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1

Wheat Straw-Polypropylene Composites.  

E-print Network

??Composites are combinations of mainly two different components: the matrix and the filler/reinforcement. In the thermoplastic composites industry, natural fibers from agricultural crops have been… (more)

Kruger, Paula Kapustan

2007-01-01

2

Preparation and properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with wheat and flax straw fibres: Part II Analysis of composite microstructure and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and mechanical properties of polypropylene composites containing flax and wheat straw fibres are discussed.\\u000a Particular emphasis has been given to determining the nature and consequences of fibre damage induced during melt-processing\\u000a operations, fibre orientation occurring in mouldings, and possible interfacial adhesion between the matrix and fibres. Compared\\u000a to unfilled polypropylene, addition of flax and wheat straw caused a

P. R HORNSBY; E HINRICHSEN; K TARVERDI

1997-01-01

3

Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites  

PubMed Central

Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF) filled thermoplastic composites were measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF in thermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WF and one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs and thermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improved adhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seen on the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties of WF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensile and flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties of thermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPP coupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with the combination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with the use of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties required by the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

Mengeloglu, Fatih; Karakus, Kadir

2008-01-01

4

Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 ?m) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 ?m) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

2011-05-01

5

Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were conducted as a completely randomized design and analysed using one-way ANOVA. Enzyme activities of the extracts,

M. A. M. Rodrigues; P. Pinto; R. M. F. Bezerra; A. A. Dias; C. V. M. Guedes; V. M. G. Cardoso; J. W. Cone; L. M. M. Ferreira; J. Colaço; C. A. Sequeira

2008-01-01

6

Plant Growth Inhibitory Compounds from Aqueous Leachate of Wheat Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

When seedlings of lettuce, cress, rice and wheat were incubated with the leachate of wheat straw, the roots growth of lettuce\\u000a and garden cress were particularly inhibited. The leachate of wheat straw (100 g eq.\\/l) showed 80.5 and 79.4% inhibition for\\u000a lettuce and cress roots, respectively. The inhibitory activity was stronger as the concentration of wheat straw leachate was\\u000a greater. This

Hiroshi Nakano; Satoshi Morita; Hideyuki Shigemori; Koji Hasegawa

2006-01-01

7

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw. PMID:11991077

Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

2002-05-01

8

Explosion pulping of bagasse and wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse and wheat straw were soda-pulped in a digester at 200 degrees under N pressure of up to 13.8 MPa, followed by explosive discharge through nozzles to give pulp having lower yield and higher initial freeness than batch soda pulp. Explosion pulping required less NaOH than conventional batch soda pulping, and the properties of explosion pulp obtained were similar to those of batch soda pulp at a given freeness.

Mamers, H.; Yuritta, J.P.; Menz, D.J.

1981-01-01

9

Aerodynamic Properties of Wheat Kernel and Straw Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal velocity and drag coefficient of wheat kernel and straw materials (Canadian variety) have been experimentally measured by suspending the particles in an air stream. The effects of mass and moisture content of wheat kernel, node position and length of straw on terminal velocity were studied. The results showed that mass and moisture content have significant effects (p<0.01) on terminal

M. H. Khoshtaghaza; R. Mehdizadeh

10

Organic molecular compositions and size distributions of chinese summer and autumn aerosols from nanjing: characteristic haze event caused by wheat straw burning.  

PubMed

Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in urban Nanjing, China during summer and autumn of 2007 including a period of hazy days during June 1-5. Organic aerosols in the haze event were characterized by elevated concentrations of levoglucosan, high molecular weight (HMW) n-alkanes, and HMW fatty acids due to the emissions from field burning of wheat straw. In contrast, organic aerosols on nonhazy days were characterized by a predominance of fossil fuel combustion products. Levoglucosan (4030 n g m(-3)), n-alkanes (1520 ng m(-3)), fatty acids (2629 ng m(-3)), and PAHs (57 ng m(-3)) in the haze samples were 3-40 times more abundant than those in nonevent samples. Approximately 30-90% ofthe organics during the haze period can be attributed to wheat straw burning. Concentrations of particulate material (PM) mass, n-alkanes, and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs showed a unimodal size distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 microm during the hazy days, and a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 microm and 4.7-5.8 microm during nonhazy days. The geometric mean diameters (GMDs) of organic aerosols are larger in the fine mode (<2.1 microm) during the hazy days, suggesting aerosols emitted from the wheat straw burning are larger than those from fossil fuel combustion, and fine particle coagulation and organic compound repartitioning were enhanced. PMID:19764207

Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Waston, John G; Chow, Judith C

2009-09-01

11

Quantification of wheat straw lignin structure by comprehensive NMR analysis.  

PubMed

A further understanding of the structure of lignin from herbaceous crops is needed for advancing technologies of lignocellulosic biomass processing and utilization. A method was established in this study for analyzing structural motifs found in milled straw lignin (MSL) and cellulase-digested lignin (CEL) isolated from wheat straw by combining quantitative (13)C and HSQC NMR spectral analyses. The results showed that guaiacyl (G) was the predominant unit in wheat straw cell wall lignin over syringyl (S) and hydroxyphenyl (H) units. Up to 8.0 units of tricin were also detected in wheat straw lignin per 100 aromatic rings. Various interunit linkages, including ?-O-4, ?-5, ?-?', ?-1, ?, ?-diaryl ether, and 5-5'/4-O-?' as well as potential lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds, were identified and quantified. These findings provide useful information for the development of biofuels and lignin-based materials. PMID:24143908

Zeng, Jijiao; Helms, Gregory L; Gao, Xin; Chen, Shulin

2013-11-20

12

Ethanol production from steam-explosion pretreated wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioconversion of cereal straw to bioethanol is becoming an attractive alternative to conventional fuel ethanol production\\u000a from grains. In this work, the best operational conditions for steam-explosion pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production\\u000a by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process were studied, using diluted acid [H2SO4 0.9% (w\\/w)] and water as preimpregnation agents. Acid-or water-impregnated biomass was steam-exploded at

Ignacio Ballesteros; Ma José Negro; José Miguel Oliva; Araceli Cabañas; Paloma Manzanares; Mercedes Ballesteros

2006-01-01

13

Fermentation of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production: comparison of fermentative microorganisms and process configurations.  

PubMed

The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi to produce bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used physico-chemical processes. After biological pretreatment, a solid substrate composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the two latter with a composition lower than that of the initial substrate, is obtained. In this study, six microorganisms and four process configurations were utilised to ferment a hydrolysate obtained from wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus. To enhance total sugars utilisation, five of these microorganisms are able to metabolise, in addition to glucose, most of the pentoses obtained after the hydrolysis of wheat straw by the application of a mixture of hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. The highest overall ethanol yield was obtained with the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus. Its application in combination with the best process configuration yielded 163 mg ethanol per gram of raw wheat straw, which was between 23 and 35 % greater than the yields typically obtained with a conventional bioethanol process, in which wheat straw is pretreated using steam explosion and fermented with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23754562

López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo Alejandro; Lema, Juan Manuel

2013-08-01

14

Cellulases and xylanase of an anaerobic rumen fungus grown on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, cellulose and xylan  

SciTech Connect

The activities of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes produced by an anaerobic fungus (RI) which resembled Neocallimastix sp. were investigated. Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), cellobiase, and filter paper (FPase) activities had pH optima of 6.0, 5.5 and 6.0, respectively. CMCase and cellobiase activities both had a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C, whereas FPase had an optimum of 45 degrees C. The pH and temperature optima for xylanase activity were pH 6.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. Growth of the fungus on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, or cellulose resulted in substantial colonization, with at least 43 to 58% losses in substrate dry matter and accumulation of comparable amounts of formate. This end product was correlated to apparent loss of substrate dry weight and could be used as an indicator of fungal growth. Milling of wheat straw did not enhance the rate or extent of substrate degradation. Growth of the RI isolate on the above substrates or xylan also resulted in accumulation of high levels of xylanase activity and lower cellulase activities. Of the cellulases, CMCase was the most active and was associated with either low or trace amounts of cellobiase and FPase activities. During growth on xylan, reducing sugars, including arabinose and xylose, rapidly accumulated in the medium. Xylose and other reducing sugars, but not arabinose, were subsequently used for growth. Reducing sugars also accumulated, but not as rapidly, when the fungus was grown on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, or cellulose. Xylanase activities detected during growth of RI on media containing glucose, xylose, or cellobiose suggested that enzyme production was constitutive. Xylanase activity was mainly cell associated in these cultures, but there was a considerable increase in activity during fungal autolysis. (Refs. 33).

Lowe, S.E.; Theodorou, M.K.; Trinci, A.P.J.

1987-06-01

15

Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than effective tissue disruption. PMID:23590820

2013-01-01

16

Lime pretreatment of crop residues bagasse and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lime (calcium hydroxide) was used as a pretreatment agent to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of two common crop residues:\\u000a bagasse and wheat straw. A systematic study of pretreatment conditions suggested that for short pretreatment times (1–3 h),\\u000a high temperatures (85-135°C) were required to achieve high sugar yields, whereas for long pretreatment times (e.g., 24 h),\\u000a low temperatures (50–65°C) were effective.

Vincent S. Chang; Murlidhar Nagwani; Mark T. Holtzapple

1998-01-01

17

Adhesive properties of modified soybean flour in wheat straw particleboard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to improve mechanical properties and water resistance of wheat straw–soy flour particleboard by chemically modifying soy flour. Urea and urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) were used to modify the proteins. Boric acid and citric acid along sodium hypophosphite monohydrate were used to modify soy carbohydrates. Sodium hydroxide was used to unfold protein molecules.

Enzhi Cheng; Xiuzhi Sun; Greggory S Karr

2004-01-01

18

Effect of steam explosion on biodegradation of lignin in wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of steam explosion pretreatment on biodegradation of lignin in wheat straw was studied in this paper. Through experiments and analysis, 0.8MPa operation pressure and 1:20 wheat straw to water ratio are optimum for destroying lignin and the maximum of lignin loss rate is 19.94%. After steam explosion pretreatment, the wheat straw was retted by Trametes versicolor for 40

Lian-hui Zhang; Dong Li; Li-jun Wang; Ti-peng Wang; Lu Zhang; Xiao Dong Chen; Zhi-huai Mao

2008-01-01

19

Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei  

PubMed Central

We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native ?-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

2014-01-01

20

Influence of aFusarium culmorum inoculation of wheat onin sacco dry matter degradation of wheat straw and wheat chaff.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aFusarium culmorum inoculation of wheat on thein sacco dry matter degradation (DG) of wheat straw and wheat chaff in dairy cows. The ruminal disappearance of dry matter was measured with thein situ nylon bag technique. Samples of wheat straw and wheat chaff from non-inoculated andFusarium-inoculated wheat were used to examine the ruminal dry matter degradability. Samples were subjected to ruminal incubation in two dairy cous fitted with a permanent rumen fistula and incubated for 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. To describe the degradation kinetics, the equation by Ørskov and McDonald (1979) was used. DG rates obtained for contaminates straw and chaff were higher compared to the corresponding rates of the non-contaminated samples, which is assumed to be due to the activity of fungal enzymes. It can be concluded that an infection of wheat withF. culmorum may have an influence on the dry matter degradation of straw and chaff. PMID:23605214

Brinkmeyer, U; Dänicke, S; Lehmann, M; Lebzien, P; Valenta, H; Flachowsky, G

2005-03-01

21

Fungal pretreatment: An alternative in second-generation ethanol from wheat straw.  

PubMed

The potential of a fungal pretreatment combined with a mild alkali treatment to replace or complement current physico-chemical methods for ethanol production from wheat straw has been investigated. Changes in substrate composition, secretion of ligninolytic enzymes, enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and ethanol yield after 7, 14 and 21 days of solid-state fermentation were evaluated. Most fungi degraded lignin with variable selectivity degrees, although only eight of them improved sugar recovery compared to untreated samples. Glucose yield after 21 days of pretreatment with Poria subvermispora and Irpex lacteus reached 69% and 66% of cellulose available in the wheat straw, respectively, with an ethanol yield of 62% in both cases. Conversions from glucose to ethanol reached around 90%, showing that no inhibitors were generated during this pretreatment. No close correlations were found between ligninolytic enzymes production and sugar yields. PMID:21646018

Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo; Martínez, Angel T; Martínez, María Jesús

2011-08-01

22

Hydrotreating of wheat straw in toluene and ethanol.  

PubMed

In the present work, wheat straw was hydroliquefied at a temperature of 300°C for 4h in ethanol or toluene in order to obtain bio-components which are useful for fuel purposes. The experiments were performed in a 100mL batch reactor under hydrogen pressure of 70 bar. Typically, 2g of straw and 0.1g of catalyst (66%Ni/SiO2-Al2O3) were dispersed in 15 g of solvent. The main compounds of the oil produced during the liquefaction of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin of wheat straw in both solvents are: tetrahydrofuran-2-methanol, 1,2-butanediol and butyrolactone. Besides the mentioned compounds, ethanol favoured the decomposition of bigger molecules to short-chain alcohols such as 1-butanol, 1,2-propanediol and 1,2-ethanediol. Toluene contributes to the production of furans and other cyclic compounds. The light fractions distilled together with the solvent also contain the following: 1-propanol, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. PMID:24787323

Murnieks, Raimonds; Kampars, Valdis; Malins, Kristaps; Apseniece, Lauma

2014-07-01

23

Production of bioethanol from wheat straw: An overview on pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw is an abundant agricultural residue with low commercial value. An attractive alternative is utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. However, production costs based on the current technology are still too high, preventing commercialization of the process. In recent years, progress has been made in developing more effective pretreatment and hydrolysis processes leading to higher yield of sugars.

Farid Talebnia; Dimitar Karakashev; Irini Angelidaki

2010-01-01

24

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded wheat straw pretreated with alkaline peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellulose content of substrate is one of the most important factors for ethanol production from lignocellulose. To increase the cellulose content of substrate and ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), a pretreatment method coupling steam explosion with alkaline peroxide for wheat straw was studied. After the complex pretreatment, the cellulose content in wheat straw increased from 31.5%

Hongzhang Chen; Yejun Han; Jian Xu

2008-01-01

25

Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions  

SciTech Connect

Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

1987-06-01

26

Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py-GC-MS), thermogravimetric (TG) /differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the fungal secretomes and composition, functional groups, and structural changes of the fungal spent wheat straw lignin were determined. Milled wood lignin (MWL) was extracted from biological treated and untreaed wheat straw. Detailed structural analysis through two dimentional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonances (2D HMQC NMR) of the pretreated lignin (acetylated) revealed low abundances of the substructures dibenzodioxacin and cinnamyl alcohol. Further analysis of lignin by Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) demonstrated the significant decrease of guaiacyl units. The results support previous findings on the biodegradation of wheat straw as analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). Revealing the characteristic behavior of P. chrysosporium-mediated biomass degradation, the information presented in this paper offers new insight into the understanding of biological lignin degradation of wheat straw by P. chrysosporium.

Zeng, Jijiao

27

Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

2003-01-01

28

Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus and Erwinia carotovora on wheat straw digestibility  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to determine whether growing Pleurotus ostreatus and Erwinia carotovora on wheat straw would synergistically improve the digestibility of straw and whether there was a necessity of sterilizing the straw by autoclaving prior to inoculation. Dry matter decomposition of autoclaved and non-autoclaved straw was similar when both organisms were used in the system after 28 days incubation. However, in vitro ruminal dry matter digestibility of straw was significantly improved (P less than 10) only when the straw was autoclaved prior to inoculation with both organisms. (Refs. 21).

Streeter, C.L.; Conway, K.E.; Horn, G.W.

1981-11-01

29

Selective liquefaction of wheat straw in phenol and its fractionation.  

PubMed

For the first time, a method of phenol-selective liquefaction is proposed for the fractionation and multilevel conversion of lignocellulose. Through phenol-selective liquefaction, lignin and hemicellulose are liquefied, with large amounts of cellulose retained in the unliquefied residues. Using a phenol/straw ratio of 3 and a sulfuric acid concentration of 3%, large amounts of hemicellulose (?85%) and lignin (?70%) can be liquefied at 100 °C in 30 min, with a high quantity of cellulose (?80%) retained. Unliquefied residues from selective liquefaction have higher susceptibility for enzymatic attack. Enzymatic hydrolyzation of residues can be as high as 65% in 48 h with 40.7 FPU/g of dry materials, which can then be used to prepare sugar platform intermediates. The liquefied products of wheat straw are then resinified with formaldehyde in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst and synthesized into phenol formaldehyde-type resins reaching up to GB/T 14732-2006 standards. Phenol selective liquefaction, a new technology for the fractionation of lignocellulose, achieves effective fractionation and multilevel conversion of straw components. Hence, it is an important tool to achieve full utilization of biomass and high value-added conversion of lignocellulose. PMID:22544687

Chen, Hongzhang; Zhang, Yuzhen; Xie, Shuangping

2012-05-01

30

Comparative study of crude and purified cellulose from wheat straw.  

PubMed

A sequential totally chlorine-free procedure for isolation of cellulose from wheat straw was proposed in this study. The dewaxed straw was pretreated with 0.5 M NaOH in 60% methanol at 60 degrees C for 2.5 h under ultrasonic irradiation for 0-35 min and sequentially posttreated with 2% H(2)O(2)-0.2% TAED at pH 11.8 for 12 h at 48 degrees C, which together solubilized 85.3-86.1% of the original hemicelluloses and 91.7-93.2% of the original lignin, respectively. The yield of crude cellulose ranged between 46.2 and 49.2% on a dry weight basis related to wheat straw, which contained 11.2-12.2% residual hemicelluloses and 2.5-2.9% remaining lignin. Further treatment of the corresponding crude cellulosic preparations with 80% acetic acid-70% nitric acid under the condition given yielded 36.8-37.7% of the purified cellulose, which contained minor amounts of bound hemicelluloses (2.5-2.8%) and was relatively free of associated lignin (0.1-0.2%). The isolated crude and purified cellulose samples were comparatively studied by FT-IR and CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the relative crystallinity was also estimated. The final stage treatment with 80% acetic acid-70% nitric acid decreased the hemicelluloses and lignin associated in the crude cellulose but led to 3.1-5.4% degradation of the original cellulose; in addition, the purity of the obtained cellulose was high. However, it was found that the final stage treatment is not severe enough to cause decrystallization of cellulose. The thermal stability of the purified cellulose is higher than that of the corresponding crude cellulose. PMID:14969539

Sun, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Run-Cang; Su, Yinquan; Sun, Jing-Xia

2004-02-25

31

A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw.  

PubMed

This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B; Du, Chenyu

2013-12-01

32

Composting of goat manure and wheat straw using pine cones as a bulking agent.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of pine cones, goat manure and wheat straw and obtained optimal Free Air Space (FAS) values for composting. For this aim, pine cones were added at different ratios into goat manure and wheat straw mixtures. So, the FAS value of mixtures was fixed at four different levels. According to the results, the highest organic matter degradation and temperature value were obtained at the mixture ratio of 10% pine cones, 45% goat manure and 45% wheat straw. FAS value of this mixture was 32.8. PMID:17092713

Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

2007-10-01

33

Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Biomass recalcitrance is affected by a number of chemical, physical and biological factors. In this study we looked into the differences in recalcitrance between two major anatomical fractions of wheat straw biomass, leaf and stem. A set of twenty-one wheat cultivars was fractionated and illustrated the substantial variation in leaf-to-stem ratio between cultivars. The two fractions were compared in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic convertibility, cellulose crystallinity and glucan accessibility. The use of water as a probe for assessing glucan accessibility was explored using low field nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy in combination with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Results Leaves were clearly more degradable by lignocellulolytic enzymes than stems, and it was demonstrated that xylose removal was more linked to glucose yield for stems than for leaves. Comparing the locations of water in leaf and stem by low field NMR and FT-IR revealed that the glucan hydroxyl groups in leaves were more accessible to water than glucan hydroxyl groups in stems. No difference in crystallinity between leaf and stem was observed using wide angle x-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated by the accessibility of the hydroxyl groups to water. This suggests that water may be used to assess glucan accessibility in biomass samples. PMID:24860617

2014-01-01

34

Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Results Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Conclusions Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs. PMID:23945109

2013-01-01

35

Effect of alkaline pretreatment on delignification of wheat straw.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to analyse structural changes through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) after alkaline pretreatment of wheat straw for optimum steaming period. During the study, 2 mm size of substrate was soaked in 2.5% NaOH for 1 h at room temperature and then autoclaved at 121°C for various steaming time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Results revealed that residence time of 90 min at 121°C has strong effect on substrate, achieving a maximum cellulose content of 83%, delignification of 81% and hemicellulose content of 10.5%. Further SEM and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed structural modification caused by alkaline pretreatment in substrate. Maximum saccharification yield of 52.93% was achieved with 0.5% enzyme concentration using 2.5% substrate concentration for 8 h of incubation at 50°C. This result indicates that the above-mentioned pretreatment conditions create accessible areas for enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25285562

Asghar, Umar; Irfan, Muhammad; Iram, Mehvish; Huma, Zile; Nelofer, Rubina; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratulain

2015-01-01

36

Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties) connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter) hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C. PMID:21269447

2011-01-01

37

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Wheat Straw Paper  

E-print Network

pulping is the black liquor residue. Regarding the black liquor, a by-product of wheat straw pulping liquor and be used as biomass for producing energy, further proving the profitability of integrating

38

Recovery of ammonium onto wheat straw to be reused as a slow-release fertilizer.  

PubMed

With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact of nitrogen pollution, a new multifunctional slow-release fertilizer was prepared by recovery of ammonium from aqueous solutions onto a superabsorbent composite. An eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS) was synthesized and used as the carrier to control the release of nutrients. The adsorption studies with NH?? indicated that the superabsorbent composite showed good affinity for NH??, with an adsorption capacity of 7.15 mmol g?¹ when 20 wt % of WS was incorporated and that the adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 40 min. Afterward, the feasibility of reusing the composite as a multifunctional slow-release nitrogen fertilizer was investigated. The results showed that the product with good water-retention and slow-release capacities could regulate soil acidity and was economical and eco-friendly for application in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:23495955

Xie, Lihua; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Lan

2013-04-10

39

Characteristics of degraded hemicellulosic polymers obtained from steam exploded wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fractionation of wheat straw was studied using a two-stage process based on a steam explosion pre-treatment followed by alkaline peroxide post-treatment. Straw was steamed at temperatures comprised between 200°C for 10 and 33min and 220°C for 3, 5, and 8min. The steamed straw was washed with water to yield a solution rich in hemicelluloses-derived mono- and oligosaccharides (20.5–28.5%) together

X. F. Sun; F. Xu; R. C. Sun; Z. C. Geng; P. Fowler; M. S. Baird

2005-01-01

40

Microbial mineralization of biochar and wheat straw mixture in soil: A short-term study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term incubation study was carried out to investigate the effect of biochar addition to soil on CO2 emissions, microbial biomass, soil soluble carbon (C) nitrogen (N) and nitrate–nitrogen (NO3–N). Four soil treatments were investigated: soil only (control); soil+5% biochar; soil+0.5% wheat straw; soil+5% biochar+0.5% wheat straw. The biochar used was obtained from hardwood by pyrolysis at 500°C. Periodic measurements

Costanza Zavalloni; Giorgio Alberti; Stefano Biasiol; Gemini Delle Vedove; Flavio Fornasier; Jie Liu; Alessandro Peressotti

2011-01-01

41

Effect of reactor configuration on biogas production from wheat straw hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of wheat straw hydrolysate for biogas production was investigated in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. The hydrolysate originated as a side stream from a pilot plant pretreating wheat straw hydrothermally (195°C for 10–12min) for producing 2nd generation bioethanol [Kaparaju, P., Serrano, M., Thomsen, A.B., Kongjan, P., Angelidaki, I., 2009. Bioethanol, biohydrogen

Prasad Kaparaju; María Serrano; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

42

Unpolluted fractionation of wheat straw by steam explosion and ethanol extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unpolluted process of wheat straw fractionation by steam explosion coupled with ethanol extraction was studied. The wheat straw was steam exploded for 4.5min with moisture of 34.01%, a pressure of 1.5MPa without acid or alkali. Hemicellulose sugars were recovered by water countercurrent extraction and decolored with chelating ion exchange resin D412. The gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography

Chen Hongzhang; Liu Liying

2007-01-01

43

Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41g-ethanol\\/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0ml-H2\\/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were

Prasad Kaparaju; María Serrano; Anne Belinda Thomsen; Prawit Kongjan; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

44

Effect of Supplementation of Wheat Straw on Growth and Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Potential of Lentinus edodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five organic supplements namely cotton seed meal (CSM), peanut meal (PM), wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB) and soybean meal (SBM) were supplemented to the wheat straw @ 10% and 20% (on dry weight basis). Mycelial growth and enzyme activity of Lentinus edodes strain Le-S were recorded at periodic intervals of 10 d upto 30 d. Maximum mycelial extension rate

Shammi Kapoor; Pardeep K. Khanna; Priya Katyal

45

Solid-state fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum and Trichoderma lignorum  

SciTech Connect

A novel solid-state fermentation process has been developed for converting wheat straw into protein-enriched ruminant feed with a mixed culture of Chaetomium cellulolyticum or Trichoderma lignorum and Candida lipolytica. Fermentations were conducted in 3-L horizontal stirred fermentors for 7 days at 30/sup 0/C. The straw fermented with the mixed cultures contained 16 to 18% protein, compared to 12 to 14% in straw fermented with either mold alone. Cellulose degradation in the fermented straw was 33%; its in vitro rumen digestibility was 50%.

Viesturs, U.E. (Inst. of Microbiology, Riga, USSR); Apsite, A.F.; Laukevics, J.J.; Ose, V.P.; Bekers, M.J.; Tengerdy, R.P.

1981-01-01

46

Saccharification of wheat-straw cellulose by enzymatic hydrolysis following fermentative and chemical pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

In our investigations, wheat straw fermentations were conducted using the edible, white-rot fungus commonly known as the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer, as fermentation organism. Fermented substrates were evaluated for degree of lignin and cellulose degradation and saccharification. In addition, since our primary objective in the P. ostreatus fermentation was to increase the amount of availabile cellulose in straw for further fermentation, cellulose hydrolysis rates were determined. Cellulose conversion to fermentable sugar was also determined on chemically modified straws by subjecting them to enzymatic hydrolysis. Progress and extent of delignification was follwed also by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and structural changes were determined in treated-straw substrates.

Detroy, R.W.; Lindenfelser, L.A.; St. Julian, G. Jr.; Orton, W.L.

1980-01-01

47

Studies of the lauroylation of wheat straw hemicelluloses under heating.  

PubMed

Lauroylation of wheat straw hemicelluloses in the N, N-dimethylformamide/lithium chloride system under microwave irradiation was studied. The parameters optimized included lauroyl chloride concentration as the molar ratio of xylose unit in hemicelluloses/lauroyl chloride (1:1-1:4), 4-dimethylaminopyridine concentration (2-10%), reaction time (1-8 min), molar ratio of xylose unit in hemicelluloses/triethylamine (1:2), and reaction temperature (78 degrees C). The reaction efficiency was measured by the yield and degree of substitution (DS). Under an optimum reaction condition (molar ratio of xylose unit in hemicelluloses/lauroyl chloride 1:3, molar ratio of xylose unit in hemicelluloses/triethylamine 1:2, 5% 4-dimethylaminopyridine, 78 degrees C, 5 min), a DS of 1.63 was obtained. Changes in the structure of hemicelluloses were verified by FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that the lauroylation occurred preferentially at the C-3 position of the xylose unit in hemicelluloses. The behavior of the lauroylated hemicelluloses was monitored by means of thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis. It was found that the product with low DS had a lower thermal stability than the native hemicelluloses, whereas the lauroylated polymers with high DS showed a higher thermal stability than the unmodified hemicelluloses. PMID:18237136

Ren, Jun-Li; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang; Peng, Bai; Sun, Jin-Xia

2008-02-27

48

Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept.  

PubMed

The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0 ml-H(2)/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were further used to produce methane with the yields of 0.324 and 0.381 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)(added), respectively. Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus, multiple biofuels production from wheat straw can increase the efficiency for material and energy and can presumably be more economical process for biomass utilization. PMID:19135361

Kaparaju, Prasad; Serrano, María; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

2009-05-01

49

Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6% urea and 5.8% molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p??0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?

Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

2014-08-01

50

Properties of Wheat-Straw Boards with Frw Based on Interface Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explored the effect of MDI, UF and FRW content on the mechanical and fire retardant property of straw based panels with surface alkali liquor processing. In order to manufacture the straw based panel with high quality, low toxic and fire retardant, the interface of wheat-straw was treated with alkaline liquid, and the orthogonal test was carried out to optimize the technical parameters. The conductivity and diffusion coefficient K of the straw material after alkaline liquid treatment increased obviously. This indicated that alkaline liquid treatment improved the surface wet ability of straw, which is helpful for the infiltration of resin. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized treating condition was alkaline liquid concentration as 0.4-0.8%, alkaline dosage as 1:2.5-1:4.5, alkalinetreated time as 12h-48 h.The physical and mechanical properties of wheat-straw boards after treated increased remarkably and it could satisfy the national standard. The improvement of the straw surface wet ability is helpful to the forming of chemical bond. Whereas the variance analysis of the fire retardant property of straw based panel showed that TTI, pkHRR and peak value appearance time were not affected by the MDI, UF and FRW content significantly. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized processing condition was MDI content as 3%, UF resin content as 6% and the FRW content as 10%.

Zhu, X. D.; Wang, F. H.; Liu, Y.

51

Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility\\u000a and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (±SD) live weight of 19.8 (±1.06) kg,\\u000a were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp

Ajebu Nurfeta

2010-01-01

52

Impact of bioaugmentation on biochemical methane potential for wheat straw with addition of Clostridium cellulolyticum.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis is usually the rate-limited step for methane production from lignocellulosic substrate. Two bioaugmentation strategies, using the cellulolytic anaerobic bacteria Clostridium cellulolyticum, were adopted to enhance the hydrolysis of wheat straw with the purpose of improving the biochemical methane potential (BMP). Namely, the 24-h-incubated seed (C24S) with cellobiose as carbon source and the 60-h-incubated seed (WS60S) with wheat straw as carbon source were respectively used as the bioaugmentation agents. As a result, the BMPs were respectively 342.5 and 326.3 ml g(-1) VS of wheat straw, with an increase of 13.0% and 7.6% comparing to the no-bioaugmentation BMP of 303.3 ml g(-1) VS. The result indicates that the anaerobic digestion efficiency can be improved by bioaugmentation, which therefore may be a promising method for improving methane production from lignocellulosic substrate. PMID:24355075

Peng, Xiaowei; Börner, Rosa Aragão; Nges, Ivo Achu; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01

53

Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping\\/tillage operations and\\/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in

Hess

2005-01-01

54

Characteristics of degraded cellulose obtained from steam-exploded wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of cellulose from wheat straw was studied using a two-stage process based on steam explosion pre-treatment followed by alkaline peroxide post-treatment. Straw was steamed at 200°C, 15bar for 10 and 33min, and 220°C, 22bar for 3, 5 and 8min with a solid to liquid ratio of 2:1 (w\\/w) and 220°C, 22bar for 5min with a solid to liquid

X. F. Sun; F. Xu; R. C. Sun; P. Fowler; M. S. Baird

2005-01-01

55

Strong cellulase inhibitors from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background The use of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose with subsequent fermentation to ethanol provides a green alternative for the production of transportation fuels. Because of its recalcitrant nature, the lignocellulosic biomass must be pretreated before enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the pretreatment often results in the formation of compounds that are inhibitory for the enzymes or fermenting organism. Although well recognized, little quantitative information on the inhibition of individual cellulase components by identified inhibitors is available. Results Strong cellulase inhibitors were separated from the liquid fraction of the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw. HPLC and mass-spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the inhibitors were oligosaccharides (inhibitory oligosaccharides, IOS) with a degree of polymerization from 7 to 16. The IOS are composed of a mixture of xylo- (XOS) and gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS). We propose that XOS and GOS are the fragments of the xylan backbone and mixed-linkage ?-glucans, respectively. The IOS were approximately 100 times stronger inhibitors for Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) than cellobiose, which is one of the strongest inhibitors of these enzymes reported to date. Inhibition of endoglucanases (EGs) by IOS was weaker than that of CBHs. Most of the tested cellulases and hemicellulases were able to slowly degrade IOS and reduce the inhibitory power of the liquid fraction to some extent. The most efficient single enzyme component here was T. reesei EG TrCel7B. Although reduced by the enzyme treatment, the residual inhibitory power of IOS and the liquid fraction was strong enough to silence the major component of the T. reesei cellulase system, CBH TrCel7A. Conclusions The cellulase inhibitors described here may be responsible for the poor yields from the enzymatic conversion of the whole slurries from lignocellulose pretreatment under conditions that do not favor complete degradation of hemicellulose. Identification of the inhibitory compounds helps to design better enzyme mixtures for their degradation and to optimize the pretreatment regimes to minimize their formation. PMID:24053778

2013-01-01

56

Heat and microbial treatments for nutritional upgrading of wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

The ligninolytic activities of four cellulolytic organisms were compared using straw. Only Aspergillus japonicus and Polyporous versicolor appreciably degraded lignin with A. japonicus yielding the most protein. In solid culture, most protein was produced by P. versicolor, closely followed by A. japonicus. Pertreatment of the straw by hot water facilitated biodegradation and protein production. The nutritional value of the residual straw was also increased by some fungal cultures. The greatest amount of degradable polysaccharide in the straw was made available by A. japonicus in liquid media and Pleurotus ostreatus in solid media. 29 references.

Milstein, O.; Vered, Y.; Sharma, A.; Gressel, J.; Flowers, H.M.

1986-03-01

57

Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn  

PubMed Central

The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn’s formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

Gaitan-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Cortes, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

2014-01-01

58

Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the use of a wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from liquid manure was conducted in both a laboratory and a pilot system. Two straw covers with different thicknesses (5 cm and 10 cm) were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing odorous gas emissions. The rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the treatments were monitored; concentrations of ammonia, dissolved sulfide, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH of the liquid manure were measured. Additionally, the overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were calculated for the conditions of the experiment. The results demonstrated that both the 5-cm and 10-cm straw covers were effective in reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from manure storage. In the laboratory tests, when a crust formed on the manure surface within three to four weeks after the straw application, ammonia emissions were reduced by up to 95%. A similar trend was observed in the pilot experiments in the field. Hydrogen sulfide emissions were suppressed by 95% with the wheat straw cover. The mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulfide with the straw covers were significantly lower than those of the control, which indicated the effectiveness of a straw cover as a physical barrier for reducing hydrogen sulfide emissions. Reduced pH and decreased ammonia that biological reactions might also be a factor contributing to the emission reductions.

Xue, S.K.; Hermanson, R.E.

1999-08-01

59

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper prepared by Omar Omari 54434105 Marcus Cheung 82207101 Robert Chen this project to investigate and compare the advantages and disadvantages between sugarcane bagasse paper

60

Effect of enzymic treatment on nutritive value of leaf fraction of wheat straw  

E-print Network

Effect of enzymic treatment on nutritive value of leaf fraction of wheat straw FB Castro ER Ã?rskov was to determine the effect of enzymic treatment conditions, ie enzyme loading, incubation period and moisture 3) was completed to study the effect of enzyme loading (4, 8 and 16 IU AVICELase/g of substrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

Organosolv pretreatment by crude glycerol from oleochemicals industry for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to defray the cost of biodiesel production, the ensuing work was to further investigate utilization of the crude glycerol (CG) from oleochemicals industry in the atmospheric autocatalytic organosolv pretreatment (AAOP) to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis.The AAOP–CG enabled wheat straw to achieve with reasonable enzymatic hydrolysis yields, reaching ?75% for the wet substrate and ?63% for the dried. Lipophilic compounds

Fubao Sun; Hongzhang Chen

2008-01-01

62

HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF WHEAT STRAW ON PILOT PLANT SCALE Anders Thygesena  

E-print Network

plant. In this study, the pilot plant reactor was used for hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw/L was treated, the liquid extract contained solubilised polymeric hemicellulose corresponding to 9 g xylose bioethanol production. The cellulose cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose without a physical

63

Comparative culturing of Pleurotus spp. on coffee pulp and wheat straw: biomass production and substrate biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the cultivation of six strains of Pleurotus (P. djamor (2), P. ostreatus (2) and P. pulmonarius (2)) on coffee pulp and wheat straw are presented. Metabolic activity associated with biomass of each strain was determined, as well as changes in lignin and polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose), phenolic and caffeine contents in substrate samples colonized for a period

Dulce Salmones; Gerardo Mata; Krzysztof N. Waliszewski

2005-01-01

64

Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation  

PubMed Central

Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds. PMID:24031226

Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Gracas Almeida; de Almeida e Silva, Joao Batista

2008-01-01

65

Screening of white-rot fungi for biological pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty two basidiomycetes, mostly white rot fungi, were grown on wheat straw. Lignin-, cellulose-, and hemicellulose-degradation was recorded in order to find a species growing on lignin preferably. The “oyster-mushroom”Pleurotus sp. “florida” showed fastest delignification of all tested fungi.

H. W. Miiller; W. Trfisch

1986-01-01

66

Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pretreating wheat straw with a combination of dilute acid and gamma irradiation was performed in an attempt to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The glucose yield was significantly affected by combined pretreatment (3% sulfuric acid-gamma irradiation), compared with untreated wheat straw and individual pretreatment. The increasing enzymatic hydrolysis after combined pretreatment is resulting from decrease in crystallinity of cellulose, loss of hemicelluloses, and removal or modification of lignin. Therefore, combined pretreatment is one of the most effective methods for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw biomass.

