyces fragilis cells. From 10% (w/v) of chemically treated straw (dry matter), 2.4% (w/v) ethanol was obtained after 48 h. When the T. reesei cellulase system was supplemented with beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger, the ethanol yield in the SSF process increased to 3% (w/v) and the reaction time was shortened to 24 h. PMID:18587784

Szczodrak, J

1988-09-01

85

Enhanced ethanol production from wheat straw by integrated storage and pre-treatment (ISP).  

PubMed

Integrated storage and pre-treatment (ISP) combines biopreservation of moist material under airtight conditions and pre-treatment. Moist wheat straw was inoculated with the biocontrol yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus, the xylan degrading yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis or a co-culture of both. The samples and non-inoculated controls were stored at 4 or 15 °C. The non-inoculated controls were heavily contaminated with moulds, in contrast to the samples inoculated with W. anomalus or S. stipitis. These two yeasts were able to grow on wheat straw as sole source of nutrients. When ethanol was produced from moist wheat straw stored for four weeks at 4 °C with S. stipitis, an up to 40% enhanced yield (final yield 0.15 g ethanol per g straw dry weight) was obtained compared to a dry sample (0.107 g/g). In all other moist samples, stored for four weeks at 4 °C or 15 °C, 6-35% higher yields were obtained. Thus, energy efficient bio-preservation can improve the pre-treatment efficiency for lignocellulose biomass, which is a critical bottleneck in its conversion to biofuels. PMID:23273279

Passoth, Volkmar; Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Nair, Harikrishnan A S; Olstorpe, Matilda; Tiukova, Ievgeniia; Ståhlberg, Jerry

2012-11-16

86

Straw Production and Grain Yield Relationships in Winter Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

use of traditional intensive tillage practices during fallow (Papendick, 1998). During most years, use of summer Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) -fallow is the predominant fallow allows growers to sow winter wheat into adequate cropping system in low-precipitation regions (,250 mm annually) of the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the USA. Wind erosion is a carryover soil water for seed

Edwin Donaldson; William F. Schillinger; Stephen M. Dofing

2001-01-01

87

Application of steam explosion to the fractionation and rapid vapor-phase alkaline pulping of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of steam explosion technology for the production of cellulose pulps was evaluated at a bench scale using wheat straw as raw lignocellulosic material. Steam explosion was used either as a pretreatment method to achieve the fractionation of the straw into its constitutive polymers, or as a rapid pulping method for the production of unbleached chemical pulps from alkali-impregnated

D. Montane; X. Farriol; J. Salvadó; P. Jollez; E. Chornet

1998-01-01

88

Influence of mechanical maceration on wheat straw on characteristics of digestion in growing–finishing diets for feedlot cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Holstein steers (142±3kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the influence of mechanical maceration of wheat straw on the characteristics of digestion. Treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based growing–finishing diet supplemented with 21% forage (DM basis) as: 1) sudangrass hay (SG), 2) wheat straw (STRW), 3) macerated

J. G. Serrano-Ponce; B. Sánchez-Mendoza; E. G. Alvarez; J. Aguirre-Ortega; V. M. González-Vizcarra; C. Lemus-Flores; M. A. López-Soto; G. D. Mendoza-Martínez; A. Plascencia; J. R. Stuart; R. A. Zinn

2011-01-01

89

Role of Bacillus spp. in antagonism between Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum in heat-treated wheat-straw substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify bacteria involved in Trichodermaharzianum inhibition while promoting Pleurotus ostreatus defences in order to favour cultivation-substrate selectivity for mushroom production. PCR-DGGE profiles of total DNA from wheat-straw substrate showed weak differences between bacterial communities from substrate inoculated with P. ostreatus with or without T. harzianum. The major cultivable bacteria were isolated from three batches of wheat-straw-based

Marnyye Velázquez-Cedeño; Anne Marie Farnet; Gerardo Mata; Jean-Michel Savoie

2008-01-01

90

Solid-state fermentation, lignin degradation and resulting digestibility of wheat straw fermented by selected white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin biodegradation, carbon loss and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) have been investigated during the solid state fermentation of wheat straw by eight previously selected strains of white-rot fungi. A mathematical model of the degradation kinetics is presented. [The time period required to reach maximum rates of 14CO2 and unlabeled CO2 release from (14C)-lignin-labelled wheat straw and from whole

Eduardo Agosin; Etienne Odier

1985-01-01

91

One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.  

PubMed

Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw. PMID:22467431

Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

2012-03-31

92

Physical and thermochemical properties of cereal straws  

SciTech Connect

Cereal straws are one of the most commonly available lignocellulosic materials that can be converted to different types of fuels and chemical feedstocks through a variety of thermochemical conversion processes. This study provides information on moisture content, bulk density, particle size, heating values, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, ash composition, and ash feasibility characteristics for four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye). The type of straw and the crop variety have significant effects on the chemical properties of straw.

Ghaly, A.E. (Agricultural Engineering Dept., Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (CA)); Al-Taweel, A. (Chemical Engineering Dept., Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (CA))

1990-01-01

93

Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: biomass production and substrate biodegradation.  

PubMed

The results of the cultivation of six strains of Pleurotus (P. djamor (2), P. ostreatus (2) and P. pulmonarius (2)) on coffee pulp and wheat straw are presented. Metabolic activity associated with biomass of each strain was determined, as well as changes in lignin and polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose), phenolic and caffeine contents in substrate samples colonized for a period of up to 36 days. Analysis were made of changes during the mycelium incubation period (16 days) and throughout different stages of fructification. Greater metabolic activity was observed in the wheat straw samples, with a significant increase between 4 and 12 days of incubation. The degradation of polysaccharide compounds was associated with the fruiting stage, while the reduction in phenolic contents was detected in both substrates samples during the first eight days of incubation. A decrease was observed in caffeine content of the coffee pulp samples during fruiting stage, which could mean that some caffeine accumulates in the fruiting bodies. PMID:15501659

Salmones, Dulce; Mata, Gerardo; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

2005-03-01

94

Liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw at high-solids content by purified Trichoderma enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic liquefaction was studied by measuring continuously the flowability change of high-solids lignocellulose substrates using a real time viscometric method. Hydrolysis experiments of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw were carried out with purified enzymes from Trichoderma reesei; Cel7A, Cel6A, Cel7B, Cel5A, Cel12A and Xyn11A. Results obtained at 15% (w\\/w) solids revealed that endoglucanases, in particular Cel5A, are the key enzymes to

Nóra Szijártó; Matti Siika-aho; Tuula Sontag-Strohm; Liisa Viikari

2011-01-01

95

Optimization of biogas production from wheat straw stillage in UASB reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage was investigated. Methane potential of stillage was determined in batch experiments at two different substrate concentrations. Results showed that higher methane yields of 324ml\\/g-(volatile solids) VSadded were obtained at stillage concentrations of 12.8g-VS\\/L than at 25.6g-VS\\/l. Continuous anaerobic digestion of stillage was performed in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket

Prasad Kaparaju; María Serrano; Irini Angelidaki

2010-01-01

96

Isolation and characterization of hemicellulose B and cellulose from pressure refined wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemicellulose and cellulose were extracted with 24% KOH and 2% boric acid at 20°C for 2 h from pressure refined wheat straw holocellulose. The yields were 26.2–28.4% and 41.8–43.0%, respectively. The hemicellulosic material was further fractionated into hemicellulosic type A–C. The contents of neutral sugars, uronic acids and molecular-average weights of hemicellulosic fractions B were measured. Xylose was the

Runcang Sun; J Mark Lawther; W. B Banks

1998-01-01

97

An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cost estimation study was performed for a biological butanol production plant with a capacity of 150 x 10**6 kg butanol/year. Wheat straw was used as a feedstock. In addition to butanol, acetone (78.05 x 10**6 kg/year) and ethanol (28.54 x 10**6 kg/year) would also be produced. The total capital c...

98

Recycling of rice straw to improve wheat yield and soil fertility and reduce atmospheric pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning of rice straw is a common practice in northwest India, where rice–wheat cropping system is extensively followed. The\\u000a practice results in loss of nutrients, atmospheric pollution and emission of greenhouse gases. A field experiment was conducted\\u000a at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during the rabi season (November to April) of 2002–2003 to evaluate\\u000a the efficacy of the

Himanshu Pathak; Ramandeep Singh; Arti Bhatia; Niveta Jain

2006-01-01

99

Trace elements in Turkish biomass fuels: Ashes of wheat straw, olive bagasse and hazelnut shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ash contents of wheat straw, olive bagasse and hazelnut shells were 7.9%, 3.9%, 1.2%, respectively, which seemed to be within the average values of ash of biomass. The microstructure of ashes included smooth, polygonal, granular and molten drop structures. A large percentage of particles present in ashes are commonly ?1–20?m in size. SEM\\/EDS analyses performed on the major ash forming

Ceren Bakisgan; Ahu Gümrah Dumanli; Yuda Yürüm

2009-01-01

100

Upgrading of urea formaldehyde-bonded reed and wheat straw particleboards using silane coupling agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reed and wheat straw particleboards bonded with urea formaldehyde (UF) resin were manufactured from two different material\\u000a configurations (i.e., fine and coarse particles). The board densities were in the range of 0.550–.90g\\/cm3. The effects of particle size and board density on the board properties were examined. The properties of particleboard produced\\u000a from fine particles were better than those made from

Guangping Han; Changwu Zhang; Dongmei Zhang; Kenji Umemura; Shuichi Kawai

1998-01-01

101

Effect of inhibitors formed during wheat straw pretreatment on ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect of the main inhibitors (acetic acid, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) formed during steam explosion of wheat straw was studied through ethanol fermentations of model substrates and hydrolysates from wheat straw by Pichia stipitis. Experimental results showed that an increase in acetic acid concentration led to a reduction in ethanol productivity and complete inhibition was observed at 3.5 g/L. Furfural produced a delay on sugar consumption rates with increasing concentration and HMF did not exert a significant effect. Fermentations of the whole slurry from steam exploded wheat straw were completely inhibited by a synergistic effect due to the presence of 1.5 g/L acetic acid, 0.15 g/L furfural and 0.05 g/L HMF together with solid fraction. When using only the solid fraction from steam explosion, hydrolysates presented 0.5 g/L of acetic acid, whose fermentations have submitted promising results, providing an ethanol yield of 0.45 g ethanol/g sugars and the final ethanol concentration reached was 12.2 g/L (10.9 g ethanol/100 g DM). PMID:21983414

Bellido, Carolina; Bolado, Silvia; Coca, Mónica; Lucas, Susana; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa

2011-09-10

102

Kinetics of carbon mineralization of biochars compared with wheat straw in three soils.  

PubMed

Application of biochars to soils may stabilize soil organic matter and sequester carbon (C). The objectives of our research were to study in vitro C mineralization kinetics of various biochars in comparison with wheat straw in three soils and to study their contribution to C stabilization. Three soils (Oxisol, Alfisol topsoil, and Alfisol subsoil) were incubated at 25°C with wheat straw, charcoal, hydrothermal carbonization coal (HTC), low-temperature conversion coal (LTC), and a control (natural organic matter). Carbon mineralization was analyzed by alkali absorption of CO released at regular intervals over 365 d. Soil samples taken after 5 and 365 d of incubation were analyzed for soluble organic C and inorganic N. Chemical characterization of biochars and straw for C and N bonds was performed with Fourier transformation spectroscopy and with the N fractionation method, respectively. The LTC treatment contained more N in the heterocyclic-bound N fraction as compared with the biochars and straw. Charcoal was highly carbonized when compared with the HTC and LTC. The results show higher C mineralization and a lower half-life of straw-C compared with biochars. Among biochars, HTC showed some C mineralization when compared with charcoal and LTC over 365 d. Carbon mineralization rates were different in the three soils. The half-life of charcoal-C was higher in the Oxisol than in the Alfisol topsoil and subsoil, possibly due to high Fe-oxides in the Oxisol. The LTC-C had a higher half-life, possibly due to N unavailability. We conclude that biochar stabilization can be influenced by soil type. PMID:22751064

Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Steffens, Diedrich; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Schubert, Sven

103

[15N-flow after in sacco incubation and feeding of sheep and goats with untreated wheat straw or straw treated with 15N horse urine].  

PubMed

Chopped wheat straw was homogeneously mixed with urine of horses (5.75 gN per 1, 16.88 atom-% 15N-excess) and airtightly stored in plastic containers for 6 months. Three rumen fistulated sheep and goats each were fed with untreated or urine treated straw. Concentrate was added to straw. Untreated and urine treated straw were given in nylon bags and incubated in the rumen of sheep and goats for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. A three compartment exponential function was used to fit the measurements of 15N-excess and 15N-amount of bag content. The curves and the calculated partial Y-values of the three compartments show the inflow and outflow of 15N into or from the bags and allow conclusions about the binding of urine N. Most N of urine was not compactly bound by straw during storage. Primarily microbial N was attached to the straw in the rumen. About 6% of urine N were bound more compact to the straw. Similar curves were calculated for 15N-excess and 15N-amount of nylon bags. The curves allow conclusions about tracer flows without quantitative knowledge. There were no significant differences between animal species. PMID:7778985

Schubert, R; Flachowsky, G; Bochröder, B

1994-01-01

104

Wheat-Legume Composite Flour Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat-legume composite flours were produced by blending Canada Western Extra Strong (CWES) and Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) wheat with varying amounts of three legume proteins. Legume protein addition produced breads with lower specific loaf volume, coarser crumb and firmer texture, and cooked white-salted noodles with greater compression stress and less cutting stress than the wheat controls. The CWES wheat

Dora Fenn; Odean M. Lukow; Gavin Humphreys; Paul G. Fields; Joyce I. Boye

2010-01-01

105

Effects of rhamnolipid on the cellulase and xylanase in hydrolysis of wheat straw.  

PubMed

The effects of biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) and chemical surfactant Triton X-100 on the production of cellulases and xylanase from Penicillium expansum (P. expansum) in untreated, acid- and alkali-pretreated wheat straw submerged fermentations were studied, and the influences on the activity and stability of Cellulase R-10 were also investigated. The results showed that RL and Triton X-100 enhanced the activities of cellulases and xylanase to different extents and the stimulatory effects of RL were superior to those of Triton X-100. During the peak enzyme production phase, RL (60 RE mg/l) increased cellulases activities by 25.5-102.9%, in which the raise of the same enzyme in acid-pretreated straw broths was the most. It was found that the reducing sugars by hydrolyzing wheat straw with Cellulase R-100 were not visibly increased after adding RL. However, it distinctly protected Cellulase R-10 from degradation or inactivation, keeping the reducing sugars yield at about 17%. PMID:21478013

Wang, Hong-Yuan; Fan, Bing-Quan; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Shuang; Li, Min

2011-03-02

106

Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01

107

Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.  

PubMed

Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonene found to inhibit succinate and acetate generation and bacterial growth were 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.06% (v/v), respectively. Both pre-treated orange peel by steam distillation to remove D: -limonene and intact wheat straw were used as feedstocks. Increasing the substrate concentrations of both feedstocks, from 5 to 60 g/L, elevated succinate concentration and productivity but lowered the yield. In addition, pre-treated orange peel generated greater succinate productivities than wheat straw but had similar resultant titres. The greatest succinate titres were 1.9 and 2.0 g/L for pre-treated orange peel and wheat straw, respectively. This work demonstrated that agricultural waste such as wheat straw and orange peel can be biotransformed to succinic acid by a one-step consolidated bioprocessing. Measures to increase fermentation efficiency are also discussed. PMID:20645087

Li, Qiang; Siles, Jose A; Thompson, Ian P

2010-07-20

108

Influence of the ratio between wheat straw and ground barley, ground corn or dried sugar beet pulp on in sacco dry matter degradation of ryegrass and wheat straw, rumen fermentation and apparent digestibility in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Castrated male sheep were fed with 5 different rations varying in the straw to concentrate ratio between 100: 0, 75: 25, 50: 50, 25: 75 and 0: 100. Ground barley, ground corn and dried sugar beet pulp were used as concentrate sources. Chopped winter wheat straw was fed as roughage source. All rations were supplemented with a protein?mineral?vitamin?premix.In sacco dry

G. Flachowsky; Heidrun Koch; K. Tiroke; Maria Matthey

1993-01-01

109

Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect

Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950°C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

2002-04-01

110

Removal of Fermentation Inhibitors from Alkaline Peroxide Pretreated and Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Wheat Straw: Production of Butanol from Hydrolysate Using Clostridium beijerinckii in Batch Reactors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In these studies, alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw was investigated. Pretreated wheat straw was hydrolyzed using celluloytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and the hydrolysate was used to produce butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The culture produced less than 2.59 gL**-1 acetone...

111

Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

2005-03-01

112

Nitrogen availability effects on carbon mineralization, fungal and bacterial growth, and enzyme activities during decomposition of wheat straw in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were (1) to investigate the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw decomposition to increasing nitrogen availability (0.5, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.9% N of straw dry matter) in a microcosm experiment at controlled temperature (15°C) and moisture (?10 kPa), (2) to elucidate underlying mechanisms at the microbial-community level, and (3) to develop a model according to the measurements.

T. M Henriksen; T. A Breland

1999-01-01

113

Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a), CBH2 (Cel6a), EG1 (Cel7b), EG2 (Cel5a), as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a) were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25%) which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw.

2012-01-01

114

Comparison of mechanistic models in the initial rate enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Different mechanistic models have been used in the literature to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. Although these different models have been applied to different substrates, most of these mechanistic models fit into two- and three-parameter mechanistic models. The purpose of this study is to compare the models and determine the activation energy and the enthalpy of adsorption of Trichoderma reesei enzymes on ammonia fibre explosion (AFEX)-treated wheat straw. Experimental enzymatic hydrolysis data from AFEX-treated wheat straw were modelled with two- and three-parameter mechanistic models from the literature. In order to discriminate between the models, initial rate data at 49°C were subjected to statistical analysis (analysis of variance and scatter plots). Results For three-parameter models, the HCH-1 model best fitted the experimental data; for two-parameter models Michaelis-Menten (M-M) best fitted the experimental data. All the three-parameter models fitted the data better than the two-parameter models. The best three models at 49°C (HCH-1, Huang and M-M) were compared using initial rate data at three temperatures (35°, 42° and 49°C). The HCH-1 model provided the best fit based on the F values, the scatter plot and the residual sum of squares. Also, its kinetic parameters were linear in Arrhenius/van't Hoff's plots, unlike the other models. The activation energy (Ea) is 47.6 kJ/mol and the enthalpy change of adsorption (?H) is -118 kJ/mol for T. reesei enzymes on AFEX-treated wheat straw. Conclusion Among the two-parameter models, Michaelis-Menten model provided the best fit compared to models proposed by Humphrey and Wald. For the three-parameter models, HCH-1 provided the best fit because the model includes a fractional coverage parameter (?) which accounts for the number of reactive sites covered by the enzymes.

2010-01-01

115

Bulk density of wet and dry wheat straw and switchgrass particles  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT. Bulk density is a major physical property in designing the logistic system for biomass handling. The size, shape, moisture content, individual particle density, and surface characteristics are few factors affecting the bulk density. This research investigates the effects of true particle lengths ranging from 6 to 50 mm and moisture contents ranging from 8% to 60% wet basis (wb) on the bulk density of wheat straw and switchgrass. Three types of particle densities of straw and switchgrass measured were: a hollow particle density assuming a hollow cylindrical geometry, a solid particle density assuming a solid cylindrical geometry, and a particle density measured using a gas pycnometer at a gas pressure of 40 kPa. The bulk density of both loose fill and packed fill biomass samples was examined. The calculated wet and dry bulk density ranged from 24 to 111 kg m 3 for straw and from 49 to 266 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The corresponding tapped bulk density ranged from 34 to 130 kg m 3 for straw and 68 to 323 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The increase in bulk density due to tapping the container was from 10% for short 6 mm particles to more than 50% for long 50 mm particles. An equation relating the bulk density of stems as a function of moisture content, dry bulk density, and particle size was developed. After the validation of this bulk density equation, the relationship would be highly useful in designing the logistics system for large scale transport of biomass to a biorefinery. The bulk density and particle density data of uniform particles would be important, if straw and switchgrass is used for pulping and paper making.

Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Naimi, L.J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Hoque, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Narayan, S. [Lambton College, Sarnia, Ontario

2008-05-01

116

Analysis of methane potentials of steam-exploded wheat straw and estimation of energy yields of combined ethanol and methane production.  

PubMed

Agrarian biomass as a renewable energy source can contribute to a considerable CO(2) reduction. The overriding goal of the European Union is to cut energy consumption related greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% until the year 2020. This publication aims at optimising the methane production from steam-exploded wheat straw and presents a theoretical estimation of the ethanol and methane potential of straw. For this purpose, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different time/temperature combinations. Specific methane yields were analyzed according to VDI 4630. Pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion significantly increased the methane yield from anaerobic digestion by up to 20% or a maximum of 331 l(N)kg(-1) VS compared to untreated wheat straw. Furthermore, the residual anaerobic digestion potential of methane after ethanol fermentation was determined by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw using cellulase. Based on the resulting glucose concentration the ethanol yield and the residual sugar available for methane production were calculated. The theoretical maximum ethanol yield of wheat straw was estimated to be 0.249 kg kg(-1) dry matter. The achievable maximum ethanol yield per kg wheat straw dry matter pretreated by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis was estimated to be 0.200 kg under pretreatment conditions of 200 degrees C and 10 min corresponding to 80% of the theoretical maximum. The residual methane yield from straw stillage was estimated to be 183 l(N)kg(-1) wheat straw dry matter. Based on the presented experimental data, a concept is proposed that processes wheat straw for ethanol and methane production. The concept of an energy supply system that provides more than two forms of energy is met by (1) upgrading obtained ethanol to fuel-grade quality and providing methane to CHP plants for the production of (2) electric energy and (3) utility steam that in turn can be used to operate distillation columns in the ethanol production process. PMID:19480947

Bauer, Alexander; Bösch, Peter; Friedl, Anton; Amon, Thomas

2009-02-06

117

Dilute acid hydrolysis of wheat straw hemicellulose at moderate temperature: a simplified kinetic model  

SciTech Connect

Wheat straw has been hydrolized with sulfuric acid at 34 and 90 degrees C. The treatment at 90 degrees C yields complete solubilization of hemicellulose to xylose and arabinose without significant amounts of furfural. The influence of acid concentration was studied and the kinetics of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis has been modeled suggesting a two-consecutive reactions mechanism. This model is useful to explain the different behavior of the concentration of the two main sugars produced. The enhanced cellulose accessibility to enzymatic attack is also reported. 26 references.

Gonzalez, G.; Lopez-Santin, J.; Caminal, G.; Sola, C.

1986-02-01

118

Identification and characterization of fermentation inhibitors formed during hydrothermal treatment and following SSF of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot plant for hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw was compared in reactor systems of two steps (first, 80°C; second,\\u000a 190–205°C) and of three steps (first, 80°C; second, 170–180°C; third, 195°C). Fermentation (SSF) with Sacharomyces cerevisiae of the pretreated fibers and hydrolysate from the two-step system gave higher ethanol yield (64–75%) than that obtained from\\u000a the three-step system (61–65%), due

Mette Hedegaard Thomsen; Anders Thygesen; Anne Belinda Thomsen

2009-01-01

119

Enzymic saccharification of pretreated wheat straw. [Trichoderma reesei  

SciTech Connect

Studies of pretreatment of wheat and its subsequent saccharification by Trichoderma reesei cellulases are reported. Steam explosion was found to be the most effective of the pretreatment methods tested. Data are presented describing the effect of enzyme and substrate concentration on the rate and degree of hydrolysis. Significant inhibition of the cellulases was observed when sugar concentrations were 6% or higher. This inhibition increased when glucose and ethanol were present simultaneously. Adsorption of enzymes to the substrate was followed during a 24-h hydrolysis period. An initial rapid and extensive adsorption occurred, followed by a short desorption period that was followed in turn by a further increased adsorption peaking after 3 h. Intermediate removal of hydrolysate, particularly in combination with a second addition of enzyme, clearly improved the yield of saccharification compared to an uninterrupted hydrolysis over a 24-h period. Thus, a 74% yield of reducing sugars was obtained. Furthermore, an increase in the amount of recoverable enzymes was observed under these conditions. Evidence is presented that suggests that a countercurrent technique, whereby free enzymes in recovered hydrolysate are adsorbed onto new substrate, may provide a means of recirculating dissolved enzymes.

Vallander, L.; Eriksson, K.E.

1985-01-01

120

Rice straw–wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, rice straw–wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10\\/90, 20\\/80, and 30\\/70 weight of rice straw\\/wood particle) of

Han-Seung Yang; Dae-Jun Kim; Hyun-Joong Kim

2003-01-01

121

[Isolation and identification of a cellulose degrading fungus Y5 and its capability of degradating wheat straw].  

PubMed

In order to promote the decomposition of crop straw and return it to soil rapidly and solve the problems such as the waste of straw resources and pollution, we screened the bacterial or fungi with high-efficient degradation of straw lignocelluloses and studied its capability of degradating wheat straw. An isolate of filamentous fungus with higher cellulase activity and ability to decompose CMC and straw lignocellulose was screened from black soil samples taken from Heilongjiang province by using the soil dilution, plating and liquid culture methods. Morphological status on various media, and ITS rDNA sequences homology analysis were performed to identify the taxonomy of the isolate. The effects of different time, different N resources, different cellulose resources and different pH values on enzyme activities produced by fungus was analyzed, and The ability of wheat straw degradation of Y5 was determinated by using weight loss method and liquid culture. The fungus was identified as Penicillium ochrochloron and named Y5. Filter paper activity (FPA) and endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase (EG) were both reached the maximum after the first fourth day inoculated, averaged 53 IU/mL and 55 IU/mL, respectively, which were 22.6% and 18.2% higher than that of strain Trichoderma viride (AS3. 3711), respectively. Enzyme activities were the highest under the condition of wheat straw used as C resources, which were 27.5% and 24.8% higher than that of AS3. 3711. The FPA and EG activities were 35.7% and 14.9% higher than the AS3. 3711 strain with NaNO3 as nitrogen source. The optimal pH value of liquid culture was 6. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents were degraded by 43.5%, 49.7% and 9.3% after the first 10 days inoculated, respectively, which indicated that Y5 had strong enzyme activities on degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses of wheat straw. The Penicillium ochrochloron Y5 has strong ability of wheat straw cellulose degradation, and its cellulase activities are higher than some published researches. The Penicillium ochrochloron Y5 strain has the great potential in research and development for inoculant of crop straw decomposition. PMID:21404694

Yin, Zhong-Wei; Fan, Bing-Quan; Ren, Ping

2011-01-01

122

Effect of Additions on Ensiling and Microbial Community of Senesced Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect

Crop residues collected during or after grain harvest are available once per year and must be stored for extended periods. The combination of air, high moisture, and high microbial loads leads to shrinkage during storage and risk of spontaneous ignition. Ensiling is a wet preservation method that could be used to store these residues stably. To economically adapt ensiling to biomass that is harvested after it has senesced, the need for nutrient, moisture, and microbial additions must be determined. We tested the ensiling of senesced wheat straw in sealed columns for 83 d. The straw was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and amended with several levels of water and free sugars. The ability to stabilize the straw polysaccharides was strongly influenced by both moisture and free sugars. Without the addition of sugar, the pH increased from 5.2 to as much as 9.1, depending on moisture level, and losses of 22% of the cellulose and 21% of the hemicellulose were observed. By contrast, when sufficient sugars were added and interstitial water was maintained, a final pH of 4.0 was attainable, with correspondingly low (<5%) losses of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results show that ensiling should be considered a promising method for stable storage of wet biorefinery feedstocks.

David N. Thompson; Joni M. Barnes; Tracy P. Houghton

2005-04-01

123

BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART II - FED-BATCH FERMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolyzate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable u...

124

BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART I-BATCH FERMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simult...

125

Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part I—Batch fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of WS without agitation (Process III), simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation with additional sugar supplementation (Process IV),

Nasib Qureshi; Badal C. Saha; Ronald E. Hector; Stephen R. Hughes; Michael A. Cotta

2008-01-01

126

EFFECTS OF WHOLE COTTONSEED, COTTONSEED OIL OR ANIMAL FAT ON DIGESTIBILITY OF WHEAT STRAW DIETS BY STEERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two completely random digestion trials were conducted, each with 12 beef steers (325 kg initial weight), to measure changes in digestibilities of fat and of forage components when fat was added to diets containing 62 to 76% wheat straw. Trial 1 diets contained either no added fat or 6.3% added fat from whole cottonseed (30% of the diet), cottonseed oil

J. A. Moore; R. S. Swingle; W. H. Hale

127

Production of lignocellulolytic enzymes and enhancement of in vitro digestibility during solid state fermentation of wheat straw by Phlebia floridensis.  

PubMed

Degradation by white rot fungi has the potential to increase digestibility of wheat straw and thus improve its value as animal feed. To optimize conditions for production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Phlebia floridensis during solid state fermentation of wheat straw along with enhancement of in vitro digestibility, a response surface methodology (RSM) based experiment was designed. Effect of moisture content, inorganic nitrogen source (NH(4)Cl) and malt extract on lignocellulolytic enzymes, changes in chemical constituents and digestibility of wheat straw was evaluated. With increase in moisture content, laccase production increased up to 34-fold, while Manganese peroxidase was optimally produced in the presence of almost equal amount (50-55 mg/g of WS) of NH(4)Cl and malt extract. These supplements also significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the production of CMCase and xylanase. In vitro digestibility was increased by almost 50% with a loss of 27.6% and 14.6% in lignin and total organic matter, respectively. The present findings revealed P. floridensis to be an efficient organism for lignocellulolytic enzymes production and simultaneous enhancement in in vitro digestibility of wheat straw. PMID:20675124

Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Daljit Singh

2010-07-14

128

Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Extracellular Glucan and Aryl-Alcohol Oxidase during Wheat-Straw Degradation by Pleurotus eryngii  

PubMed Central

The ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus eryngii grown in liquid medium secreted extracellular polysaccharide (87% glucose) and the H2O2-producing enzyme aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO). The production of both was stimulated by wheat-straw. Polyclonal antibodies against purified AAO were obtained, and a complex of glucanase and colloidal gold was prepared. With these tools, the localization of AAO and extracellular glucan in mycelium from liquid medium and straw degraded under solid-state fermentation conditions was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence microscopy. These studies revealed that P. eryngii produces a hyphal sheath consisting of a thin glucan layer. This sheath appeared to be involved in both mycelial adhesion to the straw cell wall during degradation and AAO immobilization on hyphal surfaces, with the latter evidenced by double labeling. AAO distribution during differential degradation of straw tissues was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Finally, TEM immunogold studies confirmed that AAO penetrates the plant cell wall during P. eryngii degradation of wheat straw.

