Sample records for wheat straw composition

  1. Lightweight composites from long wheat straw and polypropylene web.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Huda, Shah; Yang, Yiqi

    2010-03-01

    Whole and split wheat straws (WS) with length up to 10 cm have been used with polypropylene (PP) webs to make lightweight composites with properties superior to jute-PP composites with the same density. The effect of WS concentration, WS length, and split configuration (half, quarter, and mechanically split) on flexural and tensile properties of the composites has been investigated. The sound absorption properties of composites from whole straw and split straw have been studied. Compared with whole WS-PP composites, mechanically split WS-PP composites have 69% higher flexural strength, 39% higher modulus of elasticity, 18% higher impact resistance properties, 69% higher tensile strength and 26% higher Young's modulus. Compared with jute-PP composites, mechanically split WS-PP composites have 114% higher flexural strength, 38% higher modulus of elasticity, 10% higher tensile strength, 140% higher Young's modulus, better sound absorption properties and 50% lower impact resistance. PMID:19939672

  2. Preparation and properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with wheat and flax straw fibres: Part II Analysis of composite microstructure and mechanical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R HORNSBY; E HINRICHSEN; K TARVERDI

    1997-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of polypropylene composites containing flax and wheat straw fibres are discussed.\\u000a Particular emphasis has been given to determining the nature and consequences of fibre damage induced during melt-processing\\u000a operations, fibre orientation occurring in mouldings, and possible interfacial adhesion between the matrix and fibres. Compared\\u000a to unfilled polypropylene, addition of flax and wheat straw caused a

  3. Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mengeloglu, Fatih; Karakus, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF) filled thermoplastic composites were measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF in thermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WF and one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs and thermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improved adhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seen on the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties of WF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensile and flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties of thermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPP coupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with the combination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with the use of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties required by the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

  4. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 ?m) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 ?m) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  5. Bioethanol production from ammonia percolated wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minhee Han; Se-Kwon Moon; Yule Kim; Youngran Kim; Bongwoo Chung; Gi-Wook Choi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of ammonia percolation pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production. Ground wheat\\u000a straw at a 10% (w\\/v) loading was pretreated with a 15% (v\\/v) ammonia solution. The experiments were performed at treatment\\u000a temperature of 50?170°C and residence time of 10?150 min. The solids treated with the ammonia solution showed high lignin\\u000a degradation and sugar availability.

  6. Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process.

    PubMed

    Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Benjelloun-Mlayah, Bouchra; Huijgen, Wouter J J; de Wild, Paul J; Gosselink, Richard J A; Gerritsma, Jort; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing. PMID:24508905

  7. Structure and morphology of cellulose in wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruigang Liu; Hui Yu; Yong Huang

    2005-01-01

    The structure and morphology of cellulose extracted from wheat were studied. It was found that the extraction process is effective and hemicelluloses and lignin can be extracted completely. Cellulose in wheat straw was identified as cellulose I allomorph with low crystallinity and the crystallinity of cellulose from different parts of the wheat straw has little difference. There was no metastable

  8. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

  9. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Wheat Straw Paper

    E-print Network

    into Wheat Straw Paper Jamie Tang Jisun Jessica Kim Andrew Chow University of British Columbia APSC 262 March the current status of the subject matter of a project/report". #12;AN INVESTIGATION INTO WHEAT STRAW PAPER 29, 2012 Instructor: Dawn Mills #12;ii ABSTRACT "An Investigation into Wheat Straw Paper" Wheat paper

  10. Effect of Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat Grain and Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global impact of increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere on plants has been studied extensively recently but little information has been published on the effect of enrichment of atmospheric CO2 on the development of nutritive value of grain and straw for ruminant feeds. This paper re...

  11. Quantification of wheat straw lignin structure by comprehensive NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jijiao; Helms, Gregory L; Gao, Xin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-11-20

    A further understanding of the structure of lignin from herbaceous crops is needed for advancing technologies of lignocellulosic biomass processing and utilization. A method was established in this study for analyzing structural motifs found in milled straw lignin (MSL) and cellulase-digested lignin (CEL) isolated from wheat straw by combining quantitative (13)C and HSQC NMR spectral analyses. The results showed that guaiacyl (G) was the predominant unit in wheat straw cell wall lignin over syringyl (S) and hydroxyphenyl (H) units. Up to 8.0 units of tricin were also detected in wheat straw lignin per 100 aromatic rings. Various interunit linkages, including ?-O-4, ?-5, ?-?', ?-1, ?, ?-diaryl ether, and 5-5'/4-O-?' as well as potential lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds, were identified and quantified. These findings provide useful information for the development of biofuels and lignin-based materials. PMID:24143908

  12. Effect of pretreatment severity on xylan solubility and enzymatic breakdown of the remaining cellulose from wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjam A. Kabel; Gijs Bos; Jan Zeevalking; Alphons G. J. Voragen; Henk A. Schols

    2007-01-01

    The effect of process conditions used for wheat straw pretreatments on the liquor- and residue-composition was studied. Hereto, the pretreatment conditions were expressed in a ‘combined severity R0?-factor’. The higher the combined severity factor (R0?) the more xylan was released from the wheat straw, but the more xylan decomposed and furfural formation occurred. The percentage of residual xylan present after

  13. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    wheat straw J. Lindedam a, *, S.B. Andersen b , J. DeMartini c , S. Bruun b , H. Jørgensen a , C. Felby Sugar Wheat straw Variation Cultivar a b s t r a c t Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high

  14. FISH SILAGE FOR IMPROVING THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF WHEAT STRAW 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert K. Chirase; Moha Kolopita; James R. Males

    2010-01-01

    Fish silage was evaluated as a protein supplement for wheat straw using chemical analysis and sheep metabolism studies. Diets ensiled and fed in Exp. 1 were: straw + fish silage + limestone + barley; straw + fish silage + barley; straw + NH4OH + formic acid + barley; straw + NH,OH + barley. Fish silage and NH4OH were added to

  15. Straw management, crop rotation, and nitrogen source effect on wheat grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustin Limon-Ortega; Bram Govaerts; Kenneth D. Sayre

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer management from different sources and annual crop rotations are important components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems, especially where air and soil quality issues have prompted a search for alternatives to wheat straw burning. This study examined the effects of two different wheat straw management options (burning and incorporation by tillage), three crop rotations [wheat-sesbania (Sesbania spp.),

  16. [Denitrification using radiation-pretreated wheat straw as solid carbon source].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Xing; Zhao, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Long

    2009-04-15

    Wheat straw after radiation pretreatment was used as solid carbon source and biofilm support for denitrifying microorganisms. Denitrification performance of radiation-pretreated wheat straw was compared to that of wheat straw without radiation pretreatment. The results showed that the denitrification rate of radiation-pretreated wheat straw was about 20% higher than that of wheat straw without radiation pretreatment. When the initial nitrate concentration was 65.3 mg/L, the denitrification rate using wheat straw after 300 kGy radiation with gamma-ray could reach 0.087 mg/(g x h) and the nitrate removal efficiency was above 90%. Parts of these results were confirmed by the IR analysis and SEM observation of wheat straw surface structure. PMID:19545011

  17. Continuous Production of Ethanol from Wheat Straw Hydrolyzate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous production of ethanol from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically saccharified wheat straw hydrolyzate by ethanologenic recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 was investigated under various conditions at controlled pH 6.5 and 35 deg C. The average ethanol yield from the availabl...

  18. Structural and thermal characterization of wheat straw pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking.

    PubMed

    Gao, Allan H; Bule, Mahesh V; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D; Chen, Shulin

    2012-09-01

    Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic feedstocks requires an efficient pretreatment technology to allow ready access of polysaccharides for cellulolytic enzymes during saccharification. The effect of pretreatment on wheat straw through a low-temperature and low-pressure soaking aqueous ammonia (SAA) process was investigated in this study using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS), solid and liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) to demonstrate the changes in lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose structure. After treatment of 60 mesh wheat straw particles for 60 h with 28-30% ammonium hydroxide (1:10 solid/liquid) at 50 °C, sugar recovery increased from 14% (untreated) to 67% (SAA treated). The FTIR study revealed a substantial decrease in absorbance of lignin peaks. Solid and liquid state NMR showed minimal lignin structural changes with significant compositional changes. Activation energy of control and pretreated wheat straw was calculated according to the Friedman and ASTM methods and found to be decreased for SAA-treated wheat straw, from 259 to 223 kJ/mol. The SAA treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin without strongly affecting lignin functional groups or structure. PMID:22882009

  19. Study of pozzolanic properties of wheat straw ash

    SciTech Connect

    Biricik, H.; Akoez, F.; Berktay, I.; Tulgar, A.N. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Construction Materials] [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Construction Materials

    1999-05-01

    As an agricultural product, wheat straw contains considerable amounts of SiO{sub 2}. When burned it leaves an ash very rich in SiO{sub 2} that has a pozzolanic character. Wheat is an important agricultural product in Turkey. In this study, wheat straws are ground to 1--5-mm size and subjected to preburning treatment. The preburned material is later burned in controller conditions for 5 hours at 570 and 670 C. The ash is cooled suddenly and ground to 90--200 {micro} size. The standard test specimens are produced from ash and mechanically, chemically, and physically tested for determination of its pozzolanic properties. It is obtained that the ash has pozzolanic activity.

  20. Comparison of Acetic Acid Lignin with Milled Wood and Alkaline Lignins from Wheat Straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

    2000-01-01

    Wheat straw, as an agricultural residue, is generated in a huge quantity worldwide every year. In countries that are short of forest resources, such as China, wheat and rice straws are extensively used as raw material for pulp and paper. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in China, which account for about 90 % of

  1. Direct three-dimensional characterization and multiscale visualization of wheat straw deconstruction by white rot fungus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Qian, Chen; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-08-19

    Microbial degradation of lignocellulose for resource and energy recovery has received increasing interest. Despite its obvious importance, the mechanism behind the biodegradation, especially the changes of morphological structure and surface characteristics, has not been fully understood. Here, we used three-dimensional (3D) characterization and multiscale visualization methods, in combination with chemical compositional analyses, to elucidate the degradation process of wheat straw by a white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that the fungal attack initiated from stomata. Lignin of the straw decayed in both size and quantity, and heterogeneity in the biodegradation was observed. After treatment with the fungus, the straw surface turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, and the adhesion of the straw surface increased in the fungal degradation. The morphology of the straw outer layer became heterogeneous and loose with the formation of many holes with various sizes. The wasp-tunnels-like structure of the collenchyma and parenchyma of the straw as well as the fungal hyphae interspersed inside the straw structure were clearly visualized in the 3D reconstruction structure. This work offers a new insight into the mechanism of lignocellulose biodegradation and demonstrates that multiscale visualization methods could be a useful tool to explore such complex processes. PMID:25072830

  2. Estimating Straw Production of Spring and Winter Wheat Richard Engel1

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Estimating Straw Production of Spring and Winter Wheat Richard Engel1 , Dan Long2 , Gregg Carlson2 production for spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are important in Montana because crop residue that preserves a specified level of crop residue. Straw production levels for wheat frequently are estimated

  3. Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than effective tissue disruption. PMID:23590820

  4. Nutrient utilization and milk yield response of early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes fed on urea–molasses treated wheat straw fermented with cattle manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aasif Shahzad; M. Nisa; M. Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the influence of urea–molasses treated wheat straw (WS) fermented with cattle manure (CM) with 4% urea and 4% molasses incubated for 40days on its chemical composition and varying substitution levels of fermented wheat straw (FWS) with concentrate on nutrients intake and their digestibilities, milk yield and its composition in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Twenty early lactating

  5. Adhesive properties of modified soybean flour in wheat straw particleboard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enzhi Cheng; Xiuzhi Sun; Greggory S Karr

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve mechanical properties and water resistance of wheat straw–soy flour particleboard by chemically modifying soy flour. Urea and urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) were used to modify the proteins. Boric acid and citric acid along sodium hypophosphite monohydrate were used to modify soy carbohydrates. Sodium hydroxide was used to unfold protein molecules.

  6. Optimization of wet oxidation pretreatment of wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anette Skammelsen Schmidt; Anne Belinda Thomsen

    1998-01-01

    The wet oxidation process (water, oxygen and elevated temperature) was investigated under alkaline conditions for fractionation of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin from wheat straw. At higher temperature and longer reaction time, a purified cellulose fraction (69% w\\/w) was produced with high enzymatic convertibility to glucose (66% w\\/w). At 185°C, nearly three times more hemicellulose was solubilized than at 150°C. Optimum

  7. Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native ?-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

  8. The influence of thermochemical treatments on the lignocellulosic structure of wheat straw as studied by natural abundance 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Habets, S; de Wild, P J; Huijgen, W J J; van Eck, E R H

    2013-10-01

    The effects of thermochemical treatments (aquathermolysis, pyrolysis, and combinations thereof) on the lignocellulosic structure and composition of wheat straw were studied with (13)C and (1)H solid state NMR spectroscopy and proton T1? relaxation measurements. Results show that aquathermolysis removes hemicellulose, acetyl groups, and ash minerals. As a result, the susceptibility of lignocellulose to pyrolysis is reduced most likely due to the removal of catalytically active salts, although recondensation of lignin during aquathermolysis treatment can also play a role. In contrast to pyrolysis of wheat straw, pyrolysis of aquathermolysed wheat straw leaves traces of cellulose in the char as well as more intense lignin methoxy peaks. Finally, it was found that both pyrolysis chars contain aliphatic chains, which were attributed to the presence of cutin or cutin-like materials, a macromolecule that covers the aerial surface of plants, not soluble in water and seemingly stable under the pyrolysis conditions applied. PMID:23973979

  9. Pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide for increasing enzymatic and microbial degradability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoying; Zicari, Steven M; Liu, Guangqing; Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong

    2015-06-01

    The pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at ambient temperature (20°C) was investigated. The pretreatment effects on chemical composition and physical structures, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion were evaluated. Wheat straw at 10% total solids (TS) was treated with KOH solution for 24h at a wide range of KOH loadings from 2% to 50% (w/w dry basis). Higher KOH loading resulted in higher lignin reduction from the straw and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the resulting black liquor. Maximum lignin reduction of 54.7% was observed at 50% KOH loading. In comparison to untreated straw, specific hydrolysis yields achieved 14.0-92.3% over the range of 2-50% KOH loading, and methane yields increased 16.7-77.5% for KOH loadings of 10-50%, respectively. Accounting for losses during pretreatment, 20% KOH loading resulted in maximum overall reducing sugar yield and methane yield and therefore is the recommended loading for pretreatment under these conditions. PMID:25768417

  10. Hydrotreating of wheat straw in toluene and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Murnieks, Raimonds; Kampars, Valdis; Malins, Kristaps; Apseniece, Lauma

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, wheat straw was hydroliquefied at a temperature of 300°C for 4h in ethanol or toluene in order to obtain bio-components which are useful for fuel purposes. The experiments were performed in a 100mL batch reactor under hydrogen pressure of 70 bar. Typically, 2g of straw and 0.1g of catalyst (66%Ni/SiO2-Al2O3) were dispersed in 15 g of solvent. The main compounds of the oil produced during the liquefaction of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin of wheat straw in both solvents are: tetrahydrofuran-2-methanol, 1,2-butanediol and butyrolactone. Besides the mentioned compounds, ethanol favoured the decomposition of bigger molecules to short-chain alcohols such as 1-butanol, 1,2-propanediol and 1,2-ethanediol. Toluene contributes to the production of furans and other cyclic compounds. The light fractions distilled together with the solvent also contain the following: 1-propanol, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. PMID:24787323

  11. HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF WHEAT STRAW ON PILOT PLANT SCALE Anders Thygesena

    E-print Network

    with water in counter flow at water-straw ratio of 5 kg/kg. By hydrothermal treatment of the straw at 190°CHYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF WHEAT STRAW ON PILOT PLANT SCALE Anders Thygesena , Mette Hedegaard/h was designed and constructed for continuous wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment of plant fiber biomass

  12. Production of bioethanol from wheat straw: An overview on pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid Talebnia; Dimitar Karakashev; Irini Angelidaki

    2010-01-01

    Wheat straw is an abundant agricultural residue with low commercial value. An attractive alternative is utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. However, production costs based on the current technology are still too high, preventing commercialization of the process. In recent years, progress has been made in developing more effective pretreatment and hydrolysis processes leading to higher yield of sugars.

  13. Scale-up of wheat straw conversion to fuel ethanol at 100 liter scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw can serve as low cost feedstock for conversion to ethanol. Pretreatment is crucial prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. We have used dilute H2SO4 pretreatment at a high temperature for pretreatment of wheat straw. The pretreated hydrolyzate was bioabated using a novel fungal strain able to ...

  14. Use of ground wheat straw in container nursery substrates to overwinter daylily divisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) straw is being evaluated as a potential component in soilless container mixes either alone or combined with compost to replace a significant portion of the substrate currently supplied by pine bark and peat moss. The objective of this study was to evaluate wheat straw and horse...

  15. Composting of goat manure and wheat straw using pine cones as a bulking agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recep Kulcu; Osman Yaldiz

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of pine cones, goat manure and wheat straw and obtained optimal Free Air Space (FAS) values for composting. For this aim, pine cones were added at different ratios into goat manure and wheat straw mixtures. So, the FAS value of mixtures was fixed at four different levels. According to the results,

  16. Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw: product distribution and generation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiqiang; Wang, Wenlong; Liu, Hongzhen; Ma, Chunyuan; Song, Zhanlong

    2014-04-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw is studied, combined with analysis of products, the distribution and generation pathway of products are investigated. Only a small amount of volatiles released when microwave pyrolysis of pure straw. Mixtures of adding CuO and Fe3O4 can pyrolyze, and the majority in pyrolysis products is in liquid-phase. Severe pyrolysis occur after adding carbon residue, the CO content in pyrolysis gas products is high, and the maximum volume content of H2 can exceed 35 vol.%. The high-temperature is helpful for increasing the yield of combustible gas in gaseous products, in particular the H2 production, but also helpful for improving the conversion of sample. Pyrolysis is carried out layer by layer from the inside to outside. As the internal material firstly pyrolyze and pyrolysis products released pass through the low temperature zone, the chance of occurrence of secondary reactions is reduced. PMID:24607465

  17. Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

  18. Metataxonomic profiling and prediction of functional behaviour of wheat straw degrading microbial consortia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixed microbial cultures, in which bacteria and fungi interact, have been proposed as an efficient way to deconstruct plant waste. The characterization of specific microbial consortia could be the starting point for novel biotechnological applications related to the efficient conversion of lignocellulose to cello-oligosaccharides, plastics and/or biofuels. Here, the diversity, composition and predicted functional profiles of novel bacterial-fungal consortia are reported, on the basis of replicated aerobic wheat straw enrichment cultures. Results In order to set up biodegradative microcosms, microbial communities were retrieved from a forest soil and introduced into a mineral salt medium containing 1% of (un)treated wheat straw. Following each incubation step, sequential transfers were carried out using 1 to 1,000 dilutions. The microbial source next to three sequential batch cultures (transfers 1, 3 and 10) were analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS1 pyrosequencing. Faith’s phylogenetic diversity values became progressively smaller from the inoculum to the sequential batch cultures. Moreover, increases in the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Flavobacteriales and Sphingobacteriales were noted along the enrichment process. Operational taxonomic units affiliated with Acinetobacter johnsonii, Pseudomonas putida and Sphingobacterium faecium were abundant and the underlying strains were successfully isolated. Interestingly, Klebsiella variicola (OTU1062) was found to dominate in both consortia, whereas K. variicola-affiliated strains retrieved from untreated wheat straw consortia showed endoglucanase/xylanase activities. Among the fungal players with high biotechnological relevance, we recovered members of the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Coniochaeta and Trichosporon. Remarkably, the presence of peroxidases, alpha-L-fucosidases, beta-xylosidases, beta-mannases and beta-glucosidases, involved in lignocellulose degradation, was indicated by predictive bacterial metagenome reconstruction. Reassuringly, tests for specific (hemi)cellulolytic enzymatic activities, performed on the consortial secretomes, confirmed the presence of such gene functions. Conclusion In an in-depth characterization of two wheat straw degrading microbial consortia, we revealed the enrichment and selection of specific bacterial and fungal taxa that were presumably involved in (hemi) cellulose degradation. Interestingly, the microbial community composition was strongly influenced by the wheat straw pretreatment. Finally, the functional bacterial-metagenome prediction and the evaluation of enzymatic activities (at the consortial secretomes) revealed the presence and enrichment of proteins involved in the deconstruction of plant biomass. PMID:24955113

  19. Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.L.; Tengerdy, R.P.; Murphy, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at 0.12 L/h/g; substrate thickness of 1 to 2 cm; and duration of three days. Technical parameters for this optimized fermentation were: degree of substance utilization, 27.2%; protein yield/substrate, 0.09 g; biomass yield/bioconverted substrate, 0.40 g; degree of bioconversion of total available sugars in the substrate, 60.5%; specific efficiency of bioconversion, 70.8%; and overall efficiency of biomass production from substrate, 42.7%. Mixed culturing of Candida utilis further increased biomass production by 20%. The best mode of fermentation was a semicontinuous fed-batch fermentation where one-half of the fermented material was removed at three-day intervals and replaced by fresh substrate. In this mode, protein production was 20% higher than in batch mode, protein productivity was maintained over 12 days, and sporulation was prevented. 10 references.

  20. A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw?

    PubMed Central

    Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B.; Du, Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

  1. Composting of goat manure and wheat straw using pine cones as a bulking agent.

    PubMed

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of pine cones, goat manure and wheat straw and obtained optimal Free Air Space (FAS) values for composting. For this aim, pine cones were added at different ratios into goat manure and wheat straw mixtures. So, the FAS value of mixtures was fixed at four different levels. According to the results, the highest organic matter degradation and temperature value were obtained at the mixture ratio of 10% pine cones, 45% goat manure and 45% wheat straw. FAS value of this mixture was 32.8. PMID:17092713

  2. Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biomass recalcitrance is affected by a number of chemical, physical and biological factors. In this study we looked into the differences in recalcitrance between two major anatomical fractions of wheat straw biomass, leaf and stem. A set of twenty-one wheat cultivars was fractionated and illustrated the substantial variation in leaf-to-stem ratio between cultivars. The two fractions were compared in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic convertibility, cellulose crystallinity and glucan accessibility. The use of water as a probe for assessing glucan accessibility was explored using low field nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy in combination with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Results Leaves were clearly more degradable by lignocellulolytic enzymes than stems, and it was demonstrated that xylose removal was more linked to glucose yield for stems than for leaves. Comparing the locations of water in leaf and stem by low field NMR and FT-IR revealed that the glucan hydroxyl groups in leaves were more accessible to water than glucan hydroxyl groups in stems. No difference in crystallinity between leaf and stem was observed using wide angle x-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal pretreatment increased the accessibility towards water in stems but not in leaves. The results in this study indicate a correlation between the accessibility of glucan to water and to enzymes. Conclusions Enzymatic degradability of wheat straw anatomical fractions can be indicated by the accessibility of the hydroxyl groups to water. This suggests that water may be used to assess glucan accessibility in biomass samples. PMID:24860617

  3. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Results Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Conclusions Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs. PMID:23945109

  4. Wet explosion of wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure: effect on the methane productivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K

    2009-11-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary feedstock but their economical profitable operation relies on the addition of other biomass products with a high biogas yield. Wheat straw is the major crop residue in Europe and the second largest agricultural residue in the world. So far it has been used in several applications, i.e. pulp and paper making, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on (a) the sugars release and (b) the methane potential of the pretreated wheat straw compared to that of the raw biomass. It was found that, although a high release of soluble sugars was observed after wet explosion, the methane obtained from the wet-exploded wheat straw was slightly lower compared to that from the raw biomas s. On the other hand, the results from the codigestion of raw (non-pretreated) wheat straw with swine manure were very promising, suggesting that 4.6 kg of straw added to 1t of manure increase the methane production by 10%. Thus, wheat straw can be considered as a promising, low-cost biomass for increasing the methane productivity of biogas plants that are based mainly on swine manure. PMID:19666217

  5. Recovery of ammonium onto wheat straw to be reused as a slow-release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lihua; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Lan

    2013-04-10

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact of nitrogen pollution, a new multifunctional slow-release fertilizer was prepared by recovery of ammonium from aqueous solutions onto a superabsorbent composite. An eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS) was synthesized and used as the carrier to control the release of nutrients. The adsorption studies with NH?? indicated that the superabsorbent composite showed good affinity for NH??, with an adsorption capacity of 7.15 mmol g?¹ when 20 wt % of WS was incorporated and that the adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 40 min. Afterward, the feasibility of reusing the composite as a multifunctional slow-release nitrogen fertilizer was investigated. The results showed that the product with good water-retention and slow-release capacities could regulate soil acidity and was economical and eco-friendly for application in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:23495955

  6. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties) connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter) hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C. PMID:21269447

  7. On-combine Sensing Technique for Mapping Straw Yield within Wheat Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw from production of wheat is available for conversion to bioenergy. However, not all of this straw is available for conversion because a certain amount must be returned to the soil for conservation. County and state-wide inventories do not account for variation within farm fields. In this st...

  8. Effect of ozonolysis pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility of wheat and rye straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M García-Cubero; Gerardo González-Benito; Irune Indacoechea; Mónica Coca; Silvia Bolado

    2009-01-01

    Wheat and rye straws were pretreated with ozone to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis extent of potentially fermentable sugars. Through a 25–1 factorial design, this work studies the influence of five operating parameters (moisture content, particle size, ozone concentration, type of biomass and air\\/ozone flow rate) on ozonization pretreatment of straw in a fixed bed reactor under room conditions. The acid

  9. Characterization of degradation products from alkaline wet oxidation of wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene B Klinke; Birgitte K Ahring; Anette S Schmidt; Anne Belinda Thomsen

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation pre-treatment (water, sodium carbonate, oxygen, high temperature and pressure) of wheat straw was performed as a 24?1 fractional factorial design with the process parameters: temperature, reaction time, sodium carbonate and oxygen. Alkaline wet oxidation was an efficient pre-treatment of wheat straw that resulted in solid fractions with high cellulose recovery (96%) and high enzymatic convertibility to glucose

  10. The effects of urine level, duration of treatment and moisture level on nutritive value of wheat straw

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The effects of urine level, duration of treatment and moisture level on nutritive value of wheat the nutritive value of wheat straw was investigated. Two experiments arranged in a factorial design (3x3) with 3 replicates per treatment were performed using the same batch of wheat straw. In Experiment 1 moisture level

  11. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulos, I A; Bakker, R R; de Vrije, T; Claassen, P A M; Koukios, E G

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of 93.4 g/L, while dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw led to a hydrolysate with sugar concentration 23.0 g/L. Wheat grain hydrolysate was not suitable for hydrogen production by the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus at glucose concentrations of 10 g/L or higher, and wheat straw hydrolysate showed good fermentability at total sugar concentrations of up to 10 g/L. The mixed hydrolysates showed good fermentability at the highest tested sugar concentration of 20 g/L, with a hydrogen production of 82-97% of that of the control with pure sugars. Mixing wheat grain hydrolysate with wheat straw hydrolysate would be beneficial for fermentative hydrogen production in a biorefinery. PMID:23196256

  12. Purification, structural characterization, and modification of organosolv wheat straw lignin.

    PubMed

    Mbotchak, Laurie; Le Morvan, Clara; Duong, Khanh Linh; Rousseau, Brigitte; Tessier, Martine; Fradet, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Biolignin, a wheat straw lignin produced by acetic acid/formic acid/water hydrolysis, was characterized by (31)P and (13)C-(1)H 2D NMR spectroscopy and by size-exclusion chromatography. Biolignin is a mixture of low molar mass compounds (Mn = 1660 g/mol) made up of S, G, and H units and of coumaric and ferulic acid units. ?-5 and ?-O-4 interunit linkages are partially acylated in the ?-position by acetate and p-coumarate groups. Deacylated samples with a low content of contaminants were obtained by combining alkaline hydrolysis and solvent extraction. The high phenolic OH content found by (31)P NMR reflects the presence of condensed aromatic units, such as 5-5 units. Reaction of purified lignin with ethanol and ethane-1,2-diol yielded esterified lignins much more soluble than Biolignin in common organic solvents. During this reaction, the secondary OH of ?-O-4 linkages was simultaneously etherified. Phenol hydroxyethylation by 2-chloroethanol yielded samples containing only aliphatic hydroxyl groups. PMID:25961961

  13. Improving the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture for dry season feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kashongwe, Olivier Basole; Migwi, Preminius; Bebe, Bockline Omedo; Ooro, Patrick Auwor; Onyango, Tobias Atali; Osoo, John Odhiambo

    2014-08-01

    The study evaluated the effects of feeding urea treated/supplemented wheat straw-based diets with addition of yeast culture (YC) as a dry season feed for dairy cows. Wheat straw diets with 3.6% urea and 5.8% molasses were formulated to upgrade nonprotein nitrogen levels and fibre degradation in the rumen. Yeast culture was included at 0 and 10 g/cow/day in mixer with commercial dairy meal to improve on fibre degradation and milk yield. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, an in sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) trial with three steers in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement to determine the effects on intake and rumen degradation parameters. Secondly, feeding trial with 18 lactating cows in a 3?×?2 factorial arrangement at two levels of yeast culture (0 and 10 g/cow/day) and three types of urea interventions: No intervention (WS); addition of urea to straw at the time of feeding (USWS); and 7 days incubation of straw with urea (UTWS). Yeast cultures addition had no effect on rumen pH and NH3-N, but urea intervention showed an effect on rumen pH with USWS being lowest (p??0.05) on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition but they increased (p?

  14. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Serrano, María; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-05-01

    The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0 ml-H(2)/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were further used to produce methane with the yields of 0.324 and 0.381 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)(added), respectively. Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus, multiple biofuels production from wheat straw can increase the efficiency for material and energy and can presumably be more economical process for biomass utilization. PMID:19135361

  15. Effect of Replacing Wheat Straw with Almond Hull and Shell in Diets on Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Parameters of Goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Can; N. Denek; M. ?eker

    2007-01-01

    Can, A., Denek, N. and ?eker, M. 2007. Effect of replacing wheat straw with almond hull and shell in diets on nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of goat. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 32: 181–183.To determine the effect of replacing wheat straw with almond hulls and shell in diets on nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of goat, eight male Kilis goats

  16. Effect of Wheat Straw Treated with Alkali on Ruminal Function and Lactational Performance of Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Haddad; R. J. Grant; S. D. Kachman

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of wheat straw treated with alkali on ruminal function and lactational performance of dairy cows. In Experiment 1, four ruminally fistulated Holsteins cows ( X = 57 d of lactation) were fed four diets that contained 0, 20, 30, or 40% (dry basis) wheat straw treated with 3% NaOH plus 3% Ca(OH)2

  17. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations. PMID:23535542

  18. Bioconversion of wheat straw to ethanol: chemical modification, enzymic hydrolysis, and fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Detroy, R.W.; Lindenfelser, L.A.; Sommer, S.; Orton W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Native wheat straw (WS) was pretreated with various concentrations of H2SO4 and NaOH followed by secondary treatments with ethylenediamine (EDA) and NH4OH prior to enzymic saccharification. Conversion of the cellulosic component to sugar varied with the chemical modification steps. Treatment solely with alkali yielded 51-75% conversion, depending on temperature. Acid treatment at elevated temperatures showed a substantial decrease in the hemicellulose component, whereas EDA-treated WS (acid pretreated) showed a 69-75% decrease in the lignin component. Acid-pretreated EDTA-treated straw yielded a 98% conversion rate, followed by 83% for alkali-NH4OH treated straws. In other experiments, WS was pretreated with varying concentrations of H2SO4 or HaOH followed by NH4OH treatment prior to enzymic hydrolysis. Pretreatment of straw with 2% NaOH for 4 h coupled to enzymic hydrolysis yielded a 76% conversion of the cellulosic component. Acid-base combination pretreatments yielded only 43% conversions. A reactor column was subsequently used to measure modification-saccharification-fermentation for wheat straw conversion on a larger scale. Thirty percent conversion of wheat straw cellulosics to sugar were observed with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. The crude cellulase preparation yielded considerable quantities of xylose in addition to the glucose. Saccharified materials were fermented directly with actively proliferating yeast cells without concentration of the sugars.