Hyun Hong, Sung; Taek Lee, Jae; Lee, Sungbeom; Gon Wi, Seung; Ju Cho, Eun; Singh, Sudhir; Sik Lee, Seung; Yeoup Chung, Byung

2014-01-01

67

Development of low-cost wheat-straw insulation board  

SciTech Connect

Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg/m{sup 3}, and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m{center_dot}K/W [R3 to R4 per inch (h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu{center_dot}in)]. The initial effort focused on straw insulation boards suitable for use in buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation. The possible methods of fabrication initially evaluated were (1) containing the straw in panels with wire and battens, (2) pulping the straw, and (3) binding with adhesive. Starch, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and sodium silicate were evaluated as adhesives for both uncut and shredded straw. Methods of application included spraying, foaming, and dipping, at various adhesive-loading rates. Small samples were formed at a range of densities and tested for structural and thermal properties. All three approaches can succeed structurally and thermally, but are unable to compete economically with existing insulation board. A final batch of boards was made by spraying methane di-isocyanate (MDI), a synthetic resin, into a rotating tumbler that contained shredded straw. The boards, made over a range of densities and resin contents, and using straw with and without the fine particles, were tested thermally and structurally. Good mechanical properties were obtained at resin contents as low as 2% by mass. At densities of 128 and 160 kg/m{sup 3}, the boards had thermal resistivities of 24 to 26 m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W. The pressure required to compress the 160 kg/m{sup 3} boards to 10% of their original thickness was approximately 100 kPa, and the modulus of rupture in bending was about 340 kPa. Removing the fine particles from the straw improved board strength markedly. The final boards at a density of 160 kg/m{sup 3} and 2 to 4% resin content have an estimated materials cost of $1.22 per unit of thermal resistance (m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W) per square metre of area (2{cents} per R per ft{sup 2}). This cost is substantially less than either the cost of the expanded polystyrene available in Pakistan or the retail cost of any rigid board insulation sold in North America.

Norford, L.K.; Glicksman, L.R.; Harvey, H.S. Jr.; Charlson, J.A.

2000-07-01

68

Nitrogen15 balance as affected by rice straw management in a rice-wheat rotation in northwest India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of the productive rice-wheat systems of Northwest India is being questioned due to the complete removal\\u000a of straw for animal consumption and fuel, or the burning of straw which has reduced the soil organic matter contents. However,\\u000a straw incorporation at planting can temporarily reduce the availability of fertilizer-N and reduce crop yields. In a field\\u000a study on a

K. F. Bronson; T. S. Khera; E. Pasuquin

2001-01-01

69

Fractionation of Wheat Straw by Steam-Explosion Pretreatment and Alkali Delignification. Cellulose Pulp and Byproducts from Hemicellulose and Lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fractionation of wheat straw was studied using a two-stage process based on an hydrolytic pretreatment followed by alkali delignification. The hydrolytic pretreatment was performed by steam explosion. Straw was steamed at temperatures comprised between 205 and 230°C for 2 min. The steamed straw was washed with hot water to yield a solution rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The

Daniel Montané; Xavier Farriol; Joan Salvadó; Paul Jollez; Esteban Chornet

1998-01-01

70

Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose  

PubMed Central

Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing carbon source for enzyme production. Results We have examined and compared the transcriptome of T. reesei growing on wheat straw and lactose as carbon sources under otherwise similar conditions. Gene expression on wheat straw exceeded that on lactose, and 1619 genes were found to be only induced on wheat straw but not on lactose. They comprised 30% of the CAZome, but were also enriched in genes associated with phospholipid metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, iron homeostatis and autophagy. Two thirds of the CAZome was expressed both on wheat straw as well as on lactose, but 60% of it at least >2-fold higher on the former. Major wheat straw specific genes comprised xylanases, chitinases and mannosidases. Interestingly, the latter two CAZyme families were significantly higher expressed in a strain in which xyr1 encoding the major regulator of cellulase and hemicellulase biosynthesis is non-functional. Conclusions Our data reveal several major differences in the transcriptome between wheat straw and lactose which may be related to the higher enzyme formation on the former and their further investigation could lead to the development of methods for increasing enzyme production on lactose. PMID:24016404

2013-01-01

71

Application of steam explosion to the fractionation and rapid vapor-phase alkaline pulping of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of steam explosion technology for the production of cellulose pulps was evaluated at a bench scale using wheat straw as raw lignocellulosic material. Steam explosion was used either as a pretreatment method to achieve the fractionation of the straw into its constitutive polymers, or as a rapid pulping method for the production of unbleached chemical pulps from alkali-impregnated

D. Montane; X. Farriol; J. Salvadó; P. Jollez; E. Chornet

1998-01-01

72

Organosolv pretreatment by crude glycerol from oleochemicals industry for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.  

PubMed

In order to defray the cost of biodiesel production, the ensuing work was to further investigate utilization of the crude glycerol (CG) from oleochemicals industry in the atmospheric autocatalytic organosolv pretreatment (AAOP) to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The AAOP-CG enabled wheat straw to achieve with reasonable enzymatic hydrolysis yields, reaching 75% for the wet substrate and 63% for the dried. Lipophilic compounds from the CG formed pitch deposition on the fiber, which was responsible for low delignification (30%) and also troublesome in practical operation. Pitch deposits itself had no significant role on enzymatic hydrolysis. A striking finding of the lignin recondensation and/or lignin-carbohydrate complex helped explain why dried pretreated wheat straw had a low enzymatic hydrolysis yield. The CG was suitable for the AAOP to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. But it was advisable to remove lipophilic compounds from crude glycerol before utilization. PMID:18077155

Sun, Fubao; Chen, Hongzhang

2008-09-01

73

Optimization of biogas production from wheat straw stillage in UASB reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage was investigated. Methane potential of stillage was determined in batch experiments at two different substrate concentrations. Results showed that higher methane yields of 324ml\\/g-(volatile solids) VSadded were obtained at stillage concentrations of 12.8g-VS\\/L than at 25.6g-VS\\/l. Continuous anaerobic digestion of stillage was performed in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket

Prasad Kaparaju; María Serrano; Irini Angelidaki

2010-01-01

74

Extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production from wheat straw hydrolysate using mixed culture fermentation: Effect of reactor configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production from hemicellulose-rich wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR), up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, and anaerobic filter (AF) reactor. The CSTR was operated at an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3days, and the UASB and AF reactors were operated at 1day HRT, using mixed extreme thermophiles at 70°C. The highest hydrogen production yield of

Prawit Kongjan; Irini Angelidaki

2010-01-01

75

Degradation of wheat straw by a microbial community —stimulation by a polysaccharidase complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale reactors were used to watch aspects of biodegradation of wheat straw when supplemented with polysaccharidases (Czym) to increase the enzyme production of microorganisms involved during a composting process for mushroom production. Biochemical and biological parameters were tested both under aerobic and O2-limited conditions to assess degradability. These were measurement of released CO2 and NH3, determination of neutral detergent fibre

Sylvie Libmond; Jean-Michel Savoie

1993-01-01

76

Multi-enzyme production by Cellulomonas sp. grown on wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulomonas sp. isolated from silkworm and rabbit’s waste secreted carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), cellobiase, filter paperase (Fpase), xylanase, amylase and manganese peroxidase during growth of wheat straw. Some enzymes remained cell membrane bound, but could be released by various treatments, the highest yields via sonication. Carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiase and Fpase activities had pH optima of 6.0, 5.5 and 6.0 respectively. CMCase

G. Emtiazi; I. Nahvi

2000-01-01

77

Comparison of Different Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat and Barley Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for\\u000a enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and\\u000a wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot\\u000a water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using

Lisa Rosgaard; Sven Pedersen; Anne S. Meyer

2007-01-01

78

Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed  

PubMed Central

Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here “Biotech Feed” was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI: 3.74?Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50?g more daily body weight. PMID:25269679

Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2014-01-01

79

A New and Environmentally Friendly Route for Preparation of Carbon Microspheres from Wheat Straw  

PubMed Central

The reactions were performed to synthesize carbon materials using wheat straw powder as raw material. The wheat straw powder was first hydrolyzed at the absence of a catalyst at 190°C for 1?h, then the hydrolyzate solution was used as carbon source to prepare carbon materials via hydrothermal carbonization at 180°C in the absence of a catalyst for 8?h. The influence of solid-liquid-ratio of wheat straw to water on the morphology of the product was investigated. The samples were examined by a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the product was carbon microspheres with a large number of O–H, CHO, and other functional groups, and the diameters of carbon microspheres noticeably depended on the solid-liquid ratio. When the solid-liquid ratio was 1?:?60, the diameters of carbon microspheres were in the range of 100 to 300?nm when the solid-liquid ratio was 1?:?40, carbon microspheres with larger and more uniform diameters mostly about 250?nm were obtained, and when the solid-liquid-ratio was 1?:?20, there were more larger carbon microspheres with diameters about 800?nm in the product and the surface of these carbon microspheres is smoother, whereas; the uniformity of the product deteriorates. PMID:24288457

Leishan, Chen; Yu, Miao; Gairong, Chen

2013-01-01

80

Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.  

PubMed

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

2013-10-01

81

Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull  

PubMed Central

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

2013-01-01

82

Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Return on Soil Organic Carbon in a Rice-Wheat Rotation System  

PubMed Central

Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0–7, 7–14 and 14–21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0–7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7–14 cm depth. However, at 14–21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:24586434

Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

2014-01-01

83

Utilization of the water soluable fraction of wheat straw as a plant nutrient source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight was removed from wheat straw and roots, although the recovery of individual nutrients varied. Leaching also removed about 20 percent of the total organic carbon from the biomass. In terms of dry weight, the leachate was comprised of approximately 60 percent organic and 40 percent inorganic compounds. Direct use of wheat straw leachate in static hydroponic systems had an inhibitory effect on wheat growth, both in the presence and absence of microorganisms. Biological treatment of leachate either with a mixed microbial community or the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus L., prior to use in hydroponic solutions, significantly reduced both the organic content and the inhibitory effects of the leachate. The inhibitory effects of unprocessed leachate appear to be a result of rapidly acting phytotoxic compounds that are detoxified by microbial activity. Leaching holds considerable promise as a method for nutrient recycling in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.

1990-01-01

84

Kinetics of carbon mineralization of biochars compared with wheat straw in three soils.  

PubMed

Application of biochars to soils may stabilize soil organic matter and sequester carbon (C). The objectives of our research were to study in vitro C mineralization kinetics of various biochars in comparison with wheat straw in three soils and to study their contribution to C stabilization. Three soils (Oxisol, Alfisol topsoil, and Alfisol subsoil) were incubated at 25°C with wheat straw, charcoal, hydrothermal carbonization coal (HTC), low-temperature conversion coal (LTC), and a control (natural organic matter). Carbon mineralization was analyzed by alkali absorption of CO released at regular intervals over 365 d. Soil samples taken after 5 and 365 d of incubation were analyzed for soluble organic C and inorganic N. Chemical characterization of biochars and straw for C and N bonds was performed with Fourier transformation spectroscopy and with the N fractionation method, respectively. The LTC treatment contained more N in the heterocyclic-bound N fraction as compared with the biochars and straw. Charcoal was highly carbonized when compared with the HTC and LTC. The results show higher C mineralization and a lower half-life of straw-C compared with biochars. Among biochars, HTC showed some C mineralization when compared with charcoal and LTC over 365 d. Carbon mineralization rates were different in the three soils. The half-life of charcoal-C was higher in the Oxisol than in the Alfisol topsoil and subsoil, possibly due to high Fe-oxides in the Oxisol. The LTC-C had a higher half-life, possibly due to N unavailability. We conclude that biochar stabilization can be influenced by soil type. PMID:22751064

Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Steffens, Diedrich; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Schubert, Sven

2012-01-01

85

Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01

86

Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

2005-03-01

87

Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect

Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950°C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

2002-04-01

88

Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a), CBH2 (Cel6a), EG1 (Cel7b), EG2 (Cel5a), as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a) were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25%) which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw. PMID:22373423

2012-01-01

89

Induction of laccase activity in the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus using water polluted with wheat straw extracts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to explore the use of polluted water effluents from wheat straw using industries as inducers of lignocellulolytic enzymatic activities in cultures of white rot basidiomycetes. For this purpose, we studied the effect of a wheat straw water extract on the evolution of the laccase activity recovered from submerged cultures of Pleurotus ostreatus made in different media and under various culture conditions. Our results demonstrated an accumulative induction effect in all the cultures and conditions tested. This induction is parallel to changes in the laccase electrophoretic profiles recovered from the culture supernatants. The isoenzyme that appeared to be mainly responsible for the laccase activity under these conditions was laccase 10, as confirmed by sequencing the induced protein. These results support the idea of using wheat straw effluents as inducers in liquid cultures of P. ostreatus mycelia for the production of ligninolytic enzymatic cocktails. PMID:23425584

Parenti, Alejandra; Muguerza, Elaia; Iroz, Amaia Redin; Omarini, Alejandra; Conde, Enma; Alfaro, Manuel; Castanera, Raúl; Santoyo, Francisco; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G

2013-04-01

90

Effect of reactor configuration on biogas production from wheat straw hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The potential of wheat straw hydrolysate for biogas production was investigated in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. The hydrolysate originated as a side stream from a pilot plant pretreating wheat straw hydrothermally (195 degrees C for 10-12 min) for producing 2nd generation bioethanol [Kaparaju, P., Serrano, M., Thomsen, A.B., Kongjan, P., Angelidaki, I., 2009. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept. Bioresource Technology 100 (9), 2562-2568]. Results from batch assays showed that hydrolysate had a methane potential of 384 ml/g-volatile solids (VS)(added). Process performance in CTSR and UASB reactors was investigated by varying hydrolysate concentration and/or organic loading rate (OLR). In CSTR, methane yields increased with increase in hydrolysate concentration and maximum yield of 297 ml/g-COD was obtained at an OLR of 1.9 g-COD/l d and 100% (v/v) hydrolysate. On the other hand, process performance and methane yields in UASB were affected by OLR and/or substrate concentration. Maximum methane yields of 267 ml/g-COD (COD removal of 72%) was obtained in UASB reactor when operated at an OLR of 2.8 g-COD/l d but with only 10% (v/v) hydrolysate. However, co-digestion of hydrolysate with pig manure (1:3 v/v ratio) improved the process performance and resulted in methane yield of 219 ml/g-COD (COD removal of 72%). Thus, anaerobic digestion of hydrolysate for biogas production was feasible in both CSTR and UASB reactor types. However, biogas process was affected by the reactor type and operating conditions. PMID:19647428

Kaparaju, Prasad; Serrano, María; Angelidaki, Irini

2009-12-01

91

Isotopic compositions of elemental carbon in smoke and ash derived from crop straw combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six cultivars of straw for rice, maize and wheat, respectively, were burned under flaming and smoldering conditions, and carbon isotopic ratio values of elemental carbon (EC) in smoke and ash determined. The results showed that mean carbon isotopic fractionation (?13C) between EC in flaming and smoldering smoke from rice straw, and the starting material was -2.7‰ and -3.0‰, respectively. Moreover, the corresponding ?13C values for EC in flaming and smoldering smoke from wheat straw were -0.1‰ and +0.4‰, respectively. ?13C for EC in the two types of smoke from maize straw were -3.4‰ and +0.2‰, respectively. ?13C for EC in flaming and smoldering ash from rice straw were -1.8‰ and -1.6‰ in turn. ?13C for EC in flaming and smoldering ash from wheat straw were +0.9‰ and +2.4‰, respectively. Additionally, the ones for EC in the two types of ash from maize straw were -1.2‰ and -1.0‰, respectively. If ?13CEC values for pollutants, such as straw smoke, soot from coal and diesel-powered vehicles, and ambient PM2.5 in a region, are determined in summer and autumn, the contribution of straw burning to ambient EC is likely to be estimated with the approach of carbon isotopic mass balance.

Liu, Gang; Li, Jiuhai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Dan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Hui

2014-08-01

92

Pulp properties resulting from different pretreatments of wheat straw and their influence on enzymatic hydrolysis rate.  

PubMed

Wheat straw was subjected to three different processes prior to saccharification, namely alkaline pulping, natural pulping and autohydrolysis, in order to study their effect on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. Parameters like medium concentration, temperature and time have been varied in order to optimize each method. Milling the raw material to a length of 4mm beforehand showed the best cost-value-ratio compared to other grinding methods studied. Before saccharification the pulp can be stored in dried form, leading to a high yield of glucose. Furthermore the relation of pulp properties (i.e. intrinsic viscosity, Klason-lignin and hemicelluloses content, crystallinity, morphology) to cellulose hydrolysis is discussed. PMID:25058295

Rossberg, Christine; Steffien, Doreen; Bremer, Martina; Koenig, Swetlana; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C; Moniz, Patrícia; Hoernicke, Max; Bertau, Martin; Fischer, Steffen

2014-10-01

93

Analysis of methane potentials of steam-exploded wheat straw and estimation of energy yields of combined ethanol and methane production.  

PubMed

Agrarian biomass as a renewable energy source can contribute to a considerable CO(2) reduction. The overriding goal of the European Union is to cut energy consumption related greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% until the year 2020. This publication aims at optimising the methane production from steam-exploded wheat straw and presents a theoretical estimation of the ethanol and methane potential of straw. For this purpose, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different time/temperature combinations. Specific methane yields were analyzed according to VDI 4630. Pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion significantly increased the methane yield from anaerobic digestion by up to 20% or a maximum of 331 l(N)kg(-1) VS compared to untreated wheat straw. Furthermore, the residual anaerobic digestion potential of methane after ethanol fermentation was determined by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw using cellulase. Based on the resulting glucose concentration the ethanol yield and the residual sugar available for methane production were calculated. The theoretical maximum ethanol yield of wheat straw was estimated to be 0.249 kg kg(-1) dry matter. The achievable maximum ethanol yield per kg wheat straw dry matter pretreated by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis was estimated to be 0.200 kg under pretreatment conditions of 200 degrees C and 10 min corresponding to 80% of the theoretical maximum. The residual methane yield from straw stillage was estimated to be 183 l(N)kg(-1) wheat straw dry matter. Based on the presented experimental data, a concept is proposed that processes wheat straw for ethanol and methane production. The concept of an energy supply system that provides more than two forms of energy is met by (1) upgrading obtained ethanol to fuel-grade quality and providing methane to CHP plants for the production of (2) electric energy and (3) utility steam that in turn can be used to operate distillation columns in the ethanol production process. PMID:19480947

Bauer, Alexander; Bösch, Peter; Friedl, Anton; Amon, Thomas

2009-06-01

94

SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw with the addition of saccharified or fermented wheat meal in integrated bioethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background Integration of second-generation (2G) bioethanol production with existing first-generation (1G) production may facilitate commercial production of ethanol from cellulosic material. Since 2G hydrolysates have a low sugar concentration and 1G streams often have to be diluted prior to fermentation, mixing of streams is beneficial. Improved ethanol concentrations in the 2G production process lowers energy demand in distillation, improves overall energy efficiency and thus lower production cost. There is also a potential to reach higher ethanol yields, which is required in economically feasible ethanol production. Integrated process scenarios with addition of saccharified wheat meal (SWM) or fermented wheat meal (FWM) were investigated in simultaneous saccharification and (co-)fermentation (SSF or SSCF) of steam-pretreated wheat straw, while the possibility of recovering the valuable protein-rich fibre residue from the wheat was also studied. Results The addition of SWM to SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw, using commercially used dried baker’s yeast, S. cerevisiae, resulted in ethanol concentrations of about 60 g/L, equivalent to ethanol yields of about 90% of the theoretical. The addition of FWM in batch mode SSF was toxic to baker’s yeast, due to the ethanol content of FWM, resulting in a very low yield and high accumulation of glucose. The addition of FWM in fed-batch mode still caused a slight accumulation of glucose, but the ethanol concentration was fairly high, 51.2 g/L, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 90%, based on the amount of glucose added. In batch mode of SSCF using the xylose-fermenting, genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain KE6-12, no improvement was observed in ethanol yield or concentration, compared with baker’s yeast, despite the increased xylose utilization, probably due to the considerable increase in glycerol production. A slight increase in xylose consumption was seen when glucose from SWM was fed at a low feed rate, after 48 hours, compared with batch SSCF. However, the ethanol yield and concentration remained in the same range as in batch mode. Conclusion Ethanol concentrations of about 6% (w/v) were obtained, which will result in a significant reduction in the cost of downstream processing, compared with SSF of the lignocellulosic substrate alone. As an additional benefit, it is also possible to recover the protein-rich residue from the SWM in the process configurations presented, providing a valuable co-product. PMID:24286350

2013-01-01

95

Enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw after combined steam explosion and laccase pretreatment.  

PubMed

Laccase, capable of selectively degrading lignin while keeping cellulose intact, has been widely applied for the modification and bio-bleaching of pulp. In this study Sclerotium sp. laccase (MSLac) was employed in combination with steam explosion to evaluate the effect of this treatment on cellulose hydrolysis. Combined steam explosion with laccase pretreatment enhanced the cellulose conversion rate of wheat straw no matter in the case of successive (MSLac-Cel) and simultaneous (MSLac+Cel) MSLac and cellulase hydrolysis. The highest cellulose conversion rate of 84.23% was obtained when steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS) (1.3 MPa, 5 min) was treated by MSLac+Cel at a laccase loading of 0.55 U g(-1) substrate. FT-IR and SEM analyses indicated that MSLac oxidized the phenol and changed electron configuration of the ring, which contributed to loosening the compact wrap of lignin-carbohydrate complex and consequently enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose. This article provided a promising method for lignocellulose bio-pretreatment. PMID:22695139

Qiu, Weihua; Chen, Hongzhang

2012-08-01

96

Differential proteomic analysis of the secretome of Irpex lacteus and other white-rot fungi during wheat straw pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying new high-performance enzymes or enzyme complexes to enhance biomass degradation is the key for the development of cost-effective processes for ethanol production. Irpex lacteus is an efficient microorganism for wheat straw pretreatment, yielding easily hydrolysable products with high sugar content. Thus, this fungus was selected to investigate the enzymatic system involved in lignocellulose decay, and its secretome was compared to those from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus which produced different degradation patterns when growing on wheat straw. Extracellular enzymes were analyzed through 2D-PAGE, nanoLC/MS-MS, and homology searches against public databases. Results In wheat straw, I. lacteus secreted proteases, dye-decolorizing and manganese-oxidizing peroxidases, and H2O2 producing-enzymes but also a battery of cellulases and xylanases, excluding those implicated in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation to their monosaccharides, making these sugars poorly available for fungal consumption. In contrast, a significant increase of ?-glucosidase production was observed when I. lacteus grew in liquid cultures. P. chrysosporium secreted more enzymes implicated in the total hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and P. ostreatus produced, in proportion, more oxidoreductases. Conclusion The protein pattern secreted during I. lacteus growth in wheat straw plus the differences observed among the different secretomes, justify the fitness of I. lacteus for biopretreatment processes in 2G-ethanol production. Furthermore, all these data give insight into the biological degradation of lignocellulose and suggest new enzyme mixtures interesting for its efficient hydrolysis. PMID:23937687

2013-01-01

97

Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS) unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS), resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L) did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and second-generation processes also increases the ethanol concentration, resulting in a reduction in the cost of the distillation step, thus improving the process economics. PMID:22410131

2012-01-01

98

Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.  

PubMed

The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index. PMID:22784951

Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

2012-09-01

99

Photo-biohydrogen production potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK from wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background Biotechnological exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass is promising for sustainable and environmentally sound energy provision strategy because of the abundant availability of the renewable resources. Wheat straw (WS) comprising of 75-80% cellulose and hemicellulose is one of widely available, inexpensive and renewable lignocellulosic biomass types. The cellulosic and hemicellulose substrate can be hydrolyzed into monomeric sugars by chemical and/or biological methods. Results This study examined comparative potential of dilute acid and pre-ammonia pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw (WS) for hydrogen production by purple non sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK. Gas production became noticeable after 14 h of inoculation in WS pretreated with 4% H2SO4. The detoxified liquid hydrolyzate (DLH) after overliming attained a production level of 372 mL-H2/L after 16 h under illumination of 120-150 W/m2 at 30?±?2.0°C. Whereas the non-detoxified acid pretreated hydrolyzate (NDLH) of WS could produce only upto 254 mL-H2/L after 21 h post inoculation. Evolution of H2 became observable just after 10?±?2.0 h of inoculation by employing 48 h age inoculum on the WS pretreated with 30% ammonia, hydrolyzed with cellulase 80 FPU/g and ?-glucosidase 220 CbU/ml at 50°C. Upto 712 ml/L of culture was measured with continuous shaking for 24 h. The 47.5% and 64.2% higher hydrogen volume than the DLH and NDLH substrates, respectively appeared as a function of significantly higher monomeric sugar contents of the enzymatically hydrolyzed substrate and lesser/zero amounts of toxic derivatives including pH reducing agents. Conclusion Photofermentative hydrogen production from lignocellulosic waste is a feasible approach for eco-friendly sustainable supply of bioenergy in a cost-effective way. Results of this study provide new insight for addressing biotechnological exploitation of abundantly available and low-cost cellulosic substrates. PMID:24099439

2013-01-01

100

Wood chips and wheat straw as alternative biofilter media for denitrification reactors treating aquaculture and other wastewaters with high nitrate concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated wood chips and wheat straw as inexpensive and readily available alternatives to more expensive plastic media for denitrification processes in treating aquaculture wastewaters or other high nitrate waters. Nine 3.8-L laboratory scale reactors (40cm packed height×10cm diameter) were used to compare the performance of wood chips, wheat straw, and Kaldnes plastic media in the removal of nitrate

Willie Jones B. Saliling; Philip W. Westerman; Thomas M. Losordo

2007-01-01

101

An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22.  

PubMed

A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain's promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid-liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose. PMID:24679663

Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

2014-04-01

102

VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD  

SciTech Connect

Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

1999-02-01

103

Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste\\u000a orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using\\u000a a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains d-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85

Qiang Li; Jose A. Siles; Ian P. Thompson

2010-01-01

104

Generation of Electricity and Analysis of Microbial Communities in Wheat Straw Biomass-Powered Microbial Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity generation from wheat straw hydrolysate and the microbial ecology of electricity-producing microbial communities developed in two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. The power density reached 123 mW\\/m2 with an initial hydrolysate concentration of 1,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)\\/liter, while coulombic efficiencies ranged from 37.1 to 15.5%, corresponding to the initial hydrolysate concentrations of 250 to 2,000 mg

Yifeng Zhang; Booki Min; Liping Huang; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

105

Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g\\/L) and hexoses (4.9g\\/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia

Xiaochen Yu; Yubin Zheng; Kathleen M. Dorgan; Shulin Chen

2011-01-01

106

Optimisation of the biological pretreatment of wheat straw with white-rot fungi for ethanol production.  

PubMed

The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the most frequently used process, steam explosion (SE). However, this pretreatment can still not be industrially implemented due to long incubation times. The main objective of this work was to test the viability of and optimise the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which uses ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus eryngii and Irpex lacteus) in a solid-state fermentation of sterilised wheat straw complemented with a mild alkali treatment. In this study, the most important parameters of the mechanical and thermal substrate conditioning processes and the most important parameters of the fungal fermentation process were optimised to improve sugar recovery. The largest digestibilities were achieved with fermentation with I. lacteus under optimised conditions, under which cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility increased after 21 days of pretreatment from 16 to 100 % and 12 to 87 %, respectively. The maximum glucose yield (84 %) of cellulose available in raw material was obtained after only 14 days of pretreatment with an overall ethanol yield of 74 % of the theoretical value, which is similar to that reached with SE. PMID:23232963

López-Abelairas, M; Álvarez Pallín, M; Salvachúa, D; Lú-Chau, T; Martínez, M J; Lema, J M

2013-09-01

107

Production of cellulase in solid-state fermentation with Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 on wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

It is an accepted fact that ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is not economical as yet because of the high cost of cellulose production. To reduce the cost of cellulose production, lignocellulosic material (wheat straw [WS]), a comparatively much cheaper substrate, was used instead of costly substrates (pure cellulose or lactose). A pan bioreactor was developed for solid-state fermentation (SSF) that required a small capital investment. High yields of complete cellulose system were obtained compared to that in the liquid-state fermentation (LSF) from WS, when treated with 4.25% NaOH at 121{degrees}C for 1 h and mixed with Mandels` medium. A complete cellulose system is defined as one in which the ratio of {beta} glucosidase activity to filter paper activity in the enzyme solution is close to 1.0. The cellulose system derived from SSF using the pan bioreactor gave more than 85% hydrolysis of delignified WS. The prototype pan bioreactor requires further improvements so that optimum quantity of substrate can be fermented to obtain high yields of complete cellulose system per unit space. The SSF process provides a means for the production of complete cellulose system for the economical bioconversion of renewable biomass into ethanol. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Chahal, P.S.; Chahal, D.S. [Universite du Quebec, Laval (Canada); Le, G.B.B. [Ministry of Natural Resources, Charlesbourg, Quebec (Canada)

1996-12-31

108

Biogas production from wheat straw and manure--impact of pretreatment and process operating parameters.  

PubMed

Non-treated or steam-exploded straw in co-digestion with cattle manure was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production compared with manure as the sole substrate. All digestions were performed in laboratory-scale CSTR reactors (5L) operating with an organic loading late of approximately 2.8 g VS/L/day, independent of substrate mixture. The hydraulic retention was 25 days and an operating temperature of 37, 44 or 52°C. The co-digestion with steam exploded straw and manure was evaluated with two different mixtures, with different proportion. The results showed stable performance but low methane yields (0.13-0.21 N L CH4/kg VS) for both manure alone and in co-digestion with the straw. Straw appeared to give similar yield as manure and steam-explosion treatment of the straw did not increase gas yields. Furthermore, there were only slight differences at the different operating temperatures. PMID:24121239

Risberg, Kajsa; Sun, Li; Levén, Lotta; Horn, Svein Jarle; Schnürer, Anna

2013-12-01

109

Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from open burning of wheat straw and corn stover in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements were conducted to determine the characteristics of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) emitted from open burning of wheat straw and maize stover, two major agricultural residues in China. The headfire ignition technique was used with sampling downwind from the agricultural fire. Fifty-two NMHC species were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A carbon mass balance method was used to determine NMHC emission factors. The emission factors of the total speciated NMHCs from wheat straw and maize stover are 1690 ± 580 mg kg-1 and 1590 ± 430 mg kg-1, respectively. Propane, n-pentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, propene, benzene and toluene are the main species, together accounting for 55.3%-68.0% of the total NMHCs. On the basis of measured emission factors and the published maximum incremental reactivity values for NMHCs, we estimated the ozone forming potential (OFP) of speciated NMHCs. The results indicate that propene, 1-butene, isoprene, toluene and m,p-xylene have high OFP values and account for about 50% of the total OFP. Alkenes played the most important role in potential ozone formation, followed by aromatics and alkanes.

Li, Xinghua; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

2009-10-01

110

Ethanol production from wheat straw by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis co-culture in batch and continuous system.  

PubMed

In this research, Scheffersomyces stipitis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in immobilized and suspended state were used to convert pentose and hexose sugars to ethanol. In batch and continuous systems, S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae co-culture performance was better than S. cerevisiae. Continuous ethanol production was performed in packed bed immobilized cell reactor (ICR). In ICR, S. stipitis cells were found to be more sensitive to oxygen concentration and other possible mass transfer limitations as compared to S. cerevisiae. Use of co-immobilized S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae resulted in maximum xylose consumption (73.92%) and 41.68 g/L day ethanol was produced at HRT (hydraulic retention time) of 6h with wheat straw hydrolysate. At HRT of 0.75 h, the highest amount of ethanol with the values of 356.21 and 235.43 g/L day was produced when synthetic medium and wheat straw hydrolysate were used as feeding medium in ICR, respectively. PMID:24614063

Karagöz, P?nar; Özkan, Melek

2014-04-01

111

Adsorption behavior of light green anionic dye using cationic surfactant-modified wheat straw in batch and column mode.  

PubMed

An agricultural by-product, natural wheat straw (NWS), was soaked in 1 % cationic surfactant (hexadecylpyridinium bromide, CPB) solution for 24 h (at 293 K), and modified wheat straw (MWS) was obtained. Analysis of FTIR, XFR, and nitrogen element showed that CPB was adsorbed onto surface of NWS. Then, MWS was used as adsorbent for the removal of light green dye (LG, anionic dye) from aqueous solution. The experiment was performed in batch and column mode at room temperature (293 K). Sodium chloride (up to 0.1 mol/L) existed in solution was not favor of LG dye adsorption. The equilibrium data were better described by Langmuir isotherm, and adsorption capacity of q m from Langmuir model was 70.01 ± 3.39 mg/g. In fixed-bed column adsorption mode, the effects of initial LG concentration (30, 50, 70 mg/L) and flow rate (6.5, 9.0, 14.5 mL/min) on adsorption were presented. Thomas and modified dose-response models were used to predict the breakthrough curves using nonlinear analysis method, and both models can fit the breakthrough curves. Theoretical and experimental breakthrough curves were drawn and compared. The results implied that MWS can be used as adsorbent material to remove LG from aqueous solution. PMID:23440440

Su, Yinyin; Zhao, Binglu; Xiao, Wei; Han, Runping

2013-08-01

112

Effect of nutrients on fermentation of pretreated wheat straw at very high dry matter content by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Wheat straw hydrolysate produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrothermal pretreated wheat straw at a very high solids concentration of 30% dry matter (w/w) was used for testing the effect of nutrients on their ability to improve fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The nutrients tested were MgSO4 and nitrogen sources; (NH4)2SO4, urea, yeast extract, peptone and corn steep liquor. The fermentation was tested in a separate hydrolysis and fermentation process using a low amount of inoculum (0.33 g kg(-1)) and a non-adapted baker's yeast strain. A factorial screening design revealed that yeast extract, peptone, corn steep liquor and MgSO4 were the most significant factors in obtaining a high fermentation rate, high ethanol yield and low glycerol formation. The highest volumetric ethanol productivity was 1.16 g kg(-1) h(-1) and with an ethanol yield close to maximum theoretical. The use of urea or (NH4)2SO4 separately, together or in combination with MgSO4 or vitamins did not improve fermentation rate and resulted in increased glycerol formation compared to the use of yeast extract. Yeast extract was the single best component in improving fermentation performance and a concentration of 3.5 g kg(-1) resulted in high ethanol yield and a volumetric productivity of 0.6 g kg(-1) h(-1). PMID:19093228

Jørgensen, Henning

2009-05-01

113

Analysis of methane potentials of steam-exploded wheat straw and estimation of energy yields of combined ethanol and methane production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrarian biomass as a renewable energy source can contribute to a considerable CO2 reduction. The overriding goal of the European Union is to cut energy consumption related greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% until the year 2020. This publication aims at optimising the methane production from steam-exploded wheat straw and presents a theoretical estimation of the ethanol and

Alexander Bauer; Peter Bösch; Anton Friedl; Thomas Amon

2009-01-01

114

Generation of Electricity and Analysis of Microbial Communities in Wheat Straw Biomass-Powered Microbial Fuel Cells?  

PubMed Central

Electricity generation from wheat straw hydrolysate and the microbial ecology of electricity-producing microbial communities developed in two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. The power density reached 123 mW/m2 with an initial hydrolysate concentration of 1,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/liter, while coulombic efficiencies ranged from 37.1 to 15.5%, corresponding to the initial hydrolysate concentrations of 250 to 2,000 mg COD/liter. The suspended bacteria found were different from the bacteria immobilized in the biofilm, and they played different roles in electricity generation from the hydrolysate. The bacteria in the biofilm were consortia with sequences similar to those of Bacteroidetes (40% of sequences), Alphaproteobacteria (20%), Bacillus (20%), Deltaproteobacteria (10%), and Gammaproteobacteria (10%), while the suspended consortia were predominately Bacillus (22.2%). The results of this study can contribute to improving understanding of and optimizing electricity generation in microbial fuel cells. PMID:19376925

Zhang, Yifeng; Min, Booki; Huang, Liping; Angelidaki, Irini

2009-01-01

115

Comparison of some new pretreatment methods for second generation bioethanol production from wheat straw and water hyacinth.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic residues like water hyacinth (WH) and wheat straw (WS) using crude glycerol (CG) and ionic liquids (IL) pretreatment was evaluated and compared with conventional dilute acid pretreatment (DAT) in terms of enzymatic hydrolysis yield and fermentation yield of pretreated samples. In the case of WS, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment was found to be the best method. The hydrolysis yields of glucose and total reducing sugars were 2.1 and 3.3 times respectively higher by IL pretreatment than DAT, while it was 1.4 and 1.9 times respectively higher with CG pretreatment. For WH sample, CG pretreatment was as effective as DAT and more effective than IL pretreatment regarding hydrolysis yield. The fermentation inhibition was not noticeable with both types of pretreatment methods and feedstocks. Besides, CG pretreatment was found as effective as pure glycerol pretreatment for both feedstocks. This opens up an attractive economic route for the utilization of CG. PMID:21273061

Guragain, Yadhu Nath; De Coninck, Joelle; Husson, Florence; Durand, Alain; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

2011-03-01

116

Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required to foster tolerance towards industrial wheat straw hydrolysates.  

PubMed

The presence of toxic compounds derived from biomass pre-treatment in fermentation media represents an important drawback in second-generation bio-ethanol production technology and overcoming this inhibitory effect is one of the fundamental challenges to its industrial production. The aim of this study was to systematically identify, in industrial medium and at a genomic scale, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for simultaneous and maximal tolerance to key inhibitors of lignocellulosic fermentations. Based on the screening of EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection, 242 and 216 determinants of tolerance to inhibitory compounds present in industrial wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) and in inhibitor-supplemented synthetic hydrolysate were identified, respectively. Genes associated to vitamin metabolism, mitochondrial and peroxisomal functions, ribosome biogenesis and microtubule biogenesis and dynamics are among the newly found determinants of WSH resistance. Moreover, PRS3, VMA8, ERG2, RAV1 and RPB4 were confirmed as key genes on yeast tolerance and fermentation of industrial WSH. PMID:25287021

Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, Miguel C; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

2014-12-01

117

Biogas production from wheat straw in batch and UASB reactors: the roles of pretreatment and seaweed hydrolysate as a co-substrate.  