Barrasa, J. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Escaso, V.; Guillen, F.; Martinez, M. J.; Martinez, A. T.

1998-01-01

129

Analysis of flufenacet in soil, wheat grain and straw by gas chromatography.  

PubMed

An analytical procedure for detecting residues of a new herbicide, flufenacet, in soil, wheat grain and straw by gas chromatographic method using various solvents and extraction methods was standardized. The best results were obtained when samples fortified with flufenacet and were extracted with acetone-0.2 M HCl (95:5) using a horizontal shaker for soil and Soxhlet extractor for plant samples. The clean up was done by partitioning with dichloromethane. The GC equipped with an electron-capture detector and a column packing of HP-1 as stationary phase and nitrogen as a carrier gas at a flow-rate of 15 ml min(-1) was used. Temperatures of oven, injector and detector were adjusted at 190, 210 and 270 degrees C, respectively. The retention time of flufenacet was 2.07 min. The herbicide recoveries ranged between 81 to 100% from the three matrices. PMID:10950301

Bazoobandi, M; Yaduraju, N T; Kulshrestha, G

2000-07-21

130

Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids: wheat straw fractionation.  

PubMed

This work is devoted to study pre-treatment methodologies of wheat straw with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][CH3COO]) and subsequent fractionation to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The method developed and described here allows the separation into high purity carbohydrate and lignin fractions and permits an efficient IL recovery. A versatility of the established method was confirmed by the IL reuse. The fractionation of completely dissolved biomass led to cellulose-rich and hemicellulose-rich fractions. A high purity lignin was also achieved. To verify the potential further applicability of the obtained carbohydrate-rich fractions, and to evaluate the pre-treatment efficiency, the cellulose fraction resulting from the treatment with [emim][CH3COO] was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results showed a very high digestibility of the cellulose samples and confirmed a high glucose yield for the optimized pre-treatment methodology. PMID:23735803

da Costa Lopes, André M; João, Karen G; Rubik, Djonatam F; Bogel-?ukasik, Ewa; Duarte, Luís C; Andreaus, Jürgen; Bogel-?ukasik, Rafa?

2013-05-16

131

Anaerobic digestion of wheat straw - Performance of continuous solid-state digestion.  

PubMed

In this study the upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor was operated at various conditions to optimize the process parameters for anaerobically digesting wheat straw in a continuous process. Additionally, particle size effects have been studied in the operation at 55 and 60°C. Moreover, the incremental effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) to the system was examined from 2.5 to 8gVSL(-1)d(-1). It was found that the UASS operating at 60°C with a small OLR yields highest methane production, but the advantage over thermophilic operation is negligible. The rise in OLR reduces the systems yields, as expected. From OLR=8gVSL(-1)d(-1) a second stage is necessary to circumvent volatile fatty acids accumulation. PMID:23954246

Pohl, Marcel; Heeg, Kathrin; Mumme, Jan

2013-07-27

132

Effects of pig manure and wheat straw on growth of mung bean seedlings grown in aluminium toxicity soil.  

PubMed

Crop production in red soil areas may be limited by Al toxicity. A possible alternative to ameliorate Al toxicity is the application of such organic manure as crop straw and animal manure. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic materials on the alleviation of Al toxicity in acid red soil. Ground wheat straw, pig manure or CaCO3 were mixed with the soil and incubated, at 85% of water holding capacity and 25 degrees C, for 8 weeks. After the incubation, 14 seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus aures Roxb) were allowed to grow for 12 days. Results showed that application of organic material or CaCO3 increased soil pH and decreased soil monomeric inorganic Al concentrations. Growth of mung bean seedling was improved sustantially by the application of organic material or CaCO3. Pig manure or wheat straw was more effective in ameliorating Al toxicity than was CaCO3. Mung bean plants receiving pig manure or wheat straw contained relatively high concentrations of P, Ca and K in their leaves. It is suggested that the beneficial effect of organic manure on mung bean is likely due to decreasing concentrations of monomeric inorganic Al concentrations in soil solution and improvement of mineral nutrition. PMID:11198175

Shen, Q R; Shen, Z G

2001-02-01

133

Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS) unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS), resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L) did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and second-generation processes also increases the ethanol concentration, resulting in a reduction in the cost of the distillation step, thus improving the process economics.

2012-01-01

134

The effect of different ethoxylations for sorbitan monolaurate on enhancing simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw to ethanol.  

PubMed

In this paper, four nonionic surfactants with different hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) based on sorbitan monolaurate were synthesized by introducing ethylene oxide gas (n?=?20, 40, 60, and 80 ethylene oxide units). The chemical structure of the prepared ethoxylated surfactants was confirmed using Fourier transform-infrared and (1)H NMR spectroscopes. The surface tension and thermodynamic properties of the prepared surfactants have been studied. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for ethanol production from microwave/alkali pretreated wheat straw has been assayed using nonionic surfactants have different ethylene oxide units. Ethanol yield was 82% and 61% for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, with the addition of 2.5 g/l of the prepared nonionic surfactant (HLB?=?18.2). Results show that the production of ethanol from microwave/alkali pretreated wheat straw increased with increasing the (HLB) value of the nonionic surfactant. PMID:21984384

Badawi, A M; Fahmy, A A; Mohamed, Karima A; Noor El-Din, M R; Riad, M G

2011-10-08

135

Increased degradation of straw by Pleurotus ostreatus sp. ‘florida’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Pleurotus ostreatus sp. ‘florida’ on cotton and wheat straw supplemented with cotton straw water extract was examined. It was found that degradation of cotton straw was superior to that of wheat straw and that addition of water extract of cotton straw increased the degradation of wheat straw. The growth enhancing effect of this water extract could be

M. W. Platt; Y. Hadar; Y. Henis; I. Chet

1983-01-01

136

Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part II—Fed-batch fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone–butanol–ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolysate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable under present conditions) and fermentation to butanol is possible. In addition to WS, the reactor was fed

Nasib Qureshi; Badal C. Saha; Michael A. Cotta

2008-01-01

137

Removal of dyes from a synthetic textile dye effluent by biosorption on apple pomace and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with two low-cost, locally available, renewable biosorbents; apple pomace and wheat straw for textile dye removal. Experiments at total dye concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150, and 200mg\\/l were carried out with a synthetic effluent consisting of an equal mixture of five textile dyes. The effect of initial dye concentration, biosorbent particle size, quantity

T Robinson; B Chandran; P Nigam

2002-01-01

138

An experimental investigation on equilibrium moisture content of earth plaster with natural reinforcement fibres for straw bale buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the determination of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of natural plaster materials for straw bale buildings. Earth plasters of four different compositions of cohesive soil and sand combined with reinforcement of three different natural fibre types, wheat straw, barley straw and wood shavings, were investigated. The plaster materials were treated under different temperature (10–40 °C) and relative humidity

Taha Ashour; Heiko Georg; Wei Wu

2011-01-01

139

KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for small knife mill screen sizes (12.7 to 25.4 mm) and distributions classified as 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for the large screen size (50.8 mm). Total and effective specific energy values per unit size reduction of wheat straw were greater compared to those for switchgrass. Corn stover resulted in reduced total and effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to wheat straw for the same operating conditions, but higher total specific energy per unit size reduction and lesser effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to switchgrass. Data on minimized total specific energy with corresponding particle spectra will be useful for preparing feed material with a knife mill for subsequent grinding with finer size reduction devices.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University

2010-01-01

140

[Comparing the ammonia volatilization characteristic of two typical paddy soil with total wheat straw returning in Taihu Lake region].  

PubMed

An experiment using monolith lysimeter was conducted to compare the characteristic of N loss by ammonia (NH3) volatilization between the gleyed paddy soil (G soil) and hydromorphic paddy soil (H soil) the Changshu National Agro-ecological Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(31 degrees 33' N, 123 degrees 38' E). Three treatments were designed for each soil type, i. e. control (no urea and straw applied), nitrogen solely and nitrogen plus wheat straw. Ammonia volatilization, flood water NH4(+) -N concentration, pH and top soil Eh were measured during the rice-growing season. Results showed that the NH3 volatilization flux and cumulative N losses by NH3 volatilization from G soil were significantly higher than those from H soil, the average cumulative N losses being about 41.8 kg x hm(-2) and 11.2 kg x hm(-2), or 15.2% and 3.8% of the fertilizer N, respectively. The average N loss by NH3 volatilization during the tillering stage was the highest among the three fertilization stages, accounting for 29.4% and 8.3% of the fertilizer N for G soil and H soil, respectively. Wheat straw returning significantly increased paddy filed NH3 volatilization losses. Comparing with the sole application of fertilizer-N, the cumulative N loss by NH3 volatilization of fertilizer-N in combination with wheat straw was increased by 19.8% and 20.6% for G soil and H soil, respectively. In addition, ammonia volatilization fluxes showed a positive relationship with the flood water NH4(+) -N concentration and pH for both soils, but the relationship with top soil Eh still needs further study. PMID:23487914

Wang, Jun; Wang, De-Jian; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yuan

2013-01-01

141

Extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production from wheat straw hydrolysate using mixed culture fermentation: effect of reactor configuration.  

PubMed

Hydrogen production from hemicellulose-rich wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR), up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, and anaerobic filter (AF) reactor. The CSTR was operated at an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, and the UASB and AF reactors were operated at 1 day HRT, using mixed extreme thermophiles at 70 °C. The highest hydrogen production yield of 212.0±6.6 mL-H?/g-sugars, corresponding to a hydrogen production rate of 821.4±25.5 mL-H?/dL was achieved with the UASB reactor. Lowering the HRT to 2.5 days caused cell mass washout in the CSTR, while the UASB and AF reactors gave fluctuating and reducing hydrogen production at a 0.5-day HRT. The original rate and yield were recovered when the HRT was increased back to 1 day. These results demonstrate that reactor configuration is an important factor for enhancing and stabilizing H? production. PMID:20554199

Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

2010-10-01

142

Strategies of xylanase supplementation for an efficient saccharification and cofermentation process from pretreated wheat straw.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials includes a pretreatment step before enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). Pretreated substrates contain complex hemicelluloses in the solid fraction that can protect the cellulose from enzymatic attack. In addition, soluble xylooligomers are contained in the pretreated materials and may have an inhibitory effect on cellulase activity. In this context, several approaches for xylanase supplementation have been studied to increase EH yields. In this study, the whole slurry obtained after steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw has been used as substrate. EH experiments were performed using commercial cellulase preparations supplemented with an endoxylanase (XlnC) from Aspergillus nidulans. Among different strategies of XlnC supplementation, the 24-h xylanase treatment before cellulase addition yielded an increase of 40.1 and 10.1% in glucose and xylose production, respectively. Different XlnC addition strategies were integrated in a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation process (SSCF) using the xylose fermenting strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12. Ethanol production in SSCF was 28.4% higher when comparing to a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. PMID:21567993

Alvira, Pablo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Negro, María José; Ballesteros, Mercedes

2011-05-12

143

Production of cellulase in solid-state fermentation with Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 on wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

It is an accepted fact that ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is not economical as yet because of the high cost of cellulose production. To reduce the cost of cellulose production, lignocellulosic material (wheat straw [WS]), a comparatively much cheaper substrate, was used instead of costly substrates (pure cellulose or lactose). A pan bioreactor was developed for solid-state fermentation (SSF) that required a small capital investment. High yields of complete cellulose system were obtained compared to that in the liquid-state fermentation (LSF) from WS, when treated with 4.25% NaOH at 121{degrees}C for 1 h and mixed with Mandels` medium. A complete cellulose system is defined as one in which the ratio of {beta} glucosidase activity to filter paper activity in the enzyme solution is close to 1.0. The cellulose system derived from SSF using the pan bioreactor gave more than 85% hydrolysis of delignified WS. The prototype pan bioreactor requires further improvements so that optimum quantity of substrate can be fermented to obtain high yields of complete cellulose system per unit space. The SSF process provides a means for the production of complete cellulose system for the economical bioconversion of renewable biomass into ethanol. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Chahal, P.S.; Chahal, D.S. [Universite du Quebec, Laval (Canada); Le, G.B.B. [Ministry of Natural Resources, Charlesbourg, Quebec (Canada)

1996-12-31

144

Optimisation of the biological pretreatment of wheat straw with white-rot fungi for ethanol production.  

PubMed

The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the most frequently used process, steam explosion (SE). However, this pretreatment can still not be industrially implemented due to long incubation times. The main objective of this work was to test the viability of and optimise the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which uses ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus eryngii and Irpex lacteus) in a solid-state fermentation of sterilised wheat straw complemented with a mild alkali treatment. In this study, the most important parameters of the mechanical and thermal substrate conditioning processes and the most important parameters of the fungal fermentation process were optimised to improve sugar recovery. The largest digestibilities were achieved with fermentation with I. lacteus under optimised conditions, under which cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility increased after 21 days of pretreatment from 16 to 100 % and 12 to 87 %, respectively. The maximum glucose yield (84 %) of cellulose available in raw material was obtained after only 14 days of pretreatment with an overall ethanol yield of 74 % of the theoretical value, which is similar to that reached with SE. PMID:23232963

López-Abelairas, M; Álvarez Pallín, M; Salvachúa, D; Lú-Chau, T; Martínez, M J; Lema, J M

2012-12-12

145

Opportunities for using bio-based fibers for value-added composites  

Treesearch

Source: Proceedings of the 8th Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites ... trees, agricultural residues (wheat straw, rice straw, and corn stalk), exotic-invasive species ... in wood-plastic composites, bio-fibers for new engineered fiberboard products, ...

146

Selection of strains of Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana adapted for efficient mycelial growth on wheat straw.  

PubMed

Mycelial growth rates are presented for 11 strains of Lentinula edodes and six strains of Lentinula boryana cultivated on solid media: derived from malt extract (MEA); malt yeast extract (YMEA); and, YMEA plus soluble lignin derivatives (YMEA+WSLD). The results were compared with data for mycelial growth rates, of the same strains cultivated on substrates derived from wheat straw treated at different temperatures (50, 65, 75 and autoclaving at 121 degrees C). In general, the addition of WSLD significantly reduced mycelial growth rates in both species. The greatest mycelial growth rate was obtained on sterilized straw at 121 degrees C for the majority of strains. However, this growth was not significantly different from that obtained at 75 degrees C. L. edodes showed greater growth rates than L. boryana. The feasibility of using estimates of mycelial growth rate on YMEA and YMEA+WSLD are discussed as possible indicators of a strain's potential for mycelial growth on substrates derived from wheat straw. PMID:15487920

Mata, G; Delpech, P; Savoie, J M

2001-09-01

147

Comparison of two Cellulomonas strains and their interaction with Azospirillum brasilense in degradation of wheat straw and associated nitrogen fixation  

SciTech Connect

A mutant strain of Cellulomonas sp. CS1-17 was compared with Cellulomonas gelida 2480 as the cellulolytic component of a mixed culture which was responsible for the breakdown of wheat straw to support asymbiotic nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 (ATCC 29145). Cellulomonas sp. strain CS1-17 was more efficient than was C. gelida in cellulose breakdown at lower oxygen concentrations and, in mixed culture with A. brasilense, it supported higher nitrogenase activity(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction) and nitrogen fixation with straw as the carbon source. Based on gravimetric determinations of straw breakdown and total N determinations, the efficiency of nitrogen fixation was 72 and 63 mg of N per g of straw utilized for the mixtures containing Cellulomonas sp. and C. gelida, respectively. Both Cellulomonas spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited a wide range of pH tolerance. When introduced into sterilized soil, the Cellulomonas sp.-Azospirillum brasilense association was more effective in nitrogen fixation at a pH of 7.0 than at the native soil pH (5.6). This was also true of the indigenous diazotrophic microflora of this soil. The potential implications of this work to the field situation are discussed. 16 references.

Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

1986-04-01

148

Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.  

PubMed

We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing. PMID:18954978

Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

2008-10-26

149

[Anticoagulant activity of extracts from cedar bark, anthocyanidins of spruce and birch bark, and cellulose of aspen, fir, and wheat straw].  

PubMed

We have investigated in vitro the anticoagulant (AC) activity of proanthocyanidins from the bark of birch, cedar, spruce, pine, and larch; sulfated arabinogalantan and dihydroquercetin from larch wood; extracts from birch, cedar, and spruce; microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from aspen and fir wood and wheat straw; and methylcellulose (MC) from aspen wood. The AC properties of the investigated substances are related mostly to their antithrombin activity. The AC activity increases with the content of sulfur in MCC of wheat straw, MC of aspen wood, and arabinogalañtan of larch wood. The maximum AC activity was observed in samples of sulfated MCC from fir wood and wheat straw. Their antithrombin activity (134 +/- 8 and 96 +/- 6, respectively) is worth of carrying out model tests in vivo. PMID:20726345

Drozd, N N; Kuznetsova, S A; Miftakhova, N T; Makarov, V A; Vasil'eva, N Iu; Levdanski?, A V; Butylkina, A I

2010-06-01

150

Amino acid production from rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates by recombinant pentose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the pentose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but it is known that recombinants expressing the araBAD operon and/or the xylA gene from Escherichia coli are able to grow with the pentoses xylose and arabinose as sole carbon sources. Recombinant pentose-utilizing strains derived from C. glutamicum wild type or from the L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain DM1729 utilized arabinose and/or xylose when these were added as pure chemicals to glucose-based minimal medium or when they were present in acid hydrolysates of rice straw or wheat bran. The recombinants grew to higher biomass concentrations and produced more L-glutamate and L-lysine, respectively, than the empty vector control strains, which utilized the glucose fraction. Typically, arabinose and xylose were co-utilized by the recombinant strains along with glucose either when acid rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates were used or when blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose were used. With acid hydrolysates growth, amino acid production and sugar consumption were delayed and slower as compared to media with blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The ethambutol-triggered production of up to 93 ± 4 mM L-glutamate by the wild type-derived pentose-utilizing recombinant and the production of up to 42 ± 2 mM L-lysine by the recombinant pentose-utilizing lysine producer on media containing acid rice straw or wheat bran hydrolysate as carbon and energy source revealed that acid hydrolysates of agricultural waste materials may provide an alternative feedstock for large-scale amino acid production. PMID:21796382

Gopinath, Vipin; Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Wendisch, Volker F; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

2011-07-28

151

Hydrothermal and organosolv pretreatments of poplar wood and wheat straw for saccharification by a Trichoderma viride cellulase  

SciTech Connect

Two types of processes have been applied for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials in order to render them easily degradable by the cellulase of Trichoderma viride. They were compared at different temperatures, with regard both to the residual dry mass and the improvement in accessibility to the enzyme complex. The latter was measured in terms of glucose liberated, which was quantified by HPLC. Hydrothermolysis proved more effective than the organosolv process for the pretreatment of wheat straw, and vice versa for poplar wood. In terms of the percentage of glucan enzymatically converted to glucose, yields up to 90% could be achieved. 16 references.

Bonn, G.; Hoermeyer, H.F.; Bobleter, O.

1987-01-01

152

Influence of the ratio between wheat straw and ground barley, ground corn or dried sugar beet pulp on in sacco dry matter degradation of ryegrass and wheat straw, rumen fermentation and apparent digestibility in sheep.  

PubMed

Castrated male sheep were fed with 5 different rations varying in the straw to concentrate ratio between 100: 0, 75: 25, 50: 50, 25: 75 and 0: 100. Ground barley, ground corn and dried sugar beet pulp were used as concentrate sources. Chopped winter wheat straw was fed as roughage source. All rations were supplemented with a protein-mineral-vitamin-premix. In sacco dry matter degradability of artificially dried ryegrass, untreated and ammonia treated wheat straw was measured within three rumen fistulated sheep. Nylon bags were incubated for 48 h in the rumen of sheep. Volatile fatty acids of rumen fluid were determined by gas chromatography. Samples were taken via rumen fistula 3 h after morning feeding. Apparent digestibility of organic matter and fibre fractions of total rations were determined within five sheep. Increased concentrate portion decreased in sacco dry matter degradability of incubated roughages. Decrease of dry matter degradability was much higher for ammonia treated (from 55.0 to 22.5%) and untreated straw (from 50.9 to 22.7%) than for ryegrass (from 75.6 to 69.2%), when concentrate increased from 0 to 100% of ration. The highest concentrate portions did not show any increase of degradability of ammonia treated straw. Specific concentrate effects were observed when 75 and 100% concentrate were fed (unphysiological level). Ground barley as concentrate source decreased rumen pH to a larger extent (down to 5.18) than corn and sugar beet pulp (down to 5.60 and 5.57). Sheep suffered from rumen acidosis in some cases. Higher concentrate levels increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids of rumen liquid and molar concentration of propionate and butyrate, but decreased acetate. Various concentrate sources showed different influences on parameters of rumen fermentation. Apparent digestibility of organic matter of total rations increased from 52.7 to 86.1% if concentrate portions enhanced from 0 to 100%. High portions of ground barley decreased cellulolytic activity and fibre digestion. On the other hand high levels of sugar beet pulp increased digestibility of crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre. PMID:8390235

Flachowsky, G; Koch, H; Tiroke, K; Matthey, M

1993-01-01

153

Biogas production from wheat straw and manure - Impact of pretreatment and process operating parameters.  

PubMed

Non-treated or steam-exploded straw in co-digestion with cattle manure was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production compared with manure as the sole substrate. All digestions were performed in laboratory-scale CSTR reactors (5L) operating with an organic loading late of approximately 2.8g VS/L/day, independent of substrate mixture. The hydraulic retention was 25days and an operating temperature of 37, 44 or 52°C. The co-digestion with steam exploded straw and manure was evaluated with two different mixtures, with different proportion. The results showed stable performance but low methane yields (0.13-0.21NLCH4/kg VS) for both manure alone and in co-digestion with the straw. Straw appeared to give similar yield as manure and steam-explosion treatment of the straw did not increase gas yields. Furthermore, there were only slight differences at the different operating temperatures. PMID:24121239

Risberg, Kajsa; Sun, Li; Levén, Lotta; Horn, Svein Jarle; Schnürer, Anna

2013-09-19

154

Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.  

PubMed

Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) intake was in sheep fed T1 and T4 diets, while the lowest was in those fed T2 and T5 diets. Sheep fed T1 and T2 diets had greater (P < 0.05) DM and OM digestibility than those fed T4 and T5 diets. The highest (P < 0.05) digestibility of N was for the T2, T4, and T5 diets, while the lowest was for the T1 diet. The highest N retention was in T4 diet, whereas the lowest was in T3 diet. In conclusion, in urban and peri-urban areas where atella, poultry litter, or coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds. PMID:19882225

Nurfeta, Ajebu

2009-10-31

155

Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal × Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance. PMID:21110091

Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

2010-11-26

156

Role of Bacillus spp. in antagonism between Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum in heat-treated wheat-straw substrates.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify bacteria involved in Trichodermaharzianum inhibition while promoting Pleurotus ostreatus defences in order to favour cultivation-substrate selectivity for mushroom production. PCR-DGGE profiles of total DNA from wheat-straw substrate showed weak differences between bacterial communities from substrate inoculated with P. ostreatus with or without T. harzianum. The major cultivable bacteria were isolated from three batches of wheat-straw-based cultivation substrates showing an efficient selectivity. They were screened for their ability to inhibit T.harzianum. By using specific media for bacterial isolation and by sequencing certain 16S-rDNA, we observed that Bacillus spp. were the main inhibitors. Among them, a dominant species was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa. This species was co-cultivated on agar media with P. ostreatus. The measurement of laccase activities from culture plugs indicated that P. polymyxa induced increases in enzyme activities. Bacillus spp. and specifically P. polymyxa from cultivation substrates are implicated in their selectivity by both inhibiting the growth of T.harzianum and stimulating defences of the mushroom P. ostreatus through the induction of laccases. The management of microbial communities during P.ostreatus cultivation-substrate preparation in order to favour P. polymyxa and other Bacillus spp. growth, can be a way to optimize the development of P. ostreatus for mushroom production or other environmental uses of this fungus. PMID:18295481

Velázquez-Cedeño, Marnyye; Farnet, Anne Marie; Mata, Gerardo; Savoie, Jean-Michel

2008-03-04

157

Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from open burning of wheat straw and corn stover in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements were conducted to determine the characteristics of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) emitted from open burning of wheat straw and maize stover, two major agricultural residues in China. The headfire ignition technique was used with sampling downwind from the agricultural fire. Fifty-two NMHC species were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A carbon mass balance method was used to determine NMHC emission factors. The emission factors of the total speciated NMHCs from wheat straw and maize stover are 1690 ± 580 mg kg-1 and 1590 ± 430 mg kg-1, respectively. Propane, n-pentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, propene, benzene and toluene are the main species, together accounting for 55.3%-68.0% of the total NMHCs. On the basis of measured emission factors and the published maximum incremental reactivity values for NMHCs, we estimated the ozone forming potential (OFP) of speciated NMHCs. The results indicate that propene, 1-butene, isoprene, toluene and m,p-xylene have high OFP values and account for about 50% of the total OFP. Alkenes played the most important role in potential ozone formation, followed by aromatics and alkanes.

Li, Xinghua; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

2009-10-01

158

A 13C CP\\/MAS NMR evaluation of the structural changes in wheat straw subjected to different chemical and biological pulping conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw pulps prepared by chemical (soda) and biological (enzymatic or fungal) treatments were analyzed by 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectrometry under quantitative acquisition conditions. The most significant changes reflected in the spectra as a result of soda cooking correspond to: (i) decrease of methoxyl content of the residual lignin (56, 153, 147 and 135 ppm), and (ii) deacetylation of hemicellulose

M. E. Guadalix; G. Almendros; A. T. Martínez; F. J. González-Vila; U. Lankes

1997-01-01

159

EFFECT OF CRUDE PROTEIN AND RUMINAL AMMONIA-N ON DIGESTIBILITY AND RUMINAL OUTFLOW IN BEEF CATTLE FED WHEAT STRAW 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) level and time of supplementation on ruminal dry matter disappearance of wheat straw (WS) diets was evaluated using beef cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal canulae. The dietary treatments were 8% (8 1) and 10% (10x 1) CP with supplemental protein fed once daily and 10% (10x 2) CP with supplemental protein

R. H. Pritchard; J. R. Males

160

Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw ( Triticum aestivum L.) – The impact of lignin relocation and plant tissues on enzymatic accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw is a potential feedstock for bioethanol production. This paper investigates tissues from whole internode sections subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment at 185°C and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis up to 144h. Analyses revealed an increase in surface lignin as hydrolysis progressed, which could be coupled to the gradual decrease in hydrolysis rate over time. The data support the hypothesis of lignin

Mads A. T. Hansen; Jan Bach Kristensen; Claus Felby; Henning Jørgensen

2011-01-01

161

Comparison of separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes for ethanol production from wheat straw by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol production by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 from dilute acid pretreated wheat straw (WS) by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. The WS used in this study contained 32.0±0% cellulose, 32.1±1.3% hemicellulo...

162

The utilization of teff ( Eragrotis tef) straw by sheep fed supplementary forage legumes with or without either crushed maize grain or wheat bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the interaction of high energy substrates (ES; crushed maize grain (MG) and wheat bran (WB)) with forage legumes (FLs), such as Lablab purpureus hay, sun dried leaves of Sesbania sesban and tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis), on ruminal microbial activity (indexed by the degradability and digestibility of teff (Eragrotis tef) straw (TS), urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD)) and

I. V Nsahlai; N. N Umunna; M. L. K Bonsi

1998-01-01

163

Application of biochemical degradation indices to the microbial decomposition of maize leaves and wheat straw in soils under different tillage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a long-term tillage experiment comparing mouldboard plough and rotary harrow since 1967, litterbags with green maize residues and wheat straw were buried, recovered from soil and analysed for biochemical degradation indices. Our objective was to investigate whether lignin units and neutral and amino sugars give information on microbial degradation after burial periods of 6 and 12months at two different

Anna Jacobs; Klaus Kaiser; Bernard Ludwig; Rolf Rauber; Rainer Georg Joergensen

2011-01-01

164

In vitro and in situ evaluation of selected multipurpose trees, wheat bran and Lablab purpureus as potential feed supplements to tef ( Eragrostis tef) straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro and in situ evaluations of feed samples were carried out at Debre Zeit Research Station (Ethiopia) of the International Livestock Research Institute. The feed samples consisted of tef straw, wheat bran, dried Lablab purpureus, and dried foliage of the multipurpose trees (MPT), namely Sesbania sesban 1198, Sesbania sesban 15019, Acacia angustissima 15132, Leucaena pallida 14203, and mixtures of

Solomon Melaku; Kurt J Peters; Azage Tegegne

2003-01-01

165

An experimental study on shrinkage of earth plaster with natural fibres for straw bale buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a series of laboratory tests on shrinkage of plaster materials are presented. The plaster materials consist of cohesive soil, sand and different natural fibres. Three types of fibres, wheat straw, barley straw and wood shavings, were used as reinforcement in the tests. The shrinkage behaviour of earth plasters was studied by laboratory tests for different compositions and

Taha Ashour; Wei Wu

2010-01-01

166

Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil fuel; and on the other hand, it provides a means for ''exporting'' geothermal energy from the well site. The primary goal of the work discussed in this report was to investigate the effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. In assessing the relative merits of various sets of conditions, we considered both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, we also investigated the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge. Phenol was selected for study because it was reported (8) to be effective in suppressing repolymerization of reactive lignin fragments. Aluminum sulfate, on the other hand, was chosen as a representative of the Lewis acids which, we hoped, would catalyze the delignification reactions.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01

167

Biogas production from wheat straw in batch and UASB reactors: the roles of pretreatment and seaweed hydrolysate as a co-substrate.  