  19. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn’s formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  20. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn's formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  1. Fractional characterization of wheat straw lignin components by alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation and FT-IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lawther, J.M.; Sun, R.; Banks, W.B. [Univ. of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    A method was developed for the isolation and fractional characterization of phenolic monomers in wheat staw lignin using: methanol/toluene, ethanol/toluene, or chloroform extraction for isolation of free phenolic monomers; treatments with various alkalis and hydrogen peroxide for different lengths of time to extract loosely bound phenolic acids and aldehydes; and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation of lignin in the residue of alkali treated wheat straw, extracted hemicellulose, and cellulose for determination of tightly bound phenolics.

  2. Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2012-07-01

    After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether (137)Cs and (90)Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with (137)Cs and (90)Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. PMID:22248931

  3. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan B Kristensen; Lisbeth G Thygesen; Claus Felby; Henning Jørgensen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional

  4. Effect of exogenous xylanase on rumen in vitro gas production and degradability of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Togtokhbayar, Norovsambuu; Cerrillo, María A; Rodríguez, Germán Buendía; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Urankhaich, Chuluunbaatar; Jigjidpurev, Sukhbaatar; Odongo, Nicholas E; Kholif, Ahmed E

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of xylanase on in vitro gas production (GP) and in sacco degradability of wheat straw. Rumen fluid was obtained from three Mongolian native goats fitted with permanent rumen cannulas. The trial consisted of five doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0??L/g of substrate) of a commercial xylanase (Dyadic(®) xylanase PLUS, Dyadic International, Inc., Jupiter, FL, USA). For the in sacco degradability, different levels of xylanase enzyme were added directly onto 2?g of wheat straw in nylon bags and incubated in the rumen for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48?h to estimate degradability of wheat straw. Total GP increased (P?wheat straw. PMID:25923062

  5. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a novel approach for delignification of wheat straw for paper manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Badve, Mandar P; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Csoka, Levente

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with application of hydrodynamic cavitation for intensification of delignification of wheat straw as an essential step in the paper manufacturing process. Wheat straw was first treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 48 h and subsequently alkali treated wheat straw was subjected to hydrodynamic cavitation. Hydrodynamic cavitation reactor used in the work is basically a stator and rotor assembly, where the rotor is provided with indentations and cavitational events are expected to occur on the surface of rotor as well as within the indentations. It has been observed that treatment of alkali treated wheat straw in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for 10-15 min increases the tensile index of the synthesized paper sheets to about 50-55%, which is sufficient for paper board manufacture. The final mechanical properties of the paper can be effectively managed by controlling the processing parameters as well as the cavitational parameters. It has also been established that hydrodynamic cavitation proves to be an effective method over other standard digestion techniques of delignification in terms of electrical energy requirements as well as the required time for processing. Overall, the work is first of its kind application of hydrodynamic cavitation for enhancing the effectiveness of delignification and presents novel results of significant interest to the paper and pulp industry opening an entirely new area of application of cavitational reactors. PMID:23968577

  6. Performance Monitoring: Evaluating a Wheat Straw PRB for Nitrate Removal at an Agricultural Operation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is conducting long-term monitoring of a wheat straw permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for remediation of ground water contaminated with nitrate from a now-closed swine concentrat...

  7. Laccase detoxification of steam-exploded wheat straw for second generation bioethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Jurado; Alicia Prieto; Ángeles Martínez-Alcalá; Ángel T. Martínez; María Jesús Martínez

    2009-01-01

    In this work we compared the efficiency of a laccase treatment performed on steam-exploded wheat straw pretreated under soft conditions (water impregnation) or harsh conditions (impregnation with diluted acid). The effect of several enzymatic treatment parameters (pH, time of incubation, laccase origin and loading) was analysed. The results obtained indicated that severity conditions applied during steam explosion have an influence

  8. Effect of enzymic treatment on nutritive value of leaf fraction of wheat straw

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of enzymic treatment on nutritive value of leaf fraction of wheat straw FB Castro ER Ørskov was to determine the effect of enzymic treatment conditions, ie enzyme loading, incubation period and moisture 3) was completed to study the effect of enzyme loading (4, 8 and 16 IU AVICELase/g of substrate

  9. Extracellular enzyme activities in six Lentinula edodes strains during cultivation in wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mata; J.-M. Savoie

    1998-01-01

    Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler is found in nature on dead broadleaf trees, but it is commercially produced on different substrates. The question of adaptation to different lignocellulosic substrates was addressed by measuring enzyme activities produced by six strains that were cultivated on wheat straw and that were able to produce sporophores. Despite quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had

  10. [Effects of straw mulching on the soil aggregates in dryland wheat field under no-tillage].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Sun, Hong-Xia; Han, Qing-Fang; Wang, Min; Zhang, Rui; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Nie, Jun-Feng; Liu, Ting

    2012-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of full period and growth period straw mulching with an amount of 3000, 6000, and 9000 kg x hm(-2) on the soil aggregates in a no-tillage dryland wheat field in Weibei Loess Pleateau of Shaanxi Province, taking no full period straw mulching as the control. In the 0-40 cm soil layer, the content of > 5 mm aggregates increased with depth, while that of <5 mm aggregates was in adverse. Under straw mulching, the total contents of > 0.25 mm mechanical stable aggregates (DR0.25) and of > 0.25 mm water stable aggregates (WR0.25) were significantly higher than the control, with an increase of 13.0%-26.4% and 18.6%-45.6%, respectively and the largest increment in the treatment 6000 kg x hm(-2) of straw mulching. Straw mulching increased the soil organic matter content, and the latter had a significant positive correlation with the WR0.25 content. All the straw mulching treatments decreased the soil unstable aggregate index (E(LT)) which was the lowest in treatment 6000 kg x hm(-2) of straw mulching. This study showed that straw mulching could increase the >0.25 mm aggregates and organic matter contents in 0-40 cm soil layer and improve the soil structural stability, and mulching with an amount of 6000 kg x hm(-2) had the best effect, being a reasonable straw mulching mode to be applied in the agricultural production in Weibei Loess Plateau. PMID:22803469

  11. Wheat straw as ruminant feed. Effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Oosting

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw increased in vitro degradation if the ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the substrate was below 60-100 mg\\/l. No effect of

  12. Optimizing Liquid Hot Water pretreatment conditions to enhance sugar recovery from wheat straw for fuel-ethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Pérez; I. Ballesteros; M. Ballesteros; F. Sáez; M. J. Negro; P. Manzanares

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw is nowadays being considered a potential lignocellulose raw material for fuel-ethanol production as an alternative to starch- or sugar-containing feedstock. In this work, the optimization of process variables (temperature and residence time) in Liquid Hot Water (LHW) pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production was addressed by means of design of experiments. The recovery of hemicellulose-derived sugars (HDS)

  13. Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing carbon source for enzyme production. Results We have examined and compared the transcriptome of T. reesei growing on wheat straw and lactose as carbon sources under otherwise similar conditions. Gene expression on wheat straw exceeded that on lactose, and 1619 genes were found to be only induced on wheat straw but not on lactose. They comprised 30% of the CAZome, but were also enriched in genes associated with phospholipid metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, iron homeostatis and autophagy. Two thirds of the CAZome was expressed both on wheat straw as well as on lactose, but 60% of it at least >2-fold higher on the former. Major wheat straw specific genes comprised xylanases, chitinases and mannosidases. Interestingly, the latter two CAZyme families were significantly higher expressed in a strain in which xyr1 encoding the major regulator of cellulase and hemicellulase biosynthesis is non-functional. Conclusions Our data reveal several major differences in the transcriptome between wheat straw and lactose which may be related to the higher enzyme formation on the former and their further investigation could lead to the development of methods for increasing enzyme production on lactose. PMID:24016404

  14. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw. PMID:22467431

  15. Physical and thermochemical properties of cereal straws

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E. (Agricultural Engineering Dept., Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (CA)); Al-Taweel, A. (Chemical Engineering Dept., Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (CA))

    1990-01-01

    Cereal straws are one of the most commonly available lignocellulosic materials that can be converted to different types of fuels and chemical feedstocks through a variety of thermochemical conversion processes. This study provides information on moisture content, bulk density, particle size, heating values, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, ash composition, and ash feasibility characteristics for four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye). The type of straw and the crop variety have significant effects on the chemical properties of straw.

  16. Effect of modifying agents on the preparation and properties of the new adsorbents from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Wenyi; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yu; Ni, Shouqing

    2010-03-01

    Three different types of new adsorbents modified from wheat straw were synthesized after the reaction between epichlorohydrin and triethylamine by using ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA) and triethylenetetramine (TETA) as modifying agents. The performance of the modified wheat straws (MWS) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and elemental analysis. Results showed that the optimal dosages for the three modifying agent (EDA, DETA and TETA) were 3, 4 and 3 ml. The optimum synthesis temperature for the three MWS was 80, 85 and 95 degrees C, respectively. The IR spectra of the three MWS were analogical, and nitrogen contents of the MWS were found to be consistent with their adsorption capacity. The pseudo-second-order equation generated the best agreement with the experimental data for adsorption systems. In addition, the adsorption process of the three MWS reached equilibrium at 10-15 min. MWS (EDA) demonstrated the largest phosphate capacity than the other MWS. PMID:19632108

  17. The effect of fungal decay ( Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw lignin using pyrolysis–GC–MS in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher H. Vane; Geoffrey D. Abbott; Ian M. Head

    2001-01-01

    Pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), was used in the molecular characterisation of lignin in wheat straw during its fungal degradation by Agaricus bisporus. The decayed wheat straw had a lower proportion of syringyl to guaiacyl derived moieties than its native counterpart. The ratio of methyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate to 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.0 in native wheat straw

  18. Comparison of Different Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat and Barley Straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Rosgaard; Sven Pedersen; Anne S. Meyer

    2007-01-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for\\u000a enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and\\u000a wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot\\u000a water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using

  19. An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost estimation study was performed for a biological butanol production plant with a capacity of 150 x 10**6 kg butanol/year. Wheat straw was used as a feedstock. In addition to butanol, acetone (78.05 x 10**6 kg/year) and ethanol (28.54 x 10**6 kg/year) would also be produced. The total capital c...

  20. Products of alkaline peroxide attack on wheat straw, oak, and keraf

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.; Peterson, R.

    1985-07-01

    Wheat straw, oak, and kenaf were partially delignified by treatment with hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.0, and the water-soluble degradation products were characterized. Forty to sixty percent of the solubilized products were larger than 1000 molecular weight (MW), as determined by membrane ultrafiltration. Lignin degradation products in the low-molecular-weight fraction (is less than 1000) consisted primarily of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids. 14 references.

  1. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; de Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health. PMID:26102585

  2. Rice straw fiber-reinforced high-density polyethylene composite: Effect of fiber type and loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Yao; Qinglin Wu; Yong Lei; Yanjun Xu

    2008-01-01

    Composite panels using virgin and recycled high-density polyethylene (VHDPE and RHDPE) and five types of natural fibers including four rice straw components (i.e., rice husk, rice straw leaf, rice straw stem, and whole rice straw) and wood fiber as control were made by melt compounding and compression molding. Fiber characteristics and the influences of fiber type and loading rate on

  3. [Characteristics of Pb2+ and Cd2+ sorption in aqueous solution by wheat straw].

    PubMed

    Tan, Guang-Qun; Yuan, Hong-Yan; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Dan

    2011-08-01

    Wheat straw was used as biosorbent for lead and cadmium removal from aqueous solution. Especially, the effect of solution pH, contact time and ions concentration on the sorption process was intensively discussed. Result indicated that the metal removal was strongly dependent on solution pH and the sorption capacity increased with the increasing of solution pH in the pH range of 2.0-6.0. The sorption kinetic process fit well with the pseudo-second-order. Langmuir isotherm equation was used to evaluate the sorption capacity of the biomass. The q(max) values for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 0.15 mmol x g(-1) and 0.11 mmol x g(-1) respectively. After NaOH hydrolated, wheat straw showed higher sorption capacity both for Pb2+ and Cd2+, q(max) values for Pb2+ and Cd2+ reached 0.31 and 0.22 mmol x g(-1) respectively. While the sorption capacity for Pb2+ and Cd2+ on esterified wheat straw decreased greatly. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that carboxylic groups on the biomass play an important role in Pb2+ and Cd2+ sorption process. PMID:22619953

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and pretreated wheat straw: a detailed comparison using convenient kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Monschein, Mareike; Reisinger, Christoph; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Marked slow-down of soluble sugar production at low degree of substrate conversion limits the space-time yield of enzymatic hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic materials. A simple set of kinetic descriptors was developed to compare reducing sugar release from pure crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and pretreated wheat straw by Trichoderma reesei cellulase at 50 °C. The focus was on the rate-retarding effect of maximum hydrolysis rate at reaction start (r(max)), limiting hydrolysis rate (r(lim)) at extended reaction time (24h), and substrate conversion, marking the transition between the r(max) and r(lim) kinetic regimes (C(trans)). At apparent saturation of substrate (12.2g cellulose/L) with enzyme, r(max) for pretreated wheat straw (~9.6g/L/h) surpassed that for Avicel by about 1.7-fold whereas their r(lim) were almost identical (~0.15 g/L/h). C(trans) roughly doubled as enzyme/substrate loading was increased from 3.8 to 75FPU/g, suggesting C(trans) to be a complex manifestation of cellulase-cellulose interaction, not an intrinsic substrate property. A low-temperature adsorption step preceding hydrolysis at 50 °C resulted in enhanced cellulase binding at reaction start without increasing r(max). C(trans) was higher for pretreated wheat straw (~30%) than for Avicel (~20%) under these conditions. PMID:23220402

  5. Optimization and kinetic analysis on the sulfuric acid - Catalyzed depolymerization of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian-Qian; Ma, Yu-Long; Chang, Xuan; Sun, Yong-Gang

    2015-09-20

    The objectives of this work were to optimize the experimental condition and to study the kinetic behavior of wheat straw depolymerization with sulfuric acid (2wt%, 3wt%, and 4wt%) at different temperatures (120°C, 130°C, and 140°C). The two-fraction kinetic model was obtained for the prediction of the generations of product and by-product during depolymerization. The kinetic parameters of the two-fraction model were analyzed using an Arrhenius-type equation. Applying the kinetic two-fraction model, the optimum condition for wheat straw depolymerization was 3wt% H2SO4 at 130°C for 75min, which yielded a high concentration of fermentable sugars (xylose 8.934g/L, glucose 1.363g/L, and arabinose 1.203g/L) and low concentrations of microbial inhibitors (furfural 0.526g/L and acetic acid 1.192g/L). These results suggest that the model obtained in this study can satisfactorily describe the formation of degradation products and the depolymerization mechanism of wheat straw. PMID:26050891

  6. Kinetics of cadmium, chromium, and lead sorption onto chemically modified sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, M; Suthar, V; Rafique, E; Ahmad, R; Yasin, M

    2015-07-01

    In this study, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) adsorption potential of unmodified and modified sugarcane bagasse and ground wheat straw was explored from aqueous solution through batch equilibrium technique. Both the materials were chemically modified by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) alone and in combination with nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Two kinetic models, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order were used to follow the adsorption process and reaction fallowed the later model. The Pb removal by both the materials was highest and followed by Cr and Cd. The chemical treatment invariably increased the adsorption capacity and NaOH treatment proved more effective than others. Langmuir maximum sorption capacity (q m) of Pb was utmost (12.8-23.3 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 14.5-22.4 mg/g of wheat straw) and of Cd was least (1.5-2.2 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 2.5-3.8 mg/g of wheat straw). The q m was in the order of Pb > Cr > Cd for all the three adsorbents. Results demonstrate that agricultural waste materials used in this study could be used to remediate the heavy metal-polluted water. PMID:26116198

  7. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull

    PubMed Central

    Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

    2013-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  8. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  9. Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Return on Soil Organic Carbon in a Rice-Wheat Rotation System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0–7, 7–14 and 14–21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0–7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7–14 cm depth. However, at 14–21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:24586434

  10. Kinetics of carbon mineralization of biochars compared with wheat straw in three soils.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Steffens, Diedrich; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Schubert, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Application of biochars to soils may stabilize soil organic matter and sequester carbon (C). The objectives of our research were to study in vitro C mineralization kinetics of various biochars in comparison with wheat straw in three soils and to study their contribution to C stabilization. Three soils (Oxisol, Alfisol topsoil, and Alfisol subsoil) were incubated at 25°C with wheat straw, charcoal, hydrothermal carbonization coal (HTC), low-temperature conversion coal (LTC), and a control (natural organic matter). Carbon mineralization was analyzed by alkali absorption of CO released at regular intervals over 365 d. Soil samples taken after 5 and 365 d of incubation were analyzed for soluble organic C and inorganic N. Chemical characterization of biochars and straw for C and N bonds was performed with Fourier transformation spectroscopy and with the N fractionation method, respectively. The LTC treatment contained more N in the heterocyclic-bound N fraction as compared with the biochars and straw. Charcoal was highly carbonized when compared with the HTC and LTC. The results show higher C mineralization and a lower half-life of straw-C compared with biochars. Among biochars, HTC showed some C mineralization when compared with charcoal and LTC over 365 d. Carbon mineralization rates were different in the three soils. The half-life of charcoal-C was higher in the Oxisol than in the Alfisol topsoil and subsoil, possibly due to high Fe-oxides in the Oxisol. The LTC-C had a higher half-life, possibly due to N unavailability. We conclude that biochar stabilization can be influenced by soil type. PMID:22751064

  11. Effect of four pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of wheat straw. Influence of inhibitors and washing.

    PubMed

    Toquero, Cristina; Bolado, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Pretreatment is essential in the production of alcohol from lignocellulosic material. In order to increase enzymatic sugar release and bioethanol production, thermal, dilute acid, dilute basic and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were applied to wheat straw. Compositional changes in pretreated solid fractions and sugars and possible inhibitory compounds released in liquid fractions were analysed. SEM analysis showed structural changes after pretreatments. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Pichia stipitis of unwashed and washed samples from each pretreatment were performed so as to compare sugar and ethanol yields. The effect of the main inhibitors found in hydrolysates (formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was first studied through ethanol fermentations of model media and then compared to real hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of washed alkaline peroxide pretreated biomass provided the highest sugar concentrations, 31.82g/L glucose, and 13.75g/L xylose, their fermentation yielding promising results, with ethanol concentrations reaching 17.37g/L. PMID:24531149

  12. Removal of Fermentation Inhibitors from Alkaline Peroxide Pretreated and Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Wheat Straw: Production of Butanol from Hydrolysate Using Clostridium beijerinckii in Batch Reactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw was investigated. Pretreated wheat straw was hydrolyzed using celluloytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and the hydrolysate was used to produce butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The culture produced less than 2.59 gL**-1 acetone...

  13. Isotopic compositions of elemental carbon in smoke and ash derived from crop straw combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Jiuhai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Dan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Hui

    2014-08-01

    Six cultivars of straw for rice, maize and wheat, respectively, were burned under flaming and smoldering conditions, and carbon isotopic ratio values of elemental carbon (EC) in smoke and ash determined. The results showed that mean carbon isotopic fractionation (?13C) between EC in flaming and smoldering smoke from rice straw, and the starting material was -2.7‰ and -3.0‰, respectively. Moreover, the corresponding ?13C values for EC in flaming and smoldering smoke from wheat straw were -0.1‰ and +0.4‰, respectively. ?13C for EC in the two types of smoke from maize straw were -3.4‰ and +0.2‰, respectively. ?13C for EC in flaming and smoldering ash from rice straw were -1.8‰ and -1.6‰ in turn. ?13C for EC in flaming and smoldering ash from wheat straw were +0.9‰ and +2.4‰, respectively. Additionally, the ones for EC in the two types of ash from maize straw were -1.2‰ and -1.0‰, respectively. If ?13CEC values for pollutants, such as straw smoke, soot from coal and diesel-powered vehicles, and ambient PM2.5 in a region, are determined in summer and autumn, the contribution of straw burning to ambient EC is likely to be estimated with the approach of carbon isotopic mass balance.

  14. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  15. Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a), CBH2 (Cel6a), EG1 (Cel7b), EG2 (Cel5a), as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a) were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25%) which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw. PMID:22373423

  16. Induction of laccase activity in the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus using water polluted with wheat straw extracts.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Alejandra; Muguerza, Elaia; Iroz, Amaia Redin; Omarini, Alejandra; Conde, Enma; Alfaro, Manuel; Castanera, Raúl; Santoyo, Francisco; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the use of polluted water effluents from wheat straw using industries as inducers of lignocellulolytic enzymatic activities in cultures of white rot basidiomycetes. For this purpose, we studied the effect of a wheat straw water extract on the evolution of the laccase activity recovered from submerged cultures of Pleurotus ostreatus made in different media and under various culture conditions. Our results demonstrated an accumulative induction effect in all the cultures and conditions tested. This induction is parallel to changes in the laccase electrophoretic profiles recovered from the culture supernatants. The isoenzyme that appeared to be mainly responsible for the laccase activity under these conditions was laccase 10, as confirmed by sequencing the induced protein. These results support the idea of using wheat straw effluents as inducers in liquid cultures of P. ostreatus mycelia for the production of ligninolytic enzymatic cocktails. PMID:23425584

  17. Bulk density of wet and dry wheat straw and switchgrass particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Naimi, L.J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Hoque, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Narayan, S. [Lambton College, Sarnia, Ontario

    2008-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Bulk density is a major physical property in designing the logistic system for biomass handling. The size, shape, moisture content, individual particle density, and surface characteristics are few factors affecting the bulk density. This research investigates the effects of true particle lengths ranging from 6 to 50 mm and moisture contents ranging from 8% to 60% wet basis (wb) on the bulk density of wheat straw and switchgrass. Three types of particle densities of straw and switchgrass measured were: a hollow particle density assuming a hollow cylindrical geometry, a solid particle density assuming a solid cylindrical geometry, and a particle density measured using a gas pycnometer at a gas pressure of 40 kPa. The bulk density of both loose fill and packed fill biomass samples was examined. The calculated wet and dry bulk density ranged from 24 to 111 kg m 3 for straw and from 49 to 266 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The corresponding tapped bulk density ranged from 34 to 130 kg m 3 for straw and 68 to 323 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The increase in bulk density due to tapping the container was from 10% for short 6 mm particles to more than 50% for long 50 mm particles. An equation relating the bulk density of stems as a function of moisture content, dry bulk density, and particle size was developed. After the validation of this bulk density equation, the relationship would be highly useful in designing the logistics system for large scale transport of biomass to a biorefinery. The bulk density and particle density data of uniform particles would be important, if straw and switchgrass is used for pulping and paper making.

  18. Ozonation and alkaline-peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw for Cryptococcus curvatus fermentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J. B.; Lin, S.; McKenzie, S.; Denvir, A.

    2000-01-01

    Crop residues in an Advanced Life Support System (ALS) contain many valuable components that could be recovered and used. Wheat is 60% inedible, with approximately 90% of the total sugars in the residue cellulose and hemicellulose. To release these sugars requires pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Cryptococcus curvatus, an oleaginous yeast, uses the sugars in cellulose and hemicellulose for growth and production of storage triglycerides. In this investigation, alkaline-peroxide and ozonation pretreatment methods were compared for their efficiency to release glucose and xylose to be used in the cultivation of C. curvatus. Leaching the biomass with water at 65 degrees C for 4 h prior to pretreatment facilitated saccharification. Alkaline-peroxide and ozone pretreatment were almost 100% and 80% saccharification efficient, respectively. The sugars derived from the hydrolysis of alkaline-peroxide-treated wheat straw supported the growth of C. curvatus and the production of edible single-cell oil.

  19. [Isolation and identification of a cellulose degrading fungus Y5 and its capability of degradating wheat straw].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhong-Wei; Fan, Bing-Quan; Ren, Ping

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote the decomposition of crop straw and return it to soil rapidly and solve the problems such as the waste of straw resources and pollution, we screened the bacterial or fungi with high-efficient degradation of straw lignocelluloses and studied its capability of degradating wheat straw. An isolate of filamentous fungus with higher cellulase activity and ability to decompose CMC and straw lignocellulose was screened from black soil samples taken from Heilongjiang province by using the soil dilution, plating and liquid culture methods. Morphological status on various media, and ITS rDNA sequences homology analysis were performed to identify the taxonomy of the isolate. The effects of different time, different N resources, different cellulose resources and different pH values on enzyme activities produced by fungus was analyzed, and The ability of wheat straw degradation of Y5 was determinated by using weight loss method and liquid culture. The fungus was identified as Penicillium ochrochloron and named Y5. Filter paper activity (FPA) and endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase (EG) were both reached the maximum after the first fourth day inoculated, averaged 53 IU/mL and 55 IU/mL, respectively, which were 22.6% and 18.2% higher than that of strain Trichoderma viride (AS3. 3711), respectively. Enzyme activities were the highest under the condition of wheat straw used as C resources, which were 27.5% and 24.8% higher than that of AS3. 3711. The FPA and EG activities were 35.7% and 14.9% higher than the AS3. 3711 strain with NaNO3 as nitrogen source. The optimal pH value of liquid culture was 6. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents were degraded by 43.5%, 49.7% and 9.3% after the first 10 days inoculated, respectively, which indicated that Y5 had strong enzyme activities on degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses of wheat straw. The Penicillium ochrochloron Y5 has strong ability of wheat straw cellulose degradation, and its cellulase activities are higher than some published researches. The Penicillium ochrochloron Y5 strain has the great potential in research and development for inoculant of crop straw decomposition. PMID:21404694

  20. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Wheat Straw Paper and Wood Pulp Paper Use at UBC

    E-print Network

    Into Wheat Straw Paper and Wood Pulp Paper Use at UBC Jack Yue Zhang Ryan LaMarche Weber Lin William Tung of a project/report". #12;1 AN INVESTIGATION INTO WHEAT STRAW PAPER AND WOOD PULP PAPER USE AT UBC Submitted to and the environmental impact of wheat paper usage in UBC. The scope of this project is to determine whether replacing 30

  1. Genetic Diversity and Grain Protein Composition of Tetraploid Wheat

    E-print Network

    Genetic Diversity and Grain Protein Composition of Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum durum Desf wheat and kernels of durum wheat #12;Genetic diversity and grain protein composition of tetraploid wheat in landraces of tetraploid wheat germplasm collected from major wheat-producing regions of Ethiopia were

  2. SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw with the addition of saccharified or fermented wheat meal in integrated bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integration of second-generation (2G) bioethanol production with existing first-generation (1G) production may facilitate commercial production of ethanol from cellulosic material. Since 2G hydrolysates have a low sugar concentration and 1G streams often have to be diluted prior to fermentation, mixing of streams is beneficial. Improved ethanol concentrations in the 2G production process lowers energy demand in distillation, improves overall energy efficiency and thus lower production cost. There is also a potential to reach higher ethanol yields, which is required in economically feasible ethanol production. Integrated process scenarios with addition of saccharified wheat meal (SWM) or fermented wheat meal (FWM) were investigated in simultaneous saccharification and (co-)fermentation (SSF or SSCF) of steam-pretreated wheat straw, while the possibility of recovering the valuable protein-rich fibre residue from the wheat was also studied. Results The addition of SWM to SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw, using commercially used dried baker’s yeast, S. cerevisiae, resulted in ethanol concentrations of about 60 g/L, equivalent to ethanol yields of about 90% of the theoretical. The addition of FWM in batch mode SSF was toxic to baker’s yeast, due to the ethanol content of FWM, resulting in a very low yield and high accumulation of glucose. The addition of FWM in fed-batch mode still caused a slight accumulation of glucose, but the ethanol concentration was fairly high, 51.2 g/L, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 90%, based on the amount of glucose added. In batch mode of SSCF using the xylose-fermenting, genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain KE6-12, no improvement was observed in ethanol yield or concentration, compared with baker’s yeast, despite the increased xylose utilization, probably due to the considerable increase in glycerol production. A slight increase in xylose consumption was seen when glucose from SWM was fed at a low feed rate, after 48 hours, compared with batch SSCF. However, the ethanol yield and concentration remained in the same range as in batch mode. Conclusion Ethanol concentrations of about 6% (w/v) were obtained, which will result in a significant reduction in the cost of downstream processing, compared with SSF of the lignocellulosic substrate alone. As an additional benefit, it is also possible to recover the protein-rich residue from the SWM in the process configurations presented, providing a valuable co-product. PMID:24286350

  3. Effect of Additions on Ensiling and Microbial Community of Senesced Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    David N. Thompson; Joni M. Barnes; Tracy P. Houghton

    2005-04-01

    Crop residues collected during or after grain harvest are available once per year and must be stored for extended periods. The combination of air, high moisture, and high microbial loads leads to shrinkage during storage and risk of spontaneous ignition. Ensiling is a wet preservation method that could be used to store these residues stably. To economically adapt ensiling to biomass that is harvested after it has senesced, the need for nutrient, moisture, and microbial additions must be determined. We tested the ensiling of senesced wheat straw in sealed columns for 83 d. The straw was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and amended with several levels of water and free sugars. The ability to stabilize the straw polysaccharides was strongly influenced by both moisture and free sugars. Without the addition of sugar, the pH increased from 5.2 to as much as 9.1, depending on moisture level, and losses of 22% of the cellulose and 21% of the hemicellulose were observed. By contrast, when sufficient sugars were added and interstitial water was maintained, a final pH of 4.0 was attainable, with correspondingly low (<5%) losses of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results show that ensiling should be considered a promising method for stable storage of wet biorefinery feedstocks.

  4. Effects of straw mulch on soil water and winter wheat production in dryland farming.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhang; Ting, Wei; Haixia, Wang; Min, Wang; Xiangping, Meng; Siwei, Mou; Rui, Zhang; Zhikuan, Jia; Qingfang, Han

    2015-01-01

    The soil water supply is the main factor that limits dryland crop production in China. In a three-year field experiment at a dryland farming experimental station, we evaluated the effects of various straw mulch practices on soil water storage, grain yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Field experiments were conducted with six different mulch combinations (two different mulch durations and three different mulch amounts): high (SM1; 9000?kg ha(-1)), medium (SM2; 6000?kg ha(-1)), and low (SM3; 3000?kg ha(-1)) straw mulch treatments for the whole period; and high (SM4), medium (SM5) and low (SM6) straw mulch treatments during the growth period only, where the control was the whole period without mulch (CK). Throughout the whole growth period of the three-year experiment, the average soil water content in the 0-200?cm soil layer increased by 0.7-22.5% compared with CK, while the WUE increased significantly by 30.6%, 32.7% and 24.2% with SM1, SM2, and SM3, respectively (P?

  5. Rapid Assessment of In Situ Wheat Straw Residue Via Remote Sensing Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. G.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J.; Wersinger, J. M.; Guertal, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    Crop residues influence near surface soil organic carbon content (SOC), impact our ability to remotely assess soil properties, and play a role in global carbon budgets. Methods that measure crop residues are laborious, and largely inappropriate for regional estimates. The objective of this study was to evaluate remote sensing (RS) data for rapid quantification of residue cover. In March 2000 and April 2001, residue plots (15 m x 15 m) were established in the Coastal Plain and Appalachian Plateau physiographic regions of Alabama. Treatments consisted of five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw cover rates (0, 10, 20, 50, and 80%) replicated 3 times. Soil water content and residue decomposition were monitored. Spectral measurements were acquired via spectroradiometer (350 - 1050 nm), Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) (400 - 12,500 nm), airborne color photography (400 - 600 nm), and IKONOS satellite (450 - 900 nm). Spectroradiometer data were acquired monthly, aircraft images yearly, and satellite per availability. Results showed all platforms successfully estimated residue cover variability using red, near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) regions of the spectrum. Airborne ATLAS imagery was best explaining as much as 98% of the variability in wheat straw cover. Spectroradiometer, color infrared photography, and IKONOS imagery accounted for 84, 56, and 24% of the variability, respectively.