PubMed

This research evaluated biogas production in batch and UASB reactors from pilot-scale acid catalysed steam pretreated and enzymatic hydrolysed wheat straw. The results showed that the pretreatment was efficient and, a sugar yield of 95% was obtained. The pretreatment improved the methane yield (0.28 m(3)/kg VS(added)) by 57% compared to untreated straw. Treatment of the straw hydrolysate with nutrient supplementation in a UASB reactor resulted in a high methane production rate, 2.70 m(3)/m(3).d at a sustainable OLR of 10.4 kg COD/m(3).d and with a COD reduction of 94%. Alternatively, co-digestion of the straw and seaweed hydrolysates in a UASB reactor also maintained a stable anaerobic process and can thus reduce the cost of nutrients addition. We have shown that biogas production from wheat straw can be competitive by pretreatment, high methane production rate in UASB reactors and also by co-digestion with seaweed hydrolysate. PMID:23196235

Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Murto, Marika

2013-01-01

118

Lignin Peroxidases, Manganese Peroxidases, and Other Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Phlebia radiata during Solid-State Fermentation of Wheat Straw  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Phlebia radiata 79 (ATCC 64658) produces lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), glyoxal oxidase (GLOX), and laccase in the commonly used glucose low-nitrogen liquid medium. However, the enzymes which this fungus utilizes for selective removal of lignin during degradation of different lignocellulosic substrates have not been studied before. Multiple forms of LiP, MnP, GLOX, and laccase were purified from P. radiata culture extracts obtained after solid-state fermentation of wheat straw. However, the patterns of extracellular lignin-modifying enzymes studied were different from those of the enzymes usually found in liquid cultures of P. radiata. Three LiP isoforms were purified. The major LiP isoform from solid-state cultivation was LiP2. LiP3, which has usually been described as the major isoenzyme in liquid cultures, was not expressed during straw fermentation. New MnP isoforms have been detected in addition to the previously reported MnPs. GLOX was secreted in rather high amounts simultaneously with LiP during the first 2 weeks of growth. GLOX purified from P. radiata showed multiple forms, with pIs ranging from 4.0 to 4.6 and with a molecular mass of ca. 68 kDa. PMID:16535139

Vares, T.; Kalsi, M.; Hatakka, A.

1995-01-01

119

Treatment of wheat straw using tannase and white-rot fungus to improve feed utilization by ruminants  

PubMed Central

Background Current research to enrich cattle feed has primarily focused on treatment using white rot fungi, while there are scarce reports using the enzyme tannase, which is discussed only in reviews or in the form of a hypothesis. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of tannase on wheat straw (WS) and also the effect of lyophilized tannase at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% (w/w) on WS followed by fermentation with Ganoderma sp. for 10 d and compared in relation to biochemical parameters, crude protein (CP) content, and nutritional value by calculating the C/N ratio in order to improve the nutritional value of cattle feed. Results Penicillium charlesii, a tannase-producing microorganism, produced 61.4 IU/mL of tannase in 54 h when 2% (w/v) tannic acid (TA) was initially used as a substrate in medium containing (% w/v) sucrose (1.0), NaNO3 (1.0), and MgSO4 (0.08 pH, 5.0) in a 300-L fermentor (working volume 220 L), and concomitantly fed with 1.0% (w/v) TA after 24 h. The yield of partially purified and lyophilized tannase was 5.8 IU/mg. The tannin-free myco-straw at 0.1% (w/w) tannase showed 37.8% (w/w) lignin degradation with only a 20.4% (w/w) decrease in cellulose content and the in vitro feed digestibility was 32.2%. An increase in CP content (up to 1.28-fold) along with a lower C/N ratio of 25.0%, as compared to myco-straw, was obtained. Conclusions The use of tannin-free myco-straw has potential to improve the nutritional content of cattle feed. This biological treatment process was safe, eco-friendly, easy to perform, and was less expensive as compared to other treatment methods. PMID:24555694

2014-01-01

120

Composition and stability of anthocyanins in blue-grained wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat grain is recognized as a good source of potentially health-enhancing components such as dietary fiber, phenolics, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Anthocyanins, another group of bioactive compounds, are found in blue and purple wheat grains. In the present study, a blue aleurone spring wheat line "Purendo 38" with relatively high content of total anthocyanins was used to investigate the composition and stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. Commercial cultivars of purple (Konini) and red (Katepwa) wheats were included in the study. Separation of anthocyanins by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that each wheat had a distinct anthocyanin profile. Four major anthocyanins were separated from blue wheat extracts as compared to five anthocyanins in purple wheat. Cyanidin 3-glucoside was the predominant anthocyanin in purple wheat, whereas it was the second major anthocyanin in blue wheat. The predominant anthocyanin in blue wheat, making up approximately 41% of the total anthocyanin content, remains to be structurally unidentified. Blue wheat anthocyanins were thermally most stable at pH 1. Their degradation was slightly lower at pH 3 as compared to pH 5. Increasing the temperature from 65 to 95 degrees C increased degradation of blue wheat anthocyanins. Addition of SO(2) during heating of blue wheat had a stabilizing effect on anthocyanin pigments. The optimal SO(2) concentrations were 500-1000 ppm for whole meals and 1000-3000 ppm for isolated anthocyanins. Further studies are underway to identify and verify individual anthocyanins in blue wheat and their potential end uses. PMID:12670152

Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre

2003-04-01

121

Structural Analysis of Wheat Straw Lignin by Quantitative 31 P and 2D NMR Spectroscopy. The Occurrence of Ester Bonds and ?-O-4 Substructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining mild alkaline hydrolysis with quantitative 31P NMR we have been able to arrive at a protocol for determining the various ester linkages and their relative contributions to the overall structure of wheat straw lignin. Additional information on the identity and location of these bonds was sought by the application of GC\\/MS and two-dimensional 13C-1H heterocorrelation NMR experiments. Milled

Claudia Crestini; Dimitris S. Argyropoulos

1997-01-01

122

Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of Urea-Treated Rice Straw Polypropylene Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw (RS) polypropylene (PP) composites were prepared in the different ratios of 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 (RS wt% : PP wt%) by extrusion moulding and hot press compression technique and investigated the mechanical properties like tensile strength (TS), bending strength (BS), impact strength (IS) and elongations at break (Eb%) of the composites. RS was soaked in the

M. Masudul Hassan; Abdul Karim; Tamanna Shabnam; Abu Hashan Bhuiyan; Mubarak A. Khan

2012-01-01

123

[Effects of no-tillage plus inter-planting and remaining straw on the field on cropland eco-environment and wheat growth].  

PubMed

The studies showed that under no-tillage plus inter-planting rice and wheat, the height of rice stubble remained on the field significantly affected light transmission rate, with an optimal height of 20-30 cm. No-tillage and straw-remaining decreased soil temperature at noon in sunny days, but slightly increased it in the morning and evening, led to a less diurnal difference of soil temperature. The average diurnal soil temperature under no-tillage was higher in cloudy but lower in sunny days. Under no-tillage and straw-remaining, both the bulk density and the penetration resistance of topsoil increased, but no apparent adverse effect of them was observed on wheat growth. Under no-tillage, soil water content was higher under drought condition, and soil permeability after irrigation was better, which was propitious to the wheat growth. Straw-remaining significantly inhibited weeds, but led to the decrease of basic seedlings and enhanced the damage of freezing. Under no-tillage plus inter-planting, the individuals of effective ears decreased, while the kilo-grain weight increased. The grain yield was slightly but not significantly low under no-tillage plus inter-planting. PMID:15852946

Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Hongcheng; Dai, Qigen; Huo, Zhongyang; Xu, Ke; Ruan, Huifang

2005-02-01

124

Effect of Silane Coupling Agents on Rice Straw Fiber/Polymer Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of coupling agents and electron beam (EB) irradiation dose on the mechanical properties of composites made from rice straw fibers and polymers have been studied. Samples were made by hot pressing of mix composition at 130°C. The pressed samples were subjected to electron beam irradiation dose ranged from 10 to 50 kGy. Increasing the electron beam irradiation dose increased the value of flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and impact strength. It was also observed that, the properties of composites containing ?-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane (A-1100) are lower than those of composites containing N-(2aminoethyl)-3-amino propyltrimethoxy silane (A-700) coupling agents. These are attributed to a hydrogen bonding formation between the amine or protonated amine and the hydroxyl groups of rice straw fibers. The presence of coupling agents in the composites during the EB irradiation process produce a more free radicals which are enough to form a chemical bonding between the rice straw fiber and polymer. The thickness swelling and water absorption values decrease with increasing the EB irradiation dose with presence of coupling agents in the composite.

Ismail, M. R.; Yassene, Ali A. M.; Abd El Bary, Hassan M. H.

2012-06-01

125

Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate  

PubMed Central

Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314. Decrease in pH because of lactic acid formation was partially adjusted by automatic addition of the alkaline substrate. After 55 h of incubation, the polymeric glucan, xylan, and arabinan present in the lime-treated straw were hydrolyzed for 55%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Lactic acid (40.7 g/l) indicated a fermentation efficiency of 81% and a chiral l(+)-lactic acid purity of 97.2%. In total, 711 g lactic acid was produced out of 2,706 g lime-treated straw, representing 43% of the overall theoretical maximum yield. Approximately half of the lactic acid produced was neutralized by fed-batch feeding of lime-treated straw, whereas the remaining half was neutralized during the batch phase with a Ca(OH)2 suspension. Of the lime added during the pretreatment of straw, 61% was used for the neutralization of lactic acid. This is the first demonstration of a process having a combined alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and pH control in fermentation resulting in a significant saving of lime consumption and avoiding the necessity to recycle lime. PMID:18247027

Maas, Ronald H. W.; Bakker, Robert R.; Jansen, Mickel L. A.; Visser, Diana; de Jong, Ed; Eggink, Gerrit

2008-01-01

126

NO formation during agricultural straw combustion.  

PubMed

NO formation during combustion of four typical kinds of straw (wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and corn stalk) which belong to soft straw and hard straw was studied in a tubular quartz fixed bed reactor under conditions relevant to grate boiler combustion. Regarding the real situation in biomass fired power plants in China, NO formation from blended straw combustion was also investigated. Nitrogen transfer during blended straw pyrolysis was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results show that NO conversion for the four straws during combustion is distinctive. Over 70% fuel-N converts into NO for cotton stalk, while only 37% for wheat straw under the same condition. When wheat straw and cotton stalk were mixed, N-NO conversion increases. The limestone addition promotes NO emission during cotton stalk combustion. The presence of SO(2) in atmosphere suppresses NO formation from straw combustion. PMID:21592786

Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Xiaoping

2011-07-01

127

Possibility of using waste tire composites reinforced with rice straw as construction materials.  

PubMed

Agricultural lignocellulosic fiber (rice straw)-waste tire particle composite boards were manufactured for use as insulation boards in construction, using the same method as that used in the wood-based panel industry. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.8 and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of rice straw/waste tire particle). A commercial polyurethane adhesive for rubber was used as the composite binder. The water proof, water absorption and thickness swelling properties of the composite boards were better than those of wood particleboard. Furthermore, the flexibility and flexural properties of the composite boards were superior to those of other wood-based panel products. The composite boards also demonstrated good acoustical insulation, electrical insulation, anti-caustic and anti-rot properties. These boards can be used to prevent impact damage, are easily modifiable and are inexpensive. They are able to be used as a substitute for insulation boards and other flexural materials in construction. PMID:15207296

Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Kang, Chun-Won

2004-10-01

128

[Capability and stability of degrading rice straw of composite microbial system MC1].  

PubMed

The capability of degrading rice straw of lignocellulolytic composite microbial system MC1 was investigated under different methods of preservation and temperatures treatments of 80 degrees C to 95 degrees C, and stability of composite microbial system MC1 was studied through the method of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The results indicate that the rice straw of 2% dry weight of medium can be degraded completely at 50 degrees C within 10 days under static culture. After 9 days inoculating MC1, the dry weight of rice straw, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content was degraded by 81% , 99%, 74% and 51%, respectively. Capability of cellulose degrading and stability of composite microbial system MC1 is sustained under 4 years of continuing subculture, 4 years of dry preservation at room temperature, 4 years of preservation at - 20 degrees C, 1 year of liquid preservation at room temperature and at 4 degrees C, and treatment of 90 degrees C for 30 min, respectively. Plate culture results show that composite microbial system MC1 are consisted of bacteria. The main DNA bands are not changed by the method of 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE after culture of six months so that microbial composition of MC1 is very stable. PMID:16366490

Wang, Wei-Dong; Cui, Zong-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Niu, Jun-Ling; Liu, Jian-Bin; Igarashi, Yasuo

2005-09-01

129

Yield and nutritional content of Pleurotus sajor caju on wheat straw supplemented with raw and detoxified mahua cake.  

PubMed

The effect of supplementation of wheat straw (WS) with raw/detoxified mahua cake (MC) on yield and nutritional quality of Pleurotus sajor caju was studied. Raw cake significantly enhanced the yield compared to control and could be tolerated up to a 10% addition. Detoxification further improved the mushroom yield giving a maximum of 1024.7 g kg(-1) from WS supplemented with 20% saponin free detoxified mahua cake. Chemical analysis of fruit bodies revealed that they are rich in proteins (27.4-34.8%), soluble sugars (28.6-32.2%) and minerals. Glucose, trehalose and glutamic acid, alanine were the major sugars and amino acids detected by HPLC analysis, respectively. HPLC studies further confirmed the absence of saponins (characteristic toxins present in MC) in both fruit bodies and spent. Degradation of complex molecules in spent was monitored via FTIR. The study proved beneficial for effective management of agricultural wastes along with production of nutrient rich and saponin free fruit bodies/spent. PMID:23993610

Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh

2013-12-15

130

Synergistic effect of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei enzyme sets on the saccharification of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Plant-degrading enzymes can be produced by fungi on abundantly available low-cost plant biomass. However, enzymes sets after growth on complex substrates need to be better understood, especially with emphasis on differences between fungal species and the influence of inhibitory compounds in plant substrates, such as monosaccharides. In this study, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were evaluated for the production of enzyme sets after growth on two "second generation" substrates: wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). A. niger and T. reesei produced different sets of (hemi-)cellulolytic enzymes after growth on WS and SCB. This was reflected in an overall strong synergistic effect in releasing sugars during saccharification using A. niger and T. reesei enzyme sets. T. reesei produced less hydrolytic enzymes after growth on non-washed SCB. The sensitivity to non-washed plant substrates was not reduced by using CreA/Cre1 mutants of T. reesei and A. niger with a defective carbon catabolite repression. The importance of removing monosaccharides for producing enzymes was further underlined by the decrease in hydrolytic activities with increased glucose concentrations in WS media. This study showed the importance of removing monosaccharides from the enzyme production media and combining T. reesei and A. niger enzyme sets to improve plant biomass saccharification. PMID:25116172

van den Brink, Joost; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Zou, Gen; Wang, Chengshu; Zhou, Zhihua; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze; de Vries, Ronald P

2014-10-01

131

Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g/L) and hexoses (4.9 g/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia lipolytica, were evaluated by using this hydrolysate as substrates. The results showed that all of these strains could use the detoxified hydrolysate to produce lipids while except R. toruloides non-detoxified hydrolysate could also be used for the growth of all of the selective yeast strains. C. curvatus showed the highest lipid concentrations in medium on both the detoxified (4.2g/L) and non-detoxified (5.8 g/L) hydrolysates. And the inhibitory effect studies on C. curvatus indicated HMF had insignificant impacts at a concentration of up to 3g/L while furfural inhibited cell growth and lipid content by 72.0% and 62.0% at 1g/L, respectively. Our work demonstrates that lipid production is a promising alternative to utilize hemicellulosic sugars obtained during pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21463940

Yu, Xiaochen; Zheng, Yubin; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Chen, Shulin

2011-05-01

132

Response of Fumaric Acid Addition on Methanogenesis, Rumen Fermentation, and Dry Matter Degradability in Diets Containing Wheat Straw and Sorghum or Berseem as Roughage Source  

PubMed Central

An in vitro incubation system was used to evaluate effect of supplementation of fumaric acid at 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM concentration in high-, medium-, and low-fiber wheat straw containing total mixed diets with sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on rumen fermentation, methane production, and gas kinetics parameters. Three types of diets were prepared with different roughage and concentrate ratio (80?:?20, 50?:?50, and 20?:?80) by taking the representative samples. The roughage part composed of wheat straw (70?parts) and sorghum (30?parts) or berseem (30?parts) and the concentrate part composed of maize (33%), GNC (21%), mustard cake (12%), wheat bran (20%), deoiled rice bran (11%), mineral mixture (2%), and salt (1%). Fumaric acid was added in incubation medium to achieve final concentration of 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM. All the treatment combinations were arranged in 4 × 3 factorial designs with three replicates. It was concluded from the study that fumaric acid addition (5–15?mM) in diets varying in roughage to concentrate ratio significantly (P ? 0.05) reduced the methane production without affecting dry matter digestibility and maximum reduction was noticed at 5?mM concentration. PMID:23738126

Sirohi, S. K.; Pandey, Poonam; Goel, Navneet

2012-01-01

133

Response of fumaric Acid addition on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, and dry matter degradability in diets containing wheat straw and sorghum or berseem as roughage source.  

PubMed

An in vitro incubation system was used to evaluate effect of supplementation of fumaric acid at 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM concentration in high-, medium-, and low-fiber wheat straw containing total mixed diets with sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on rumen fermentation, methane production, and gas kinetics parameters. Three types of diets were prepared with different roughage and concentrate ratio (80?:?20, 50?:?50, and 20?:?80) by taking the representative samples. The roughage part composed of wheat straw (70?parts) and sorghum (30?parts) or berseem (30?parts) and the concentrate part composed of maize (33%), GNC (21%), mustard cake (12%), wheat bran (20%), deoiled rice bran (11%), mineral mixture (2%), and salt (1%). Fumaric acid was added in incubation medium to achieve final concentration of 0, 5, 10, and 15?mM. All the treatment combinations were arranged in 4 × 3 factorial designs with three replicates. It was concluded from the study that fumaric acid addition (5-15?mM) in diets varying in roughage to concentrate ratio significantly (P ? 0.05) reduced the methane production without affecting dry matter digestibility and maximum reduction was noticed at 5?mM concentration. PMID:23738126

Sirohi, S K; Pandey, Poonam; Goel, Navneet

2012-01-01

134

Fungicide Effects on Fungal Community Composition in the Wheat Phyllosphere  

PubMed Central

The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied. PMID:25369054

Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

2014-01-01

135

Improving simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of pretreated wheat straw using both enzyme and substrate feeding  

PubMed Central

Background Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) has been recognized as a feasible option for ethanol production from xylose-rich lignocellulosic materials. To reach high ethanol concentration in the broth, a high content of water-insoluble solids (WIS) is needed, which creates mixing problems and, furthermore, may decrease xylose uptake. Feeding of substrate has already been proven to give a higher xylose conversion than a batch SSCF. In the current work, enzyme feeding, in addition to substrate feeding, was investigated as a means of enabling a higher WIS content with a high xylose conversion in SSCF of a xylose-rich material. A recombinant xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (TMB3400) was used for this purpose in fed-batch SSCF experiments of steam-pretreated wheat straw. Results By using both enzyme and substrate feeding, the xylose conversion in SSCF could be increased from 40% to 50% in comparison to substrate feeding only. In addition, by this design of the feeding strategy, it was possible to process a WIS content corresponding to 11% in SSCF and obtain an ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.35 g g-1. Conclusion A combination of enzyme and substrate feeding was shown to enhance xylose uptake by yeast and increase overall ethanol yield in SSCF. This is conceptually important for the design of novel SSCF processes aiming at high-ethanol titers. Substrate feeding prevents viscosity from becoming too high and thereby allows a higher total amount of WIS to be added in the process. The enzyme feeding, furthermore, enables keeping the glucose concentration low, which kinetically favors xylose uptake and results in a higher xylose conversion. PMID:20678195

2010-01-01

136

Characterization of a cellulase-free, neutral xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus CBS 288.54 and its biobleaching effect on wheat straw pulp.  

PubMed

A xylanase purified from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus CBS 288.54 was characterized and its potential application in wheat straw pulp biobleaching was evaluated. Xylanase was purified 33.6-fold to homogeneity with a recovery yield of 21.5%. It appeared as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE gel with a molecular mass of approx. 26.2 kDa. The purified xylanase had a neutral optimum pH ranging from pH 7.0 to pH 7.5, and it was also stable over pH 6.5-10.0. The optimal temperature of the xylanase was 70-75 degrees C and it was stable up to 65 degrees C. The purified xylanase was found to be not glycosylated. The xylanase was highly specific towards xylan, but did not exhibit other enzyme activity. Apparent Km values of the xylanase for birchwood, beechwood, soluble oat-spelt and insoluble oat-spelt xylans were 4.0, 4.7, 2.0 and 23.4 mg ml-1, respectively. The potential application of the xylanase was further evaluated in biobleaching of wheat straw pulp. The brightness of bleached pulps from the xylanase pretreated wheat straw pulp was 1.8-7.79% ISO higher than that of the control, and showed slightly lower tensile index and breaking length than the control. Although chlorine consumption was reduced by 28.3% during bleaching, the xylanase pretreated pulp (15 U g-1 pulp) still maintained its brightness at the control level. Besides, pretreatment of pulp with the xylanase was also effective at an alkaline pH as high as pH 10.0. PMID:15792585

Li, X T; Jiang, Z Q; Li, L T; Yang, S Q; Feng, W Y; Fan, J Y; Kusakabe, I

2005-08-01

137

Effects of green liquor pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.  

PubMed

Green liquor (Na2S+Na2CO3, GL) pretreatment is a proven pathway to improve the enzymatic saccharification for the production of bioethanol. In this work, the effects of GL pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw at various total titratable alkali (TTA) charge and temperature were investigated. The GL pretreatment showed excellent performance in high polysaccharides retention and delignification selectivity. Under the optimized GL pretreatment condition (4% TTA charge, 20% sulfidity and 140°C), 92.5% of glucan, 82.4% of xylan and 81.6% of arabinan in rice straw were recovered with a delignification of 39.4%. The maximum sugar yields of 83.9%, 69.6% and 78.0%, respectively for glucan, xylan and total sugar, were achieved at the same GL pretreatment condition with an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate. The results suggested that GL pretreatment is a practicable method for rice straw to enhance enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production. PMID:24128400

Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

2013-12-01

138

Impact of steam explosion on the wheat straw lignin structure studied by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance and density functional methods.  

PubMed

Chemical changes of lignin induced by the steam explosion (SE) process were elucidated. Wheat straw was studied as the raw material, and lignins were isolated by the enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) procedure before and after the SE treatment for analyses mainly by two-dimensional (2D) [heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)] and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The ?-O-4 structures were found to be homolytically cleaved, followed by recoupling to ?-5 linkages. The homolytic cleavage/recoupling reactions were also studied by computational methods, which verified their thermodynamic feasibility. The presence of the tricin bound to wheat straw lignin was confirmed, and it was shown to participate in lignin reactions during the SE treatment. The preferred homolytic ?-O-4 cleavage reaction was calculated to follow bond dissociation energies: G-O-G (guaiacyl) (69.7 kcal/mol) > G-O-S (syringyl) (68.4 kcal/mol) > G-O-T (tricin) (67.0 kcal/mol). PMID:25290760

Heikkinen, Harri; Elder, Thomas; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rovio, Stella; Rahikainen, Jenni; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja

2014-10-29

139

Characterization of a Novel Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP)-Type Enzyme from Irpex lacteus and Its Application in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw  

PubMed Central

Irpex lacteus is a white rot basidiomycete proposed for a wide spectrum of biotechnological applications which presents an interesting, but still scarcely known, enzymatic oxidative system. Among these enzymes, the production, purification, and identification of a new dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type enzyme, as well as its physico-chemical, spectroscopic, and catalytic properties, are described in the current work. According to its N-terminal sequence and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses, I. lacteus DyP showed high homology (>95%) with the hypothetical (not isolated or characterized) protein cpop21 from an unidentified species of the family Polyporaceae. The enzyme had a low optimal pH, was very stable to acid pH and temperature, and showed improved activity and stability at high H2O2 concentrations compared to other peroxidases. Other attractive features of I. lacteus DyP were its high catalytic efficiency oxidizing the recalcitrant anthraquinone and azo dyes assayed (kcat/Km of 1.6 × 106 s-1 M-1) and its ability to oxidize nonphenolic aromatic compounds like veratryl alcohol. In addition, the effect of this DyP during the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw was checked. The results suggest that I. lacteus DyP displayed a synergistic action with cellulases during the hydrolysis of wheat straw, increasing significantly the fermentable glucose recoveries from this substrate. These data show a promising biotechnological potential for this enzyme. PMID:23666335

Salvachua, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia

2013-01-01

140

Effects of Wheat Bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) Infestation in Preharvest Period on Wheat Technological Quality and Gluten Composition  

PubMed Central

The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75?kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing. PMID:24550692

Torbica, Aleksandra M.; Mastilovic, Jasna S.; Pojic, Milica M.; Kevresan, Zarko S.

2014-01-01

141

Stress-induced changes in wheat grain composition and quality.  

PubMed

Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, waterlogging, and high temperature cause a myriad of changes in the metabolism of plants, and there is a lot of overlap in these changes in plants in response to different stresses such as drought and salinity. These stress-induced metabolic changes cause impaired crop growth thereby resulting in poor yield. The metabolic changes taking place in several plant species due to a particular abiotic stress have been revealed from the whole plant to the molecular level by researchers, but most studies have focused on organs such as leaf, stem, and root. Information on such stress-induced changes in seed or grains is infrequent in the literature. From the information that is available, it is now evident that abiotic stress can induce considerable changes in the composition and quality of cereal grains including those of wheat, the premier staple food crop in the world. Thus, the present review discusses how far different types of stresses, mainly salinity, drought, high temperature, and waterlogging, can alter the wheat grain composition and quality. By fully uncovering the stress-induced changes in the nutritional values of wheat grains it would be possible to establish whether balanced supplies of essential nutrients are available to the human population from the wheat crop grown on stress-affected areas. PMID:24580559

Ashraf, M

2014-01-01

142

Sugarcane biomass for biorefineries: comparative composition of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components of bagasse and straw.  

PubMed

Two fractions of sugarcane, namely bagasse and straw (or trash), were characterized in relation to their chemical composition. Bagasse presented values of glucans, hemicelluloses, lignin and ash of 37.74, 27.23, 20.57 and 6.53%, respectively, while straw had 33.77, 27.38, 21.28 and 6.23% of these same components. Ash content was relatively high in both cane biomass fractions. Bagasse showed higher levels of contaminating oxides while straw had a higher content of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides. A comparison between the polysaccharide chemical compositions of these lignocellulosic materials suggests that similar amounts of fermentable sugars are expected to arise from their optimal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Details about the chemical properties of cane biomass holocellulose, hemicelluloses A and B and ?-cellulose are provided, and these may offer a good opportunity for designing more efficient enzyme cocktails for substrate saccharification. PMID:25263869

Szczerbowski, Danielle; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Zandoná Filho, Arion; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

2014-12-19

143

Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.  

PubMed

This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. PMID:24440253

Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

2014-03-01

144

Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion  

PubMed Central

Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight) is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52%) in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (in)organic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane), whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion), yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per kilogram (dry basis). PMID:18699996

Maas, Ronald HW; Bakker, Robert R; Boersma, Arjen R; Bisschops, Iemke; Pels, Jan R; de Jong, Ed; Weusthuis, Ruud A; Reith, Hans

2008-01-01

145

Biogas Potential of Manure and Straw Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw or manure or both were converted to a methane-rich gas mixture. Anaerobic biomethane production is an effective process for conversion of a broad variety of lignocellulosic materials to methane to substitute natural gas and medium calorific value gases. Methane generating bacteria (methanogens) and other microbes help digest dying plants in anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions. Wheat straw wastes represent

Ayhan Demirbas

2006-01-01

146

Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.  

PubMed

The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p?wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

2014-09-01

147

Growth, carcass yield and meat quality attributes of Red Maasai sheep fed wheat straw-based diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two castrated Red Maasai sheep (12.7 kg initial body weight, aged 12–18 months), were used in an 84-day experiment\\u000a to evaluate diets based on treated straw upon growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality. The animals were blocked\\u000a by weight into four similar groups and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with eight individually fed animals\\u000a per treatment. The dietary treatments were

John G. Safari; Daniel E. Mushi; Louis A. Mtenga; George C. Kifaro; Lars O. Eik

2011-01-01

148

Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

149

The kinetics of inhibitor production resulting from hydrothermal deconstruction of wheat straw studied using a pressurised microwave reactor  

PubMed Central

Background The use of a microwave synthesis reactor has allowed kinetic data for the hydrothermal reactions of straw biomass to be established from short times, avoiding corrections required for slow heating in conventional reactors, or two-step heating. Access to realistic kinetic data is important for predictions of optimal reaction conditions for the pretreatment of biomass for bioethanol processes, which is required to minimise production of inhibitory compounds and to maximise sugar and ethanol yields. Results The gravimetric loss through solubilisation of straw provided a global measure of the extent of hydrothermal deconstruction. The kinetic profiles of furan and lignin-derived inhibitors were determined in the hydrothermal hydrolysates by UV analysis, with concentrations of formic and acetic acid determined by HPLC. Kinetic analyses were either carried out by direct fitting to simple first order equations or by numerical integration of sequential reactions. Conclusions A classical Arrhenius activation energy of 148 kJmol?1 has been determined for primary solubilisation, which is higher than the activation energy associated with historical measures of reaction severity. The gravimetric loss is primarily due to depolymerisation of the hemicellulose component of straw, but a minor proportion of lignin is solubilised at the same rate and hence may be associated with the more hydrophilic lignin-hemicellulose interface. Acetic acid is liberated primarily from hydrolysis of pendant acetate groups on hemicellulose, although this occurs at a rate that is too slow to provide catalytic enhancement to the primary solubilisation reactions. However, the increase in protons may enhance secondary reactions leading to the production of furans and formic acid. The work has suggested that formic acid may be formed under these hydrothermal conditions via direct reaction of sugar end groups rather than furan breakdown. However, furan degradation is found to be significant, which may limit ultimate quantities generated in hydrolysate liquors. PMID:24678822

2014-01-01

150

List of publications 1. Sun, L., Mller, B. and Schnrer, A. (2013) Biogas production from wheat straw community  

E-print Network

List of publications 1. Sun, L., Müller, B. and Schnürer, A. (2013) Biogas production from wheat biogas digesters. Biores. Technol. 132, 327­332 4. Manzoor, S., Müller, B., Niazi A., Bongcam-Rudloff E of syntrophic acetate- oxidising culture in biogas reactors exposed to increasing levels of ammonia. Applied

151

Fed-batch SSCF using steam-exploded wheat straw at high dry matter consistencies and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain: effect of laccase supplementation  

PubMed Central

Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol is expected to play an important role in fossil fuel replacement in the short term. Process integration, improvements in water economy, and increased ethanol titers are key considerations for cost-effective large-scale production. The use of whole steam-pretreated slurries under high dry matter (DM) conditions and conversion of all fermentable sugars offer promising alternatives to achieve these goals. Results Wheat straw slurry obtained from steam explosion showed high concentrations of degradation compounds, hindering the fermentation performance of the evolved xylose-recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE6-12 strain. Fermentability tests using the liquid fraction showed a higher number of colony-forming units (CFU) and higher xylose consumption rates when treating the medium with laccase. During batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) processes, cell growth was totally inhibited at 12% DM (w/v) in untreated slurries. However, under these conditions laccase treatment prior to addition of yeast reduced the total phenolic content of the slurry and enabled the fermentation. During this process, an ethanol concentration of 19 g/L was obtained, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 39% of the theoretical yield. By changing the operation from batch mode to fed-batch mode, the concentration of inhibitors at the start of the process was reduced and 8 g/L of ethanol were obtained in untreated slurries with a final consistency of 16% DM (w/v). When fed-batch SSCF medium was supplemented with laccase 33 hours after yeast inoculation, no effect on ethanol yield or cell viability was found compared to untreated fermentations. However, if the laccase supplementation (21 hours after yeast inoculation) took place before the first addition of substrate (at 25 hours), improved cell viability and an increased ethanol titer of up to 32 g/L (51% of the theoretical) were found. Conclusions Laccase treatment in SSCF processes reduces the inhibitory effect that degradation compounds have on the fermenting microorganism. Furthermore, in combination with fed-batch operational mode, laccase supplementation allows the fermentation of wheat straw slurry at high DM consistencies, improving final ethanol concentrations and yields. PMID:24219973

2013-01-01

152

Impact of steam explosion on biogas production from rape straw in relation to changes in chemical composition.  

PubMed

An 81day trial compared the cumulative production of methane from rape straw pre-treated by steam explosion at 15 levels of severity. The final methane yields were similar. The temporal variation in production rate exhibited two peaks: maximum production occurred in the first peak at around 21days with heights that increased with severity; the height of the second peak reduced with severity and peaked between 32 and 36days. Changes in the straw composition were investigated using mid-infrared spectroscopy. These were also strongly related to the degree of severity, allowing good predictive models to be built of severity and subsequently the rate of methane production. The main spectral changes showed the degradation of cellulose and xylose-containing hemicelluloses and production of furfural-like components commonly associated with biomass pre-treatments. Only small changes to lignin were associated with increased methane generation suggesting a structural rather than chemical role in this process. PMID:22947446

Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Ryden, Peter; Horn, Svein J; Tapp, Henri S; Wellner, Nikolaus; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Waldron, Keith W

2012-11-01

153

Improving the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by laccase during ethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw at high-substrate loadings.  

PubMed

Operating the saccharification and fermentation processes at high-substrate loadings is a key factor for making ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass economically viable. However, increasing the substrate loading presents some disadvantages, including a higher concentration of inhibitors (furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds) in the media, which negatively affect the fermentation performance. One strategy to eliminate soluble inhibitors is filtering and washing the pretreated material. In this study, it was observed that even if the material was previously washed, inhibitory compounds were released during the enzymatic hydrolysis step. Laccase enzymatic treatment was evaluated as a method to reduce these inhibitory effects. The laccase efficiency was analyzed in a presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process at high-substrate loadings. Water-insoluble solids fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermenting microorganism. Laccase supplementation reduced strongly the phenolic content in the media, without affecting weak acids and furan derivatives. This strategy resulted in an improved yeast performance during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, increasing significantly ethanol productivity. PMID:23143932

Alvira, Pablo; Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

2013-01-01

154

Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.  