PubMed

This research evaluated biogas production in batch and UASB reactors from pilot-scale acid catalysed steam pretreated and enzymatic hydrolysed wheat straw. The results showed that the pretreatment was efficient and, a sugar yield of 95% was obtained. The pretreatment improved the methane yield (0.28 m(3)/kg VS(added)) by 57% compared to untreated straw. Treatment of the straw hydrolysate with nutrient supplementation in a UASB reactor resulted in a high methane production rate, 2.70 m(3)/m(3).d at a sustainable OLR of 10.4 kg COD/m(3).d and with a COD reduction of 94%. Alternatively, co-digestion of the straw and seaweed hydrolysates in a UASB reactor also maintained a stable anaerobic process and can thus reduce the cost of nutrients addition. We have shown that biogas production from wheat straw can be competitive by pretreatment, high methane production rate in UASB reactors and also by co-digestion with seaweed hydrolysate. PMID:23196235

Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Murto, Marika

2012-11-02

168

Profile of isoacids in rumen fluid and influence of added isoacids on in sacco dry matter disappearance of untreated and ammonia treated wheat straw.  

PubMed

The influence of type of diet and time after feeding on concentration of isoacids in rumen fluid of 6 fistulated sheep were investigated. The concentration of isoacids in rumen fluid was higher in diets rich in concentrate and protein (5.6) than in roughage diets (3.4) or in straw-starch-urea diets poor in native protein (highest concentration: 2.1 mmol/l rumen fluid). Feeding of roughage diet or straw-starch-urea-diet effected a significant decrease of concentration of isoacids in the rumen fluid after morning feeding, but concentrate-roughage diet, increased the isoacids-concentration. Reasons for decreased concentration of isoacids may be a shortage of corresponding amino acids and a high activity of cellulolytic microbes. Infusion of isoacids (3 g per day) in the rumen of sheep fed with a straw-starch-sugar-urea diet did not significantly influence the in sacco dry matter degradability of untreated wheat straw, but increased the dry matter loss of ammonia treated wheat straw from 16.0; 26.6; 39.4; 54.0 and 58.8% to 17.3; 29.7; 43.1; 56.3 and 63.0% after 6; 12; 24; 48 and 72 h rumen incubation time respectively. Further experiments seem to be necessary. The effect of isoacids may be expected to occur with poor quality feeds, rich in fibre low in protein and hence low in branched-chain amino acids. PMID:2844140

Flachowsky, G; Matthey, M; Ochrimenko, W I; Schneider, M

1988-05-01

169

Comparison of some new pretreatment methods for second generation bioethanol production from wheat straw and water hyacinth.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic residues like water hyacinth (WH) and wheat straw (WS) using crude glycerol (CG) and ionic liquids (IL) pretreatment was evaluated and compared with conventional dilute acid pretreatment (DAT) in terms of enzymatic hydrolysis yield and fermentation yield of pretreated samples. In the case of WS, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment was found to be the best method. The hydrolysis yields of glucose and total reducing sugars were 2.1 and 3.3 times respectively higher by IL pretreatment than DAT, while it was 1.4 and 1.9 times respectively higher with CG pretreatment. For WH sample, CG pretreatment was as effective as DAT and more effective than IL pretreatment regarding hydrolysis yield. The fermentation inhibition was not noticeable with both types of pretreatment methods and feedstocks. Besides, CG pretreatment was found as effective as pure glycerol pretreatment for both feedstocks. This opens up an attractive economic route for the utilization of CG. PMID:21273061

Guragain, Yadhu Nath; De Coninck, Joelle; Husson, Florence; Durand, Alain; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

2010-12-06

170

Ultrasonic vibration-assisted pelleting of wheat straw: a predictive model for energy consumption using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Cellulosic biomass can be used as a feedstock for biofuel manufacturing. Pelleting of cellulosic biomass can increase its bulk density and thus improve its storability and reduce the feedstock transportation costs. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted (UV-A) pelleting can produce biomass pellets whose density is comparable to that processed by traditional pelleting methods (e.g. extruding, briquetting, and rolling). This study applied response surface methodology to the development of a predictive model for the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting of wheat straw. Effects of pelleting pressure, ultrasonic power, sieve size, and pellet weight were investigated. This study also optimized the process parameters to minimize the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting using response surface methodology. Optimal conditions to minimize the energy consumption were the following: ultrasonic power at 20%, sieve size at 4 mm, and pellet weight at 1g, and the minimum energy consumption was 2.54 Wh. PMID:23859359

Song, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Meng; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

2013-07-01

171

Ethanol-based organosolv fractionation of wheat straw for the production of lignin and enzymatically digestible cellulose.  

PubMed

Wheat straw fractionation by ethanol organosolv was studied as pretreatment for enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. A parametric study focusing on temperature, reaction time, acid catalyst dose, solvent concentration, and particle size was performed to determine their influence on delignification, xylan hydrolysis, and enzymatic cellulose digestibility. Major process parameters were found to be temperature, ethanol concentration, and acid dose. Optimisation of the process towards enzymatic digestibility resulted in a maximum glucose yield of 86% without the use of a catalyst (lignin yield 84%, organosolv at 210 °C, 50% w/w aqueous EtOH). Using 30 mM H2SO4 as catalyst resulted in similar glucose and lignin yields at a lower temperature (190 °C, 60% w/w aqueous EtOH). Lowering the pretreatment temperature by using an acid catalyst substantially improved the yield of the hemicellulose derivatives xylose and furfural. A systematic approach in pretreatment optimisation is vital for development of efficient lignocellulosic biorefineries. PMID:23186666

Wildschut, Jelle; Smit, Arjan T; Reith, Johannes H; Huijgen, Wouter J J

2012-10-23

172

Effect of endoxylanase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase supplementation on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded wheat straw.  

PubMed

The cost and hydrolytic efficiency of enzymes are major factors that restrict the commercialization of the bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass. Hemicellulases and other accessory enzymes are becoming crucial to increase enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) yields at low cellulase dosages. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two recombinant hemicellulolytic enzymes on the EH of steam pretreated wheat straw. Pretreatments at two severity conditions were performed and the whole slurry obtained after steam explosion pretreatment was employed as substrate. An endoxylanase (Xln C) from Aspergillus nidulans and an ?-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) from Aspergillus niger, have been applied in combination with cellulase enzymes. A degree of synergism of 29.5% and increases up to 10% in the EH yields were obtained, showing the potential of accessory activities to improve the EH step and make the whole process more effective. PMID:21262567

Alvira, P; Negro, M J; Ballesteros, M

2011-01-05

173

Lignin Peroxidases, Manganese Peroxidases, and Other Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Phlebia radiata during Solid-State Fermentation of Wheat Straw  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Phlebia radiata 79 (ATCC 64658) produces lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), glyoxal oxidase (GLOX), and laccase in the commonly used glucose low-nitrogen liquid medium. However, the enzymes which this fungus utilizes for selective removal of lignin during degradation of different lignocellulosic substrates have not been studied before. Multiple forms of LiP, MnP, GLOX, and laccase were purified from P. radiata culture extracts obtained after solid-state fermentation of wheat straw. However, the patterns of extracellular lignin-modifying enzymes studied were different from those of the enzymes usually found in liquid cultures of P. radiata. Three LiP isoforms were purified. The major LiP isoform from solid-state cultivation was LiP2. LiP3, which has usually been described as the major isoenzyme in liquid cultures, was not expressed during straw fermentation. New MnP isoforms have been detected in addition to the previously reported MnPs. GLOX was secreted in rather high amounts simultaneously with LiP during the first 2 weeks of growth. GLOX purified from P. radiata showed multiple forms, with pIs ranging from 4.0 to 4.6 and with a molecular mass of ca. 68 kDa.

Vares, T.; Kalsi, M.; Hatakka, A.

1995-01-01

174

The role of acetyl xylan esterase in the solubilization of xylan and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw and giant reed  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the complexity of lignocellulosic materials, a complete enzymatic hydrolysis into fermentable sugars requires a variety of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. Addition of xylanases has been shown to significantly improve the performance of cellulases and to increase cellulose hydrolysis by solubilizing xylans in lignocellulosic materials. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) originating from Trichoderma reesei on xylan solubilization and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Results The solubilization of xylan in pretreated wheat straw and giant reed (Arundo donax) by xylanolytic enzymes and the impact of the sequential or simultaneous solubilization of xylan on the hydrolysis of cellulose by purified enzymes were investigated. The results showed that the removal of acetyl groups in xylan by AXE increased the accessibility of xylan to xylanase and improved the hydrolysis of xylan in pretreated wheat straw and giant reed. Solubilization of xylan led to an increased accessibility of cellulose to cellulases and thereby increased the hydrolysis extent of cellulose. A clear synergistic effect between cellulases and xylanolytic enzymes was observed. The highest hydrolysis yield of cellulose was obtained with a simultaneous use of cellulases, xylanase and AXE, indicating the presence of acetylated xylan within the cellulose matrix. Acetylated xylobiose and acetylated xylotriose were produced from xylan without AXE, as confirmed by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry. Conclusions The results in this paper demonstrate that supplementation of xylanase with AXE enhances the solubilization of xylan to some extent and, consequently, increases the subsequent hydrolysis of cellulose. The highest hydrolysis yield was, however, obtained by simultaneous hydrolysis of xylan and cellulose, indicating a layered structure of cellulose and xylan chains in the cell wall substrate. AXE has an important role in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials containing acetylated xylan.

2011-01-01

175

Mechanical and thermal properties of poly(lactic acid) composites with rice straw fiber modified by poly(butyl acrylate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice straw fiber (RSF) was modified by suspension polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) monomer. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) was adsorbed and coated on RSF. The biodegradable composites were prepared with the modified rice straw fiber (MRSF) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by HAAKE rheometer. Mechanical properties

Lijun Qin; Jianhui Qiu; Mingzhu Liu; Shenglong Ding; Liang Shao; Shaoyu Lü; Guohong Zhang; Yang Zhao; Xie Fu

2011-01-01

176

NO formation during agricultural straw combustion.  

PubMed

NO formation during combustion of four typical kinds of straw (wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and corn stalk) which belong to soft straw and hard straw was studied in a tubular quartz fixed bed reactor under conditions relevant to grate boiler combustion. Regarding the real situation in biomass fired power plants in China, NO formation from blended straw combustion was also investigated. Nitrogen transfer during blended straw pyrolysis was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results show that NO conversion for the four straws during combustion is distinctive. Over 70% fuel-N converts into NO for cotton stalk, while only 37% for wheat straw under the same condition. When wheat straw and cotton stalk were mixed, N-NO conversion increases. The limestone addition promotes NO emission during cotton stalk combustion. The presence of SO(2) in atmosphere suppresses NO formation from straw combustion. PMID:21592786

Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Xiaoping

2011-04-30

177

Utilization of the Water Soluble Fraction of Wheat Straw as a Plant Nutrient Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight...

C. L. Mackowiak J. L. Garland

1990-01-01

178

Effects of ammoniation of wheat straw and supplementation with soybean meal or broiler litter on feed intake and digestion in yearling Spanish goat wethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight yearling Spanish wethers (29.6±1.10kg initial BW) were used in an experiment with a 2×4 factorial arrangement of treatments and two simultaneous 4×4 Latin squares to determine effects on feed intake and digestion of supplementing wheat straw treated (ammoniated) with urea (T) or untreated (U) with soybean meal or broiler litter. Supplements were C (ground corn-based and fed at 0.64%

G Abebe; R. C Merkel; G Animut; T Sahlu; A. L Goetsch

2004-01-01

179

Hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw at pilot plant scale using a three-step reactor system aiming at high hemicellulose recovery, high cellulose digestibility and low lignin hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot plant (IBUS) consisting of three reactors was used for hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw (120–150kg\\/h) aiming at co-production of bioethanol (from sugars) and electricity (from lignin). The first reactor step was pre-soaking at 80°C, the second extraction of hemicellulose at 170–180°C and the third improvement of the enzymatic cellulose convertibility at 195°C. Water added to the third reactor

Mette Hedegaard Thomsen; Anders Thygesen; Anne Belinda Thomsen

2008-01-01

180

Resource assessment and removal analysis for corn stover and wheat straw in the Eastern and Midwestern United States—rainfall and wind-induced soil erosion methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was to develop a methodology to estimate “hectare-weighted”, county-level, corn stover and spring and winter wheat straw removable residue quantities in the USA for 1995–1997 in 37 states (north–south line from North Dakota to Texas and all states east) such that tolerable rainfall and wind soil loss limits were not exceeded.The methodology developed and employed

Richard G. Nelson

2002-01-01

181

Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

2011-01-01

182

Assessment of the potential for biogas production from wheat straw leachate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters.  

PubMed

Wheat straw is a major potential source of waste biomass for renewable energy production, but its high salt content causes problems in combustion. The salts can be removed by washing, but this process also removes a proportion of the organic material which could potentially be recovered by anaerobic digestion of the washwater leachate. This approach would maximise the overall energy yield in an integrated process in which washwater could be recycled after further desalting. Leachate from cold water washing with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1.2 g l?¹ was fed to mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters at a loading rate of 1 g COD l?¹ day?¹ to determine the energy yield and any detrimental effects of the leached salts on the process. The specific methane production was 0.29 l CH? g?¹ COD(added), corresponding to a COD removal rate of 84%. Light metal cations in the leachate, especially potassium, were found to accumulate in the digesters and appeared to have a synergistic effect up to a concentration of ?6.5 mg K g?¹ wet weight of the granular sludge, but further accumulation caused inhibition of methanogenesis. It was shown that gas production in the inhibited digesters could be restored within 12 days by switching the feed to a synthetic sewage, which washed the accumulated K out of the digesters. PMID:23109593

Idrus, S; Banks, C J; Heaven, S

2012-01-01

183

Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation of High Dry Matter Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw at Low Enzyme Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O2 as oxidizing agent was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%.

Georgieva, Tania I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K.

184

Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g/L) and hexoses (4.9 g/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia lipolytica, were evaluated by using this hydrolysate as substrates. The results showed that all of these strains could use the detoxified hydrolysate to produce lipids while except R. toruloides non-detoxified hydrolysate could also be used for the growth of all of the selective yeast strains. C. curvatus showed the highest lipid concentrations in medium on both the detoxified (4.2g/L) and non-detoxified (5.8 g/L) hydrolysates. And the inhibitory effect studies on C. curvatus indicated HMF had insignificant impacts at a concentration of up to 3g/L while furfural inhibited cell growth and lipid content by 72.0% and 62.0% at 1g/L, respectively. Our work demonstrates that lipid production is a promising alternative to utilize hemicellulosic sugars obtained during pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21463940

Yu, Xiaochen; Zheng, Yubin; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Chen, Shulin

2011-04-03

185

Yield and nutritional content of Pleurotus sajor caju on wheat straw supplemented with raw and detoxified mahua cake.  

PubMed

The effect of supplementation of wheat straw (WS) with raw/detoxified mahua cake (MC) on yield and nutritional quality of Pleurotus sajor caju was studied. Raw cake significantly enhanced the yield compared to control and could be tolerated up to a 10% addition. Detoxification further improved the mushroom yield giving a maximum of 1024.7gkg(-1) from WS supplemented with 20% saponin free detoxified mahua cake. Chemical analysis of fruit bodies revealed that they are rich in proteins (27.4-34.8%), soluble sugars (28.6-32.2%) and minerals. Glucose, trehalose and glutamic acid, alanine were the major sugars and amino acids detected by HPLC analysis, respectively. HPLC studies further confirmed the absence of saponins (characteristic toxins present in MC) in both fruit bodies and spent. Degradation of complex molecules in spent was monitored via FTIR. The study proved beneficial for effective management of agricultural wastes along with production of nutrient rich and saponin free fruit bodies/spent. PMID:23993610

Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh

2013-07-04

186

Environmental modification of hard red winter wheat flour protein composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrinsic processing quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is modified significantly by cultural conditions and climate. In an attempt to understand the biochemical basis of such variation, environmental modification of flour protein content and composition was measured. Thirty hard red winter wheat cultivars and experimental lines were grown at 17 Nebraska environments during 1990 and 1991. Environmental conditions,

R. A. Graybosch; C. J. Peterson; P. S. Baenziger; D. R. Shelton

1995-01-01

187

Comparison of SHF and SSF processes from steam-exploded wheat straw for ethanol production by xylose-fermenting and robust glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

In this study, bioethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw using different process configurations was evaluated using two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, F12 and Red Star. The strain F12 has been engineerically modified to allow xylose consumption as cereal straw contain considerable amounts of pentoses. Red Star is a robust hexose-fermenting strain used for industrial fuel ethanol fermentations and it was used for comparative purposes. The highest ethanol concentration, 23.7 g/L, was reached using the whole slurry (10%, w/v) and the recombinant strain (F12) in an SSF process, it showed an ethanol yield on consumed sugars of 0.43 g/g and a volumetric ethanol productivity of 0.7 g/L h for the first 3 h. Ethanol concentrations obtained in SSF processes were in all cases higher than those from SHF at the same conditions. Furthermore, using the whole slurry, final ethanol concentration was improved in all tests due to the increase of potential fermentable sugars in the fermentation broth. Inhibitory compounds present in the pretreated wheat straw caused a significantly negative effect on the fermentation rate. However, it was found that the inhibitors furfural and HMF were completely metabolized by the yeast during SSF by metabolic redox reactions. An often encountered problem during xylose fermentation is considerable xylitol production that occurs due to metabolic redox imbalance. However, in our work this redox imbalance was counteracted by the detoxification reactions and no xylitol was produced. PMID:18383076

Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Oliva, Jose M; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Olsson, Lisbeth

2008-08-15

188

Effects of green liquor pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.  

PubMed

Green liquor (Na2S+Na2CO3, GL) pretreatment is a proven pathway to improve the enzymatic saccharification for the production of bioethanol. In this work, the effects of GL pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw at various total titratable alkali (TTA) charge and temperature were investigated. The GL pretreatment showed excellent performance in high polysaccharides retention and delignification selectivity. Under the optimized GL pretreatment condition (4% TTA charge, 20% sulfidity and 140°C), 92.5% of glucan, 82.4% of xylan and 81.6% of arabinan in rice straw were recovered with a delignification of 39.4%. The maximum sugar yields of 83.9%, 69.6% and 78.0%, respectively for glucan, xylan and total sugar, were achieved at the same GL pretreatment condition with an enzyme loading of 40FPU/g-substrate. The results suggested that GL pretreatment is a practicable method for rice straw to enhance enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production. PMID:24128400

Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

2013-09-27

189

Influence of type of diet and incubation time on in sacco release of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn from Italian ryegrass, untreated and ammonia treated wheat straw.  

PubMed

Artificially dried ryegrass, untreated and ammonia-treated wheat straw were ground and incubated in nylon bags in the rumen of three sheep each fed with diets based on roughage or concentrate. Dry matter degradability, the concentration and the release of the trace elements Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn from the incubated feeds were measured after 0 (washing loss), 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h rumen incubation time. Dry matter degradability, trace element concentration and their release were significantly influenced by the kind of incubated feeds, incubation time and feeding of sheep. Cu- (1.8-6.9 mg kg-1 DM) and Zn concentrations (36-103 mg kg-1 DM) of straw residues in the bags were much higher than those of original straw (1.2-1.6 and 8.1-9.9 mg kg-1 DM resp.). The inflow of Cu and Zn in the bags containing straw residues was higher than their release. The Cu-, Fe- and Mn-release from ryegrass was similar to the dry matter degradability, but the Zn-release was much lower. PMID:7619004

Flachowsky, G; Kronemann, H; Grün, M

1994-01-01

190

The use of cellulases from a beta-glucosidase-hyperproducing mutant of Trichoderma reesei in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wheat straw.  

PubMed

Conidia of the cellulolytic strain Trichoderma reesei F522 were mutagenized with UV irradiation and N-methyl|-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG). A visual agar plate detection system was developed, using esculin and ferric ions, to identify mutants of T. reesei with increased beta-glucosidase activity. Selected mutants were tested for production of extracellular cellulases in shake flasks on autohydrolyzed wheat straw as carbon source. The most active mutant V-7 showed about 6-times higher activity of beta-glucosidase than the parent strain F-522, whereas the filter paper degrading and endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase activities increased by 45% and by almost 31%, respectively. Cellulase preparations obtained from the parent and mutant strains were then used along with Kluyveromyces fragilis cells for ethanol production from ethanol-alkali pulped straw in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. From 10% (w/v) of straw pulp (dry matter), 2.5% (w/v) ethanol was obtained at 43 degrees C after 48 h using cellulase derived from the parent strain of T. reesei. When the beta-glucosidase-hyperproducing mutant V-7 was employed, the ethanol yield in the SSF process increased to 3.4% (w/v), the reaction time was shortened to 24 h and no cellobiose was detected in straw hydrolyzates. PMID:18588028

Szczodrak, J

1989-04-01

191

Response of fumaric Acid addition on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, and dry matter degradability in diets containing wheat straw and sorghum or berseem as roughage source.  

PubMed

An in vitro incubation system was used to evaluate effect of supplementation of fumaric acid at 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM concentration in high-, medium-, and low-fiber wheat straw containing total mixed diets with sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on rumen fermentation, methane production, and gas kinetics parameters. Three types of diets were prepared with different roughage and concentrate ratio (80?:?20, 50?:?50, and 20?:?80) by taking the representative samples. The roughage part composed of wheat straw (70?parts) and sorghum (30?parts) or berseem (30?parts) and the concentrate part composed of maize (33%), GNC (21%), mustard cake (12%), wheat bran (20%), deoiled rice bran (11%), mineral mixture (2%), and salt (1%). Fumaric acid was added in incubation medium to achieve final concentration of 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM. All the treatment combinations were arranged in 4 × 3 factorial designs with three replicates. It was concluded from the study that fumaric acid addition (5-15?mM) in diets varying in roughage to concentrate ratio significantly (P ? 0.05) reduced the methane production without affecting dry matter digestibility and maximum reduction was noticed at 5?mM concentration. PMID:23738126

Sirohi, S K; Pandey, Poonam; Goel, Navneet

2012-04-17

192

Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9?±?0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P?straw with NSC, CSC and U mixed with WB improves feed utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs. PMID:20661642

Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

2010-07-28

193

Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect

Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic particles. Uniformity coefficient was < 4.0 for wheat straw, which indicated uniform mix of particles, and it was about 4.0 for switchgrass and corn stover, which indicated a moderate assortment of particles. Size-related parameters, namely, geometric mean diameter, Rosin Rammler size parameter, median diameter, and effective size had strong correlation among themselves and good negative correlation with speed. Distribution-related parameters, namely, Rosin Rammler distribution parameter, mass relative span, inclusive graphic skewness, graphic kurtosis, uniformity index, uniformity coefficient, coefficient of gradation and distribution geometric standard deviation had strong correlation among themselves and a weak correlation with mill speed. Results of this extensive analysis of specific energy and particle sizes can be applied to selection of hammer mill operating factors to produce a particular size of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grind, and will serve as a guide for relations among the energy and various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

Bitra, V.S.P [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-07-01

194

Amino acid composition of spring wheats and losses of lysine during chapati baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four spring wheat varieties representing 64 years of wheat cultivar releases were evaluated for amino acid composition. The concentration of several amino acids differed among the wheat varieties but amino acids did not significantly consistently among wheat varieties and growth conditions. Significant differences existed in amino acid score due to wheat varieties and crop years. The variations in amino acids

Faqir M. Anjum; Ijaz Ahmad; Masood S. Butt; M. A. Sheikh; Imran Pasha

2005-01-01

195

Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH) and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH). The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11?mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production.

2012-01-01

196

Elucidation of the complex molecular structure of wheat straw lignin polymer by atmospheric pressure photoionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Wheat straw lignin was extracted using the novel CIMV procedure which selectively separates the cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Solid-state (13)C NMR experiments using cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) were carried out on the extracted wheat straw lignin and some structural indices were revealed. Atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool capable of ionizing small to large lignin oligomers, which cannot be ionized efficiently by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI). The APPI mass spectra of the extracted wheat straw lignin were recorded in the positive and negative ion modes. Positive ion mode APPI-MS indicated the exact presence of 39 specific oligomeric ions. Negative ion APPI-MS indicated the additional presence of at least 18 specific oligomeric ions. The structural characterization of this novel and complete series of 57 specific related oligomers was achieved by calculating the exact molecular masses measured by high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QqToF-MS). Some oligomeric species photoionized in both the positive and negative ion modes to form the respective protonated and deprotonated molecules. Low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometric analyses performed with a QqToF-MS/MS hybrid instrument provided unique dissociation patterns of the complete series of novel precursor ions. These MS/MS analyses provided diagnostic product ions, which enabled us to determine the exact molecular structures and arrangement of the selected 57 different related ionic species. PMID:17663498

Banoub, Joseph H; Benjelloun-Mlayah, Bouchra; Ziarelli, Fabio; Joly, Nicolas; Delmas, Michel

2007-01-01

197

Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention\\u000a to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and\\u000a their interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental\\u000a designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The pretreatment pH

Mads Pedersen; Katja S Johansen; Anne S Meyer

2011-01-01

198

Ethanol Production from Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw Hydrolysate by Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 in a Continuous Immobilized Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermophilic ethanol fermentation of wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in a continuous immobilized reactor system. The experiments were carried out in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at 70°C. Undetoxified wheat straw hydrolysate was used (3-12% dry matter), corresponding to sugar mixtures of glucose and xylose ranging from 12 to 41 g/1. The organism, thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1, exhibited significant resistance to high levels of acetic acid (up to 10 g/1) and other metabolic inhibitors present in the hydrolysate. Although the hydrolysate was not detoxified, ethanol yield in a range of 0.39-0.42 g/g was obtained. Overall, sugar efficiency to ethanol was 68-76%. The reactor was operated continuously for approximately 143 days, and no contamination was seen without the use of any agent for preventing bacterial infections. The tested microorganism has considerable potential to be a novel candidate for lignocellulose bioconversion into ethanol. The work reported here also demonstrates that the use of FBR configuration might be a viable approach for thermophilic anaerobic ethanol fermentation.

Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie J.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

199

Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep.  

PubMed

Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy. PMID:19386013

Nurfeta, A; Tolera, A; Eik, L O; Sundstøl, F

2009-02-01

200

Measurement of process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw using FT-NIR spectroscopy and synergy interval PLS algorithm.  

PubMed

The feasibility of rapid determination of the process variables (i.e. pH and moisture content) in solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw using Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was studied. Synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithm was implemented to calibrate regression model. The number of PLS factors and the number of subintervals were optimized simultaneously by cross-validation. The performance of the prediction model was evaluated according to the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the correlation coefficient (R). The measurement results of the optimal model were obtained as follows: RMSECV=0.0776, R(c)=0.9777, RMSEP=0.0963, and R(p)=0.9686 for pH model; RMSECV=1.3544% w/w, R(c)=0.8871, RMSEP=1.4946% w/w, and R(p)=0.8684 for moisture content model. Finally, compared with classic PLS and iPLS models, the siPLS model revealed its superior performance. The overall results demonstrate that FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with siPLS algorithm can be used to measure process variables in solid-state fermentation of wheat straw, and NIR spectroscopy technique has a potential to be utilized in SSF industry. PMID:22771562

Jiang, Hui; Liu, Guohai; Mei, Congli; Yu, Shuang; Xiao, Xiahong; Ding, Yuhan

2012-06-17

201

Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet. PMID:22820996

Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

2012-07-23

202

Effect of urea treatment and diet composition on, and prediction of nutritive value of rice straw of different cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straws of seven rice cultivars from a plant breeding experiment were analyzed for their chemical composition and nylon bag organic matter (NBOMD) and cell wall degradability (NDFD) with and without 3 or 4% level of urea treatment. A significant (P < 0.01) variation of 70 and 100 g\\/kg in NBOMD and NDFD respectively was found among the different cultivar's untreated

Anshu Rahal; Atharuddin Singh; Mahendra Singh

1997-01-01

203

Isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of modified rape straw flour\\/high-density polyethylene composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of modified rape straw flour\\/high-density polyethylene (MRSF\\/HDPE) composites were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Avrami model was applied to describe the process of isothermal crystallization. According to Hoffman–Weeks theory, the values of the equilibrium melting point (Tm0) increased with an increase in the content of MSRF in the composites. The

Peng Zou; Shangwen Tang; Zizheng Fu; Hanguo Xiong

2009-01-01

204

Compositional constraints on slag formation and potassium volatilization from rice straw blended wood fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental melting of biomass ash blends demonstrates that the addition of rice straw to a dominantly wood-based fuel causes a marked freezing point depression in the liquidus temperature of the inorganic slag from well above 2000 °C to a minimum of about 1260 °C. The minimum temperature is achieved for ash blends with about 30% rice straw ash. The melting

Peter Thy; Bryan M. Jenkins; Charles E. Lesher; Sidsel Grundvig

2006-01-01

205

Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.

Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

206

Improvement of tensile and thermal properties of poly(lactic acid) composites with admicellar-treated rice straw fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites have received great attention. However, the poor interfacial adhesion between strong polar natural fibers and the non-polar PLA matrix limited its applications. In the present study, rice straw fiber (RSF) was pre-treated to improve its compatibility with PLA. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was selected as the monomer in the admicellar polymerization for the RSF

Yang Zhao; Jianhui Qiu; Huixia Feng; Min Zhang; Lin Lei; Xueli Wu

2011-01-01

207

Effect of Wheat Flour Pre-cooking on the Composite Modulus of Wheat Flour and Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Latex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial wheat flours with two different concentrations of insoluble protein were used as fillers to reinforce styrene-butadiene latex composites and their viscoelastic properties were examined. Both wheat flours were also cooked at 55, 70, or 95 deg C for one hour in an aqueous dispersion prior ...