  6. Characterization and swelling-deswelling properties of wheat straw cellulose based semi-IPNs hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-07-17

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was prepared by polymerizing wheat straw and an aqueous solution of acrylic acid (AA), and further semi-interpenetrating with PVA occurred during the chemosynthesis. The swelling and deswelling properties of WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel and WSC-g-PKA hydrogel were studied and compared in various pH solutions, salt solutions, temperatures, particle sizes and ionic strength. The results indicated that both hydrogels had the largest swelling capacity at pH=6, and the effect of ions on the swelling of hydrogels was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+). The Schott's pseudo second order model can be effectively used to evaluate swelling kinetics of hydrogels. Moreover, the semi-IPNs hydrogel had improved swelling-deswelling properties compared with that of WSC-g-PKA hydrogel. PMID:24702940

  7. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  8. Adsorption removal of ammonium and phosphate from water by fertilizer controlled release agent prepared from wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuohao Ma; Qian Li; Qinyan Yue; Baoyu Gao; Wenhong Li; Xing Xu; Qianqian Zhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the adsorption of ammonium and phosphate ions from aqueous solution using a new fertilizer controlled release agent (FCRA) which is produced through graft copolymerization with wheat straw, acrylic acid (AA), acrylic amide (AM) and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC). A series of batch experiments were conducted to examine the effects of solution pH, adsorbent

  9. Enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for bioethanol production by a combined cellulase xylanase and feruloyl esterase treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Tabka; I. Herpoël-Gimbert; F. Monod; M. Asther; J. C. Sigoillot

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this study was to improve conditions of use of fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars for the production of bioethanol.Wheat straw was pre-treated by acid treatment with diluted sulfuric acid followed by steam explosion. Several enzymatic treatments implementing hydrolases (cellulases and xylanases from Trichoderma reesei, recombinant feruloyl esterase (FAE) from Aspergillus niger

  10. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw for production of bioethanol at low water consumption without addition of chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mai Østergaard Petersen; Jan Larsen; Mette Hedegaard Thomsen

    2009-01-01

    In the IBUS process (Integrated Biomass Utilization System) lignocellulosic biomass is converted into ethanol at high dry matter content without addition of chemicals and with a strong focus on energy efficiency. This study describes optimization of continuous hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw at pilot scale (up to 100 kg h?1) where six different pretreatment conditions have been investigated; all pretreatment conditions have

  11. Citrus pulp and wheat straw silage as an ingredient in lamb diets: effects on growth and carcass and meat quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Scerra; P Caparra; F Foti; M Lanza; A Priolo

    2001-01-01

    Twenty “Merinizzata Italiana” lambs were introduced to two experimental diets. Ten animals (five males and five females, control group) received the traditional diet that is supplied by farmers in southern Italy, which comprised of oat hay ad libitum and commercial concentrate. The second group (the same number of lambs, silage group) received citrus pulp and wheat straw silage ad libitum

  12. Differential proteomic analysis of the secretome of Irpex lacteus and other white-rot fungi during wheat straw pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying new high-performance enzymes or enzyme complexes to enhance biomass degradation is the key for the development of cost-effective processes for ethanol production. Irpex lacteus is an efficient microorganism for wheat straw pretreatment, yielding easily hydrolysable products with high sugar content. Thus, this fungus was selected to investigate the enzymatic system involved in lignocellulose decay, and its secretome was compared to those from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus which produced different degradation patterns when growing on wheat straw. Extracellular enzymes were analyzed through 2D-PAGE, nanoLC/MS-MS, and homology searches against public databases. Results In wheat straw, I. lacteus secreted proteases, dye-decolorizing and manganese-oxidizing peroxidases, and H2O2 producing-enzymes but also a battery of cellulases and xylanases, excluding those implicated in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation to their monosaccharides, making these sugars poorly available for fungal consumption. In contrast, a significant increase of ?-glucosidase production was observed when I. lacteus grew in liquid cultures. P. chrysosporium secreted more enzymes implicated in the total hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and P. ostreatus produced, in proportion, more oxidoreductases. Conclusion The protein pattern secreted during I. lacteus growth in wheat straw plus the differences observed among the different secretomes, justify the fitness of I. lacteus for biopretreatment processes in 2G-ethanol production. Furthermore, all these data give insight into the biological degradation of lignocellulose and suggest new enzyme mixtures interesting for its efficient hydrolysis. PMID:23937687

  13. The antagonistic action of Trichoderma sp. hyphae to Lentinula edodes hyphae changes lignocellulotytic activities during cultivation in wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Savoie; G. Mata

    1999-01-01

    Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler was cultivated in sterilized or pasteurized wheat straw both with and without inoculation with Trichoderma sp. Enhancements of ß-mannosidase and laccase activities and lowering of Mn-dependent peroxidase activity were observed seven days after inoculation in substrates inoculated with Trichoderma sp. These enzymes were not produced by Trichoderma sp. Most of the polysaccharidase activities were higher in

  14. Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerre, A.B.; Olesen, A.B.; Fernqvist, T.; Ploeger, A.; Schmidt, A.S. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Environmental Science and Technology Dept.] [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Environmental Science and Technology Dept.

    1996-03-05

    The wet oxidation process of wheat straw has been studied as a pretreatment method to attain the main goal: to break down cellulose to glucose enzymatic, and secondly, to dissolve hemicellulose (e.g., for fermentation) without producing microbial inhibitors. Wet oxidation combined with base addition readily oxidizes lignin from wheat straw facilitating the polysaccharides for enzymatic hydrolysis. By using a specially constructed autoclave system, the wet oxidation process was optimized with respect to both reaction time and temperature. The best conditions (20 g/L straw, 170 C, 5 to 10 min) gave about 85% w/w yield of converting cellulose to glucose. The process water, containing dissolved hemicellulose and carboxylic acids, has proven to be a direct nutrient source for the fungus Aspergillus niger producing exo-{beta}-xylosidase. Furfural and hydroxymethyl-furfural, known inhibitors of microbial growth when other pretreatment systems have been applied, were not observed following the wet oxidation treatment.

  15. [The effect of a straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and digestibility of the crude nutrients in broiler hen breeds. 2. Digestibility of crude nutrients of rations and 15N from a straw meal and wheat].

    PubMed

    Zander, R; Gruhn, K

    1987-04-01

    In experiments with colostomized broiler hens apparent digestibility of the crude nutrients of the ration after straw meal supplements of 20, 30 and 40 g per animal was determined. In addition, the 15N digestibility of straw meal and wheat was ascertained on the basis of straw meal supplements. The digestibility of the crude nutrients of the rations decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) after the straw meal supplement. The adaptation of the test animals to the straw meal intake resulted, at a daily consumption of 20 g straw meal, in an increase of the apparent crude fat digestibility (P less than 0.05) in dependence on the time of straw meal feeding, in which the original values without straw meal supplement were not reached. The digestibility of the 15N excess (15N') of the wheat was, at 86 +/- 1%, largely independent of the straw meal intake. The apparent digestibility of the straw-15N excess in broiler hens of 42 +/- 8 to 55 +/- 2% is surprisingly high. PMID:3454626

  16. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS) unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS), resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L) did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and second-generation processes also increases the ethanol concentration, resulting in a reduction in the cost of the distillation step, thus improving the process economics. PMID:22410131

  17. Enhanced bioproduction of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from wheat straw lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Cesário, M Teresa; Raposo, Rodrigo S; de Almeida, M Catarina M D; van Keulen, Frederik; Ferreira, Bruno S; da Fonseca, M Manuela R

    2014-01-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bioplastics that can replace conventional petroleum-derived products in various applications. One of the major barriers for their widespread introduction in the market is the higher production costs compared with their petrochemical counterparts. In this work, a process was successfully implemented with high productivity based on wheat straw, a cheap and readily available agricultural residue, as raw material. The strain Burkholderia sacchari DSM 17165 which is able to metabolise glucose, xylose and arabinose, the main sugars present in wheat straw hydrolysates (WSHs), was used. Results in shake flask showed that B. sacchari cells accumulated about 70%gpoly(3-hydroxybutyrate)(P(3HB))/g cell dry weight (CDW) with a yield of polymer on sugars (YP/S) of 0.18g/g when grown on a mixture of commercial C6 and C5 sugars (control), while these values reached about 60%gP(3HB)/g CDW and 0.19g/g, respectively, when WSHs were used as carbon source. In fed-batch cultures carried out in 2L stirred-tank reactors (STRs) on WSH, a maximum polymer concentration of 105 g/L was reached after 61 hours of cultivation corresponding to an accumulation of 72% of CDW. Polymer yield and productivity were 0.22 gP(3HB)/g total sugar consumed and 1.6g/L hour, respectively. The selected feeding strategy successfully overcame the carbon catabolite repression (CCR) phenomenon observed with sugar mixtures containing hexoses and pentoses. This is the first work describing fed-batch cultivations aiming at PHA production using real lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Additionally, the P(3HB) volumetric productivities attained are by far the highest ever achieved on agricultural waste hydrolysates. PMID:24157713

  18. Photo-biohydrogen production potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK from wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biotechnological exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass is promising for sustainable and environmentally sound energy provision strategy because of the abundant availability of the renewable resources. Wheat straw (WS) comprising of 75-80% cellulose and hemicellulose is one of widely available, inexpensive and renewable lignocellulosic biomass types. The cellulosic and hemicellulose substrate can be hydrolyzed into monomeric sugars by chemical and/or biological methods. Results This study examined comparative potential of dilute acid and pre-ammonia pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw (WS) for hydrogen production by purple non sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus-PK. Gas production became noticeable after 14 h of inoculation in WS pretreated with 4% H2SO4. The detoxified liquid hydrolyzate (DLH) after overliming attained a production level of 372 mL-H2/L after 16 h under illumination of 120-150 W/m2 at 30?±?2.0°C. Whereas the non-detoxified acid pretreated hydrolyzate (NDLH) of WS could produce only upto 254 mL-H2/L after 21 h post inoculation. Evolution of H2 became observable just after 10?±?2.0 h of inoculation by employing 48 h age inoculum on the WS pretreated with 30% ammonia, hydrolyzed with cellulase 80 FPU/g and ?-glucosidase 220 CbU/ml at 50°C. Upto 712 ml/L of culture was measured with continuous shaking for 24 h. The 47.5% and 64.2% higher hydrogen volume than the DLH and NDLH substrates, respectively appeared as a function of significantly higher monomeric sugar contents of the enzymatically hydrolyzed substrate and lesser/zero amounts of toxic derivatives including pH reducing agents. Conclusion Photofermentative hydrogen production from lignocellulosic waste is a feasible approach for eco-friendly sustainable supply of bioenergy in a cost-effective way. Results of this study provide new insight for addressing biotechnological exploitation of abundantly available and low-cost cellulosic substrates. PMID:24099439

  19. White-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biohydrogen production: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Zelun; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    This paper demonstrates biohydrogen production was enhanced by white-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw (WS) through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Wheat straw was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium at 30 °C under solid state fermentation for 12 days, and lignin was removed about 28.5 ± 1.3 %. Microscopic structure observation combined thermal gravity and differential thermal gravity analysis further showed that the lignocellulose structure obviously disrupted after fungal pretreatment. Subsequently, the pretreated WS and crude cellulases prepared from Trichoderma atroviride were applied in SSF for hydrogen production using Clostridium perfringens. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained to be 78.5 ± 3.4 ml g(-1)-pretreated WS, which was about 1.8-fold than the unpretreated group. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz model was applied study the progress of cumulative H(2) production. This work developed a novel bio-approach to improve fermentative H(2) yield from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24429553

  20. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:22730900

  1. Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Li; Jose A. Siles; Ian P. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste\\u000a orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using\\u000a a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains d-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85

  2. VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

    1999-02-01

    Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and biomass minerals.

  3. Removal of dyes from a synthetic textile dye effluent by biosorption on apple pomace and wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Robinson; B Chandran; P Nigam

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with two low-cost, locally available, renewable biosorbents; apple pomace and wheat straw for textile dye removal. Experiments at total dye concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150, and 200mg\\/l were carried out with a synthetic effluent consisting of an equal mixture of five textile dyes. The effect of initial dye concentration, biosorbent particle size, quantity

  4. Relationship of deoxynivalenol content in grain, chaff, and straw with Fusarium head blight severity in wheat varieties with various levels of resistance.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fang; Wu, Jirong; Zhao, Hongyan; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong

    2015-03-01

    A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON) content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation. PMID:25751146

  5. Relationship of Deoxynivalenol Content in Grain, Chaff, and Straw with Fusarium Head Blight Severity in Wheat Varieties with Various Levels of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fang; Wu, Jirong; Zhao, Hongyan; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON) content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation. PMID:25751146

  6. Microbiota of Soil-Like Substrate Depending on Wheat Straw Processing Method in Experimental LSS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, Lyalya; Sysoeva, Olga

    In previous experiments conducted in the closed environmental system BIOS-3 plant waste and test persons' exometabolites were carried away from the life-support system (LSS). It is possible to create a new-generation LSS with a higher degree of matter cycle closure by adding to the soil-like substrate inedible plant waste used for cultivation of plants in the experimental LSS model. Using single-factor analysis of variance, we estimated the effect of the introduced inedible plant waste on the microbiota of the soil-like substrate (SLS). The plant waste was used: to increase the degree of matter cycle closure in the system; to replace the volume of soil-like substrate in the system; as a fertilizer for growing higher plants in the experimental LSS model. A statistically significant effect of wheat straw processing method on the number of all microorganism groups was observed in different variants of the experiment. The obtained results can be used in planning and carrying out of subsequent experiments with higher plants cultivated on SLS with waste in a closed environmental system including humans.

  7. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor. PMID:25637386

  8. Two approaches for introduction of wheat straw lignin into rigid polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshanitsa, A.; Paberza, A.; Vevere, L.; Cabulis, U.; Telysheva, G.

    2014-05-01

    In present work the BIOLIGNIN{trade mark, serif} obtained in the result of wheat straw organosolv processing in CIMV pilot plant (France) was investigated as a component of rigid polyurethanes (PUR) foam systems. Different separate approaches of lignin introduction into PUR foam system were studied: as filler without chemical preprocessing and as liquid lignopolyol obtained by lignin oxypropylation in alkali conditions. The incorporation of increasing amount of lignin as filler into reference PUR foam systems on the basis of mixture of commercial polyethers Lupranol 3300 and Lupranol 3422 steadily decreased the compression characteristics of foams, their dimensional stability and hydrophobicity. The complete substitution of Lupranol 3300 by lignopolyol increases its cell structure uniformity and dimensional stability and does not reduce the physical-mechanical properties of foam. In both cases the incorporation of lignin into PUR foam leads to the decreasing of maximum values of thermodegradation rates. The lignin filler can be introduced into lignopolyol based PUR foam in higher quantity than in the reference Lupranol based PUR without reduction of compression characteristics of material. In this work the optimal lignin content in the end product - PUR foam as both polyol and filler is 16%.

  9. Evaluation of pretreatment methods for enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Govumoni, Sai Prashanthi; Koti, Sravanthi; Kothagouni, Srilekha Yadav; Venkateshwar, S; Linga, Venkateswar Rao

    2013-01-16

    Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. The current study is focused on two different pretreatment methods of wheat straw using mild temperatures (100°C for 2h and RT for overnight). In one method, native substrate was treated with 1.5% (w/v) NaOH at two different above mentioned conditions followed by acid hydrolysis (0.75% (v/v) sulfuric acid at 100°C for 2h). In another method, the native substrate was initially treated with acid (0.75% (v/v) sulfuric acid at 100°C for 2h) followed by treatment with 1.5% (w/v) NaOH at two different above conditions. After the pretreatments, the residues were treated with Accellerase 1500 (26U/g) and maximum yield of glucose (65.2gL(-1)) were found with 0.75% sulfuric acid (100°C for 2h) followed by alkali (1.5% NaOH at 100°C for 2h). Fermentation of this hydrolyzate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain produced 24.4gL(-1) of ethanol with corresponding yield of 0.44g/g. PMID:23121959

  10. Strategies of xylanase supplementation for an efficient saccharification and cofermentation process from pretreated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Alvira, Pablo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Negro, María José; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2011-07-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials includes a pretreatment step before enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). Pretreated substrates contain complex hemicelluloses in the solid fraction that can protect the cellulose from enzymatic attack. In addition, soluble xylooligomers are contained in the pretreated materials and may have an inhibitory effect on cellulase activity. In this context, several approaches for xylanase supplementation have been studied to increase EH yields. In this study, the whole slurry obtained after steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw has been used as substrate. EH experiments were performed using commercial cellulase preparations supplemented with an endoxylanase (XlnC) from Aspergillus nidulans. Among different strategies of XlnC supplementation, the 24-h xylanase treatment before cellulase addition yielded an increase of 40.1 and 10.1% in glucose and xylose production, respectively. Different XlnC addition strategies were integrated in a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation process (SSCF) using the xylose fermenting strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12. Ethanol production in SSCF was 28.4% higher when comparing to a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. PMID:21567993

  11. Microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic bioreactor fed by fruit vegetable wastes and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Zuo, Jiane; Chen, Xiaojie; Xing, Wei; Xing, Linan; Li, Peng; Lu, Xiangyang; Li, Chao

    2014-12-01

    The microbial community structures in an integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor (ITPAR) were investigated by 16S rDNA clone library technology. The 75L reactor was designed with a 25L rotating acidogenic unit at the top and a 50L conventional upflow methanogenic unit at the bottom, with a recirculation connected to the two units. The reactor had been operated for 21 stages to co-digest fruit/vegetable wastes and wheat straw, which showed a very good biogas production and decomposition of cellulosic materials. The results showed that many kinds of cellulose and glycan decomposition bacteria related with Bacteroidales, Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales were dominated in the reactor, with more bacteria community diversities in the acidogenic unit. The methanogens were mostly related with Methanosaeta, Methanosarcina, Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium; the predominating genus Methanosaeta, accounting for 40.5%, 54.2%, 73.6% and 78.7% in four samples from top to bottom, indicated a major methanogenesis pathway by acetoclastic methanogenesis in the methanogenic unit. The beta diversity indexes illustrated a more similar distribution of bacterial communities than that of methanogens between acidogenic unit and methanogenic unit. The differentiation of methanogenic community composition in two phases, as well as pH values and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations confirmed the phase separation of the ITPAR. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that the special designing of ITPAR maintained a sufficient number of methanogens, more diverse communities and stronger syntrophic associations among microorganisms, which made two phase anaerobic digestion of cellulosic materials more efficient. PMID:25499496

  12. Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw to improve methane yields: investigation of the degradation kinetics of structural compounds during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Lizasoain, Javier; Lefever, Christopher; Saylor, Molly K; Enguidanos, Ramon; Weran, Nikolaus; Gronauer, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Wheat straw can serve as a low-cost substrate for energy production without competing with food or feed production. This study investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the biological methane potential and the degradation kinetics of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion. It was observed that the biological methane potential of the non steam exploded, ground wheat straw (276 l(N) kg VS(-1)) did not significantly differ from the best steam explosion treated sample (286 l(N) kg VS(-1)) which was achieved at a pretreatment temperature of 140°C and a retention time of 60 min. Nevertheless degradation speed was improved by the pretreatment. Furthermore it was observed that compounds resulting from chemical reactions during the pretreatment and classified as pseudo-lignin were also degraded during the anaerobic batch experiments. Based on the rumen simulation technique, a model was developed to characterise the degradation process. PMID:25549903

  13. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) intake was in sheep fed T1 and T4 diets, while the lowest was in those fed T2 and T5 diets. Sheep fed T1 and T2 diets had greater (P < 0.05) DM and OM digestibility than those fed T4 and T5 diets. The highest (P < 0.05) digestibility of N was for the T2, T4, and T5 diets, while the lowest was for the T1 diet. The highest N retention was in T4 diet, whereas the lowest was in T3 diet. In conclusion, in urban and peri-urban areas where atella, poultry litter, or coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds. PMID:19882225

  14. Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

    2011-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal × Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance. PMID:21110091

  15. Synthesis of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/PVA semi-IPNs superabsorbent resin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Rui

    2013-04-15

    To better use wheat straw and minimize its negative impact on environment, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) composed of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) network and linear polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was prepared by polymerization in the presence of a redox initiating system. The structure and morphology of semi-IPNs SAR were characterized by means of FTIR, SEM and TGA, which confirmed that WSC and PVA participated in the graft polymerization reaction with acrylic acid (AA). The factors that can influence the water absorption of the semi-IPNs SAR were investigated and optimized, including the weight ratios of AA to WSC and PVA to WSC, the content of initiator and crosslinker, neutralization degree (ND) of AA, reaction temperature and time. The semi-IPNs SAR prepared under optimized synthesis condition gave the best water absorption of 266.82 g/g in distilled water and 34.32 g/g in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. PMID:23544572

  16. [Studies on the changes in rice straw composition in relay treatment of chemical-microbial process by FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Shen, Qi-rong; Zhong, Zeng-tao; Chen, Xiang-huai

    2004-09-01

    Direct burning of crop straw in the field has given or is giving rise to a serious pollution of atmosphere. The difficult decomposing of the crop straw by soil microorganisms is one of the reasons the crop straw is not popularly used in agriculture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the changes in straw composition during the relay treatment of chemical-microbial process. The results showed that the method of FTIR spectra could indicate the changes in straw composition during the treatment processes. After the relay treatment of chemical-microbial process, the contents of cellulose, semi-cellulose, and silicon, and C/N ratio were decreased significantly, while the water soluble substances were increased, which was in accordance with the results of chemical analysis. The method to treat crop straw proposed in this paper could provide a practicable way in agricultural utilization of crop straw. PMID:15762520

  17. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions. PMID:12653275

  18. Effect of NaOH treatment and of mean particle size on ruminating index of wheat straw in all-concentrate diets

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of NaOH treatment and of mean particle size on ruminating index of wheat straw in all). Ruminating time was recorded by an automatic system consisting of strain gauge transducers linked to a computerized data acquisition system. Between ingredients, the ruminating indexes were compared by vari- ance

  19. Steam pretreatment of dilute H 2SO 4-impregnated wheat straw and SSF with low yeast and enzyme loadings for bioethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Linde; Eva-Lena Jakobsson; Mats Galbe; Guido Zacchi

    2008-01-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic material to monomeric sugars and finally ethanol must be performed at low cost, i.e. with limited consumption of chemicals, yeast and enzymes while still reaching high yields, if it is to compete with other fuel conversion processes. The objective of this study was thus to investigate ethanol production from steam-pretreated wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

  20. Performance, chewing activity, and ruminal parameters in yearling beef steers fed early-harvested sorghum silage: Effect of chop length and wheat straw addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Alende; G. J. Depetris; O. N. Di Marco; F. J. Santini

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of silage chop length (SCL) and long wheat straw (WS) addition on performance, ruminal parameters, and chewing activity of yearling beef steers. The aim of the first experiment was to measure dry matter (DM) intake, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion (FC). For this, 59 Angus yearling steers were assigned to one

  1. Biotechnological Potential of Cereal (Wheat and Rice) Straw and Bran Residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongzhang Chen; Ye Yang; Jianxing Zhang

    Cereal straw, one of the most abundant renewable lignocellulose resources which possess valuable components, has gradually\\u000a become the research hot spot as a promising substitute for both the fossil fuel resource and petroleum-based industry with\\u000a the increasing calling for bio-fuel and green chemistry. However, existing technologies of straw utilization unilaterally\\u000a emphasize the primary utilization of the whole plant or some

  2. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted pelleting of wheat straw: a predictive model for energy consumption using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Meng; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic biomass can be used as a feedstock for biofuel manufacturing. Pelleting of cellulosic biomass can increase its bulk density and thus improve its storability and reduce the feedstock transportation costs. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted (UV-A) pelleting can produce biomass pellets whose density is comparable to that processed by traditional pelleting methods (e.g. extruding, briquetting, and rolling). This study applied response surface methodology to the development of a predictive model for the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting of wheat straw. Effects of pelleting pressure, ultrasonic power, sieve size, and pellet weight were investigated. This study also optimized the process parameters to minimize the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting using response surface methodology. Optimal conditions to minimize the energy consumption were the following: ultrasonic power at 20%, sieve size at 4 mm, and pellet weight at 1g, and the minimum energy consumption was 2.54 Wh. PMID:23859359

  3. Effect of endoxylanase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase supplementation on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Alvira, P; Negro, M J; Ballesteros, M

    2011-03-01

    The cost and hydrolytic efficiency of enzymes are major factors that restrict the commercialization of the bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass. Hemicellulases and other accessory enzymes are becoming crucial to increase enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) yields at low cellulase dosages. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two recombinant hemicellulolytic enzymes on the EH of steam pretreated wheat straw. Pretreatments at two severity conditions were performed and the whole slurry obtained after steam explosion pretreatment was employed as substrate. An endoxylanase (Xln C) from Aspergillus nidulans and an ?-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) from Aspergillus niger, have been applied in combination with cellulase enzymes. A degree of synergism of 29.5% and increases up to 10% in the EH yields were obtained, showing the potential of accessory activities to improve the EH step and make the whole process more effective. PMID:21262567

  4. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2015-03-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of more »higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to 700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.« less

  5. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2015-03-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of 110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to 700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  6. Treatment of wheat straw using tannase and white-rot fungus to improve feed utilization by ruminants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current research to enrich cattle feed has primarily focused on treatment using white rot fungi, while there are scarce reports using the enzyme tannase, which is discussed only in reviews or in the form of a hypothesis. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of tannase on wheat straw (WS) and also the effect of lyophilized tannase at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% (w/w) on WS followed by fermentation with Ganoderma sp. for 10 d and compared in relation to biochemical parameters, crude protein (CP) content, and nutritional value by calculating the C/N ratio in order to improve the nutritional value of cattle feed. Results Penicillium charlesii, a tannase-producing microorganism, produced 61.4 IU/mL of tannase in 54 h when 2% (w/v) tannic acid (TA) was initially used as a substrate in medium containing (% w/v) sucrose (1.0), NaNO3 (1.0), and MgSO4 (0.08 pH, 5.0) in a 300-L fermentor (working volume 220 L), and concomitantly fed with 1.0% (w/v) TA after 24 h. The yield of partially purified and lyophilized tannase was 5.8 IU/mg. The tannin-free myco-straw at 0.1% (w/w) tannase showed 37.8% (w/w) lignin degradation with only a 20.4% (w/w) decrease in cellulose content and the in vitro feed digestibility was 32.2%. An increase in CP content (up to 1.28-fold) along with a lower C/N ratio of 25.0%, as compared to myco-straw, was obtained. Conclusions The use of tannin-free myco-straw has potential to improve the nutritional content of cattle feed. This biological treatment process was safe, eco-friendly, easy to perform, and was less expensive as compared to other treatment methods. PMID:24555694

  7. Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate within a two-phase solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Heeg, Kathrin; Pohl, Marcel; Sontag, Mario; Mumme, Jan; Klocke, Michael; Nettmann, Edith

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate were investigated. Anaerobic digestion was carried out within an up-flow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor connected to an anaerobic filter (AF) by liquor recirculation. Two lab-scale reactor systems were operated simultaneously at 37 °C and 55 °C. The UASS reactors were fed at a fixed organic loading rate of 2.5 g L(-1) d(-1), based on volatile solids. Molecular genetic analyses of the bacterial and archaeal communities within the UASS reactors (digestate and effluent liquor) and the AFs (biofilm carrier and effluent liquor) were conducted under steady-state conditions. The thermophilic UASS reactor had a considerably higher biogas and methane yield in comparison to the mesophilic UASS, while the mesophilic AF was slightly more productive than the thermophilic AF. When the thermophilic and mesophilic community structures were compared, the thermophilic system was characterized by a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequence analysis. The composition of the archaeal communities was phase-separated under thermophilic conditions, but rather stage-specific under mesophilic conditions. Family- and order-specific real-time PCR of methanogenic Archaea supported the taxonomic distribution obtained by rrs sequence analysis. The higher anaerobic digestion efficiency of the thermophilic compared to the mesophilic UASS reactor was accompanied by a high abundance of Firmicutes and Methanosarcina sp. in the thermophilic UASS biofilm. PMID:25467556

  8. Nutrient utilization by Murrah buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by varying levels of urea molasses mineral block on wheat straw based diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K Verma; U. R Mehra; R. S Dass

    1998-01-01

    To ascertain the optimum intake of urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) as a supplement on wheat straw based diets, twelve adult male Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) (390±9.0kg; 4y) were assigned to three equal groups in a completely randomized design. To minimize individual diurnal variation, the animals on Diets 1, 2 and 3 were fed fixed quantity of UMMB at the

  9. Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Ronald H. W.; Bakker, Robert R.; Jansen, Mickel L. A.; Visser, Diana; de Jong, Ed; Eggink, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314. Decrease in pH because of lactic acid formation was partially adjusted by automatic addition of the alkaline substrate. After 55 h of incubation, the polymeric glucan, xylan, and arabinan present in the lime-treated straw were hydrolyzed for 55%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Lactic acid (40.7 g/l) indicated a fermentation efficiency of 81% and a chiral l(+)-lactic acid purity of 97.2%. In total, 711 g lactic acid was produced out of 2,706 g lime-treated straw, representing 43% of the overall theoretical maximum yield. Approximately half of the lactic acid produced was neutralized by fed-batch feeding of lime-treated straw, whereas the remaining half was neutralized during the batch phase with a Ca(OH)2 suspension. Of the lime added during the pretreatment of straw, 61% was used for the neutralization of lactic acid. This is the first demonstration of a process having a combined alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and pH control in fermentation resulting in a significant saving of lime consumption and avoiding the necessity to recycle lime. PMID:18247027

  10. Wheat and Maize Yields in Response to Straw Management and Nitrogen under a Bed Planting System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustin Limon-Ortega; Kenneth D. Sayre; Charles A. Francis

    2000-01-01

    production is dependent on furrow irrigation, residues should be removed to facilitate irrigation (Hooker et In the Yaqui Valley, northwest Mexico, the crop sequence that is al., 1982) and to aid in proper seed placement (Campbell becoming more common consists of planting wheat (Triticum aesti- vum L.) as a winter crop on a raised bed followed by maize (Zea et

  11. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater. PMID:25710573

  12. Assessment of the potential for biogas production from wheat straw leachate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters.