PubMed

The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

2013-09-01

155

Straw Kazoo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make some music by constructing a kazoo out of a simple plastic drinking straw. Use this activity to explore sound, vibrations, and music. Learners can experiment with pitch by modifying the length of the straw.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

156

Decomposition of straw from herbage seed production: Effects of species, nutrient amendment and straw placement on C and N net mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market for cereal cover crop straw and herbage seed straw has diminished in many seed-production areas due to there being less livestock. Seed growers therefore want to chop and return the straw both in the sowing year and in the seed-harvest years. The objectives of this research were (1) to compare decomposition rates of straw of barley and wheat

Lars T. Havstad; Trygve S. Aamlid; Trond M. Henriksen

2010-01-01

157

Thermostable recombinant xylanases from Nonomuraea flexuosa and Thermoascus aurantiacus show distinct properties in the hydrolysis of xylans and pretreated wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Background In the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, thermostable enzymes decrease the amount of enzyme needed due to higher specific activity and elongate the hydrolysis time due to improved stability. For cost-efficient use of enzymes in large-scale industrial applications, high-level expression of enzymes in recombinant hosts is usually a prerequisite. The main aim of the present study was to compare the biochemical and hydrolytic properties of two thermostable recombinant glycosyl hydrolase families 10 and 11 (GH10 and GH11, respectively) xylanases with respect to their potential application in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates. Results The xylanases from Nonomuraea flexuosa (Nf Xyn11A) and from Thermoascus aurantiacus (Ta Xyn10A) were purified by heat treatment and gel permeation chromatography. Ta Xyn10A exhibited higher hydrolytic efficiency than Nf Xyn11A toward birchwood glucuronoxylan, insoluble oat spelt arabinoxylan and hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, and it produced more reducing sugars. Oligosaccharides from xylobiose to xylopentaose as well as higher degree of polymerization (DP) xylooligosaccharides (XOSs), but not xylose, were released during the initial hydrolysis of xylans by Nf Xyn11A, indicating its potential for the production of XOS. The mode of action of Nf Xyn11A and Ta Xyn10A on glucuronoxylan and arabinoxylan showed typical production patterns of endoxylanases belonging to GH11 and GH10, respectively. Conclusions Because of its high catalytic activity and good thermostability, T. aurantiacus xylanase shows great potential for applications aimed at total hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for platform sugars, whereas N. flexuosa xylanase shows more significant potential for the production of XOSs. PMID:21592333

2011-01-01

158

Heterologous production of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina and their effect on saccharification of wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular glycosylated haemoflavoenzymes produced by many different wood-degrading and phytopathogenic fungi. Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase genes are recurrently discovered by genome sequencing projects in various phylogenetically distinct fungi. The genomes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina were screened for candidate cdh genes, and one and three putative gene models were evidenced, respectively. Two putative cdh genes were selected and successfully expressed for the first time in Aspergillus niger. CDH activity was measured for both constructions (CDHcc and CDHpa), and both recombinant CDHs were purified to homogeneity and subsequently characterised. Kinetic constants were determined for several carbohydrates including ?-1,4-linked di- and oligosaccharides. Optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 5 for CDHcc and 65-70 °C and 6 for CDHpa. Both CDHs showed a broad range of pH stability between 4 and 8. The effect of both CDHs on saccharification of micronized wheat straw by an industrial Trichoderma reesei secretome was determined. The addition of each CDH systematically decreased the release of total reducing sugars, but to different extents and according to the CDH concentration. Analytical methods were carried out to quantify the release of glucose, xylose and gluconic acid. An increase of glucose and xylose was measured at a low CDHcc concentration. At moderated and high CDHcc and CDHpa concentrations, glucose was severely reduced with a concomitant increase of gluconic acid. In conclusion, these results give new insights into the physical and chemical parameters and diversity of basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDHs. These findings also demonstrated that CDH drastically influenced the saccharification on a natural substrate, and thus, CDH origin, concentration and potential enzymatic partners should be carefully considered in future artificial secretomes for biofuel applications. PMID:22940800

Turbe-Doan, Annick; Arfi, Yonathan; Record, Eric; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Levasseur, Anthony

2013-06-01

159

Fatty acids composition and rheology properties of wheat and wheat and white or brown rice flour mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing of bread from rice flour only presents technological difficulty because the rice is gluten-free and gluten is\\u000a the most important structure forming protein. By using wheat and rice flour mixture, this problem can be avoided, and end\\u000a product is enriched by rice-oil constituents. In this paper fatty acids composition, with an emphasis on total saturated,\\u000a and total unsaturated fatty

Nada Nikoli?; Niko Radulovi?; Goran Nikoli?; Miodrag Lazi?; Zoran Todorovic

2008-01-01

160

Degradation of lignocelluloses in rice straw by BMC-9, a composite microbial system.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential utility of pretreatment of raw biomass with a complex microbial system, we investigated the degradation of rice straw by BMC-9, a lignocellulose decomposition strain obtained from a biogas slurry compost environment. The degradation characteristics and corresponding changes in the bacterial community were assessed. The results showed that rapid degradation occurred from day 0 to day 9, with a peak total biomass bacterium concentration of 3.3 × 10(8) copies/ml on day 1. The pH of the fermentation broth declined initially and then increased, and the mass of rice straw decreased steadily. The highest concentrations of volatile fatty acid contents (0.291 mg/l lactic acid, 0.31 mg/l formic acid, 1.93 mg/l acetic acid, and 0.73 mg/l propionic acid) as well as the highest xylanse activity (1.79 U/ml) and carboxymethyl cellulase activity (0.37 U/ml) occurred on day 9. The greatest diversity among the microbial community also occurred on day 9, with the presence of bacteria belonging to Clostridium sp., Bacillus sp., and Geobacillus sp. Together, our results indicate that BMC-9 has a strong ability to rapidly degrade the lignocelluloses of rice straw under relatively inexpensive conditions, and the optimum fermentation time is 9 days. PMID:24548929

Zhao, Hongyan; Yu, Hairu; Yuan, Xufeng; Piao, Renzhe; Li, Hulin; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

2014-05-01

161

A GC-MS study of the volatile organic composition of straw and oyster mushrooms during maturity and its relation to antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are very popular in the market for their nutritional and medicinal use. Mushroom volatiles are not only an important factor in the flavor, but also contain many antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity is a very important property for disease prevention. The volatile compositional characteristics of straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea [Bull. ex Fr.] Sing.) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus [Jacq. ex Fr.] Kummer) during maturity and the mushroom antioxidant activity related to the non-volatiles and volatiles are studied by a chromatographic method in combination with a spectrophotometric method. The volatile compounds of straw and oyster mushrooms are sampled and identified by a combination sampling method, including headspace solid phase microextraction and steam distillation, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Among all the volatile compounds identified, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone are the two main compounds with the highest amounts in the volatile compositions of straw and oyster mushrooms. During maturity time of the straw mushrooms, the unsaturated 1-octen-3-ol peak area is reduced, whereas the saturated 3-octanone peak area is increased. However, during normal maturity time of oyster mushrooms, the peak areas of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone remain at the same level. 1-Octen-3-ol has a different antioxidant activity from 3-octanone. Combining the results of antioxidant experiments of water extract and main volatile components by the use of a phosphomolybdenum spectrophotometric method, the conclusion is drawn that oyster mushrooms might possess stronger antioxidant activities than straw mushrooms. PMID:18796224

Zhang, Zhuo-Min; Wu, Wen-Wei; Li, Gong-Ke

2008-09-01

162

Variation in endosperm protein composition and technological quality properties in durum wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durum wheat quality is controlled by endosperm protein content and composition. Electrophoretic, protein content and SDS sedimentation\\u000a analyses were carried out on a large collection of accessions of durum wheat from Turkey, and compared with Italian cultivars.\\u000a A number of patterns were detected, resulting from the combination of different alleles at genomes A and B, and new allelic\\u000a variants were

E. Porceddu; T. Turchetta; S. Masci; R. D'Ovidio; D. Lafiandra; D. D. Kasarda; A. Impiglia; M. M. Nachit

1998-01-01

163

Changes in weed composition of winter wheat crops due to long-term fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various fertilization levels on weed species composition and aboveground biomass were investigated in experimental plots of winter wheat established 14 years ago in Fengqiu, China. The treatments examined influenced weeds growth, the effects differing much between weed species. Arenaria serpyllifolia, Chorispora tenella, Erysimum cheiranthoides, and Veronica persica were best adapted either to N-, P-, K-deficiency or balanced

Lichu Yin; Zucong Cai; Wenhui Zhong

2005-01-01

164

Cell-wall architecture and lignin composition of wheat developed in a microgravity environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microgravity environment encountered during space-flight has long been considered to affect plant growth and developmental processes, including cell wall biopolymer composition and content. As a prelude to studying how microgravity is perceived — and acted upon — by plants, it was first instructive to investigate what gross effects on plant growth and development occurred in microgravity. Thus, wheat seedlings were exposed

Lanfang H Levine; A. Gerard Heyenga; Howard G Levine; Joon-Weon Choi; Laurence B Davin; Abraham D Krikorian; Norman G Lewis

2001-01-01

165

Process intensification through microbial strain evolution: mixed glucose-xylose fermentation in wheat straw hydrolyzates by three generations of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Lignocellulose hydrolyzates present difficult substrates for ethanol production by the most commonly applied microorganism in the fermentation industries, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High resistance towards inhibitors released during pretreatment and hydrolysis of the feedstock as well as efficient utilization of hexose and pentose sugars constitute major challenges in the development of S. cerevisiae strains for biomass-to-ethanol processes. Metabolic engineering and laboratory evolution are applied, alone and in combination, to adduce desired strain properties. However, physiological requirements for robust performance of S. cerevisiae in the conversion of lignocellulose hydrolyzates are not well understood. The herein presented S. cerevisiae strains IBB10A02 and IBB10B05 are descendants of strain BP10001, which was previously derived from the widely used strain CEN.PK 113-5D through introduction of a largely redox-neutral oxidoreductive xylose assimilation pathway. The IBB strains were obtained by a two-step laboratory evolution that selected for fast xylose fermentation in combination with anaerobic growth before (IBB10A02) and after adaption in repeated xylose fermentations (IBB10B05). Enzymatic hydrolyzates were prepared from up to 15% dry mass pretreated (steam explosion) wheat straw and contained glucose and xylose in a mass ratio of approximately 2. Results With all strains, yield coefficients based on total sugar consumed were high for ethanol (0.39 to 0.40 g/g) and notably low for fermentation by-products (glycerol: ?0.10 g/g; xylitol: ?0.08 g/g; acetate: 0.04 g/g). In contrast to the specific glucose utilization rate that was similar for all strains (qGlucose???2.9 g/gcell dry weight (CDW)/h), the xylose consumption rate was enhanced by a factor of 11.5 (IBB10A02; qXylose?=?0.23 g/gCDW/h) and 17.5 (IBB10B05; qXylose?=?0.35 g/gCDW/h) as compared to the qXylose of the non-evolved strain BP10001. In xylose-supplemented (50 g/L) hydrolyzates prepared from 5% dry mass, strain IBB10B05 displayed a qXylose of 0.71 g/gCDW/h and depleted xylose in 2 days with an ethanol yield of 0.30 g/g. Under the conditions used, IBB10B05 was also capable of slow anaerobic growth. Conclusions Laboratory evolution of strain BP10001 resulted in effectively enhanced qXylose at almost complete retention of the fermentation capabilities previously acquired by metabolic engineering. Strain IBB10B05 is a sturdy candidate for intensification of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol processes. PMID:24708666

2014-01-01

166

Effects of prepartum controlled-energy wheat straw and grass hay diets supplemented with starch or sugar on periparturient dairy cow performance and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of a forage source [wheat straw (WS) versus grass hay (GH)] prepartum and supplemental carbohydrate source [corn (dry feed; DF) versus molasses (liquid feed; LF)] on pre- and postpartum intake, digestibility, selective particle consumption, milk yield, and lipid metabolism. The objectives were to determine if forage or pre- and postpartum supplement alters periparturient intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Sixty (n=15) multiparous dairy cows were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare WS versus GH diets supplemented with either DF or LF. Dietary treatments were (1) WS prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (WSDF), 2) WS prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (WSLF), (3) GH prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (GHDF), and (4) GH prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (GHLF). Treatments began at dry-off, × before expected calving. During the prepartum phase, cows maintained dry matter intake (DMI) at 2.0% of body weight and prepartum energy balance remained positive for all treatments until calving. Prepartum GH diets had a more positive energy balance compared with WS diets. On week -5, energy balance was more positive for GHDF than for WSDF or GHLF. Energy balance for WSLF, however, was lower on week -3 and -1 than GHDF. Liquid feed decreased dry matter digestibility and increased prepartum liver triglyceride, serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and tended to increase ?-hydroxybutyrate. After calving, LF decreased DMI and energy balance, but not yield of milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk, resulting in greater feed efficiency compared with DF. Forage did not affect postpartum DMI, but milk yield tended to be higher for WS versus GH. The DMI expressed as percentage of body weight was not affected by supplement or prepartum forage type. Cows fed WS had lower serum NEFA, higher liver glycogen, and tended to have a lower triglyceride to glycogen ratio postpartum than GH. Serum NEFA peaked on d 14 for all treatments and then declined thereafter. In postpartum diets, more particles were retained on the top screen for LF (>19.0mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator, which also tended to have more particles in the second screen (particles 19.0-8.0mm). Supplement had minimal effect on postpartum selective particle consumption. In conclusion, feeding diets containing WS resulted in lower postpartum serum NEFA, higher liver glycogen, and a tendency for greater milk production and lower liver triglyceride to glycogen than those containing GH. Liquid feed reduced postpartum DMI but not yield of milk yield or 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, resulting in an improvement in feed efficiency. Future research should continue to investigate the use of single dry cow diet feeding strategies as they affect pre- and postpartum animal responses. PMID:23498001

Litherland, N B; da Silva, D N L; Hansen, W P; Davis, L; Emanuele, S; Blalock, H

2013-05-01

167

Potato Straw  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics demonstration, learners are challenged to insert a straw the furthest into a potato. After learners explore different techniques, the demonstrator can show them how to hold the straw firmly about 2/3 of the way up and use a sharp thrusting movement. Use this activity to explore force and surface area. This activity guide includes a helpful video that demonstrates each step of the demonstration.

Physics, Institute O.

2012-07-12

168

High Molecular Weight (HMW) Glutenin Subunit Composition of Some Nordic and Middle European Wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of 123 winter and 106 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and breeding lines commonly grown in Nordic and Middle European countries were characterised for the composition of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits on the ground of data from literature and experiments of author. HMW glutenin subunit composition was determined by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The

M. Tohver

2007-01-01

169

Composition and Expression of Genes Encoding Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes in the Straw-Degrading Mushroom Volvariella volvacea  

PubMed Central

Volvariella volvacea is one of a few commercial cultivated mushrooms mainly using straw as carbon source. In this study, the genome of V. volcacea was sequenced and assembled. A total of 285 genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in V. volvacea were identified and annotated. Among 15 fungi with sequenced genomes, V. volvacea ranks seventh in the number of genes encoding CAZymes. In addition, the composition of glycoside hydrolases in V. volcacea is dramatically different from other basidiomycetes: it is particularly rich in members of the glycoside hydrolase families GH10 (hemicellulose degradation) and GH43 (hemicellulose and pectin degradation), and the lyase families PL1, PL3 and PL4 (pectin degradation) but lacks families GH5b, GH11, GH26, GH62, GH93, GH115, GH105, GH9, GH53, GH32, GH74 and CE12. Analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles of 3 strains using 3?-tag digital gene expression (DGE) reveals that 239 CAZyme genes were expressed even in potato destrose broth medium. Our data also showed that the formation of a heterokaryotic strain could dramatically increase the expression of a number of genes which were poorly expressed in its parental homokaryotic strains. PMID:23554925

Xie, Baogui; Deng, Youjin; Sun, Xianyun; Lin, Mengying; Tao, Yongxin; Li, Shaojie

2013-01-01

170

The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

171

Studies on untreated and urea-treated rice straw from three cultivation seasons: 1. Physical and chemical measurements in straw and straw fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven rice varieties selected according to three cultivation seasons were examined with regard to their grain and straw production, and the chemical composition of straw. Weather conditions, fertiliser application and harvesting time were major factors affecting grain yield and straw composition. The following correlations were found: grain yield and straw length (r=0.82, p<0.05), grain yield and ear length (r=0.90, p<0.01),

H. Sh Shen; D. B Ni; F Sundstøl

1998-01-01

172

Straw Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working as engineering teams, students design and create model beam bridges using plastic drinking straws and tape as their construction materials. Their goal is to build the strongest bridge with a truss pattern of their own design, while meeting the design criteria and constraints. They experiment with different geometric shapes and determine how shapes affect the strength of materials. Let the competition begin!

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

173

Straw Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners design, build and test a model bridge out of straws. The bridge must span 25 cm across a gap between two tables or two chairs. To measure the load, the bridge must securely hold a small cup. Learners test the load by placing as many pennies in the cup as possible and counting how many the bridge can hold.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

174

Study on allelopathic effects of Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate on several plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice and wheat are the traditional food of Chinese people, and therefore the main crop candidates for bio-regenerative life-support systems. Recycling rice and wheat straw is an important issue concerning the system. In order to decide if the mixed-substrate made of rice and wheat straw is suitable of plant cultivation, Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate was tested in an aqueous extract germination experiment. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract on seed vigor, seedling growth and development situations and the physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat, lettuce and pumpkin were studied, and the presence and degrees of allelopathic effects were analyzed. The test results showed that this type of SLS exerted different degrees of allelopathic effect on wheat and lettuce; this allelopathic effect was related to the concentration of SLS aqueous extract. The most significant phenomenon is that with the increase of aqueous extract concentration, the seed germination, root length and shoot fresh weight of wheat decreased; and every concentration of aqueous extract showed significant inhibition on the root length and root fresh weight of lettuce. However, this type of SLS showed little effect on the growth of pumpkin seedlings. Contents changes of chlorophyll and endogenous hormones in wheat and lettuce seedlings, and the chemical compositions of SLS were measured, and the mechanism of allelopathic effect was preliminarily analyzed.

Li, Leyuan; Fu, Wenting; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

175

STRAW UTILIZATION IN REGION 10 STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

While agricultural burning has been going on for many years in Oregon, Idaho and Washington among grass seed and wheat growers as a means for reducing or eliminating straw wastes, over these years it has become more apparent that ag burning has adverse environmental and human hea...

176

Inhibition of pitted morning glory ( Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and certain other weed species by phytotoxic components of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine if well-known phytotoxic effects of plant residues on crop growth could also be responsible for observed reductions of certain weed species in no-till cropping systems. An aqueous extract of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) reduced the germination and root length of pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Phytotoxicity

Rex A. Liebl; A. Douglas Worsham

1983-01-01

177

Co-cultivation of Trichoderma reesei RutC30 with three black Aspergillus strains facilitates efficient hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw and shows promises for on-site enzyme production.  

PubMed

Co-cultivation of fungi may be an excellent system for on-site production of cellulolytic enzymes in a single bioreactor. Enzyme supernatants from mixed cultures of Trichoderma reesei RutC30, with either the novel Aspergillus saccharolyticus AP, Aspergillus carbonarius ITEM 5010 or Aspergillus niger CBS 554.65 cultivated in solid-state fermentation were tested for avicelase, FPase, endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase activity as well as in hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw. Around 30% more avicelase activity was produced in co-cultivation of T. reesei and A. saccharolyticus than in T. reesei monoculture, suggesting synergistic interaction between those fungi. Fermentation broths of mixed cultures of T. reesei with different Aspergillus strains resulted in approx. 80% efficiency of hydrolysis which was comparable to results obtained using blended supernatants from parallel monocultures. This indicates that co-cultivation of T. reesei with A. saccharolyticus or A. carbonarius could be a competitive alternative for monoculture enzyme production and a cheaper alternative to commercial enzymes. PMID:25043347

Kolasa, Marta; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette

2014-10-01

178

Inhibition of pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and certain other weed species by phytotoxic components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine if well-known phytotoxic effects of plant residues on crop growth could also be responsible for observed reductions of certain weed species in no-till cropping systems. An aqueous extract of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) reduced the germination and root length of pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Phytotoxicity was increased by about 70% when bioassays with the wheat extract on morning glory and ragweed were conducted in the presence of light. Phytotoxic substances were extracted from wheat with 2 N NaOH. The hydrolyzed extract was fractionated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The compound isolated by TLC having the greatest inhibitory effects on morning glory germination was identified using mass spectrometry and determined to be ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid). Ferulic acid at 5 × 10(3) M inhibited the germination and root length of morning glory 23 and 82%, respectively, and prickly sida (Sida spinosa L.) with carpels 85 and 82%, respectively. Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) germination was inhibited 100%. Ferulic acid had no effect on ragweed or prickly sida without carpels. Morning glory root and shoot biomass were reduced 52 and 26%, respectively, when morning glory was grown in sand and watered with a 5 × 10(3) M solution of ferulic acid. Ferulic acid in the presence of prickly sida seed carpels was found to undergo decarboxylation, forming a styrene derivative, 2-methoxy-4-ethenylphenol. The more phytotoxic styrene compound was produced by a bacterium isolated from the carpels of prickly sida seed. The study showed that ferulic acid and other compounds may indeed play a role in reducing the growth of certain weeds in no-tillage cropping systems. PMID:24407798

Liebl, R A; Worsham, A D

1983-08-01

179

Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.  

PubMed

Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further study is thus needed. PMID:20722954

Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

2010-08-01

180

Cell-wall architecture and lignin composition of wheat developed in a microgravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microgravity environment encountered during space-flight has long been considered to affect plant growth and developmental processes, including cell wall biopolymer composition and content. As a prelude to studying how microgravity is perceived - and acted upon - by plants, it was first instructive to investigate what gross effects on plant growth and development occurred in microgravity. Thus, wheat seedlings were exposed to microgravity on board the space shuttle Discovery (STS-51) for a 10 day duration, and these specimens were compared with their counterparts grown on Earth under the same conditions (e.g. controls). First, the primary roots of the wheat that developed under both microgravity and 1 g on Earth were examined to assess the role of gravity on cellulose microfibril (CMF) organization and secondary wall thickening patterns. Using a quick freeze/deep etch technique, this revealed that the cell wall CMFs of the space-grown wheat maintained the same organization as their 1 g-grown counterparts. That is, in all instances, CMFs were randomly interwoven with each other in the outermost layers (farthest removed from the plasma membrane), and parallel to each other within the individual strata immediately adjacent to the plasma membranes. The CMF angle in the innermost stratum relative to the immediately adjacent stratum was ca 80 degrees in both the space and Earth-grown plants. Second, all plants grown in microgravity had roots that grew downwards into the agar; they did not display "wandering" and upward growth as previously reported by others. Third, the space-grown wheat also developed normal protoxylem and metaxylem vessel elements with secondary thickening patterns ranging from spiral to regular pit to reticulate thickenings. Fourthly, both the space- and Earth-grown plants were essentially of the same size and height, and their lignin analyses revealed no substantial differences in their amounts and composition regardless of the gravitational field experienced, i.e. for the purposes of this study, all plants were essentially identical. These results suggest that the microgravity environment itself at best only slightly affected either cell wall biopolymer synthesis or the deposition of CMFs, in contrast to previous assertions.

Levine, L. H.; Heyenga, A. G.; Levine, H. G.; Choi, J.; Davin, L. B.; Krikorian, A. D.; Lewis, N. G.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

2001-01-01

181

Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).  

PubMed

Biochar addition to agricultural soils might increase the sorption of herbicides, and therefore, affect other sorption-related processes such as leaching, dissipation and toxicity for plants. In this study, the impact of wheat straw biochar on the sorption, leaching and dissipation in a soil, and toxicity for sunflower of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), a commonly used ionizable herbicide, was investigated. The results showed that MCPA sorption by biochar and biochar-amended soil (1.0wt% biochar) was 82 and 2.53 times higher than that by the non-amended soil, respectively. However, desorption of MCPA from biochar-amended soil was only 1.17 times lower than its desorption in non-amended soil. Biochar addition to soil reduced both MCPA leaching and dissipation. About 35% of the applied MCPA was transported through biochar-amended soil, while up to 56% was recovered in the leachates transported through non-amended soil. The half-life value of MCPA increased from 5.2d in non-amended soil to 21.5 d in biochar-amended soil. Pot experiments with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown in MCPA-free, but biochar-amended soil showed no positive effect of biochar on the growth of sunflower in comparison to the non-amended soil. However, biochar itself significantly reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) in sunflower. There was no significant difference in the phytotoxic effects of MCPA on sunflowers between the biochar-amended soil and the non-amended soil. Furthermore, MCPA had no effect on the photosynthetic pigment contents in sunflower. PMID:23474069

Tatarková, Veronika; Hiller, Edgar; Vaculík, Marek

2013-06-01

182

Influence of Drought and Sowing Time on Protein Composition, Antinutrients, and Mineral Contents of Wheat  

PubMed Central

The present study in a two-year experiment investigated the influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat whole meal of two genotypes differing in their water requirements. Different thermal conditions prevailing during the grain filling period under different sowing time generated a large effect on the amount of total soluble proteins. Late sown conditions offered higher protein content accompanied by increased albumin-globulin but decreased glutenin content. Fe content was increased to 20–23%; however, tannin decreased to 18–35% under early sown rain-fed conditions as compared to irrigated timely sown conditions in both the genotypes. Activity of trypsin inhibitor was decreased under rain-fed conditions in both genotypes. This study inferred that variable sowing times and irrigation practices can be used for inducing variation in different wheat whole meal quality characteristics. Lower temperature prevailing under early sown rain-fed conditions; resulted in higher protein content. Higher Fe and lower tannin contents were reported under early sown rain-fed conditions however, late sown conditions offered an increase in phytic acid accompanied by decreased micronutrients and glutenin contents. PMID:22629143

Singh, Sondeep; Gupta, Anil K.; Kaur, Narinder

2012-01-01

183

The effect of microwave pretreatment on biogas production from agricultural straws.  

PubMed

Biogas production from microwave-pretreated agricultural residual straws that are used as feedstock was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Barley, spring wheat, winter wheat and oat straw were examined. To investigate the effect of changing the physicochemical structure of the straws on biogas production, the pretreatment processes were applied to two sample groups. The first group contained milled straw and the second group comprised milled wet straw that was prepared by the addition of deionized water. Both groups were subjected to microwave irradiation until oven temperatures of 200 or 300 °C were attained. Sixty-six identical batch anaerobic reactors were run under mesophilic conditions for 60 days. Preliminary test results showed that the microwave pretreatment of the different straws did not improve their anaerobic digestion. An increase in the treatment temperature led to lower biogas production levels. An inverse relationship between the thermal conversion yield and cumulative biogas production was observed. PMID:23201904

Sapci, Zehra

2013-01-01

184

Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake  

PubMed Central

In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

2010-01-01

185

Wheat bran: its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective  

PubMed Central

Wheat bran is a concentrated source of insoluble fibre. Fibre intakes are generally lower than recommendations. This paper reviews the physiological effects of wheat bran and the health benefits it may provide in terms of the prevention of diseases such as colon and breast cancers, cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal diseases. In recognition of the weight of evidence, the European Food Safety Authority has recently approved two health claims for wheat bran and gastrointestinal health. PMID:22716911

2012-01-01

186

Nutritional quality of extruded snacks developed from composite of rice brokens and wheat bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat bran was mixed with broken rice to develop nutritionally balanced extruded crisp snacks for human consumption. The inclusion of wheat bran enhanced the content of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, thiamine, riboflavin, lysine and also of antinutrients like phytic phosphorus and trypsin inhibitor. Extrusion cooking decreased the content of thiamine, riboflavin and lysine. The degradation of phytic

D. Singh; G. S. Chauhan; I. Suresh; S. M. Tyagi

2000-01-01

187

Heavy metals and trace elements in atmospheric fall-out: their relationship with topsoil and wheat element composition.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the average concentrations and deposition rates of 28 elements in atmospheric bulk deposition and to elucidate associations among topsoil, bulk deposition and wheat element composition. The fluxes of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) deposition in Córdoba were higher than in other agro-ecosystems, which reflects both natural (geochemistry and topsoil removal) and anthropogenic sources. High lanthanide, uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations revealed the impact of an open cast uranium mine. The highest enrichment factors (EF) were those of Cu, Pb, Zn and nickel (Ni), with calcium (Ca) being the most prominent in the surroundings of a cement plant. Industries and the transport of airborne urban pollutants were the main anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and antimony (Sb). The concentrations of metals in wheat grain were predicted using the topsoil and atmospheric fall-out composition with R(2)=0.90, with the latter being the best explanatory variable. The present study highlights the potential health hazards of wheat consumption (Environmental Protection Agency) by the assessment of heavy metals in bulk atmospheric deposition. PMID:22390956

Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Jasan, Raquel; Plá, Rita; Pignata, María L

2012-04-30

188

Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.  

PubMed

Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites. PMID:20499931

Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

2010-06-14

189

Make Music with Straws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners build pan pipes out of drinking straws by cutting them to different lengths. Then, learners make music by blowing across the straws and playing some well-known songs. Use this activity to introduce how sound works including vibration and pitch.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

190

Straws and Airplanes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create airplanes from straws and geometric shapes. Test them out to see how far they can fly, or how accurately they can be aimed. All you need is a straw, two strips of paper, and some tape to make these strange-looking gliders!

Minnesota, Science M.

1995-01-01

191

High strain-rate behavior of natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high strain-rate constitutive behavior of polymer composites with various natural fibers is studied. Hemp, hemp\\/glass hybrid, cellulose, and wheat straw-reinforced polymeric composites have been manufactured, and a split-Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus has been designed to measure the dynamic stress–strain response of the materials. Using the apparatus, compressive stress–strain curves have been obtained that reveal the materials’ constitutive characteristics at

Wonsuk Kim; Alan Argento; Ellen Lee; Cynthia Flanigan; Daniel Houston; Angela Harris; Deborah F Mielewski

2012-01-01

192

Wheat endosperm cell walls: Spatial heterogeneity of polysaccharide structure and composition using micro-scale enzymatic fingerprinting and FT-IR microspectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-scale enzymatic fingerprinting and FT-IR microspectroscopy were used to investigate changes of polysaccharide structure and composition in cell walls from wheat endosperm. These methods were applied to transverse and longitudinal sections of wheat grains harvested at maturity and 270°D. Principal component analysis treatment of the data revealed marked differences in the (1,3)-(1,4)-beta-glucans (BG)\\/arabinoxylans (AX) ratio and in the structure of

Luc Saulnier; Paul Robert; Mathilde Grintchenko; Frédéric Jamme; Brigitte Bouchet; Fabienne Guillon

2009-01-01

193

Cerebroside C increases tolerance to chilling injury and alters lipid composition in wheat roots.  

PubMed

Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4 °C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4 °C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25 °C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.62-62.26%, 13.54-63.93% and 13.90-61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.69-46.06%, 3.37-37.96%, and -7.00-178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC. PMID:24058471

Li, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Yu; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xu; Li, Cong; Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Ye, Yong-Hao

2013-01-01

194

Cerebroside C Increases Tolerance to Chilling Injury and Alters Lipid Composition in Wheat Roots  

PubMed Central

Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4°C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4°C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25°C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.62–62.26%, 13.54–63.93% and 13.90–61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.69–46.06%, 3.37–37.96%, and ?7.00–178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC. PMID:24058471

Li, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Yu; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xu; Li, Cong; Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Ye, Yong-Hao

2013-01-01

195

Deposition of potassium salts on heat transfer surfaces in straw-fired boilers: a pilot-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of inorganic salts in straw-fired combustion systems was studied in Sandia's Multifuel Combustor. Special attention was drawn to the deposition of potassium, chlorine, and sulphur and the sulphation of potassium chloride to potassium sulphate. The experiments included wheat straw-firing under different combustion conditions and with elevated sulphur levels. Investigations of deposit formation on a simulated superheater tube placed

H. P Nielsen; L. L Baxter; G Sclippab; C Morey; F. J Frandsen; K Dam-Johansen

2000-01-01

196

Changes of chemical composition and dough rheology in two fractions of sieve-classified Polish spring wheat flour.  

PubMed

The study of chemical composition and dough rheology changes in sieve-classified two fractions (up to 60 and 60-240 microm particles) of wheat flour was the subject of this study. The straight grade flours were obtained by the milling of three Polish varieties of spring wheat, differing in particle size index (PSI) values. The flours were separated with the use of an SZ-1 laboratory sifter. The yield of fine fraction was in the range 50.0-55.7%. The obtained fractions were assayed for the content and composition of free lipids, gluten proteins, damaged starch, ash, water absorption and amylograph viscosity. Dough rheology (extrusion in OTMS cell, alveograph and farinograph tests) and baking trials were also performed. The content of free lipids, including the non-polar and phospholipids was lower and the content of glycolipids was higher in fine flours. Those fractions were more rich in linoleic acid but the lower content of oleic and linolenic acids resulted in a higher oxidizability index of free lipids. Fine flours contained less ash and significantly more damaged starch. At the same time, they were characterized by a higher content of wet gluten, water absorption, amylograph viscosity and better dough parameters. This was reflected in the bread volume, which was higher by 6.3-10.7%. The influence of the changes in composition and the content of free lipids upon the rheology of the dough after the 90 days flour storage has not been defined unambiguously and requires further research. PMID:15146967

Konopka, Iwona; Drzewiecki, Jerzy

2004-04-01

197

Inclusion of Tithonia diversifolia in multinutrient blocks for WestAfrican dwarf goats fed Brachiaria straw.  

PubMed

Recent investigations suggest that the development of multinutrient feed blocks with inclusion of tree and shrub leaves could improve the nutritive value and digestibility of straw. In order to test these possibilities, three types of multinutrient blocks (MNB) namely: MNB0 (wheat bran?=?100%; Tithonia diversifolia leaf?=?0%), MNB50 (wheat bran?=?50%; T. diversifolia leaf?=?50%) and MNB100 (wheat bran?=?0%; T. diversifolia leaf?=?100%) were fed for 15 days in a 3?×?3 Latin square arrangement to West African dwarf goats consuming Brachiaria ruziziensis straw. The blocks presented a good cohesion and a good hardness. The inclusion of T. diversifolia improved levels of crude protein, mineral, feed unit for milk production (UFL) and feed unit for meat production (UFV), but decreased palatability. The effects on the digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw were evaluated in nine West African dwarf goats fed individually with MNB0 + straw, MNB50 + straw and MNB100 + straw. The dry matter, organic matter and crude fibre digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw increased slightly with increasing level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. The apparent digestibility of nitrogen was comparable for all diets independent of the level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. This study showed that the inclusion of T. diversifolia leaves in the MNBs can be recommended to improve the feeding of goats during periods of drought. PMID:24792078

Tendonkeng, Fernand; Fogang Zogang, Bienvenu; Sawa, Camara; Boukila, Benoît; Pamo, Etienne Tedonkeng

2014-08-01

198

Composition and distribution of pythium communities in wheat fields in eastern washington state.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Pythium spp. were isolated from a mixture of soil and roots collected from 80 wheat fields in eastern Washington in the summer of 2000 from an area encompassing approximately 27,000 km(2). These sites covered a range of soil textures (coarse to fine, silty loess), average annual precipitation (200 to 600 mm), and average annual temperatures (7 to 11 degrees C). Soil type and annual precipitation run in an east-west gradient, while temperature has a north-south gradient. Species were identified using classical methods and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region of the rDNA and comparing these sequences to a database from a worldwide collection of Pythium spp. The species with the highest frequency of occurrence among all the sites were P. abappressorium sp. nov. (A) (50%), P. rostratum (R) (40%), P. debaryanum (D) (37.5%), P. heterothallicum (H) (33.7%), P.oligandrum (O) (31.2%), an unidentified P. sp. (aff. echinulatum) (E) (25%), and P. ultimum (U) (18%). P. intermedium, P. irregulare, P. paroecandrum, P. sylvaticum, P. dissimile, and P. dissoticum were isolated at a low frequency. From one to six species were isolated at each site, and there were 46 different species combinations detected. The species presence/absence data from all sites were analyzed with Jaccard's similarity coefficient hierarchical cluster analysis. Six communities were identified (species within each community designation in order of frequency among the sites within the community)-AD, AOU, AR, DEH, HE, and RU. In general, P. abappressorium was evenly distributed over all zones. AOU was more prevalent in zones with lower precipitation and coarser soil, while DEH and HE were associated with zones with higher precipitation and finer-textured soils on the basis of comparison of frequency distributions with the expected distribution over all the sites. The RU community was more prevalent in higher temperature zones. Canonical correspondence analysis was performed to examine the relationship between species and environmental variables. Soil type and precipitation were highly correlated with each other and with axis 1, which separated P. ultimum and P. abappressorium (lower variable values) from P. heterothallicum (higher variable values). Axis 2 and 3 were most correlated with temperature, and these axes separated P. oligandrum (higher value) from P. debaryanum (lower value) and P. ultimum-P. rostratum from the other species. The results suggest that Pythium species composition, distributions, and associations on a given crop may be influenced by environmental factors at a mesoscale level (100 to 1,000,000 ha). PMID:18943168

Paulitz, T C; Adams, K

2003-07-01

199

Bioethanol production from rice straw by popping pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Background Rice straw has considerable potential as a raw material for bioethanol production. Popping pretreatment of rice straw prior to downstream enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was found to increase cellulose to glucose conversion efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of popping pretreatment and determine the optimal enzyme loading using a surface response design. Results The optimal doses of cellulase and xylanase enzymes were 23 FPU and 62 IU/g biomass, respectively. Using the optimized enzyme condition and popping pretreatment of rice straw (15% substrate loading, w/v), a sugar recovery of 0.567 g/g biomass (glucose; 0.394 g/g) was obtained in 48 h, which was significantly higher than that from untreated rice straw (total sugar recovery; 0.270 g/g biomass). Fermentation of the hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in 0.172 g ethanol/g biomass after 24 h, equivalent to 80.9% of the maximum theoretical yield (based on the amount of glucose in raw material). Changes in the chemical composition and surface area of rice straw were also investigated before and after popping pretreatment. The results showed little or no difference in chemical composition between the pretreated rice straw and the control. However, the surface area of pretreated rice straw increased twofold compared to the control. Conclusion Popping pretreatment of rice straw can effectively improve downstream saccharification and fermentation, important for bioethanol production. PMID:24286244

2013-01-01

200

Wheat Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and is usually outgrown before reaching adulthood, often by age ... you are trying to achieve. Differences between Wheat Allergy and Celiac Disease or Gluten Intolerance A wheat ...

201

Drinking Straw Oboe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will construct an oboe-like instrument from a plastic drinking straw by cutting the end to split it into two loose flaps, like reeds on an oboe. Blowing hard makes a sound. Cutting the straws to different lengths provides an opportunity for learners to predict how length will affect sound. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Music and Sound.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

202

Improving the end use properties of wheat by manipulating the grain protein composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wheat storage proteins account for up to about 60% of the totalgrain proteins. They correspond to the gluten proteins, which form avisco-elastic network that enables dough to be processed into bread, pastaand other products. We are using a range of biochemical, biophysical andmolecular approaches to characterize gluten proteins and to understandtheir role in determining the grain processing properties, focusing

P. R Shewry; A. S Tatham; R. Fido; H. Jones; P. Barcelo; P. A. Lazzeri

2001-01-01

203

Surface characterization of lignocellulosics for composite manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to form moisture resistant wheat strawboards, either by altering the straw surface characteristics or by changing the chemistry of the polymeric 4, 4' diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI)-based matrix and interface. Part I compared the surface characteristics of wheat, barley, oat, rice, kenaf, hemp and softwood particles. All cereal straws had two surfaces: epidermis and brittle-pith

Ananth V. Iyer

2003-01-01

204

[The effect of straw in ground and pelleted form on the rumen fermentation and protozoa].  