208

Effect of wheat flour pre-cooking on the composite modulus of wheat flour and carboxylated styrene–butadiene latex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial wheat flours with two different concentrations of insoluble protein were used as fillers to reinforce styrene–butadiene latex composites and their viscoelastic properties were examined. Both wheat flours were also cooked at 55, 70, or 95°C for 1h in an aqueous dispersion prior to mixing with latex in order to swell the starch present in the flour and increase its

Steven C. Peterson; Lei Jong

2008-01-01

209

Compositional and Nutritional Characteristics of Spring Einkorn and Spelt Wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 72(6):621-624 One einkorn and five spring spelt accessions were grown at five and tended to be high in riboflavin and pyridoxine compared with other four locations in 1992 and 1993, respectively, and evaluated for their wheats, whereas einkorn and spelt SK0263 and RL5407 were richer in compositional and nutritional properties compared to common hard red P-carotene and retinol

E.-S. M. ABDEL-AAL; P. HUCL; F. W. SOSULSKI

210

[Short-term effects of different tillage modes combined with straw-returning on the soil labile organic carbon components in a farmland with rice-wheat double cropping].  

PubMed

A two-year (2009-2011) field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage modes, straw-returning, and their interactions on the soil total organic carbon (TOC) and labile organic carbon (LOC) components (easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC)) at the soil depths of 0-7, 7-14, and 14-21 cm in a farmland with rice-wheat double cropping. In all treatments of straw-returning, the TOC and LOC contents in each soil layer were significantly higher than those without straw-returning. Under plowing tillage, the MBC content in 0-7 cm soil layer was significantly higher than that under rotary tillage, but the EOC content was in adverse. Rotary tillage made the TOC content in 7 - 14 cm soil layer being significantly higher, as compared with plowing tillage. The TOC, WSOC, and MBC contents in 14-21 cm soil layer under plowing tillage were significantly higher than those under rotary tillage. Plowing tillage combined with rice and wheat straws-returning made the soil TOC content being higher than the other treatments. PMID:24015560

Yang, Min-Fang; Zhu, Li-Qun; Han, Xin-Zhong; Gu, Ke-Jun; Hu, Nai-Juan; Bian, Xin-Min

2013-05-01

211

Effect of wheat flour protein compositions on the quality of deep-fried gluten balls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat flours milled from five different varieties of wheat and collected at an extraction rate of 60% were used as raw materials in this study. The proximate compositions, dough Farinographic and Extensographic properties, and the quality indices of deep-fried gluten balls prepared from these flours were measured. The proteins of these five different wheat flours were extracted and analyzed using

Shu-Hua Chiang; Chee-Shan Chen; Chi-Yue Chang

2006-01-01

212

Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (± SD) live weight of 20.5 ± 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of supplementation. The results suggest that at least 300 g (395 g/kg dietary DM) of Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:20050945

Nurfeta, A

2010-12-01

213

Improving the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by laccase during ethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw at high-substrate loadings.  

PubMed

Operating the saccharification and fermentation processes at high-substrate loadings is a key factor for making ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass economically viable. However, increasing the substrate loading presents some disadvantages, including a higher concentration of inhibitors (furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds) in the media, which negatively affect the fermentation performance. One strategy to eliminate soluble inhibitors is filtering and washing the pretreated material. In this study, it was observed that even if the material was previously washed, inhibitory compounds were released during the enzymatic hydrolysis step. Laccase enzymatic treatment was evaluated as a method to reduce these inhibitory effects. The laccase efficiency was analyzed in a presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process at high-substrate loadings. Water-insoluble solids fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermenting microorganism. Laccase supplementation reduced strongly the phenolic content in the media, without affecting weak acids and furan derivatives. This strategy resulted in an improved yeast performance during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, increasing significantly ethanol productivity. PMID:23143932

Alvira, Pablo; Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

2012-12-20

214

Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity.  

PubMed

The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H(2)S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples taken from different composting ingredients (r=0.83 and 0.76-0.87, P<0.01, for log(e)-transformed data). Differences in N availability, in terms of NH(3) and N losses during composting, were found between different N sources. Materials in which the N was less available (chipboard and digester wastes, cocoa shells, ammonium sulfate) produced lower mushroom yields than materials in which the N was more readily available (poultry manure, urea, brewers' grains, hop and molasses wastes, cocoa meal). Replacement of poultry manure with the other N sources at 50-100% or wheat straw with rape, bean, or linseed straw in aerated tunnel or windrow composts reduced the OC and emissions of odorous sulfur-containing compounds, but also reduced yield. Urea and cocoa meal may be suitable for "low odor" prewetting of straw, with addition of poultry manure immediately before aerated tunnel composting. Rape straw in compost reduces the formation of anaerobic zones and resulting odorous emissions, since it maintains its structure and porosity better than wheat straw. PMID:12242630

Noble, R; Hobbs, P J; Mead, A; Dobrovin-Pennington, A

2002-09-01

215

Distribution of Protein Composition in Bread Wheat Flour Mill Streams and Relationship to Breadmaking Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 84(3):271-275 Wheat protein quantity and composition are important parameters for wheat baking quality. The objective of this study was to use fractionation techniques to separate the proteins of flour mill streams into various protein fractions, to examine the distribution of these protein fractions, and to establish a relationship between protein composition and bread- making quality. Nine break streams,

Y. G. Wang; K. Khan; G. Hareland; G. Nygard

2007-01-01

216

Thermochemical characterisation of straws and high yielding perennial grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research is concerned with thermochemical characterisation of straws and high yielding perennial grasses. Crops selected for this study include wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), rape straw (Brassica napus), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) and switch grass (Panicum virgatum). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the distribution of char and volatiles during pyrolysis up to 900°C. Utilising multi-heating rate thermogravimetric

C. E. Greenhalf; D. J. Nowakowski; A. V. Bridgwater; J. Titiloye; N. Yates; A. Riche; I. Shield

217

Production of manganese peroxidase and organic acids and mineralization of {sup 14}C-labelled lignin ({sup 14}C-DHP) during solid-state fermentation of wheat straw with the white rot fungus Nematoloma frowardii  

SciTech Connect

The basidiomycetous fungus Nematoloma frowardii produced manganese peroxidase (MnP) as the predominant ligninolytic enzyme during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 50 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.2. In addition to MnP, low levels of laccase and lignin peroxidase were detected. Synthetic {sup 14}C-ring-labelled lignin ({sup 14}C-DHP) was efficiently degraded during SSF. Approximately 75% of the initial radioactivity was released as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, while only 6% was associated with the residual straw material, including the well-developed fungal biomass. On the basis of this finding the authors concluded that at least partial extracellular mineralization of lignin may have occurred. This conclusion was supported by the fact that they detected high levels of organic acids in the fermented straw, which rendered MnP effective and therefore made partial direct mineralization of lignin possible. Experiments performed in a cell-free system, which simulated the conditions in the straw cultures, revealed that MnP in fact converted part of the {sup 14}C-DHP to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}C-labelled water-soluble products in the presence of natural levels of organic acids.

Hofrichter, M.; Scheibner, K.; Fritsche, W. [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Microbiology; Vares, T.; Kalsi, M.; Galkin, S.; Hatakka, A. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology

1999-05-01

218

DISTRIBUTION OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN BREAD WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS AND RELATIONSHIP TO BREADMAKING QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat protein quantity and composition are important parameters for wheat baking quality. The objective of this study was to use fractionation techniques to separate the proteins of flour mill streams into various protein fractions, to examine the distribution of these protein fractions, and to esta...

219

Distribtuion of Protein Composition in Bread Wheat Flour Mill Streams and Reltationship to Breadmaking Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat protein quantity and composition are important parameters for wheat baking quality. The objective of this study was to use fractionation techniques to separate the proteins of flour mill streams into various protein fractions, to examine the distribution of these protein fractions, and to esta...

220

Nitrogen fixation associated with development and localization of mixed populations of Cellulomonas species and Azospirillium brasilense grown on cellulose or wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

Mixed cultures of Cellulomonas sp. and Azospirillum brasilense were grown with straw or cellulose as the carbon source under conditions favoring the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Rapid increases in cell numbers, up to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate, were evident after 4 and 5 days of incubation at 30 degrees C for cellulose and straw, respectively. Nitrogen fixation (detected by acetylene reduction measured on parallel cultures) commenced after 2 and 4 days of incubation for straw and cellulose, respectively, and continued for the duration of the experiment. Pure cultures of Cellulomonas sp. showed an increase in cell numbers, but CO/sub 2/ production was low, and acetylene reduction was not detected on either cellulose or straw. Pure cultures of A. brasilense on cellulose showed an inital increase in cell numbers (10/sup 7/ cells per g of substrate) over 4 days, followed by a decline presumably caused by the exhaustion of available carbon substrate. On straw, A. brasilense increased to 10/sup 9/ cells per g of substrate over 5 days and then declined slowly; this growth was accompanied by acetylene reduction. Scanning electron micrographs of straw incubated with a mixture under the above conditions for 8 days showed cells of both species in close proximity to each other. Evidence was furnished that the close spatial relatioship of cells from the two species facilitated the mutally beneficial association between them and thus increased the efficiency with which the products of straw breakdown were used for nitrogen fixation. 17 references.

Halsall, D.M.; Goodchild, D.J.

1986-04-01

221

Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum eating time and eating bouts tended to be greater by WS than for OG, and postpartum eating time per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber intake tended to be greater for WS than for OG. Results indicate that forage source and amount of DM fed prepartum affected postpartum performance and tended to alter the behavior of cows in tie-stall barns. PMID:23040018

Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

2012-10-03

222

Functional effects of xanthan gum on composite cassava-wheat dough and bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of composite flour for bread making is gradually gaining prominence worldwide due to some economic and nutritional reasons. However, studies on the application of functional ingredients purposely to improve composite bread quality are very few. This paper examines the functional role of xanthan gum (XG) on the properties of dough and bread from composite cassava-wheat flour. The viscoelastic

Taofik A. Shittu; Rashidat A. Aminu; Evelyn O. Abulude

2009-01-01

223

Microbiota responsible for the decomposition of rice straw in a submerged paddy soil estimated from phospholipid fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the microbiota responsible for rice straw decomposition in submerged paddy soils, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in decomposing rice straw (RS) under submerged incubation conditions with changes in the incubation temperature (22 and 30°C) and nitrogen status (without N amendment, and with ammonium sulfate or urea amendment) were determined. Straight, saturated PLFAs, especially 16 : 0 PLFA, predominated in

Makoto Kimura; Mariko Miyaki; Ko-Ichiro Fujinaka; Nagamitsu Maie

2001-01-01

224

Fatty acids composition and rheology properties of wheat and wheat and white or brown rice flour mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing of bread from rice flour only presents technological difficulty because the rice is gluten-free and gluten is\\u000a the most important structure forming protein. By using wheat and rice flour mixture, this problem can be avoided, and end\\u000a product is enriched by rice-oil constituents. In this paper fatty acids composition, with an emphasis on total saturated,\\u000a and total unsaturated fatty

Nada Nikoli?; Niko Radulovi?; Goran Nikoli?; Miodrag Lazi?; Zoran Todorovic

2008-01-01

225

Protein Content and Amino Acid Composition in Grains of Wheat-Related Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein content and amino acid composition for 17 wheat-related species (WRS) and three common wheats (control) were determined and analyzed, and the essential amino acids (EAAs) in WRS were evaluated according to FAO\\/WHO amino acid recommendations. The results showed that the mean protein content for WRS was 16.67%, which was 23.21% higher than that for the control. The mean

Xiao-ling JIANG; Ji-chun TIAN; Zhi HAO; Wei-dong ZHANG

2008-01-01

226

Composition and expression of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes in the straw-degrading mushroom Volvariella volvacea.  

PubMed

Volvariella volvacea is one of a few commercial cultivated mushrooms mainly using straw as carbon source. In this study, the genome of V. volcacea was sequenced and assembled. A total of 285 genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in V. volvacea were identified and annotated. Among 15 fungi with sequenced genomes, V. volvacea ranks seventh in the number of genes encoding CAZymes. In addition, the composition of glycoside hydrolases in V. volcacea is dramatically different from other basidiomycetes: it is particularly rich in members of the glycoside hydrolase families GH10 (hemicellulose degradation) and GH43 (hemicellulose and pectin degradation), and the lyase families PL1, PL3 and PL4 (pectin degradation) but lacks families GH5b, GH11, GH26, GH62, GH93, GH115, GH105, GH9, GH53, GH32, GH74 and CE12. Analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles of 3 strains using 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE) reveals that 239 CAZyme genes were expressed even in potato destrose broth medium. Our data also showed that the formation of a heterokaryotic strain could dramatically increase the expression of a number of genes which were poorly expressed in its parental homokaryotic strains. PMID:23554925

Chen, Bingzhi; Gui, Fu; Xie, Baogui; Deng, Youjin; Sun, Xianyun; Lin, Mengying; Tao, Yongxin; Li, Shaojie

2013-03-12

227

Composition and Expression of Genes Encoding Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes in the Straw-Degrading Mushroom Volvariella volvacea  

PubMed Central

Volvariella volvacea is one of a few commercial cultivated mushrooms mainly using straw as carbon source. In this study, the genome of V. volcacea was sequenced and assembled. A total of 285 genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in V. volvacea were identified and annotated. Among 15 fungi with sequenced genomes, V. volvacea ranks seventh in the number of genes encoding CAZymes. In addition, the composition of glycoside hydrolases in V. volcacea is dramatically different from other basidiomycetes: it is particularly rich in members of the glycoside hydrolase families GH10 (hemicellulose degradation) and GH43 (hemicellulose and pectin degradation), and the lyase families PL1, PL3 and PL4 (pectin degradation) but lacks families GH5b, GH11, GH26, GH62, GH93, GH115, GH105, GH9, GH53, GH32, GH74 and CE12. Analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles of 3 strains using 3?-tag digital gene expression (DGE) reveals that 239 CAZyme genes were expressed even in potato destrose broth medium. Our data also showed that the formation of a heterokaryotic strain could dramatically increase the expression of a number of genes which were poorly expressed in its parental homokaryotic strains.

Xie, Baogui; Deng, Youjin; Sun, Xianyun; Lin, Mengying; Tao, Yongxin; Li, Shaojie

2013-01-01

228

Phytochemical Composition, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiproliferative Activity of Whole Wheat Flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five wheat cultivars (Macon, Louise, WestBred 936, Alpowa, and Blanca Grande) were evaluated for phenolics composition, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition, anti-inflammatory activity, and antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells. Total ferulic acid ranged from 451.7-731.3 µg/g , with the ...

229

Wheat gluten influences oil droplet size and mobility in jet-cooked starch-oil composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Jet cooked starch-lipid composites have been developed as a technology for suspending micron-size lipid droplets in aqueous cooked starch dispersions. Normally oil droplets are independent and freely mobile in such liquid composites. When wheat flour was used as the starch source, unusual behavior...

230

Less Ash Sinter by Using Kaolin Additive in Straw Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One way to solve the problem with ashsinter is to use additive with special properties. Laboratory investigation made it clear that when kaolin additive was used in straw combustion of wheat the melting temperature of the ashes increased considerably. The...

D. Kristensen

1988-01-01

231

Degradation of PAH in a Creosote-Contaminated Soil. A Comparison Between the Effects of Willows (Salix Viminalis), Wheat Straw and A Nonionic Surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an aged creosote-contaminated soil in the presence of Salix viminalis was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Phenanthrene and pyrene were degraded 100% and 80%, respectively, in the presence of plants but only 68% and 63% without plants. The effects of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 or the addition of straw, without plants, were

Jenny Hultgren; Leticia Pizzul; María del Pilar Castillo; Ulf Granhall

2009-01-01

232

High-temperature reactions of straw ash and the anti-sintering additives kaolin and dolomite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straw of various types of rape, wheat and barley have been studied with respect to the formation of crystalline compounds and high-temperature reactions in ash, as well as sintering and melting behaviour. During the low-temperature ashing process simple, crystalline compounds such as carbonates, sulphates and chlorides were formed. A significant part of the ash from wheat and barley straw was

B.-M. Steenari; O. Lindqvist

1998-01-01

233

Effect of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw on its composition and in sacco digestibility and in vitro fermentation by rumen microorganisms.  

PubMed

Chemical composition, in sacco rumen disappearance of various cell wall constituents (CWC) and in vitro fermentation pattern of hydrothermally treated (1 to 14 kp/cm2 pressure for 5 min) rice straw was examined. At 10 kp/cm2 pressure treatment (maximum effect) the contents of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), hemicellulose (HC) and cellulose (CE) were decreased by 32.5, 35.3, 27.8, 10.2, 61.2 and 25.1%, respectively (P < 0.05), over the untreated control. The in sacco rumen disappearance of DM, OM, HC and CE from rice straw treated at 8 kp/cm2 pressure (maximum effect) and incubated for 48 h was increased from 53.2 to 77.7, 52.4 to 80.3, 49.5 to 82.0 and 49.2 to 79.3%, respectively (P < 0.01). In vitro production of total volatile fatty acids and the content of TCA-insoluble protein was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) on treated compared with untreated straw. PMID:7625290

Adya, M; Sareen, V K; Singh, S

1995-01-01

234

Influence of a Fusarium culmorum inoculation of wheat on the progression of mycotoxin accumulation, ingredient concentrations and ruminal in sacco dry matter degradation of wheat residues.  

PubMed

The Fusarium head blight (FHB)-susceptible winter wheat cv. Ritmo was inoculated with spores of Fusarium culmorum at the beginning of full blossom. Samples of whole wheat plants were taken once weekly from anthesis until harvest and subsequently fractionated into straw, glumes and spindles, which were examined for deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON). Additionally, the content of crude protein (CP) and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was scrutinized. Synthesis of the Fusarium toxins DON and ZON generally differed in terms of date of formation and concentration. Final mean DON concentrations of 37.5, 28.1 and 5.0 mg/kg DM were measured in glumes, spindles and straw, respectively, at the time of harvest. At this time, maximal mean ZON concentrations of 587, 396 and 275 microg/kg DM in spindles, glumes and straw, respectively, were determined. Moreover, Fusarium infected wheat residues contained higher CP but lower NSP contents at the last three sampling dates. In addition, collective samples of wheat straw and chaff were taken to investigate the effect of the Fusarium contamination on their in sacco DM degradation in dairy cows. Samples were analysed for mycotoxins and selected quality parameters. The dried and milled collective samples of straw and chaff were weighed into nylon bags and subjected to ruminal incubation for 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h in two dairy cows equipped with a permanent rumen cannula. Marked differences in level of mycotoxin contamination as well as in ingredient composition between the variants of straw and chaff were detected. Moreover, after 120 h rumen incubation the in sacco DM degradation of inoculated straw and chaff were lower compared to the accordant controls. The soluble fraction was increased in inoculated samples, whereas a diminishment in the potentially degradable but insoluble fraction was more pronounced. Thereby, a decrease in the potential degradability was obtained for inoculated straw and even if less pronounced for chaff compared to the non inoculated corresponding controls. In conclusion, infection with F. culmorum of wheat involves an increased risk of mycotoxin contamination in straw. Also, a Fusarium infection may have an impact on chemical composition and may result in Fusarium growth-related modifications of host cell wall components. PMID:16649577

Brinkmeyer, Ute; Dänicke, Sven; Lehmann, Mauricio; Valenta, Hana; Lebzien, Peter; Schollenberger, Margit; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Weinert, Joachim; Flachowsky, Gerhard

2006-04-01

235

Milk Production and Composition Responses to the Source of Protein Supplements in Diets Containing Wheat Middlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 3 × 3 Latin square trials were conducted to determine the effect of the source of supplemental protein in diets containing wheat middlings on milk production and composition. Cottonseed meal or meat and bone meal was substituted for a portion of the soybean meal and provided 24.5% of the total dietary crude protein. Trial 1 was conducted during fall

J. K. Bernard

1997-01-01

236

CORRELATION OF WHEAT PROTEIN COMPOSITION AND DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES TO TORTILLA QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein composition and dough rheology of 15 wheat lines were studied. Total protein content and the ratio of polymeric to monomeric proteins (pk1/pk2) in SE-HPLC chromatograms of SDS extracts were correlated with tortilla rollability scores (TRS) (R-squared of 0.51 and 0.59, respectively). However,...

237

Mitochondrial polymorphism. IV. Phospholipid composition of mitochondria of a wheat hybrid and its parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria of young seedlings of wheat genotypes 28, 31MS, and 31MS |MX 28 differed in total lipid and phospholipid. Hybrid mitochondria had more lipid and phospholipid than did the parents, and the three genotypes differed in fatty acid composition of the phospholipid fraction. Hybrid mitochondria exhibited heterosis in cytochrome oxidase activity. Although depletion of phospholipid greatly reduced cytochrome oxidase activity

Hari K. Srivastava; Igor V. Sarkissian

1972-01-01

238

Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical compositions of some agricultural residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was carried out to study the effects of different doses of ? irradiation on the changes in the crude fibre contents of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs. Ground samples of the 6 residues were irradiated by ? irradiation at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 100 kilogray (kGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for total nitrogen (N), crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that ? irradiation has no effect on total N whereas it decreased CF contents especially at the highest dose (100 kGy) reaching 30% for cottonwood, 21% for wheat straw and maize straw, and about 16% for barley straw, lentils straw and maize cobs. NDF decreased by about 6% for cottonwood, wheat straw and barley straw, 11% for maize straw and 9% for maize cobs. ? Irradiation (100 kGy) also decreased ADF by 8% for cottonwood, 7% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 6% for wheat straw and barley straw. No effects on NDF and ADF in lentils straw were observed. ADL content was also decreased by 8% in cottonwood, 21% in wheat straw, 18% in barley straw and maize straw, and by 30% in maize cobs, with no effect in lentils straw. The percentage of cellulose (CL):CF ratio increased by 31, 25, 13, 18, 19 and 15% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. Also hemicellulose (HCL):CF ratios increased by 48, 18, 15, 17, 5 and 4% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, and 48%, 18%, 15%, 17%, 5% and 4% in the HCL:CF ratio for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. CL:ADL ratios increased by ? irradiation (100 kGy) by 23, 16, 14 and 38% for wheat straw, barley straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, with no changes in the ratios for cottonwood and lentils straw. HCL:ADL ratios also increased in 4 residues reaching: 11, 16, 17 and 25% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw and maize cobs, respectively, with no changes in the ratio for lentils straw and maize straw.

Al-Masri, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.

1994-03-01

239

Protein content and amino acid composition of seven wheat cultivars subjected to water stress: Effects of nitrogen fertilizer treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven wheat cultivars of wide genetic base were grown with three levels of N (0, 100, and 200 kg\\/ha), and were subjected to a water stress at the flowering stage. The protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat grain were determined. Crude protein content increased with each increase of N rate for each cultivar but the largest increase

S. Dubetz; E. E. Gardiner

1980-01-01

240

Houses of straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the use of straw as the basic construction\\/insulation material of residential houses. Its ease of construction, excellent insulation value, and low cost make it an attractive option. Topics include history of straw bale; why straw; building with straw; international aspects; code compliance.

J. Weiss; L. Stone

1996-01-01

241

Degradation of PAH in a creosote-contaminated soil. A comparison between the effects of willows (Salix viminalis), wheat straw and a nonionic surfactant.  

PubMed

The degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an aged creosote-contaminated soil in the presence of Salix viminalis was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Phenanthrene and pyrene were degraded 100% and 80%, respectively, in the presence of plants but only 68% and 63% without plants. The effects of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 or the addition of straw, without plants, were also studied. The addition of straw had no effect on PAH degradation compared to the control Pyrene degradation with Triton X-100 at low concentrations (0.06 microl g(-1) DW) was comparable to that with plants but was less for anthracene and phenanthrene. The treatments with plants were, according to SIR measurements, dominated by active microorganisms (98.8% of the biomass), whereas all treatments without plants contained mostly dormant or non-growing microorganisms (1.7-2.0% active). Viable counts and active biomass were highly correlated in all treatments and demonstrated that S. viminalis greatly increased microbial populations. Dominant bacteria were grouped according to Gram, fluorescence and oxidase tests and revealed differences between treatments. The presence of S. viminalis or the surfactant enhanced PAH degradation, primarily by a rhizosphere effect on the microbial activity in the former case and by increased bioavailability in the latter case. PMID:20734628

Hultgren, Jenny; Pizzul, Leticia; Castillo, María del Pilar; Granhall, Ulf

2010-01-01

242

Matematical modelling of straw bale combustion in cigar burners  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a computer model for the calculation of the steady and non-steady behaviour of straw bales subject to surface combustion in cigar burners. The mathematical formulation is one-dimensional and the flow of gas through the straw bales is described by means of Darcy`s law for flow through a porous medium. The computer model is able to predict flow rate, temperature and composition of gas and straw as function of axial length and time. Calculated results are compared to measurements of temperature and gas composition profiles within the burning straw bales. It is observed that the straw bale temperatures as well as the outlet gas composition are predicted reasonably well. Calculations have been carried out in order to assess the implication of a straw bale feed stop in a 3 MW district heating plant fueled with Heston straw bales. The results indicate serious disturbances in the performance of the burner.

Bech, N. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Germann, L. [Danish Technological Inst., Arhus (Denmark); Wolff, L. [I/S Vestkraft, Esbjerg (Denmark)

1995-12-31

243

Inhibition of pitted morning glory ( Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and certain other weed species by phytotoxic components of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine if well-known phytotoxic effects of plant residues on crop growth could also be responsible for observed reductions of certain weed species in no-till cropping systems. An aqueous extract of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) reduced the germination and root length of pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Phytotoxicity

Rex A. Liebl; A. Douglas Worsham

1983-01-01

244

The glucose/xylose facilitator Gxf1 from Candida intermedia expressed in a xylose-fermenting industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases xylose uptake in SSCF of wheat straw.  

PubMed

Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose raw materials requires industrial xylose-fermenting strains capable of complete and efficient D-xylose consumption. A central question in xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose fermentation is to improve the xylose uptake. In the current study, the glucose/xylose facilitator Gxf1 from Candida intermedia, was expressed in three different xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strains of industrial origin. The in vivo effect on aerobic xylose growth and the initial xylose uptake rate were assessed. The expression of Gxf1 resulted in enhanced aerobic xylose growth only for the TMB3400 based strain. It displayed more than a 2-fold higher affinity for D-xylose than the parental strain and approximately 2-fold higher initial specific growth rate at 4 g/L D-xylose. Enhanced xylose consumption was furthermore observed when the GXF1-strain was assessed in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of pretreated wheat straw. However, the ethanol yield remained unchanged due to increased by-product formation. Metabolic flux analysis suggested that the expression of the Gxf1 transporter had shifted the control of xylose catabolism from transport to the NAD(+) dependent oxidation of xylitol to xylulose. PMID:22113025

Fonseca, César; Olofsson, Kim; Ferreira, Carla; Runquist, David; Fonseca, Luís L; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Lidén, Gunnar

2011-03-09

245

Protein accumulation and composition in wheat grains: Effects of mineral nutrients and high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of mineral nutrition and temperature on accumulation and composition of protein in wheat grains and on baking quality were studied under controlled environments. Under a moderate temperature regimen of 24°C days and 17°C nights (24\\/17°C), post-anthesis N:P:K 20:20:20 (NPK) supplied by continuous drip irrigation increased the rate of protein accumulation, doubled flour protein percentage and slightly increased final single

Frances M. Dupont; William J. Hurkman; William H. Vensel; Charlene Tanaka; Kerry M. Kothari; Okkyung K. Chung; Susan B. Altenbach

2006-01-01

246

Binding of sterols affects membrane functioning and sphingolipid composition in wheat roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was devoted to the exploration of the role of sterols in the functioning of membranes in root cells. Membrane\\u000a characteristics and composition of the membrane lipids in the roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings treated with exogenous cholesterol and antibiotic nystatin, which specifically binds with endogenous sterols,\\u000a were analyzed. Cholesterol caused a fall of membrane potential,

Yu. N. Valitova; E. R. Kotlova; A. V. Novikov; A. L. Shavarda; K. A. Artemenko; R. A. Zubarev; F. V. Minibayeva

2010-01-01

247

Effect of adding wheat bran and germ fractions on the chemical composition of high-fiber toast bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the type of bran, level of addition, particle size and addition of wheat germ on the chemical composition of high-fiber toast bread was investigated. The bran and germ fractions were found to be high in ash, protein, fat and total dietary fiber contents. The wheat germ had a protein content of 27.88% compared with 11.35, 12.69 and

Jiwan S Sidhu; Suad N Al-Hooti; Jameela M Al-Saqer

1999-01-01

248

Effects of Cultivar and Temperature During Grain Filling on Wheat Protein Content, Composition, and Dough Mixing Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(4):460-465 Three wheat cultivars, Bastian, Polkka, and Tjalve, were grown in growth chambers at 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21°C during grain filling in 1994, 1995, and 1996. The wheat samples were analyzed for protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation volume. The mixing properties of sifted flours were determined by mixograph, and the flour protein composition

A. K. Uhlen; R. Hafskjold; A.-H. Kalhovd; S. Sahlström; Å. Longva; E. M. Magnus

1998-01-01

249

Polyphenol composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of amaranth, quinoa buckwheat and wheat as affected by sprouting and baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the polyphenol composition and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat and wheat, and evaluated how these properties were affected following two types of processing: sprouting and baking. The total phenol content amongst the seed extracts were significantly higher in buckwheat (323.4mgGAE\\/100g) and decreased in the following order: buckwheat>quinoa>wheat>amaranth. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the radical

L. Alvarez-Jubete; H. Wijngaard; E. K. Arendt; E. Gallagher

2010-01-01

250

Controlling pesticide loss by natural porous micro/nano composites: straw ash-based biochar and biosilica.  

PubMed

Pesticide sprayed onto plant leaves tends to discharge into the environment through rainwater washing, leaching, and volatilization, resulting in severe pollution to soil, water, and air. Here, to control pesticide loss, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BCS) to traditional pesticide. BCS possesses a porous micro/nano structure and thus can adsorb a large amount of pesticide molecules to form pesticide-BCS complexes that tend to be retained by the rough surface of plant leaves, displaying a high adhesion performance on the leaves; therefore, the pesticide loss decreases, sufficient pesticide for the plant is supplied, and the pollution risk of the pesticide can be substantially lowered. PMID:24001024

Cai, Dongqing; Wang, Longhai; Zhang, Guilong; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Zhengyan

2013-09-16

251

Lipid Composition and Protein Dynamics in Thylakoids of Two Wheat Cultivars Differently Sensitive to Drought.  