    PubMed

    Idrus, S; Banks, C J; Heaven, S

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is a major potential source of waste biomass for renewable energy production, but its high salt content causes problems in combustion. The salts can be removed by washing, but this process also removes a proportion of the organic material which could potentially be recovered by anaerobic digestion of the washwater leachate. This approach would maximise the overall energy yield in an integrated process in which washwater could be recycled after further desalting. Leachate from cold water washing with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1.2 g l?¹ was fed to mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters at a loading rate of 1 g COD l?¹ day?¹ to determine the energy yield and any detrimental effects of the leached salts on the process. The specific methane production was 0.29 l CH? g?¹ COD(added), corresponding to a COD removal rate of 84%. Light metal cations in the leachate, especially potassium, were found to accumulate in the digesters and appeared to have a synergistic effect up to a concentration of ?6.5 mg K g?¹ wet weight of the granular sludge, but further accumulation caused inhibition of methanogenesis. It was shown that gas production in the inhibited digesters could be restored within 12 days by switching the feed to a synthetic sewage, which washed the accumulated K out of the digesters. PMID:23109593

  13. Yield and nutritional content of Pleurotus sajor caju on wheat straw supplemented with raw and detoxified mahua cake.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh

    2013-12-15

    The effect of supplementation of wheat straw (WS) with raw/detoxified mahua cake (MC) on yield and nutritional quality of Pleurotus sajor caju was studied. Raw cake significantly enhanced the yield compared to control and could be tolerated up to a 10% addition. Detoxification further improved the mushroom yield giving a maximum of 1024.7 g kg(-1) from WS supplemented with 20% saponin free detoxified mahua cake. Chemical analysis of fruit bodies revealed that they are rich in proteins (27.4-34.8%), soluble sugars (28.6-32.2%) and minerals. Glucose, trehalose and glutamic acid, alanine were the major sugars and amino acids detected by HPLC analysis, respectively. HPLC studies further confirmed the absence of saponins (characteristic toxins present in MC) in both fruit bodies and spent. Degradation of complex molecules in spent was monitored via FTIR. The study proved beneficial for effective management of agricultural wastes along with production of nutrient rich and saponin free fruit bodies/spent. PMID:23993610

  14. Comparison of SHF and SSF processes from steam-exploded wheat straw for ethanol production by xylose-fermenting and robust glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Oliva, Jose M; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2008-08-15

    In this study, bioethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw using different process configurations was evaluated using two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, F12 and Red Star. The strain F12 has been engineerically modified to allow xylose consumption as cereal straw contain considerable amounts of pentoses. Red Star is a robust hexose-fermenting strain used for industrial fuel ethanol fermentations and it was used for comparative purposes. The highest ethanol concentration, 23.7 g/L, was reached using the whole slurry (10%, w/v) and the recombinant strain (F12) in an SSF process, it showed an ethanol yield on consumed sugars of 0.43 g/g and a volumetric ethanol productivity of 0.7 g/L h for the first 3 h. Ethanol concentrations obtained in SSF processes were in all cases higher than those from SHF at the same conditions. Furthermore, using the whole slurry, final ethanol concentration was improved in all tests due to the increase of potential fermentable sugars in the fermentation broth. Inhibitory compounds present in the pretreated wheat straw caused a significantly negative effect on the fermentation rate. However, it was found that the inhibitors furfural and HMF were completely metabolized by the yeast during SSF by metabolic redox reactions. An often encountered problem during xylose fermentation is considerable xylitol production that occurs due to metabolic redox imbalance. However, in our work this redox imbalance was counteracted by the detoxification reactions and no xylitol was produced. PMID:18383076

  15. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) by Burkholderia sacchari using wheat straw hydrolysates and gamma-butyrolactone.

    PubMed

    Cesário, M Teresa; Raposo, Rodrigo S; M D de Almeida, M Catarina; van Keulen, Frederik; Ferreira, Bruno S; Telo, João P; R da Fonseca, M Manuela

    2014-11-01

    Burkholderia sacchari DSM 17165 is able to grow and produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) both on hexoses and pentoses. In a previous study, wheat straw lignocellulosic hydrolysates (WSH) containing high C6 and C5 sugar concentrations were shown to be excellent carbon sources for P(3HB) production. Using a similar feeding strategy developed for P(3HB) production based on WSH, fed-batch cultures were developed aiming at the production of the copolymer P(3HB-co-4HB) (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)) by B. sacchari. The ability of this strain to synthesize P(3HB-co-4HB) was first shown in shake flasks using gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) as precursor of the 4HB units. Fed-batch cultures using glucose as carbon source (control) and GBL were developed to achieve high copolymer productivities and 4HB incorporations. The attained P(3HB-co-4HB) productivity and 4HB molar% were 0.7g/(Lh) and 4.7molar%, respectively. The 4HB incorporation was improved to 6.3 and 11.8molar% by addition of 2g/L propionic and acetic acid, respectively. When WSH were used as carbon source under the same feeding conditions, the values achieved were 0.5g/(Lh) and 5.0molar%, respectively. Burkholderia sacchari, a strain able to produce biopolymers based on xylose-rich lignocellulosic hydrolysates, is for the first time reported to produce P(3HB-co-4HB) using gamma butyrolactone as precursor. PMID:24811901

  16. Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH) and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH). The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11?mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production. PMID:22824058

  17. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mads Pedersen; Katja S Johansen; Anne S Meyer

    2011-01-01

    Background  The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention\\u000a to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and\\u000a their interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental\\u000a designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The pretreatment pH

  18. Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, A; Tolera, A; Eik, L O; Sundstøl, F

    2009-02-01

    Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy. PMID:19386013

  19. Impact of steam explosion on the wheat straw lignin structure studied by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Harri; Elder, Thomas; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rovio, Stella; Rahikainen, Jenni; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja

    2014-10-29

    Chemical changes of lignin induced by the steam explosion (SE) process were elucidated. Wheat straw was studied as the raw material, and lignins were isolated by the enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) procedure before and after the SE treatment for analyses mainly by two-dimensional (2D) [heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)] and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The ?-O-4 structures were found to be homolytically cleaved, followed by recoupling to ?-5 linkages. The homolytic cleavage/recoupling reactions were also studied by computational methods, which verified their thermodynamic feasibility. The presence of the tricin bound to wheat straw lignin was confirmed, and it was shown to participate in lignin reactions during the SE treatment. The preferred homolytic ?-O-4 cleavage reaction was calculated to follow bond dissociation energies: G-O-G (guaiacyl) (69.7 kcal/mol) > G-O-S (syringyl) (68.4 kcal/mol) > G-O-T (tricin) (67.0 kcal/mol). PMID:25290760

  20. Characterization of a Novel Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP)-Type Enzyme from Irpex lacteus and Its Application in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Irpex lacteus is a white rot basidiomycete proposed for a wide spectrum of biotechnological applications which presents an interesting, but still scarcely known, enzymatic oxidative system. Among these enzymes, the production, purification, and identification of a new dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type enzyme, as well as its physico-chemical, spectroscopic, and catalytic properties, are described in the current work. According to its N-terminal sequence and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses, I. lacteus DyP showed high homology (>95%) with the hypothetical (not isolated or characterized) protein cpop21 from an unidentified species of the family Polyporaceae. The enzyme had a low optimal pH, was very stable to acid pH and temperature, and showed improved activity and stability at high H2O2 concentrations compared to other peroxidases. Other attractive features of I. lacteus DyP were its high catalytic efficiency oxidizing the recalcitrant anthraquinone and azo dyes assayed (kcat/Km of 1.6 × 106 s-1 M-1) and its ability to oxidize nonphenolic aromatic compounds like veratryl alcohol. In addition, the effect of this DyP during the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw was checked. The results suggest that I. lacteus DyP displayed a synergistic action with cellulases during the hydrolysis of wheat straw, increasing significantly the fermentable glucose recoveries from this substrate. These data show a promising biotechnological potential for this enzyme. PMID:23666335

  1. The Influence of Contamination with Separate Mycotoxins (Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, Citrinin, Patulin, Penicillic Acid or Sterigmatocystin) on the in Vitro Dry Matter and Organic Matter Digestibilities of Some Roughages (Berseem Hay and Wheat Straw)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Abdelhamid; S. A. El-Ayouty; H. H. El-Saadany

    1992-01-01

    In vitro study on berseem hay and wheat straw was undertaken to investigate the the effect of mycotoxin contamination on dry matter and organic matter digestibilities. The data revealed a negative effect of most studied mycotoxins on the materials digestibility. Among the investigated mycotoxins, penicillic acid with its two concentrations (5 and 10 nmol) was the most negative, affecting digestibilities

  2. Description of Comamonas serinivorans sp. nov., isolated from wheat straw compost.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daochen; Xie, Changxiao; Huang, Ying; Sun, Jianzhong; Zhang, Weimin

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated SP-35(T), was isolated from compost and was subjected to a taxonomic study. This isolate was short-rod-shaped and non-spore-forming. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence comparison indicated the isolate was related to the genus Comamonas. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that its closest neighbours were the type strains Comamonas odontotermitis Dant 3-8(T) (96.8?% similarity), Comamonas testosteroni DSM 50244(T) (96.5?%), Comamonas guangdongensis CY01(T) (95.9?%) and Comamonas composti YY287(T) (95.6?%). Using phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, fatty acid composition data and a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics we could clearly distinguish strain SP-35(T) from type strains of the genus Comamonas. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SP-35(T) was 63.1 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0, C17?:?0 cyclo, summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c) and summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?6c and/or C18?:?1?7c). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidlyglycerol. Differences in phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics support the classification of strain SP-35(T) as a representative of a novel species in the genus Comamonas, for which the name Comamonas serinivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP-35(T) (?=?DSM 26136(T)?=?JCM 18194(T)). PMID:25242539

  3. Stress-induced changes in wheat grain composition and quality.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, M

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, waterlogging, and high temperature cause a myriad of changes in the metabolism of plants, and there is a lot of overlap in these changes in plants in response to different stresses such as drought and salinity. These stress-induced metabolic changes cause impaired crop growth thereby resulting in poor yield. The metabolic changes taking place in several plant species due to a particular abiotic stress have been revealed from the whole plant to the molecular level by researchers, but most studies have focused on organs such as leaf, stem, and root. Information on such stress-induced changes in seed or grains is infrequent in the literature. From the information that is available, it is now evident that abiotic stress can induce considerable changes in the composition and quality of cereal grains including those of wheat, the premier staple food crop in the world. Thus, the present review discusses how far different types of stresses, mainly salinity, drought, high temperature, and waterlogging, can alter the wheat grain composition and quality. By fully uncovering the stress-induced changes in the nutritional values of wheat grains it would be possible to establish whether balanced supplies of essential nutrients are available to the human population from the wheat crop grown on stress-affected areas. PMID:24580559

  4. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Supplementation and Anhydrous Ammonia Treatment of Wheat Straw on In-situ Degradability and, Rumen Fermentation and Growth Performance of Yearling Lambs.

    PubMed

    Cömert, Muazzez; ?ayan, Y?lmaz; Özelçam, Hülya; Baykal, Gül?ah Ye?eno?lu

    2015-05-01

    The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation (6.6×10(8) cfu) and anhydrous ammonia treatment (3%) of wheat straw (WS) were investigated on in-situ dry matter (DM) degradability, and on rumen fermentation and growth performance of lambs. Rumen-fistulated Menemen sheep fed a diet with and without live yeast were used to assess the DM degradability characteristics of WS and ammonia-treated wheat straw (WSNH3). Twenty-six yearling Menemen male lambs were fed in four groups. Lambs of control group (WS) received untreated WS without supplemental yeast, whereas other three groups were fed WS treated with anhydrous ammonia (WSNH3 group), untreated WS and yeast (WS+YEAST group) or WS treated with anhydrous ammonia and yeast (WSNH3+YEAST group). Supplemented live yeast (4 g/d) was added in the diet. Lambs were offered untreated or ammonia treated WS ad-libitum and concentrate was fed at 1% of live body weight. The degradability of the water-insoluble (fraction B) was significantly increased by all of the treatment groups. Potential degradability (A+B), effective DM degradability's (pe2, pe5, and pe8) and average daily weight gain increased only in WSNH3+YEAST group (p<0.05). Voluntary DM intake was not increased by the treatments (p>0.05), but voluntary metabolizable energy and crude protein intake were increased by WSNH3 and by WSNH3+YEAST (p<0.05). Average daily rumen pH was not affected by any of the treatments, but average daily NH3-N was significantly higher in the WSNH3 and WSNH3+YEAST groups, and total volatile fatty acids were significantly higher in the WS+YEAST and WSNH3+YEAST groups. In conclusion, the improvement of feed value of WS was better by the combination of ammonia-treatment and yeast supplementation compared to either treatment alone. PMID:25656177

  5. Effect of Wheat Flour Pre-cooking on the Composite Modulus of Wheat Flour and Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Latex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial wheat flours with two different concentrations of insoluble protein were used as fillers to reinforce styrene-butadiene latex composites and their viscoelastic properties were examined. Both wheat flours were also cooked at 55, 70, or 95 deg C for one hour in an aqueous dispersion prior ...

  6. Effect of Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch Ratio on the Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrolyzed wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) showed substantial reinforcement effects in rubber composites. Due to different abilities of WG and WS to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG and WS as a co-filler. The...

  7. The influence of contamination with separate mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, citrinin, patulin, penicillic acid or sterigmatocystin) on the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of some roughages (berseem hay and wheat straw).

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, A M; el-Ayouty, S A; el-Saadany, H H

    1992-01-01

    In vitro study on berseem hay and wheat straw was undertaken to investigate the the effect of mycotoxin contamination on dry matter and organic matter digestibilities. The data revealed a negative effect of most studied mycotoxins on the materials digestibility. Among the investigated mycotoxins, penicillic acid with its two concentrations (5 and 10 nmol) was the most negative, affecting digestibilities of both feed materials. Wheat straw digestibility was more influenced than berseem hay by the ochratoxin A, citrinin and sterigmatocystin (besides the penicillic acid) particularly with their high level (10 nmol). Yet, some mycotoxins act as antibiotics which may affect only the harmful flora but encourage the rumen microflora resulting in slight improvement of digestibility. The rumen conditions were able to metabolize or deform the used levels of all mycotoxins studied. Thus, there were no detectable residues of these mycotoxins in the digestion media after the in vitro fermentation. PMID:1338408

  8. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p?wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

  9. The kinetics of inhibitor production resulting from hydrothermal deconstruction of wheat straw studied using a pressurised microwave reactor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of a microwave synthesis reactor has allowed kinetic data for the hydrothermal reactions of straw biomass to be established from short times, avoiding corrections required for slow heating in conventional reactors, or two-step heating. Access to realistic kinetic data is important for predictions of optimal reaction conditions for the pretreatment of biomass for bioethanol processes, which is required to minimise production of inhibitory compounds and to maximise sugar and ethanol yields. Results The gravimetric loss through solubilisation of straw provided a global measure of the extent of hydrothermal deconstruction. The kinetic profiles of furan and lignin-derived inhibitors were determined in the hydrothermal hydrolysates by UV analysis, with concentrations of formic and acetic acid determined by HPLC. Kinetic analyses were either carried out by direct fitting to simple first order equations or by numerical integration of sequential reactions. Conclusions A classical Arrhenius activation energy of 148 kJmol?1 has been determined for primary solubilisation, which is higher than the activation energy associated with historical measures of reaction severity. The gravimetric loss is primarily due to depolymerisation of the hemicellulose component of straw, but a minor proportion of lignin is solubilised at the same rate and hence may be associated with the more hydrophilic lignin-hemicellulose interface. Acetic acid is liberated primarily from hydrolysis of pendant acetate groups on hemicellulose, although this occurs at a rate that is too slow to provide catalytic enhancement to the primary solubilisation reactions. However, the increase in protons may enhance secondary reactions leading to the production of furans and formic acid. The work has suggested that formic acid may be formed under these hydrothermal conditions via direct reaction of sugar end groups rather than furan breakdown. However, furan degradation is found to be significant, which may limit ultimate quantities generated in hydrolysate liquors. PMID:24678822

  10. Fed-batch SSCF using steam-exploded wheat straw at high dry matter consistencies and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain: effect of laccase supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol is expected to play an important role in fossil fuel replacement in the short term. Process integration, improvements in water economy, and increased ethanol titers are key considerations for cost-effective large-scale production. The use of whole steam-pretreated slurries under high dry matter (DM) conditions and conversion of all fermentable sugars offer promising alternatives to achieve these goals. Results Wheat straw slurry obtained from steam explosion showed high concentrations of degradation compounds, hindering the fermentation performance of the evolved xylose-recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE6-12 strain. Fermentability tests using the liquid fraction showed a higher number of colony-forming units (CFU) and higher xylose consumption rates when treating the medium with laccase. During batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) processes, cell growth was totally inhibited at 12% DM (w/v) in untreated slurries. However, under these conditions laccase treatment prior to addition of yeast reduced the total phenolic content of the slurry and enabled the fermentation. During this process, an ethanol concentration of 19 g/L was obtained, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 39% of the theoretical yield. By changing the operation from batch mode to fed-batch mode, the concentration of inhibitors at the start of the process was reduced and 8 g/L of ethanol were obtained in untreated slurries with a final consistency of 16% DM (w/v). When fed-batch SSCF medium was supplemented with laccase 33 hours after yeast inoculation, no effect on ethanol yield or cell viability was found compared to untreated fermentations. However, if the laccase supplementation (21 hours after yeast inoculation) took place before the first addition of substrate (at 25 hours), improved cell viability and an increased ethanol titer of up to 32 g/L (51% of the theoretical) were found. Conclusions Laccase treatment in SSCF processes reduces the inhibitory effect that degradation compounds have on the fermenting microorganism. Furthermore, in combination with fed-batch operational mode, laccase supplementation allows the fermentation of wheat straw slurry at high DM consistencies, improving final ethanol concentrations and yields. PMID:24219973

  11. Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (± SD) live weight of 20.5 ± 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of supplementation. The results suggest that at least 300 g (395 g/kg dietary DM) of Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:20050945

  12. Sustainable Building Sourcebook: Straw Bale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Sustainable Building Sourcebook is an online publication in partnership with the City of Austin, Texas, Green Building Program. This section of the Sourcebook provides information and resources on straw bale construction. The article begins with a definition of straw bale construction as a construction that uses "baled straw from wheat, oats, barley, rye, rice and others in walls covered by stucco...." and proceeds to address building considerations, commercial status, and implementation issues. The authors discuss some of the benefits of this "low cost alternative for building highly insulating walls" and consider some of the common concerns such as financing and public acceptance. A variety of resources for anyone interested in building with straw bales are provided and anyone who already has built one is invited to join the international Straw Bale Registry.

  13. Sacchariiication of Straw by Actinomycete Enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREW S. BALL; ALAN J. McCARTHY

    1988-01-01

    Over 200 strains of actinomycetes, representing nine distinct genera, were screened directly for the ability to release reducing sugar from ball-milled wheat straw, using a microtitre plate assay system. Xylanase activity was detected in nearly all of the strains examined while activities against purified cellulosic substrates were less widespread and relatively low. Straw saccharification resulted from cooperative enzyme action and

  14. Size-Resolved Anhydrosugar Composition in Smoke Aerosol from Controlled Field Burning of Rice Straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guenter Engling; James J. Lee; Yi-Wen Tsai; Shih-Chun C. Lung; Charles C.-K. Chou; Chuen-Yu Chan

    2009-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effects of ambient conditions and burning practices of rice fields in Taiwan on the chemical and physical characteristics of the smoke aerosol. Rice straw was burned on an actual rice field under typical conditions and smoke particles were collected immediately downwind of the field over the full particle size spectrum. Here we

  15. Effect of wheat and rice straw biochars on pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption and persistence in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Manna, Suman; Singh, Neera

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of wheat and rice biochars on pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption in a sandy loam soil. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was poorly sorbed in the soil (3.5-8.6%) but biochar amendment increased the herbicide adsorption, and the effect varied with the nature of the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. Biochars prepared at 600°C were more effective in adsorbing pyrazosulfuron-ethyl than biochars prepared at 400°C. Rice biochars were better than wheat biochars, and higher herbicide adsorption was attributed to the biochar surface area/porosity. The Freundlich constant 1/n suggested nonlinear isotherms, and nonlinearlity increased with increase in the level of biochar amendment. Desorption results suggested sorption of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was partially irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with increase in the level of biochar. Both sorption and desorption of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl correlated well with the content of biochars. The free energy change (?G) indicated that the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption process was exothermic, spontaneous and physical in nature. Persistence studies indicated that biochar (0.5%) amendment did not have significant effect on herbicide degradation, and its half-life values in the control, 0.5% WBC600- and RBC600-amended rice planted soils were 7, 8.6, and 10.4 days, respectively. PMID:25996810

  16. Distribtuion of Protein Composition in Bread Wheat Flour Mill Streams and Reltationship to Breadmaking Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat protein quantity and composition are important parameters for wheat baking quality. The objective of this study was to use fractionation techniques to separate the proteins of flour mill streams into various protein fractions, to examine the distribution of these protein fractions, and to esta...

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN BREAD WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS AND RELATIONSHIP TO BREADMAKING QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat protein quantity and composition are important parameters for wheat baking quality. The objective of this study was to use fractionation techniques to separate the proteins of flour mill streams into various protein fractions, to examine the distribution of these protein fractions, and to esta...

  18. Thermostable recombinant xylanases from Nonomuraea flexuosa and Thermoascus aurantiacus show distinct properties in the hydrolysis of xylans and pretreated wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, thermostable enzymes decrease the amount of enzyme needed due to higher specific activity and elongate the hydrolysis time due to improved stability. For cost-efficient use of enzymes in large-scale industrial applications, high-level expression of enzymes in recombinant hosts is usually a prerequisite. The main aim of the present study was to compare the biochemical and hydrolytic properties of two thermostable recombinant glycosyl hydrolase families 10 and 11 (GH10 and GH11, respectively) xylanases with respect to their potential application in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates. Results The xylanases from Nonomuraea flexuosa (Nf Xyn11A) and from Thermoascus aurantiacus (Ta Xyn10A) were purified by heat treatment and gel permeation chromatography. Ta Xyn10A exhibited higher hydrolytic efficiency than Nf Xyn11A toward birchwood glucuronoxylan, insoluble oat spelt arabinoxylan and hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, and it produced more reducing sugars. Oligosaccharides from xylobiose to xylopentaose as well as higher degree of polymerization (DP) xylooligosaccharides (XOSs), but not xylose, were released during the initial hydrolysis of xylans by Nf Xyn11A, indicating its potential for the production of XOS. The mode of action of Nf Xyn11A and Ta Xyn10A on glucuronoxylan and arabinoxylan showed typical production patterns of endoxylanases belonging to GH11 and GH10, respectively. Conclusions Because of its high catalytic activity and good thermostability, T. aurantiacus xylanase shows great potential for applications aimed at total hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for platform sugars, whereas N. flexuosa xylanase shows more significant potential for the production of XOSs. PMID:21592333

  19. Degradation of lignocelluloses in rice straw by BMC-9, a composite microbial system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Yu, Hairu; Yuan, Xufeng; Piao, Renzhe; Li, Hulin; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the potential utility of pretreatment of raw biomass with a complex microbial system, we investigated the degradation of rice straw by BMC-9, a lignocellulose decomposition strain obtained from a biogas slurry compost environment. The degradation characteristics and corresponding changes in the bacterial community were assessed. The results showed that rapid degradation occurred from day 0 to day 9, with a peak total biomass bacterium concentration of 3.3 × 10(8) copies/ml on day 1. The pH of the fermentation broth declined initially and then increased, and the mass of rice straw decreased steadily. The highest concentrations of volatile fatty acid contents (0.291 mg/l lactic acid, 0.31 mg/l formic acid, 1.93 mg/l acetic acid, and 0.73 mg/l propionic acid) as well as the highest xylanse activity (1.79 U/ml) and carboxymethyl cellulase activity (0.37 U/ml) occurred on day 9. The greatest diversity among the microbial community also occurred on day 9, with the presence of bacteria belonging to Clostridium sp., Bacillus sp., and Geobacillus sp. Together, our results indicate that BMC-9 has a strong ability to rapidly degrade the lignocelluloses of rice straw under relatively inexpensive conditions, and the optimum fermentation time is 9 days. PMID:24548929

  20. Comparison of TLUD and atmospherically-controlled retort methods of preparing biochar using corn stover and wheat straw feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a very versatile and useful material in many applications beyond carbon sequestration in soils. Rubber composite filler, sorptive media for toxic or other undesirable species in water, and peat moss replacement are just three examples of biochar applications we have studied at our laborat...

  1. Mechanical Properties of Green Composites with Poly(caprolactone) and Wheat Gluten

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) was incorporated into poly(caprolactone) (PCL) up to 50% w/w as a filler to form a biodegradable polymer composite. Microscopic examination showed a well-dispersed particle-matrix system. The composite was evaluated for tensile properties. The tensile strength of the composite d...

  2. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum eating time and eating bouts tended to be greater by WS than for OG, and postpartum eating time per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber intake tended to be greater for WS than for OG. Results indicate that forage source and amount of DM fed prepartum affected postpartum performance and tended to alter the behavior of cows in tie-stall barns. PMID:23040018

  3. Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

  4. Potato Straw

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-12

    In this physics demonstration, learners are challenged to insert a straw the furthest into a potato. After learners explore different techniques, the demonstrator can show them how to hold the straw firmly about 2/3 of the way up and use a sharp thrusting movement. Use this activity to explore force and surface area. This activity guide includes a helpful video that demonstrates each step of the demonstration.

  5. Wheat gluten influences oil droplet size and mobility in jet-cooked starch-oil composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jet cooked starch-lipid composites have been developed as a technology for suspending micron-size lipid droplets in aqueous cooked starch dispersions. Normally oil droplets are independent and freely mobile in such liquid composites. When wheat flour was used as the starch source, unusual behavior...

  6. Engineered hydrochar composites for phosphorus removal/recovery: Lanthanum doped hydrochar prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of lanthanum pretreated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lichun; Wu, Bo; Tan, Furong; He, Mingxiong; Wang, Wenguo; Qin, Han; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun

    2014-06-01

    Engineered hydrochar composites (EHC) were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of lanthanum pretreated rice straw. The as-prepared composite with about 30% lanthanum content showed greater P removal potential than La(OH)3, indicating the synergistic effect of hydrochar and lanthanum in P removal. The adsorption results showed that EHC showed great P adsorption capacities (>50mgPg(-1)) in the pH range of 2.5-10.5, and the presence of competing anions had little negative effects on P adsorption on EHC. The equilibrium time for P adsorption on EHC was considerably reduced under acid condition (12h) compared to alkaline condition (48h). The maximum adsorption capacity was 61.57mgPg(-1) according to Langmuir isotherms. These results suggested that EHC was highly effective in P adsorption in a wide range of pH and the presence of competing anions, thus EHC could be a promising adsorbent for phosphorus removal/recovery from wastewater. PMID:24727355

  7. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  8. Process intensification through microbial strain evolution: mixed glucose-xylose fermentation in wheat straw hydrolyzates by three generations of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignocellulose hydrolyzates present difficult substrates for ethanol production by the most commonly applied microorganism in the fermentation industries, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High resistance towards inhibitors released during pretreatment and hydrolysis of the feedstock as well as efficient utilization of hexose and pentose sugars constitute major challenges in the development of S. cerevisiae strains for biomass-to-ethanol processes. Metabolic engineering and laboratory evolution are applied, alone and in combination, to adduce desired strain properties. However, physiological requirements for robust performance of S. cerevisiae in the conversion of lignocellulose hydrolyzates are not well understood. The herein presented S. cerevisiae strains IBB10A02 and IBB10B05 are descendants of strain BP10001, which was previously derived from the widely used strain CEN.PK 113-5D through introduction of a largely redox-neutral oxidoreductive xylose assimilation pathway. The IBB strains were obtained by a two-step laboratory evolution that selected for fast xylose fermentation in combination with anaerobic growth before (IBB10A02) and after adaption in repeated xylose fermentations (IBB10B05). Enzymatic hydrolyzates were prepared from up to 15% dry mass pretreated (steam explosion) wheat straw and contained glucose and xylose in a mass ratio of approximately 2. Results With all strains, yield coefficients based on total sugar consumed were high for ethanol (0.39 to 0.40 g/g) and notably low for fermentation by-products (glycerol: ?0.10 g/g; xylitol: ?0.08 g/g; acetate: 0.04 g/g). In contrast to the specific glucose utilization rate that was similar for all strains (qGlucose???2.9 g/gcell dry weight (CDW)/h), the xylose consumption rate was enhanced by a factor of 11.5 (IBB10A02; qXylose?=?0.23 g/gCDW/h) and 17.5 (IBB10B05; qXylose?=?0.35 g/gCDW/h) as compared to the qXylose of the non-evolved strain BP10001. In xylose-supplemented (50 g/L) hydrolyzates prepared from 5% dry mass, strain IBB10B05 displayed a qXylose of 0.71 g/gCDW/h and depleted xylose in 2 days with an ethanol yield of 0.30 g/g. Under the conditions used, IBB10B05 was also capable of slow anaerobic growth. Conclusions Laboratory evolution of strain BP10001 resulted in effectively enhanced qXylose at almost complete retention of the fermentation capabilities previously acquired by metabolic engineering. Strain IBB10B05 is a sturdy candidate for intensification of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol processes. PMID:24708666

  9. Straw Oboes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    How can a straw be made into a musical instrument? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students produce reed-like musical instruments capable of playing a single pitch from straws. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable national science standards for grades K-12. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. The activity's content is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

  10. Straw Bridges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-20

    Learners design, build and test a model bridge out of straws. The bridge must span 25 cm across a gap between two tables or two chairs. To measure the load, the bridge must securely hold a small cup. Learners test the load by placing as many pennies in the cup as possible and counting how many the bridge can hold.

  11. Effects of Maturity Stages on the Nutritive Composition and Silage Quality of Whole Crop Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Z. L.; Zhang, T. F.; Chen, X. Z.; Li, G. D.; Zhang, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2) were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×105 colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) content (p<0.05) of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05) and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages. PMID:25049492

  12. SEAFOOD PROCESSING WASTES ENSILED WITH STRAW: UTILIZATION AND INTAKE BY SHEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Samuels; J. P. Fontenot; V. G. Allen; M. D. A. Abazinge

    2010-01-01

    Ensiled mixtures of seafd processing wastes and wheat straw were evaluated. Thirty- six crossbred wethers (average BW = 34 kg) were fed 1) a basal diet (hay and concentrate) alone, or a 1:l ratio (DM basis) of basal and 2) ensiled fish waste plus straw (70:30, wet basis), 3) ensiled fish waste and straw (51:49), 4) ensiled crab waste plus

  13. Bread making quality attributes of Iranian trade cultivars of wheat and their HMW glutenin subunits composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najafian G; Baghaee N; Morteza-gholi M; Babaee-Goli E

    Sixty seven varieties of wheat including mostly hexaploid and durum genotypes grown in Iran were tested for bread making quality attributes and their hectoliter weight, percentage of protein content, grain hardness index, flour water absorption, falling number and SDS-sedimentation volume were determined. High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits composition of these varieties was also determined using SDS- PAGE. Clustering of

  14. High-temperature reactions of straw ash and the anti-sintering additives kaolin and dolomite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-M. Steenari; O. Lindqvist

    1998-01-01

    Straw of various types of rape, wheat and barley have been studied with respect to the formation of crystalline compounds and high-temperature reactions in ash, as well as sintering and melting behaviour. During the low-temperature ashing process simple, crystalline compounds such as carbonates, sulphates and chlorides were formed. A significant part of the ash from wheat and barley straw was

  15. The composition of grain and forage from glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is equivalent to that of conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Obert, Janet C; Ridley, William P; Schneider, Ronald W; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy; Astwood, James D

    2004-03-10

    Glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800, simply referred to as MON 71800, contains a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that has a reduced affinity for glyphosate as compared to the endogenous plant EPSPS enzyme. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the compositional equivalence of MON 71800 to its nontransgenic parent as well as to conventional wheat varieties. The compositional assessment evaluated the levels of proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients in wheat forage and grain grown during two field seasons across a total of eight sites in the United States and Canada. These data demonstrated that with respect to these important nutritional components, the forage and grain from MON 71800 were equivalent to those of its nontransgenic parent and commercial wheat varieties. These data, together with the previously established safety of the CP4 EPSPS protein, support the conclusion that glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is as safe and nutritious as commercial wheat varieties. PMID:14995149

  16. Study on allelopathic effects of Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate on several plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Fu, Wenting; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

    Rice and wheat are the traditional food of Chinese people, and therefore the main crop candidates for bio-regenerative life-support systems. Recycling rice and wheat straw is an important issue concerning the system. In order to decide if the mixed-substrate made of rice and wheat straw is suitable of plant cultivation, Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate was tested in an aqueous extract germination experiment. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract on seed vigor, seedling growth and development situations and the physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat, lettuce and pumpkin were studied, and the presence and degrees of allelopathic effects were analyzed. The test results showed that this type of SLS exerted different degrees of allelopathic effect on wheat and lettuce; this allelopathic effect was related to the concentration of SLS aqueous extract. The most significant phenomenon is that with the increase of aqueous extract concentration, the seed germination, root length and shoot fresh weight of wheat decreased; and every concentration of aqueous extract showed significant inhibition on the root length and root fresh weight of lettuce. However, this type of SLS showed little effect on the growth of pumpkin seedlings. Contents changes of chlorophyll and endogenous hormones in wheat and lettuce seedlings, and the chemical compositions of SLS were measured, and the mechanism of allelopathic effect was preliminarily analyzed.