PubMed

Cows possessing a large ruminal fistula were fed straw meal and pelleted wheat straw to investigate its effect on ruminal fermentation (concentration of NH3 and volatile fatty acids (FFS), pH, molar proportions of FFS, rates of FFS production) and on the protozoa population. The straw-concentrate mixture used in the present trial contained 40% of straw. The feeding of pelleted straw produced a significant rise in FFS concentrations (from 8.8. to 12.3 mMole/100 ml) and a corresponding decline of pH (from 6.7 to 6.1). With high molar proportions of acetate (72 mole%) the influence of the straw diet on molar FFS proportions was low. The NH3 peak observed 1 hr after feeding was higher with the pelleted straw than with the straw meal. The feeding of finely gound straw produced a higher level of FFS production (by 10%) than that of straw pellets. (3.88 and 4.29 mMole per gm DM). The number of protozoa (per ml of ruminal fluid) was 335,000 (straw meal) and 121,833 (pellets). The number of large infusorial cells (Isotricha, Diplodinium, Ophryoscolex) decreased correspondingly from 70,000 (straw meal) to 18,870 per ml (pellets). These results suggest that the feeding of pelleted straw-concentrate mixtures to cows as sole feed will not bring about optimum conditions for ruminal fermentation (FFS formation, protein synthesis) and for the layering of ruminal contents. PMID:1016061

Piatkowski, B; Voigt, J; Sedloev, N

1976-12-01

205

Steam explosion of straw in batch and continuous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the steam-explosion treatment on aqueous fractionation and bioconversion of wheat straw have been investigated.\\u000a The treatments have been carried out in batch and continuous reactors with capacity of 0.5 Kg\\/cycle and 150 Kg\\/h, respectively.\\u000a The exploded materials have been sequentially extracted with water at 65°C and sodium hydroxide 1.5%. Analytical determinations\\u000a of liquid fractions and solid residues

Francesco Zimbardi; Donato Viggiano; Francesco Nanna; Mario Demichele; Daniela Cuna; Giovanni Cardinale

1999-01-01

206

Effect of two wheat genotypes and Swedish environment on falling number, amylase activities, and protein concentration and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in falling number, amylase activities, protein concentration and composition were investigated in two wheat cultivars\\u000a grown in Sweden over two seasons, in four locations, with four N fertilizer rates, with and without fungicide treatment. The\\u000a results showed that;\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Tarso had higher falling number, amylase activities, protein concentration and amount of most protein components compared\\u000a to Kosack.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The

Eva Johansson

2002-01-01

207

Cereal straw and pure cellulose as carbon sources for growth and production of plant cell-wall degrading enzymes by Sporotrichum thermophile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporotrichum thermophile grew well and produced plant cell-wall degrading enzymes on straw (barley and wheat) of different particle sizes and Avicel as carbon sources. Comparable activities of endoglucanase, Avicelase and cellobiase were produced on each substrate. In contrast, activities of xylanase, aryl-ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase, esterase and a-l-arabinofuranosidase were higher on straw (either wheat or barley) than on Avicel. The enzyme systems

C. Sugden; M. K. Bhat

1994-01-01

208

Acquisition and Utilization of Straw as a Fuel. Report on a Study Conducted on Behalf of the Department of Energy (Energy Technology Support Unit). Vol. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production, distribution, disposal and utilization of wheat, barley, oat and oil seed rape straw are reviewed and the options available for straw disposal e.g. in-field burning, incorporation into the soil or baling and removal for use on and off the ...

J. M. Clegg, S. B. C. Larkin, D. H. Noble, R. W. Radley

1985-01-01

209

Soda Straw Tensegrity Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from George Hart contains information on how to build tensegrity structures, based on the Platonic solids, from straws, rubber bands, and paper clips. Step-by-step instructions, illustrated by numerous photographs, are provided. These structures are similar to some of the sculptures by Kenneth Snelson.

2008-05-08

210

Effect of Methanobrevibacter sp MF1 inoculation on glycoside hydrolase and polysaccharide depolymerase activities, wheat straw degradation and volatile fatty acid concentrations in the rumen of gnotobiotically-reared lambs.  

PubMed

Four naturally born lambs were placed in sterile isolators 24 h after birth before the natural establishment of cellulolytic microorganisms and archaea methanogens. At the age of 6 weeks they were inoculated with pure cultures of the strains FD1 and 007 of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and at the age of 4 months with a pure culture of Methanobrevibacter sp. MF1. Following the establishment of MF1, the population of R. flavefaciens slightly increased in the rumen of the four lambs, there was also an increase in straw degradation, in the activity of some glycoside and polysaccharide hydrolases of the adherent microbial populations and in the concentration of acetate in ruminal contents. PMID:16887613

Fonty, G; Williams, A G; Bonnemoy, F; Morvan, B; Withers, S E; Gouet, P

1997-12-01

211

First Survey of the Wheat Chromosome 5A Composition through a Next Generation Sequencing Approach  

PubMed Central

Wheat is one of the world's most important crops and is characterized by a large polyploid genome. One way to reduce genome complexity is to isolate single chromosomes using flow cytometry. Low coverage DNA sequencing can provide a snapshot of individual chromosomes, allowing a fast characterization of their main features and comparison with other genomes. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a 2x coverage of wheat chromosome 5A. The resulting sequence assembly was used to identify TEs, genes and miRNAs, as well as to infer a virtual gene order based on the synteny with other grass genomes. Repetitive elements account for more than 75% of the genome. Gene content was estimated considering non-redundant reads showing at least one match to ESTs or proteins. The results indicate that the coding fraction represents 1.08% and 1.3% of the short and long arm respectively, projecting the number of genes of the whole chromosome to approximately 5,000. 195 candidate miRNA precursors belonging to 16 miRNA families were identified. The 5A genes were used to search for syntenic relationships between grass genomes. The short arm is closely related to Brachypodium chromosome 4, sorghum chromosome 8 and rice chromosome 12; the long arm to regions of Brachypodium chromosomes 4 and 1, sorghum chromosomes 1 and 2 and rice chromosomes 9 and 3. From these similarities it was possible to infer the virtual gene order of 392 (5AS) and 1,480 (5AL) genes of chromosome 5A, which was compared to, and found to be largely congruent with the available physical map of this chromosome. PMID:22028874

Vitulo, Nicola; Albiero, Alessandro; Forcato, Claudio; Campagna, Davide; Dal Pero, Francesca; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Colaiacovo, Moreno; Faccioli, Primetta; Lamontanara, Antonella; Simkova, Hana; Kubalakova, Marie; Perrotta, Gaetano; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Pietrella, Marco; Gianese, Giulio; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Giuliano, Giovanni; Cattivelli, Luigi; Valle, Giorgio; Stanca, A. Michele

2011-01-01

212

Biochars derived from various crop straws: characterization and Cd(II) removal potential.  

PubMed

Five types of biochars prepared from four crop straws and one wood shaving at 600 °C were characterized, and their sorption to Cd(II) were determined to investigate the differences in capacity to function as sorbents to heavy metals. Surface areas and pore volumes of the biochars were inversely correlated to the lignin content of raw biomass. The biochars derived from crop straws displayed more developed pore structure than wood char due to the higher lignin content of wood. Sorption capacity of the biochars to Cd(II) followed the order of corn straw>cotton straw>wheat straw>rice straw>poplar shaving, which was not strictly consistent with the surface area of the chars. The surface characteristics of chars before and after Cd(II) sorption were investigated with scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which suggested that the higher sorption of Cd(II) on corn straw chars was mainly attributed to cation exchange, surface precipitation of carbonate, and surface complexation with oxygen-containing groups. This study indicated that crop straw biochars exhibit distinct sorption capacities to heavy metals due to various surface characteristics, and thus the sorption efficiency should be carefully evaluated specific to target contaminant. PMID:24859708

Sun, Jingkuan; Lian, Fei; Liu, Zhongqi; Zhu, Lingyan; Song, Zhengguo

2014-08-01

213

Original article Effect of white-rot basidiomycetes-treated wheat  

E-print Network

for their potential to improve the rum! nal degradation of wheat straw. Pleurotus ostreatus (PO), Pleurotus ostreatus three fungi-treated straws. TWS with Pleurotus ostreatus (TWS-PO), Pleurotus ostrea- tus-mutant (TWS froment dans le rumen. Pleurotus ostreatus (PO), Pleurotus ostreatus-mutant (PO-M), Trametes gibbosa (TG

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Title: Kentucky Bluegrass Straw Utilization: Genetic and Management Factors Influencing Pulping Requirements and Papermaking Properties Objectives: The main goal of this interdisciplinary project is to stimulate an integration of the PNW paper and agricultural industries for improving their environmental and economic sustainability. Specific research objectives were to: 1. evaluate Kentucky bluegrass straw as a potential raw material for papermaking and soil amendments\\/fertilizers. â assess variations in straw characteristics related to fiber quality among commercial cultivars used in the PNW. â relate fiber characteristics to paper making quality of the pulp derived from bluegrass â evaluate pulping liquor byproducts from Kentucky bluegrass straw as potential soil amendments\\/fertilizers. 2. optimize straw pulping, fiber blending and black liquor processing for producing paper medium, molded paper products, soil amendments and hydroseeding products. 3. Contribute above-generated resear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was not renewed after the first year of phase II. In light of the discontinuation of funding, projects were culminated, summarized and publications were finalized. Commercial pilot studies on making molded paper products were successfully executed with wheat and bluegrass straw by UW. Bluegrass straw black liquor's strong alkalinity increases soil pH, has modest effects on soil EC,

William L. Pan; William T. McKean; M. Lewis; William J. Johnston; Lou Edwards

215

Microbial community composition is consistent across anaerobic digesters processing wheat-based fuel ethanol waste streams.  

PubMed

Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted on byproducts from dry-grind wheat-based ethanol plants amended with feedlot manure at two input ratios. Whole stillage (WST), thin stillage (TST) and wet cake (WCK) were tested alone and with 1:1 and 2:1 ratios (VS basis) of byproduct:feedlot manure in bench-scale batch reactors. The addition of manure increased both the rate and consistency of methane production in triplicate reactors. In addition, digesters co-digesting thin stillage and cattle manure at 1:1 and 2:1 stillage:manure produced 125% and 119% expected methane based on the biomethane potential of each substrate digested individually. Bacterial community analysis using universal target amplification and pyrosequencing indicated there was a numerically dominant core of 42 bacteria that was universally present in the reactors regardless of input material. A smaller-scale analysis of the archaeal community showed that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens were present in significant quantities. PMID:24534794

Town, Jennifer; Annand, Holly; Pratt, Dyan; Dumonceaux, Tim; Fonstad, Terrance

2014-04-01

216

Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition and corrosion measurements were conducted at a 10 MW wheat straw fired stoker boiler used for combined power and heat production. The plant experiences major problems with deposits on the heat transfer surfaces, and test probes have shown enhanced corrosion due to selective corrosion for metal temperatures above 520°C. Deposition measurements carried out at a position equal to the

Hanne Philbert Michelsen; Flemming Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Ole Hede Larsen

1998-01-01

217

Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide.  

PubMed

Pretreatment method for rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide was investigated for production of bioethanol and biobutanol. Various pretreatment parameters, including temperature, time, and sodium hydroxide concentration were optimized using a statistical method which is a central composite design of response surface methodology. In the case of sodium hydroxide pretreatment, optimal pretreatment conditions were found to be 7.9% sodium hydroxide concentration, 5.5 h of reaction time, and 68.4 °C of reaction temperature. The maximum glucose yield which can be recovered by enzymatic hydrolysis at the optimum conditions was 95.7% and the experimental result was 94.0 ± 4.8%. This experimental result was in agreement with the model prediction. An increase of surface area and pore size in pretreated rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide pretreatment was observed by scanning electron microscope. PMID:22086290

Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

2012-06-01

218

Study of chemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification for producing fermentable sugars from rice straw.  

PubMed

This study evaluated a cost-effective approach for the conversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars. The composition of rice straw pretreated with 1 % sulfuric acid or 1 % sodium hydroxide solution was compared to rice straw with no chemical pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification experiments on non-pretreated rice straw (NPRS), pretreated rice straw (PRS), and pretreated rice straw with acid hydrolysate (PRSAH) were conducted in a series of batch reactors. The results indicated that pretreating the rice straw with dilute acid and base increased the cellulose content from 38 % to over 50 %. During enzymatic saccharification, straight aliphatic cellulose was hydrolyzed before branched hemicellulose, and glucose was the major hydrolysis product. The glucose yield was 0.52 g glucose/g for NPRS and was comparable to the yields of 0.50 g glucose/g for PRS and 0.58 g glucose/g for PRSAH. The hydrolysis of rice straw to produce glucose can be described by a first-order reaction with a rate constant of 0.0550 d(-1) for NPRS, 0.0653 d(-1) for PRSAH, and 0.0654 d(-1) for PRS. Overall, the production of fermentable sugars from ground rice straw will be more cost effective if the straw is not pretreated with chemicals. PMID:24346765

Chen, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jih-Gaw

2014-07-01

219

The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.  

PubMed

A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains. PMID:23870025

Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

2013-08-01

220

Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P < 0.001), confirmed by fasting plasma alkylrecorsinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05) in parallel to a 53% decrease in the alkylrecorsinol concentration (P < 0.001) in the group consuming refined wheat breads. In this group, the abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, B. plebeius, and Prevotella tannerae decreased, whereas that of bacteria related to Collinsella and members of the Clostridium clusters IV and XI increased. In a multivariate regression analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides spp. was best explained by different fat compounds among dietary variables, whereas the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber. Our results indicate that the quality of grains has a minor effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat. PMID:23514765

Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

2013-05-01

221

TREATMENT OF RICE STRAW WITH LIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight male sheep were used to determine digestibility and voluntary intake of rice strew untreated and treated with slaked lime. The straw was soaked in water (1 kg straw in 10 l water) containing 40 g lime\\/kg straw for 48 hours in a concrete pit and then washed with water (5 1 water \\/ kg straw) before sun drying. The

M Saadullah; M Haque; F Dolberg

222

The effect of variety and growing conditions on the chemical composition and nutritive value of wheat for broilers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG), in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05) affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F) wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F) wheats. An increase (p<0.1) of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the low seed rate of 40 compared to 640 seeds/m(2). It was concluded that the type of wheat sample and environmental growing conditions significantly affects bird performance when fed wheat-based diets. PMID:25049800

Ball, M E E; Owens, B; McCracken, K J

2013-03-01

223

Evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are fungal plant pathogens producing toxic secondary metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV). In Luxembourg, the Fusarium species composition isolated from symptomatic winter wheat heads was dominated by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) between the years 2009 and 2012, except for 2011, when Fusarium culmorum strains (genetic NIV chemotype) dominated the pathogen complex. Previous reports indicated that F. graminearum sensu stricto (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) was also most frequently isolated from randomly sampled winter wheat kernels including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic kernels in 2007 and 2008. The annual precipitation (average of 10 weather stations scattered across the country) decreased continuously from 924.31mm in 2007 over 917.15mm in 2008, to 843.38mm in 2009, 736.24mm in 2010, and 575.09mm in 2011. In 2012, the annual precipitation increased again to 854.70mm. Hardly any precipitation was recorded around the time of wheat anthesis in the years 2010 and 2011, whereas precipitation levels >50mm within the week preceding anthesis plus the week post anthesis were observed in the other years. The shift to genetic NIV chemotype F. culmorum strains in 2011 was accompanied by a very minor elevation of average NIV contents (2.9ngg(-1)) in the grain. Our data suggest that high NIV levels in Luxembourgish winter wheat are at present rather unlikely, because the indigenous F. culmorum strains with the genetic NIV chemotype seem to be outcompeted under humid in vivo conditions by F. graminearum DON producing strains on the one hand and seem to be inhibited - even though to a lower extent than DON producing strains - under dry in vivo conditions on the other hand. PMID:24859190

Beyer, Marco; Pogoda, Friederike; Pallez, Marine; Lazic, Joëlle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Pasquali, Matias

2014-07-16

224

Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas.  

PubMed

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 151 FGSC isolates collected from wheat in Uruguay were determined via multilocus genotyping. Although F. graminearum with the 15ADON trichothecene type accounted for 86% of the isolates examined, five different FGSC species and all three trichothecene types were identified in this collection. This is the first report of Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium brasilicum, Fusarium cortaderiae, and Fusarium austroamericanum from Uruguay. In addition, we observed significant (P<0.001) regional differences in the composition of FGSC species and trichothecene types within Uruguay. Isolates of F. graminearum with the 15ADON type were the most prevalent in western provinces (95%), while F. asiaticum (43%) and the NIV type (61%) predominated in the new wheat production zone in Cerro Largo along Uruguay's eastern border with Brazil. F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.005) more aggressive on wheat than were isolates from the other species examined (NIV or 3ADON types). However, F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitive to tebuconazole than isolates from other species (NIV type). These results document substantial heterogeneity among the pathogens responsible for FHB in Uruguay. In addition, the regional predominance of the NIV trichothecene type is of significant concern to food safety and indicates that additional monitoring of nivalenol levels in grain may be required. PMID:23856007

Umpiérrez-Failache, M; Garmendia, G; Pereyra, S; Rodríguez-Haralambides, A; Ward, T J; Vero, S

2013-08-16

225

Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus  

PubMed Central

The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

2014-01-01

226

Effect of moisture and temperature on the degradability of fiber and on nitrogen fractions in barley straw treated with urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the treatment of barley straw with urea (6% of the D.M.) on its chemical composition, digestibility, degradability and nitrogen fractions was studied varying the initial straw-treatment moisture level (20%, 30% and 40%) and storage temperature (25°C and 35°C). The urea treatment fundamentally affected the NDF content of the straw, which decreased as a result of hemicellulose solubilization.

V Cañeque; S Velasco; J. L Sancha; C Manzanares; O Souza

1998-01-01

227

Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by soaking in aqueous ammonia.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has gained attention for production of biofuels. In this study, pretreatment by soaking in aqueous ammonia was adopted for pretreatment of biomass for ethanol production. A central composite design of response surface methodology was used for optimization of the pretreatment condition of rapeseed straw, with respect to catalyst concentration, pretreatment time, and pretreatment temperature. The most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw by soaking in aqueous ammonia was 19.8% of ammonia water, 14.2 h of pretreatment time, and a pretreatment temperature of 69.0 °C. Using these optimal factor values under experimental conditions, 60.7% of theoretical glucose was obtained, and this value was well within the range predicted by the model. SEM results showed that SAA pretreatment of rapeseed straw resulted in increased surface area and pore size, as well as enhanced enzymatic digestibility. PMID:21918838

Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Sunwoo, Changshin; Park, Don-Hee

2012-01-01

228

Use of near-isogenic wheat lines to determine glutenin and gliadin composition and funtionality in flour tortillas  

E-print Network

tortilla baking quality. Near-isogenic wheat lines in which one or more of these loci were absent or deleted were used in the study. These lines were analyzed using SSR primers to verify the chromosome deletions. A standard SDS PAGE gel and a Lab on Chip...

Mondal, Suchismita

2006-10-30

229

Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.  

PubMed

Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively). PMID:17662601

Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

2008-05-01

230

The effect of drying temperature on the composition of biomass  

SciTech Connect

The compositional quality of different lignocellulosic feedstocks influences their performance and potential demand at a biorefinery. Many analytical protocols for determining the composition or performance characteristics of biomass involve a drying step, where the drying temperature can vary depending on the specific protocol. To get reliable data, it is important to determine the correct drying temperature to vaporize the water without negatively impacting the compositional quality of the biomass. A comparison of drying temperature between 45 degrees C and 100 degrees C was performed using wheat straw and corn stover. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were taken of the dried samples and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Carbohydrates were analyzed using quantitative saccharification to determine sugar degradation. Analysis of variance was used to determine if there was a significant difference between drying at different temperatures. PCA showed an obvious separation in samples dried at different temperatures due to sample water content. However, quantitative saccharification data shows, within a 95% confidence interval, that there is no significant difference in sugar content for drying temperatures up to 100 degrees C for wheat straw and corn stover.

Houghton, T.P.; Stevens, D.N.; Wright, C.T.; Radtke, C.W.

2008-05-01

231

Organic Manures for Increased Productivity and Sustained Supply of Micronutrients Zn and Cu in a Rice-Wheat Cropping System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments for 3 years were carried out to assess the efficacy of organic manures (Sesbania aculeata, Leucaena leucocephala), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and mungbean (Vigna radiata) green manures, wheat straw and FYM (Farm Yard Manure) in enhancing the productivity of rice-wheat cropping system and for their capacity to supply Zn and Cu. Green manuring with Sesbania gave the highest rice

B. N. Mishra; R. Prasad; B. Gangaiah; B. G. Shivakumar

2006-01-01

232

The effect of addition of different amounts and types of organic materials on soil physical properties and yield of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of 0, 5, 10, 15 Mg ha-1 of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw, composted sugarcane bagasse residue and farmyard manure on soil physical properties and yield of winter wheat. The experimental design was a split plot with four replicates. The considered physical properties, 1 year after organic matter addition, included aggregate stability,

A. R. Barzegar; A. Yousefi; A. Daryashenas

2002-01-01

233

Influence of long-term residue management on soil enzyme activities in relation to soil chemical properties of a wheat-fallow system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil enzyme activities (acid and alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, ß-glucosidase, urease and amidase) were determined (0- to 20-cm depth) after 55 years of crop-residue and N-fertilization treatment in a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system on semiarid soils of the Pacific Northwest. All residues were incorporated and the treatments were: straw (N0), straw with fall burn (N0FB), straw with spring burn

R. P. Dick; P. E. Rasmussen; E. A. Kerle

1988-01-01

234

The formation of submicron aerosol particles, HCl and SO 2 in straw-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of submicron particles, HCl and SO2 in the flue gas from the combustion of straw from wheat, barley and oil seed rape was studied by field measurements on two utility boilers. The concentration of submicron particles varies from 75–2000mgNm-3§§1Nm3 (normal cubic meter)=1m3 gas measured at 1atm and 0°C. and the mean diameter in the range from 0.2 to

Kurt A. Christensen; Michael Stenholm; Hans Livbjerg

1998-01-01

235

Changes in Leaf Morphology and Composition with Future Increases in CO 2 and Temperature Revisited: Wheat in Field Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether leaf morphology is altered by future increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature has been reexamined over 3 years in wheat grown in field chambers at two levels of nitrogen supply. Flag\\u000a leaf fresh and dry mass, area, volume, and ratios of these parameters, as well as the contents of water, chlorophyll, nonstructural\\u000a carbohydrates, and nitrogen compounds have been determined at

Elena Gutiérrez; Diego Gutiérrez; Rosa Morcuende; Angel L. Verdejo; Svetla Kostadinova; Rafael Martinez-Carrasco; Pilar Pérez

2009-01-01

236

Effects of Variations in High Molecular Weight Glutenin Allele Composition and Resistant Starch on Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality  

E-print Network

strong gluten that gives small diameter tortillas with good flexibility over storage. Good quality tortilla flour should have extensible gluten that will provide rapid extension during pressing to form larger diameter tortillas that retain air bubbles... and flexibility during storage (Waniska et al. 2004). Tortilla producers use food additives such as reducing agents, fats and enzymes to increase gluten extensibility in dough during production of wheat flour tortilla. However, besides reducing...

Jondiko, Tom Odhiambo

2012-02-14

237

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE

E. Yu. Vlasenko; H. Ding; J. M. Labavitch; S. P. Shoemaker

1997-01-01

238

Pyrolysis of wheat straw-derived organosolv lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost-effectiveness of a lignocellulose biorefinery may be improved by developing applications for lignin with a higher value than application as fuel. We have developed a pyrolysis based lignin biorefinery approach, called LIBRA, to transform lignin into phenolic bio-oil and biochar using bubbling fluidized bed reactor technology. The bio-oil is a potential source for value-added products that can replace petrochemical

P. J. de Wild; W. J. J. Huijgen; H. J. Heeres

2012-01-01

239

Flocculation of high purity wheat straw soda lignin.  

PubMed

In industrial process, acidification causes non-sulfonated lignin insolubility. The flocculants poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) and bovine blood (BB) also caused lignin insolubility while cationic polyacrylamide, chitosan, and soy protein PF 974 were ineffective. Turbidity determined optimal flocculant, but turbidity magnitude with BB was greater than expected. pDADMAC caused negative lignin Zeta potential to became positive, but BB-lignin Zeta potential was always negative. Insoluble lignin did not gravity sediment, and flocculant-lignin mixtures were centrifuged. Pellet and supernatant dry mass and corrected spectroscopic results were in good agreement for optimal pDADMAC and BB. Spectroscopy showed 87-92% loss of supernatant lignin. Nitrogen analysis showed BB concentrated in the pellet until the pellet became saturated with BB. Subtracting ash and BB mass from pellet and supernatant mass confirmed optimal BB. Low levels of alum caused increased lignin flocculation at lower levels of pDADMAC and BB, but alum did not affect optimal flocculant. PMID:24326211

Piazza, G J; Lora, J H; Garcia, R A

2014-01-01

240

Development of low-cost wheat-straw insulation board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg\\/m³, and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m·K\\/W [R3 to R4 per inch

L. K. Norford; L. R. Glicksman; H. S. Jr. Harvey; J. A. Charlson

2000-01-01

241

Development of Low-Cost WheatStraw Insulation Board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg\\/m (5 to 10 lb\\/ft), and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m·K\\/W [R3

L. K. Norford; L. R. Glicksman; H. S. Harvey; J. A. Charlson

1999-01-01

242

Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation  

PubMed Central

Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent), biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea) as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4) was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw. PMID:23118505

Feng, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Guo, Yan; Yang, Gaihe; Xi, Jianchao; Ren, Guangxin

2012-01-01

243

Comparison of Seven Chemical Pretreatments of Corn Straw for Improving Methane Yield by Anaerobic Digestion  

PubMed Central

Agriculture straw is considered a renewable resource that has the potential to contribute greatly to bioenergy supplies. Chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion can increase the anaerobic digestibility of agriculture straw. The present study investigated the effects of seven chemical pretreatments on the composition and methane yield of corn straw to assess their effectiveness of digestibility. Four acid reagents (H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, and CH3COOH) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% (w/w) and three alkaline reagents (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and NH3·H2O) at concentrations of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) were used for the pretreatments. All pretreatments were effective in the biodegradation of the lignocellulosic straw structure. The straw, pretreated with 3% H2O2 and 8% Ca(OH)2, acquired the highest methane yield of 216.7 and 206.6 mL CH4 g VS ?1 in the acid and alkaline pretreatments, which are 115.4% and 105.3% greater than the untreated straw. H2O2 and Ca(OH)2 can be considered as the most favorable pretreatment methods for improving the methane yield of straw because of their effectiveness and low cost. PMID:24695485

Song, Zilin; GaiheYang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Liao, Yinzhang

2014-01-01

244

Cellulases and xylanase of an anaerobic rumen fungus grown on wheat straw, wheat straw holocellulose, cellulose and xylan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes produced by an anaerobic fungus (RI) which resembled Neocallimastix sp. were investigated. Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), cellobiase, and filter paper (FPase) activities had pH optima of 6.0, 5.5 and 6.0, respectively. CMCase and cellobiase activities both had a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C, whereas FPase had an optimum of 45 degrees C. The pH

S. E. Lowe; M. K. Theodorou; A. P. J. Trinci

1987-01-01

245

Shifts of functional gene representation in wheat rhizosphere microbial communities under elevated ozone  

PubMed Central

Although the influence of ozone (O3) on plants has been well studied in agroecosystems, little is known about the effect of elevated O3 (eO3) on soil microbial functional communities. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to investigate the functional composition, and structure of rhizosphere microbial communities of Yannong 19 (O3-sensitive) and Yangmai 16 (O3-relatively sensitive) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under eO3. Compared with ambient O3 (aO3), eO3 led to an increase in soil pH and total carbon (C) percentages in grain and straw of wheat plants, and reduced grain weight and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Based on GeoChip hybridization signal intensities, although the overall functional structure of rhizosphere microbial communities did not significantly change by eO3 or cultivars, the results showed that the abundance of specific functional genes involved in C fixation and degradation, nitrogen (N) fixation, and sulfite reduction did significantly (P<0.05) alter in response to eO3 and/or wheat cultivars. Also, Yannong 19 appeared to harbor microbial functional communities in the rhizosphere more sensitive in response to eO3 than Yangmai 16. Additionally, canonical correspondence analysis suggested that the functional structure of microbial community involved in C cycling was largely shaped by soil and plant properties including pH, DOC, microbial biomass C, C/N ratio and grain weight. This study provides new insight into our understanding of the influence of eO3 and wheat cultivars on soil microbial communities. PMID:23151639

Li, Xinyu; Deng, Ye; Li, Qi; Lu, Caiyan; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

2013-01-01

246

Chemical composition in relation with biomass ash structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass combustion can be more complicated like combustion of fossil fuels because it is necessary to solve problems with lower ash melting temperature. It can cause a lot of problems during combustion process. Chemical composition of biomass ash has great impact on sinters and slags creation in ash because it affects structure of heated ash. In this paper was solved relation between chemical composition and structure of heated ash from three types of biomass (spruce wood, miscanthus giganteus and wheat straw). Amount of SiO2, CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and K2O was determined. Structure of heated ash was optically determined after heating to 1000 °C or 1200 °C. Results demonstrated that chemical composition has strong effect on structure and color of heated ash.

Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef

2014-08-01

247

[Spectral analysis of dissolved organic matter derived from rice straw after chemical treatment].  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to study the chemical composition of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) derived from rice straw in the hydrolysis process with a dilute complex acid solution. The results obtained are as follows. FTIR spectra could indicate the changes of DOM during the hydrolysis process of rice straw. With the progress of rice straw hydrolysis, methyl, methylene, aromatic compounds and carbohydrates decreased, most of aliphatic compounds were oxidized to CO2 and H2O, and others were turned into carbonates. Most of the organic silicon was hydrolyzed into inorganic silicon. The proteins, amino acids and other nitrogen were hydrolyzed to NH4+. All the recalcitrant fractions of rice straw, such as hemi-cellulose, cellulose and silicon sharply decreased during the process of chemical treatment. The results obtained in this paper proposed that the changes of DOM of rice straw in the hydrolysis could be an indication in the changes of chemical composition of rice straw during the hydrolyzation, and FTIR, UV and NMR were good methods to study the changes in the structure of organic compounds. PMID:15856553

Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yong; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Yu, Qing; Zhou, Zhi-Ping

2005-02-01

248

Reducing Concentrate Supplementation in Dairy Cow Diets While Maintaining Milk Production with Pea-Wheat Intercrops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first of 2 experiments, 40 dairy cows were used to evaluate the milk production potential and concen- trate-sparing effect of feeding dairy cows a basal diet of pea-wheat intercrop silages instead of perennial rye- grass silage (GS). Dairy cows were offered GS or 2 in- tercrop silagesprepared from wheat andeither Magnus peas (MW, a tall-straw variety) or Setchey

A. T. Adesogan; M. B. Salawu; S. P. Williams; W. J. Fisher; R. J. Dewhurst

2004-01-01

249

Bioethanol production from rice straw residues  

PubMed Central

A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L?1. PMID:24159309

Belal, Elsayed B.

2013-01-01

250

Study of wheat protein based materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat gluten is a naturally occurring protein polymer. It is produced in abundance by the agricultural industry, is biodegradable and very inexpensive (less than $0.50/lb). It has unique viscoelastic properties, which makes it a promising alternative to synthetic plastics. The unplasticized wheat gluten is, however, brittle. Plasticizers such as glycerol are commonly used to give flexibility to the articles made of wheat gluten but with the penalty of greatly reduced stiffness. Former work showed that the brittleness of wheat gluten can also be improved by modifying it with a tri-thiol additive with no penalty of reduced stiffness. However, the cost of the customer designed tri-thiol additive was very high and it was unlikely to make a cost effective material from such an expensive additive. Here we designed a new, inexpensive thiol additive called SHPVA. It was synthesized from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) through a simple esterification reaction. The mechanical data of the molded wheat gluten/SHPVA material indicated that wheat gluten was toughened by SHPVA. As a control, the wheat gluten/PVA material showed no improvement compared with wheat gluten itself. Several techniques have been used to characterize this novel protein/polymer blend. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) study showed two phases in both wheat gluten/PVA and wheat gluten/SHPVA material. However, scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures indicated that PVA was macroscopically separated from wheat gluten, while wheat gluten/SHPVA had a homogeneous look. The phase image from the atomic force microscope (AFM) gave interesting contrast based on the difference in the mechanical properties of these two phases. The biodegradation behavior of these protein/polymer blends was examined in soil. SHPVA was not degraded in the time period of the experiment. Wheat gluten/SHPVA degraded slower than wheat gluten. We also developed some other interesting material systems based on wheat gluten, including the wheat gluten/basalt composite and wheat gluten/clay composite materials. Their mechanical properties and biodegradation behaviors were determined.

Ye, Peng

251

Spring Wheat Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat (various species of the genus Triticum) is a grass originating from the Levant area of the Middle East. However, only hexaploid common wheat (Triticum eastivum), and tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) are presently cultivated worldwide. Not only is wheat an important crop today, it may well have influenced human history.\\u000a Wheat was a key factor enabling the

M. Mergoum; P. K. Singh; J. A. Anderson; R. J. Peña; R. P. Singh; S. S. Xu; J. K. Ransom

252

Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.  

PubMed

Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods. PMID:25130676

Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

2014-08-27

253

Natural cellulose fibers from soybean straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of natural cellulose technical fibers from soybean straw with properties similar to the natural cellulose fibers in current use. About 220 million tons of soybean straw available in the world every year could complement the byproducts of other major food crops as inexpensive, abundant and annually renewable sources for natural cellulose fibers. Using the agricultural

Narendra Reddy; Yiqi Yang

2009-01-01

254

Cell Walls of Developing Wheat Starchy Endosperm: Comparison of Composition and RNA-Seq Transcriptome1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The transcriptome of the developing starchy endosperm of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) was determined using RNA-Seq isolated at five stages during grain fill. This resource represents an excellent way to identify candidate genes responsible for the starchy endosperm cell wall, which is dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 70% of the cell wall polysaccharides, with 20% (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan, 7% glucomannan, and 4% cellulose. A complete inventory of transcripts of 124 glycosyltransferase (GT) and 72 glycosylhydrolase (GH) genes associated with cell walls is presented. The most highly expressed GT transcript (excluding those known to be involved in starch synthesis) was a GT47 family transcript similar to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IRX10 involved in xylan extension, and the second most abundant was a GT61. Profiles for GT43 IRX9 and IRX14 putative orthologs were consistent with roles in AX synthesis. Low abundances were found for transcripts from genes in the acyl-coA transferase BAHD family, for which a role in AX feruloylation has been postulated. The relative expression of these was much greater in whole grain compared with starchy endosperm, correlating with the levels of bound ferulate. Transcripts associated with callose (GSL), cellulose (CESA), pectin (GAUT), and glucomannan (CSLA) synthesis were also abundant in starchy endosperm, while the corresponding cell wall polysaccharides were confirmed as low abundance (glucomannan and callose) or undetectable (pectin) in these samples. Abundant transcripts from GH families associated with the hydrolysis of these polysaccharides were also present, suggesting that they may be rapidly turned over. Abundant transcripts in the GT31 family may be responsible for the addition of Gal residues to arabinogalactan peptide. PMID:22123899

Pellny, Till K.; Lovegrove, Alison; Freeman, Jackie; Tosi, Paola; Love, Christopher G.; Knox, J. Paul; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A.C.

2012-01-01

255

Changes in Protein Composition and Mn Abundance in Photosystem II Particles on Photoactivation of the Latent O(2)-Evolving System in Flash-Grown Wheat Leaves.  

PubMed

Protein composition and Mn abundance were compared between the two photosystem II (PSII) particle preparations obtained before and after photoactivation of the latent O(2)-evolving system in intermittently flashed wheat leaves. The following results have been obtained: (a) nonphotoactivated PSII particles were devoid of two extrinsic proteins which corresponded to the 24 and 16 kilodalton proteins in spinach particles, although the particles contained all the intrinsic proteins and the 33 kilodalton extrinsic protein. (b) The two extrinsic proteins absent in nonphotoactivated PSII particles were present in nonphotoactivated thylakoids, but were easily removed by a hypotonic shock followed by brief sonication. Such removal of the proteins did not occur in photoactivated thylakoids. (c) Nonphotoactivated PSII particles contained 1.5 Mn/400 chlorophyll, while photoactivated particles contained 8 Mn/400 chlorophyll. (d) Nonphotoactivated thylakoids contained 6 Mn/400 chlorophyll, but most of them were removed from thylakoids by a hypotonic shock in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Such removal of Mn did not occur in photoactivated thylakoids. PMID:16664613

Ono, T A; Kajikawa, H; Inoue, Y

1986-01-01

256

Breeding gains and changes in morphotype of Nordic spring wheat (1901–1993) under contrasting environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic diversity among 75 Nordic spring wheat cultivars was assessed in a glasshouse experiment, in which plots had no fertilizer or received 14-3-23 NPK plus Mg. On average, the fertilizer application delayed flowering by one day, shortened plant height (PH), as well as enhanced the number of fertile tillers (NFT), fresh and dry straw weight (FSW and DSW, respectively), but

Rodomiro Ortiz; Birgitte Lund; Sven-Bode Andersen

2003-01-01

257

Reduction in fat uptake of doughnut by microparticulated wheat bran.  

PubMed

Wheat flour-microparticulated wheat bran (MWB) mixture and composites were prepared, and their potential as an oil repellent was evaluated in doughnuts. As MWB content increased, the oil-holding capacity decreased, and there were significant changes in water-holding capacity (p < 0.05). As MWB content increased, the fat content of doughnuts decreased. In addition, the wheat flour-MWB composite was more effective for preventing fat uptake than the wheat flour-MWB mixture. The hardness of the composite was higher than the mixture, although volume and weight decreased and surface colour became darker than that of the mixture. As the proportion of wheat bran in the doughnut formulation increased, the inner crust achieved a uniform cell size and cellular integrity was improved. Based on these data, wheat flour-MWB composites are appropriate for use in doughnut formulas with low fat uptake. PMID:22639853

Kim, Bum-Keun; Chun, Yong-Gi; Cho, Ah-Ra; Park, Dong-June

2012-12-01

258

Numerical modeling of straw combustion in a fixed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straw is being used as main renewable energy source in grate boilers in Denmark. For optimizing operating conditions and design parameters, a one-dimensional unsteady heterogeneous mathematical model has been developed and experiments have been carried out for straw combustion in a fixed bed. The straw combustion processes include moisture evaporation, straw pyrolysis, gas combustion, and char combustion. The model provides

H. Zhou; A. D. Jensen; P. Glarborg; P. A. Jensen; A. Kavaliauskas

2005-01-01

259

Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200/sup 0/C for 5 minutes and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of a pulp that gave saccharification yields of 80 and 65% in 8 h for bagasse and wheat straw, respectively. By comparison, alkali steaming at 200/sup 0/C (1.72 MPa) for 5 minutes gave saccharification yields of only 58 and 52% in 48 h. The increase in temperature from 140 to 200/sup 0/resulted in a gradual increase in in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD0) for both the substrates. Also, the extent of alkalinity during pretreatment appears to effect the reactivity of the final product towards enzymes. Pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 60 caused a progressive decline in the IVOMD of bagasse and wheat straw by the alkali explosion method and this was accompanied by a progressive decrease in pH values after explosion. In the alkali-steaming method, pretreatment time had no apparent effect with either substrate. An analysis of the alkali-exploded products showed that substantial amounts of hemicellulose and a small proportion of the lignin were solubilized. The percentage crystallinity of the cellulose did not alter in either substrate but there was a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization. The superiority of the alkali-explosion pretreatment is attributed to the efficacy of fiber separation and disintegration; this increases the surface area and reduces the degree of polymerization. 33 references.