PubMed

Two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars with different sensitivities to drought were either grown under regular irrigation or subjected to water deficit by withholding water for 14 d. Water-stressed plants of both cultivars underwent similar decreases in leaf water potential, but the drought-tolerant cultivar showed higher relative water content and turgor. Neither osmotic nor elastic adjustment mechanisms appeared to be active under the conditions described here. Thylakoids isolated from the stressed, drought-tolerant wheat showed an increase in lipid-to-protein ratio, in comparison with the control, whereas this ratio remained unchanged in the sensitive wheat. In both cultivars, water deficit determined different rearrangements in the composition of the thylakoid individual polar lipids, but their unsaturation level remained unaffected with the exception of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. In the drought-sensitive cultivar, an accumulation of free fatty acids together with a reduction in polar lipid amount was observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of spin-labeled proteins of stressed plants from the sensitive cv Adamello showed a higher spin label rotational correlation time together with lower sulphydryl group and mobile proteic portion levels, in comparison with the control. In the tolerant cv Ofanto, the first two parameters changed to a lesser extent following water depletion, and the mobile proteic portion was not altered. PMID:12228463

Quartacci, M. F.; Pinzino, C.; Sgherri, CLM.; Navari-Izzo, F.

1995-05-01

252

Lipid Composition and Protein Dynamics in Thylakoids of Two Wheat Cultivars Differently Sensitive to Drought.  

PubMed Central

Two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars with different sensitivities to drought were either grown under regular irrigation or subjected to water deficit by withholding water for 14 d. Water-stressed plants of both cultivars underwent similar decreases in leaf water potential, but the drought-tolerant cultivar showed higher relative water content and turgor. Neither osmotic nor elastic adjustment mechanisms appeared to be active under the conditions described here. Thylakoids isolated from the stressed, drought-tolerant wheat showed an increase in lipid-to-protein ratio, in comparison with the control, whereas this ratio remained unchanged in the sensitive wheat. In both cultivars, water deficit determined different rearrangements in the composition of the thylakoid individual polar lipids, but their unsaturation level remained unaffected with the exception of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. In the drought-sensitive cultivar, an accumulation of free fatty acids together with a reduction in polar lipid amount was observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of spin-labeled proteins of stressed plants from the sensitive cv Adamello showed a higher spin label rotational correlation time together with lower sulphydryl group and mobile proteic portion levels, in comparison with the control. In the tolerant cv Ofanto, the first two parameters changed to a lesser extent following water depletion, and the mobile proteic portion was not altered.

Quartacci, M. F.; Pinzino, C.; Sgherri, CLM.; Navari-Izzo, F.

1995-01-01

253

Fermentation of wheat: Effects of backslopping different proportions of pre-fermented wheat on the microbialand chemical composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to examine effect of backslop on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented wheat (FW). Coarsely ground wheat was mixed with water (1:3 wt\\/wt) and inoculated with 6 log cfu ml each of an overnight culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Four fermentation treatments were conducted in 45 l, closed, PVC containers over 48 hours. Three

Colm A. Moran; Ronald H. J. Scholten; Juan M. Tricarico; Peter H. Brooks; Martin W. A. Verstegen

2006-01-01

254

Changes in fatty acid composition of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk) fed on microalgal and wheat germ diets.  

PubMed

Dietary fatty acid incorporation and changes in various lipid and phospholipid classes in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis subjected to three different dietary regimens were analysed and compared. Group A was unfed; group B received a diet consisting of 100% Thalassiosira weissflogii, exhibiting the typical fatty acid composition of diatoms, and group C received a diet consisting of 100% wheat germ conferring a 18:2:n-6 abundance. Biochemical analyses of diets and mussels were carried out at the beginning and at the end of the 30-day experimental period. Starvation and T. weissflogii based diet poorly affected mussel growth and fatty acid composition which remained unchanged. On the contrary, the wheat germ-based diet increased the condition index and deeply affected the fatty acid profile of all lipid and phospholipid classes. The high dietary 18:2n-6 level drastically reduced tissue content of 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. The biosynthesis of Non Methylene Interrupted (NMI) dienoic fatty acid appeared to be insensitive to the high input of 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-9 respectively from diet B and C, and to the PUFA shortage of diet C. Nevertheless the two NMI trienoic derivatives, 20:3Delta5,11,14 and 22:3Delta7,13 16, were found higher in C with respect to other groups, presumably due to the high 18:2n-6 content of this diet. PMID:17482494

Pirini, Maurizio; Manuzzi, Maria P; Pagliarani, Alessandra; Trombetti, Fabiana; Borgatti, Anna R; Ventrella, Vittoria

2007-04-11

255

Effect of emulsifiers on wheat-potato composite flour for the production of leavened flat bread (naan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The present study was designed to enhance the nutritional and calorific value of food without affecting quality of final product with the use of emulsifiers. Lysine contents in potatoes are similar to animal protein and its flour can be utilized to overcome protein and calorie malnutrition. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Composite flours were prepared by substituting wheat flour with potato

Faqir M. Anjum; Imran Pasha; Sarfraz Ahmad; M. Issa Khan; Zafar Iqbal

2008-01-01

256

Review of straw chambers  

SciTech Connect

This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed.

Toki, W.H.

1990-03-01

257

Bread from composite cassava-wheat flour: I. Effect of baking time and temperature on some physical properties of bread loaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of composite cassava-wheat (CCW) flour for commercial breadmaking purposes and consumption of CCW bread are relatively new in Nigeria. This study investigated the effect of baking temperature and time on some physical properties of bread from composite flour made by mixing cassava and wheat flour at ratio of 10:90 (w\\/w). A central composite rotatable experimental design was used

T. A. Shittu; A. O. Raji; L. O. Sanni

2007-01-01

258

Properties and Composition of Turkish Flat Bread (Bazlama) Supplemented with Barley Flour and Wheat Bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(4):506-511 In this study, effects of increasing levels of wheat bran and barley flour on dough properties and bazlama quality were investigated. Bazlama is a flat bread commonly consumed in Turkey. Flours of wheat cultivars Gün and Gerek, flour of barley cultivar Tokak, and Gerek bran mixture were used. Part of the wheat flours were replaced with barley

Arzu Ba?man; Hamit Köksel

1999-01-01

259

Mineral composition of organically grown wheat genotypes: contribution to daily minerals intake.  

PubMed

In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

2010-09-06

260

High strain-rate behavior of natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high strain-rate constitutive behavior of polymer composites with various natural fibers is studied. Hemp, hemp\\/glass hybrid, cellulose, and wheat straw-reinforced polymeric composites have been manufactured, and a split-Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus has been designed to measure the dynamic stress–strain response of the materials. Using the apparatus, compressive stress–strain curves have been obtained that reveal the materials’ constitutive characteristics at

Wonsuk Kim; Alan Argento; Ellen Lee; Cynthia Flanigan; Daniel Houston; Angela Harris; Deborah F Mielewski

2012-01-01

261

Effects of crop nutrition on wheat grain composition and end use quality.  

PubMed

Increasing applications of nitrogen fertilizer to wheat (from 0 to 288 kg/ha) resulted in an increased proportion of gliadin proteins and increased dough extensibility. Flour from a plot receiving 192 kg/ha N (and no S) was similar to that from a plot receiving 192 kg/ha N and 53 kg/ha S, but the proportion of omega-gliadins was increased and dough strength was more similar to that from plots with lower N. The grain %N from a plot receiving 35 t/ha farmyard manure was similar to that from the plot receiving 144 kg/ha N, indicating that much of the applied N was unavailable. The protein composition and dough properties of flour from this plot were similar to those of grain from conventionally fertilized plots with similar grain N contents. Similar differences in grain N content, protein composition, and functional properties were observed in grain samples from commercial organic and conventional farms. PMID:20131902

Godfrey, Dan; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Powers, Stephen J; Millar, Sam; Shewry, Peter R

2010-03-10

262

Winter wheat genotypes under different levels of nitrogen and water stress: Changes in grain protein composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard white winter wheat with superior and consistent quality is preferable for Asian markets. This study investigated the combined influences of moisture deficit during grain-fill and N management on protein quality, dough rheological properties, and protein molecular weight distributions in soft and hard winter wheats. Genotypes were grown under an irrigation gradient and two N-fertilization levels. Grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO)

C. Saint Pierre; C. J. Peterson; A. S. Ross; J. B. Ohm; M. C. Verhoeven; M. Larson; B. Hoefer

2008-01-01

263

Effect of composite flour fortification to wheat flour on the quality characteristics of unleavened bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The unleavened bread called chapatis in vernacular language is the staple food of the majority of North Indians, which is generally prepared from wheat flour. However, wheat flour contains 8-12 per cent protein and is limited in essential amino acid, so supplementation of partially defatted soy dhal, sorghum, rice, maize and pearl millet will help to improve the

Neelam Khetarpaul; Rajni Goyal

2009-01-01

264

Mathematical modeling of a fluidized bed straw gasifier. Part 3: Model verification  

SciTech Connect

The validity of the model developed for fluidized bed gasification of biomass was tested using experimental data obtained from a 400-kW thermal, dual-distributor-type fluidized bed gasifier. The fluidized bed was operated on wheat straw at various equivalence ratios, fluidization velocities, and bed heights. Both the predicted and the experimental bed temperatures increased linearly with the increase in equivalence ratio. At higher equivalence ratios (ER > 0.25) the model predictions for gas composition and the higher heating value were in good agreement with the experimental data. However, at lower equivalence ratios (ER < 0.20) the higher heating value of gas and the mole fractions of methane were overpredicted by the model. This was because of the drastic increase in tar formation at such low equivalence ratios. The model predictions were improved substantially when the tar formation was included in the model.

Erguedenler, A.; Ghaly, A.E.; Hamdullahpur, F.; Al-Taweel, A.M. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1997-12-01

265

Heavy metals and trace elements in atmospheric fall-out: their relationship with topsoil and wheat element composition.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the average concentrations and deposition rates of 28 elements in atmospheric bulk deposition and to elucidate associations among topsoil, bulk deposition and wheat element composition. The fluxes of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) deposition in Córdoba were higher than in other agro-ecosystems, which reflects both natural (geochemistry and topsoil removal) and anthropogenic sources. High lanthanide, uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations revealed the impact of an open cast uranium mine. The highest enrichment factors (EF) were those of Cu, Pb, Zn and nickel (Ni), with calcium (Ca) being the most prominent in the surroundings of a cement plant. Industries and the transport of airborne urban pollutants were the main anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and antimony (Sb). The concentrations of metals in wheat grain were predicted using the topsoil and atmospheric fall-out composition with R(2)=0.90, with the latter being the best explanatory variable. The present study highlights the potential health hazards of wheat consumption (Environmental Protection Agency) by the assessment of heavy metals in bulk atmospheric deposition. PMID:22390956

Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Jasan, Raquel; Plá, Rita; Pignata, María L

2012-02-16

266

An analysis of lignin removal in a fixed bed reactor by reaction of cereal straws with ozone.  

PubMed

The chemical pretreatment with ozone of rye and wheat straws was carried out in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of ozone pretreatment time on lignin removal was determined. Glucose and xylose concentrations in the hydrolysates were also measured after the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis step. Acid insoluble lignin reacts with ozone within the first 90 min reaction. Insoluble lignin reduction was about 50%. The higher hydrolysis yields were obtained after 120 min ozonation: the glucose yield ranged from 40% to 50% for rye straw and from 34% to 39% for wheat straw, whereas xylose yields were about 30%, independently of the cereal straw. The glucose yields corresponding to the untreated raw straws were considerably lower, about 10%. Longer ozonation time sharply reduced the production of monosaccharides, probably due to the formation of side products. The kinetic model, with the reaction parameters estimated, predicted reasonably well the experimental data. PMID:22209403

García-Cubero, M Teresa; Palacín, Luis G; González-Benito, Gerardo; Bolado, Silvia; Lucas, Susana; Coca, Mónica

2011-12-13

267

Combined effect of salinity and hypoxia in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and wheat- Thinopyrum amphiploids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sodium chloride salinity and hypoxia were studied in eight wheat lines and three wheat-Thinopyrum amphiploids in vermiculite-gravel culture. The lines were treated with either 100 or 150 mol m?3 NaCl with and without hypoxia. Saline hypoxic conditions significantly reduced the vegetative growth, water use, grain and straw yields for all wheat varieties except the amphiploids, whereas NaCl

J. Akhtar; J. Gorham; R. H. Qureshi

1994-01-01

268

RICE STRAW CHARACTERIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The structure of rice straw is described using scanning electron and light microscopy. The monocotyledonous plant consists of multiple leaf structures which sheath an interior, hollow stem. All tissues have large air spaces and many of the cells are lignified. The exterior surfaces contain multiple ...

269

Effects of Fusarium infection on the amino acid composition of winter wheat grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter wheat (susceptible cultivar Ritmo) was grown in 2006 near Kiel and in 2007 near Heide in northern Germany. Plants were inoculated at anthesis using a Fusarium graminearum macroconidial suspension. The percentage of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) ranged from 0±2% to 28±2%. The contents of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and wheat amino acids were determined in the grain. Levels of

Marco Beyer; Jens Aumann

2008-01-01

270

Cerebroside C increases tolerance to chilling injury and alters lipid composition in wheat roots.  

PubMed

Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4°C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4°C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25°C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.62-62.26%, 13.54-63.93% and 13.90-61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.69-46.06%, 3.37-37.96%, and -7.00-178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC. PMID:24058471

Li, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Yu; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xu; Li, Cong; Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Ye, Yong-Hao

2013-09-13

271

Cerebroside C Increases Tolerance to Chilling Injury and Alters Lipid Composition in Wheat Roots  

PubMed Central

Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4°C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4°C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25°C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.62–62.26%, 13.54–63.93% and 13.90–61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.69–46.06%, 3.37–37.96%, and ?7.00–178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC.

Li, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Yu; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xu; Li, Cong; Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Ye, Yong-Hao

2013-01-01

272

Evaluation of thermophilic fungal consortium for paddy straw composting.  

PubMed

Out of 10 thermophilic fungi isolated from wheat straw, farm yard manure, and soil, only three showed highest cellobiase, carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and FPase activities. They were identified as Aspergillus nidulans (Th(4)), Scytalidium thermophilum (Th(5)), and Humicola sp. (Th(10)). A fungal consortium of these three fungi was used to compost a mixture (1:1) of silica rich paddy straw and lignin rich soybean trash. The composting of paddy straw for 3 months, during summer period in North India, resulted in a product with C:N ratio 9.5:1, available phosphorus 0.042% and fungal biomass 6.512 mg of N-acetyl glucosamine/100 mg of compost. However, a C:N ratio of 10.2:1 and highest humus content of 3.3% was achieved with 1:1 mixture of paddy straw and soybean trash. The fungal consortium was effective in converting high silica paddy straw into nutritionally rich compost thereby leading to economical and environment friendly disposal of this crop residue. PMID:17874191

Kumar, Adesh; Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata

2007-09-12

273

Effect of genotype, environment, and their interaction on phytochemical compositions and antioxidant properties of soft winter wheat flour.  

PubMed

The effect of genotype (G), growing environment (E), and their interaction (G×E) on the antioxidant properties and chemical compositions were investigated using the flour samples of 10 wheat varieties grown in four different locations in Maryland. Lutein content of wheat flour ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 ?g/g, and ?-tocopherol ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 ?g/g. Total carotenoids were primarily affected by E (45.7%), while G×E interaction had a larger effect on the level of total tocopherols (71.6%). E had the largest effect on antioxidant activity against oxygen, hydroxyl, and ABTS(·+) radicals. G had the least influence on the measured phytochemicals and antioxidant activity assays. Total carotenoids had a significant correlation with average low air temperature (r=0.359, p<0.01) as well as precipitation level (r=0.214, p<0.01). ABTS(·+) radical scavenging capacity had a positive correlation with average air temperature (r=0.705, p<0.01), while hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity had a negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.269. p<0.01). These results show that environment, genotype, and their interaction could influence the levels of lipophilic antioxidants and antioxidant activities of wheat flour. PMID:23265511

Lv, Junli; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Whent, Monica; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2012-11-10

274

Winter Wheat Seedling Emergence from Deep Sowing Depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

sity (Rohde, 1966). By today's standards, it has poor disease resistance, modest yield potential, and inferior Growers in low-precipitation (,300 mm annual) dryland wheat- grain quality; it is also difficult to thresh, and has weak fallow areas of the inland Pacific Northwest need winter wheat (Triti- cum aestivum L.) cultivars that emerge from deep sowing depths in straw that causes

William F. Schillinger; Edwin Donaldson; Robert E. Allan; Stephen S. Jones

1998-01-01

275

Composition of the Fusarium graminearum species complex populations in wheat cropping environments in Southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) comprises several toxigenic species that cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. In this study, high number (n=671 isolates) of pathogenic isolates (isolated from infected spikes) was obtained from a 3-year large-scale survey (2009-2011) conducted o...

276

Nutritional quality and safety of wheat-soy composite flour chapattis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Unleavened bread (chapatti and roti) is the staple diet of people in the Indo-Pak region, utilizing almost 90 percent of the wheat produced in the region. To improve the nutrition of chapattis, normally legume flour is used in the region. The purpose of the current study is to assess the nutritional quality and safety of chapattis supplemented with

Muhammad Issa Khan; Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Imran Pasha; Ayesha Sameen; Muhammad Nadeem

2012-01-01

277

COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF PYTHIUM COMMUNITIES FROM WHEAT FIELDS IN EASTERN WASHINGTON STATE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pythium spp. were isolated from the soil of 80 wheat fields in eastern Washington in summer 2000, from an area encompassing approximately 27,000 km2. These sites covered a range of soil textures (course to fine silty loess), average annual precipitation (200 to 600 mm) and average annual temperature...

278

Title: Kentucky Bluegrass Straw Utilization: Genetic and Management Factors Influencing Pulping Requirements and Papermaking Properties Objectives: The main goal of this interdisciplinary project is to stimulate an integration of the PNW paper and agricultural industries for improving their environmental and economic sustainability. Specific research objectives were to: 1. evaluate Kentucky bluegrass straw as a potential raw material for papermaking and soil amendments\\/fertilizers. â assess variations in straw characteristics related to fiber quality among commercial cultivars used in the PNW. â relate fiber characteristics to paper making quality of the pulp derived from bluegrass â evaluate pulping liquor byproducts from Kentucky bluegrass straw as potential soil amendments\\/fertilizers. 2. optimize straw pulping, fiber blending and black liquor processing for producing paper medium, molded paper products, soil amendments and hydroseeding products. 3. Contribute above-generated resear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was not renewed after the first year of phase II. In light of the discontinuation of funding, projects were culminated, summarized and publications were finalized. Commercial pilot studies on making molded paper products were successfully executed with wheat and bluegrass straw by UW. Bluegrass straw black liquor's strong alkalinity increases soil pH, has modest effects on soil EC,

William L. Pan; William T. McKean; M. Lewis; William J. Johnston; Lou Edwards

279

Effects of compost, coal ash, and straw amendments on restoring the quality of eroded Palouse soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ridgetops in the dryland farming region of eastern Washington suffer from low productivity and poor soil quality from years of erosion. Two studies investigated the effectiveness of soil amendments in restoring soil quality. Study 1 treatments were two rates of compost and a control. Study 2 treatments were compost, coal ash, wheat straw, three rates of inorganic N, and a

Duncan Cox; David Bezdicek; Mary Fauci

2001-01-01

280

Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition and corrosion measurements were conducted at a 10 MW wheat straw fired stoker boiler used for combined power and heat production. The plant experiences major problems with deposits on the heat transfer surfaces, and test probes have shown enhanced corrosion due to selective corrosion for metal temperatures above 520°C. Deposition measurements carried out at a position equal to the

Hanne Philbert Michelsen; Flemming Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Ole Hede Larsen

1998-01-01

281

Influence of Added Starch on Mixing of Dough Made with Three Wheat Flours Differing in High Molecular Weight Subunit Composition: Rheological Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(5):633-639 The effect of mixing time (6 and 20 min) and starch content were studied on doughs prepared with three wheat flours differing in high molecular weight subunit composition. Rheological measurements were performed in dynamic oscillation: frequency and strain sweeps, stress relaxation, and in large deformation viscosity measurements. The flours were diluted with starch to cover flour protein

H. Larsson; A.-C. Eliasson; E. Johansson; G. Svensson

2000-01-01

282

The relationship between different biotypes and protein composition of Hard Red Winter Wheat flours and their affect on alkaline noodle color and texture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-five samples of biotypes derived from two hard red winter wheat (HRW) cultivars, Centurk and OK102, were grown in a randomized complete block design at Mead, NE. The biotypes varied in their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition with five different HMW-GS allelic combi...

283

Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: Modelling and experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451?m) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4?m) are independently fed into the burner through two concentric injection tubes, i.e., the centre and annular tubes, respectively.

Chungen Yin; Søren K. Kær; Lasse Rosendahl; Søren L. Hvid

2010-01-01

284

Characterization of variation in the lignan content and composition of winter rye, spring wheat, and spring oat.  

PubMed

To characterize the range of variation in lignan content and composition caused by genotype and environment, seven dietary lignans, i.e., 7-hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, medioresinol, and syringaresinol, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in whole-grain extracts of cereal samples collected at eight locations in Finland. In all, 28 winter rye, 73 spring wheat, and 55 spring oat samples were analyzed, representing 6, 9, and 5 cultivars, respectively. The total lignan content showed huge variations within the same cereal species: the range was 2500-6700 microg/100 g in the rye samples, 340-2270 microg/100 g in the wheat samples, and 820-2550 microg/100 g in the oat samples. The variations seemed to depend largely upon genetic differences. In rye, also environmental conditions affected the lignan content through grain size; smaller grains had significantly lower total lignan, syringaresinol, and lariciresinol content than larger grains. This study shows that varying cereal lignan concentrations reported in different studies may be, besides differences in analytical methods, largely dependent upon natural variations. PMID:19496586

Smeds, Annika I; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Tuomola, Elina; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

2009-07-01

285

Effect of Osmotic Stress on Ion Transport Processes and Phospholipid Composition of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The effect of osmotic stress on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mitochondrial activity and phospholipid composition was investigated. Preliminary growth measurements showed that osmotic stress (?0.25 or ?0.5 megapascal external water potential) inhibited the rate of shoot dry matter accumulation while root dry matter accumulation was less sensitive. We have determined that differences in sensitivity to osmotic stress existed between tissues at the mitochondrial level. Mitochondria isolated from roots or shoots of stressed seedlings showed respiratory control and ADP/O ratios similar to control seedlings which indicates that stressed mitochondria were well coupled. However, under passive swelling conditions in a KCl reaction mixture, the rate and extent of valinomycin-induced swelling of shoot mitochondria were increased by osmotic stress while root mitochondria were largely unaffected. Active ion transport studies showed efflux transport by stressed-shoot mitochondria to be partially inhibited since mitochondrial contraction required the addition of N-ethylmaleimide or nigericin. Efflux ion transport by root mitochondria was not inhibited by osmotic stress which indicates that stress-induced changes in ion transport were largely limited to shoot mitochondria. Characterization of mitochondrial fatty acid and phospholipid composition showed an increase in the percentage of phosphatidylcholine in stressed shoot mitochondria compared to the control. Mitochondrial fatty acid composition was not markedly altered by stress. No significant changes in either the phospholipid or fatty acid composition of stressed root mitochondria were observed. Hence, these results suggest that a tissue-specific response to osmotic stress exists at the mitochondrial level.

Klein, Robert R.; Burke, John J.; Wilson, Richard F.

1986-01-01

286

Characterization of the Impact of Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, on Pigment Composition and Photosystem II Photochemistry of Wheat Heads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact of the wheat stem sawßy, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), feeding injury on chlorophyll content and photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in heads of wheat, Triticumaestivum L., at the grain-Þlling developmental stage was evaluated by biochemically assessing the total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), chlorophyll a\\/b ratio (Chla\\/b), and carotenoid concentrations in the glumes in combination with a

Tulio B. Macedo; David K. Weaver; Robert K. D. Peterson

2006-01-01

287

Impact of hydrothermal pre-treatment to chemical composition, enzymatic digestibility and spatial distribution of cell wall polymers.  

PubMed

The effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, microscopic structure and enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw was studied. Wheat straw was pretreated with increasing severity to obtain series of samples with altered chemistry and structure. The hydrothermal pretreatment caused solubilisation of arabinoxylan and phenolic acids and their dimers in a temperature dependent manner with minor effects on the cellulose and Klason lignin content. In the cell wall level, the pretreatment intensified staining of cellulose and relocalised xylan in the cell walls. The distribution, properties and content of the cell wall phenolic compounds was altered as observed with phloroglucinol and autofluorescence imaging. In the enzymatic hydrolysis, the highest yields were obtained from the samples with a low xylan and diferulate content. On the cell wall structural level, the sample with the highest digestibility was observed to have intensified cellulose staining, possibly reflecting the increased accessibility of cellulose. PMID:23612175

Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Marjamaa, Kaisa; Merali, Zara; Käsper, Andres; de Bot, Peter; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina; Waldron, Keith; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja

2013-03-31

288

The Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Greek Traditional Wheat Sourdoughs Is Reflected in Both Composition and Metabolite Formation  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and Weissella cibaria. This consortium seems to be unique for the Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs studied. Strains of the species W. cibaria have not been isolated from sourdoughs previously. No Lactobacillus pontis or Lactobacillus panis strains were found. An L. brevis-like isolate (ACA-DC 3411 t1) could not be identified properly and might be a new sourdough LAB species. In addition, fermentation capabilities associated with the LAB detected have been studied. During laboratory fermentations, all heterofermentative sourdough LAB strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. Mannitol was produced from fructose that served as an additional electron acceptor. In addition to glucose, almost all of the LAB isolates fermented maltose, while fructose as the sole carbohydrate source was fermented by all sourdough LAB tested except L. sanfranciscensis. Two of the L. paralimentarius isolates tested did not ferment maltose; all strains were homofermentative. In the presence of both maltose and fructose in the medium, induction of hexokinase activity occurred in all sourdough LAB species mentioned above, explaining why no glucose accumulation was found extracellularly. No maltose phosphorylase activity was found either. These data produced a variable fermentation coefficient and a unique sourdough metabolite composition.

De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

2002-01-01

289

Antioxidative Defense System, Pigment Composition, and Photosynthetic Efficiency in Two Wheat Cultivars Subjected to Drought1  

PubMed Central

We analyzed antioxidative defenses, photosynthesis, and pigments (especially xanthophyll-cycle components) in two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars, Adamello and Ofanto, during dehydration and rehydration to determine the difference in their sensitivities to drought and to elucidate the role of different protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. Drought caused a more pronounced inhibition in growth and photosynthetic rates in the more sensitive cv Adamello compared with the relatively tolerant cv Ofanto. During dehydration the glutathione content decreased in both wheat cultivars, but only cv Adamello showed a significant increase in glutathione reductase and hydrogen peroxide-glutathione peroxidase activities. The activation states of two sulfhydryl-containing chloroplast enzymes, NADP+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, were maintained at control levels during dehydration and rehydration in both cultivars. This indicates that the defense systems involved are efficient in the protection of sulfhydryl groups against oxidation. Drought did not cause significant effects on lipid peroxidation. Upon dehydration, a decline in chlorophyll a, lutein, neoxanthin, and ?-carotene contents, and an increase in the pool of de-epoxidized xanthophyll-cycle components (i.e. zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin), were evident only in cv Adamello. Accordingly, after exposure to drought, cv Adamello showed a larger reduction in the actual photosystem II photochemical efficiency and a higher increase in nonradiative energy dissipation than cv Ofanto. Although differences in zeaxanthin content were not sufficient to explain the difference in drought tolerance between the two cultivars, zeaxanthin formation may be relevant in avoiding irreversible damage to photosystem II in the more sensitive cultivar.

Loggini, Barbara; Scartazza, Andrea; Brugnoli, Enrico; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

1999-01-01

290

First Survey of the Wheat Chromosome 5A Composition through a Next Generation Sequencing Approach  

PubMed Central

Wheat is one of the world's most important crops and is characterized by a large polyploid genome. One way to reduce genome complexity is to isolate single chromosomes using flow cytometry. Low coverage DNA sequencing can provide a snapshot of individual chromosomes, allowing a fast characterization of their main features and comparison with other genomes. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a 2x coverage of wheat chromosome 5A. The resulting sequence assembly was used to identify TEs, genes and miRNAs, as well as to infer a virtual gene order based on the synteny with other grass genomes. Repetitive elements account for more than 75% of the genome. Gene content was estimated considering non-redundant reads showing at least one match to ESTs or proteins. The results indicate that the coding fraction represents 1.08% and 1.3% of the short and long arm respectively, projecting the number of genes of the whole chromosome to approximately 5,000. 195 candidate miRNA precursors belonging to 16 miRNA families were identified. The 5A genes were used to search for syntenic relationships between grass genomes. The short arm is closely related to Brachypodium chromosome 4, sorghum chromosome 8 and rice chromosome 12; the long arm to regions of Brachypodium chromosomes 4 and 1, sorghum chromosomes 1 and 2 and rice chromosomes 9 and 3. From these similarities it was possible to infer the virtual gene order of 392 (5AS) and 1,480 (5AL) genes of chromosome 5A, which was compared to, and found to be largely congruent with the available physical map of this chromosome.