  17. STRAW UTILIZATION IN REGION 10 STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While agricultural burning has been going on for many years in Oregon, Idaho and Washington among grass seed and wheat growers as a means for reducing or eliminating straw wastes, over these years it has become more apparent that ag burning has adverse environmental and human hea...

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical compositions of some agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1994-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of different doses of ? irradiation on the changes in the crude fibre contents of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs. Ground samples of the 6 residues were irradiated by ? irradiation at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 100 kilogray (kGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for total nitrogen (N), crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that ? irradiation has no effect on total N whereas it decreased CF contents especially at the highest dose (100 kGy) reaching 30% for cottonwood, 21% for wheat straw and maize straw, and about 16% for barley straw, lentils straw and maize cobs. NDF decreased by about 6% for cottonwood, wheat straw and barley straw, 11% for maize straw and 9% for maize cobs. ? Irradiation (100 kGy) also decreased ADF by 8% for cottonwood, 7% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 6% for wheat straw and barley straw. No effects on NDF and ADF in lentils straw were observed. ADL content was also decreased by 8% in cottonwood, 21% in wheat straw, 18% in barley straw and maize straw, and by 30% in maize cobs, with no effect in lentils straw. The percentage of cellulose (CL):CF ratio increased by 31, 25, 13, 18, 19 and 15% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. Also hemicellulose (HCL):CF ratios increased by 48, 18, 15, 17, 5 and 4% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, and 48%, 18%, 15%, 17%, 5% and 4% in the HCL:CF ratio for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. CL:ADL ratios increased by ? irradiation (100 kGy) by 23, 16, 14 and 38% for wheat straw, barley straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, with no changes in the ratios for cottonwood and lentils straw. HCL:ADL ratios also increased in 4 residues reaching: 11, 16, 17 and 25% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw and maize cobs, respectively, with no changes in the ratio for lentils straw and maize straw.

  19. The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

    The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

  20. Factors affecting the physical properties of edible composite film prepared from zein and wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingfeng; Lu, Yanan; Cui, Heping; Jia, Xiangxing; Bai, Hongchao; Ma, Yuxiang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of zein ratio, concentration of glycerol, liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH and heat-treatment temperature on the properties of zein/wheat gluten composite films were researched. The results showed that elongation (E) increased with an increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, but it first increased and then decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat-treatment temperature, pH and the ratio of liquid to solid; Tensile strength (TS) increased with the increase in heat-treatment temperature and pH, and decreased with the increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, and it reached a maximum value when the ratio of zein/wheat gluten was 20%, but had a minimum value when the ratio of liquid to solid was 8:1; Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) increased with an increase of glycerol concentration and the ratio of liquid to solid and ethanol concentration, but it decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat treatment temperature, and pH of the film forming solution. PMID:22453930

  1. CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Clair winter wheat

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Clair winter wheat D. B. Fowler Crop Development Centre, University 17 December 1996, accepted 12 August 1997. Fowler, D. B. 1997. CDC Clair winter wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 77: 669­671. CDC Clair is a high-yielding, strong-strawed, semi- dwarf winter wheat (Triticum

  2. Study of wheat flour–cassava starch composite mix and the function of cassava mucilage in Chinese noodles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Charles; T. C. Huang; P. Y. Lai; C. C. Chen; P. P. Lee; Y. H. Chang

    2007-01-01

    Starch and mucilage extracts of sweet cassava tubers were incorporated into wheat flour–cassava starch (WF–CS) composite mix to make Chinese noodle. CS was extracted from fresh 1- and 2-yr-old sweet cassava tubers and was mixed at an optimized ratio of 70:30 into patent hard red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour. Noodles of proportional substitution of cassava mucilage in WF–CS blends were

  3. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  4. [Change of the wheat lectin activity and degree of its interaction with different components of compositions of lectin nature].

    PubMed

    Kyrychenko, O V

    2006-01-01

    The wheat lectin hemagglutination activity and degree of its interaction with the bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum T79 and aminosaccharide N-acetyl-D-glucosamin hapten of wheat lectin was studied in laboratory experiments with the purpose of creation of biologic activity compositions of lectin nature for plant growing. It was shown that plant-bacterial compositions encloses the "bacteria+lectin" complex, free lectin and bacterial cells. The addition of aminosaccharide N-acetyl-D-glucosamin to wheat lectin, to the bacterial culture and plant-bacterial composition decreases its hemagglutination activity. The possibility of creation of new complexes in this compositions effected by hapten "lectin+hapten", "lectin+hapten+bacteria", "bacteria+hapten" is under discussion. PMID:17494326

  5. Thermal degradation of cereal straws in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E. (Agricultural Engineering Dept., Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, P.O. Box 1000, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (CA))

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the thermogravimetric behavior of four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye) at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50{degrees}C/min) in air examined. The thermal degradation rate, the initial degradation temperature, the active and passive pyrolysis zones, and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were determined. Increasing the heating rate increased the thermal degradation rate and decreased both the initial degradation temperature and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The higher the cellulosic content of the straw, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the straw resulted in higher residual weight at 600{degrees}C.

  6. In vitro hypoglycemic effects and starch digestibility characteristics of wheat based composite functional flour for diabetics.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2015-07-01

    The associations between chronic feeding of high level of soluble/insoluble fibers and low serum glucose levels have been well documented. In the present study, composite flours were formulated using psyllium, barley and oat at two different levels [WPOB-I = wheat flour (75 %), psyllium (5 %), oat (10 %) and barley (10 %), WPOB-II = wheat flour (60 %), psyllium (10 %), oat (15 %) and barley (15 %)]. Chapaties were prepared from all formulations and various starch fractions were analyzed using controlled enzymatic digestion. The digestibility characteristics were studied using amylolysis kinetics employing porcine pancreatic ?-amylase in vitro. Results showed that both the variations (WPOB-I & WPOB-II) had acceptable sensory qualities and had significantly lower (p???0.05) values for total starch (TS), rapidly digestible starch (RDS), resistant starch (RS), starch digestibility index (SDI) and rapidly available glucose (RAG) compared to control. Between the two variations, WPOB-I showed better starch digestibility characteristics with significantly lower (p???0.05) starch digestibility index (SDI). In case of amylolysis kinetics, both the variations significantly (p???0.05) inhibited ?-amylase as reflected by lower glucose diffusion and significantly higher (p???0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) compared to control. It is inferred that, consumption of the composite flours might be helpful in establishing stable blood glucose pattern due to the redistribution of nutritionally important starch fractions and inhibition of carbohydrate digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26139921

  7. Mapping straw yield using on-combine light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw is not only important for long-term soil productivity, but also as a raw material for biofuel, livestock feed, building, packing, and bedding. Inventory figures in the United States for potential straw availability are largely based on whole states and counties. ...

  8. Cell-wall architecture and lignin composition of wheat developed in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Heyenga, A. G.; Levine, H. G.; Choi, J.; Davin, L. B.; Krikorian, A. D.; Lewis, N. G.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The microgravity environment encountered during space-flight has long been considered to affect plant growth and developmental processes, including cell wall biopolymer composition and content. As a prelude to studying how microgravity is perceived - and acted upon - by plants, it was first instructive to investigate what gross effects on plant growth and development occurred in microgravity. Thus, wheat seedlings were exposed to microgravity on board the space shuttle Discovery (STS-51) for a 10 day duration, and these specimens were compared with their counterparts grown on Earth under the same conditions (e.g. controls). First, the primary roots of the wheat that developed under both microgravity and 1 g on Earth were examined to assess the role of gravity on cellulose microfibril (CMF) organization and secondary wall thickening patterns. Using a quick freeze/deep etch technique, this revealed that the cell wall CMFs of the space-grown wheat maintained the same organization as their 1 g-grown counterparts. That is, in all instances, CMFs were randomly interwoven with each other in the outermost layers (farthest removed from the plasma membrane), and parallel to each other within the individual strata immediately adjacent to the plasma membranes. The CMF angle in the innermost stratum relative to the immediately adjacent stratum was ca 80 degrees in both the space and Earth-grown plants. Second, all plants grown in microgravity had roots that grew downwards into the agar; they did not display "wandering" and upward growth as previously reported by others. Third, the space-grown wheat also developed normal protoxylem and metaxylem vessel elements with secondary thickening patterns ranging from spiral to regular pit to reticulate thickenings. Fourthly, both the space- and Earth-grown plants were essentially of the same size and height, and their lignin analyses revealed no substantial differences in their amounts and composition regardless of the gravitational field experienced, i.e. for the purposes of this study, all plants were essentially identical. These results suggest that the microgravity environment itself at best only slightly affected either cell wall biopolymer synthesis or the deposition of CMFs, in contrast to previous assertions.

  9. EFFECT OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS ON DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BREAD CRUMB CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour mill streams, obtained from three samples of Nekota, a hard red winter wheat, were used in this study. The objective was to assess the contribution of protein composition on dough rheological properties and bread crumb characteristics of bread made from the mill streams. Flour proteins were fr...

  10. Changes in chemical composition and nutritive value of urea treated whole crop wheat during exposure to air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hill; J. D. Leaver

    2002-01-01

    Utilisation of winter wheat for silage production is popular in northern Europe as the crop can be grown in a wide range of climates and soil conditions. However, unacceptable losses of dry matter (DM) and a decline in nutritive value of the ensiled crop can occur during conservation and feed-out. Changes in chemical composition and nutritive value of fermented whole

  11. Study on allelopathic effects of Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate on several plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leyuan Li; Wenting Fu; Wenting He; Hong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Rice and wheat are the traditional food of Chinese people, and therefore the main crop candidates for bio-regenerative life-support systems. Recycling rice and wheat straw is an important issue concerning the system. In order to decide if the mixed-substrate made of rice and wheat straw is suitable of plant cultivation, Rice and Wheat Soil-Like Substrate was tested in an aqueous

  12. Methanogenic pathway and archaeal communities in three different anoxic soils amended with rice straw and maize straw.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Ralf; Klose, Melanie; Lu, Yahai; Chidthaisong, Amnat

    2012-01-01

    Addition of straw is common practice in rice agriculture, but its effect on the path of microbial CH(4) production and the microbial community involved is not well known. Since straw from rice (C3 plant) and maize plants (C4 plant) exhibit different ?(13)C values, we compared the effect of these straw types using anoxic rice field soils from Italy and China, and also a soil from Thailand that had previously not been flooded. The temporal patterns of production of CH(4) and its major substrates H(2) and acetate, were slightly different between rice straw and maize straw. Addition of methyl fluoride, an inhibitor of acetoclastic methanogenesis, resulted in partial inhibition of acetate consumption and CH(4) production. The ?(13)C of the accumulated CH(4) and acetate reflected the different ?(13)C values of rice straw versus maize straw. However, the relative contribution of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis to total CH(4) production exhibited a similar temporal change when scaled to CH(4) production irrespectively of whether rice straw or maize straw was applied. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal communities was characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and was quantified by quantitative PCR targeting archaeal 16S rRNA genes or methanogenic mcrA genes. The size of the methanogenic communities generally increased during incubation with straw, but the straw type had little effect. Instead, differences were found between the soils, with Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriales dominating straw decomposition in Italian soil, Methanosarcinaceae, Methanocellales, and Methanobacteriale in China soil, and Methanosarcinaceae and Methanocellales in Thailand soil. The experiments showed that methanogenic degradation in different soils involved different methanogenic population dynamics. However, the path of CH(4) production was hardly different between degradation of rice straw versus maize straw and was also similar for the different soil types. PMID:22291691

  13. Toughness of natural rubber composites reinforced with hydrolyzed and modified wheat gluten aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toughness of natural rubber can be improved by using fillers for various rubber applications. Dry wheat gluten is a protein from wheat flour and is sufficiently rigid for rubber reinforcement. The wheat gluten was hydrolyzed to reduce its particle size and microfluidized to reduce and homogenize...

  14. Occupational dermatitis associated with straw itch mites (Pyemotes ventricosus).

    PubMed

    Betz, T G; Davis, B L; Fournier, P V; Rawlings, J A; Elliot, L B; Baggett, D A

    1982-05-28

    A 1981 outbreak of dermatitis in Austin, Tex, was traced to occupational exposure to wheat infested with the straw itch mite, Pyemotes ventricosus; the wheat was being sold for decorative purposes by an imported-goods store located on the second floor of a large, modern, shopping mall complex. In addition to an extensive varicelliform skin eruption, one employee also had chills, fever, malaise, diarrhea, and anorexia associated with her exposure to these mites. The straw itch mite has been associated with several large epidemics of dermatitis during the 19th and 20th centuries. This outbreak is the third reported in Texas since 1961. Physicians should consider the possibility of straw itch mite infestations of products brought into the home or places of employment when they observe patients with a varicelliform or chigger-bite-like dermatitis, which may be accompanied by constitutional symptoms. PMID:6210784

  15. [The high-molecular glutenins of the soft winter wheats from European countries and their relationship to the glutenin composition of the ancient and modern wheat varieties of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, S V; Fedak, G; Lukov, O

    2000-01-01

    The sources of high-quality components of HMW glutenines determining grain quality, as initial material for breeding in the conditions of Ukraine were revealed on the base of analysis of 75 literature sources data about composition of high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin and pedigrees of 598 European wheats from 12 countries, bred in 1923-1997, including, 449 cultivars from West and 149 East Europe. Origin of these components was observed in varieties of Great Britain, France and Germany from ancient Ukrainian wheat Red Fife and it derivative spring wheats of Canada--Marquis, Garnet, Regent, Saunders, Selkirk and of USA--spring wheat Thatcher and winter wheats--Kanred and Oro--as directly as via cultivars of European countries and Australia; in wheats of East European countries from winter wheats Myronivs'ka 808 and Bezostaya 1 (derivative of Ukrainian cultivars Ukrainka and Krymka) and their descendants; in wheats of Austria and Italy--from the both genetical sources. PMID:10857209

  16. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

  17. Ammoniation of barley straw : effect on anatomical and physicochemical characteristics of the cell walls

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ammoniation of barley straw : effect on anatomical and physicochemical characteristics of the cell was to investigate changes in chemical and structural features of the cell walls in barley straw (Hordium vulgare L capacity and swollen volume were also examined. Changes in chemical composition of barley straw following

  18. Influence of light on labelling of wheat stem lignins using [U14C] phenylalanine or [O14CH3] sinapic acid

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence of light on labelling of wheat stem lignins using [U14C] phenylalanine or [O14CH3 lignin in the dark or in the light. Batches of 5 wheat-straw upper internodes (flowery stage) were of wheat straw lignin with phe* or with sin* gives, especially in the dark, lignins either labelled

  19. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites. PMID:20499931

  20. [Chromosome composition of wheat-rye lines and the influence of rye chromosomes on disease resistance and agronomic traits].

    PubMed

    Chumanova, E V; Efremova, T T; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Rosseeva, L P

    2014-11-01

    Identification of the chromosomal composition of common wheat lines with rye chromosomes was carried out using genomic in situ hybridization and 1RS- and 5P-specific PCR markers. It was demonstrated that wheat chromosomes 5A or 5D were substituted by rye chromosome 5R in the wheat-rye lines. It was established that one of the lines with complex disease resistance contained rye chromosome 5R and T1RS.1BL, while another line was found to contain, in addition to T1RS.1BL, a new Robertsonian translocation, T5AS.5RL. Substitution of the wheat chromosome 5A with the dominant Vrn-A1 gene for the Onokhoiskaya rye chromosome 5R led to lengthening of the germination-heading period or to a change in the type of development. A negative influence of T1RS.1BL on SDS sedimentation volume and grain hardness was demonstrated, along with a positive effect of the combination of T1RS. BL and 5R(5D) substitution on grain protein content. Quantitative traits of the 5R(5A) and 5R(5D) substitution lines were at the level of recipient cultivars. A line with two translocations, T1RS.1BL + T5AS.5R1, appeared to be more productive as compared to the line carrying T1RS.1BL in combination with the 5R(5D) substitution. PMID:25739285

  1. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D’Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and ?-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-?1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components. PMID:25658801

  2. Inclusion of Tithonia diversifolia in multinutrient blocks for WestAfrican dwarf goats fed Brachiaria straw.

    PubMed

    Tendonkeng, Fernand; Fogang Zogang, Bienvenu; Sawa, Camara; Boukila, Benoît; Pamo, Etienne Tedonkeng

    2014-08-01

    Recent investigations suggest that the development of multinutrient feed blocks with inclusion of tree and shrub leaves could improve the nutritive value and digestibility of straw. In order to test these possibilities, three types of multinutrient blocks (MNB) namely: MNB0 (wheat bran?=?100%; Tithonia diversifolia leaf?=?0%), MNB50 (wheat bran?=?50%; T. diversifolia leaf?=?50%) and MNB100 (wheat bran?=?0%; T. diversifolia leaf?=?100%) were fed for 15 days in a 3?×?3 Latin square arrangement to West African dwarf goats consuming Brachiaria ruziziensis straw. The blocks presented a good cohesion and a good hardness. The inclusion of T. diversifolia improved levels of crude protein, mineral, feed unit for milk production (UFL) and feed unit for meat production (UFV), but decreased palatability. The effects on the digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw were evaluated in nine West African dwarf goats fed individually with MNB0 + straw, MNB50 + straw and MNB100 + straw. The dry matter, organic matter and crude fibre digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw increased slightly with increasing level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. The apparent digestibility of nitrogen was comparable for all diets independent of the level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. This study showed that the inclusion of T. diversifolia leaves in the MNBs can be recommended to improve the feeding of goats during periods of drought. PMID:24792078

  3. Bioethanol production from rice straw by popping pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice straw has considerable potential as a raw material for bioethanol production. Popping pretreatment of rice straw prior to downstream enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was found to increase cellulose to glucose conversion efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of popping pretreatment and determine the optimal enzyme loading using a surface response design. Results The optimal doses of cellulase and xylanase enzymes were 23 FPU and 62 IU/g biomass, respectively. Using the optimized enzyme condition and popping pretreatment of rice straw (15% substrate loading, w/v), a sugar recovery of 0.567 g/g biomass (glucose; 0.394 g/g) was obtained in 48 h, which was significantly higher than that from untreated rice straw (total sugar recovery; 0.270 g/g biomass). Fermentation of the hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in 0.172 g ethanol/g biomass after 24 h, equivalent to 80.9% of the maximum theoretical yield (based on the amount of glucose in raw material). Changes in the chemical composition and surface area of rice straw were also investigated before and after popping pretreatment. The results showed little or no difference in chemical composition between the pretreated rice straw and the control. However, the surface area of pretreated rice straw increased twofold compared to the control. Conclusion Popping pretreatment of rice straw can effectively improve downstream saccharification and fermentation, important for bioethanol production. PMID:24286244

  4. Use of Near-Isogenic Wheat Lines to Determine the Glutenin Composition and Functionality in Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L) the synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins (GS) is controlled by three heterologous genetic loci present on the long arms of group 1 wheat chromosomes. The loci Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-D1 and their allelic variants play important roles in the functional propert...

  5. Interactive effects of salinity and macronutrient level on wheat. II. Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hu; U. Schmidhalter

    1997-01-01

    Results of several studies show interactive effects of salinity and macronutrients on the growth of wheat plants. These effects may be associated with the nutrient status in plant tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate interactive effects of salinity and macronutrients on mineral element concentrations in leaves, stems, and grain of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Lona),

  6. Drinking Straw Pulse Measurer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2003-01-01

    In this health activity, learners create a device so that they not only feel their heartbeat, but also see it, using a straw and some clay. Learners calculate their pulse rate (beats per minute) while at rest and after exercise.

  7. Microscopic Structural Changes in Paddy Straw Pretreated with Trichoderma reesei MTCC 164 and Coriolus versicolor MTCC 138.

    PubMed

    Phutela, Urmila Gupta; Sahni, Nidhi

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the pretreatment of paddy straw by Trichoderma reesei MTCC 164 and Coriolus versicolor MTCC 138 to observe the changes in chemical composition and its correlation with change of surface structure, morphology and porosity of paddy straw. Compared with untreated straw, cellulose decreased by 15.9 and 19.3 % in T. reesei MTCC 164 and C. versicolor MTCC 138 pretreated paddy straw respectively. Lignin content increased by 41.4 % in T. reesei pretreated paddy straw whereas decreased by 19.1 % in C. versicolor pretreated straw. The microscopic structural changes were examined by scanning electron microscopy under reasonable conditions. Results showed that digestibility of paddy straw are increased by treating paddy straw with both the cultures. Both surface area and pore size of treated straw were increased partially due to solubilization of silica components. PMID:24426113

  8. Lignocarbohydrate Solubilization from Straw by Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Ball, A. S.; Godden, B.; Helvenstein, P.; Penninckx, M. J.; McCarthy, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Actinomycetes grown on wheat straw solubilized a lignocarbohydrate fraction which could be recovered by acid precipitation. Further characterization of this product (APPL) during growth of Streptomyces sp. strain EC1 revealed an increase in carboxylic acid and phenolic hydroxyl content, suggesting progressive modification. This was also observed in dioxane-extracted lignin fractions of degraded straw, and some similarity was further suggested by comparative infrared spectroscopy. However, the molecular weight profile of APPL was relatively constant during growth of Streptomyces sp. strain EC1 on straw, while analysis of the dioxane-extracted lignin fractions appeared to show fragmentation followed by repolymerization. Lignocarbohydrate solubilization could be monitored in all cultures by routine assay of APPL-associated protein, which accounted for up to 20% of the extracellular culture protein in some cases. Interestingly, this protein fraction was found to include active hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulose, and specific enzyme activities were often increased in the acid-insoluble fractions of culture supernatants. This was particularly important for peroxidase and veratryl oxidase activities, which could be readily detected in the acid-precipitable lignocarbohydrate complex but were virtually undetectable in untreated culture supernatants. PMID:16348309

  9. Straw management, crop rotation and nitrogen source effect on carbon and nitrogen dynamics: A laboratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Montoya-González; O. E. González-Navarro; B. Govaerts; K. D. Sayre; I. Estrada; M. Luna-Guido; J. A. Ceja-Navarro; L. Patiño-Zúñiga; R. Marsch; L. Dendooven

    2009-01-01

    Straw incorporation, crop rotation and organic fertilizer applications have been proposed to counter the negative effects\\u000a of straw burning, inorganic N fertilizer application and intensive agriculture practices for wheat production in the state\\u000a of Sonora (México). A laboratory study was done to investigate how these alternative agriculture practices applied for 9 years\\u000a affected carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen

  10. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and Fusarium graminearum contamination of cereal straw; field distribution; and sampling of big bales.

    PubMed

    Häggblom, P; Nordkvist, E

    2015-05-01

    Sampling of straw bales from wheat, barley, and oats was carried out after harvest showing large variations in deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) levels. In the wheat field, DON was detected in all straw samples with an average DON concentration of 976 ?g/kg and a median of 525 ?g/kg, while in four bales, the concentrations were above 3000 ?g/kg. For ZEN, the concentrations were more uniform with an average concentration of 11 ?g/kg. The barley straw bales were all positive for DON with an average concentration of 449 ?g/kg and three bales above 800 ?g/kg. In oat straw, the average DON concentration was 6719 ?g/kg with the lowest concentration at 2614 ?g/kg and eight samples above 8000 ?g/kg. ZEN contamination was detected in all bales with an average concentration of 53 ?g/kg with the highest concentration at 219 ?g/kg. Oat bales from another field showed an average concentration of 16,382 ?g/kg. ZEN concentrations in the oat bales were on average 153 ?g/kg with a maximum at 284 ?g/kg. Levels of Fusarium graminearum DNA were higher in oat straw (max 6444 pg DNA/mg straw) compared to straw from wheat or barley. The significance of mycotoxin exposure from straw should not be neglected particularly in years when high levels of DON and ZEN are also detected in the feed grain. With a limited number of samples preferably using a sampling probe, it is possible to distinguish lots of straw that should not be used as bedding material for pigs. PMID:25665688

  11. [The effect of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hen breeds. 1. Problems, experimental review and N-excretion in the urine].

    PubMed

    Zander, R; Gruhn, K; Hennig, A

    1987-03-01

    The metabolization of the straw N and the influence of the straw on N excretion in urine were studied in 2 experiments with colostomized broiler hens and with 15N labelled wheat straw as well as 15N labelled wheat. In experiment 1 the test animals divided up into 4 groups received 0 g, 20 g, 30 g and 40 g straw meal per animal and day in addition to 120 g mixed feed. The daily 15N-excess (15N') intake from the straw was 18.4 mg, 27.5 mg and 36.7 mg. The amount of 15N' daily consumed with the labelled wheat in experiment 2 was 119.7 mg. 40 g straw meal resulted in a significantly increased amount of urine (p less than 0.05). The amounts of urine N and uric acid N were only increased as a tendency. On average the productive N decreased as a consequence of the straw meal supplement from 1070 mg/animal and day (control) to 764 mg/animal and day after 40 g straw meal supplement. The productive 15N' of the labelled wheat was not influenced by the straw meal supplement. The productive 15N' of the straw increased from 3.8 mg/animal and day (20 g straw) to 13.4 mg/animal and day (40 g straw). In contrast to 15N wheat, straw as a 15N source resulted in a lower labelling of uric acid N in comparison with urine N. It can be assumed that the changed metabolization of the straw N is influenced by microbial processes in the intestines. PMID:3689140

  12. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Wheat Paper at UBC

    E-print Network

    Into Wheat Paper at UBC Jobin Ansari-Gilani Donald Harris Siavash Jalali Youtai Xue University of British SUSTAINABILITY REPORT An Investigation Into Wheat Paper at UBC Prepared for Dr. Dawn Mills March 29, 2012 Jobin Ansari-Gilani Donald Harris Siavash Jalali Youtai Xue #12;2 Abstract Wheat straw is an agricultural waste

  13. Wheat Variety Descriptions and Comments for Varieties Planted in Panhandle and South Plains Variety Trials

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Wheat Variety Descriptions and Comments for Varieties Planted in Panhandle and South Plains Variety@ag.tamu.edu Jackie Rudd, AgriLife Research Wheat Breeder AP06T3519 AgriPro experimental. First year in trial. AP06T. Questionable straw strength under irrigation. Russian wheat aphid tolerant. Leaf rust resistant with moderate

  14. Composition and end-use quality of 150 wheat lines selected for the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen.

    PubMed

    Rakszegi, Mariann; Boros, Danuta; Kuti, Csaba; Láng, László; Bedo, Zoltán; Shewry, Peter R

    2008-11-12

    The HEALTHGRAIN program is focused on developing new healthy food products based on wholegrains of wheat and other cereals, by combining enhanced nutritional quality with good agronomic performance and processing quality. A sample set comprising 130 winter and 20 spring wheat varieties was therefore selected to identify the range of variation in a number of phytochemical and dietary fiber components. These lines were also analyzed for their technological properties (protein and gluten contents, Zeleny sedimentation, bran yield, kernel hardness, etc.), using samples grown on adjacent sites for two successive seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006). On the basis of the frequency distribution and principal component analysis it was concluded that significant variation for technological quality traits is present in the 150 wheat lines and that it is possible to combine enhanced nutritional quality with good agronomic performance and processing properties. PMID:18921975

  15. The hemicellulolytic enzyme arsenal of Thermobacillus xylanilyticus depends on the composition of biomass used for growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thermobacillus xylanilyticus is a thermophilic and highly xylanolytic bacterium. It produces robust and stable enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and esterases, which are of special interest for the development of integrated biorefineries. To investigate the strategies used by T. xylanilyticus to fractionate plant cell walls, two agricultural by-products, wheat bran and straw (which differ in their chemical composition and tissue organization), were used in this study and compared with glucose and xylans. The ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on these substrates was studied. When the bacteria used lignocellulosic biomass, the production of enzymes was evaluated and correlated with the initial composition of the biomass, as well as with the evolution of any residues during growth. Results Our results showed that T. xylanilyticus is not only able to use glucose and xylans as primary carbon sources but can also use wheat bran and straw. The chemical compositions of both lignocellulosic substrates were modified by T. xylanilyticus after growth. The bacteria were able to consume 49% and 20% of the total carbohydrates in bran and straw, respectively, after 24 h of growth. The phenolic and acetyl ester contents of these substrates were also altered. Bacterial growth on both lignocellulosic biomasses induced hemicellulolytic enzyme production, and xylanase was the primary enzyme secreted. Debranching activities were differentially produced, as esterase activities were more important to bacterial cultures grown on wheat straw; arabinofuranosidase production was significantly higher in bacterial cultures grown on wheat bran. Conclusion This study provides insight into the ability of T. xylanilyticus to grow on abundant agricultural by-products, which are inexpensive carbon sources for enzyme production. The composition of the biomass upon which the bacteria grew influenced their growth, and differences in the biomass provided resulted in dissimilar enzyme production profiles. These results indicate the importance of using different biomass sources to encourage the production of specific enzymes. PMID:23241174

  16. Carbon isotope discrimination and mineral composition of three organs in durum wheat genotypes grown under Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Merah, O

    2001-04-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (delta) has been proposed as a good criterion for transpiration efficiency and grain yield improvement. Its measurement, however, remains very expensive. Ash content (ma) has been proposed as an alternative criterion for delta in bread wheat and barley. The aims of this study were (i) to analyse the relationships between delta and mineral composition in different durum wheat plant parts and (ii) to compare the variation of these traits between landraces and improved varieties from different geographic origins. For this purpose, delta, ma, and composition in four minerals (K, Mg, P and Si) were assessed in flag leaves and awns at anthesis, and in mature grains of ten durum wheat genotypes grown under rainfed Mediterranean conditions. The three plant parts differed significantly for the measured traits. Significant correlations were noted between delta and ma in the flag leaf and in the grain. Silicon content in flag leaves and potassium content in awns were also positively related to delta of the considered plant part. The coefficient of correlation between delta and ma was generally higher than that observed between individual mineral content and delta, suggesting that ma is the better alternative criterion for delta. In addition, grain yield was related to grain delta and both ma and potassium content in awns. Harvest index was correlated with delta and ma of grain and flag leaf. These results emphasised that ma values in flag leaf and grain represent the efficiency of carbon partitioning to the grain. Improved varieties showed higher delta and ma values than landraces. Differences between Middle-East and West Mediterranean genotypes for the measured traits were also presented and discussed. PMID:11386083

  17. Hard Spring Wheat Variety Descriptions Resistance To2

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    ; S =susceptible; VS =very susceptible; NA = data not available. #12;2 Hard White Spring Wheat Descriptions1 Hard Spring Wheat Variety Descriptions Resistance To2 Quality Factors Straw Stem Leaf Foliar Head herbicide family. 2 R =resistant; MR =moderately resistant; M =intermediate; MS =moderately susceptible

  18. Evaluation of thermophilic fungal consortium for paddy straw composting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adesh; Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata

    2008-06-01

    Out of 10 thermophilic fungi isolated from wheat straw, farm yard manure, and soil, only three showed highest cellobiase, carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and FPase activities. They were identified as Aspergillus nidulans (Th(4)), Scytalidium thermophilum (Th(5)), and Humicola sp. (Th(10)). A fungal consortium of these three fungi was used to compost a mixture (1:1) of silica rich paddy straw and lignin rich soybean trash. The composting of paddy straw for 3 months, during summer period in North India, resulted in a product with C:N ratio 9.5:1, available phosphorus 0.042% and fungal biomass 6.512 mg of N-acetyl glucosamine/100 mg of compost. However, a C:N ratio of 10.2:1 and highest humus content of 3.3% was achieved with 1:1 mixture of paddy straw and soybean trash. The fungal consortium was effective in converting high silica paddy straw into nutritionally rich compost thereby leading to economical and environment friendly disposal of this crop residue. PMID:17874191

  19. Variation in polar lipid composition within near-isogenic wheat lines containing different puroindoline haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extensive amount of research has investigated kernel hardness. However, the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Puroindoline-A and puroindoline-B proteins must be present in their wild-type form to create soft textured wheat. Similar to puroindoline proteins, polar lipids are...