Puri, V.P.; Pearce, G.R.

1986-04-01

260

Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat kernels that were lightly and moderately infected by Fusarium graminearum were analyzed in terms of their carbohydrate, lipid, and protein contents to determine any compositional changes. The significant compositional changes in lightly infected wheat were increases in reducing sugars (24%), non-starch lipids (5%), and decreases in cellulose (17%) and hemicellulose (20%) components. In moderately infected wheat, the increases in

D. Boyacio?lu; N. S. Hettiarachchy

1995-01-01

261

Pine Straw as a Ground Cover Mulch  

E-print Network

L-5447 1/04 Pine Straw as a Ground Cover Mulch Eric L. Taylor, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist C. Darwin Foster, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader in Forestry The Texas A&M University System T he dead needles...-Product?Whereas products such as cypress mulch are produced by harvesting and grinding up whole trees, pine straw is a by- product that is discarded naturally from trees. ? Water Infiltration?Pine needles tend to inter- lock, which helps keep pine straw loose and fri- able...

Taylor, Eric; Tate, Jay

2004-01-09

262

Hydrothermal pre-treatment of rapeseed straw.  

PubMed

As a first step for ethanol production from alternative raw materials, rapeseed straw was studied for fermentable sugar production. Liquid hot water was used as a pre-treatment method and the influence of the main pre-treatment variables was assessed. Experimental design and response surface methodology were applied using pre-treatment temperature and process time as factors. The pretreated solids were further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis and the corresponding yields were used as pre-treatment performance evaluation. Liquid fractions obtained from pre-treatment were also characterized in terms of sugars and no-sugar composition. A mathematical model describing pre-treatment effects is proposed. Results show that enzymatic hydrolysis yields near to 100% based on pretreated materials can be achieved at 210-220 degrees C for 30-50 min, equivalent to near 70% of glucose present in the raw material. According to the mathematical model, a softer pre-treatment at 193 degrees C for 27 min results in 65% of glucose and 39% of xylose available for fermentation. PMID:19939678

Díaz, Manuel J; Cara, Cristóbal; Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel; Castro, Eulogio

2010-04-01

263

Fast pyrolysis of rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an induction-heating reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the application of induction heating, a fast pyrolysis was used for producing valuable products from rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effect of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and holding time on the yields of pyrolysis products and their chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum yield of ca.

W. T. Tsai; M. K. Lee; Y. M. Chang

2006-01-01

264

Okra production with pine straw mulch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional planted okra in Booneville, Arkansas and Lorman, Mississippi were mulched with loblolly pine straw (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine straw (P. palustris Mill.), respectively, at a rate of 11 t\\/ha or left bare. At Booneville, plant stand, season yields (18.6 t\\/ha), pod weight (16.3 g), plant dry weight (2.3 kg), or stem diameter (3.5 cm) were not affected

D. J. Makus; S. C. Tiwari; H. A. Pearson; J. D. Haywood; A. E. Tiarks

1994-01-01

265

Straw combustion in a fixed bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straw and herbaceous energy crops are key biomass materials for greenhouse gas neutral energy production. Combustion of straw and two herbaceous crops was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor for a range of air flow-rates (234–1170kg\\/m2h). The fixed bed tests simulate the moving bed combustion where the distance along a grate corresponds to the time on the fixed bed. Measured temperatures,

Adela Khor; Changkook Ryu; Yao-bin Yang; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

2007-01-01

266

Effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with high quality cassava flour on the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, sensory quality, and microbial quality of bread.  

PubMed

IN THE CURRENT STUDY, WHEAT FLOUR WAS MIXED WITH HIGH QUALITY CASSAVA FLOUR (HQCF) IN SEVERAL RATIOS: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×10(3) CFU/mL to 1.4×10(4) CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×10(3) CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R(2)=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R(2)=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R(2)=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

2014-06-01

267

Field study on the uptake and translocation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in biosolids-amended soils.  

PubMed

Field experiments were performed to evaluate the uptake and translocation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soils amended with biosolids at different rates. Nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were detected in the soils and wheat tissues. Total concentrations of PFAAs in the soils and wheat root, straw, husk and grain increased with increasing application of biosolids. PFCA concentrations in grain increased logarithmically with increasing PFCA concentrations in soils (P < 0.01) while PFSAs in grain were correlated linearly with PFSA concentrations in soils (P < 0.01), indicating that PFCAs and PFSAs may have different transport pathways from soil to grain. While no significant correlation was found between the root concentration factors (Croot/Csoil) and PFAA carbon chain length, the transfer factors from roots to straws (Cstraw/Croot) and from straws to grains (Cgrain/Cstraw) correlated negatively with PFAA carbon chain length (P < 0.01). PMID:24184376

Wen, Bei; Li, Longfei; Zhang, Hongna; Ma, Yibing; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Shuzhen

2014-01-01

268

The Impact of Post-Pretreatment Conditioning on Enzyme Accessibility and Water Interactions in Alkali Pretreated Rice Straw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice straw, a high-abundance lignocellulosic residue from rice production has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biofuel production in California. In this study, the impact of post-alkali pretreatment conditioning schemes on enzyme saccharification efficiency was examined, particularly focusing on understanding resulting biomass compositional impacts on water interactions with the biomass and enzyme accessibility to the cellulose fraction. Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide and subsequently washed by two different conditions: 1) by extensive washing with distilled water to reduce the pH to the optimum for cellulases which is pH 5--6, and 2) immediate pH adjustment to pH 5--6 with hydrochloric acid before extensive washing with distilled water. The two post-pretreatment conditions gave significant differences in ash, acid-insoluble lignin, glucan and xylan compositions. Alkali pretreatment improved cellulase digestibility of rice straw, and water washing improved enzymatic digestibility more than neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions with a purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A, a reducing-end specific cellulase, demonstrated that the differences in saccharification are likely due to differences in the accessibility of the cellulose fraction to the cellulolytic enzymes. Further analyses were conducted to study the mobility of the water associated with the rice straw samples by measuring T2 relaxation times of the water protons by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed significant changes in water association with the rice straw due to the pretreatment and due to the two different post-pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment increased the amount of water at the surface of the rice straw samples as indicated by increased amplitude of the shortest T2 time peaks in the relaxation spectra. Moreover, the amount of water in the first T2 pool in the water washed sample was significantly greater than in the neutralized sample. These results suggest that the specific surface area of rice straw accessible to water protons was increased by the alkali pretreatment, likely due to solubilization of alkali-soluble components of the cell walls. Post-pretreatment processes resulted in differences in the specific surface area likely due to re-precipitation of alkali solubilized components during neutralization. The T2 relaxation times of the surface water pool in washed and raw rice straw were not significantly different, at 4.4 and 4.5 ms, respectively, but both T2 times were significantly shorter than that of the neutralized and then washed sample, at 5.5 ms. The expectation was that the T2 times of the surface water peaks would reflect differences in surface composition of the rice straw samples. Further analysis of surface composition is necessary to further interpret the shortest T2 times observed in the samples. The T2 spectra of the rice straw samples contained longer T2 time peaks that were interpreted as differences in porosity of the rice straw due to the treatments. Pretreatment caused physical changes to rice straw that impacted water organization (3 peaks to 4 peaks), but the amount of water in the peaks were greater in the washed rice straw than the neutralized rice straw suggesting that water-washed rice straw had more of the larger pores than the neutralized and then washed rice straw. One possible explanation is that the neutralization caused precipitation of alkali solubilized components that filled the volumes of the pores.

Karuna, Nardrapee

269

Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of rapeseed straw by popping pretreatment for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to find a pretreatment process that enhances enzymatic conversion of biomass to sugars. Rapeseed straw was pretreated by two processes: a wet process involving wet milling plus a popping treatment, and a dry process involving popping plus dry milling. The effects of the pretreatments were studied both in terms of structural and compositional changes and change in susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis. After application of the wet and dry processes, the amounts of cellulose and xylose in the straw were 37-38% and 14-15%, respectively, compared to 31% and 12% in untreated counterparts. In enzymatic hydrolysis performance, the wet process presented the best glucose yield, with a 93.1% conversion, while the dry process yielded 69.6%, and the un-pretreated process yielded <20%. Electron microscopic studies of the straw also showed a relative increase in susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis with pretreatment. PMID:21376577

Wi, Seung Gon; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Yang, Duck Joo; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

2011-05-01

270

Cellulase production and saccharification of rice straw by the mutant strain Hypocrea koningii RSC1.  

PubMed

The production of cellulase using solid-state fermentation of rice straw by the mutant strain Hypocrea koningii RSC1 was studied. Optimization of culture conditions, such as the nitrogen source, pH, and temperature, resulted in a maximum filter paper cellulase activity of 44.15?U?g(-1) substrate, a carboxymethylcellulase activity of 324.6?U?g(-1) substrate, and a ?-glucosidase activity of 7.45?U?g(-1) substrate. Saccharification of untreated, 1% H(2)SO(4)-treated, and 2.5% NaOH-treated rice straw using the RSC1 cellulase resulted in 19, 17, and 34?g?L(-1) of reducing sugar, respectively. Further studies on the morphological and compositional changes of rice straw upon treatment with the cellulase by scanning electron microscopy analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the disruption of the arrangement of fibers and changes in the functional groups that occur in cellulose. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a reduction in crystallinity of the rice straw upon treatment with the cellulase. Our study shows that H. koningii RSC1 could be a good choice for the production of cellulase and reducing sugars from rice straw. PMID:23775722

Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

2014-01-01

271

[Effects of mulching on soil moisture in a dryland winter wheat field, Northwest China].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of different mulching modes on the soil moisture in a semi-arid rainfed area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China. Seven treatments were installed, i. e., mulching plastic film in summer (T1), mulching plastic film in autumn (T2), mulching 5 cm long wheat straw in summer (T3), mulching whole wheat straw in summer (T4), mulching plastic film in summer plus wheat straw (T5), mulching used plastic film after harvest (T6), and un-mulching (CK). In T6, the soil moisture in different layers at different crop growth stages was all higher than that in CK. In the other five mulching treatments, the soil moisture in 0-90 cm layer before flowering stage was obviously higher, but that in 0-90 cm layer after flowering stage and in 90-200 cm layer during the whole growth season was lower than that of CK. The soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in T6 during the whole growth period was significantly higher than that in CK, with a difference of 0.9%, but the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in other mulching treatments was lower. As compared with plastic film mulching, straw mulching increased the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer. The soil moisture under mulching with used plastic film after harvest was higher than that under mulching with new plastic film. As compared to CK, the grain yield of winter wheat with plastic film mulching was increased by 20.3%-29.0%, and that With straw mulching was increased by 5.0%-16.7%. There was a significant positive correlation between the crop productivity and the soil water consumption during the growth period (r = 0.77*). PMID:24564142

Fan, Ying-Dan; Chai, Shou-Xi; Cheng, Hong-Bo; Chen, Yu-Zhang; Yang, Chang-Gang; Huang, Cai-Xia; Chang, Lei; Pang, Lei

2013-11-01

272

Comparison of three technics converting the straw to soil-like substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS), the treatment of inedible biomass of higher plants such as straw is one of the most important aspects for increasing the degree of closure of system. In this research, the straw of wheat and rice which are the candidate plants for BLSS was processed by three pretreating technics and the succedent treatment of worms respectively, and the soil like substrates (SLS) were obtained by those successive biological conversions. Subsequently, the pH, organic matter, available N, P, K and seed germination of the SLS were determined to confirm the feasibility of growing plants on them. Finally, lettuce was planted on them to compare the fertility of the SLS with three different process technics. Through our test, the optimal SLS process technic with short period was selected and the SLS with good "soil" characteristics was obtained. What's more, the results also indicated that the straw of higher plants can be involved into the intra-system turnover by producing SLS, which may improve the closure of BLSS.

Xing, Yidong; Beizhen Xie, Ms; Liu, Professor Hong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu.

273

Genetic variability in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi compatibility supports the selection of durum wheat genotypes for enhancing soil ecological services and cropping systems in Canada.  

PubMed

Crop nutrient- and water-use efficiency could be improved by using crop varieties highly compatible with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Two greenhouse experiments demonstrated the presence of genetic variability for this trait in modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) germplasm. Among the five cultivars tested, 'AC Morse' had consistently low levels of AM root colonization and DT710 had consistently high levels of AM root colonization, whereas 'Commander', which had the highest colonization levels under low soil fertility conditions, developed poor colonization levels under medium fertility level. The presence of genetic variability in durum wheat compatibility with AMF was further evidenced by significant genotype × inoculation interaction effects in grain and straw biomass production; grain P, straw P, and straw K concentrations under medium soil fertility level; and straw K and grain Fe concentrations at low soil fertility. Mycorrhizal dependency was an undesirable trait of 'Mongibello', which showed poor growth and nutrient balance in the absence of AMF. An AMF-mediated reduction in grain Cd under low soil fertility indicated that breeding durum wheat for compatibility with AMF could help reduce grain Cd concentration in durum wheat. Durum wheat genotypes should be selected for compatibility with AMF rather than for mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:22356605

Singh, A K; Hamel, C; Depauw, R M; Knox, R E

2012-03-01

274

Seismic load-resisting capacity of plastered straw bale walls  

E-print Network

Straw bales have been incorporated into buildings for centuries, but only recently have they been explored in academic settings for their structural potential. Straw bale building is encountering a growing audience due to ...

Hsiaw, Jennifer S. (Jennifer Sing-Yee)

2010-01-01

275

Wheat grass selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

Richard Wang (USDA;ARS)

2006-09-25

276

Effect of Sorghum Flour Addition on the Characteristics of Wheat Flour Tortillas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 70(l):8-13 Wheat flour tortillas were produced from composite flours containing during storage, sorghum tortillas became less rollable, and became so up to 30% decorticated sorghum flour. Sorghum tortillas had a few black faster, than did wheat flour tortillas. The addition of carboxymethylcel- specks and were more firm than the control wheat flour tortillas. However, lulose to tortillas containing

P. I. TORRES; B. RAMTIREZ-WONG; L. W. ROONEY

277

Wheat Diseases Atlas.  

E-print Network

small grains by clean cultivation and crop rotation. 4 Crown rot with decay at base of stalk Plant Parasitic Nematodes (Nematodes - Cyst, Root Knot, Root Lesion, Seed Gall, Stunt and others) Plant parasitic nematodes are nonsegmented roundworms... that mostly inhabit the soil and feed on roots of wheat and other plants. However, one species, called the wheat seed gall nematode, Anguina tritici, is a significant pathogen of wheat. It is detected on threshed wheat by the presence of galls and hard...

McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

1982-01-01

278

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

279

Avemar (Wheat Germ Extract) in Cancer Prevention and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many healthy foods are derived from wheat germ. The molecular composition of these products, however, greatly differs as shown by normal-phase HPLC-mass spectrometry analysis; thus, experimental data obtained by one of them is not necessarily true for the other. Avemar is a nontoxic wheat germ extract registered as a special nutriment for cancer patients in Hungary. It shows potent anticancer

András Telekes; Márta Heged?s; Chang-Hoon Chae; Károly Vékey

2009-01-01

280

Surface characterization of lignocellulosics for composite manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this research were to form moisture resistant wheat strawboards, either by altering the straw surface characteristics or by changing the chemistry of the polymeric 4, 4' diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI)-based matrix and interface. Part I compared the surface characteristics of wheat, barley, oat, rice, kenaf, hemp and softwood particles. All cereal straws had two surfaces: epidermis and brittle-pith unlike one heterogeneous type observed for bast fibers and softwood particles. The epidermis of cereal straws was not wet by water or aqueous binders, whereas the pith surface allowed the penetration of water, but was not readily wetted by aqueous binders. Between the different surface treatments evaluated for wheat straw in Part II, NaOH selectively peeled-off the epidermis and pith layers. The treated straw particles were formable into strawboards using aqueous phenol-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, and duroplastic acrylic acid binders with good internal bond strength (IBS) and adequate water resistance. In Part III it was shown that, decreasing straw particle sizes and bleaching worsened the mechanical properties of strawboards, but the moisture absorption properties of bleached strawboards were lower than the unbleached ones. Layering of straw particles in strawboards did not seem to affect their mechanical or moisture absorption properties. Part IV showed that the pith surface of wheat straw was fractured on curing with PMDI, providing hollow microcrevices for water accumulation. Furthermore, the cured PMDI formed a network polyurea/polyuretonimine/polycarbodiimide/polyisocyanurate polymer on straw surfaces whose properties dictated the properties of strawboards. Among the different mono-, bi-, and tri-functional alcohols, amines and carboxylic acids evaluated in Part V as H-donor substitutes to moisture for reaction with PMDI on straw surfaces, ethylene glycol, resorcinol, glycerin and citric acid provided IBS values greater than the ANSI recommended minimum (60 psi) and lower thickness swell values than the moisture-cure process. In Part VI, strawboards formed with 2% PMDI and 5% epoxy or duroplastic acrylic acid binders had high IBS values, and their thickness swell after 24 h soaking in water was restricted to 13%, which was much lower than the ˜18--20% values obtained for strawboards made with 5% PMDI.

Iyer, Ananth V.

281

Persistence of metsulfuron-methyl in wheat crop and soil.  

PubMed

Possible bioaccumulation of pesticides in crop produce may cause ailing effect on animal and human. Thus there is a need to evaluate these chemicals in the soil and crop produce at harvest. Metsulfuron-methyl is a post-emergence herbicide. It is highly active to control broad-leaf weeds in cererals, pasture and plantation crops. Metsulfuron-methyl was applied at 3, 4, 5, and 8 g a.i. ha(-1) rates, after 30 days of sowing in wheat as post-emergence herbicide. Soil samples treated with metsulfuron-methyl were collected after 30 and 60 days along with control and at harvest after herbicide application and analyzed for residues by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) using photo diode array detector at 220 nm. Wheat grains and straw samples were sampled at harvest. At harvest the residue level of metsulfuron-methyl in soil was found below the detection limit at 3-5 g a.i. ha(-1) application rates and 0.002 microg g(-1) at 8 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. No residues of metsulfuron-methyl were detected in wheat grains at 3-4 g a.i. ha(-1) rates. However 0.002 microg g(-1) residues were detected in wheat straw at 5 and 8 g a.i. ha(-1) application rates. It can be concluded that metsulfuron-methyl application at 3-4 g a.i. ha(-1) can be safely applied to the wheat crop as post-emergence herbicide. PMID:18224452

Sondhia, Shobha

2008-12-01

282

Producing Pine Straw in East Texas Forests  

E-print Network

sell pine straw can earn income from their pine plantations for several years before the trees are big enough to harvest for pulpwood and saw timber. With wise management, pine straw can substan- tially increase the return on the landowner?s forest land... ? the fresh, undecomposed pine needles that have fallen to the forest floor. Rotation ? the length of time between the initial establishment of a pine plantation and the final harvest. Understory ? all the plants growing under the main canopy of the pine trees...

Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

2004-01-09

283

Assessment of anecic behavior in selected earthworm species: Effects on wheat seed burial, seedling establishment, wheat growth and litter incorporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecic earthworm species function as ecosystem engineers by structuring the soil environment, incorporating large amounts of litter and seeds into soil and, thereby influence the composition of plant communities. The aim of the present greenhouse experiment was to investigate the effects of three apparently anecic earthworm species on wheat seed burial, seedling establishment, wheat growth and litter incorporation. The three

Nico Eisenhauer; Sven Marhan; Stefan Scheu

2008-01-01

284

Nitric oxide emissions from rice-wheat rotation fields in eastern China: effect of fertilization, soil water content, and crop residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better understanding of nitric oxide (NO) emission from a typical rice-wheat agroecosystem in eastern China is important\\u000a for calculating the regional inventory and to propose effective NO mitigation options. Nitric oxide flux measurements by static\\u000a chamber method were made from treatments of conventional nitrogen-fertilizer (NPK plus urea) application, no-nitrogen application,\\u000a and nitrogen-fertilizer with incorporation of wheat straw residue for

Zaixing Zhou; Xunhua Zheng; Baohua Xie; Chunyan Liu; Tao Song; Shenghui Han; Jianguo Zhu

2010-01-01

285

Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information\\u000a is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study,\\u000a a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between\\u000a Australian cultivars Kukri × Janz grown at

Gulay Mann; Simon Diffey; Brian Cullis; Fermin Azanza; David Martin; Alison Kelly; Lynne McIntyre; Adele Schmidt; Wujun Ma; Zena Nath; Ibrahim Kutty; P. Emmett Leyne; Lynette Rampling; Ken J. Quail; Matthew K. Morell

2009-01-01

286

Straw Rockets Are out of This World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

Gillman, Joan

2013-01-01

287

Comparative degradation of [14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in wheat and potato after Foliar application and in wheat, radish, lettuce, and apple after soil application.  

PubMed

The fate of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) applied foliarly as the 2-ethylhexyl ester (EHE) to wheat and potatoes, to the soil as the dimethylamine (DMA) salt under apple tree canopies, and preplant as the free acid for wheat, lettuce, and radish was studied to evaluate metabolic pathways. Crop fractions analyzed for (14)C residues included wheat forage, straw, and grain; potato vine and tubers; and apple fruit. The primary metabolic pathway for foliar application in wheat is ester hydrolysis followed by the formation of base-labile 2,4-D conjugates. A less significant pathway for 2,4-D in wheat was ring hydroxylation to give NIH-shift products 2,5-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenoxyacetic acid (4-OH-2,5-D), 4-OH-2,3-D, and 5-OH-2,4-D both free and as acid-labile conjugates. The primary metabolic pathway in potato was again ester hydrolysis. 2,4-D acid was further transformed to 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4-OH-2,5-D. For the soil applications, (14)C residues in the crops were low, and characterization of the (14)C residues indicated association with or incorporation into the biochemical matrix of the tissue. The degradative pathways observed in wheat are similar to those characterized in other intact plant studies but differ from those in studies in wheat cell suspension culture in that no amino acid conjugates were observed. PMID:11170570

Hamburg, A; Puvanesarajah, V; Burnett, T J; Barnekow, D E; Premkumar, N D; Smith, G A

2001-01-01

288

Invisible Coatings for Wheat Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(6):857-860 It is occasionally necessary to tag wheat kernels without altering their appearance. Coatings have potential applications to tag wheat of a particular color or protein class, diseased wheat such as Karnal bunt, or genetically modified wheat. This methodology will aid in development of cali- brations for sorting instruments. Procedures were developed to coat wheat kernels with invisible

M. S. Ram; Floyd E. Dowell; Larry Seitz

2002-01-01

289

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

290

Structural insights into rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water in relation to enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Pretreatment-induced structural alteration is critical in influencing the rate and extent of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. The present work has investigated structural features of rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water (HCW) from 140 to 240 °C for 10 or 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis profiles of pretreated rice straw. Compositional profiles of pretreated rice straw were examined to offer the basis for structural changes. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis revealed possible modification in crystalline microstructure of cellulose and the severity-dependent variation of crystallinity. The specific surface area (SSA) of pretreated samples was able to achieve more than 10-fold of that of the raw material and was in linear relationship with the removal of acetyl groups and xylan. The glucose yield by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated materials correlated linearly with the SSA increase and the dissolution of acetyl and xylan. A quantitatively intrinsic relationship was suggested to exist between enzymatic hydrolysis and the extraction of hemicellulose components in hydrothermally treated rice straw, and SSA was considered one important structural parameter signaling the efficiency of enzymatic digestibility in HCW-treated materials in which hemicellulose removal and lignin redistribution happened. PMID:25178420

Yu, Guoce; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Seiichi; Wang, Jianlong; Endo, Takashi

2014-11-01

291

On-farm experiments over 5 years in a grain maize/winter wheat rotation: effect of maize residue treatments on Fusarium graminearum infection and deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat.  

PubMed

Over the course of 5 years, different maize residue treatments were conducted on 14 zero tillage on-farm sites in Switzerland to evaluate their effect on the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the contamination with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in winter wheat grains and wheat straw following grain maize. Two experimental series with three and five different treatments were carried out, respectively. Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe) was the predominant FHB-causing species with an overall incidence of 15% infected wheat grains. A significant correlation between symptoms in the field, F. graminearum incidence and DON content in wheat grains and wheat straw was observed. The average DON content in both wheat grains and wheat straw was approximately 5,000 ?g/kg and thus several times higher than the European maximum limit of 1,250 ?g/kg for unprocessed small-grain cereals for human consumption. Of all grain samples, 74% were above the maximum limit. Pooled over both experimental series, the average reduction of DON in grains through treatments of the maize residue compared with a control treatment ranged between 21 and 38%. The effect of various other factors, including the year, the wheat variety, the site, the maize hybrid and the production system was evaluated as well. The year and the wheat variety were the most important FHB influencing factors. Over all treatments, the variety Levis showed a fivefold higher average DON content compared with the variety Titlis. From different categories of maize residue particles, intact pieces of 5-15 cm length were strongly correlated with F. graminearum incidence and DON content in grains. During the time course of this study, the recommendation from a preliminary version of the internet-based DON forecasting system FusaProg to apply or to omit a fungicide treatment was correct in 32 out of 42 cases. The results are currently being used to optimise the FusaProg models. This study has shown that in a grain maize/winter wheat rotation, the DON content in wheat grains frequently exceeded the European maximum limit, even with a thorough treatment of maize residues and less susceptible wheat varieties. Hence, in order to reduce the contamination risk in a zero tillage system, the crop rotation needs to be modified. PMID:23605700

Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hecker, Andreas; Musa, Tomke; Dorn, Brigitte; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf

2011-05-01

292

Effects of planting density and the composition of wheat cultivar mixtures on stripe rust: an analysis taking into account limits to the replication of controls.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The effect of plant density on disease is not well understood in populations of a single host plant genotype and has been studied even less in mixtures of host genotypes. We performed an experiment to evaluate the effect of wheat planting density on infection by Puccinia striiformis in experimental plots with a single wheat genotype and in plots with two genotypes making up a range of frequencies. Stripe rust severity in single-genotype plots increased with planting density in 1997 but decreased with planting density in 1998. Disease in host mixtures was compared to the weighted mean of disease levels in the corresponding single-genotype plots. The design of the field experiment included limited replication of these reference treatments (that is, there was not a unique pair of single-genotype plots for each mixture plot); therefore, we devised an analysis based on collapsing the data into independent mean observations. Disease reduction due to host diversity was less when one genotype predominated than when both host genotypes were present at nearly equal frequencies. The greatest mean host-diversity effect for reduced disease was at the intermediate planting density of 250 seeds per m(2). PMID:18943371

Garrett, K A; Mundt, C C

2000-12-01

293

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*  

PubMed Central

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

2006-01-01

294

Wheat Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

Tascosa, are well suited to growing under these conditions. Fur- thermore, they are strong gluten wheats which will produce grain of satisfactory miliing and baking characteristics. Wheat often is grown continuously on the same land in the Rolling...~. area. Strong gluten wheats of high test rreigF' are needed for growing under irrigation becau\\r the protein content may be low if there is no4 adeauate nitrogen. Tascosa, Caprock, S'curdl I i' caddo and warrior are strong -gluten wheat. a...

Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Merkle, O. G.; Lahr, K. A.; Gilmore, E. C.

1970-01-01

295

Effect of integrating straw into agricultural soils on soil infiltration and evaporation.  

PubMed

Soil water movement is a critical consideration for crop yield in straw-integrated fields. This study used an indoor soil column experiment to determine soil infiltration and evaporation characteristics in three forms of direct straw-integrated soils (straw mulching, straw mixing and straw inter-layering). Straw mulching is covering the land surface with straw. Straw mixing is mixing straw with the top 10 cm surface soil. Then straw inter-layering is placing straw at the 20 cm soil depth. There are generally good correlations among the mulch integration methods at p < 0.05, and with average errors/biases <10%. Straw mixing exhibited the best effect in terms of soil infiltration, followed by straw mulching. Due to over-burden weight-compaction effect, straw inter-layering somehow retarded soil infiltration. In terms of soil water evaporation, straw mulching exhibited the best effect. This was followed by straw mixing and then straw inter-layering. Straw inter-layering could have a long-lasting positive effect on soil evaporation as it limited the evaporative consumption of deep soil water. The responses of the direct straw integration modes to soil infiltration and evaporation could lay the basis for developing efficient water-conservation strategies. This is especially useful for water-scarce agricultural regions such as the arid/semi-arid regions of China. PMID:22643418

Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun; Guo, Yunlong

2012-01-01

296

N-terminal amino acid sequence homology of storage protein components from barley and a diploid wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and the wild diploid wheat Triticum boeoticum were possibly the first plants cultivated by early man1, giving rise to the domesticated forms Hordeum vulgare L. and Triticum monococcum L. In addition, T. boeoticum may have contributed the A genome to polyploid wheats, including common bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)2 which is a hexaploid with genome composition ABD.

Peter R. Shewry; Jean-Claude Autran; Charles C. Nimmo; Ellen J.-L. Lew; Donald D. Kasarda

1980-01-01

297

Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

Na, Y. J.; Lee, I. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, S. R.

2014-01-01

298

9 CFR 95.21 - Hay and straw; requirements for unrestricted entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.21...straw; requirements for unrestricted entry. Except as provided in § 95...with § 95.22 after arrival at the port of entry, unless such hay or straw...

2010-01-01

299

Physical Separation of Straw Stem Components to Reduce Silica  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these, silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher in silica, while chaff, leaves and nodes are the primary source of fines. Our approach to reducing silica is to selectively harvest the straw stems using an in-field physical separation, leaving the remaining components in the field to build soil organic matter and contribute soil nutrients.

Hess, John Richard; Thompson, David Neal; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Shaw, Peter Gordon; Grant, D.R.

2002-04-01

300

Cellulases andXylanase ofanAnaerobic RumenFungusGrownon WheatStraw, WheatStrawHolocellulose, Cellulose, andXylan  

Microsoft Academic Search

(CMCase), cellobiase, andfilter paper(FPase) activities hadpHoptima of6.0,5.5,and6.0,respectively. CMCaseandcellobiase activities bothhada temperature optimum of50°C, whereas FPasehadanoptimum of45°C. ThepHandtemperature optima for xylanase activity werepH6.0and50°C, respectively. Growthofthefungus onwheatstraw, wheatstraw holocellulose, orcellulose resulted insubstantial colonization, withatleast 43to58%losses insubstrate dry matter andaccumulation ofcomparable amounts offormate. Thisendproduct wascorrelated toapparent loss ofsubstrate dryweight andcould beusedasanindicator offungal growth. Milling ofwheatstrawdidnot enhance therate orextent ofsubstrate degradation. Growth oftheRlisolate ontheabove

SUSAN E. LOWE; MICHAEL K. THEODOROU; ANTHONY P. J. TRINCI

1987-01-01

301

Steam explosion of oilseed rape straw: establishing key determinants of saccharification efficiency.  

PubMed

Oilseed rape straw was steam exploded into hot water at a range of severities. The residues were fractionated into solid and liquid phases and chemically characterised. The effect of steam explosion on enzymatic hydrolysis of the water-insoluble fractions was investigated by studying initial cellulase binding and hydrolysis yields for different cellulase doses. Time-course data was modelled to establish rate-dependent differences in saccharification as a function of pretreatment severity and associated chemical composition. The study concluded: (1) the initial hydrolysis rate was limited by the amount of (pectic) uronic acid remaining in the substrate; (2) the proportion of rapidly hydrolysable carbohydrate was most closely and positively related to lignin abundance and (3) the final sugar yield most closely related to xylan removal from the substrate. Comparisons between milled and un-milled steam exploded straw highlighted the influence that physical structure has on hydrolysis rates and yields, particularly at low severities. PMID:24747672

Wood, Ian P; Elliston, Adam; Collins, Sam R A; Wilson, David; Bancroft, Ian; Waldron, Keith W

2014-06-01

302

[Leaf water potential of spring wheat and field pea under different tillage patterns and its relationships with environmental factors].  

PubMed

Based on a long-term experiment, the leaf water potential of spring wheat and field pea, its relationships with environmental factors, and the diurnal variations of leaf relative water content and water saturation deficient under different tillage patterns were studied. The results showed that during whole growth period, field pea had an obviously higher leaf water potential than spring wheat, but the two crops had similar diurnal variation trend of their leaf water potential, i.e., the highest in early morning, followed by a descent, and a gradual ascent after the descent. For spring wheat, the maximum leaf water potential appeared at its jointing and heading stages, followed by at booting and flowering stages, and the minimum appeared at filling stage. For field pea, the maximum leaf water potential achieved at squaring stage, followed by at branching and flowering stages, and the minimum was at podding stage. The leaf relative water content of spring wheat was the highest at heading stage, followed by at jointing and flowering stages, and achieved the minimum at filling stage; while the water saturation deficient was just in adverse. With the growth of field pea, its leaf relative water content decreased, but leaf water saturation deficient increased. The leaf water potential of both spring wheat and field pea had significant correlations with environmental factors, including soil water content, air temperature, solar radiation, relative air humidity, and air water potential. Path analysis showed that the meteorological factor which had the strongest effect on the diurnal variation of spring wheat' s and field pea' s leaf water potential was air water potential and air temperature, respectively. Compared with conventional tillage, the protective tillage patterns no-till, no-till plus straw mulching, and conventional tillage plus straw returning increased the leaf water potential and relative water content of test crops, and the effect of no-till plus straw mulching was most significant. PMID:18839905

Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Ren-Zhi; Cai, Li-Qun

2008-07-01

303

Bioconversion of Straw into Improved Fodder: Fungal Flora Decomposing Rice Straw  

PubMed Central

The fungal flora decomposing rice straw were investigated all over the soil of Sharkia Province, east of Nile Delta, Egypt, using the nylon net bag technique. Sixty-four straw-decomposing species belonging to 30 genera were isolated by the dilution plate method in ground rice straw-Czapek's agar medium at pH 6. The plates were incubated separately at 5?, 25? and 45?, respectively. Twenty nine species belonging to 14 genera were isolated at 5?. The most frequent genus was Penicillium (seven species), and the next frequent genera were Acremonium (three species), Fusarium (three species), Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Mucor, Stachybotrys (two species) and Rhizopus stolonifer. At 25?, 47 species belonging to 24 genera were isolated. The most frequent genus was Aspergillus (nine species), and the next frequent genera were ranked by Penicillium (five species), Chaetomium (three species), Fusarium (three species). Each of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Myrothecium and Trichoderma was represented by two species. At 45?, 15 species belonging to seven genera were isolated. These were seven species of Aspergillus, two species of Chaetomium and two species of Emericella, while Humicola, Malbranchea, Rhizomucor and Talaromyces were represented by one species respectively. The total counts of fungi the genera, and species per gram of dry straw were significantly affected by incubation temperature and soil analysis (P < 0.05). PMID:24049492

2005-01-01

304

Bioconversion of straw into improved fodder: fungal flora decomposing rice straw.  

PubMed

The fungal flora decomposing rice straw were investigated all over the soil of Sharkia Province, east of Nile Delta, Egypt, using the nylon net bag technique. Sixty-four straw-decomposing species belonging to 30 genera were isolated by the dilution plate method in ground rice straw-Czapek's agar medium at pH 6. The plates were incubated separately at 5?, 25? and 45?, respectively. Twenty nine species belonging to 14 genera were isolated at 5?. The most frequent genus was Penicillium (seven species), and the next frequent genera were Acremonium (three species), Fusarium (three species), Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Mucor, Stachybotrys (two species) and Rhizopus stolonifer. At 25?, 47 species belonging to 24 genera were isolated. The most frequent genus was Aspergillus (nine species), and the next frequent genera were ranked by Penicillium (five species), Chaetomium (three species), Fusarium (three species). Each of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Myrothecium and Trichoderma was represented by two species. At 45?, 15 species belonging to seven genera were isolated. These were seven species of Aspergillus, two species of Chaetomium and two species of Emericella, while Humicola, Malbranchea, Rhizomucor and Talaromyces were represented by one species respectively. The total counts of fungi the genera, and species per gram of dry straw were significantly affected by incubation temperature and soil analysis (P < 0.05). PMID:24049492

Helal, G A

2005-09-01

305

The Ethics of the Missing Straw  

PubMed Central

This case report details the emergency department course of a 34 year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding after reportedly falling one week earlier. She was subsequently found to have a drinking straw within her uterus next to an eight week-old live intrauterine pregnancy on ultrasound. This case report and discussion reviews the literature on retained foreign bodies in pregnancy while addressing the added complications of an evasive patient and a difficult consultant with significant intra-specialty disagreement. PMID:24672597

Bell, David; Katz, Eric; Klokow, Anne

2014-01-01

306

The influence of short crop rotations on weed community composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of crop rotations on weed density and species composition. An 8-year study was initiated in Dotnuva (Lithuania) in 1997 on an Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol. Ten crop rotations: peas-winter wheat-sugar beet-spring barley, peas-winter wheat-spring barley, peas-winter wheat-winter wheat, sugar beet-spring barley-winter wheat, sugar beet-peas-winter wheat, sugar beet-spring barley-peas, sugar beet-spring barley-spring rape, peas-winter wheat,

V. Seibutis; I. Deveikyte

307

Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

1996-12-31

308

Gaseous and particulate emission profiles during controlled rice straw burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning of rice straw can emit considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants. We evaluated the effect of rice straw moisture content (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and on the organic and inorganic constituents of released particulate matter (PM): dioxins, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four burning tests were conducted per moisture treatment using the open chamber method. Additionally, combustion characteristics, including burning stages, durations, temperature, and relative humidity, were recorded. Burning tests showed flaming and smoldering stages were significantly longer in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the rest. The amount of burned straw and ashes decreased with increasing straw moisture content (P < 0.001). Carbon dioxide was the main product obtained during combustion with emission values ranging from 692 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (10% moisture content) to 835 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (20% moisture content). Emission factors for PM were the highest in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.005). Fine PM (PM2.5) accounted for more than 60% of total PM mass. Emission factors for dioxins increased with straw moisture content, being the highest in 20% moisture treatment, although showing a wide variability among burning tests (P > 0.05). Emissions factors for heavy metals were low and similar among moisture treatments (P > 0.05). Emission factors for individual PAHs were generally higher in 20% moisture treatment. Overall, emission factors of atmospheric pollutants measured in our study were higher in the 20% moisture content. This difference could be attributed to the incomplete combustion at higher levels of rice straw moisture content. According to our results, rice straw burning should be done after straw drying and under minimal moisture conditions to lower pollutant emission levels.