Vitulo, Nicola; Albiero, Alessandro; Forcato, Claudio; Campagna, Davide; Dal Pero, Francesca; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Colaiacovo, Moreno; Faccioli, Primetta; Lamontanara, Antonella; Simkova, Hana; Kubalakova, Marie; Perrotta, Gaetano; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Pietrella, Marco; Gianese, Giulio; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Giuliano, Giovanni; Cattivelli, Luigi; Valle, Giorgio; Stanca, A. Michele

2011-01-01

291

Antioxidative defense system, pigment composition, and photosynthetic efficiency in two wheat cultivars subjected to drought  

PubMed

We analyzed antioxidative defenses, photosynthesis, and pigments (especially xanthophyll-cycle components) in two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars, Adamello and Ofanto, during dehydration and rehydration to determine the difference in their sensitivities to drought and to elucidate the role of different protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. Drought caused a more pronounced inhibition in growth and photosynthetic rates in the more sensitive cv Adamello compared with the relatively tolerant cv Ofanto. During dehydration the glutathione content decreased in both wheat cultivars, but only cv Adamello showed a significant increase in glutathione reductase and hydrogen peroxide-glutathione peroxidase activities. The activation states of two sulfhydryl-containing chloroplast enzymes, NADP+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, were maintained at control levels during dehydration and rehydration in both cultivars. This indicates that the defense systems involved are efficient in the protection of sulfhydryl groups against oxidation. Drought did not cause significant effects on lipid peroxidation. Upon dehydration, a decline in chlorophyll a, lutein, neoxanthin, and beta-carotene contents, and an increase in the pool of de-epoxidized xanthophyll-cycle components (i.e. zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin), were evident only in cv Adamello. Accordingly, after exposure to drought, cv Adamello showed a larger reduction in the actual photosystem II photochemical efficiency and a higher increase in nonradiative energy dissipation than cv Ofanto. Although differences in zeaxanthin content were not sufficient to explain the difference in drought tolerance between the two cultivars, zeaxanthin formation may be relevant in avoiding irreversible damage to photosystem II in the more sensitive cultivar. PMID:10069848

Loggini; Scartazza; Brugnoli; Navari-Izzo

1999-03-01

292

Wheat Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... years. Most children with wheat allergy have other food allergies. Children usually outgrow wheat allergy between ages 3 and ... Hand Scheduled Section Focus Related Links Related Guides Children Parent Food allergy References Inomata N. Wheat allergy. Current Opinion ...

293

Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.  

PubMed

The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordão presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordão and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different concentrations of different metals. The advantages of using INAA are the multielementality, low detection limits and use of solid samples (no need of digestion). PMID:21367605

Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

2011-03-01

294

Genotype and Environmental Variation in Phenolic Content, Phenolic Acid Composition, and Antioxidant Activity of Hard Spring Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health-promoting effects of whole-grain wheat likely derive from phenolic compounds and other antioxidants that also make wheat a potential source of functional food ingredients. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of genotype and growing environment on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of alcohol-soluble extracts from commercial wheat cultivars. Total phenolic contents (TPCs), antioxidant activities

Archie Mpofu; Harry D. Sapirstein; Trust Beta

2006-01-01

295

Composition of HMW and LMW Glutenin Subunits and Their Effects on Dough Properties, Pan Bread, and Noodle Quality of Chinese Bread Wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 82(4):345-350 Knowledge of composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and their associations with pan bread and noodle quality will contribute to gen- etically improving processing quality of Chinese bread wheats. Two trials including a total of 158 winter and facultative cultivars and advanced lines were conducted to detect the

Z. H. He; L. Liu; X. C. Xia; J. J. Liu; R. J. Peña

2005-01-01

296

Effects of variety and fertiliser nitrogen on alcohol yield, grain yield, starch and protein content, and protein composition of winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nitrogen (N) fertiliser on grain size and shape, starch and protein concentration, vitreosity, storage protein composition, and alcohol yield of two winter wheat varieties contrasting in endosperm texture were studied in a field trial in Herefordshire, UK in 2004. Averaged across varieties, the alcohol yield was 439L\\/tonne for grain with a protein concentration of 11.5g\\/100g. The soft

Daniel R. Kindred; Tamara M. O. Verhoeven; Richard M. Weightman; J. Stuart Swanston; Reginald C. Agu; James M. Brosnan; Roger Sylvester-Bradley

2008-01-01

297

Characterization of photosynthetic pigment composition, photosystem II photochemistry and thermal energy dissipation during leaf senescence of wheat plants grown in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic pigment composition and photo- system II (PSII) photochemistry were characterized during the flag leaf senescence of wheat plants grown in the field. During leaf senescence, neo- xanthin and b-carotene decreased concomitantly with chlorophyll, whereas lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments were less affected, leading to increases in lutein\\/chlorophyll and xanthophyll cycle pigments\\/chlorophyll ratios. The chlorophyll a\\/b ratio also increased. With

Congming Lu; Qingtao Lu; Jianhua Zhang; Tingyun Kuang

2001-01-01

298

Distinctions in Formation of Microbial Complex in Nutrient Solutions of Higher Plants after Use of Straw Mineralization Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of a product of wheat straw mineralization, e.g., ecothole, on the formation of a microbial complex that is concomitant with lettuce plants during 7 vegetations (i.e., 189 days) was investigated. The plants were grown by the subirrigation-aerop...

N. A. Drugova L. S. Yunusova Y. I. Shaydorov

1986-01-01

299

The FINUDA straw tube detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of 2424 2.6-m-long, 15-mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18m2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300?m, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

2001-04-01

300

Solid-state production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium using steam-exploded straw as substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the used media mainly consisting of steam-exploded wheat straw, the straw, which could replace expensive veratryl alcohol, might act not only as nutrient, but also as inducer of lignin enzymes. The activities of the enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) in solid-state fermentation (SSF) were far higher than in submerged fermentation (SmF). Under optimal conditions of SSF,

Xu Fujian; Chen Hongzhang; Li Zuohu

2001-01-01

301

Development of an enrichment culture growing at low temperature used for ensiling rice straw.  

PubMed

To speed up the conversion of rice straw into feeds in a low-temperature region, a start culture used for ensiling rice straw at low temperature was selected by continuous enrichment cultivation. During the selection, the microbial source for enrichment was rice straw and soil from two places in Northeast China. Lab-scale rice straw fermentation at 10 degrees C verified, compared with the commercial inocculant, that the selected start culture lowered the pH of the fermented rice straw more rapidly and produced more lactic acid. The results from denatured gradient gel eletrophoresis showed that the selected start culture could colonize into the rice straw fermentation system. To analyze the composition of the culture, a 16S clone library was constructed. Sequencing results showed that the culture mainly consisted of two bacterial species. One (A) belonged to Lactobacillus and another (B) belonged to Leuconostoc. To make clear the roles of composition microbes in the fermented system, quantitative PCR was used. For species A, the DNA mass increased continuously until sixteen days of the fermentation, which occupied 65%. For species B, the DNA mass amounted to 5.5% at six days of the fermentation, which was the maximum relative value during the fermentation. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first report on ensiling rice straw with a selected starter at low temperature and investigation of the fermented characteristics. PMID:18467865

Yang, Hong Yan; Wang, Xiao Fen; Gao, Li Juan; Haruta, Shin; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Cui, Zong Jun

2008-04-01

302

[Comparative characteristics of the amino acid composition of the protein fractions of the hydrogen bacteria Hydrogenomonas eutropha in meat and wheat].  

PubMed

An attempt was made to compare the biological value of the biological mass of the hydrogen bacteria Tydrogenomas eutropha, of meat and wheat on the ground of the fractional and amino acids composition of their proteins. Substantial differences in the distribution of proteins and amino acids in all of the three objects examined were revealed. It is shown that more than one half of the entire protein contained in the biological mass of the hydrogen bacteria is made up of poorly soluble structural proteins difficultly amenable to the action of digestive enzymes. It is this fraction where the bulk of essential amino acids is concentrated. The data obtained imply that the biological value of the biological mass of hydrogen bacteria is higher than in wheat, but lower than in meat. PMID:823709

Barashkov, V A; Trubachev, I N; Gitel'zon, I I

303

Seafood processing wastes ensiled with straw: utilization and intake by sheep.  

PubMed

Ensiled mixtures of seafood processing wastes and wheat straw were evaluated. Thirty-six crossbred wethers (average BW = 34 kg) were fed 1) a basal diet (hay and concentrate) alone, or a 1:1 ratio (DM basis) of basal and 2) ensiled fish waste plus straw (70:30, wet basis), 3) ensiled fish waste and straw (51:49), 4) ensiled crab waste plus straw (60:40), 5) ensiled crab waste plus straw (40:60), or 6) ensiled wheat straw (50% moisture). Dry molasses (5%) was included in all ensiled mixtures, and glacial acetic acid (16% vol/wt) was added to the crab waste mixtures. Among diets containing ensiled fish waste, DM digestibility was greater (P less than .01) for the diet containing silate with 70% fish waste than the diet containing 51% fish waste. There was no difference (P greater than .05) in DM digestibility between the two crab waste silages. Apparent digestibility of CP was greater (P less than .01) for diets containing fish than for those containing crab waste. Nitrogen retention (g/d) was positive for sheep receiving all diets but not different among treatments. Apparent absorption of P (g/d) was greater (P less than .01) by sheep fed fish waste silage diets than by those fed crab waste silage diets. Among seafood silages, DMI was greater (P less than .01) for sheep consuming the 60:40 than for those consuming the 40:60 crab waste silage diet and less (P less than .01) for sheep fed the 70:30 than for those fed the 51:49 fish waste silage diet. Seafood processing wastes potentially are valuable to ensile with crop residues for use as ruminant feedstuffs. PMID:1808192

Samuels, W A; Fontenot, J P; Allen, V G; Abazinge, M D

1991-12-01

304

Chemical composition of teff (Eragrostis tef) compared with that of wheat, barley and grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of teff, analyzed from uncontaminated seeds, revealed the superiority of the species in mineral nutritive\\u000a value. Teff’s exceedingly high iron and calcium content was confirmed. The high iron content of teff reported by the Ethiopia\\u000a Nutrition Survey must have been due to certain inherent factors of the species, not only a result of contamination. The magnitude\\u000a of

Melak H. Mengesha

1966-01-01

305

Mechanical support for straw tubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing...

H. Joestlein

1990-01-01

306

Growth and chlorophyll, mineral, and total amino acid composition of tomato and wheat plants in relation to nitrogen and iron nutrition II. Chlorophyll content and total amino acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the amino acids distribution in plants subjected to nutrient regimes are limited. The present study investigated the effect of NO3?N and FeSO4?Fe regimes on chlorophyll and total amino acids composition of tomato and wheat plants. Also the distribution of 17 amino acids between the different plant parts was studied. Increasing the NO3?N level up to 200 mg kggreatly

Abdellatif A. Mohamed; T. C. Tucker

1987-01-01

307

Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer) was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw\\/dw), and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75) and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was

Ahmad Norouzi; Gholamali Peyvast; Jamalali Olfati

308

Comparison of chemical and biological pretreatment of corn straw for biogas production by anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effects of corn straw pretreatments using Fungus Pleurotus florida and chemicals such as NaOH, ammonia, and urea on the biogasification performance by anaerobic digestion were compared. A laboratory-scale, single-phase and continuous anaerobic biogas digester was used for the evaluation. It was found that after different treatments, the compositional contents of corn straw such as lignin, cellulose,

Weizhang Zhong; Zhongzhi Zhang; Wei Qiao; Pengcheng Fu; Man Liu

2011-01-01

309

The effect of drying temperature on the composition of biomass  

SciTech Connect

The compositional quality of different lignocellulosic feedstocks influences their performance and potential demand at a biorefinery. Many analytical protocols for determining the composition or performance characteristics of biomass involve a drying step, where the drying temperature can vary depending on the specific protocol. To get reliable data, it is important to determine the correct drying temperature to vaporize the water without negatively impacting the compositional quality of the biomass. A comparison of drying temperature between 45 degrees C and 100 degrees C was performed using wheat straw and corn stover. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were taken of the dried samples and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Carbohydrates were analyzed using quantitative saccharification to determine sugar degradation. Analysis of variance was used to determine if there was a significant difference between drying at different temperatures. PCA showed an obvious separation in samples dried at different temperatures due to sample water content. However, quantitative saccharification data shows, within a 95% confidence interval, that there is no significant difference in sugar content for drying temperatures up to 100 degrees C for wheat straw and corn stover.

Houghton, T.P.; Stevens, D.N.; Wright, C.T.; Radtke, C.W.

2008-05-01

310

Changes in the material characteristics of maize straw during the pretreatment process of methanation.  

PubMed

Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, "result" microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent), biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea) as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4) was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw. PMID:23118505

Feng, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Guo, Yan; Yang, Gaihe; Xi, Jianchao; Ren, Guangxin

2012-10-14

311

Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation  

PubMed Central

Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent), biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea) as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4) was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

Feng, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Guo, Yan; Yang, Gaihe; Xi, Jianchao; Ren, Guangxin

2012-01-01

312

[Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].  

PubMed

A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period. PMID:24066551

Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

2013-06-01

313

Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid lead to increasing conversion of hemicellulose to xylose. In contrast, increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations degrade the hemicellulose to unknown derivates. Consequently, almost no sugars from hemicellulose remain for fermentation. The hydrolysis of sulfuric acid pretreated straw results in a maximum glucose concentration of 100 g/kg straw and a xylose concentration of nearly 30 g/kg. Sodium hydroxide pretreated and hydrolyzed straw leads to a maximum glucose concentration of 90 g/kg straw and a xylose concentration of nearly 20 g/kg. In comparison to the two chemical pretreatment methods (sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid pretreatment), the steam explosion pretreatment (conditions: temperature 190°C, time 20 minutes) results in a higher glucose concentration of about 190 g/kg straw and a xylose concentration of nearly 75 g/kg straw after enzymatic hydrolysis of the dried straw. Because of the small effect the sodium hydroxide pretreatment has on xylose recovery, this method won't be used for separation and conversion of hemicellulose into xylose and arabinose. Although pretreatment with sulfuric acid achieved promising results, further research and economical considerations have to be performed. In conclusion, the steam explosion method is still the state of the art pretreatment method for the production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Alkaline methods destroy most of the xylose part of the sugar fraction and a loss of up to 25 % of the fermentable sugars is not acceptable for a sustainable biofuel production. The acid pretreatment yields high amounts of accessible hemicellulose and cellulose, but the consumption of chemicals for acid pretreatment and neutralization has to be taken into account when considering technical implementation.

Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

2013-04-01

314

[Ruminal 15N-straw degradation in sacco and the in vivo digestibility of 15N from straw in the sheep and pony].  

PubMed

The nylon-bag method was applied for determination of the rumen degradation of dry matter and nitrogen of 15N-labelled wheat straw. For the experiment 4 wethers fitted with a rumen cannula were used. The bags containing 15N straw were introduced into the rumen and withdrawn 3, 6 or 12 h after incubation. In a second experiment the apparent 15N-digestibility of the same straw was determined in wether and pony. The dry matter disappearance varied between 6 and 23%. For 15N-labelled straw the disappearance of 15N was higher than that of total N. 12 h after incubation 71% of 15N and only 25% of total N were disappeared. It was calculated that after incubation rumen microbial-N in the nylon bag increased from 31% (3 h) to 45% (6 h) and 61% (12 h) resp. The apparent 15N digestibility amounted 53 +/- 2% for wethers and 51 +/- 2% for ponies. PMID:2751427

Zander, R; Flachowsky, G; Schubert, R; Gruhn, K

1989-03-01

315

[Spectral analysis of dissolved organic matter derived from rice straw after chemical treatment].  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to study the chemical composition of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) derived from rice straw in the hydrolysis process with a dilute complex acid solution. The results obtained are as follows. FTIR spectra could indicate the changes of DOM during the hydrolysis process of rice straw. With the progress of rice straw hydrolysis, methyl, methylene, aromatic compounds and carbohydrates decreased, most of aliphatic compounds were oxidized to CO2 and H2O, and others were turned into carbonates. Most of the organic silicon was hydrolyzed into inorganic silicon. The proteins, amino acids and other nitrogen were hydrolyzed to NH4+. All the recalcitrant fractions of rice straw, such as hemi-cellulose, cellulose and silicon sharply decreased during the process of chemical treatment. The results obtained in this paper proposed that the changes of DOM of rice straw in the hydrolysis could be an indication in the changes of chemical composition of rice straw during the hydrolyzation, and FTIR, UV and NMR were good methods to study the changes in the structure of organic compounds. PMID:15856553

Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yong; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Yu, Qing; Zhou, Zhi-Ping

2005-02-01

316

Cultivation of Pleurotus florida mushroom on rice straw and biogas production from the spent straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw, used as a substrate for three successive crops of the fruiting bodies ofPleurotus florida having 22% protein, had less cellulose but more nitrogen and ash than the original straw.In vitro digestibility using bacterial cellulase released 4.3-fold more reducing sugars per g cellulose from spent straw than from plain straw. There was 8-fold increase in biogas production from the

V. Mehta; J. K. Gupta; S. C. Kaushal

1990-01-01

317

Genotype and environmental variation in phenolic content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity of hard spring wheat.  

PubMed

The health-promoting effects of whole-grain wheat likely derive from phenolic compounds and other antioxidants that also make wheat a potential source of functional food ingredients. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of genotype and growing environment on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of alcohol-soluble extracts from commercial wheat cultivars. Total phenolic contents (TPCs), antioxidant activities (AOAs), and concentrations of six phenolic acids were measured in six red- and white-grained hard spring wheat genotypes grown at four diverse locations in Western Canada during the 2003 crop year. There were significant differences among genotypes and environments for TPC, AOA, and concentrations of all the phenolic acids measured. The predominant indicators of antioxidant potential, i.e., TPC, AOA, and ferulic acid (FA) concentration were highly intercorrelated (r > 0.72). For these indices, the Canada Western (CW) Red Spring wheat cultivars Neepawa and AC Elsa had the highest levels, whereas an analogous CW hard white spring wheat cultivar, AC Snowbird, had the lowest levels. Grain color did not appear to be a factor in the expression of antioxidant-related parameters. For both TPC and AOA, as well as for vanillic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid, environmental effects were considerably larger than genotype effects. Neither growing temperature nor rainfall from anthesis to maturity appeared to be related to the environmental variation that was observed. Genotype x environment interaction was small for all parameters compared with genotype and location effects and was significant only for TPC. Genotype variation for antioxidant properties indicates that it would be possible to select for these quantitative traits in a breeding program. However, the significant environmental variation observed would delay and/or complicate this process. PMID:16478246

Mpofu, Archie; Sapirstein, Harry D; Beta, Trust

2006-02-22

318

Bioethanol production from rice straw residues  

PubMed Central

A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L?1.

Belal, Elsayed B.

2013-01-01

319

Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.  

PubMed

A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

Belal, Elsayed B

2013-05-31

320

Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen

Nóra Szijártó; Emma Horan; Junhua Zhang; Terhi Puranen; Matti Siika-aho; Liisa Viikari

2011-01-01

321

Modeling Grain Nitrogen Accumulation and Protein Composition to Understand the Sink\\/Source Regulations of Nitrogen Remobilization for Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional explanation for the regulation of grain nitrogen (N) accumulation in cereal by environmental and genetic factors remains elusive. Here, new mechanistic hypotheses of grain N accumulation are proposed and tested for wheat (Triticum aestivum). First, we tested experimentally the hypothesis that grain N accumulation is mostly source regulated. Four contrasting cultivars, in terms of their grain N concentrations

Pierre Martre; John R. Porter; Peter D. Jamieson; Eugene Triboi

2003-01-01

322

FALL FORAGE BIOMASS AND N COMPOSITION OF WINTER WHEAT POPULATIONS SELECTED FROM GRAIN-ONLY AND DUAL-PURPOSE ENVIRONMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the foundation of agricultural enterprises in the southern Great Plains and is grown primarily as grain-only (GO) and dual-purpose (DP, grazing plus grain) crops. Traditionally, cultivars are developed in GO systems. Because of genotype by system interactions, ...

323

Influence of ligninolytic enzymes on straw saccharification during fungal pretreatment.  

PubMed

Solid state and submerged fermentations in the presence of white-rot basidiomycetes (Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma resinaceum, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor and basidiomycete Euc-1) and the litter-decomposing basidiomycete Lepista nuda were evaluated as a pretreatment to increase enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Enzymatic hydrolysis of holocellulose after solid state pretreatment showed a significant (P<0.05) increase of saccharification process for T. versicolor, Euc-1, G. resinaceum and I. lacteus, being T. versicolor (strain Tv2) the best one with a sugar yield increase of 91% compared with untreated straw. In submerged medium the pretreatment with I. lacteus, Euc-1 and P. chrysosporium enhanced saccharification but at a lesser extent. Covariance analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase) and saccharification increase. Results showed that only the presence of lignin peroxidase during pretreatment can lead to a significant (P<0.05) increase in the saccharification yield. PMID:22406100

Pinto, Paula A; Dias, Albino A; Fraga, Irene; Marques, Guilhermina; Rodrigues, Miguel A M; Colaço, Jorge; Sampaio, Ana; Bezerra, Rui M F

2012-02-22

324

Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from a rice-wheat crop rotation under wheat residue incorporation and no-tillage practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop residue incorporation and no-tillage are recommended as management practices and are being increasingly adopted in the agricultural sector. However, few studies have assessed the extent to which these practices integrate annual carbon and nitrogen trace gas fluxes and grain yield. We investigated the effect of wheat straw incorporation and no-tillage on nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes from a rice-wheat system in southeast China, using year-round field measurements. Compared to the treatment with synthetic nitrogen fertilizers alone, the wheat straw incorporation reduced the N2O emissions by 38% (P < 0.05) and increased the CH4 emissions by 74% (P < 0.05) during the annual rotation cycle. Compared to the conventional tillage, no-tillage prior to wheat sowing enhanced the N2O emissions by an average of 61% (P < 0.05), irrespective of residue incorporation. The CH4-C emissions that were induced by the wheat straw comprised 6% of the residue-carbon incorporated during the rice season. As a result of the stimulating effect of wheat straw incorporation on CH4 fluxes, the annual aggregate emissions of N2O and CH4 with straw incorporation (10.7 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 or 725 kg CO2-eq Mg-1 grain yield) were usually higher than those with no residue incorporation (7.6 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 or 545 kg CO2-eq Mg-1 grain yield), irrespective of the tillage practice. Nevertheless, the changes in greenhouse gas emissions are notably only the transient response of the rice-wheat system after crop residue incorporation and tillage conversion, which may not necessarily represent equilibrium conditions for this agro-ecosystem over the long term.

Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Xie, Baohua; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Zhu, Jianguo

2013-11-01

325

Stereoselective transformation of triadimefon to metabolite triadimenol in wheat and soil under field conditions.  

PubMed

Racemic triadimefon (TF) was applied to wheat and soil at three sites (Beijing, Huaibei, and Zhengzhou in China) under open field conditions. Its enantioselective degradation and stereoselective transformation to the major metabolite, triadimenol (TN), in wheat straw, grain and soil were investigated. At all sites, the degradation of TF enantiomers in straw and soil followed first-order kinetics. In soil from Beijing and Zhengzhou R-(-)-TF was preferentially degraded; however, preferential enantioselective degradations were not recorded in soil from Huaibei or in the straw from all sites. There were noticeable differences in the stereoselective formation of TN stereoisomers in all straw and soil samples. TN diastereomer A with high animal toxicity was preferentially produced via a reductive reaction in straw. In contrast, diastereomer B, was preferential in soil across the experimental period. Different TN concentrations were found in the order of SR-(-)-TN>RR-(+)-TN>RS-(+)-TN>SS-(-)-TN in straw, and RR-(+)-TN>SS-(-)-TN>SR-(-)-TN>RS-(+)-TN in soil. Neither TF nor TN was found in wheat grain at harvest. Because of differences in degradation, formation, and toxicity, the characterization of enantiomers and stereoisomers in this study contributes toward comprehensively assessing the fate and risk of chiral agrochemicals in the environment and food. PMID:23876258

Liang, Hongwu; Li, Li; Qiu, Jing; Li, Wei; Yang, Shuming; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Lihong

2013-06-27

326

Eat Wheat!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

327

Production and cross-synergistic action of cellulolytic enzymes from certain fungal mutants grown on cotton and straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Significant levels of cellulase and ß-glucosidase, capable of saccharifying cotton fiber and wheat straw cellulose, were excreted by the selected mutantsAspergillus ustus M35 andTrichoderma harzianum M5 grown on these cellulosic materials. Cross-synergism was observed between the cellulolytic system of certain fungl upon hydrolysis of cotton. A maximum enhancement of 282% in the saccharification rate of cotton was obtained when

B. J. Macris; M. Paspaliari; D. Kekos

1985-01-01

328

Nutrient Utilization by Sheep and Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Steers Fed Crab Waste-Straw Silage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crab waste preserved with .2% NaOCl was mixed with wheat straw, liquid molasses, and water (32:32:16:20, wet basis) and ensiled for a minimum of 8 wk with microbial inoculant. A reduction in pH and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and a higher concentration of lactic acid (4.9%, DM basis) were achieved. The trimethylamine (TMA) concentration in the silage was 11.2 mg N\\/100

O. A. Ayangbile; J. P. Fontenot; P. P. Graham; D. J. Kirk; V. G. Allen

2010-01-01

329

A Comparison between Prolamellar Bodies and Prothylakoid Membranes of Etioplasts of Dark-Grown Wheat Concerning Lipid and Polypeptide Composition 1  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present investigation was to find factors critical for the co-existence of prolamellar bodies and prothylakoids in etioplasts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Starke II). The lipid composition of the prolamellar body and prothylakoid fractions was qualitatively similar. However, the molar ratio of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol to digalactosyl diacylglycerol was higher in the prolamellar body fraction (1.6 ± 0.1), as was the lipid content on a protein basis. Protochlorophyllide was present in both fractions. The dominating protein of the prolamellar body fraction was protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. This protein was present also in prothylakoid fractions. The other major protein of the prothylakoid fraction was the coupling factor 1, subunit of the chloroplast ATPase. From the lipid and protein data, we conclude that prolamellar bodies are formed when monogalactosyl diacylglycerol is present in larger amounts than can be stabilized into planar bilayer prothylakoid membranes by lamellar lipids or proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Selstam, Eva; Sandelius, Anna Stina

1984-01-01

330

EFFECT OF STARCH SWELLING ON THE COMPOSITE MODULUS OF LOW- AND HIGH-GLUTEN WHEAT FLOURS AND CARBOXYLATED STYRENE-BUTADIENE LATEX  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat flour is a plentiful renewable resource. The dry flour is rigid and can be used as a potential reinforcement material for soft rubber matrices. Wheat flours with two different gluten contents were investigated and the initial cook temperature of the aqueous wheat flour dispersions was varied...

331

Physicochemical Characterization of Rice Straw Pretreated with Sodium Hydroxide in the Solid State for Enhancing Biogas Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogas yield of rice straw during anaerobic digestion can be substantially increased through solid-state sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment. This study was conducted to explore the mechanisms of biogas yield enhancement. The chemical compositions of the pretreated rice straw were first analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas permeation chromatography

Yanfeng He; Yunzhi Pang; Yanping Liu; Xiujin Li; Kuisheng Wang

2008-01-01

332

Shifts of functional gene representation in wheat rhizosphere microbial communities under elevated ozone.  

PubMed

Although the influence of ozone (O(3)) on plants has been well studied in agroecosystems, little is known about the effect of elevated O(3) (eO(3)) on soil microbial functional communities. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to investigate the functional composition, and structure of rhizosphere microbial communities of Yannong 19 (O(3)-sensitive) and Yangmai 16 (O(3)-relatively sensitive) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under eO(3). Compared with ambient O(3) (aO(3)), eO(3) led to an increase in soil pH and total carbon (C) percentages in grain and straw of wheat plants, and reduced grain weight and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Based on GeoChip hybridization signal intensities, although the overall functional structure of rhizosphere microbial communities did not significantly change by eO(3) or cultivars, the results showed that the abundance of specific functional genes involved in C fixation and degradation, nitrogen (N) fixation, and sulfite reduction did significantly (P<0.05) alter in response to eO(3) and/or wheat cultivars. Also, Yannong 19 appeared to harbor microbial functional communities in the rhizosphere more sensitive in response to eO(3) than Yangmai 16. Additionally, canonical correspondence analysis suggested that the functional structure of microbial community involved in C cycling was largely shaped by soil and plant properties including pH, DOC, microbial biomass C, C/N ratio and grain weight. This study provides new insight into our understanding of the influence of eO(3) and wheat cultivars on soil microbial communities. PMID:23151639

Li, Xinyu; Deng, Ye; Li, Qi; Lu, Caiyan; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

2012-11-15

333

Carbon dioxide evolution from wheat and lentil residues as affected by grinding, added nitrogen, and the absence of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effects of grinding, added N, and the absence of soil on C mineralization from agricultural plant residues with a high C:N ratio. The evolution of CO2 from ground and unground wheat straw, lentil straw, and lentil green manure, with C:N ratios of 80, 36, and 9, respectively, was determined over a period of

E. Bremer; W. van Houtum; C. Kessel

1991-01-01

334

Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

335

Wheat: The Whole Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

336

Deoxyribonucleic Acid and the Ancestry of Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

REES1 has suggested that data relating to the DNA content of nuclei may provide a further clue regarding the parental composition of allopolyploid plants like durum and bread wheats. From Rees's results1 it is clear that Aegilops speltoides is more likely to be the donor of the B genome of tetraploid wheat than the other members of the Sitopsis section

M. D. Upadhya; M. S. Swaminathan

1963-01-01

337

Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

2011-01-01

338

Effect of nitrogen management and soil moisture conservation practices on rainfed wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Studies revealed that the application of fertilizer nitrogen brought a significant increase in grain and straw yield of wheat. The significant effect was also noticed on such yield contributing characters like number of effective tillers per metre row length, spike length, and number of grains per spike. The increase of nitrogen level from 40 kg\\/ha to 80 kg\\/ha also

R. C. Thakur; J. Shekhar

1982-01-01

339

Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and\\/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat–soybean meal-based diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and\\/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental

Philip Thacker; Gemunu Widyaratne

2012-01-01

340

Heavy metal and trace element concentrations in wheat grains: assessment of potential non-carcinogenic health hazard through their consumption.  