  20. COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF PYTHIUM COMMUNITIES FROM WHEAT FIELDS IN EASTERN WASHINGTON STATE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium spp. were isolated from the soil of 80 wheat fields in eastern Washington in summer 2000, from an area encompassing approximately 27,000 km2. These sites covered a range of soil textures (course to fine silty loess), average annual precipitation (200 to 600 mm) and average annual temperature...

  1. LEVELS OF PROTEIN AND PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN HARD WINTER WHEAT FLOURS AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO BREADMAKING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein and protein fractions were measured in 49 hard winter wheat flours to investigate their relationship to breadmaking properties, particularly loaf volume which varied from 760 to 1055 cm3/100 g flour, and crumb grain score of 1.0-5.0. Total soluble protein (SP) in 50% 1-propanol was separate...

  2. Influence of Added Starch on Mixing of Dough Made with Three Wheat Flours Differing in High Molecular Weight Subunit Composition: Rheological Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Larsson; A.-C. Eliasson; E. Johansson; G. Svensson

    2000-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 77(5):633-639 The effect of mixing time (6 and 20 min) and starch content were studied on doughs prepared with three wheat flours differing in high molecular weight subunit composition. Rheological measurements were performed in dynamic oscillation: frequency and strain sweeps, stress relaxation, and in large deformation viscosity measurements. The flours were diluted with starch to cover flour protein

  3. The relationship between different biotypes and protein composition of Hard Red Winter Wheat flours and their affect on alkaline noodle color and texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five samples of biotypes derived from two hard red winter wheat (HRW) cultivars, Centurk and OK102, were grown in a randomized complete block design at Mead, NE. The biotypes varied in their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition with five different HMW-GS allelic combi...

  4. Subunit composition of wheat glutenin proteins, isolated by gel filtration in a dissociating medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter I. Payne; Kathryn G. Corfield

    1979-01-01

    Proteins were extracted from wheat meal or flour in 0.1 M acetic acid, 3 M urea and 0.01 M CTAB and fractionated in columns of cross-linked Sepharose in the same solvent. An heterogeneous fraction of high molecular weight eluted from the column which, when reduced and subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, separated into 12 components. Their molecular weights ranged from about

  5. Characteristics of dough and tortillas prepared with composite wheat-sorghum flours 

    E-print Network

    Torres, Patricia Isabel

    1988-01-01

    of the sorghum flours. . . . . . . . . 36 Effect of potassium sorbate and calcium propionate on flour tortillas shelf life. . Water ahsorpti on, devel opment time, and stability of wheat-sorghum tortilla dougns measured with tne farinograph. . . . IV... that changes in starch analogous to the crystallization process in polymer~, is responsible for bread staling. Besides, an important characteristic of bread staling is that it has a negative coefficient for its rate. Cornford et al (z964) suggested...

  6. Renewable bio ionic liquids-water mixtures-mediated selective removal of lignin from rice straw: visualization of changes in composition and cell wall structure.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xue-Dan; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2013-07-01

    Pretreatment of rice straw by using renewable cholinium amino acids ionic liquids ([Ch][AA] ILs)-water mixtures and the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the residues were conducted in the present work. Of the eight mixtures composed of ILs and water, most were found to be effective for rice straw pretreatment. After pretreatment with 50% ILs-water mixtures, the enzymatic digestion of the lignocellulosic biomass was enhanced significantly, thus leading to satisfactory sugar yields of >80% for glucose and approximately 50% for xylose. To better understand the ILs pretreatment mechanism, confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with immunolabeling and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize changes in the contents and distribution of two major components--lignin and xylan. The results coupled with changes in chemical structures (infrared spectra) of the substrates indicated occurrence of extensive delignification, especially in cell corner and compound middle lumen of cell walls, which made polysaccharides more accessible to enzymes. This pretreatment process is promising for large-scale application because of the high sugar yields, easy handling, being environmentally benign and highly tolerant to moisture, and significantly reduced cost and energy consumption. PMID:23404290

  7. Enhanced biological straw saccharification through coculturing of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Al-Hothaly, Khalid; Mouradov, Aidyn; Smith, Andrew T; Ball, Andrew S; Adetutu, Eric M

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic waste (LCW) is an abundant, low-cost, and inedible substrate for the induction of lignocellulolytic enzymes for cellulosic bioethanol production using an efficient, environmentally friendly, and economical biological approach. In this study, 30 different lignocellulose-degrading bacterial and 18 fungal isolates were quantitatively screened individually for the saccharification of four different ball-milled straw substrates: wheat, rice, sugarcane, and pea straw. Rice and sugarcane straws which had similar Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy profiles were more degradable, and resulted in more hydrolytic enzyme production than wheat and pea straws. Crude enzyme produced on native straws performed better than those on artificial substrates (such as cellulose and xylan). Four fungal and five bacterial isolates were selected (based on their high strawase activities) for constructing dual and triple microbial combinations to investigate microbial synergistic effects on saccharification. Combinations such as FUNG16-FUNG17 (Neosartorya fischeri-Myceliophthora thermophila) and RMIT10-RMIT11 (Aeromonas hydrophila-Pseudomonas poae) enhanced saccharification (3- and 6.6-folds, respectively) compared with their monocultures indicating the beneficial effects of synergism between those isolates. Dual isolate combinations were more efficient at straw saccharification than triple combinations in both bacterial and fungal assays. Overall, co-culturing can result in significant increases in saccharification which may offer significant commercial potential for the use of microbial consortia. PMID:25724976

  8. Production of extracellular enzymes during the solubilisation of straw by Thermomonospora fusca BD25

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Trigo; A. S. Ball

    1994-01-01

    The production of three extracellular enzymes during the solubilisation of ball-milled wheat straw by seven actinomycete strains, was examined. A general correlation was observed between the production of extracellular enzymes (xylanases, endoglucanases and peroxidases) and the formation of the solubilised lignocellulose intermediate product (APPL), with the thermophilic actinomycete Thermomonospora fusca BD25 exhibiting greatest extracellular enzyme activity and highest APPL production.

  9. Effects of compost, coal ash, and straw amendments on restoring the quality of eroded Palouse soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duncan Cox; David Bezdicek; Mary Fauci

    2001-01-01

    Ridgetops in the dryland farming region of eastern Washington suffer from low productivity and poor soil quality from years of erosion. Two studies investigated the effectiveness of soil amendments in restoring soil quality. Study 1 treatments were two rates of compost and a control. Study 2 treatments were compost, coal ash, wheat straw, three rates of inorganic N, and a

  10. Using isotopic tracers to assess the impact of tillage and straw management on the microbial metabolic network in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Groenigen, K.; Forristal, D.; Jones, M. B.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.; Dijkstra, P.

    2013-12-01

    By decomposing soil organic matter, microbes gain energy and building blocks for biosynthesis and release CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, insight into the effect of management practices on microbial metabolic pathways and C use efficiency (CUE; microbial C produced per substrate C utilized) may help to predict long term changes in soil C stocks. We studied the effects of reduced (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) on the microbial central C metabolic network, using soil samples from a 12-year-old field experiment in an Irish winter wheat cropping system. Each year after harvest, straw was removed from half of the RT and CT plots or incorporated into the soil in the other half, resulting in four treatment combinations. We added 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose as metabolic tracer isotopomers to composite soil samples taken at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm) from each treatment and used the rate of position-specific respired 13CO2 to parameterize a metabolic model. Model outcomes were then used to calculate CUE of the microbial community. We found that the composite samples differed in CUE, but the changes were small, with values ranging between 0.757-0.783 across treatments and soil depth. Increases in CUE were associated with a decrease in tricarboxylic acid cycle and reductive pentose phosphate pathway activity and increased consumption of metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Our results indicate that RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage without substantially changing CUE or any of the microbial metabolic pathways. This suggests that at our site, RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage mostly through direct effects such as increased soil C input and physical protection from decomposition, rather than by feedback responses of the microbial community.

  11. Thermal degradation of cereal straws in air and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ergundenler, A. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1991-12-31

    The termogravimetric behavior of four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50{degrees}C/min) in air and nitrogen atmospheres. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were determined for these straws in both atmospheres. Increasing the heating rate increased the thermal degradation rate, and decreased both the initial degradation temperature and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The higher the cellulosic content of the straw, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the straw resulted in higher residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The thermal degradation rate in active pyrolysis zone was lower in air atmosphere than in nitrogen atmosphere, whereas the thermal degradation rate in passive pyrolysis zone and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were higher in nitrogen atmosphere than in air atmosphere.

  12. The Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Greek Traditional Wheat Sourdoughs Is Reflected in Both Composition and Metabolite Formation

    PubMed Central

    De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and Weissella cibaria. This consortium seems to be unique for the Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs studied. Strains of the species W. cibaria have not been isolated from sourdoughs previously. No Lactobacillus pontis or Lactobacillus panis strains were found. An L. brevis-like isolate (ACA-DC 3411 t1) could not be identified properly and might be a new sourdough LAB species. In addition, fermentation capabilities associated with the LAB detected have been studied. During laboratory fermentations, all heterofermentative sourdough LAB strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. Mannitol was produced from fructose that served as an additional electron acceptor. In addition to glucose, almost all of the LAB isolates fermented maltose, while fructose as the sole carbohydrate source was fermented by all sourdough LAB tested except L. sanfranciscensis. Two of the L. paralimentarius isolates tested did not ferment maltose; all strains were homofermentative. In the presence of both maltose and fructose in the medium, induction of hexokinase activity occurred in all sourdough LAB species mentioned above, explaining why no glucose accumulation was found extracellularly. No maltose phosphorylase activity was found either. These data produced a variable fermentation coefficient and a unique sourdough metabolite composition. PMID:12450829

  13. Species Composition and Diversity of Parasitoids and Hyper-Parasitoids in Different Wheat Agro-Farming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zi-hua; Liu, Jun-He; He, Da-Han; Guan, Xiao-qin; Liu, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Insect communities depend on both their local environment and features of the surrounding habitats. Diverse plant communities may enhance the abundance and species diversity of local natural enemies, which is possible due to a higher abundance and species diversity in complex landscapes. This hypothesis was tested using cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids by comparing 18 spring wheat fields, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), in structurally-complex landscapes (dominated by semi-natural habitat, > 50%, n = 9) and structurally-simple landscapes dominated by arable landscape (dominated by crop land, > 80%, n = 9). The agricultural landscape structure had significant effects on the number of parasitoid and hyper-parasitoid species, as 26 species (17 parasitoids and 9 hyper-parasitoids) were found in the complex landscapes and 21 were found in the simple landscapes (14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids). Twenty-one species occurred in both landscape types, including 14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids species. The species diversity of parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids were significantly different between the complex and simple landscapes. In addition, arable fields in structurally-simple agricultural landscapes with little semi-natural habitats could support a lower diversity of cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids than structurally-complex landscapes. These findings suggest that cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids need to find necessary resources in structurally-complex landscapes, and generalizations are made concerning the relationship between landscape composition and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Overall, abundance, species richness, and species diversity increased with increasing plant diversity and landscape complexity in spring wheat fields and increasing amounts of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape. PMID:24773471

  14. Antioxidative Defense System, Pigment Composition, and Photosynthetic Efficiency in Two Wheat Cultivars Subjected to Drought1

    PubMed Central

    Loggini, Barbara; Scartazza, Andrea; Brugnoli, Enrico; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed antioxidative defenses, photosynthesis, and pigments (especially xanthophyll-cycle components) in two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars, Adamello and Ofanto, during dehydration and rehydration to determine the difference in their sensitivities to drought and to elucidate the role of different protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. Drought caused a more pronounced inhibition in growth and photosynthetic rates in the more sensitive cv Adamello compared with the relatively tolerant cv Ofanto. During dehydration the glutathione content decreased in both wheat cultivars, but only cv Adamello showed a significant increase in glutathione reductase and hydrogen peroxide-glutathione peroxidase activities. The activation states of two sulfhydryl-containing chloroplast enzymes, NADP+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, were maintained at control levels during dehydration and rehydration in both cultivars. This indicates that the defense systems involved are efficient in the protection of sulfhydryl groups against oxidation. Drought did not cause significant effects on lipid peroxidation. Upon dehydration, a decline in chlorophyll a, lutein, neoxanthin, and ?-carotene contents, and an increase in the pool of de-epoxidized xanthophyll-cycle components (i.e. zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin), were evident only in cv Adamello. Accordingly, after exposure to drought, cv Adamello showed a larger reduction in the actual photosystem II photochemical efficiency and a higher increase in nonradiative energy dissipation than cv Ofanto. Although differences in zeaxanthin content were not sufficient to explain the difference in drought tolerance between the two cultivars, zeaxanthin formation may be relevant in avoiding irreversible damage to photosystem II in the more sensitive cultivar. PMID:10069848

  15. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water, subjected to the same effects of evapotranspiration, but which differ in the amount and composition of leaf wax compounds, can exhibit large variation in their n-alkane 2H/1H. Our current work on determining the 2H/1H composition of other n-alkyl lipids from these plants will provide further details regarding the role of biosynthesis in controlling 2H/1H fractionation within leaf waxes.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.

    PubMed

    Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

    2011-11-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordão presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordão and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different concentrations of different metals. The advantages of using INAA are the multielementality, low detection limits and use of solid samples (no need of digestion). PMID:21367605

  17. Composition of HMW and LMW Glutenin Subunits and Their Effects on Dough Properties, Pan Bread, and Noodle Quality of Chinese Bread Wheats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. H. He; L. Liu; X. C. Xia; J. J. Liu; R. J. Peña

    2005-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 82(4):345-350 Knowledge of composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and their associations with pan bread and noodle quality will contribute to gen- etically improving processing quality of Chinese bread wheats. Two trials including a total of 158 winter and facultative cultivars and advanced lines were conducted to detect the

  18. Fatty acid composition of lymphocytes and macrophages from rats fed fiber-rich diets: A comparison between oat bran- and wheat bran-enriched diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Cavaglieri Felippe; P. C. Calder; M. G. Vecchia; M. R. Campos; J. Mancini-Filho; E. A. Newsholme; R. Curi

    1997-01-01

    The effect of oat bran-(OBD) and wheat bran-enriched diets (WBD) on fatty acid composition of neutral lipids and phospholipids\\u000a of rat lymphocytes and macrophages was investigated. In neutral lipids of lymphocytes, OBD reduced the proportion of palmitoleic\\u000a acid (48%), whereas WBD reduced by 43% palmitoleic acid and raised oleic (18%), linoleic (52%), and arachidonic (2.5-fold)\\u000a acids. In neutral lipids of

  19. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro digestibility of NSP depends on the amount and type of NSP and degree of lignification in the feed ingredient. The NSP composition of grains and grain coproducts plays an important role in determining the extent of fermentation of NSP; therefore, NSP composition influences the energy value of grains and grain coproducts. PMID:26020887

  20. Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM The small grains improvement effort at Texas Agri techniques. The College Station center focuses on wheat and oats for the South Texas and Blacklands regions of Texas, while the Amarillo center develops wheat and triticale lines for the Texas High Plains

  1. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Kholif, A E; Khattab, H M; El-Shewy, A A; Salem, A Z M; Kholif, A M; El-Sayed, M M; Gado, H M; Mariezcurrena, M D

    2014-03-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

  2. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

  3. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains. PMID:23870025

  4. Effect of wheat gluten and extracted, protected soybean meal addition to the diet of cows with different beta-lactoglobulin genotypes on the composition and physical properties of milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Szulc; M. Pawelska-Góral; K. Hajduk

    The effect of wheat gluten or extracted soybean meal (300 g of crude protein\\/head\\/day) on milk yield, composition and its physical properties was analysed in 53 cows of Polish Holstein-Friesian breed with different milk beta-lactoglobulin (blg) genotypes (AA, AB and BB). The addition of wheat gluten to the diet of cows with the AA and AB blg genotypes caused a

  5. Degradation and utilization of cellulose and straw by three different anaerobic fungi from the ovine rumen.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, G L; Phillips, M W

    1989-01-01

    Three different ruminal fungi, a Neocallimastix sp. (strain LM-1), a Piromonas sp. (strain SM-1), and a Sphaeromonas sp. (strain NM-1), were grown anaerobically in liquid media which contained a suspension of either 1% (wt/vol) purified cellulose or finely milled wheat straw as the source of fermentable carbon. Fungal biomass was estimated by using cell wall chitin or cellular protein in cellulose cultures and chitin in straw cultures. Both strains LM-1 and SM-1 degraded cellulose with a concomitant increase in fungal biomass. Maximum growth of both fungi occurred after incubation for 4 days, and the final yield of protein was the same for both fungi. Cellulose degradation continued after growth ceased. Strain NM-1 failed to grow in the cellulose medium. All three anaerobic fungi grew in the straw-containing medium, and loss of dry weight from the cultures indicated degradation of straw to various degrees (LM-1 greater than SM-1 greater than NM-1). The total fiber component and the cellulose component of the straw were degraded in similar proportions, but the lignin component remained undegraded by any of the fungi. Maximum growth yield on straw occurred after 4 days for strain LM-1 and after 5 days for strains SM-1 and NM-1. The calculated yield of cellular protein for strain LM-1 was twice that of both strains SM-1 and NM-1. The cellular protein yield of strain SM-1 was the same in both cellulose and straw cultures. In contrast to cellulose, straw degradation ceased after the end of the growth phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2764575

  6. Effects of Variations in High Molecular Weight Glutenin Allele Composition and Resistant Starch on Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality 

    E-print Network

    Jondiko, Tom Odhiambo

    2012-02-14

    Tortilla sales are projected to exceed 9.5 billion by 2014. However, currently no wheat cultivars have been identified that possess the intrinsic quality attributes needed for the production of optimum quality tortillas. ...

  7. The effect of drying temperature on the composition of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, T.P.; Stevens, D.N.; Wright, C.T.; Radtke, C.W.

    2008-05-01

    The compositional quality of different lignocellulosic feedstocks influences their performance and potential demand at a biorefinery. Many analytical protocols for determining the composition or performance characteristics of biomass involve a drying step, where the drying temperature can vary depending on the specific protocol. To get reliable data, it is important to determine the correct drying temperature to vaporize the water without negatively impacting the compositional quality of the biomass. A comparison of drying temperature between 45 degrees C and 100 degrees C was performed using wheat straw and corn stover. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were taken of the dried samples and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Carbohydrates were analyzed using quantitative saccharification to determine sugar degradation. Analysis of variance was used to determine if there was a significant difference between drying at different temperatures. PCA showed an obvious separation in samples dried at different temperatures due to sample water content. However, quantitative saccharification data shows, within a 95% confidence interval, that there is no significant difference in sugar content for drying temperatures up to 100 degrees C for wheat straw and corn stover.

  8. Influence of long-term residue management on soil enzyme activities in relation to soil chemical properties of a wheat-fallow system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Dick; P. E. Rasmussen; E. A. Kerle

    1988-01-01

    Soil enzyme activities (acid and alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, ß-glucosidase, urease and amidase) were determined (0- to 20-cm depth) after 55 years of crop-residue and N-fertilization treatment in a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system on semiarid soils of the Pacific Northwest. All residues were incorporated and the treatments were: straw (N0), straw with fall burn (N0FB), straw with spring burn

  9. The effect of addition of different amounts and types of organic materials on soil physical properties and yield of wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Barzegar; A. Yousefi; A. Daryashenas

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of 0, 5, 10, 15 Mg ha-1 of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw, composted sugarcane bagasse residue and farmyard manure on soil physical properties and yield of winter wheat. The experimental design was a split plot with four replicates. The considered physical properties, 1 year after organic matter addition, included aggregate stability,

  10. Registration of ‘Bearpaw’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bearpaw’ (Reg. No. CV-1083, PI 665228) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2011. Bearpaw is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of five crosses made to the same F1 male sterile parent in ...

  11. Registration of Warhorse wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Warhorse' (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

  12. Registration of ‘Warhorse’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Warhorse’ (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

  13. Comparison of Seven Chemical Pretreatments of Corn Straw for Improving Methane Yield by Anaerobic Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zilin; GaiheYang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Liao, Yinzhang

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture straw is considered a renewable resource that has the potential to contribute greatly to bioenergy supplies. Chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion can increase the anaerobic digestibility of agriculture straw. The present study investigated the effects of seven chemical pretreatments on the composition and methane yield of corn straw to assess their effectiveness of digestibility. Four acid reagents (H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, and CH3COOH) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% (w/w) and three alkaline reagents (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and NH3·H2O) at concentrations of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) were used for the pretreatments. All pretreatments were effective in the biodegradation of the lignocellulosic straw structure. The straw, pretreated with 3% H2O2 and 8% Ca(OH)2, acquired the highest methane yield of 216.7 and 206.6 mL CH4 g VS ?1 in the acid and alkaline pretreatments, which are 115.4% and 105.3% greater than the untreated straw. H2O2 and Ca(OH)2 can be considered as the most favorable pretreatment methods for improving the methane yield of straw because of their effectiveness and low cost. PMID:24695485

  14. Use of near-isogenic wheat lines to determine glutenin and gliadin composition and funtionality in flour tortillas 

    E-print Network

    Mondal, Suchismita

    2006-10-30

    The synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin, low molecular weight glutenin and gliadin proteins are controlled by nine major loci present in wheat chromosomes. The loci Glu A1, Glu B1, Glu D1 and Gli A1, Gli B1, ...

  15. Original article Divergent evolution of wheat populations conducted

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Divergent evolution of wheat populations conducted under recurrent selection- ic management programme (DM) were studied in a wheat composite population. The initial population by few traits: plant height, earliness, frequency of bearded plants and susceptibility to powdery mildew

  16. Structural modifications induced during biodegradation of wheat lignin by Lentinula edodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Crestini; Giovanni Giovannozzi Sermanni; Dimitris S. Argyropoulos

    1998-01-01

    The structural modifications occurring during wheat straw lignin biodegradation were evaluated by the concerted use of 31P-, 1H- and 2D homo- and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopies. Straw lignin was found to be oxidatively degraded via stereoselective side-chain oxidation as evidenced by a lower erythro\\/threo ratio. Significantly lower amounts of phenolic hydroxy and methoxy groups in the decayed lignin may be indicative

  17. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nóra Szijártó; Emma Horan; Junhua Zhang; Terhi Puranen; Matti Siika-aho; Liisa Viikari

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen

  18. Stereoselective transformation of triadimefon to metabolite triadimenol in wheat and soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongwu; Li, Li; Qiu, Jing; Li, Wei; Yang, Shuming; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Lihong

    2013-09-15

    Racemic triadimefon (TF) was applied to wheat and soil at three sites (Beijing, Huaibei, and Zhengzhou in China) under open field conditions. Its enantioselective degradation and stereoselective transformation to the major metabolite, triadimenol (TN), in wheat straw, grain and soil were investigated. At all sites, the degradation of TF enantiomers in straw and soil followed first-order kinetics. In soil from Beijing and Zhengzhou R-(-)-TF was preferentially degraded; however, preferential enantioselective degradations were not recorded in soil from Huaibei or in the straw from all sites. There were noticeable differences in the stereoselective formation of TN stereoisomers in all straw and soil samples. TN diastereomer A with high animal toxicity was preferentially produced via a reductive reaction in straw. In contrast, diastereomer B, was preferential in soil across the experimental period. Different TN concentrations were found in the order of SR-(-)-TN>RR-(+)-TN>RS-(+)-TN>SS-(-)-TN in straw, and RR-(+)-TN>SS-(-)-TN>SR-(-)-TN>RS-(+)-TN in soil. Neither TF nor TN was found in wheat grain at harvest. Because of differences in degradation, formation, and toxicity, the characterization of enantiomers and stereoisomers in this study contributes toward comprehensively assessing the fate and risk of chiral agrochemicals in the environment and food. PMID:23876258

  19. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  20. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  1. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    PubMed

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

  2. A novel method for determination of the (15) N isotopic composition of Rubisco in wheat plants exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Avice, Jean Christophe; Bourguignon, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Although ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is mostly known as a key enzyme involved in CO2 assimilation during the Calvin cycle, comparatively little is known about its role as a pool of nitrogen storage in leaves. For this purpose, we developed a protocol to purify Rubisco that enables later analysis of its (15) N isotope composition (?(15) N) at the natural abundance and (15) N-labeled plants. In order to test the utility of this protocol, durum wheat (Triticum durum var. Sula) exposed to an elevated CO2 concentration (700 vs 400 µmol mol(-1) ) was labeled with K(15) NO3 (enriched at 2 atom %) during the ear development period. The developed protocol proves to be selective, simple, cost effective and reproducible. The study reveals that (15) N labeling was different in total organic matter, total soluble protein and the Rubisco fraction. The obtained data suggest that photosynthetic acclimation in wheat is caused by Rubisco depletion. This depletion may be linked to preferential nitrogen remobilization from Rubisco toward grain filling. PMID:25272325

  3. Changes in Leaf Morphology and Composition with Future Increases in CO 2 and Temperature Revisited: Wheat in Field Chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Gutiérrez; Diego Gutiérrez; Rosa Morcuende; Angel L. Verdejo; Svetla Kostadinova; Rafael Martinez-Carrasco; Pilar Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Whether leaf morphology is altered by future increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature has been reexamined over 3 years in wheat grown in field chambers at two levels of nitrogen supply. Flag\\u000a leaf fresh and dry mass, area, volume, and ratios of these parameters, as well as the contents of water, chlorophyll, nonstructural\\u000a carbohydrates, and nitrogen compounds have been determined at

  4. EFFECT OF STARCH SWELLING ON THE COMPOSITE MODULUS OF LOW- AND HIGH-GLUTEN WHEAT FLOURS AND CARBOXYLATED STYRENE-BUTADIENE LATEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour is a plentiful renewable resource. The dry flour is rigid and can be used as a potential reinforcement material for soft rubber matrices. Wheat flours with two different gluten contents were investigated and the initial cook temperature of the aqueous wheat flour dispersions was varied...

  5. Quanah Wheat.

    E-print Network

    Atkins, Irvin Milburn

    1951-01-01

    laboratories show that it is satisfactory for the production of bakery flour. BULLETIN 734 IAY 1951 I. M. ATKINS* W INTER WHEAT is grown in Texas on more than five million acres annually and is one of the most important cash crops. Approximately half... Milling and baking characteristics are of major consideration in the development of a new wheat variety, since it must fit into the needs of the trade. Wheat that will make !good bakery flour is in greatest demand because commercial bakeries now supply...

  6. Bioethanol production from rice straw: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parameswaran Binod; Raveendran Sindhu; Reeta Rani Singhania; Surender Vikram; Lalitha Devi; Satya Nagalakshmi; Noble Kurien; Rajeev K. Sukumaran; Ashok Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Rice straw is an attractive lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production since it is one of the most abundant renewable resources. It has several characteristics, such as high cellulose and hemicelluloses content that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. But there occur several challenges and limitations in the process of converting rice straw to ethanol. The presence of high ash

  7. Fuel Ethanol Production from Barley Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicelluloses, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomer...

  8. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  9. Pilot-scale semisolid fermentation of straw.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, G A; Han, Y W; Anderson, A W

    1978-01-01

    Semisolid fermentation of ryegrass straw to increase its animal feed value was successfully performed on a pilot scale. The pilot plant, which could handle 100 kg of straw per batch, was designed so that all major operations could take place in one vessel. The straw was hydrolyzed at 121 degrees C for 30 min with 0.5 N H2SO4 (7:3 liquid:solid), treated with ammonia to raise the pH to 5.0, inoculated with Candida utilis, and fermented in a semisolid state (70% moisture). During fermentation the straw was held stationary with air blown up through it. Batch fermentation times were 12 to 29 h. Semisolid fermentation did not require agitation and supported abundant growth at 20 to 40 degrees C even at near zero oxygen tensions. Fermentation increased the protein content, crude fat content, and in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw. Images PMID:565187

  10. Metabolism of Lindane-C by Wheat Plants Grown from Treated Seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamdy Balba; Jadu G. Saha

    1974-01-01

    Total C-labeled residues were determined in wheat seedlings and different parts of mature wheat plants grown from seeds treated with 480 ppm lindane-C. Of the methanol extractable C-residues in the seedlings, roots, straw, and chaff, only 39, 34, 8, and zero per cent, respectively, were due to lindane. Several metabolites were identified from the roots. These were: m- and\\/or p-dichlorobenzene;

  11. Vital wheat gluten as a filler for rubber compounds: effects of pH and homogenization on the reinforcement properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vital wheat gluten was evaluated as a reinforcement filler in rubber composites. Previous studies of wheat flours that contained different concentrations of wheat gluten suggested that rubber composite reinforcement was directly proportional to wheat gluten concentration, although this effect may h...

  12. Carbon dioxide evolution from wheat and lentil residues as affected by grinding, added nitrogen, and the absence of soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bremer; W. van Houtum; C. Kessel

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of grinding, added N, and the absence of soil on C mineralization from agricultural plant residues with a high C:N ratio. The evolution of CO2 from ground and unground wheat straw, lentil straw, and lentil green manure, with C:N ratios of 80, 36, and 9, respectively, was determined over a period of

  13. Physicochemical Characterization of Rice Straw Pretreated with Sodium Hydroxide in the Solid State for Enhancing Biogas Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanfeng He; Yunzhi Pang; Yanping Liu; Xiujin Li; Kuisheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    The biogas yield of rice straw during anaerobic digestion can be substantially increased through solid-state sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment. This study was conducted to explore the mechanisms of biogas yield enhancement. The chemical compositions of the pretreated rice straw were first analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas permeation chromatography

  14. Deposition investigation in straw fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, P.A.; Hald, P. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Stenholm, M. [TEKNIK, Soborg (Denmark); Christensen, K.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    In Denmark straw has been applied as fuel at small combined power and district heating plants since the late 1980`s. New equipment have been developed to handle and burn the straw. However, straw is by no means a trivial fuel, problems like fluctuations, deposition in the furnace, corrosion and a poor burn out have been observed at boiler plants. One of the problems has been, the large differences in the amount of deposition in the furnace chamber and on superheater tubes when applying different fuel parcels. Knowledge of how to characterize the straw for predicting the deposition properties in the boiler is needed. We will here present deposition experiments performed at two straw fired power plants with a fuel input of respectively 18 and 30 MW. Some limited experiments have earlier been performed on smaller scale boilers, no clear correlation between laboratory analyses of the straw and deposition in the boilers was found. Combustion experiments on a combined wood and straw fired 18 MW stoker fired boiler have been performed. Strong indications, of condensation of the mineral matter at different places in the boiler chamber, were seen.