Sanchis, E.; Ferrer, M.; Calvet, S.; Coscollà, C.; Yusà, V.; Cambra-López, M.

2014-12-01

309

Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.  

PubMed

Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material. PMID:24423650

Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

2014-03-01

310

Functional properties of soy hulls supplemented wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Almost 90 per cent of the wheat produced in Pakistan is used for chapattis and rotis preparation. Unleavened flat bread (chapattis and rotis) is staple food of Pakistani population. The present study was carried out to prepare composite flour and to assess suitable level of composition. The main aim was to introduce soy hulls as a rich source

Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Muhammad Issa Khan; Masood Sadiq Butt; Shahzad Hussain; Muhammad Abrar

2006-01-01

311

Changes in protein composition and Mn abundance in photosystem II particles on photoactivation of the latent O/sub 2/-evolving system in flash-grown wheat leaves. [Triticum aestivum L  

SciTech Connect

Protein composition and Mn abundance were compared between the two photosystem II (PSII) particle preparations obtained before and after photoactivation of the latent O/sub 2/-evolving system in intermittently flashed wheat leaves. The following results have been obtained: (a) nonphotoactivated PSII particles were devoid of two extrinsic proteins which corresponded to the 24 and 16 kilodalton proteins in spinach particles, although the particles contained all the intrinsic proteins and the 33 kilodalton extrinsic protein. (b) The two extrinsic proteins absent in nonphotoactivated PSII particles were present in nonphotoactivated thylakoids, but were easily removed by a hypotonic shock followed by brief sonication. Such removal of the proteins did not occur in photoactivated thylakoids. (c) Nonphotoactivated PSII particles contained 1.5 Mn/400 chlorophyll, while photoactivated particles contained 8 Mn/400 chlorophyll. (d) Nonphotoactivated thylakoids contained 6 Mn/400 chlorophyll, but most of them were removed from thylakoids by a hypotonic shock in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Such removal of Mn did not occur in photoactivated thylakoids.

Ono, T.A.; Kajikawa, H.; Inoue, Y.

1986-01-01

312

Tracking with Straw Tubes in the PANDA Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PANDA spectrometer will be built at the FAIR facility at Darmstadt (Germany) to perform accurate tests of the strong interaction through ¯pp and ¯pA annihilation studies. The charged particle tracking at PANDA will be done using both solid state and gaseous detectors. Among the latter, two straw tube detector systems will be built [1]. The cylindrical, central straw tube tracker features a high spatial and momentum resolution for a wide range of particle momenta from about 8 GeV/c down to a few 100 MeV/c, together with particle identification in the momentum region below about 1 GeV/c by measuring the specific energy-loss. A new technique, based on self-supporting straw double layers with intrinsic wire tension developed for the COSY-TOF straw tracker [2], has been adopted for the PANDA trackers. The development of the readout electronics for the straw tubes is ongoing. Prototypes have been produced and used to instrument straw tube modules that have been tested with cosmic rays and proton beams. Design issues of the PANDA straw tubes, together with the results of the prototype tests are presented.

Bragadireanu, M.; Pietreanu, D.; Vasile, M. E.; Idzik, M.; Przyborowski, D.; Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Biernat, J.; Jowzaee, S.; Korcyl, G.; Pa?ka, M.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Bettoni, D.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savriè, M.; Gianotti, P.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Mertens, M.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Ritman, J.; Serdyuk, V.; Wintz, P.; Dobbs, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Boca, G. L.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Spataro, S.

2014-03-01

313

[Soil respiration and carbon balance in wheat field under conservation tillage].  

PubMed

In order to study the characteristics of carbon sources and sinks in the winter wheat farmland ecosystem in southwest hilly region of China, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Chongqing. The soil respiration and plant growth dynamics were analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat-maize-soybean. Four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching), and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching) were designed. Root biomass regression (RR) and root exclusion (RE) were used to compare the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration. The results showed that the average soil respiration rate was 1.71 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) with a variation of 0.62-2.91 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Significant differences in soil respiration rate were detected among different treatments. The average soil respiration rate of T, R, TS and RS were 1.29, 1.59, 1.99 and 1.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. R treatment did not increase the soil respiration rate significantly until the jointing stage. Straw mulching treatment significantly increased soil respiration, with a steadily high rate during the whole growth period. During the 169 days of growth, the total soil respiration was 2 266.82, 2799.52, 3 483.73 and 3 443.89 kg x hm(-2) while the cumulative aboveground biomasses were 51 800.84, 59 563.20, 66 015.37 and 7 1331.63 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control, the yield of R, TS and RS increased by 14.99%, 27.44% and 37.70%, respectively. The contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was 47.05% by RBR, while it was 53.97% by RE. In the early growth period, the carbon source was weak. The capacity of carbon sink started to increase at the jointing stage and reached the maximum during the filling stage. The carbon budget of wheat field was 5 924.512, 6743.807, 8350.741, 8 876.115 kg x hm(-2), respectively. The results indicated that ridge tillage and straw mulching conservation tillage significantly improved the carbon sink in the wheat farmland ecosystem. PMID:25158525

Zhang, Sai; Wang, Long-Chang; Huang, Zhao-Cun; Jia, Hui-Juan; Ran, Chun-Yan

2014-06-01

314

Wheat quality evaluation methods to predict wheat flour tortilla production  

E-print Network

WHEAT QUALITY EVALUATION METHODS TO PREDICT WHEAT FLOUR TORTILLA PRODUCTION A Thesis by BARBIE DENISE SULLINS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1997 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology WHEAT QUALITY EVALUATION METHODS TO PREDICT WHEAT FLOUR TORTILLA PRODUCTION A Thesis by BARBIE DENISE SULLINS Submitted to Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment...

Sullins, Barbie Denise

2012-06-07

315

Field study of submicron particles from the combustion of straw  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of small aerosol particles accompanying the combustion of straw for energy production is investigated. A sampling equipment specially designed for field measurements is described and characterized. The aerosol is studied by low-pressure cascade impactor and scanning mobility particle sizer, the particle morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and the chemical composition by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The combustion gas contains 3-500 mg/Nm{sup 3} of submicron particles with a mean diameter of approximately 0.3 {mu}m. The particles consist of almost pure potassium chloride and sulphate. The formation mechanism is analyzed by a theoretical simulation of the chemical reactions and the aerosol change during cooling of the flue gas. It is concluded that some sulphation of KCl occurs in the gas phase although the sulphate concentration is much lower than predicted by an equilibrium assumption. The theoretical simulation proves that the fine mode particles can be formed by homogeneous nucleation of either KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the first step and further growth occurs by coagulation and diffusive condensation of both KCl and K{sub 4}SO{sub 4} on existing particles. 25 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Christensen, K.A.; Livbjerg, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

1996-08-01

316

Dilute acid pretreatment of rapeseed straw for fermentable sugar generation.  

PubMed

The influence of the main pretreatment variables on fermentable sugar generation from rapeseed straw is studied using an experimental design approach. Low and high levels for pretreatment temperature (140-200 °C), process time (0-20 min) and concentration of sulfuric acid (0.5-2% w/v) were selected according to previous results. Glucose and xylose composition, as well as sugar degradation, were monitored and adjusted to a quadratic model. Non-sugar components of the hydrolysates were also determined. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields were used for assessing pretreatment performance. Optimization based on the mathematical model show that total conversion of cellulose from pretreated solids can be achieved at pretreatment conditions of 200 °C for 27 min and 0.40% free acid concentration. If optimization criteria were based on maximization of hemicellulosic sugars recovery in the hydrolysate along with cellulose preservation in the pretreated solids, milder pretreatment conditions of 144 °C, 6 min and 2% free acid concentration should be used. PMID:20826085

Castro, Eulogio; Díaz, Manuel J; Cara, Cristóbal; Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel

2011-01-01

317

Prospects in straw disintegration for biogas production.  

PubMed

The pretreatment methods for enhancing biogas production from oat straw under study include hot maceration, steam explosion, and pressure shockwaves. The micropore area (9, 55, and 64 m(2) g(-1)) inhibitor formations (0, 15, and 0 mL L(-1)) as well as the overall methane yields (67, 179, and 255 CH4 VS t(-1)) were robustly analyzed. It was confirmed that the operating conditions of the steam explosion must be precisely tailored to the substrate. Furthermore, it was beneficial to prepend the hot maceration before the steam explosion and the pressure shockwaves. The second alternative may give increased methane yields (246 in comparison to 273 CH4 VS t(-1)); however, the application of pressure shockwaves still faces limitations for deployment on a commercial scale. PMID:23625121

Maroušek, Josef

2013-10-01

318

Genetic diversity of wheat storage proteins and bread wheat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the genetic and biochemical basis of the bread makingquality of wheat varieties, a large experiment was carried out with a set of162 hexaploid bread wheat varieties registered in the French or EuropeanWheat Catalogue. This material was used to analyse their allelic compositionat the twelve main storage protein loci. A large genetic and biochemicaldiversity of the gluten proteins was

G. Branlard; M. Dardevet; R. Saccomano; F. Lagoutte; J. Gourdon

2001-01-01

319

Recent Advances in Wheat Allelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat (Triticum aestivum), as one of the world’s important crops, has been studied in depth for its allelopathic potential in weed management. Research\\u000a on wheat allelopathy has progressed rapidly from the initial evaluation of allelopathic potential to the identification of\\u000a allelochemicals and genetic markers associated with wheat allelopathy. Allelopathic activity varied among wheat accessions.\\u000a Significant varietal differences in the production

Hanwen Wu; Min An; De Li Liu; Jim Pratley; Deirdre Lemerle

320

Analysis of the activity of a ?-gliadin promoter in transgenic wheat and characterization of gliadin synthesis in wheat by MALDI-TOF during grain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wheat grain is the most important organ for human food and therefore is the target for much research focused on modifying\\u000a its composition to improve nutritional and functional components. Genetic transformation provides a precise tool to alter\\u000a the composition of wheat grain by expressing new genes or by down-regulating groups of proteins encoded by multigene families\\u000a such as gliadins,

Fernando Pistón; Santiago Marín; Alberto Hernando; Francisco Barro

2009-01-01

321

Coral Reefs & Climate Change: Last Straw for a Threatened Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Patricia Glick of the National Wildlife Federation's Climate Change & Wildlife Program authored this October 1999 report entitled "Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Last Straw for a Threatened Ecosystem." The resource (.pdf format) is accompanied by color photographs.

Glick, Patricia.

1999-01-01

322

Investigating Atmospheric Pressure with a Cup, Straw and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a reinforcement lab activity where students experiment with ways to get water to flow out of a cup and up a straw causing an imbalance in the atmospheric pressure surrounding the water.

323

Modelling and experiments of straw combustion in a grate furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional mathematical model for the combustion of straw in a cross-current, moving bed was developed as part of a tool for optimizing operating conditions and design parameters. To verify the model and to increase the understanding of straw bed combustion, laboratory fixed-bed experiments were performed in a 15cm diameter and 137cm long vertical reactor. Air was introduced through the

R. P van der Lans; L. T Pedersen; A Jensen; P Glarborg; K Dam-Johansen

2000-01-01

324

The response of rice straw varieties to urea treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen rice straw varieties comprising 6 single-crop and 10 double-crop varieties were treated with 40g\\/l urea solution (50g straw per 200ml of solution) for 21 days at 27°C and total and insoluble ash, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and in vitro digestibility (IVD) were measured after samples were dried at 60°C to constant weight. The mean IVD values across treatments

J. Vadiveloo; J. G. Fadel

2009-01-01

325

Understanding the Poor Resolution from Test Beam RunUnderstanding the Poor Resolution from Test Beam Run 2004 Straw Test beam results2004 Straw Test beam results  

E-print Network

1 Understanding the Poor Resolution from Test Beam RunUnderstanding the Poor Resolution from Test Beam Run aah #12;2 2004 Straw Test beam results2004 Straw Test beam results ! Doc # 3308 v#3 by A. Ledovskoy " Using Data from 2004 Test Beam " Used "triplet" method for beam nominally perpendicular to Straw

326

[Productions analyses and pH dynamics during rice straw degradation by the lignocellulose degradation bacteria system WSC-6].  

PubMed

To detect the metabolic characteristic of rice straw degradation by composite microbial system WSC-6, we cultured WSC-6 in the media used rice straw as the limiting carbon source. The rice straw was added in the style of different quantity once or the same quantity at the different time intervals during 90 days culture. The systems were cultivated under static condition at 50 degrees C. The degradation ratio, absolute degradation quantity,products from degradation and dynamics of pH value of fermentation system were all investigated. The results showed: when 1% rice straw was added once, the pH of fermentation system decreased from initial 7.8 to 6.0 within the first three days inoculation, and after six-day cultivation, it increased to 8.0 and was stable. For dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), the value was maintained at range of 0.01 to 0.12 mg x L(-1) of microaerobic condition. During the rice straw degradation, more than ten kinds of products including ethanol, acetic acid, lactic acid and glycerol and so on were detected using GC-MS. Especially, the highest concentration of lactic acid among all products was 7.381 g x L(-1) at 24 h after inoculation. During 90-day cultivation, for the addition treatments of the different quantity once, the more rice straw added, the quicker and lower the pH decreased, and the longer time intervals returned the pHs were. Especially for 5.0% addition, when 5.0% of rice straw was added once, pH did not increase again after it decreased. Among the addition of the same quantity at the different time intervals, the trend of decrease-increase in pH at 12-day and 15-day intervals could be repeated and high degradation activity well maintained. After 90-day of inoculation, the highest degradation ratio occurred in the treatment at 15-day interval, which was 86.7%. The highest absolute quantity occurred in the treatment at 6-day interval, which was 32.4 g. The trend of pH changes can indicate the activity of lignocellulose degradation and degradation process of the WSC-6. PMID:18441944

Wang, Wei-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Liu, Chang-Li; Li, Yu-Hua; Lü, Yu-Cai; Cui, Zong-Jun

2008-01-01

327

[Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].  

PubMed

An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness < 0.005 mm) on winter wheat growth, soil moisture and nutrition conditions, and precipitation use. All the three measures promoted winter wheat growth, enhanced grain yield and precipitation use efficiency, and improved soil moisture and nutritional regimes. These positive effects were more obvious when the straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass. PMID:21548293

Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

2011-01-01

328

Bulk density of wet and dry wheat straw and switchgrass particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Bulk density is a major physical property in designing the logistic system for biomass handling. The size, shape, moisture content, individual particle density, and surface characteristics are few factors affecting the bulk density. This research investigates the effects of true particle lengths ranging from 6 to 50 mm and moisture contents ranging from 8% to 60% wet basis (wb)

Shahabaddine Sokhansanj; X. T. Bi; L. J. Naimi; M. Hoque; Sudhagar Mani; S. Narayan

2008-01-01

329

Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw  

E-print Network

and Soil Science Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University a , J. Magid b , B. Yang d , C.E. Wyman c a Forestry and Wood Products, Forest & Landscape, Faculty

California at Riverside, University of

330

Lignocellulolytic enzymes profile during growth and fruiting of Pleurotus ostreatus on wheat straw and tree leaves.  

PubMed

Cultivation of two commercial Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) strains was performed in plastic bags. Tree leaves appeared to be an excellent growth substrate for the conversion into fruiting bodies with biological efficiency of 108-118%. The level of enzyme activity was strongly regulated during the life cycle of mushrooms. However, despite the quantitative variations, each strain had a similar pattern of enzyme accumulation in fermentation of both substrates. Laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during fruiting body development. On the contrary, in substrate colonization P. ostreatus expressed comparatively low activity of hydrolases. When primordia appeared, the activity of these enzymes sharply increased. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruiting body stage. When mushrooms shifted to the vegetative growth, the activity of ligninolytic enzymes again gradually increased, whereas the activity of hydrolases decreased. PMID:18595320

Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Penninckx, Michel J

2008-06-01

331

The fractional characterisation of polysaccharides and lignin components in alkaline treated and atmospheric refined wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Same amounts of lignin (20%) and hemicelluloses (50%) were dissolved in the chosen two treatment regimes (pretreatment and alkaline refining, PTAR, and atmospheric refining and posttreatment, NRPT). Nearly all of the p-coumaric acid and 65% ferulic acid were released in the PTAR process, while only 52% p-coumaric acid and 32% ferulic acid were released during the NRPT regime. No evident

J. Mark Lawther; Runcang Sun

1996-01-01

332

Wheat Germ DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from wheat germ using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

333

Floral Initiation in Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gap in understanding between genetic control and physiological processes of differentiation is far from being bridged; but it is being narrowed by a coordinated approach from both directions. The genetic system controlling the stability of floral differentiation in a series of wheat genotypes with progressively disturbed floral morphogenesis provides an experimental means of investigating the elements of the physiological

Otto Frankel

1976-01-01

334

Wheat Breeding Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

335

Bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To increase the closure of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS), the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by mushrooms and worms has been studied. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation and succeeding growth of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus. In this process the total content of lignocellulose in the straw was removed by 37.74%. Furthermore, 46.68 g (fresh weight) of mushrooms could be produced from 100.0 g (dry weight) of rice straw. During the conversion of rice straw into a starting SLS by mushrooms and worms, the matter loss was 77.31%. The lettuce has been planted in the SLS and the yield when lettuce was cultivated on the SLS (8.77gm-2day-1) was comparable to the yield obtained on the nutrient solution. In addition, the silicon in the SLS ash can reach upto 32% and the circulation of it is expected during the growth of rice.

Yu, Chengying; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

336

21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.  

...of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour and mechanically working the sticky mass to separate the wheat gluten from the starch and other flour components. Vital gluten is dried gluten that has retained its...

2014-04-01

337

21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour and mechanically working the sticky mass to separate the wheat gluten from the starch and other flour components. Vital gluten is dried gluten that has retained its...

2011-04-01

338

21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour and mechanically working the sticky mass to separate the wheat gluten from the starch and other flour components. Vital gluten is dried gluten that has retained its...

2010-04-01

339

21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour and mechanically working the sticky mass to separate the wheat gluten from the starch and other flour components. Vital gluten is dried gluten that has retained its...

2012-04-01

340

Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.  

PubMed

During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3?% identity in this gene and 96?%, 92?% and 86?% identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18?:?1?7c in summed feature 8 (40.82?%), C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?6c in summed feature 3 (23.72?%) and C16?:?0 (15.20?%). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or ?-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52?% relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) (?=?LMG 26839(T)?=?CECT 8089(T)). PMID:23002045

Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

2013-05-01

341

Adsorption of Cu(II) by biochars generated from three crop straws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu(II) adsorption by the biochars prepared from three crop straws at 400°C was investigated under acidic conditions. The adsorption increased with increase in pH, i.e. pH from 3.5 to 6.0. The adsorption capacity followed the order: peanut straw char>soybean straw char>canola straw char, while the desorption of pre-adsorbed Cu(II) had a reverse trend. The more negative surface charge on biochars

Xue-jiao Tong; Jiu-yu Li; Jin-hua Yuan; Ren-kou Xu

2011-01-01

342

Studies on untreated and urea-treated rice straw from three cultivation seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Untreated and urea-treated straw and straw fractions of seven rice varieties from three cultivation seasons have been evaluated on their DM, OM loss and degradation characteristics from in sacco disappearance and in vitro gas production measurements. Drying temperatures from 45°C to 100°C did not seem to influence the degradability of urea-treated rice straw, whereas urea-treated straw dried at freezing temperatures

H. Sh Shen; F Sundstøl; D. B Ni

1998-01-01

343

Enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated rice straw.  

PubMed

Rice straw pretreated with liquid anhydrous ammonia was hydrolyzed with cellulase, cellobiase, and hemicellulase. Ammonia-processing conditions were 1.5 g of NH3/g of dry matter, 85 degrees C, and several sample moisture contents. There were four ammonia addition time (min)-processing time (min) combinations. Sugars produced were analyzed as reducing sugars (dinitrosalicylic acid method) and by high-performance liquid chromatography. Monomeric sugars increased from 11% in the nontreated rice straw to 61% of theoretical in treated rice straw (79.2% conversion as reducing sugars). Production of monosaccharides was greater at higher moisture content and was processing time dependent. Glucose was the monosaccharide produced in greater amounts, 56.0%, followed by xylose, arabinose, and fructose, with 35.8, 6.6, and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:12721482

Sulbarán-de-Ferrer, Betzabé; Aristiguieta, Marielena; Dale, Bruce E; Ferrer, Alexis; Ojeda-de-Rodriguez, Graciela

2003-01-01

344

Wheat Invertases 1  

PubMed Central

Wheat coleoptiles have two distinct invertases, a soluble and a cell wall-bound form as indicated by results from cytochemical and biochemical studies. These enzyme activities differ in their pH optima, chromatographic behavior on diethylaminoethyl cellulose, kinetic properties, thermal stability, and response to light treatment. The soluble invertase was purified to near homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, concanavalin-A Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. The overall purification was 175-fold with a recovery of about 26%. The holoenzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 158,000 and subunit molecular weight of 53,000 as estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. Illumination of wheat seedlings caused an increase in the cell wall, but not the soluble, invertase activity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:16664223

Krishnan, Hari B.; Blanchette, Joan T.; Okita, Thomas W.

1985-01-01

345

On Phaeosphaeria nodorum in wheat.  

E-print Network

??The fungus Phaeosphaeria nodorum (anamorph Stagonospora nodorum) causes stagonospora nodorum blotch on wheat. Besides environmental conditions the biology of the pathogen is an important parameter… (more)

Blixt, Eva

2009-01-01

346

Winter Straw and Water Management Effects on Soil Nitrogen Dynamics in California Rice Systems  

E-print Network

Winter Straw and Water Management Effects on Soil Nitrogen Dynamics in California Rice Systems no difference in straw decomposition in sub- merged vs. aerobic soils. Low temperatures retard or- ganic residue of straw management and win- ter flooding on soil N dynamics and crop N uptake in California rice (Oryza

van Kessel, Chris

347

Capillarity of flax\\/linseed ( Linum usitatissimum L.) and fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) straw fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of the wetting properties of the fractions of unretted and frost-retted fibre straws a method to separate fibre, fine shive, and coarse shive from fibre plants is introduced and tested on bast fibre plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Cannabis sativa L.) The method consists of optional drying of stalks, cutting of straws, milling the straws with a

H.-R Kymäläinen; M Hautala; R Kuisma; A Pasila

2001-01-01

348

Effect of feeding baled and stacked urea treated rice straw on the performance of crossbred cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossbred dairy cows (2–4 lactations) in three groups (4 in each group) were fed with rations containing (1) untreated rice straw ad libitum plus 1kg concentrate supplement, (2) urea treated (4% urea; 50% moisture) rice straw stored in stack for 14 days, and (3) urea treated paddy straw compressed as bales and stored for 14 days. Extra concentrate supplement was

R. D. D Prasad; M. R Reddy; G. V. N Reddy

1998-01-01

349

FIBEX-treated rice straw as a feed ingredient for lactating dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of rice straw by the proprietary FIBEX process resulted in increased in vitro digestibility by ruminal microorganisms due to a reduced lag time, increased rate of digestion, increased extent of digestion, and possible removal of inhibitory agents present in untreated rice straw. To determine the value of treated rice straw as a feed ingredient for lactating dairy cows, production

P. J. Weimer; D. R. Mertens; E. Ponnampalam; B. F. Severin; B. E. Dale

2003-01-01

350

An innovative method for the treatment of rice straw to improve nitrogen uptake efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative method was used to treat rice straw based on a mixed dilute acid treatment followed by neutralization with ammonia water. This treatment decreased the Si content of the rice straw, thus improving its degradation by soil microorganisms. The plant-available N of soil was greatly improved after the application of the treated rice straw with urea. Soil microbial biomass

Yangchun Xu; Yali Zhang; Qirong Shen; Yong Xu; Juan Zhang

2005-01-01

351

Thermal analysis kinetics of bagasse and rice straw  

SciTech Connect

The role of added inorganic salt on the thermal degradation of lignin was studied. The result was compared with the thermal analysis of two types of agricultural residues: rice straw with high silica content and bagasse with low silica. Thermal decomposition of such materials is faster than that of wood with a dual mechanism concept similar to wood. In general, the activation energy for rice straw is low, about 19.3 Kcal/mole, while that of bagasse is 33.4 Kcal/mole. This proves that the inorganic material, either inherited or added, changed the thermal activities of the lignocellulosic materials.

Nassar, M.M. [Minia Univ., El-Minia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

1998-11-01

352

Thermal analysis kinetics of bagasse and rice straw  

SciTech Connect

The role of added inorganic salt on the thermal degradation of lignin was studied. The results were compared with the thermal analyses of two types of agricultural residues: rice straw with high silica content and bagasse with low silica. Compared to wood, thermal decomposition of such materials is faster, with a dual mechanism concept similar to wood. In general, the activation energy for rice straw is about 19.3 Kcal/mol while that of bagasse is 33.4 Kcal/mol. This proves that inorganic material either inherited or added changed the thermal activities of the lignocellulosic materials.

Nassar, M.M. [Minia Univ., El-Minia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering] [Minia Univ., El-Minia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

1999-01-01

353

Thermal processing of black liquor from alkaline straw pulping  

SciTech Connect

Black liquor is the wastewater from the cooking of wood or straw in the production of pulp and paper. Nowadays new processes are being investigated as alternatives to the traditional recovery boiler used for black liquor treatment. One of the processes which appears to be more promising is gasification, for which further research is needed for its full industrial implementation. There is not much data about the behavior of soda black liquors from straw cooking in the literature. Therefore the thermal decomposition of one of these liquors has been studied in a thermobalance, in inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere. The kinetic constants from isothermal experiments have been obtained.

Sanchez, J.L.; Garcia, L.; Gea, G.; Bilbao, R.; Arauzo, J. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)

1996-12-31

354

Environmentally friendly education: A passive solar, straw-bale school  

SciTech Connect

The Waldorf students in the Roaring Fork Valley of western Colorado are learning their reading, writing and arithmetic in the cozy confines of a solar heated, naturally lit, straw-bale school. The Waldorf education system, founded in 1919 by Austrian Rudolph Steiner, stresses what's appropriate for the kids, not what's easiest to teach. In constructing a new school, the Waldorf community wanted a building that would reflect their philosophy. There was a long list of requirements: natural, energy efficient, light, warm, alive, and earthy. Passive solar straw-bale construction brought together all those qualities.

Stone, L.; Dickinson, J.

1999-07-01

355

Composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle distribution and hot workability of an in situ Al-TiCp composite were investigated. The composite was fabricated by an in situ casting method using the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of an Al-Ti-C system. Hot-compression tests were carried out, and power dissipation maps were constructed using a dynamic material model. Small globular TiC particles were not themselves fractured, but the clustering and grain boundary segregation of the particles contributed to the cracking of the matrix by causing the debonding of matrix/particle interfaces and providing a crack propagation path. The efficiency of power dissipation increased with increasing temperature and strain rate, and the maximum efficiency was obtained at a temperature of 723 K (450 °C) and a strain rate of 1/s. The microstructural mechanism occurring in the maximum efficiency domain was dynamic recrystallization. The role of particles in the plastic flow and the microstructure evolution were discussed.

Kim, Su-Hyeon; Cho, Young-Hee; Lee, Jung-Moo

2014-06-01

356

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

Taylor, John G.

357

Utilization of rice straw for laccase production by Streptomyces psammoticus in solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Laccase production from a novel actinobacterial strain, Streptomyces psammoticus, MTCC 7334 was optimized in solid-state fermentation. The process parameters were initially optimized by the conventional "one factor at a time" approach, and the optimal levels of the factors that had considerable influence on enzyme production were identified by response surface methodology. Rice straw was identified as a suitable substrate for laccase production (17.3 U/g), followed by coffee pulp (15.8 U/g). Other optimized conditions were particle size, 500-1,000 mum (21.2 U/g); initial moisture content, 65% (26.8 U/g); pH of moistening solution, 8.0 (26.9 U/g); incubation temperature, 32 degrees C (27.6 U/g) and inoculum size, 1.5 x 10(7) CFU (33.8 U/g). Yeast extract served as the best nitrogen source (34.8 U/g). No enhancement in enzyme yield was observed with carbon supplementation. The level of yeast extract, inoculum size and copper sulphate were optimized statistically. Statistical optimization performed using a central composite design resulted in threefold increase in laccase activity (55.4 U/g) as compared to the unoptimized medium (17.3 U/g). The upgrading of fermented rice straw for fodder enhancement is also discussed briefly. PMID:17665235

Niladevi, Kizhakkedathu Narayanan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Prema, Parukuttyamma

2007-10-01

358

Metabolizable energy and digestible amino acid prediction of wheat using mathematical models.  

PubMed

Wheat is a common raw material used to provide most of the energy and a great portion of amino acids in poultry diets. The routine investigation of metabolizable energy (ME) and digestible amino acid content determination are costly and time consuming for wheat grains. Therefore, it would be helpful if the energy and digestible amino acid content of wheat grain samples could be predicted from their chemical composition. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the probability of AMEn, AME, and apparent ileal digestible amino acid (AIDAA) prediction in wheat samples based on chemical compositions. Multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least square (PLS), and Artificial neural network (ANN) methods were developed to estimate the AME values of wheat grain samples based on total and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides (study 1) and the AMEn based on DM, CP, and ash (study 2). Furthermore, MLR and ANN models were used to estimate the AIDAA via CP content of wheat samples (study 3). The fitness of the models in each study was tested using R2 values, RMS error, mean absolute deviation, mean absolute percentage error, and bias parameters. The results of studies 1 and 2 showed that AME can be predicted from the chemical composition. The prediction of AME of wheat through the ANN-based model showed higher accuracy and lower error parameters as compared with MLR and PLS models in both studies (1 and 2). The results of the third study indicated that CP can be used as a single model input to predict AIDAA in wheat samples. Furthermore, the ANN model may be used to improve model performance to estimate AIDAA as affected by CP content. The results demonstrated that the ANN model may be used to accurately estimate the ME and AIDAA values of wheat grain from its corresponding chemical compositions. As a result, this method provides an opportunity to reduce the risk of an unbalanced level of energy and amino acid in feed formulation for poultry. PMID:22802204

Soleimani Roudi, P; Golian, A; Sedghi, M

2012-08-01

359

[Chemical composition of three Mexican strains of mushrooms (Pleurotus ostratus)].  

PubMed

The chemical composition of three Mexican strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (INIREB-8, CDBB-H-896 and CDBB-H-897), were determined. The mushrooms were cultivated on wheat straw in a greenhouse (22-28 degrees C temperature and 80 +/- 5% of relative humidity). Fruits bodies of P. ostreatus contained (all values are expressed in g/100 g dry wt.), protein (N x 6.25): 24.64 +/- 0.21-28.50 +/- 0.26; lipids: 1.10 +/- 0.16-1.85 +/- 0.22; mineral matter: 7.66 +/- 0.23-8.79 +/- 0.25; dietary fibre: 32.14 +/- 0.14-36.81 +/- 0.40; and available carbohydrates: 26.33 +/- 1.04-30.46 +/- 0.21. They contain vitamins (mg/100 g dry wt): riboflavin: 3.31-3.7, thiamin: 1.92-1.96, niacin: 35.98-36.56 and ascorbic acid: 28-35. The main fatty acid was linoleic (0.70-1.19 g/100 g dry wt), it was also reported a low calcium and phosphorus content. Concluding the Pleurotus ostreatus could be a source of some of the complex B vitamins, dietary fiber, protein and linoleic acid. PMID:10347703

Bautista Justo, M; Alanís Guzmán, M G; González de Mejía, E; García Díaz, C L

1998-12-01

360

High molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat: qualitative and quantitative variation in relation to bread-making quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the poor bread-making quality of the wheat grown in The Netherlands, only a small part of production is used for baking of bread. Therefore quality improvement is a major aim of plant breeding. Unfortunately, breeding for breadmaking quality is hampered by its complexity. The suitability of wheat flour for the manufacture of bread depends on the composition

P. Kolster

1992-01-01

361

Discovery of Microorganisms and Enzymes Involved in High-Solids Decomposition of Rice Straw Using Metagenomic Analyses  

PubMed Central

High-solids incubations were performed to enrich for microbial communities and enzymes that decompose rice straw under mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Thermophilic enrichments yielded a community that was 7.5 times more metabolically active on rice straw than mesophilic enrichments. Extracted xylanase and endoglucanse activities were also 2.6 and 13.4 times greater, respectively, for thermophilic enrichments. Metagenome sequencing was performed on enriched communities to determine community composition and mine for genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes. Proteobacteria were found to dominate the mesophilic community while Actinobacteria were most abundant in the thermophilic community. Analysis of protein family representation in each metagenome indicated that cellobiohydrolases containing carbohydrate binding module 2 (CBM2) were significantly overrepresented in the thermophilic community. Micromonospora, a member of Actinobacteria, primarily housed these genes in the thermophilic community. In light of these findings, Micromonospora and other closely related Actinobacteria genera appear to be promising sources of thermophilic lignocellulolytic enzymes for rice straw deconstruction under high-solids conditions. Furthermore, these discoveries warrant future research to determine if exoglucanases with CBM2 represent thermostable enzymes tolerant to the process conditions expected to be encountered during industrial biofuel production. PMID:24205054

D'haeseleer, Patrik; Khudyakov, Jane; Burd, Helcio; Hadi, Masood; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; Thelen, Michael P.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

2013-01-01

362

Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes  

PubMed Central

The DNA sequences of wheat Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were analyzed with a view to understanding the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci from each of the wheats Triticum urartu (A genome), Aegilops tauschii (D genome), Triticum turgidum (AB genome), and Triticum aestivum (ABD genome), as well as two Acc-2-related pseudogenes from T. urartu were sequenced. The 2.3–2.4 Mya divergence time calculated here for the three homoeologous chromosomes, on the basis of coding and intron sequences of the Acc-1 genes, is at the low end of other estimates. Our clock was calibrated by using 60 Mya for the divergence between wheat and maize. On the same time scale, wheat and barley diverged 11.6 Mya, based on sequences of Acc and other genes. The regions flanking the Acc genes are not conserved among the A, B, and D genomes. They are conserved when comparing homoeologous genomes of diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats. Substitution rates in intergenic regions consisting primarily of repetitive sequences vary substantially along the loci and on average are 3.5-fold higher than the Acc intron substitution rates. The composition of the Acc homoeoloci suggests haplotype divergence exceeding in some cases 0.5 Mya. Such variation might result in a significant overestimate of the time since tetraploid wheat formation, which occurred no more than 0.5 Mya. PMID:18599450

Chalupska, D.; Lee, H. Y.; Faris, J. D.; Evrard, A.; Chalhoub, B.; Haselkorn, R.; Gornicki, P.

2008-01-01

363

HETEROSIS STUDIES IN WHEAT CROSSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to estimate the heterotic and heterobeltiotic effects in wheat during the year 2002-03 at Wheat Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan to identify combinations expressing high hybrid vigour. Fifteen F1 single crosses were developed and planted alongwith their 8 parents. Data were recorded on grain yield, tillers per plant, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and plant height.

Fida Hussain; Makhdoom Hussain; M. Muzaffar Iqbal; Mansoor A. Akhtar

2007-01-01

364

Dynamics of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Solution from Soybean Straw Fermentation the Making L-Lactic Acid by Immobile Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean straw is biodegradable cellulose resource, but it has not been utilized for a long time. 2\\/3 straws was combusted and producing resources waste and air pollution. In this study, taking soybean straw as raw material, dynamics of enzymatic hydrolysis solution from soybean straw fermentation and making L-lactic acid by immobile lactobacillus was studied. The dynamics equation of the immobile

Ping Yang; Qian Yang; Zhong Xu; QiuJing Wang

2008-01-01

365

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

2014-11-01

366

FACTORS AFFECTING DIGESTION OF GRAIN-SUPPLEMENTED STRAW  

E-print Network

unlikely to have limited the growth of those fibrolytic bacteria for which they are essential nutrients libitum once daily, plus a protein-mineral supplement (65.6% crude protein) at the rate of 135 g in the preliminary period. They were fed straw and protein- mineral supplement as before. Pellets con- taining maize

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Truck Drivers, a Straw, and Two Glasses of Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While waiting for his meal to arrive, a truck driver was using his straw to move water from one glass to another when he was struck by this question: If I keep doing this, will the two glasses ever have exactly the same amount of water? This article looks at various problems related to that question.

Iga, Kevin; Killpatrick, Kendra

2006-01-01

368

Biosorption of aquatic cadmium(II) by unmodified rice straw.  