PubMed

Heavy metal and trace element concentrations were examined in wheat grains and straw to elucidate associations between air pollution sources and soil variables. The mean wheat grain concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn surpassed the tolerance limits stated in the international legislation for wheat grain and foodstuffs. When topsoil Ba, Co, Cr and Zn concentrations were higher than the legislation thresholds for agricultural and residential soils, wheat grain concentrations were also increased. In addition, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn revealed an immobilization effect of a cement plant and the atmospheric deposition input, with Cd in wheat grains being associated with a cement plant and industrial waste incinerator. The health risks arising from wheat grain consumption indicated that the inhabitants of Argentina are experiencing significant non-carcinogenic risks (Hazard Index = 3.311), especially when consuming wheat grains affected by metallurgical or chemical factories, as well as by air transportation from big cities. PMID:21835546

Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Jasan, Raquel; Plá, Rita; Pignata, María Luisa

2011-07-23

341

Vacuum straw tracker test beam run  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum of understanding requests beam time at Fermilab during the 2005 Meson Test Beam run to measure the detection inefficiency of vacuum straw tubes. One of the future kaon experiments at J-PARC has the goal to measure the branching ratio of the neutral kaon ''Golden Mode'' K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} with a few hundred event sensitivity. This future J-PARC experiment is a follow up of a current KEK experiment, E391a which has been taking data since February 2004. E391a is a collaboration of five countries (Japan, United States, Russia, Korea, and Taiwan) with ten institutions (KEK, Saga U, Yamagata U, Osaka U, U of Chicago, Pusan U, JINR, NDA, Kyoto U, National Taiwan U, and RCNP). The branching ratio of K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} is small, about 3 x 10{sup -11}. To first order, all kaon decays with final states with charged particles need to be vetoed, and those include K{sub e3}, K{sub {mu}3}, and K{sub {+-}0} (about 80% of all neutral kaon decay). The standard and typical veto power comes from sheet scintillator and may not be adequate. Vacuum straw tubes provides additional, independent and orthogonal veto power, but the detection inefficiency has not been known or measured in a detail way. The inefficiency of the straw has three sources, the electronics, the straw wall/wire, and the gas. We like to perform beam test to measure all three sources. There is much experience in straw detector technology, and some in vacuum straw technology (CKM R&D effort). The possible use of straws in the future K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} experiment will allow absolute photon/electron energy calibration (via K{sub {+-}0} decays), possible measurement of photon inefficiencies (via K{sub 000} with {pi}{sup 0} Dalitz), and as mentioned, charged particle veto. The results of this proposed beam test will provide new knowledge on the absorption cross section and will direct us on design issues for future neutral kaon decay experiments. Regarding the straws, lots of R&D work has been done by the CKM collaboration, and we plan to use as much existing straws setup and related equipment as possible.

Wah, Yau; /Chicago U.

2005-08-01

342

Enzymatic hydrolysis of sorghum straw using native cellulase produced by T. reesei NCIM 992 under solid state fermentation using rice straw.  

PubMed

Cellulose is a major constituent of renewable lignocellulosic waste available in large quantities and is considered the most important reservoir of carbon for the production of glucose, for alternative fuel and as a chemical feedstock. Over the past decade, the emphasis has been on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and the efficiency of which depends on source of cellulosic substrate, its composition, structure, pretreatment process, and reactor design. In the present study, efforts were made to produce cellulase enzyme using rice straw. The produced enzyme was used for the hydrolysis of selected lignocellulosic substrate, i.e., sorghum straw. When rice straw was used as a substrate for cellulase production under solid state fermentation, the highest enzyme activity obtained was 30.7 FPU/gds, using T. reesei NCIM 992. 25 FPU/g of cellulase was added to differently treated (native, alkali treated, alkali treated followed by 3% acid treated and alkali treated followed by 3 and 5% acid treated) sorghum straw and hydrolysis was carried out at 50 °C for 60 h. 42.5% hydrolysis was obtained after 36 h of incubation. Optimization of enzyme loading, substrate concentration, temperature, time and buffer yielded a maximum of 546.00 ± 0.55 mg/g sugars (54.60 ± 0.44 g/l) with an improved hydrolysis efficiency of 70 ± 0.45%. The enzymatic hydrolyzate can be used for fermentation of ethanol by yeasts. PMID:22558539

Vimala Rodhe, A; Sateesh, L; Sridevi, J; Venkateswarlu, B; Venkateswar Rao, L

2011-09-20

343

Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is\\u000a the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is\\u000a composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid,\\u000a and formic acid). The aim

Miklós Gyalai-Korpos; Réka Mangel; Pablo Alvira; Dóra Dienes; Mercedes Ballesteros; Kati Réczey

2011-01-01

344

Cell Walls of Developing Wheat Starchy Endosperm: Comparison of Composition and RNA-Seq Transcriptome1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The transcriptome of the developing starchy endosperm of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) was determined using RNA-Seq isolated at five stages during grain fill. This resource represents an excellent way to identify candidate genes responsible for the starchy endosperm cell wall, which is dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 70% of the cell wall polysaccharides, with 20% (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan, 7% glucomannan, and 4% cellulose. A complete inventory of transcripts of 124 glycosyltransferase (GT) and 72 glycosylhydrolase (GH) genes associated with cell walls is presented. The most highly expressed GT transcript (excluding those known to be involved in starch synthesis) was a GT47 family transcript similar to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IRX10 involved in xylan extension, and the second most abundant was a GT61. Profiles for GT43 IRX9 and IRX14 putative orthologs were consistent with roles in AX synthesis. Low abundances were found for transcripts from genes in the acyl-coA transferase BAHD family, for which a role in AX feruloylation has been postulated. The relative expression of these was much greater in whole grain compared with starchy endosperm, correlating with the levels of bound ferulate. Transcripts associated with callose (GSL), cellulose (CESA), pectin (GAUT), and glucomannan (CSLA) synthesis were also abundant in starchy endosperm, while the corresponding cell wall polysaccharides were confirmed as low abundance (glucomannan and callose) or undetectable (pectin) in these samples. Abundant transcripts from GH families associated with the hydrolysis of these polysaccharides were also present, suggesting that they may be rapidly turned over. Abundant transcripts in the GT31 family may be responsible for the addition of Gal residues to arabinogalactan peptide.

Pellny, Till K.; Lovegrove, Alison; Freeman, Jackie; Tosi, Paola; Love, Christopher G.; Knox, J. Paul; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A.C.

2012-01-01

345

Utilization of straw in biomass energy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a big agricultural country and one of the most abundant straw resources in the world, producing more than 620million tons of straw in 2002, and representing about 33–45% of energy consumption for livelihood in rural areas. Utilization of straw as energy with high efficiency and rationality not only meets the demands for energy as the economy grows, but

Xianyang Zeng; Yitai Ma; Lirong Ma

2007-01-01

346

Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with

Yuanjing Zheng; Peter Arendt Jensen; Anker Degn Jensen; Bo Sander; Helle Junker

2007-01-01

347

Assessment of straw biomass feedstock resources in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straw that is produced as a coproduct of cereal grain and grass seed production on 24,000km2 in the Pacific Northwest states of Idaho (ID), Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) has potential as a bioenergy feedstock. Previous attempts to develop approaches to convert straw to energy based on transporting straw to a conversion facility were uneconomical. Rising energy prices and the

Gary M. Banowetz; Akwasi Boateng; Jeffrey J. Steiner; Stephen M. Griffith; Vijay Sethi; Hossien El-Nashaar

2008-01-01

348

[Effects of returning maize straw into field on dynamic change of soil microbial biomass C, N and P under different promoted decay condition].  

PubMed

A 2-year field experiment of wheat-maize rotation was conducted on a cinnamon soil of east Hebei Province to study the effects of returning maize straw into field on the dynamics of soil microbial biomass C, N and P, and their relationships with soil nutrients and enzyme activities. The results showed that under the condition of returning maize straw combined with applying chemical fertilizer to adjust straw C/N, the application of effective microorganisms could increase soil microbial biomass C, N and P in each crop growth period, advance their peak time, and better regulate soil nutrient supply, compared with no application of effective microorganisms. Soil microbial biomass had a significantly positive correlation with soil enzyme activities, but its correlation with soil hydrolysable N and available P was strongly affected by crop growth and fertilization system. PMID:16422512

Zhang, Dianxue; Han, Zhiqing; Li, Dongpo; Liu, Wei; Gao, Shuguo; Hou, Dongjun; Chang, Liansheng

2005-10-01

349

Winter and Specialty Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat is the most widely grown crop in the world. Winter wheat is primarily common wheat (2n = 6x = 42) which has extensive germplasm resources that are used in breeding, often for disease and insect resistance. Though\\u000a wheat can be used as a forage crop and its grain for animal feed, the primary uses of common wheat are to

P. Baenziger; R. Graybosch; D. Van Sanford; W. Berzonsky

350

Wheat Lipids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article is a chapter of a book entitled “Wheat: Chemistry and Technology”, the 4th edition, K. Khan and P.R. Shewry (eds.), to be published in 2007 following the 3rd edition, Y. Pomeranz (ed.), published in 1988 by AACC International Inc., St. Paul, MN. The chapter covers the subject area of wh...

351

Pulverized straw combustion in a low-NO x multifuel burner: Modeling the transition from coal to straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CFD simulation of pulverized coal and straw combustion using a commercial multifuel burner have been undertaken to examine the difference in combustion characteristics. Focus has also been directed to development of the modeling technique to deal with larger non-spherical straw particles and to determine the relative importance of different modeling choices for straw combustion. Investigated modeling choices encompass the

M. Mandø; L. Rosendahl; C. Yin; H. Sørensen

2010-01-01

352

Net energy of diets containing wheat-corn distillers dried grains with solubles as determined by indirect calorimetry, comparative slaughter, and chemical composition methods.  

PubMed

The NE content of diets containing wheat-corn distillers dried grains with solubles (wcDDGS; 1:1 ratio) fed to growing pigs was determined using the comparative slaughter (CS), indirect calorimetry (IC), and chemical composition (CH) methods. The experimental diets were a corn-soybean meal control diet (CTRL), CTRL + 15% wcDDGS, and CTRL + 30% wcDDGS. In Exp. 1, 56 barrows (18.5 kg BW) were used to determine the NE value of diets using the CS method. Pigs were initially placed in 8 groups (7/group), based on BW and 1 pig/group was killed at the start of the experiment to obtain baseline body composition. The remaining 48 pigs were housed in pairs and allotted to the 3 diets (n = 8). Pigs had free access to feed and water for a 28-d period, after which 1 pig/pen was slaughtered to determine final body composition. Based on the CS method, NE values of 2,430, 2,427, and 2,429 kcal/kg DM were obtained for diets containing 0%, 15%, and 30% wcDDGS, respectively. In Exp. 2, 18 barrows (20.4 kg BW) were used to determine the NE value of diets using the IC and CH methods. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed the 3 diets (n = 6) at 550 kcal ME/kg BW/d for a 16-d period. Feces and urine were collected from d 11 to 16, followed by measurement of O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, and urinary N, over a 36-h period using an IC system. For the IC method, NE values of 2,586, 2,513, and 2,520 kcal/kg DM were obtained for diets containing 0%, 15%, and 30% wcDDGS, respectively, and corresponding values for the CH method were 2,447, 2,451, and 2,368 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The NE values that were obtained with the CS, IC, and CH methods were not different. PMID:22871935

Ayoade, D I; Kiarie, E; Trinidade Neto, M A; Nyachoti, C M

2012-08-07

353

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

354

Surface characterization of lignocellulosics for composite manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this research were to form moisture resistant wheat strawboards, either by altering the straw surface characteristics or by changing the chemistry of the polymeric 4, 4' diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI)-based matrix and interface. Part I compared the surface characteristics of wheat, barley, oat, rice, kenaf, hemp and softwood particles. All cereal straws had two surfaces: epidermis and brittle-pith unlike one heterogeneous type observed for bast fibers and softwood particles. The epidermis of cereal straws was not wet by water or aqueous binders, whereas the pith surface allowed the penetration of water, but was not readily wetted by aqueous binders. Between the different surface treatments evaluated for wheat straw in Part II, NaOH selectively peeled-off the epidermis and pith layers. The treated straw particles were formable into strawboards using aqueous phenol-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, and duroplastic acrylic acid binders with good internal bond strength (IBS) and adequate water resistance. In Part III it was shown that, decreasing straw particle sizes and bleaching worsened the mechanical properties of strawboards, but the moisture absorption properties of bleached strawboards were lower than the unbleached ones. Layering of straw particles in strawboards did not seem to affect their mechanical or moisture absorption properties. Part IV showed that the pith surface of wheat straw was fractured on curing with PMDI, providing hollow microcrevices for water accumulation. Furthermore, the cured PMDI formed a network polyurea/polyuretonimine/polycarbodiimide/polyisocyanurate polymer on straw surfaces whose properties dictated the properties of strawboards. Among the different mono-, bi-, and tri-functional alcohols, amines and carboxylic acids evaluated in Part V as H-donor substitutes to moisture for reaction with PMDI on straw surfaces, ethylene glycol, resorcinol, glycerin and citric acid provided IBS values greater than the ANSI recommended minimum (60 psi) and lower thickness swell values than the moisture-cure process. In Part VI, strawboards formed with 2% PMDI and 5% epoxy or duroplastic acrylic acid binders had high IBS values, and their thickness swell after 24 h soaking in water was restricted to 13%, which was much lower than the ˜18--20% values obtained for strawboards made with 5% PMDI.

Iyer, Ananth V.

355

Vernonia amygdalina as a supplement to teff straw ( Eragrostis tef ) fed to Ethiopian Menz sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen rumen fistulated Ethiopian Menz type sheep were used in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) in experiment 1. Unchopped teff straw was fed alone or supplemented with either 100, 150 or 200 g\\/d of sun-dried vernonia leaves. The chemical compositions of fresh, boiled, water-soaked and sun-dried vernonia and soluble carbohydrate (SC) loss by boiling were determined. In experiment 2,25

M. L. K. Bonsi; P. O. Osuji; A. K. Tuah; N. N. Umunna

1995-01-01

356

Genetic variability in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi compatibility supports the selection of durum wheat genotypes for enhancing soil ecological services and cropping systems in Canada.  

PubMed

Crop nutrient- and water-use efficiency could be improved by using crop varieties highly compatible with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Two greenhouse experiments demonstrated the presence of genetic variability for this trait in modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) germplasm. Among the five cultivars tested, 'AC Morse' had consistently low levels of AM root colonization and DT710 had consistently high levels of AM root colonization, whereas 'Commander', which had the highest colonization levels under low soil fertility conditions, developed poor colonization levels under medium fertility level. The presence of genetic variability in durum wheat compatibility with AMF was further evidenced by significant genotype × inoculation interaction effects in grain and straw biomass production; grain P, straw P, and straw K concentrations under medium soil fertility level; and straw K and grain Fe concentrations at low soil fertility. Mycorrhizal dependency was an undesirable trait of 'Mongibello', which showed poor growth and nutrient balance in the absence of AMF. An AMF-mediated reduction in grain Cd under low soil fertility indicated that breeding durum wheat for compatibility with AMF could help reduce grain Cd concentration in durum wheat. Durum wheat genotypes should be selected for compatibility with AMF rather than for mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:22356605

Singh, A K; Hamel, C; Depauw, R M; Knox, R E

2012-02-22

357

Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

358

Genetic Determination of Breadmaking Quality in Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelic variability of different protein and molecular markers and evaluation of their potential for bread-making quality prediction in 150 hexaploid wheat genotypes were discused. Seventeen Glu-1 alleles were scored, 3 at the Glu-A1, 11 at the Glu-B1, and 3 at the Glu-D1. Typical HMW glutenin composition was 2* 7+9 5+10. Wheat-rye translocation 1BL\\/1RS was present in 20,7% genotypes. According to

Dragana OBREHT; Borislav KOBILJSKI; Milutin BEDE

359

Environmentally degradable bio-based polymeric blends and composites.  

PubMed

Blends and composites based on environmentally degradable-ecocompatible synthetic and natural polymeric materials and fillers of natural origin have been prepared and processed under different conditions. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was used as the synthetic polymer of choice by virtue of its capability to be processed from water solution or suspension as well as from the melt by blow extrusion and injection molding. Starch and gelatin were taken as the polymeric materials from renewable resources. The fillers were all of natural origin, as waste from food and agro-industry consisted of sugar cane bagasse (SCB), wheat flour (WF), orange peels (OR), apple peels (AP), corn fibres (CF), saw dust (SD) and wheat straw (WS). All the natural or hybrid formulations were intended to be utilized for the production of: a) Environmentally degradable mulching films (hydro-biomulching) displaying, in some cases, self-fertilizing characteristics by in situ spraying of water solutions or suspensions; b) Laminates and containers to be used in agriculture and food packaging by compression and injection molding followed by baking. Some typical prototype items have been prepared and characterized in relation to their morphological and mechanical properties and tested with different methodology for their propensity to environmental degradation and biodegradation as ultimate stage of their service life. A relationship between chemical composition and mechanical properties and propensity to biodegradation has been discussed in a few representative cases. PMID:15468211

Chiellini, Emo; Cinelli, Patrizia; Chiellini, Federica; Imam, Syed H

2004-03-15

360

Physical Separation of Straw Stem Components to Reduce Silica  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these, silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher in silica, while chaff, leaves and nodes are the primary source of fines. Our approach to reducing silica is to selectively harvest the straw stems using an in-field physical separation, leaving the remaining components in the field to build soil organic matter and contribute soil nutrients.

Hess, John Richard; Thompson, David Neal; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Shaw, Peter Gordon; Grant, D.R.

2002-04-01

361

Effects of non-flooded mulching cultivation on crop yield, nutrient uptake and nutrient balance in rice–wheat cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment on a sandy loam was conducted to evaluate the effects of non-flooded mulching cultivation on the productivity, nutrient uptake and nutrient balance in rice–wheat (R–W) cropping systems in Chengdu flood plain, southwest China over a 3-year period. Plastic film mulching (PM) resulted in 12% higher average yield of rice while wheat straw mulching (SM) led to 14%

X. J Liu; J. C Wang; S. H Lu; F. S Zhang; X. Z Zeng; Y. W Ai; S. B Peng; P Christie

2003-01-01

362

Fungal biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble lignocarbohydrate complexes from straw. [Aspergillus japonicus, Polyporus versicolor  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus japonicus is an efficient degrader of phenolics and carbohydrates present in a mixture of soluble lignocarbohydrate complexes extracted from wheat straw. Trichoderma species attacked part of the carbohydrate but hardly affected the aromatic portion of this solution. Polyporus versicolor had a complex effect; polymerization of low-molecular-size phenolics accompanied the degradation of aromatic and carbohydrate polymers. The addition of xylose to the medium facilitated depolymerization of lignin by the fungi tested and prevented the polymerization of low-molecular-size fractions of lignocarbohydrate complexes by P. versicolor. P. versicolor, in contrast to A. japonicus and Trichoderma species, also excreted into the medium considerable amounts of laccase, but only in the absence of endogenous or exogenous carbohydrates. Apparently, laccase is involved in polymerization rather than degradation of lignin in this organism. A number of extracellular glycanases were also secreted by these fungi. 19 references

Milstein, O.A.; Vared, Y.; Sharma, A.; Gressel, J.; Flowers, H.M.

1983-08-01

363

Effects of municipal solid waste compost, farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on wheat growth, soil composition and soil bacterial characteristics under Tunisian arid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) as soil organic amendment is of an economic and environmental interest. However, little is known about the effectiveness of MSWC application on agricultural soil in northern Africa arid climate. We assessed the impact of five years' applications of different organic and mineral fertilizers on wheat grain yields and soil chemical and microbial

Hanene Cherif; Fathia Ayari; Hadda Ouzari; Massimo Marzorati; Lorenzo Brusetti; Naceur Jedidi; Abdennaceur Hassen; Daniele Daffonchio

2009-01-01

364

Genetic Dissection of Yield and Its Component Traits Using High-Density Composite Map of Wheat Chromosome 3A: Bridging Gaps Between QTLs and Underlying Genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield compon...

365

VIRULENCE SPECIFICITIES OF WORLD WIDE COLLECTIONS OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA FROM DURUM WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is an important disease of wheat. Resistance in durum wheat has been durable compared to the short-lived resistance of bread wheat cultivars. Recently, durum leaf rust has become more prevalent in several parts of the world. To determine race composition of t...

366

Preparation of low calorific fiber rich cakes by wheat bran supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study was designed to incorporate untreated and alkaline hydrogen peroxide treated wheat bran into wheat flour and to access the appropriate type of bran and its optimum level of addition in flour, which may not affect quality but enhance the overall status of the fiber in the bakery products. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Composite flours prepared by replacing wheat

Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Muhammad Rauf; Muhammad Issa Khan; Shahzad Hussain

2006-01-01

367

Bioconversion of Straw into Improved Fodder: Fungal Flora Decomposing Rice Straw  

PubMed Central

The fungal flora decomposing rice straw were investigated all over the soil of Sharkia Province, east of Nile Delta, Egypt, using the nylon net bag technique. Sixty-four straw-decomposing species belonging to 30 genera were isolated by the dilution plate method in ground rice straw-Czapek's agar medium at pH 6. The plates were incubated separately at 5?, 25? and 45?, respectively. Twenty nine species belonging to 14 genera were isolated at 5?. The most frequent genus was Penicillium (seven species), and the next frequent genera were Acremonium (three species), Fusarium (three species), Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Mucor, Stachybotrys (two species) and Rhizopus stolonifer. At 25?, 47 species belonging to 24 genera were isolated. The most frequent genus was Aspergillus (nine species), and the next frequent genera were ranked by Penicillium (five species), Chaetomium (three species), Fusarium (three species). Each of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Myrothecium and Trichoderma was represented by two species. At 45?, 15 species belonging to seven genera were isolated. These were seven species of Aspergillus, two species of Chaetomium and two species of Emericella, while Humicola, Malbranchea, Rhizomucor and Talaromyces were represented by one species respectively. The total counts of fungi the genera, and species per gram of dry straw were significantly affected by incubation temperature and soil analysis (P < 0.05).

2005-01-01

368

Bioconversion of Straw into Improved Fodder: Preliminary Treatment of Rice Straw Using Mechanical, Chemical and/or Gamma Irradiation  

PubMed Central

Crude protein (CP) content of mechanically ground rice straw into small particles by an electric grinder and reducing value (RV) and soluble protein (SP) in the culture filtrate were lower than that of the chopped straw into 5~6 cm lengths when both ground and chopped straws were fermented with Aspergillus ochraceus, A. terreus or Trichoderma koningii, at steady conditions. The reduction rate of RV, SP and CP was 22.2, 2.4, 7.3%; 9.1, 4.9, 8.5% or 0.0, 0.0, 3.6% for the three fungi, respectively. Chemical pretreatment of straw by soaking in NH4OH for a day caused significant increase in CP of the fermented straw than the other alkali and acidic pretreatments. Gamma irradiation pretreatment of dry and wet straw with water, specially at higher doses, 100, 200 or 500 kGy, caused significant increase in RV and SP as CP in the fermented straw by any of these fungi. Chemical-physical combination pretreatment of rice straw reduced the applied dose of gamma irradiation required for increasing fermentable ability of fungi from 500 kGy to 10 kGy with approximately the same results. Significant increases in RV and SP of fermented straw generally occurred as the dose of gamma irradiation for pretreated straw, which combined with NH4OH, gradually rose. Whereas, the increase percentage in CP of fermented straw that was pretreated by NH4OH-10 kGy was 12.4%, 15.4% or 8.6% for A. ochraceus, A. terreus or T. koningii, respectively.

2006-01-01

369

Dioxin Emissions from Straw-Burning Furnaces. Preliminary Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this analysis was to find out if dioxins are emitted from a modern straw-fueled heating plant and from a socalled farm furnace and if so to determine the amount of emitted dioxins per m/sup 3/ flue gas and per ton straw. For both plants the con...

P. R. Nielsen J. Wood Pedersen

1987-01-01

370

Effect of fiber incorporation on rheological and chapati making quality of wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Indian unleavened bread (chapati) was prepared by incorporating wheat bran (insoluble fiber) and oat bran (soluble fiber) at different levels into whole wheat\\u000a flour. Central composite rotatable design with 2 independent variables (wheat bran and oat bran) at 5 levels (wheat bran 3–9,\\u000a oat bran 6–12%) was used to design the experiments. The flour samples containing different concentration of

D. N. Yadav; A. Rajan; G. K. Sharma; A. S. Bawa

2010-01-01

371

Nitrogen efficiency of wheat: Genotypic and environmental variation and prospects for improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown for 4 years in multi-factorial field trials at Rothamsted, southern England. Thirty nine elite commercial cultivars (primarily short-straw) were grown including those released in the UK over a 25-year period, a selection of continental varieties, and three older, tall varieties. Varieties spanned the quality spectrum from ‘bread’ to ‘feed’. The crops were given

Peter B. Barraclough; Jonathan R. Howarth; Janina Jones; Rafael Lopez-Bellido; Saroj Parmar; Caroline E. Shepherd; Malcolm J. Hawkesford

2010-01-01

372

Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritional quality of wheat variety, Yecora Rojo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of N-fertilization on the nutritional quality of short-straw wheat variety, Yecora Rojo, was studied under sprinkler irrigation system. The fertilizers applied were the conventional N-fertilizer, urea (U) applied as single dose or in three split applications (U-S), and the slow release N-fertilizers, ureaform (UF) (38% N and 20 N), osmocote (OC) with 9 or 14 months longevity and

Jehangir K. Khalil; Wajih N. Sawaya; G. Hamdallah; J. Devi Prasad

1987-01-01

373

Organic Amendments Infl uence Soil Organic Carbon Pools and Rice-Wheat Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic C (SOC) pools under long-term management practices provide information on C sequestration pathways, soil quality maintenance, and crop productivity. Farmyard manure (FYM), paddy straw (PS), and green manure (GM) along with inorganic fertilizers were used in a 19-yr-old rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system in sub- tropical India to evaluate their impact on SOC stock,

Bidisha Majumder; Biswapati Mandal; P. K. Bandyopadhyay; A. L. Kundu

374

Contribution of Biofertilizers and Fertilizer Nitrogen to Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Egyptian Winter Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient uptake and grain and straw yield of Egyptian winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Merr.) were evaluated for two site-years after the seed inoculation with two biofertilizer products, Phosphorien, containing the phosphorus (P)-solubilizing bacteria Bacillus megatherium, and Nitrobien, containing a combination of nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum liposerum. Ammonium nitrate and polymer-coated urea fertilizers were applied to plots

Z. M. El-Sirafy; H. J. Woodard; E. M. El-Norjar

2006-01-01

375

Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

1996-12-31

376

Wheat grass selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

Richard Wang (USDA;ARS)

2006-09-25

377

Storage products and transcriptional analysis of the endosperm of cultivated wheat and two wild wheat species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The starch and protein in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm provide 20% of the calories eaten by humans and were heavily selected for during domestication. We examined\\u000a the main storage products and gene expression patterns that may embody compositional differences between two wild speciesAegilops crassa andAegilops tauschii and cultivated bread wheat. The storage product profiles differed significantly withT. aestivum accumulating

N. K. Uhlmann; D. M. Beckles

2010-01-01

378

Processing Wheat for Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson on wheat processing, including an introduction to the five kinds of wheat grown in the US and the anatomy of wheat. The module then moves through the six steps in wheat processing: cleaning, conditioning, blending, breaking, sieving, and reducing. Each step is animated to help students visualize the process. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-07

379

Growth and chlorophyll, mineral, and total amino acid composition of tomato and wheat plants in relation to nitrogen and iron nutrition I. Growth and nutrient uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth and metabolism can be impaired by the nutritional status of the media in which it is grown. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of NO3?N and FeSO4?Fe regimes on growth, nutrient uptake, and total amino acid?N content of tomato and wheat plants. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in sand culture with three levels of

Abdellatif A. Mohamed; T. C. Tucker

1987-01-01

380

Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information\\u000a is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study,\\u000a a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between\\u000a Australian cultivars Kukri × Janz grown at

Gulay Mann; Simon Diffey; Brian Cullis; Fermin Azanza; David Martin; Alison Kelly; Lynne McIntyre; Adele Schmidt; Wujun Ma; Zena Nath; Ibrahim Kutty; P. Emmett Leyne; Lynette Rampling; Ken J. Quail; Matthew K. Morell

2009-01-01

381

U. S. Wheat Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. wheat production doubled between 1950 and 1975. Improved yields per acre accounted for most of the increase. Since 1974, however, the growth in U.S. wheat yields per acre has leveled off. About half of the U.S. wheat crop is exported, but the somewha...

W. G. Heid

1979-01-01

382

Wheat Stripe Rust  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a chapter on wheat stripe rust in a book entitled “Wheat: Science and Trade”. The chapter provides an overview on various aspects of wheat stripe rust and control, including distribution and epidemiology; origin and historical importance; taxonomy, lifecycle, and host range; genetic variati...

383

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*  

PubMed Central

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth.

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

2006-01-01

384

An automatic system for controlling the quality of straws installed in the ATLAS TRT detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an automatic system to control the quality of straws installed in the wheels of the end-cap Transition Radiation Tracker of the ATLAS experiment. The system tests both the straightness and the electrical insulation of the straws during installation. The testing time per straw is 9s; consequently it takes about 2h to measure one layer of straws. The

A. O. Golunov; N. S. Grigalashvili; Yu. V. Gousakov; G. D. Kekelidze; V. V. Livinski; S. V. Mouraviev; S. S. Parzycki; V. D. Peshekhonov; M. J. Price; A. A. Savenkov

2004-01-01

385

Molecular characterization of the genome composition of partial amphiploids derived from Triticum aestivum×Thinopyrum ponticum and T. aestivum×Th. intermedium as sources of resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and its vector, Aceria tosichella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vectored by the wheat curl mite (WCM), is one of the most important viral diseases of wheat\\u000a (Triticum aestivum) in the world. Genetic resistance to WSMV and the WCM does not exist in wheat. Resistance to WSMV and the WCM was evaluated\\u000a in five different partial amphiploids namely Agrotana, OK7211542, ORRPX, Zhong 5 and TAF

Q. Chen; R. L. Conner; F. Ahmad; A. Laroche; G. Fedak; J. B. Thomas

1998-01-01

386

Performance of long straw tubes using dimethyl ether  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cylindrical tracking detector with an inner radius of one meter employing straw tubes is being envisaged for the FINUDA experiment aimed at hyper-nuclear physics at DA?NE, the Frascati ?-factory. A prototype using several 10 mm and 20 mm diameter, two meter long aluminized mylar straws has been assembled and tested with a one GeV// c pion beam. While operating with dimethyl ether, gas gain, space resolution, and device systematics have been studied. A simple method of correction for systematics due to straw eccentricity has been developed and, once applied, a space resolution better than 40 ?m can be reached.

Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.