  15. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qinyan; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing

    2015-06-15

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH4 emission by 280-1370%, while decreasing N2O emission by 7-13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH4 emission by 7-13% and 6-12%, respectively, whereas reduced N2O emission by 10-27% and 9-24%, respectively. The higher CH4 emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH4 production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N2O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N2O emission was completely offset by increased CH4 emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5-12%) and NPKSJ (5-11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3-6% and 2-4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. PMID:25756676

  16. Upgrading of straw hydrolysate for production of hydrogen and phenols in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Thygesen; Massimo Marzorati; Nico Boon; Anne Belinda Thomsen; Willy Verstraete

    2011-01-01

    In a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), hydrolysate produced by\\u000a hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw was used for hydrogen production\\u000a during selective recovery of phenols. The average H(2) production rate\\u000a was 0.61 m(3) H(2)\\/m(3) MEC center dot day and equivalent to a rate of\\u000a 0.40 kg COD\\/m(3) MEC center dot day. The microbial community in the\\u000a anode biofilm was adapted by

  17. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM BURNING WHEAT AND RICE FIELD RESIDUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the first known values for emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from combustion of agricultural field biomass. Wheat and rice straw stubble collected from two western U.S. states were tested in a field burn simulation to dete...

  18. Fast pyrolysis of rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an induction-heating reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Tsai; M. K. Lee; Y. M. Chang

    2006-01-01

    With the application of induction heating, a fast pyrolysis was used for producing valuable products from rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effect of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and holding time on the yields of pyrolysis products and their chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum yield of ca.

  19. Characterization of particulate matter emission from open burning of rice straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh; Bich Thuy Ly; Danutawat Tipayarom; Bhai Raja Manandhar; Pongkiatkul Prapat; Christopher D. Simpson; L.-J. Sally Liu

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile

  20. Plant growth and cation composition of two cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) differing in P uptake efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y G; Smith, S E; Smith, F A

    2001-06-01

    Phosphorus (P)-zinc (Zn) interactions were investigated in two wheat cultivars (Brookton versus Krichauff) differing in P uptake efficiency. The experiment was done in a growth chamber. Rock phosphate (RP) or CaHPO4 (CaP) were used as P sources, and ammonium nitrate (AN) or nitrate only (NO) were used as nitrogen sources. Two Zn levels were used, 0.22 mg x kg(-1) (LZ) and 2.2 mg ZnSO4.7H2O x kg(-1) (HZ), respectively. P availability significantly affected plant biomass production, but Zn supply had little effect. Plants fed ammonium nitrate had significantly lower concentrations of cations than those fed nitrate only. Cultivar Brookton (with higher P uptake efficiency) consistently had lower concentrations of cations than cv. Krichauff (with low P uptake efficiency) under limited P supply. The differences in concentrations of cations increased with the decrease in P availability, but were not affected by Zn supply. The ratio of potassium in roots to shoots of cultivar Brookton was always higher than in cultivar Krichauff. Based on these findings, it is postulated that the lower concentrations of cations in cultivar Brookton are related to root exudation of organic anions, and a conceptual model is established to describe the regulation of root exudation of organic anions and concentrations of cations. PMID:11432946

  1. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different colored wheat grains and analysis of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Qiu, Yang; Beta, Trust

    2010-08-25

    Extracts from six wheat varieties (three purple, one yellow, two red, and one white) were evaluated and compared for their antioxidant capacities against oxygen radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Phenolic composition in the extracts was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results showed that Charcoal purple wheat had remarkable antioxidant activity (up to 6899 ?mol/100 g) followed by Red Fife wheat and yellow Luteus wheat. White AC Vista wheat, due to its lowest phenolic content, exhibited the weakest antioxidant property. The major phenolic composition identified in wheat grains consisted of phenolic acids, flavones, flavonols, and anthocyanins. The former three components were detected in all of the wheat varieties, whereas anthocyanins were identified only in purple wheat. Therefore, anthocyanins could be the major compounds distinguishing purple wheats from other colored wheats with high antioxidant activity. PMID:20669971

  2. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mergoum; P. K. Singh; J. A. Anderson; R. J. Peña; R. P. Singh; S. S. Xu; J. K. Ransom

    Wheat (various species of the genus Triticum) is a grass originating from the Levant area of the Middle East. However, only hexaploid common wheat (Triticum eastivum), and tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) are presently cultivated worldwide. Not only is wheat an important crop today, it may well have influenced human history.\\u000a Wheat was a key factor enabling the

  3. On-farm conversion of straw to bioenergy – A value added solution to grass seed straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the geospatial distribution of straw from grass seed and cereal production in the PNW is vital to the accuracy and reliability of feasibility studies comparing scales of operation of proposed bioenergy conversion plants. The first step in identifying optimum locations for straw-based bi...

  4. Cell Walls of Developing Wheat Starchy Endosperm: Comparison of Composition and RNA-Seq Transcriptome1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pellny, Till K.; Lovegrove, Alison; Freeman, Jackie; Tosi, Paola; Love, Christopher G.; Knox, J. Paul; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptome of the developing starchy endosperm of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) was determined using RNA-Seq isolated at five stages during grain fill. This resource represents an excellent way to identify candidate genes responsible for the starchy endosperm cell wall, which is dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 70% of the cell wall polysaccharides, with 20% (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan, 7% glucomannan, and 4% cellulose. A complete inventory of transcripts of 124 glycosyltransferase (GT) and 72 glycosylhydrolase (GH) genes associated with cell walls is presented. The most highly expressed GT transcript (excluding those known to be involved in starch synthesis) was a GT47 family transcript similar to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IRX10 involved in xylan extension, and the second most abundant was a GT61. Profiles for GT43 IRX9 and IRX14 putative orthologs were consistent with roles in AX synthesis. Low abundances were found for transcripts from genes in the acyl-coA transferase BAHD family, for which a role in AX feruloylation has been postulated. The relative expression of these was much greater in whole grain compared with starchy endosperm, correlating with the levels of bound ferulate. Transcripts associated with callose (GSL), cellulose (CESA), pectin (GAUT), and glucomannan (CSLA) synthesis were also abundant in starchy endosperm, while the corresponding cell wall polysaccharides were confirmed as low abundance (glucomannan and callose) or undetectable (pectin) in these samples. Abundant transcripts from GH families associated with the hydrolysis of these polysaccharides were also present, suggesting that they may be rapidly turned over. Abundant transcripts in the GT31 family may be responsible for the addition of Gal residues to arabinogalactan peptide. PMID:22123899

  5. Wheat Diseases Atlas.

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Barley Yellow Dwarf (Virus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Wheat Streak Mosaic (Virus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IO Wheat (Soilborne) Mosaic (Virus) . . . . . . . . . . . IO STEM AND HEAD DISEASES .............. II Glume Blotch... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 Yellow Berry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 Storage Molds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I6 HERBICIDE INJURY TO WHEAT . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Low Fertility...

  6. A straw-soil co-composting and evaluation for plant substrate in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Quanyong; Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Qin, Lifeng

    2013-02-01

    Material closure is important for the establishment of Bioregenerative Life Support System, and many studies have focused on transforming candidate plant residues into plant culture medium. For the limitations of using wheat straw compost as substrate for plant cultivation, a straw-soil co-composting technique was studied. The changes of pH, C/N value, germination index, cellulose, lignin and so on were monitored during the co-composting process. The maturity was evaluated by the C/N value and the germination index. The result showed that after 45 days' fermentation, the straw-soil final co-compost with inoculation (T1) became mature, while the co-compost without inoculation (T0) was not mature. In the plant culture test, the T1 substrate could satisfy the needs for lettuce's growth, and the edible biomass yield of lettuce averaged 74.42 g pot-1 at harvest. But the lettuces in T0 substrate showed stress symptoms and have not completed the growth cycle. Moreover, the results of nitrogen (N) transformation experiment showed that about 10.0% and 3.1% N were lost during the T1 co-composting and plant cultivation, respectively, 23.5% N was absorbed by lettuce, and 63.4% N remained in the T1 substrate after cultivation.

  7. Nitrate leaching, yields and carbon sequestration after noninversion tillage, catch crops, and straw retention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E M; Munkholm, L J; Olesen, J E; Melander, B

    2015-05-01

    Crop management factors, such as tillage, rotation, and straw retention, need to be long-term to allow conclusions on effects on crop yields, nitrate leaching, and carbon sequestration. In 2002, two field experiments, each including four cash crop rotations, were established on soils with 9 and 15% clay, under temperate, coastal climate conditions. Direct drilling and harrowing to two different depths were compared to plowing with respect to yield, nitrate N leaching, and carbon sequestration. For comparison of yields across rotations, grain and seed dry matter yields for each crop were converted to grain equivalents (GE). Leaching was compared to yields by calculating yield-scaled leaching (YSL, g N kg GE), and N balances were calculated as the N input in manure minus the N output in products removed from the fields. Direct drilling reduced yields, but no effect on leaching was found. Straw retention did not significantly increase yields, nor did it reduce leaching, while fodder radish ( L.) as a catch crop was capable of reducing nitrate leaching to a low level. Thus, YSL of winter wheat ( L.) was higher than for spring barley ( L.) grown after fodder radish due to the efficient catch crop. Soil organic carbon (SOC) did not increase significantly after 7 yr of straw incorporation or noninversion tillage. There was no correlation between N balances calculated for each growing season and N leaching measured in the following percolation period. PMID:26024267

  8. Comparison of three technics converting the straw to soil-like substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yidong; Beizhen Xie, Ms; Liu, Professor Hong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu.

    In the Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS), the treatment of inedible biomass of higher plants such as straw is one of the most important aspects for increasing the degree of closure of system. In this research, the straw of wheat and rice which are the candidate plants for BLSS was processed by three pretreating technics and the succedent treatment of worms respectively, and the soil like substrates (SLS) were obtained by those successive biological conversions. Subsequently, the pH, organic matter, available N, P, K and seed germination of the SLS were determined to confirm the feasibility of growing plants on them. Finally, lettuce was planted on them to compare the fertility of the SLS with three different process technics. Through our test, the optimal SLS process technic with short period was selected and the SLS with good "soil" characteristics was obtained. What's more, the results also indicated that the straw of higher plants can be involved into the intra-system turnover by producing SLS, which may improve the closure of BLSS.

  9. Vacuum straw tracker test beam run

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Yau; /Chicago U.

    2005-08-01

    This memorandum of understanding requests beam time at Fermilab during the 2005 Meson Test Beam run to measure the detection inefficiency of vacuum straw tubes. One of the future kaon experiments at J-PARC has the goal to measure the branching ratio of the neutral kaon ''Golden Mode'' K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} with a few hundred event sensitivity. This future J-PARC experiment is a follow up of a current KEK experiment, E391a which has been taking data since February 2004. E391a is a collaboration of five countries (Japan, United States, Russia, Korea, and Taiwan) with ten institutions (KEK, Saga U, Yamagata U, Osaka U, U of Chicago, Pusan U, JINR, NDA, Kyoto U, National Taiwan U, and RCNP). The branching ratio of K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} is small, about 3 x 10{sup -11}. To first order, all kaon decays with final states with charged particles need to be vetoed, and those include K{sub e3}, K{sub {mu}3}, and K{sub {+-}0} (about 80% of all neutral kaon decay). The standard and typical veto power comes from sheet scintillator and may not be adequate. Vacuum straw tubes provides additional, independent and orthogonal veto power, but the detection inefficiency has not been known or measured in a detail way. The inefficiency of the straw has three sources, the electronics, the straw wall/wire, and the gas. We like to perform beam test to measure all three sources. There is much experience in straw detector technology, and some in vacuum straw technology (CKM R&D effort). The possible use of straws in the future K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} experiment will allow absolute photon/electron energy calibration (via K{sub {+-}0} decays), possible measurement of photon inefficiencies (via K{sub 000} with {pi}{sup 0} Dalitz), and as mentioned, charged particle veto. The results of this proposed beam test will provide new knowledge on the absorption cross section and will direct us on design issues for future neutral kaon decay experiments. Regarding the straws, lots of R&D work has been done by the CKM collaboration, and we plan to use as much existing straws setup and related equipment as possible.

  10. The effects of added wheat proteins on processing and quality of wheat flour tortillas 

    E-print Network

    Pascut, Simina

    2002-01-01

    Specific proteins improve quality of flour for breadmaking but protein composition in tortilla flour has not been investigated. Selected wheat protein fractions can separately modify dough resistance and extensibility. This may yield tortillas...

  11. Seismic load-resisting capacity of plastered straw bale walls

    E-print Network

    Hsiaw, Jennifer S. (Jennifer Sing-Yee)

    2010-01-01

    Straw bales have been incorporated into buildings for centuries, but only recently have they been explored in academic settings for their structural potential. Straw bale building is encountering a growing audience due to ...

  12. Comparative sequence analysis of the Phytochrome C gene and its upstream region in allohexaploid wheat reveals new data

    E-print Network

    Doust, Andrew

    wheat reveals new data on the evolution of its three constituent genomes Katrien M. Devos1,4, *, James, Phytochrome C, r8s, Triticum aestivum, wheat Abstract Bread wheat is an allohexaploid with genome composition for phylogenetic analyses. In wheat, the PhyC genes are single copy in each of the three homoeologous genomes

  13. Microbial response following straw application in a soil affected by a wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Ana; Lombao, Alba; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Martin, Angela; Fontúrbel, Maria Teresa; Vega, Jose Antonio; Fernández, Cristina; Carballas, Tarsy

    2015-04-01

    Mulching treatment is often recommended to reduce post-fire erosion and sediments yields but information concerning their effects on soil microorganisms is scarce. In the present investigation the evolution of several parameters related with the mass and activity of soil microorganisms was examined in a hillslope shrubland located in Saviñao (Lugo, NW Spain) and susceptible to suffer post-fire erosion (38% slope). In this area, affected by a medium-high severity wildfire in September 2012, different treatments with wheat straw applied to the burnt soil in mulch strips (800 and 1000 kg ha-1) were established by quadruplicate (10 m x 40 m plots) and compared with the corresponding burnt untreated control. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-2.5 cm depth) at different sampling times over one year after the wildfire and different soil biochemical properties (microbial biomass C, soil respiration, bacterial activity, ?-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase activities) were analyzed. The results showed large variation among the four field replicates of the same treatment (spatial variability), which makes difficult to evaluate the effect of mulch treatment. The evolution of the different biochemical properties in the post-fire stabilization treatments with the wheat straw applied in mulch strips were mainly related to the time passed after the fire (short- and medium- term changes in soil physical and chemical properties induced by both fire and climatic conditions) rather than to the straw mulching effects; in addition, a different temporal pattern was observed depending on the variable considered. The results pointed out the usefulness of examining intra-annual natural variability (spatial variation, seasonal fluctuations) when different indices of mass and activity of microorganisms were used as monitoring tools in soil ecosystems affected by fire. Acknowledgements. A. Barreiro and A. Lombao are recipients of FPU grants from Spanish Ministry of Education. Keywords: wildfire, mulching, biochemical properties, intra-annual variation

  14. Large bale systems for harvesting rice straw

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Toenjes, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    A large rectangular baler was tested and evaluated for application in harvesting rice straw. Baler performance is compared to that of big roll balers. Large bale systems offer economic advantages over small rectangular bale systems. Large rectangular bales are ideal for transport but must be provided with covered storage. Big roll bales (1.2 m wide) are less desirable for long distance transportation but can be left in uncovered storage without excessive dry matter loss. Total delivered cost of straw depends on packaging system, transportation distance, processing requirements, and utilization mode.

  15. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  16. Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

  17. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double-cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, as well as changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero N (control), optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. SN0, SNopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon), with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  18. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero-N control, optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. N0, Nopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon) with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

  19. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  20. Genetic variability in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi compatibility supports the selection of durum wheat genotypes for enhancing soil ecological services and cropping systems in Canada.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Hamel, C; Depauw, R M; Knox, R E

    2012-03-01

    Crop nutrient- and water-use efficiency could be improved by using crop varieties highly compatible with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Two greenhouse experiments demonstrated the presence of genetic variability for this trait in modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) germplasm. Among the five cultivars tested, 'AC Morse' had consistently low levels of AM root colonization and DT710 had consistently high levels of AM root colonization, whereas 'Commander', which had the highest colonization levels under low soil fertility conditions, developed poor colonization levels under medium fertility level. The presence of genetic variability in durum wheat compatibility with AMF was further evidenced by significant genotype × inoculation interaction effects in grain and straw biomass production; grain P, straw P, and straw K concentrations under medium soil fertility level; and straw K and grain Fe concentrations at low soil fertility. Mycorrhizal dependency was an undesirable trait of 'Mongibello', which showed poor growth and nutrient balance in the absence of AMF. An AMF-mediated reduction in grain Cd under low soil fertility indicated that breeding durum wheat for compatibility with AMF could help reduce grain Cd concentration in durum wheat. Durum wheat genotypes should be selected for compatibility with AMF rather than for mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:22356605

  1. Adaptive immunity in invertebrates: a straw house

    E-print Network

    Little, Tom

    Adaptive immunity in invertebrates: a straw house without a mechanistic foundation Chris Hauton1 to established views of innate immunity. They draw implicit analogy to adaptive responses in jawed verte- brates and the terminology used creates an incomplete and misleading picture. We argue that the case for adaptive immunity

  2. Large bale systems for harvesting rice straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Jenkins; D. A. Toenjes

    1982-01-01

    A large rectangular baler was tested and evaluated for application in harvesting rice straw. Baler performance is compared to that of big roll balers. Large bale systems offer economic advantages over small rectangular bale systems. Large rectangular bales are ideal for transport but must be provided with covered storage. Big roll bales (1.2 m wide) are less desirable for long

  3. Survey of White Salted Noodle Quality Characteristics in Wheat Landraces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Black; J. F. Panozzo; C. L. Wright; P. C. Lim

    2000-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 77(4):468-472 The introduction of novel quality characteristics from wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) landraces can enhance the genetic diversity of current wheat breeding programs. The composition of starch and protein in wheat is important when determining the end-product quality, particularly for white salted noodles (WSN). Quality characteristics that contribute to the pro- duction of improved WSN include high

  4. Surface characterization of lignocellulosics for composite manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ananth V.

    The objectives of this research were to form moisture resistant wheat strawboards, either by altering the straw surface characteristics or by changing the chemistry of the polymeric 4, 4' diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI)-based matrix and interface. Part I compared the surface characteristics of wheat, barley, oat, rice, kenaf, hemp and softwood particles. All cereal straws had two surfaces: epidermis and brittle-pith unlike one heterogeneous type observed for bast fibers and softwood particles. The epidermis of cereal straws was not wet by water or aqueous binders, whereas the pith surface allowed the penetration of water, but was not readily wetted by aqueous binders. Between the different surface treatments evaluated for wheat straw in Part II, NaOH selectively peeled-off the epidermis and pith layers. The treated straw particles were formable into strawboards using aqueous phenol-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, and duroplastic acrylic acid binders with good internal bond strength (IBS) and adequate water resistance. In Part III it was shown that, decreasing straw particle sizes and bleaching worsened the mechanical properties of strawboards, but the moisture absorption properties of bleached strawboards were lower than the unbleached ones. Layering of straw particles in strawboards did not seem to affect their mechanical or moisture absorption properties. Part IV showed that the pith surface of wheat straw was fractured on curing with PMDI, providing hollow microcrevices for water accumulation. Furthermore, the cured PMDI formed a network polyurea/polyuretonimine/polycarbodiimide/polyisocyanurate polymer on straw surfaces whose properties dictated the properties of strawboards. Among the different mono-, bi-, and tri-functional alcohols, amines and carboxylic acids evaluated in Part V as H-donor substitutes to moisture for reaction with PMDI on straw surfaces, ethylene glycol, resorcinol, glycerin and citric acid provided IBS values greater than the ANSI recommended minimum (60 psi) and lower thickness swell values than the moisture-cure process. In Part VI, strawboards formed with 2% PMDI and 5% epoxy or duroplastic acrylic acid binders had high IBS values, and their thickness swell after 24 h soaking in water was restricted to 13%, which was much lower than the ˜18--20% values obtained for strawboards made with 5% PMDI.

  5. Structural insights into rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water in relation to enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoce; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Seiichi; Wang, Jianlong; Endo, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Pretreatment-induced structural alteration is critical in influencing the rate and extent of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. The present work has investigated structural features of rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water (HCW) from 140 to 240 °C for 10 or 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis profiles of pretreated rice straw. Compositional profiles of pretreated rice straw were examined to offer the basis for structural changes. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis revealed possible modification in crystalline microstructure of cellulose and the severity-dependent variation of crystallinity. The specific surface area (SSA) of pretreated samples was able to achieve more than 10-fold of that of the raw material and was in linear relationship with the removal of acetyl groups and xylan. The glucose yield by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated materials correlated linearly with the SSA increase and the dissolution of acetyl and xylan. A quantitatively intrinsic relationship was suggested to exist between enzymatic hydrolysis and the extraction of hemicellulose components in hydrothermally treated rice straw, and SSA was considered one important structural parameter signaling the efficiency of enzymatic digestibility in HCW-treated materials in which hemicellulose removal and lignin redistribution happened. PMID:25178420

  6. Species diversity, abundance, and phenology of aphid natural enemies on spring wheats resistant and susceptible to Russian wheat aphid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilsa A. Bosque-pérez; James B. Johnson; Dennis J. Schotzko; Lana Unger

    2002-01-01

    The species composition, relativeabundance, and seasonal dynamics of selectednatural enemies of cereal aphids were monitoredin spring wheat fields in Moscow, Idaho in 1997and 1998. Trials also examined the potentialimpact of resistance to Russian wheat aphid(RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko)(Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat, on aphidbiological control agents. Natural enemypopulations were monitored on two springwheats: D. noxia susceptible variety`Centennial' and resistant genotype `IDO488'.

  7. Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated rice straw and biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, A.; D'Souza, J.

    1986-10-01

    A comparative study on the saccharification of pretreated rice straw was brought about by using cellulase enzyme produced by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 52430 and its mutant strain UNGI-40. The effect of enzyme and substrate concentrations on the saccharification rate at 24 and 48 were studied. A syrup with 7% sugar concentration was obtained with a 10% substrate concentration for the mutant case, whereas a syrup with 6.8% sugar concentration was obtained with 3.5 times concentrated enzyme from the wild strain. A high saccharification value was obtained with low substrate concentration; the higher the substrate concentration used, the lower the percent saccharification. The glucose content in the hydrolysate comprised 80-82% of total reducing sugars; the remainder was cellobiose and xylose together. The hydrolysate supported the growth of yeasts Candida utilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 52431. A biomass with a 48% protein content was obtained. The essential amino acid composition of yeast biomass was determined.

  8. Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chungen; Kaer, Søren K; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hvid, Søren L

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451microm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4microm) are independently fed into the burner through two concentric injection tubes, i.e., the centre and annular tubes, respectively. Multiple simulations are performed, using three meshes, two global reaction mechanisms for homogeneous combustion, two turbulent combustion models, and two models for fuel particle conversion. It is found that for pulverized biomass particles of a few hundred microns in diameter the intra-particle heat and mass transfer is a secondary issue at most in their conversion, and the global four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt may be better used in modelling volatiles combustion. The baseline CFD models show a good agreement with the measured maps of main species in the reactor. The straw particles, less affected by the swirling secondary air jet due to the large fuel/air jet momentum and large particle response time, travels in a nearly straight line and penetrate through the oxygen-lean core zone; whilst the coal particles are significantly affected by secondary air jet and swirled into the oxygen-rich outer radius with increased residence time (in average, 8.1s for coal particles vs. 5.2s for straw particles in the 3m high reactor). Therefore, a remarkable difference in the overall burnout of the two fuels is predicted: about 93% for coal char vs. 73% for straw char. As the conclusion, a reliable modelling methodology for pulverized biomass/coal co-firing and some useful co-firing design considerations are suggested. PMID:20117929

  9. Environmentally degradable bio-based polymeric blends and composites.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, Emo; Cinelli, Patrizia; Chiellini, Federica; Imam, Syed H

    2004-03-15

    Blends and composites based on environmentally degradable-ecocompatible synthetic and natural polymeric materials and fillers of natural origin have been prepared and processed under different conditions. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was used as the synthetic polymer of choice by virtue of its capability to be processed from water solution or suspension as well as from the melt by blow extrusion and injection molding. Starch and gelatin were taken as the polymeric materials from renewable resources. The fillers were all of natural origin, as waste from food and agro-industry consisted of sugar cane bagasse (SCB), wheat flour (WF), orange peels (OR), apple peels (AP), corn fibres (CF), saw dust (SD) and wheat straw (WS). All the natural or hybrid formulations were intended to be utilized for the production of: a) Environmentally degradable mulching films (hydro-biomulching) displaying, in some cases, self-fertilizing characteristics by in situ spraying of water solutions or suspensions; b) Laminates and containers to be used in agriculture and food packaging by compression and injection molding followed by baking. Some typical prototype items have been prepared and characterized in relation to their morphological and mechanical properties and tested with different methodology for their propensity to environmental degradation and biodegradation as ultimate stage of their service life. A relationship between chemical composition and mechanical properties and propensity to biodegradation has been discussed in a few representative cases. PMID:15468211

  10. Structural analysis of wheat stems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt D. Hamman; Richard L. Williamson; Eric D. Steffler; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-01-01

    Design and development of improved harvesting, preprocessing, and bulk handling systems for biomass requires knowledge of\\u000a the biomechanical properties and structural characteristics of crop residue. Structural analysis of wheat stem cross-sections\\u000a was performed using the theory of composites and finite element analysis techniques. Representative geometries of the stem’s\\u000a structural components including the hypoderm, ground tissue, and vascular bundles were established

  11. Structural Analysis of Wheat Stems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt D. Hamman; Richard L. Williamson; Eric D. Steffler; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Peter A. Pryfogle

    Design and development of improved harvesting, preprocessing, and bulk handling systems for biomass requires knowledge of\\u000a the biomechanical properties and structural characteristics of crop residue. Structural analysis of wheat stem cross-sections\\u000a was performed using the theory of composites and finite element analysis techniques. Representative geometries of the stem’s\\u000a structural components including the hypoderm, ground tissue, and vascular bundles were established

  12. PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Characterization of the Impact of Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    PLANTÐINSECT INTERACTIONS Characterization of the Impact of Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, on Pigment Composition and Photosystem II Photochemistry of Wheat Heads TULIO B. MACEDO,1 DAVID K) ABSTRACT Impact of the wheat stem sawßy, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), feeding injury

  13. Effect of Crop Residue With and Without a Culture of Cellulolytic Fungi on Yield, NPK Uptake and Soil Fertility Under Rice-Wheat Cropping System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Sharma; R. Prasad

    2002-01-01

    The field experiments were carried out at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during three crop cycles from 1996-97 to 1998-99 to study the effect of incorporation of wheat and rice residues with and without a culture of cellulolytic fungi Trichrus spiralis on grain and straw yields and NPK uptake of rice-wheat cropping system and organic C, available P and

  14. Grain--Quality attributes of wheat as a major cereal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a leading source of food for humankind. Nearly all wheat is processed to varying degrees, and made into a limitless array of foods. As such, “quality” is a subjective assessment of suitability for a given process, food or use. Quality variation derives from compositional and physical attrib...

  15. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential...

  16. Wheat grass selection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Wang (USDA; ARS)

    2006-09-25

    The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

  17. Processing Wheat for Food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson on wheat processing, including an introduction to the five kinds of wheat grown in the US and the anatomy of wheat. The module then moves through the six steps in wheat processing: cleaning, conditioning, blending, breaking, sieving, and reducing. Each step is animated to help students visualize the process. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

  18. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Na, Y. J.; Lee, I. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

  19. Microbial biomass production from rice straw hydrolysate in airlift bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Guo Zheng; Xiao-Long Chen; Zhao Wang

    2005-01-01

    Rice straw is a by-product of rice production, and a great bioresource as raw biomass material for manufacturing value-adding protein for animal feedstock, which has been paid more and more attention. In the present work, utilizing rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate for microbial biomass production in 11.5L external-loop airlift bioreactors was investigated. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through acid-hydrolyzing rice

  20. Physical separation of straw stem components to reduce silica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Richard Hess; David N. Thompson; Reed L. Hoskinson; Peter G. Shaw; Duane R. Grant

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these,\\u000a silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath\\u000a the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher\\u000a in silica, while chaff, leaves, and

  1. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

  2. Wheat Stripe Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter on wheat stripe rust in a book entitled “Wheat: Science and Trade”. The chapter provides an overview on various aspects of wheat stripe rust and control, including distribution and epidemiology; origin and historical importance; taxonomy, lifecycle, and host range; genetic variati...

  3. Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia-treated barley straw

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia-treated barley straw U San Vicente A de Vega C Castrillo JA Guada Departamento de Producción Animal y Ciencia de experiment alfalfa hay (A, 57.4 % DOM), barley straw (S, 40.2 % DOM) and ammonia-treated barley straw (TS, 51

  4. Nitrogen efficiency of wheat: Genotypic and environmental variation and prospects for improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter B. Barraclough; Jonathan R. Howarth; Janina Jones; Rafael Lopez-Bellido; Saroj Parmar; Caroline E. Shepherd; Malcolm J. Hawkesford

    2010-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown for 4 years in multi-factorial field trials at Rothamsted, southern England. Thirty nine elite commercial cultivars (primarily short-straw) were grown including those released in the UK over a 25-year period, a selection of continental varieties, and three older, tall varieties. Varieties spanned the quality spectrum from ‘bread’ to ‘feed’. The crops were given

  5. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  6. Hydrogen-rich fuel gas from rice straw via microwave-induced pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y F; Kuan, W H; Lo, S L; Lin, C F

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to research the productivity of H(2)-rich fuel gas from rice straw using the microwave-induced pyrolysis. The formation constituents of gas product and the mechanism of its production were also discussed. The primary components of gas product were H(2), CO(2), CO, and CH(4), with average percentages of 50.67, 22.56, 16.09, and 7.42vol.%, respectively. According to the TA-MS analysis, it was suggested that focused heating by microwaves made the microwave-induced pyrolysis different from the traditional pyrolysis. A chemical equation could be nearly balanced to illustrate the gas composition generated from rice straw. From the viewpoint of energy consumption, close to 60% of the input energy could be derived and utilized as bioenergy. PMID:19836946

  7. Steam explosion of oilseed rape straw: establishing key determinants of saccharification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ian P; Elliston, Adam; Collins, Sam R A; Wilson, David; Bancroft, Ian; Waldron, Keith W

    2014-06-01

    Oilseed rape straw was steam exploded into hot water at a range of severities. The residues were fractionated into solid and liquid phases and chemically characterised. The effect of steam explosion on enzymatic hydrolysis of the water-insoluble fractions was investigated by studying initial cellulase binding and hydrolysis yields for different cellulase doses. Time-course data was modelled to establish rate-dependent differences in saccharification as a function of pretreatment severity and associated chemical composition. The study concluded: (1) the initial hydrolysis rate was limited by the amount of (pectic) uronic acid remaining in the substrate; (2) the proportion of rapidly hydrolysable carbohydrate was most closely and positively related to lignin abundance and (3) the final sugar yield most closely related to xylan removal from the substrate. Comparisons between milled and un-milled steam exploded straw highlighted the influence that physical structure has on hydrolysis rates and yields, particularly at low severities. PMID:24747672

  8. Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gulay Mann; Simon Diffey; Brian Cullis; Fermin Azanza; David Martin; Alison Kelly; Lynne McIntyre; Adele Schmidt; Wujun Ma; Zena Nath; Ibrahim Kutty; P. Emmett Leyne; Lynette Rampling; Ken J. Quail; Matthew K. Morell

    2009-01-01

    While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information\\u000a is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study,\\u000a a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between\\u000a Australian cultivars Kukri × Janz grown at

  9. Ensiling of whole-crop wheat with cellulase-hemicellulase based enzymes. 1. Effect of crop growth stage and enzyme on silage composition and stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Adogla-Bessa; E. Owen

    1995-01-01

    Whole-crop wheat was harvested at the heading, mealy-ripe, medium-dough and hard-dough stages of grain development corresponding to crop dry matter (DM) contents of 310 g DM kg?1, 405 g DM kg?1, 520 g DM kg?1 and 680 g DM kg?1, respectively. Crop from each harvest was either untreated or treated with one of two enzyme additives (Clampzyme or Deezyme) at

  10. TaALMT1 promoter sequence compositions, acid tolerance, and Al tolerance in wheat cultivars and landraces from Sichuan in China.