PubMed

Cadmium is the most common toxic metal threatening safe rice supply. Rice straw has the potential to remove Cd from large-scale effluent contaminated by heavy metals since it exhibited a short biosorption equilibrium time of 5 min, high biosorption capacity (13.9 mg g(-1)) and high removal efficiency at a pH range of 2.0-6.0. The main Cd biosorption mechanism was Cd(2+) ion exchange with K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), together with chelation with functional groups such as C=C, CO, OH and carboxylic acids. When 0.5% (w/v) rice straw was exposed to 50 mg mL(-1) CdSO(4) solution with shaking at 150 r min(-1) for 3h, about 80% of the aquatic Cd was absorbed and the Cd content in rice straw reached 8-10 mg g(-1), suggesting that the metal-enriched rice straw could become high quality bio-ore by virtue of the industrial mining grade of its metal content and easy metal recovery. PMID:22445266

Ding, Yang; Jing, Debing; Gong, Huili; Zhou, Lianbi; Yang, Xiaosong

2012-06-01

369

Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

370

ON-FARM TREATMENT OF STRAWS AND STOVERS WITH UREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ON-FARM TREATMENT OF STRAWS AND STOVER WITH UREA. The nutritional value of cereal crop residues to ruminants is constrained by low N and high fibre contents. These constraints can be alleviated by treatment with alkali, the most suitable of which, for smallholder use, is urea. However, it has not widely been used in Africa. Whilst in some areas, cost and

T. SMITH

371

Vermicomposting of biosolids with cow manure and oat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosolids, mainly from textile industries and the rest from households, were vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida, cow manure and oat straw for 2 months at three different moisture contents (60%, 70% and 80% dry weight base) in triplicate to reduce pathogens and toxic organic compounds, and to find the best medium for growth of E. fetida. The vermicompost with the best

S. M. Contreras-Ramos; E. M. Escamilla-Silva; L. Dendooven

2005-01-01

372

Uptake by wheat of cadmium and other heavy metal contaminants in phosphate fertilizers  

SciTech Connect

A field experiment was conducted to determine uptake of Cd and other heavy metals by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from three diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizers containing 2, 74, and 153 ..mu..g Cd/g. A phosphorus-deficient Paden silt loam (Glossic Fragiudult, pH 4.7) was limed at two rates and treated with the DAP sources at a rate of 50 kg of P/ha (100 lb of P/sub 2/O/sub 5//acre). Grain yields were higher at pH 5.9 than at pH 5.1, were significantly increased by P applications, and results were similar using all DAP sources. Concentrations of Cd in both grain and straw were significantly increased only with application of high-Cd DAP to the low-lime soil. Cadmium concentrations in grain increased from 0.028 to 0.086 ..mu..g/g, and those in straw increased from 0.067 to 0.118 ..mu..g/g (dry weight basis) with application of low-Cd DAP and high-Cd DAP, respectively, and were lower on the high-lime soil. Concentrations of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in both grain and straw were not significantly affected by DAP source. Results for a second year on the same plots limed to pH 5.8 and 7.0 and treated again with the same DAP sources were similar to those for the first year, except that heavy metal uptake was generally lower. Results suggest that Cd concentrations in wheat products are not significantly changed by the phosphate fertilization and crop production practices in general use in the United States at this time.

Mortvedt, J.J.; Mays, D.A.; Osborn, G.

1981-04-01

373

A comparative LCA of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer in Thailand.  

PubMed

Life cycle assessment of four rice straw utilization systems including; (1) direct combustion for electricity, (2) biochemical conversion to bio-ethanol and biogas, (3) thermo-chemical conversion to bio-DME, and (4) incorporation into the soil as fertilizer have been conducted to compare their environmental performances. The results showed that per ton of dry rice straw, the bio-ethanol pathway resulted in the highest environmental sustainability with regards to reductions in global warming and resource depletion potentials. Rice straw bio-DME was preferable vis-à-vis reduction in acidification potential. Rice straw electricity and fertilizer also brought about several environmental benefits. The key environmental benefit of rice straw utilization came from avoiding the deleterious effects from burning straw in situ in the field. Recommendations for enhancing environmental sustainability of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer are provided. PMID:24076147

Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H

2013-12-01

374

Wheat Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

of bakery flour. Comanche (Oro x Tenmarq) was developer1 by the Kansas station but distributed simultane- ously by the Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas sta- tions in 1942. The variety is widely adapted and because of its excellent milling and baking char... 57.0 5-1 6-1 4 56.3 5-3 5-29 Figure 14. Bread dough as mixed in a modern bakery plant. This mass of dough will produce hundreds of loaves of bread. are mild, so intermediate winter-type and true spring-type wheat varieties may be grown from...

Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Lahr, Keith; Merkle, Owen G.; Futrell, M. C.

1960-01-01

375

Wheat Pasture Poisoning.  

E-print Network

treatment appears to be the injection of a calcium gluconate solution with or without fortification with magnesium and phosphorus. Recovery seems to be speeded by removing the cow from wheat pasture fox a short time. No recurrence was o~bselrved ii animal... in the plant as a possible cause of grass tetany. The minerals were potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium. They observed changes in certain of these ratios in for- age when cases of grass tetany developed in the Netherlands. However, when these same...

Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

1956-01-01

376

Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization and Stem Rust Resistance of Five Wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum Partial Amphiploids.  

PubMed

Partial amphiploids created by crossing common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Barkworth & D. R. Dewey are important intermediates in wheat breeding because of their resistance to major wheat diseases. In this study, we examined the chromosome compositions of five Xiaoyan-series wheat-Th. ponticum partial amphiploids (Xiaoyan 68, Xiaoyan 693, Xiaoyan 784, Xiaoyan 7430, and Xiaoyan 7631) using GISH, multicolor-GISH, and multicolor-FISH. We found several chromosome changes in these lines. For example, wheat chromosomes 1B and 2B were added in Xiaoyan 68 and Xiaoyan 7430, respectively, while wheat chromosome 6B was eliminated from Xiaoyan 693 and Xiaoyan 7631. Chromosome rearrangements were also detected in these amphiploids, including an interspecific translocation involving chromosome 4D and some intergenomic translocations, such as A-B and A-D translocations, among wheat genomes. Analysis of the Th. ponticum chromosomes in the amphiploids showed that some lines shared the same alien chromosomes. We also evaluated these partial amphiploids for resistance to nine races of stem rust, including TTKSK (commonly known as Ug99). Three lines, Xiaoyan 68, Xiaoyan 784, and Xiaoyan 7430, exhibited excellent resistance to all nine races, and could therefore be valuable sources of stem rust resistance in wheat breeding. PMID:25434682

Zheng, Qi; Lv, Zhenling; Niu, Zhixia; Li, Bin; Li, Hongwei; Xu, Steven S; Han, Fangpu; Li, Zhensheng

2014-11-20

377

Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.  

PubMed

The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. PMID:22297044

Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

2012-04-01

378

Studies on the rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour.  

PubMed

The chemical composition, rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour were investigated. Compared with wheat flour, waxy wheat flour has lower protein (9.52%), amylase (1.02%) and higher crude starch (73.19%) contents. Because of its different chemical composition, waxy wheat flour exhibited some better processing characteristics (water-holding capacity, dough development time, extensibility, swelling power and setback) than normal wheat flour. It also exhibited some defects in rheological characteristics, including a higher degree of softening, a lower Farinograph quality number and smaller resistance to extensibility ratio. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that waxy wheat flour gelatinized at higher onset (To=60.9 °C), peak (Tp=64.9 °C), conclusion (Tc=73.6 °C) temperatures and required more energy (?H=7.6J/g) to melt gelatinized starch gels. The results of this investigation indicated that blending waxy wheat flour with normal flour is a promising way to improve product quality in baked foods and to prolong the shelf-life of these products. PMID:24325856

Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

2014-03-01

379

Total recovery of resources and energy from rice straw using microwave-induced pyrolysis.  

PubMed

This article presents the application of microwave-induced pyrolysis to total recovery of resources and energy from rice straw. The microwave power and particle size of feedstock were both key parameters affecting the performance of microwave-induced pyrolysis. Under 400-500W microwave power, the reduction of fixed carbon in the biomass was significant. From the experimental results of specific surface area, zeta potential, and Cu2+ adsorption, the applications of solid residues in the water and wastewater treatment could be expected. The major compositions in gaseous product were H2, CO2, CO, CH4 of 55, 17, 13, 10vol.%, respectively. The high H2 content might imply that microwave-induced pyrolysis of biomass waste has the potential to produce the H2-rich fuel gas. Alkanes, polars, and low-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were three primary kinds of compounds in the liquid product. PMID:18440807

Huang, Y F; Kuan, W H; Lo, S L; Lin, C F

2008-11-01

380

Drought tolerance in wheat.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

2013-01-01

381

Drought Tolerance in Wheat  

PubMed Central

Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

2013-01-01

382

Optimization of H 2SO 4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol: Focusing on pretreatment at high solids content  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite design of response surface method was used to optimize H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw, in respect to acid concentration (0.5–2%), treatment time (5–20min) and solid content (10–20%) at 180°C. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing ethanol production. The results showed that acid concentration and treatment time were

Xuebin Lu; Yimin Zhang; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

383

N-terminal amino acid sequencing of prolamins from wheat and related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gliadins of common bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) make up the major storage protein fraction of grain endosperm and comprise a complex mixture of proteins with similar amino acid compositions and properties1. Two-dimensional methods of electrophoresis2,3, in which separations are based mainly on net charge, separate gliadins of a single wheat variety into 30-46 components and there is considerable

Jean-Claude Autran; Ellen J.-L. Lew; Charles C. Nimmo; Donald D. Kasarda

1979-01-01

384

Correlations of the Breadmaking Performance of Wheat Flour with Rheological Measurements on a Microscale  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the characterization of wheat quality, micro-extension tests for dough and gluten and a micro-baking test were developed using comparable dough compositions, the same mixing temperature and cultivar-specific mixing times. By means of these methods, the flours of 26 wheat samples were studied for dough development time, maximum resistance and extensibility of dough and gluten and loaf volume of the

R. Kieffer; H. Wieser; M. H. Henderson; A. Graveland

1998-01-01

385

Induction, regeneration, and biolistic sensitivities of different genotypes of common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction, regeneration, and biolistic sensitivities of different genotypes of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been determined in order to develop an efficient system for transformation of Russian cultivars of spring wheat.\\u000a Short-term (two days) cold treatment (4°C) has been demonstrated to distinctly increase the frequency of morphogenetic callus\\u000a induction. The optimal phytohormonal composition of the nutrient medium ensuring

V. S. Fadeev; H. R. Shimshilashvili; A. K. Gaponenko

2008-01-01

386

Fallow season straw and water management effects on methane emissions in California rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to legislative mandate to reduce postharvest straw burning and environmental concerns to restore wetland habitat for Pacific flyway waterfowl, California rice growers are incorporating straw into soil and flooding rice fields in winter. These changes were hypothesized to alter soil carbon cycling pathways across the region. The principal objective of this study was to determine how various winter fallowed straw and water management changes would affect year-round methane emissions. Main plots were winter flood and nonflood, and subplots had straw treatments: burned, soil incorporated, or rolled (partially soil incorporated). Results showed the principal factor controlling methane emissions was the interaction of flooding and straw amendments. The presence of either water or straw alone led to low emissions. Winter emissions accounted for 50% of annual totals in straw-amended treatments despite lower temperatures and the presence of plants in summer. Summer emissions were significantly influenced by winter straw amendments but not by winter flood. Postdrain peaks after winter drain accounted for 10-13% of annual emissions in treatments with amended straw. Although rolled and incorporated treatments had similar straw inputs, methane fluxes from rolled treatments were higher than from incorporated treatments. Measurements of methane should be conducted year-round to capture fallow and postdrain fluxes and improve global emission estimates. Regional emission estimates showed that 2.6 times more methane was emitted after flooding plus incorporation was implemented than before the legislative mandate was enacted.

Fitzgerald, G. J.; Scow, K. M.; Hill, J. E.

2000-09-01

387

7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.  

...Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat (T. compactum Host.), and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) and not more than 10...

2014-01-01

388

7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat (T. compactum Host.), and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) and not more than 10...

2011-01-01

389

7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat (T. compactum Host.), and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) and not more than 10...

2013-01-01

390

7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat (T. compactum Host.), and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) and not more than 10...

2012-01-01

391

The Protein Disulfide Isomerase gene family in bread wheat (T. aestivum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) gene family encodes several PDI and PDI-like proteins containing thioredoxin domains and controlling diversified metabolic functions, including disulfide bond formation and isomerisation during protein folding. Genomic, cDNA and promoter sequences of the three homoeologous wheat genes encoding the "typical" PDI had been cloned and characterized in a previous work. The purpose of present research was the cloning and characterization of the complete set of genes encoding PDI and PDI like proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Chinese Spring) and the comparison of their sequence, structure and expression with homologous genes from other plant species. Results Eight new non-homoeologous wheat genes were cloned and characterized. The nine PDI and PDI-like sequences of wheat were located in chromosome regions syntenic to those in rice and assigned to eight plant phylogenetic groups. The nine wheat genes differed in their sequences, genomic organization as well as in the domain composition and architecture of their deduced proteins; conversely each of them showed high structural conservation with genes from other plant species in the same phylogenetic group. The extensive quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the nine genes in a set of 23 wheat samples, including tissues and developmental stages, showed their constitutive, even though highly variable expression. Conclusions The nine wheat genes showed high diversity, while the members of each phylogenetic group were highly conserved even between taxonomically distant plant species like the moss Physcomitrella patens. Although constitutively expressed the nine wheat genes were characterized by different expression profiles reflecting their different genomic organization, protein domain architecture and probably promoter sequences; the high conservation among species indicated the ancient origin and diversification of the still evolving gene family. The comprehensive structural and expression characterization of the complete set of PDI and PDI-like wheat genes represents a basis for the functional characterization of this gene family in the hexaploid context of bread wheat. PMID:20525253

2010-01-01

392

Alternative uses of rice-straw in California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Interconnectedness and complexity are the hallmarks of almost every environmental problem and opportunity including the challenge of rice straw management in California. Although attempts are often made to solve environmental problems by working on single aspects, this rarely works, just as treating symptoms may do little to resolve diseases. The rice straw problem includes the physical system of the atmosphere, air basins, soils, and local and regional watersheds, and reaches the global scale with concern over atmospheric contribution of methane and implications for global warming. It includes the biological system of the rice crop, soil organisms, crop pests, and wildlife (both beneficial and harmful). And finally, it includes the economic and social systems of the rice grower, farm families, farm service industries, rural communities, the regional population, rice consumers around the world, fishermen and women, hunters, manufacturers of harvesting equipment, medical services, and potentially, builders and home buyers in the region.

Bainbridge, D.A.

1997-03-01

393

Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.  

PubMed

Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (P<0.001). However, penmate-directed behaviour was not reduced with an increased amount of straw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P<0.001), but the amount of penmate-directed behaviour was similar (P>0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy pigs more than one daily allocation did. In conclusion, there was no difference in penmate-directed behaviour of the pigs when given 25 or 50 g of straw/pig per day compared with 100 g of straw/pig per day, nor were there any difference when 100 g of straw/pig per day was provided more frequently. PMID:25076383

Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

2014-11-01

394

Miscanthus × Giganteus straw and pellets as sustainable fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present, for the first time, data on the combustion of Miscanthus × Giganteus straw and pellets. We found that the heating value of Miscanthus is 17.744 MJ\\/kg. The gaseous emission indices of SO2, NO\\u000a x\\u000a and total organic carbon (TOC) in the exhaust are reported and compared with the European standards for biomass boilers. On the basis

Salvatore Collura; Bruno Azambre; Gisèle Finqueneisel; Thierry Zimny; Jean Victor Weber

2006-01-01

395

Lignocellulolytic enzyme production from submerged fermentation of paddy straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five strains of cellulolytic bacteria and four strains of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were evaluated for the lignocellulolytic enzyme production during submerged fermentation (SmF) of paddy straw. Extra-cellular\\u000a enzyme assay for CMCase, FPase, Cellobiase, Xylanase, Lignin peroxidase and Laccase enzymes was performed after 7 and 15 days\\u000a of submerged fermentation. Cellulomonas cellulans MTCC 23, Cytophaga hutchinsonii NCIM 2338 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium MTCC

B. K. Mishra; A. K. Pandey Lata

2007-01-01

396

Electrochemical treatment of black liquor from straw pulping  

SciTech Connect

The conventional black liquor regeneration process is not always suitable for pulping plants of nonwood fibers due to the unfavorable ratio of organic to inorganic solids. This paper presents an alternative treatment based on an electrolysis process of the soda black liquor from straw pulping. This alternative method minimizes the environmental impact by recovering the caustic at the same time that the liquor is acidified, which favors the later separation of the lignin.

Blanco, M.A.; Negro, C.; Tijero, J. [Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain)] [and others

1996-11-01

397

Straw burning over Great Britain detected by AVHRR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using imagery from the AVHRR 3·8 ?m channel on the NOAA-Series of satellites we have examined the national extent of straw and stubble burning across Great Britain in the summer of 1984 and found 300-400 burning fields on a typical midweek day. We have also investigated the adherence of fanners to a Voluntary Code of Practice restricting burning at weekends

K. Muirhead; A. P. Cracknell

1985-01-01

398

[Analysis of soil respiration and influence factors in wheat farmland under conservation tillage in southwest hilly region].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei, Chongqing. The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean. There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching), which were all in triplicates. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) during the reproductive growth stage of wheat. There were significant differences in soil respiration rate among different treatments, which could be ranked as RS > R > TS > T. The soil temperature in the 10cm layer was ranked as T > R > TS > RS. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature fitted well with an exponential function, in which the Q10 values were 1.25, 1.20, 1.31 and 1.26, respectively. The soil moisture in the 5cm layer was ranked as TS > RS > T > R. The best fitting model between soil moisture and soil respiration was a parabolic curve, indicating the presence of soil moisture with the strongest soil respiration. The response threshold of wheat to soil moisture was 14.80%-17.47% during the reproductive stage. The dominant groups of soil animals were Collembola and Acarina, which were correlated with soil respiration to some extent. The correlation was high in the treatments T and R, ranged from 0.669-0.921, whereas there was no remarkable correlation in the other treatments. PMID:24028018

Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Long-Chang; Luo, Hai-Xiu; Zhou, Hang-Fei; Ma, Zhong-Lian; Zhang, Cui-Wei

2013-07-01

399

Anaerobic slurry co-digestion of poultry manure and straw: effect of organic loading and temperature  

PubMed Central

In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digestion of a mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw, the effects of different temperatures and organic loading rates on the biogas yield and methane contents were evaluated. Since poultry manure is a poor substrate, in term of the availability of the nutrients, external supplementation of carbon has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and efficient process. The complete-mix, pilot-scale digester with working volume of 70 L was used. The digestion operated at 25°C, 30°C and 35°C with organic loading rates of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 kg Volatile solid/m3d and a HRT of 15 days. At a temperature of 35°C, the methane yield was increased by 43% compared to 25°C. Anaerobic co-digestion appeared feasible with a loading rate of 3.0 kg VS/m3d at 35°C. At this state, the specific methane yield was calculated about 0.12 m3/kg VS with a methane content of 53–70.2% in the biogas. The volatile solid (VS) removal was 72%. As a result of volatile fatty acid accumulation and decrease in pH, when the loading rate was less than 1 or greater than 4 kg VS/m3d, the process was inhibited or overloaded, respectively. Both the lower and higher loading rates resulted in a decline in the methane yield. PMID:24502409

2013-01-01

400

Removal of Cu(II) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws.  

PubMed

The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(II)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola, rice, soybean and peanut straws was investigated. The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(II) from the effluent, mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation, and neutralized its acidity. The removal efficiency of Cu(II) by the biochars followed the order: peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char > a commercial activated carbonaceous material, which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars. The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(II) by biochars. Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(II) from it. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400 degrees C for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment, and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr. PMID:23923773

Tong, Xuejiao; Xu, Renkou

2013-04-01

401

The thermal behaviour of the co-combustion between paper sludge and rice straw.  

PubMed

The thermal characteristics and kinetics of paper sludge, rice straw and their blends were evaluated under combustion condition. The paper sludge was blended with rice straw in the range of 10-95 wt.% to investigate their co-combustion behaviour. There was significant interaction between rice straw and paper sludge in high temperature. The combustion of paper sludge and rice straw could be divided into two stages. The value of the activation energy obtained by the Friedman and the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) first decreased and then increased with the conversion degree rising. The average activation energy did not monotonically decrease with increasing the percentage of rice straw in the blends. When the percentage of rice straw in the blends was 80%, the value of the average activation energy was the smallest, which was 139 kJ/mol obtained by OFW and 132 kJ/mol obtained by Friedman, respectively. PMID:23973983

Xie, Zeqiong; Ma, Xiaoqian

2013-10-01

402

Applications of Suits spectral model to wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Canopy reflectance calculations for a spring type Mexican wheat, Penjamo, are compared with published data on Scout winter wheat. Good agreement exists between model calculations and experimental data in the spectral range, 500 nm to 750 nm, suggesting that the model parameters for wheat can be applied to different cultivars of wheat in the same growth stage. Wheat canopy reflectance is dependent upon surface soil type and this dependency is examined with the Suits' spectral model. In this particular growth stage wheat reflectance is shown to be nearly independent of soil reflectance in the visible wavelengths and progressively dependent at longer wavelengths in the infrared.

Chance, J. E.

1977-01-01

403

Systemic growth of F. graminearum in wheat plants and related accumulation of deoxynivalenol.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat worldwide caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae). This fungus can be highly aggressive and can produce several mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), a well known harmful metabolite for humans, animals, and plants. The fungus can survive overwinter on wheat residues and on the soil, and can usually attack the wheat plant at their point of flowering, being able to infect the heads and to contaminate the kernels at the maturity. Contaminated kernels can be sometimes used as seeds for the cultivation of the following year. Poor knowledge on the ability of the strains of F. graminearum occurring on wheat seeds to be transmitted to the plant and to contribute to the final DON contamination of kernels is available. Therefore, this study had the goals of evaluating: (a) the capability of F. graminearum causing FHB of wheat to be transmitted from the seeds or soil to the kernels at maturity and the progress of the fungus within the plant at different growth stages; (b) the levels of DON contamination in both plant tissues and kernels. The study has been carried out for two years in a climatic chamber. The F. gramineraum strain selected for the inoculation was followed within the plant by using Vegetative Compatibility technique, and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Chemical analyses of DON were carried out by using immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/UV/DAD. The study showed that F. graminearum originated from seeds or soil can grow systemically in the plant tissues, with the exception of kernels and heads. There seems to be a barrier that inhibits the colonization of the heads by the fungus. High levels of DON and F. graminearum were found in crowns, stems, and straw, whereas low levels of DON and no detectable levels of F. graminearum were found in both heads and kernels. Finally, in all parts of the plant (heads, crowns, and stems at milk and vitreous ripening stages, and straw at vitreous ripening), also the accumulation of significant quantities of DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G), a product of DON glycosylation, was detected, with decreasing levels in straw, crown, stems and kernels. The presence of DON and DON-3G in heads and kernels without the occurrence of F. graminearum may be explained by their water solubility that could facilitate their translocation from stem to heads and kernels. The presence of DON-3G at levels 23 times higher than DON in the heads at milk stage without the occurrence of F. graminearum may indicate that an active glycosylation of DON also occurs in the head tissues. Finally, the high levels of DON accumulated in straws are worrisome since they represent additional sources of mycotoxin for livestock. PMID:24727554

Moretti, Antonio; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Somma, Stefania; Campagna, Claudio; Ravaglia, Stefano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Solfrizzo, Michele

2014-04-01

404

Systemic Growth of F. graminearum in Wheat Plants and Related Accumulation of Deoxynivalenol  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat worldwide caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae). This fungus can be highly aggressive and can produce several mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), a well known harmful metabolite for humans, animals, and plants. The fungus can survive overwinter on wheat residues and on the soil, and can usually attack the wheat plant at their point of flowering, being able to infect the heads and to contaminate the kernels at the maturity. Contaminated kernels can be sometimes used as seeds for the cultivation of the following year. Poor knowledge on the ability of the strains of F. graminearum occurring on wheat seeds to be transmitted to the plant and to contribute to the final DON contamination of kernels is available. Therefore, this study had the goals of evaluating: (a) the capability of F. graminearum causing FHB of wheat to be transmitted from the seeds or soil to the kernels at maturity and the progress of the fungus within the plant at different growth stages; (b) the levels of DON contamination in both plant tissues and kernels. The study has been carried out for two years in a climatic chamber. The F. gramineraum strain selected for the inoculation was followed within the plant by using Vegetative Compatibility technique, and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Chemical analyses of DON were carried out by using immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/UV/DAD. The study showed that F. graminearum originated from seeds or soil can grow systemically in the plant tissues, with the exception of kernels and heads. There seems to be a barrier that inhibits the colonization of the heads by the fungus. High levels of DON and F. graminearum were found in crowns, stems, and straw, whereas low levels of DON and no detectable levels of F. graminearum were found in both heads and kernels. Finally, in all parts of the plant (heads, crowns, and stems at milk and vitreous ripening stages, and straw at vitreous ripening), also the accumulation of significant quantities of DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G), a product of DON glycosylation, was detected, with decreasing levels in straw, crown, stems and kernels. The presence of DON and DON-3G in heads and kernels without the occurrence of F. graminearum may be explained by their water solubility that could facilitate their translocation from stem to heads and kernels. The presence of DON-3G at levels 23 times higher than DON in the heads at milk stage without the occurrence of F. graminearum may indicate that an active glycosylation of DON also occurs in the head tissues. Finally, the high levels of DON accumulated in straws are worrisome since they represent additional sources of mycotoxin for livestock. PMID:24727554

Moretti, Antonio; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Somma, Stefania; Campagna, Claudio; Ravaglia, Stefano; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Solfrizzo, Michele

2014-01-01

405

Effect of steam explosion on the physicochemical properties and enzymatic saccharification of rice straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of steam explosion pretreatment on the physical and chemical properties of rice straw and on the enzymatic saccharification\\u000a of the straw were investigated. A wide range of pretreatment conditions were tested. Pretreatment effects were assessed by\\u000a morphological changes, pore size distribution, pH, soluble sugars concentration, amounts of extracted components, and by enzymatic\\u000a saccharification of pretreated samples. Rice straw

Mohammed Moniruzzaman

1996-01-01

406

Use of Industrial Hemp Fibers to Reinforce Wheat Gluten Plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation of manufactured products must be sustainable and industrially eco-efficient, making materials derived\\u000a from plants an alternative of particular interest. Wheat gluten (WG) is an interesting plant material to be used for production\\u000a of plastic similar materials due to its film-forming properties. For usage of plastics in a wider range of applications, composite\\u000a materials with improved mechanical properties

C. Wretfors; S.-W. Cho; M. S. Hedenqvist; S. Marttila; S. Nimmermark; E. Johansson

2009-01-01

407

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling Accepted 29 January 2009 Keywords: Chemical composition Mechanical properties Steam treatment Sorption isotherm Thermal stability Wheat straw a b s t r a c t Wheat straw fibers were modified via a pressurized

408

Universit du Sud Toulon-Var Prsente en vue de l'obtention du diplme de DOCTORAT  

E-print Network

multilayered composite that can be a good candidate to substitute expanded polystyrene actually used as a food starch foam reinforced by natural fibres (hemp, cellulose, wheat straw, cotton linter). The influence foam, natural fibres, hemp, cellulose, cotton linter, wheat straw, polycaprolactone, multilayer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

409

Culture media statistical optimization for biomass production of a ligninolytic fungus for future rice straw degradation.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to optimize a culture media for low scale biomass production of Pleurotus spp. Future applications of this optimization will be implemented for "in situ" rice straw degradation, increase soil nutrients availability, and lower residue and rice culture management costs. Soil samples were taken from different points in six important rice production cities in Colombia. For carbon and nitrogen source selection a factorial 4(2) design was carried out. The Plackett-Burman design permitted to detect carbon, nitrogen and inducer effects on fungus growth (response variable for all designs). This optimization was carried out by a Box-Behnken design. Finally a re-optimization assay for glucose concentration was performed by means of a One Factor design. Only 4/33 (12 %) isolates showed and important laccase or manganese peroxidase activity compared to Pleurotus ostreatus (HPB/P3). We obtained an increased biomass production in Pleurotus spp. (T1.1.) with glucose, followed by rice husk. Rice straw was considered an inducing agent for lignin degradation. Glucose was a significant component with positive effects, whereas Tween 80 and pH had negative effects. On the contrary, rice husk, yeast extract and CaCl2 were not significant components for increase the biomass production. Final media composition consisted of glucose 25 g L(-1), yeast extract 5 g L(-1), Tween 80 0.38 % (v/v), Rice husk 10 g L(-1), CaCl2 1 g L(-1), and pH 4.88 ± 0.2. The Box-Behnken polynomial prediction resulted to be lower than the experimental validation of the model (6.59 vs. 6.91 Log10 CFU ml(-1) respectively). PMID:24426109

Sarria-Alfonso, Viviana; Sánchez-Sierra, John; Aguirre-Morales, Mauricio; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Ivonne; Moreno-Sarmiento, Nubia; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A

2013-06-01

410

Searching for DNA introgressed from wheat and for wheat-like grain proteins in a rice x wheat hybridization derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA of a putative rice x wheat hybridization derivative (X Oryticum oryzoides) from China, the DNA of its parental rice cultivar and the DNA of a wheat line were digested with ten different restriction endonucleases, resolved by agarose electrophoresis, Southern blotted and hybridized using genomic wheat DNA as a probe. Phenol extracted, ethanol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide precipitated DNA of

Hannu Ahokas

1993-01-01

411

Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol: focusing on pretreatment at high solids content.  

PubMed

A central composite design of response surface method was used to optimize H(2)SO(4)-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw, in respect to acid concentration (0.5-2%), treatment time (5-20 min) and solid content (10-20%) at 180 degrees C. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing ethanol production. The results showed that acid concentration and treatment time were more significant than solid content for optimization of xylose release and cellulose recovery. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid and 20% solid content for 10 min at 180 degrees C was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw for ethanol production. After pretreatment at the optimal condition and enzymatic hydrolysis, 75.12% total xylan and 63.17% total glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively. Finally, 66.79% of theoretical ethanol yielded after fermentation. PMID:19268577

Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Yimin; Angelidaki, Irini

2009-06-01

412

The Wheat Grain Contains Pectic Domains Exhibiting Specific Spatial and Development-Associated Distribution  

PubMed Central

Cell walls are complex structures surrounding plant cells with a composition that varies among species and even within a species between organs, cell types and development stages. For years, cell walls in wheat grains were described as simple walls consisting mostly of arabinoxylans and mixed-linked beta glucans. Proteomic and transcriptomic studies identified enzyme families involved in the synthesis of many more cell wall polysaccharides in the wheat grains. Here we describe the discovery of pectic domains in wheat grain using monoclonal antibodies and enzymatic treatment to degrade the major cell wall polymers. Distinct spatial distributions were observed for rhamnogalacturonan I present in the endosperm and mostly in the aleurone layer and homogalacturonan especially found in the outer layers, and tight developmental regulations were unveiled. We also uncovered a massive deposition of homogalacturonan via large vesicular bodies in the seed coat (testa) beneath a thick cuticle during development. Our findings raise questions about the function of pectin in wheat grain. PMID:24586916

Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Bouchet, Brigitte; Alvarado, Camille; Bakan, Benedicte; Guillon, Fabienne

2014-01-01

413

Floral Transformation of Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

414

Effects of straw carbon input on carbon dynamics in agricultural soils: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Straw return has been widely recommended as an environmentally friendly practice to manage carbon (C) sequestration in agricultural ecosystems. However, the overall trend and magnitude of changes in soil C in response to straw return remain uncertain. In this meta-analysis, we calculated the response ratios of soil organic C (SOC) concentrations, greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, nutrient contents and other important soil properties to straw addition in 176 published field studies. Our results indicated that straw return significantly increased SOC concentration by 12.8 ± 0.4% on average, with a 27.4 ± 1.4% to 56.6 ± 1.8% increase in soil active C fraction. CO2 emission increased in both upland (27.8 ± 2.0%) and paddy systems (51.0 ± 2.0%), while CH4 emission increased by 110.7 ± 1.2% only in rice paddies. N2 O emission has declined by 15.2 ± 1.1% in paddy soils but increased by 8.3 ± 2.5% in upland soils. Responses of macro-aggregates and crop yield to straw return showed positively linear with increasing SOC concentration. Straw-C input rate and clay content significantly affected the response of SOC. A significant positive relationship was found between annual SOC sequestered and duration, suggesting that soil C saturation would occur after 12 years under straw return. Overall, straw return was an effective means to improve SOC accumulation, soil quality, and crop yield. Straw return-induced improvement of soil nutrient availability may favor crop growth, which can in turn increase ecosystem C input. Meanwhile, the analysis on net global warming potential (GWP) balance suggested that straw return increased C sink in upland soils but increased C source in paddy soils due to enhanced CH4 emission. Our meta-analysis suggested that future agro-ecosystem models and cropland management should differentiate the effects of straw return on ecosystem C budget in upland and paddy soils. PMID:24395454

Liu, Chang; Lu, Meng; Cui, Jun; Li, Bo; Fang, Changming

2014-05-01

415

CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Kestrel winter wheat  

E-print Network

of the Canada Western Red Winter Wheat class. Key words: Triticum aestivum L., cultivar description, wheat (BAROC). Mots clés: Triticum aestivum L., description de cultivar, blé (d'automne) CDC Kestrel is a high-yielding, semidward winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was developed at the Crop Development Centre, University

Saskatchewan, University of

416

Original article Wheat gluten feed in diets  

E-print Network

Original article Wheat gluten feed in diets for intensive bull beef production * LO Fiems, CV; The use of wheat gluten feed in concentrate diets for beef bulls has been investigated in 3 experiments. Sugar-beet pulp was replaced by 15% wheat gluten feed in the first experiment and by 15, 30 or 45

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

WHEAT KERNEL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND MILLING PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t . Studies concerning the relations between wheat kernel physical properties and milling properties have been carried out since the beginning of the cereal processing industry. The aim of the present work was to show the application of the most important physical properties of wheat for the evaluation of wheat technological qua lity,

Dariusz Dziki; Janusz Laskowski

418

The value of break crops for wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield of wheat growing after a broadleaf break crop generally exceeds that of wheat growing after wheat or other cereals. The presumed reasons for the yield benefit vary between break crops. They include reduced root and foliar disease, increased supply of soil water and mineral N, reduced assimilate loss to mycorrhizas, and, after legumes, growth stimulation following hydrogen gas

John Angus; Mark Peoples; John Kirkegaard; MH Ryan; L Ohlander

419

Research progress in BYDV resistance genes derived from wheat and its wild relatives.  

PubMed

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) may cause a serious disease affecting wheat worldwide. True resistance to BYDV is not naturally found in wheat. BYDV resistance genes are found in more than 10 wild relative species belonging to the genera of Thinopyrum, Agropyron, Elymus, Leymus, Roegneria, and Psathyrostachy. Through wide crosses combining with cell culture, use of ph mutants, or irradiation, 3 BYDV resistance genes in Th. intermedium, including Bdv2, Bdv3 and Bdv4, were introgressed into common wheat background. Various wheat-Th. intermedium addition and substitution, translocation lines with BYDV-resistance were developed and characterized, such as 7D-7Ai#1 (bearing Bdv2), 7B-7Ai#1, 7D-7E (bearing Bdv3), and 2D-2Ai-2 (bearing Bdv4) translocations. Three wheat varieties with BYDV resistance from Th. intermedium were developed and released in Australia and China, respectively. In addition, wheat-Agropyron cristatum translocation lines, wheat-Ag. pulcherrimum addition and substitution lines, and a wheat-Leymus multicaulis addition line (line24) with different resistance genes were developed. Cytological analysis, morphological markers, biochemical markers, and molecular markers associated with the alien chromatin carrying BYDV resistance genes were identified and applied to determine the presence of alien, chromosomes or segments, size of alien chromosome segments, and compositions of the alien chromosomes. Furthermore, some resistance-related genes, such as RGA, P450, HSP70, protein kinases, centrin, and transducin, were identified, which expressed specifically in the resistance translocation lines with Bdv2. These studies lay the foundations for developing resistant wheat cultivars and unraveling the resistance mechanism against BYDV. PMID:19782958

Zhang, Zengyan; Lin, Zhishan; Xin, Zhiyong

2009-09-01

420

Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.  

PubMed

Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from fertilizers (leaching, volatilization) as well as methane emissions should be implemented. PMID:25038430

Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

2014-10-01

421

Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle  

E-print Network

Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle WX Zhang JK Yuan 466000, Henan, China In a recent experiment with beef cattle, three types of straw were used : a 5 % urea head of Simmental-Chinese Yellow cross beef cattle, approximately 122 months old and weighing 200 kg

Boyer, Edmond

422

Effect of temporary straw bedding on pigs’ behaviour, performance, cortisol and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temporary straw bedding for a period of 6, 4, or 2 weeks before slaughter was studied on pigs’ performance, behaviour, cortisol concentration, intermediary metabolism, and meat quality. Pigs were barren housed on slatted concrete floors during growth and allocated to one of following four treatments (T): straw bedding during 6 weeks (6wk), 4 weeks (4wk), 2 weeks

Ester Peeters; Bert Driessen; Christel P. H. Moons; Frank O. Ödberg; Rony Geers

2006-01-01

423

Nutritional metabolism of hydrogen peroxide/ anhydrous ammonia-treated barley straw in ewe lambs  

E-print Network

Note Nutritional metabolism of hydrogen peroxide/ anhydrous ammonia-treated barley straw in ewe lambs Mohammed DIOURI*, Randall D. WIEDMEIER Skaggs Nutrition Research Laboratory, USU, Logan, UT 84322 of hydrogen peroxide. straw / treatment / ammonia / hydrogen peroxide Résumé -- Métabolisme alimentaire de la

Boyer, Edmond

424

Formation and reduction of nitric oxide in fixed-bed combustion of straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) formation and reduction in fixed-bed combustion of straw have been modeled mathematically and verified experimentally. The model for the straw combustion and nitrogen chemistry consists of sub-models for evaporation, pyrolysis, tar and char combustion, nitrogen conversion, and energy and mass conservation. Twenty chemical reactions are included, of which 12 belong to the fuel nitrogen reaction

H. Zhou; A. D. Jensen; P. Glarborg; A. Kavaliauskas

2006-01-01

425

Combustion characteristics of different parts of corn straw and NO formation in a fixed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments with five samples of corn straw were carried out on a one-dimensional bench combustion test rig. The bed temperature distribution and the mass loss of fuel and gas components such a