1995-02-01

387

Wheat Evolution, Domestication, and Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY (1) Wheat is the world's largest and most important food crop for direct human con- sumption; therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. (2) Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understand- ing of wheat evolution and the genetic diversifi cation of various wheat species and relatives. The evolution of the genus

Perry Gustafson; Olga Raskina; XueFeng Ma; Eviatar Nevo

388

Field study of submicron particles from the combustion of straw  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of small aerosol particles accompanying the combustion of straw for energy production is investigated. A sampling equipment specially designed for field measurements is described and characterized. The aerosol is studied by low-pressure cascade impactor and scanning mobility particle sizer, the particle morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and the chemical composition by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The combustion gas contains 3-500 mg/Nm{sup 3} of submicron particles with a mean diameter of approximately 0.3 {mu}m. The particles consist of almost pure potassium chloride and sulphate. The formation mechanism is analyzed by a theoretical simulation of the chemical reactions and the aerosol change during cooling of the flue gas. It is concluded that some sulphation of KCl occurs in the gas phase although the sulphate concentration is much lower than predicted by an equilibrium assumption. The theoretical simulation proves that the fine mode particles can be formed by homogeneous nucleation of either KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the first step and further growth occurs by coagulation and diffusive condensation of both KCl and K{sub 4}SO{sub 4} on existing particles. 25 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Christensen, K.A.; Livbjerg, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

1996-08-01

389

Dilute acid pretreatment of rapeseed straw for fermentable sugar generation.  

PubMed

The influence of the main pretreatment variables on fermentable sugar generation from rapeseed straw is studied using an experimental design approach. Low and high levels for pretreatment temperature (140-200 °C), process time (0-20 min) and concentration of sulfuric acid (0.5-2% w/v) were selected according to previous results. Glucose and xylose composition, as well as sugar degradation, were monitored and adjusted to a quadratic model. Non-sugar components of the hydrolysates were also determined. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields were used for assessing pretreatment performance. Optimization based on the mathematical model show that total conversion of cellulose from pretreated solids can be achieved at pretreatment conditions of 200 °C for 27 min and 0.40% free acid concentration. If optimization criteria were based on maximization of hemicellulosic sugars recovery in the hydrolysate along with cellulose preservation in the pretreated solids, milder pretreatment conditions of 144 °C, 6 min and 2% free acid concentration should be used. PMID:20826085

Castro, Eulogio; Díaz, Manuel J; Cara, Cristóbal; Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel

2010-08-22

390

Mathematical modeling of a fluidized bed straw gasifier. Part 2: Model sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the kinetic-free homogeneous equilibrium model, developed for fluidized bed gasification of cereal straw, was tested under a wide range of parameters, including equivalence ratio, bed height, fluidization velocity, solid circulation coefficient, nitrogen-oxygen ratio, and fuel distribution function. The results showed that the bed temperature was sensitive to changes in all of these parameters. The composition and the higher heating value of the produced gas were only affected by the equivalence ratio and the nitrogen-oxygen ratio. The normalized gas production was mainly affected by the equivalence ratio, fluidization velocity, and nitrogen-oxygen ratio.

Erguedenler, A.; Ghaly, A.E.; Hamdullahpur, F.; Al-Taweel, A.M. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1997-12-01

391

Mathematical modeling of a fluidized bed straw gasifier. Part 1: Model development  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a model capable of predicting the steady state performance of a fluidized bed straw gasifier at a wide range of operating conditions was developed. The model was based on the homogeneous equilibrium theory, material and energy balances, and the two-phase theory of gas-solid fluidized beds. The three equilibrium reactions (water-gas shift, methanation and oxidation reactions) were used in the model. The model is kinetic free and capable of predicting the reactor temperature and composition, higher heating value, and production rate of the produced gas.

Erguedenler, A.; Ghaly, A.E.; Hamdullahpur, F.; Al-Taweel, A.M. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1997-12-01

392

Microwave pyrolysis of rice straw: products, mechanism, and kinetics.  

PubMed

Rice straw is an abundant resource for the production of biofuels and bio-based products. How to convert the recalcitrant lignocellulose effectually is a critical issue. The objective of this study was to investigate the products, mechanism, and kinetics of rice straw pyrolysis by using microwave heating. The highest energy densification ratio of solid residues was achieved at the microwave power level of 300 W. The atomic H/C and O/C ratios of solid residues were much lower than those of rice straw. The primary components of gaseous product were CO, H2, CO2, and CH4, whose molecular fractions were 57%, 21%, 14%, and 8%, respectively. The more gaseous product and the less solid residues were obtained at higher microwave power levels, while the liquid production remained the same and showed a maximum of about 50 wt.%. The kinetic parameters of rice straw pyrolysis were increased with increasing microwave power level. PMID:23774221

Huang, Yu-Fong; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Lo, Shang-Lien

2013-05-29

393

Detection of endophyte toxins in the imported perennial ryegrass straw.  

PubMed

From 1997 to 1999, 29 cases of disorders were detected in cattle and horses that had been fed ryegrass straw imported from the U.S.A. These animals showed symptoms resembling ryegrass staggers and the clinical signs disappeared after removal of the straw. Endophytic hyphae were detected in the seeds of all straw samples that were responsible for the clinical cases. Lolitrem B concentrations in the straw ranged between 972 and 3740 ppb. Ergovaline concentrations were between 355 and 1300 ppb. Even though the concentrations of lolitrem B were lower than the toxic threshold proposed by Oregon State University in better part of the cases, our observations suggest the possibility that lolitrem B lower than the proposed threshold can bring disorders to sensitive individuals. PMID:11642270

Miyazaki, S; Fukumura, M; Yoshioka, M; Yamanaka, N

2001-09-01

394

Alternative Uses of Rice-Straw in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interconnectedness and complexity are the hallmarks of almost every environmental problem and opportunity including the challenge of rice straw management in California. Although attempts are often made to solve environmental problems by working on single...

D. A. Bainbridge

1997-01-01

395

5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS (CORNER POST, SILL AND STUD), SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST SIDE OF ORIGINAL SECTION. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

396

Changes in the composition of free amino acids and sugars of leaf sheath and culm of wheat during uredospore and teleutospore formation of Puccinia graminis tritici.  

PubMed

There were altogether fourteen amino acids in leaf sheath and culm of wheat infected with Puccinia graminis tritici, especially in and around uredial and telial pustules. Valine, tyrosine, and proline, due to their exclusive presence in uredial pustules on leaf sheath and culm of wheat, were involved in the eruption of uredospores of P. graminis tritici. Glutamic acid and dl-threonine were, however, involved in a different manner during uredospore differentiation; their amounts diminishesd parallel to sporulation. The other amino compounds, detected in and around uredial and telial pustules on leaf sheaths and culms, were l-leucine/isoleucine, beta-phenylalanine, beta-alanine, glycine, serine, aspartic acid, homoserine, and glutamine. The amounts of these amino acids either remained the same or were lowered during uredo- and teluto-spores formation, except for serine which increased in its amount. The depletion of these amino compounds indicated their metabolic activity and utilization for uredo- and teleuto-spores differentiation of P. graminis tritici. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose, among sugars, were also utilized as their amounts diminished, for uredo- and teleuto-spores formation. PMID:7424230

Pandey, P K; Prasad, M; Bhushan, A

1980-01-01

397

Revealed Competitive Advantage for Wheat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new indicator of trade performance, called 'revealed competitive advantage' (RCA), is used to examine the changing nature of wheat competitiveness and noncompetitiveness. Time series RCA measures for 5 wheat-exporting countries and 20 wheat-importing co...

T. Vollrath

1987-01-01

398

The anaerobic digestion of rice straw: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic digestion of rice straw has been studied for the past century, but the renewable energy potential is barely utilized. Greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields can be substantially reduced if straw is removed. Methane yields ranging from 92 to 404 litres per kilogram of volatile solids have been achieved. Optimal digestion conditions such as pH (6.5 to 8.0),

Wendy Mussoline; Giovanni Esposito; Andrea Giordano; Piet Lens

2012-01-01

399

Production of Xylose from Sorghum Straw Using Hydrochloric Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylose is a hemicellulosic sugar mainly used for its bioconversion to xylitol. Sorghum straw is a raw material for xylose production that has been studied scarcely. The objective of this work was to study the xylose production by hydrolysis of sorghum straw with hydrochloric acid at 122°C. Several concentrations of HCl (2–6%) and reaction time (0–300min) were evaluated. Kinetic parameters

A. Herrera; S. J. Téllez-Luis; J. A. Ram??rez; M. Vázquez

2003-01-01

400

An in vitro Assessment of Nutritional and Physical Characteristics of Wheat Varieties Obtained from Thrace and Aegean Regions for Poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In poultry feed industry, wheat ranks as the second most important grain after maize. The inclusion level of wheat in poultry diets depends upon its nutritional composition as well as on the content of anti- nutritional factors. The importance of these factors may vary not only depending on variety of wheat but also on the geographic location where the grain

2006-01-01

401

Wheat Evolution: Dough Washing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 5), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by washing different types of dough with water and comparing the results. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

Council, Biotechnology A.

2012-01-01

402

Genetic dissection of yield and its component traits using high-density composite map of wheat chromosome 3A: bridging gaps between QTLs and underlying genes.  

PubMed

Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield component QTLs, and to map QTLs for biomass-related traits. Many of the previously identified QTLs for yield and its component traits were confirmed and were localized to narrower intervals. Four novel QTLs one each for shoot biomass (Xcfa2262-Xbcd366), total biomass (wPt2740-Xcfa2076), kernels/spike (KPS) (Xwmc664-Xbarc67), and Pseudocercosporella induced lodging (PsIL) were also detected. The major QTLs identified for grain yield (GY), KPS, grain volume weight (GVWT) and spikes per square meter (SPSM) respectively explained 23.2%, 24.2%, 20.5% and 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of the genetic map with the integrated physical map allowed estimation of recombination frequency in the regions of interest and suggested that QTLs for grain yield detected in the marker intervals Xcdo549-Xbarc310 and Xpsp3047-Xbarc356 reside in the high-recombination regions, thus should be amenable to map-based cloning. On the other hand, QTLs for KPS and SPSM flanked by markers Xwmc664 and Xwmc489 mapped in the low-recombination region thus are not suitable for map-based cloning. Comparisons with the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA sequence identified 11 candidate genes (CGs) for yield and yield related QTLs of which chromosomal location of two (CKX2 and GID2-like) was confirmed using wheat aneuploids. This study provides necessary information to perform high-resolution mapping for map-based cloning and for CG-based cloning of yield QTLs. PMID:23894667

Rustgi, Sachin; Shafqat, Mustafa N; Kumar, Neeraj; Baenziger, P Stephen; Ali, M Liakat; Dweikat, Ismail; Campbell, B Todd; Gill, Kulvinder Singh

2013-07-24

403

The genetic and molecular characterization of pollen-derived plant lines from octoploid triticale x wheat hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six doubled-haploid (DH) lines, derived by anther culture from octoploid triticale x wheat hybrids, were characterized using cytological, biochemical and molecular techniques. Lines varied in their wheat and rye genome composition, and were either wheat-rye chromosome multiple addition lines or had spontaneous substitutions and\\/or wheat-rye translocations. Most of the lines contained a pair of 4R chromosomes, whereas 1R or 7R

Y. B. Wang; H. Hu; J. W. Snape

1996-01-01

404

Comparison of the ameliorating effects on an acidic ultisol between four crop straws and their biochars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The amelioration effects of crop straws and their biochars on an acidic ultisol were compared in incubation experiments to\\u000a determine suitable organic amendments for acid soils.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Four crop straws, including non-legumes (canola straw and rice straw) and legumes (soybean straw and pea straw) were used\\u000a to prepare biochars using a low temperature (350°C) oxygen-limited pyrolysis method. Two application

Jin-Hua Yuan; Ren-Kou Xu; Wei Qian; Ru-Hai Wang

405

Development of high amylose wheat through TILLING  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an important source of food worldwide and the focus of considerable efforts to identify new combinations of genetic diversity for crop improvement. In particular, wheat starch composition is a major target for changes that could benefit human health. Starches with increased levels of amylose are of interest because of the correlation between higher amylose content and elevated levels of resistant starch, which has been shown to have beneficial effects on health for combating obesity and diabetes. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) is a means to identify novel genetic variation without the need for direct selection of phenotypes. Results Using TILLING to identify novel genetic variation in each of the A and B genomes in tetraploid durum wheat and the A, B and D genomes in hexaploid bread wheat, we have identified mutations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in starch branching enzyme IIa genes (SBEIIa). Combining these new alleles of SBEIIa through breeding resulted in the development of high amylose durum and bread wheat varieties containing 47-55% amylose and having elevated resistant starch levels compared to wild-type wheat. High amylose lines also had reduced expression of SBEIIa RNA, changes in starch granule morphology and altered starch granule protein profiles as evaluated by mass spectrometry. Conclusions We report the use of TILLING to develop new traits in crops with complex genomes without the use of transgenic modifications. Combined mutations in SBEIIa in durum and bread wheat varieties resulted in lines with significantly increased amylose and resistant starch contents.

2012-01-01

406

Wheat Quality Council Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2010 Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeders’ experimental lines of wheat are evaluated for overall quality before being released for commercial production. The Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee provides milling and baking quality data on breeders’ experimental lines of wheat that are annually submitted to the Wheat Quality Counc...

407

Agrometeorology and Wheat Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

408

Registration of 'Snowmass' wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Snowmass’ (Reg. No. CV-1050, PI 658597) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in July 2009 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

409

Registration of ‘Ripper’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

410

Registration of ‘Kelse’ wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hard red spring (HRS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain must have high grain protein concentration (GPC) to maximize market value. The objective of this research was to develop a HRS wheat cultivar with high GPC and durable resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici), a ...

411

INVISIBLE COATINGS FOR WHEAT KERNELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is occasionally necessary to tag wheat kernels without altering their appearance. Coatings have potential applications to tag wheat of a particular color or protein class, diseased wheat such as karnal bunt or genetically modified wheat. This methodology will aid in the development of calibrati...

412

Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving ?-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of ?-irradiation (0-30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of ?-irradiation greater than 12 kGy.

Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V. B.; Kumar, Sourav

2013-05-01

413

Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.  

PubMed

During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3?% identity in this gene and 96?%, 92?% and 86?% identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18?:?1?7c in summed feature 8 (40.82?%), C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?6c in summed feature 3 (23.72?%) and C16?:?0 (15.20?%). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or ?-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52?% relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) (?=?LMG 26839(T)?=?CECT 8089(T)). PMID:23002045

Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

2012-09-21

414

Analysis of wheat- Thinopyrum intermedium derivatives with BYDV-resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome compositions of seven lines, derived from hybrids between a wheat cultivar and the wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition line Z6, with barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) resistance, were determined by genomic in situ hybridization, cytogenetic and SSR assays. The results showed that\\u000a line N522 was a disomic addition line, lines N420 and N439 were 2Ai-2(2B) chromosome substitution lines, lines N431 and

Zhi-Shan Lin; Zhi-Fu Cui; Xiang-Yan Zeng; You-Zhi Ma; Zeng-Yan Zhang; Toshiki Nakamura; Goro Ishikawa; Kazuhiro Nakamura; Hisashi Yoshida; Zhi-Yong Xin

2007-01-01

415

Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass.  

PubMed

To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into the cropping systems and reduce the need for fertilizer applications. Furthermore, when using such wheat and clover-grass mixtures as raw material, addition of urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be reduced in the whole ethanol manufacturing chain. Using second generation ethanol technology mixtures of relative proportions of wheat straw and clover-grass (15:85, 50:50, and 85:15) were pretreated by wet oxidation. The results showed that supplementing wheat straw with clover-grass had a positive effect on the ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments, and the effect was more pronounced in inhibitory substrates. The highest ethanol yield (80% of theoretical) was obtained in the experiment with high fraction (85%) of clover-grass. In order to improve the sugar recovery of clover-grass, it should be separated into a green juice (containing free sugars, fructan, amino acids, vitamins and soluble minerals) for direct fermentation and a fibre pulp for pretreatment together with wheat straw. Based on the obtained results a decentralized biorefinery concept for production of biofuel is suggested emphasizing sustainability, localness, and recycling principles. PMID:18338188

Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

2008-03-13

416

Preliminary studies on fungal treatment of sugarcane straw for organosolv pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the effect of fungal pretreatment of sugarcane straw in the performance of the treated pulps. Fermentation time, fungal mycelium load and pretreatment scale were studied in the fungal treatment, and the best conditions were 15 days with 250mgkg?1 fungal mycelium per straw weight causing high lignin decomposition. At the largest scale tested (50g straw) lignin degradation exceeded

M. B. W. Saad; L. R. M. Oliveira; R. G. Cândido; G. Quintana; G. J. M. Rocha; A. R. Gonçalves

2008-01-01

417

The influence of natural reinforcement fibres on insulation values of earth plaster for straw bale buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed to measure the thermal conductivity of some natural plaster materials that could be used for straw bale buildings. Thermal conductivity is very important to determine the insulation value and other thermal parameters for natural plaster materials. Plaster materials consisted of soil, sand and straw. Straw is used as a reinforcement fibre for plaster. Three types of fibres

Taha Ashour; Hansjörg Wieland; Heiko Georg; Franz-Josef Bockisch; Wei Wu

2010-01-01

418

Enhanced malachite green removal from aqueous solution by citric acid modified rice straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, rice straw was thermochemically modified with citric acid (CA) as esterifying agent. Two introduced free carboxyl groups of esterified rice straw were further loaded with sodium ion to yield potentially biodegradable cationic sorbent. In order to investigate the effect of chemical modification on the cationic dye sorption of rice straw, the removal capacities of native and modified

Renmin Gong; Youbin Jin; Fayang Chen; Jian Chen; Zhili Liu

2006-01-01

419

9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section...Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or...

2013-01-01

420

Effect of incorporation depth and soil climate on straw decomposition rate in a loamy Podzoluvisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies on the decomposition of straw using the mesh bag technique were carried out under field conditions in south Estonia. Straw of spring and winter cereals (Hordeum vulgare L., Secale cereale L., Triticum aestivum L.) was compared over different periods and at two depths (5 and 20 cm). Calculation of straw decomposition was based on the ash-free organic matter

A. Kanal

1995-01-01

421

Fuldskalahaandtering af halm 2. Hovedrapport. (Full-scale handling of straw 2. Main report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the project was to investigate the potentials for reducing the costs of handling straw to be used as fuel in district heating and cogeneration plants. The emphasis is on the management of straw in large bales, where the chopped straw was presse...

N. P. Astrupgaard M. Stenholm V. Nielsen M. Parsby J. Nielsen

1994-01-01

422

Chemical alteration in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) shoot induced by mefluidide and defoliation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mefluidide [N-2(2,4-dimethyl-5-((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amino)phenyl)acetamide] was applied to winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) to determine the alterations in shoot chemical composition and the value of the changes to a wheat-based forage system in field and controlled-environment chamber experiments. Mefluidide, applied at rates between 0.1 and 0.25 kg\\/ha during full tiller stage (Feekes stage 4), slowed down the rate of cellulose deposition in wheat shoot

T. H. Dao

1987-01-01

423

Postingestive feedback from starch influences the ingestive behaviour of sheep consuming wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species present a complex array of biochemicals to herbivores that in conjunction with a plant's physical structure influence intake. Our objective was to determine the role of postingestive feedback from macronutrients on the ingestion of a low-quality forage by sheep (Ovis aries). We compared the ingestive behaviour of two groups of lambs conditioned with intraruminal infusions of starch (100

Juan J Villalba; Frederick D Provenza

2000-01-01

424

Cultivation of oyster mushrooms on wheat straw and bagasse substrate amendedwith distillery effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Molasses-based distilleries produce large quantities of dark coloured effluent, which is a major cause of environmental pollution.\\u000a An experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of distillery effluent amendment for edible mushroom production. Three\\u000a species of oyster mushroom, namely Pleurotus florida Eger (EM 1303), Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet (EM 1302) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fries) Singer (EM 1304) were grown on

Deepak Pant; U. Gangi Reddy; Alok Adholeya

2006-01-01

425

Butanol productivity enhancers in wheat straw hydrolyzate: employing potential of enhanced reaction rate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Butanol production by fermentation is gaining momentum due to increased prices of fossil fuels. This biofuel is a major product of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation that can be produced from hydrolyzed agricultural residues and/or corn. A control glucose (60 g/L) based batch fermentation us...

426

Acetylation of wheat straw hemicelluloses in N, N-dimethylacetamide\\/LiCl solvent system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemicellulose acetates were prepared under homogeneous reaction conditions in the system N,N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride by reacting the native hemicelluloses with acetic anhydride in the presence of 4-dimethylaminopyridine within 72 h at 60–85°C. The products obtained were characterised by means of Fourier transform infrared chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and thermal analysis. The degree of substitution of acetylated hemicelluloses ranged between 0.74 and

RunCang Sun; J. M Fang; J Tomkinson; G. L Jones

1999-01-01

427

Biohydrogen production from wheat straw hydrolysate by dark fermentation using extreme thermophilic mixed culture.  

PubMed

Hydrolysate was tested as substrate for hydrogen production by extreme thermophilic mixed culture (70 degrees C) in both batch and continuously fed reactors. Hydrogen was produced at hydrolysate concentrations up to 25% (v/v), while no hydrogen was produced at hydrolysate concentration of 30% (v/v), indicating that hydrolysate at high concentrations was inhibiting the hydrogen fermentation process. In addition, the lag phase for hydrogen production was strongly influenced by the hydrolysate concentration, and was prolonged from approximately 11 h at the hydrolysate concentrations below 20% (v/v) to 38 h at the hydrolysate concentration of 25% (v/v). The maximum hydrogen yield as determined in batch assays was 318.4 +/- 5.2 mL-H(2)/g-sugars (14.2 +/- 0.2 mmol-H(2)/g-sugars) at the hydrolysate concentration of 5% (v/v). Continuously fed, and the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), operating at 3 day hydraulic retention time (HRT) and fed with 20% (v/v) hydrolysate could successfully produce hydrogen. The hydrogen yield and production rate were 178.0 +/- 10.1 mL-H(2)/g-sugars (7.9 +/- 0.4 mmol H(2)/g-sugars) and 184.0 +/- 10.7 mL-H(2)/day L(reactor) (8.2 +/- 0.5 mmol-H(2)/day L(reactor)), respectively, corresponding to 12% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from sugars. Additionally, it was found that toxic compounds, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), contained in the hydrolysate were effectively degraded in the CSTR, and their concentrations were reduced from 50 and 28 mg/L, respectively, to undetectable concentrations in the effluent. Phylogenetic analysis of the mixed culture revealed that members involved hydrogen producers in both batch and CSTR reactors were phylogenetically related to the Caldanaerobacter subteraneus, Thermoanaerobacter subteraneus, and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum. PMID:19998285

Kongjan, Prawit; O-Thong, Sompong; Kotay, Meher; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

2010-04-01

428

Wheat Evolution: Sedimentation Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.8-9 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by conducting sedimentation tests on different flours. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant. Note: Sedimentation test can also be done using SDS detergent and lactic acid instead of soap and vinegar.

Council, Biotechnology A.

2012-01-01

429

Wheat Evolution: Dough Rising  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.6-7 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by creating dough from different flours, observing the samples of dough as they rise, and then baking the dough. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

Council, Biotechnology A.

2012-01-01

430

Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the information…

Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

431

Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the information…

Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

432

Co-firing coal and straw in PF boilers -- Performance impact of straw with emphasis on SCR catalyst for deNOx catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two year co-firing coal\\/straw program was carried out on a 150 MWel pulverized fired boiler at Studstrupvaerket in Denmark from January 1996 to January 1998. The reason for burning straw is based on a political decision where the Power utilities have accepted to burn 1 mill ton straw\\/year and 0.4-mill tons wood. This amount is about 5 % of

Wieck-Hansen

1999-01-01

433

Dynamics of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Solution from Soybean Straw Fermentation the Making L-Lactic Acid by Immobile Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean straw is biodegradable cellulose resource, but it has not been utilized for a long time. 2\\/3 straws was combusted and producing resources waste and air pollution. In this study, taking soybean straw as raw material, dynamics of enzymatic hydrolysis solution from soybean straw fermentation and making L-lactic acid by immobile lactobacillus was studied. The dynamics equation of the immobile

Ping Yang; Qian Yang; Zhong Xu; QiuJing Wang

2008-01-01

434

Ryegrass straw component decomposition during mesophilic and thermophilic incubations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decomposition of perennial ryegrass straw was examined under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Thermophilic conditions were used to define the composting process. The change in lipids, sugars, soluble polysaccharides, cellulose, and lignin was determined during a 45-day incubation. C, H, O, and N steadily decreased in both temperature treatments. The lignin content, as measured by the Klason or 72% H2SO4

W. R. Horwath; Lloyd F. Elliott

1996-01-01

435

Vermicomposting of biosolids with cow manure and oat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosolids, mainly from textile industries and the rest from households, were vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida, cow manure and oat straw for 2 months at three different moisture contents (60%, 70% and 80% dry weight base) in triplicate to reduce pathogens and toxic organic compounds, and to find the best medium for growth of E. fetida. The vermicompost with the best

S. M. Contreras-Ramos; E. M. Escamilla-Silva; L. Dendooven

2005-01-01

436

Halmpannor paa gaardsnivaa. (Straw furnaces on farm level).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For straw burning furnaces on farm level, the number of makes on the Swedish market is very limited. On this market there are today five well established products, all of them Danish. Three of these represent furnaces for burning of whole bales, while two...

O. Praks

1993-01-01

437

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF UNTREATED AND SOLVENT-EXTRACTED RICE STRAW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surface characteristics of untreated and solvent extracted rice straw and intact rice plant stem and sheath tissue have been investigated using reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), electrokinetic analysis (EKA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Klason lignin and Ka...

438

Emissions audit of a purpose built whole bale straw combustor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an Emissions Audit carried out on a purpose built whole bale straw combustor developed by Henley Burrowes and Co. Ltd in association with ETSU. To gain a true assessment of the emissions from the unit, tests were conducted with the a...

P. M. Jackson H. H. Jones P. G. King

1993-01-01

439

[Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].  

PubMed

An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness < 0.005 mm) on winter wheat growth, soil moisture and nutrition conditions, and precipitation use. All the three measures promoted winter wheat growth, enhanced grain yield and precipitation use efficiency, and improved soil moisture and nutritional regimes. These positive effects were more obvious when the straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass. PMID:21548293

Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

2011-01-01

440

Influence of composition, moisture, pH and temperature on the formation and decay kinetics of monochloropropanediols in wheat flour dough  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the formation and decay kinetics of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) in model dough systems is reported. The influence of ingredient composition, moisture, pH and temperature were assessed. It was shown that white flour, salt and water alone were sufficient to generate 2-MCPD and 3-MCPD. The formation of 3-MCPD agreed with zero order kinetics and occurred most

Colin G. Hamlet; Peter A. Sadd; David A. Gray

2003-01-01

441

FOAMED ARTICLES BASED ON POTATO STARCH, CORN AND WHEAT FIBRE, AND POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Continued research cooperation between USDA Laboratories (USA) and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and either corn or wheat fibres, co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process. Foam trays were prepared by baking the blen...

442

The wheat chloroplastic proteome.  

PubMed

With the availability of plant genome sequencing, analysis of plant proteins with mass spectrometry has become promising and admired. Determining the proteome of a cell is still a challenging assignment, which is convoluted by proteome dynamics and convolution. Chloroplast is fastidious curiosity for plant biologists due to their intricate biochemical pathways for indispensable metabolite functions. In this review, an overview on proteomic studies conducted in wheat with a special focus on subcellular proteomics of chloroplast, salt and water stress. In recent years, we and other groups have attempted to understand the photosynthesis in wheat and abiotic stress under salt imposed and water deficit during vegetative stage. Those studies provide interesting results leading to better understanding of the photosynthesis and identifying the stress-responsive proteins. Indeed, recent studies aimed at resolving the photosynthesis pathway in wheat. Proteomic analysis combining two complementary approaches such as 2-DE and shotgun methods couple to high through put mass spectrometry (LTQ-FTICR and MALDI-TOF/TOF) in order to better understand the responsible proteins in photosynthesis and abiotic stress (salt and water) in wheat chloroplast will be focused. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In this review we discussed the identification of the most abundant protein in wheat chloroplast and stress-responsive under salt and water stress in chloroplast of wheat seedlings, thus providing the proteomic view of the events during the development of this seedling under stress conditions. Chloroplast is fastidious curiosity for plant biologists due to their intricate biochemical pathways for indispensable metabolite functions. An overview on proteomic studies conducted in wheat with a special focus on subcellular proteomics of chloroplast, salt and water stress. We have attempted to understand the photosynthesis in wheat and abiotic stress under salt imposed and water deficit during seedling stage. Those studies provide interesting results leading to a better understanding of the photosynthesis and identifying the stress-responsive proteins. In reality, our studies aspired at resolving the photosynthesis pathway in wheat. Proteomic analysis united two complementary approaches such as Tricine SDS-PAGE and 2-DE methods couple to high through put mass spectrometry (LTQ-FTICR and MALDI-TOF/TOF) in order to better understand the responsible proteins in photosynthesis and abiotic stress (salt and water) in wheat chloroplast will be highlighted. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. PMID:23563086

Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Cho, Kun; Choi, Jong-Soon; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Woo, Sun Hee

2013-04-01

443

Genetic diversity of wheat storage proteins and bread wheat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the genetic and biochemical basis of the bread makingquality of wheat varieties, a large experiment was carried out with a set of162 hexaploid bread wheat varieties registered in the French or EuropeanWheat Catalogue. This material was used to analyse their allelic compositionat the twelve main storage protein loci. A large genetic and biochemicaldiversity of the gluten proteins was

G. Branlard; M. Dardevet; R. Saccomano; F. Lagoutte; J. Gourdon

2001-01-01

444

New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

445

Sustainable Composite Systems for Infrastructure Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of composite materials by combining two or more constituents with improved mechanical properties, when compared to either of the constituents alone, has existed since biblical times when straw or horse hair was mixed with clay or mud to produce bricks. During the second half of the twentieth century, modern composites known as fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) - consisting

Francisco Jose De Caso y Basalo

2010-01-01

446