    PubMed

    Han, C; Dai, S F; Liu, D C; Pu, Z J; Wei, Y M; Zheng, Y L; Wen, D J; Zhao, L; Yan, Z H

    2013-01-01

    Previous genetic studies on wheat from various sources have indicated that aluminum (Al) tolerance may have originated independently in USA, Brazil, and China. Here, TaALMT1 promoter sequences of 92 landraces and cultivars from Sichuan, China, were sequenced. Five promoter types (I', II, III, IV, and V) were observed in 39 cultivars, and only three promoter types (I, II, and III) were observed in 53 landraces. Among the wheat collections worldwide, only the Chinese Spring (CS) landrace native to Sichuan, China, carried the TaALMT1 promoter type III. Besides CS, two other Sichuan-bred landraces and six cultivars with TaALMT1 promoter type III were identified in this study. In the phylogenetic tree constructed based on the TaALMT1 promoter sequences, type III formed a separate branch, which was supported by a high bootstrap value. It is likely that TaALMT1 promoter type III originated from Sichuan-bred wheat landraces of China. In addition, the landraces with promoter type I showed the lowest Al tolerance among all landraces and cultivars. Furthermore, the cultivars with promoter type IV showed better Al tolerance than landraces with promoter type II. A comparison of acid tolerance and Al tolerance between cultivars and landraces showed that the landraces had better acid tolerance than the cultivars, whereas the cultivars showed better Al tolerance than the landraces. Moreover, significant difference in Al tolerance was also observed between the cultivars raised by the National Ministry of Agriculture and by Sichuan Province. Among the landraces from different regions, those from the East showed better acid tolerance and Al tolerance than those from the South and West of Sichuan. Additional Al-tolerant and acid-tolerant wheat lines were also identified. PMID:24301929

  11. Biosorption of heavy metal ions using wheat based biosorbents--a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Umar; Kozinski, Janusz A; Khan, Misbahul Ain; Athar, Makshoof

    2010-07-01

    Conventional technologies for the removal/remediation of toxic metal ions from wastewaters are proving expensive due to non-regenerable materials used and high costs. Biosorption is emerging as a technique offering the use of economical alternate biological materials for the purpose. Functional groups like carboxyl, hydroxyl, sulphydryl and amido present in these biomaterials, make it possible for them to attach metal ions from waters. Every year, large amounts of straw and bran from Triticum aestivum (wheat), a major food crop of the world, are produced as by-products/waste materials. The purpose of this article is to review rather scattered information on the utilization of straw and bran for the removal/minimization of metal ions from waters. High efficiency, high biosorption capacity, cost-effectiveness and renewability are the important parameters making these materials as economical alternatives for metal removal and waste remediation. Applications of available adsorption and kinetic models as well as influences of change in temperature and pH of medium on metal biosorption by wheat straw and wheat bran are reviewed. The biosorption mechanism has been found to be quite complex. It comprises a number of phenomena including adsorption, surface precipitation, ion-exchange and complexation. PMID:20223652

  12. Water–use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-fang; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-01-01

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259–7898?kg ha?1 for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic. PMID:26192158

  13. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

    2006-11-01

    Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

  14. Bioconversion of Straw into Improved Fodder: Fungal Flora Decomposing Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The fungal flora decomposing rice straw were investigated all over the soil of Sharkia Province, east of Nile Delta, Egypt, using the nylon net bag technique. Sixty-four straw-decomposing species belonging to 30 genera were isolated by the dilution plate method in ground rice straw-Czapek's agar medium at pH 6. The plates were incubated separately at 5?, 25? and 45?, respectively. Twenty nine species belonging to 14 genera were isolated at 5?. The most frequent genus was Penicillium (seven species), and the next frequent genera were Acremonium (three species), Fusarium (three species), Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Mucor, Stachybotrys (two species) and Rhizopus stolonifer. At 25?, 47 species belonging to 24 genera were isolated. The most frequent genus was Aspergillus (nine species), and the next frequent genera were ranked by Penicillium (five species), Chaetomium (three species), Fusarium (three species). Each of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Myrothecium and Trichoderma was represented by two species. At 45?, 15 species belonging to seven genera were isolated. These were seven species of Aspergillus, two species of Chaetomium and two species of Emericella, while Humicola, Malbranchea, Rhizomucor and Talaromyces were represented by one species respectively. The total counts of fungi the genera, and species per gram of dry straw were significantly affected by incubation temperature and soil analysis (P < 0.05). PMID:24049492

  15. The Ethics of the Missing Straw

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David; Katz, Eric; Klokow, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This case report details the emergency department course of a 34 year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding after reportedly falling one week earlier. She was subsequently found to have a drinking straw within her uterus next to an eight week-old live intrauterine pregnancy on ultrasound. This case report and discussion reviews the literature on retained foreign bodies in pregnancy while addressing the added complications of an evasive patient and a difficult consultant with significant intra-specialty disagreement. PMID:24672597

  16. Producing Pine Straw in East Texas Forests 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2004-01-09

    reduce the value of the bale. Low-grade straw that contains extraneous debris or par- tially decomposed needles may be sold at a discount. Be careful to avoid seeds of noxious weeds, bahia grass and other plants that might present a problem in landscaping... yards or flower beds. a111 Bale by hand or by machine. Twine should be tight enough to hold bales securely without breaking. a111 Transport bales out of the woods. 5 material, and cows are a potential problem if your market does not want extra nutrients...

  17. Biomass yield as affected by wheat harvest method

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.R.; Hollingsworth, L.D.

    1982-12-01

    Wheat biomass yield and the portions recoverable by different harvesting methods were investigated at Bushland, TX. Where all above-ground dry matter was removed by hand and threshed with a small bundle thresher; the grain, straw and chaff portions averaged about 40, 50, and 10, respectively, of the total biomass. When clipping samples at a simulated combine harvesting height (13-14 inches), the remaining stubble amounts ranged from 1500 to 3000 pounds per acre when grain yield levels averaged 3000 to 6000 pounds per acre. In treatments where the stubble was swathed and baled after conventional combine harvesting, the straw yields ranged from 2000 to 2800 pounds per acre. The bales accounted for 34 to 46 of the ''material other than grain.'' There was about 2000 pounds per acre of stubble remaining below the 3 to 4 inch swather cutting height. In treatments where the combine cutter-bar was operated near ground level (2 to 3 inches) and all straw discharge was caught (whole plant combining), the catchings ranged from 65 to 89 of the ''material other than grain.'' The catching weights ranged from 3900 to 6000 pounds per acre.

  18. Optimization of uncatalyzed steam explosion pretreatment of rapeseed straw for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    López-Linares, Juan C; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Tourán, Josefina; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Romero, Inmaculada

    2015-08-01

    Rapeseed straw constitutes an agricultural residue with great potential as feedstock for ethanol production. In this work, uncatalyzed steam explosion was carried out as a pretreatment to increase the enzymatic digestibility of rapeseed straw. Experimental statistical design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the influence of the temperature (185-215°C) and the process time (2.5-7.5min). According to the rotatable central composite design applied, 215°C and 7.5min were confirmed to be the optimal conditions, considering the maximization of enzymatic hydrolysis yield as optimization criterion. These conditions led to a maximum yield of 72.3%, equivalent to 81% of potential glucose in pretreated solid. Different configurations for bioethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw were investigated using the pretreated solid obtained under optimal conditions as a substrate. As a relevant result, concentrations of ethanol as high as 43.6g/L (5.5% by volume) were obtained as a consequence of using 20% (w/v) solid loading, equivalent to 12.4g ethanol/100g biomass. PMID:25935389

  19. Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material. PMID:24423650

  20. Wheat Pasture Poisoning. 

    E-print Network

    Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

    1956-01-01

    Tech Field Laboratory near Panhandle by personnel of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas Technological College and the U. S. Department of Agriculture on wheat pasture poisoning. The condition known as wheat pasture poisoning occurs primarily... serum of normal cows was compared with the serum of cows affected with wheat pasture poisoning, a decrease in inarganic phos- phate, total and diffusible calcium, magnesium and the albumin-globulin ratio was found in the cases. The total serum protein...

  1. Wheat Evolution: Dough Washing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

    2012-01-01

    In this activity (page 5), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by washing different types of dough with water and comparing the results. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

  2. POTENTIAL FOR ON-FARM CONVERSION OF STRAW TO BIOENERGY IN SEED PRODUCING OPERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous efforts to convert straw to energy have been limited by the cost of transporting straw to a conversion facility, and by lack of technology to handle straw. A new dual stage gasifier design is being evaluated for potential on-farm conversion of straw to electrical power and liquid fuels. A...

  3. Dynamics of potassium release and adsorption on rice straw residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jifu; Lu, Jianwei; Li, Xiaokun; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Straw application can not only increase crop yields, improve soil structure and enrich soil fertility, but can also enhance water and nutrient retention. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationships between straw decomposition and the release-adsorption processes of K(+). This study increases the understanding of the roles played by agricultural crop residues in the soil environment, informs more effective straw recycling and provides a method for reducing potassium loss. The influence of straw decomposition on the K(+) release rate in paddy soil under flooded condition was studied using incubation experiments, which indicated the decomposition process of rice straw could be divided into two main stages: (a) a rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 60 d and (b) a slow decomposition stage from 60 to 110 d. However, the characteristics of the straw potassium release were different from those of the overall straw decomposition, as 90% of total K was released by the third day of the study. The batches of the K sorption experiments showed that crop residues could adsorb K(+) from the ambient environment, which was subject to decomposition periods and extra K(+) concentration. In addition, a number of materials or binding sites were observed on straw residues using IR analysis, indicating possible coupling sites for K(+) ions. The aqueous solution experiments indicated that raw straw could absorb water at 3.88 g g(-1), and this rate rose to its maximum 15 d after incubation. All of the experiments demonstrated that crop residues could absorb large amount of aqueous solution to preserve K(+) indirectly during the initial decomposition period. These crop residues could also directly adsorb K(+) via physical and chemical adsorption in the later period, allowing part of this K(+) to be absorbed by plants for the next growing season. PMID:24587364

  4. Dynamics of Potassium Release and Adsorption on Rice Straw Residue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jifu; Lu, Jianwei; Li, Xiaokun; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Straw application can not only increase crop yields, improve soil structure and enrich soil fertility, but can also enhance water and nutrient retention. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationships between straw decomposition and the release-adsorption processes of K+. This study increases the understanding of the roles played by agricultural crop residues in the soil environment, informs more effective straw recycling and provides a method for reducing potassium loss. The influence of straw decomposition on the K+ release rate in paddy soil under flooded condition was studied using incubation experiments, which indicated the decomposition process of rice straw could be divided into two main stages: (a) a rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 60 d and (b) a slow decomposition stage from 60 to 110 d. However, the characteristics of the straw potassium release were different from those of the overall straw decomposition, as 90% of total K was released by the third day of the study. The batches of the K sorption experiments showed that crop residues could adsorb K+ from the ambient environment, which was subject to decomposition periods and extra K+ concentration. In addition, a number of materials or binding sites were observed on straw residues using IR analysis, indicating possible coupling sites for K+ ions. The aqueous solution experiments indicated that raw straw could absorb water at 3.88 g g?1, and this rate rose to its maximum 15 d after incubation. All of the experiments demonstrated that crop residues could absorb large amount of aqueous solution to preserve K+ indirectly during the initial decomposition period. These crop residues could also directly adsorb K+ via physical and chemical adsorption in the later period, allowing part of this K+ to be absorbed by plants for the next growing season. PMID:24587364

  5. Field study of submicron particles from the combustion of straw

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, K.A.; Livbjerg, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-08-01

    The evolution of small aerosol particles accompanying the combustion of straw for energy production is investigated. A sampling equipment specially designed for field measurements is described and characterized. The aerosol is studied by low-pressure cascade impactor and scanning mobility particle sizer, the particle morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and the chemical composition by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The combustion gas contains 3-500 mg/Nm{sup 3} of submicron particles with a mean diameter of approximately 0.3 {mu}m. The particles consist of almost pure potassium chloride and sulphate. The formation mechanism is analyzed by a theoretical simulation of the chemical reactions and the aerosol change during cooling of the flue gas. It is concluded that some sulphation of KCl occurs in the gas phase although the sulphate concentration is much lower than predicted by an equilibrium assumption. The theoretical simulation proves that the fine mode particles can be formed by homogeneous nucleation of either KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the first step and further growth occurs by coagulation and diffusive condensation of both KCl and K{sub 4}SO{sub 4} on existing particles. 25 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The straw man of quantum physics

    E-print Network

    Peter Morgan

    2008-10-15

    The violation of Bell inequalities by experiment has convinced physicists that we cannot maintain a classical view of the world. When we argue against the possibility of local realist hidden-variable models, however, the ubiquitous requirement of realism, that "measurement results depend on pre-existing properties of objects that are independent of the measurement", reduces classical theory to a straw man. When our most successful physical theories have been field theories for well over a century, and probabilistic for almost as long, the proper comparison is between quantum fields and random fields, for which there are no sharply defined objects and no properties, so that realism is inapplicable. If we model quantum fluctuations explicitly, we can construct random field models as alternatives to quantum field models.

  7. Genetic Dissection of Yield and Its Component Traits Using High-Density Composite Map of Wheat Chromosome 3A: Bridging Gaps between QTLs and Underlying Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rustgi, Sachin; Shafqat, Mustafa N.; Kumar, Neeraj; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Ali, M. Liakat; Dweikat, Ismail; Campbell, B. Todd; Gill, Kulvinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield component QTLs, and to map QTLs for biomass-related traits. Many of the previously identified QTLs for yield and its component traits were confirmed and were localized to narrower intervals. Four novel QTLs one each for shoot biomass (Xcfa2262-Xbcd366), total biomass (wPt2740-Xcfa2076), kernels/spike (KPS) (Xwmc664-Xbarc67), and Pseudocercosporella induced lodging (PsIL) were also detected. The major QTLs identified for grain yield (GY), KPS, grain volume weight (GVWT) and spikes per square meter (SPSM) respectively explained 23.2%, 24.2%, 20.5% and 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of the genetic map with the integrated physical map allowed estimation of recombination frequency in the regions of interest and suggested that QTLs for grain yield detected in the marker intervals Xcdo549-Xbarc310 and Xpsp3047-Xbarc356 reside in the high-recombination regions, thus should be amenable to map-based cloning. On the other hand, QTLs for KPS and SPSM flanked by markers Xwmc664 and Xwmc489 mapped in the low-recombination region thus are not suitable for map-based cloning. Comparisons with the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA sequence identified 11 candidate genes (CGs) for yield and yield related QTLs of which chromosomal location of two (CKX2 and GID2-like) was confirmed using wheat aneuploids. This study provides necessary information to perform high-resolution mapping for map-based cloning and for CG-based cloning of yield QTLs. PMID:23894667

  8. REGISTRATION OF 'TRIBUTE' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Tribute’ (Reg. no. CV-958, PI 632689) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed and released May 2002 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Tribute is broadly adapted and has performed well over most of the soft red winter wheat production regions in the U.S.A. and Can...

  9. Registration of 'Ripper' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

  10. Registration of 'Antero' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

  11. Agrometeorology and Wheat Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

  12. Registration of 'Snowmass' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Snowmass’ (Reg. No. CV-1050, PI 658597) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in July 2009 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

  13. Registration of ‘Yellowstone’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Yellowstone' hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station and released in September 2005. Yellowstone was released for its high yield potential and broad adaptation to Montana winter wheat production environments. Yellowstone was named in...

  14. Effect of addition of organic residues, farmyard manure and fertilizer nitrogen on soil fertility in rice?wheat cropping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajendra Prasad; B. N. Misra

    2001-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for 3 crop years (July?June) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effects of Sesbania and cowpea green manuring (GM) and incorporation of mungbean residues after harvesting grain, Leucaena loppings, FYM and wheat straw incorporation before planting rice and application of 0,40,80 and 120 kg N ha to rice on the

  15. Yield responses of wheat to mulching practices in dryland farming on the loess plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Fang; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Improving farming practices of soil and water conservation has profound effects on the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in dryland farming regions of the Loess Plateau in China. Mulching has proven to be an effective practice to increase crop yield, and possibly contribute to replenishing groundwater. This evaluation study collected and analyzed the data of 1849 observations published in 38 papers using meta-analysis to investigate effects of the mulching practices on wheat yield in terms of different rainfall and regions in comparison with conventional tillage. The main results of the study follow. The effects of the mulching practices were ranked in the order of RFM (ridge-furrow mulching) > MTMC (mulching with two materials combined) > MOM (mulching with other materials) > WSM (wheat straw mulching) > FM (flat mulching). The effects of the mulching practices at the different levels of rainfall during the wheat growing season were in the order: (< 150 mm) > (> 250 mm) > (150-250 mm). The effects of the mulching practices in the different regions were in the order of Henan > Shanxi > Shaanxi > Gansu. WSM, MTMC and FM performed better in improving wheat yield for rainfall of < 150, 150-250 and > 250 mm during the growing season, respectively. The wheat yield with FM, MTMC, MOM and MOM was higher than those with the other mulching practices in Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan and Shanxi. The wheat yield with RFM was 27.4% higher than that with FM, indicating that RFM was the most effective practice to improve wheat yield among all the practices. These findings have important implications for choosing appropriate crop field management to improve wheat yield. PMID:26020965

  16. Yield Responses of Wheat to Mulching Practices in Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-fang; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-01-01

    Improving farming practices of soil and water conservation has profound effects on the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in dryland farming regions of the Loess Plateau in China. Mulching has proven to be an effective practice to increase crop yield, and possibly contribute to replenishing groundwater. This evaluation study collected and analyzed the data of 1849 observations published in 38 papers using meta-analysis to investigate effects of the mulching practices on wheat yield in terms of different rainfall and regions in comparison with conventional tillage. The main results of the study follow. The effects of the mulching practices were ranked in the order of RFM (ridge–furrow mulching) > MTMC (mulching with two materials combined) > MOM (mulching with other materials) > WSM (wheat straw mulching) > FM (flat mulching). The effects of the mulching practices at the different levels of rainfall during the wheat growing season were in the order: (< 150 mm) > (> 250 mm) > (150–250 mm). The effects of the mulching practices in the different regions were in the order of Henan > Shanxi > Shaanxi > Gansu. WSM, MTMC and FM performed better in improving wheat yield for rainfall of < 150, 150–250 and > 250 mm during the growing season, respectively. The wheat yield with FM, MTMC, MOM and MOM was higher than those with the other mulching practices in Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan and Shanxi. The wheat yield with RFM was 27.4% higher than that with FM, indicating that RFM was the most effective practice to improve wheat yield among all the practices. These findings have important implications for choosing appropriate crop field management to improve wheat yield. PMID:26020965

  17. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V. B.; Kumar, Sourav

    2013-05-01

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving ?-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of ?-irradiation (0-30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of ?-irradiation greater than 12 kGy.

  18. Coral Reefs & Climate Change: Last Straw for a Threatened Ecosystem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glick, Patricia.

    1999-01-01

    Patricia Glick of the National Wildlife Federation's Climate Change & Wildlife Program authored this October 1999 report entitled "Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Last Straw for a Threatened Ecosystem." The resource (.pdf format) is accompanied by color photographs.

  19. Investigating Atmospheric Pressure with a Cup, Straw and Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is a reinforcement lab activity where students experiment with ways to get water to flow out of a cup and up a straw causing an imbalance in the atmospheric pressure surrounding the water.

  20. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emission during the following winter-wheat season].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Hu, Zheng-Hu; Wu, Yang-Zhou; Sun, Yin-Yin; Sheng, Lu; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao

    2014-07-01

    In order to study the effect of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emissions in the following crop-growing season, field experiments were conducted in the winter wheat-growing season. Four treatments were conventional tillage (T), no-tillage with no straw cover (NT), no-tillage with straw cover (NTS), and conventional tillage with straw incorporation (TS), respectively. The CO2 and N2O fluxes were measured using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that in the following winter wheat-growing season, conservation tillage did not change the seasonal pattern of CO2 and N2O emission fluxes from soil, and had no significant effect on crop biomass. Conservation tillage significantly reduced the accumulative amount of CO2 and N2O. Compared with the T treatment, the accumulative amount of CO2 under TS, NT, and NTS treatments were reduced by 5.95% (P = 0.132), 12.94% (P = 0.007), and 13.91% (P = 0.004), respectively, and the accumulative amount of N2O were significantly reduced by 31.23% (P = 0.000), 61.29% (P = 0.000), and 33.08% (P = 0.000), respectively. Our findings suggest that conservation tillage significantly reduced CO2 and N2O emission from soil in the following winter wheat-growing season. PMID:25244867

  1. Modelling and experiments of straw combustion in a grate furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P van der Lans; L. T Pedersen; A Jensen; P Glarborg; K Dam-Johansen

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional mathematical model for the combustion of straw in a cross-current, moving bed was developed as part of a tool for optimizing operating conditions and design parameters. To verify the model and to increase the understanding of straw bed combustion, laboratory fixed-bed experiments were performed in a 15cm diameter and 137cm long vertical reactor. Air was introduced through the

  2. Full-scale co-firing of straw and coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Storm Pedersen; Hanne Philbert Nielsen; Søren Kiil; Lone Aslaug Hansen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Finn Kildsig; Jan Christensen; Peer Jespersen

    1996-01-01

    Co-firing of biofuels and coal in power plants is considered by the Danish utilities as a potential tool in reducing CO2 emissions. To test this, full-scale measurements were carried out for 1 week on a 250 MWe pulverized coal fired unit using 10–20% straw (thermal basis). With an increased fraction of straw in the fuel, a net decrease in NOx

  3. Functional properties of soy hulls supplemented wheat flour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Muhammad Issa Khan; Masood Sadiq Butt; Shahzad Hussain; Muhammad Abrar

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – Almost 90 per cent of the wheat produced in Pakistan is used for chapattis and rotis preparation. Unleavened flat bread (chapattis and rotis) is staple food of Pakistani population. The present study was carried out to prepare composite flour and to assess suitable level of composition. The main aim was to introduce soy hulls as a rich source

  4. The historical perspective of dryland agriculture: lessons learned from 10 000 years of wheat cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Araus; J. P. Ferrio; R. Buxo; J. Voltas

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is one of the founder crops of Western agriculture. This study reconstructs agronomic conditions, potential yields, and kernel weight in the beginnings of cultivation of domesticated free-thresh- ing wheat, c .8 000BC. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions and the dimensions of fossil grains of naked wheat (Triticum aestivum\\/durum) were analysed. Samples were collected in Tell Halula and

  5. High irradiance-induced changes in carotenoid composition and increase in non-photochemical quenching of Chl a fluorescence in primary wheat leaves.

    PubMed

    Behera, Rajendra Kumar; Choudhury, Nakul Kumar

    2003-10-01

    The effect of acclimation to high irradiance stress (HIS, 250 Wm-2) in wheat leaves grown under three different irradiances was investigated by HPLC analyses of pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and photochemical activities of chloroplasts. Significant loss of beta-carotene was observed compared to the xanthophylls in all three types of seedlings exposed to HIS. However, the effect of HIS on neoxanthin and lutein contents was not significant. The loss of partial electron transport (Asc-DCPIP to MV, PSI activity) was less than the whole chain (H2O to MV) and PS II activity (H2O to DCPIP) suggesting that PS I is less susceptible to HIS compared to PS II. The percent of reductions in Fv/Fm and phi PS II were less in plants grown under high irradiance (HI-1, 30 Wm-2 and HI-2, 45 Wm-2) compared to those grown under moderate irradiance (MI, 15 Wm-2). On the other hand, the percent of NPQ increased more in the leaves of HI plants compared to the leaves of MI when exposed to HIS which suggests a more efficient non-radiative dissipation of excess excitation energy in HI plants compared to MI. These observations suggest that plants grown under relatively high irradiance are better adapted to HIS condition. PMID:14610882

  6. [Soil respiration and carbon balance in wheat field under conservation tillage].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Wang, Long-Chang; Huang, Zhao-Cun; Jia, Hui-Juan; Ran, Chun-Yan

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the characteristics of carbon sources and sinks in the winter wheat farmland ecosystem in southwest hilly region of China, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Chongqing. The soil respiration and plant growth dynamics were analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat-maize-soybean. Four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching), and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching) were designed. Root biomass regression (RR) and root exclusion (RE) were used to compare the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration. The results showed that the average soil respiration rate was 1.71 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) with a variation of 0.62-2.91 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Significant differences in soil respiration rate were detected among different treatments. The average soil respiration rate of T, R, TS and RS were 1.29, 1.59, 1.99 and 1.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. R treatment did not increase the soil respiration rate significantly until the jointing stage. Straw mulching treatment significantly increased soil respiration, with a steadily high rate during the whole growth period. During the 169 days of growth, the total soil respiration was 2 266.82, 2799.52, 3 483.73 and 3 443.89 kg x hm(-2) while the cumulative aboveground biomasses were 51 800.84, 59 563.20, 66 015.37 and 7 1331.63 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control, the yield of R, TS and RS increased by 14.99%, 27.44% and 37.70%, respectively. The contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was 47.05% by RBR, while it was 53.97% by RE. In the early growth period, the carbon source was weak. The capacity of carbon sink started to increase at the jointing stage and reached the maximum during the filling stage. The carbon budget of wheat field was 5 924.512, 6743.807, 8350.741, 8 876.115 kg x hm(-2), respectively. The results indicated that ridge tillage and straw mulching conservation tillage significantly improved the carbon sink in the wheat farmland ecosystem. PMID:25158525

  7. Wheat Evolution: Sedimentation Testing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

    2012-01-01

    In this activity (p.8-9 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by conducting sedimentation tests on different flours. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant. Note: Sedimentation test can also be done using SDS detergent and lactic acid instead of soap and vinegar.

  8. Wheat Evolution: Dough Rising

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

    2012-01-01

    In this activity (p.6-7 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by creating dough from different flours, observing the samples of dough as they rise, and then baking the dough. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

  9. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  10. Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends

    E-print Network

    Huybers, Peter

    Supplementary Materials for Reckoning wheat yield trends Marena Lin and Peter Huybers Department decomposition of wheat yields 5 4.1 U.S. county-level wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2 French departmental wheat yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5

  11. Comparison of the ameliorating effects on an acidic ultisol between four crop straws and their biochars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Hua Yuan; Ren-Kou Xu; Wei Qian; Ru-Hai Wang

    Purpose  The amelioration effects of crop straws and their biochars on an acidic ultisol were compared in incubation experiments to\\u000a determine suitable organic amendments for acid soils.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Four crop straws, including non-legumes (canola straw and rice straw) and legumes (soybean straw and pea straw) were used\\u000a to prepare biochars using a low temperature (350°C) oxygen-limited pyrolysis method. Two application

  12. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Arif, Muhammad; Simon, Leonardo C.; Pauls, K. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP) matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs) grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt) by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL) for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue. PMID:26167917

  13. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined...19 Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter...

  14. Plutonium Detection with Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-03-27

    A kilogram of weapons grade plutonium gives off about 56,000 neutrons per second of which 55,000 neutrons come from spontaneous fission of 240Pu (~6% by weight of the total plutonium). Actually, all even numbered isotopes (238Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu) produce copious spontaneous fission neutrons. These neutrons induce fission in the surrounding fissile 239Pu with an approximate multiplication of a factor of ~1.9. This multiplication depends on the shape of the fissile materials and the surrounding material. These neutrons (typically of energy 2 MeV and air scattering mean free path >100 meters) can be detected 100 meters away from the source by vehicle-portable neutron detectors. [1] In our current studies on neutron detection techniques, without using 3He gas proportional counters, we designed and developed a portable high-efficiency neutron multiplicity counter using 10B-coated thin tubes called straws. The detector was designed to perform like commercially available fission meters (manufactured by Ortec Corp.) except instead of using 3He gas as a neutron conversion material, we used a thin coating of 10B.

  15. Wheat Diseases Atlas. 

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ........................ . DISSEMINATION OF WHEAT DISEASES ... . ROOT DISEASES ......................... . Root, Crown and Foot Rots ............... . Plant Parasitic Nematodes ................ . Seedling Diseases... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOLIAGE DISEASES ..................... . 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 Rusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leaf Rust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Stem Rust...

  16. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... have tre- mendous reproductive capability, enabling large populations to build. The mite is most active during warm weather, with temperatures of 75-80 degrees F optimum for reproduction. Mites require a living grass host to survive the summer; sum...

  17. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  18. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the information…

  19. Russian wheat aphid biotypic diversity and distribution in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-state survey of Russian wheat aphid biotype composition in wheat was conducted in the spring of 2010 and 2011. Aphid collections from Texas, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Utah were evaluated on 9 plant differentials in replicated screening flat experiments under greenhouse conditions. In...

  20. FOAMED ARTICLES BASED ON POTATO STARCH, CORN AND WHEAT FIBRE, AND POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continued research cooperation between USDA Laboratories (USA) and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and either corn or wheat fibres, co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process. Foam trays were prepared by baking the blen...

  1. Bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chengying; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    To increase the closure of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS), the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by mushrooms and worms has been studied. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation and succeeding growth of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus. In this process the total content of lignocellulose in the straw was removed by 37.74%. Furthermore, 46.68 g (fresh weight) of mushrooms could be produced from 100.0 g (dry weight) of rice straw. During the conversion of rice straw into a starting SLS by mushrooms and worms, the matter loss was 77.31%. The lettuce has been planted in the SLS and the yield when lettuce was cultivated on the SLS (8.77gm-2day-1) was comparable to the yield obtained on the nutrient solution. In addition, the silicon in the SLS ash can reach upto 32% and the circulation of it is expected during the growth of rice.

  2. Cultivation of oyster mushrooms on wheat straw and bagasse substrate amendedwith distillery effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Pant; U. Gangi Reddy; Alok Adholeya

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Molasses-based distilleries produce large quantities of dark coloured effluent, which is a major cause of environmental pollution.\\u000a An experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of distillery effluent amendment for edible mushroom production. Three\\u000a species of oyster mushroom, namely Pleurotus florida Eger (EM 1303), Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet (EM 1302) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fries) Singer (EM 1304) were grown on

  3. Butanol productivity enhancers in wheat straw hydrolyzate: employing potential of enhanced reaction rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanol production by fermentation is gaining momentum due to increased prices of fossil fuels. This biofuel is a major product of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation that can be produced from hydrolyzed agricultural residues and/or corn. A control glucose (60 g/L) based batch fermentation us...

  4. Evaluation of Physical Strength of Wheat Straw Under Different Fertilizer Treatments and Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as urea ammonium nitrate and N plus sulfur fertilizer as ammonium thiosulfate as a mist on crop residue to stimulate microbial activity and subsequent decomposition of the residue is often debated, particularly for its potential to solve stand establishment iss...

  5. Insects which challenge global wheat production: Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter on Russian wheat aphid, (Diuraphis noxia (Mord.)), is one of several that addresses significant pests in the book entitled, Wheat Science and Trade. The chapter gives a detailed account of the history of the Russian wheat aphid as global pest, and its biology, ecology and managemen...

  6. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  7. Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3?% identity in this gene and 96?%, 92?% and 86?% identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18?:?1?7c in summed feature 8 (40.82?%), C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?6c in summed feature 3 (23.72?%) and C16?:?0 (15.20?%). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or ?-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52?% relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) (?=?LMG 26839(T)?=?CECT 8089(T)). PMID:23002045

  8. Pretreatment of straw for power production by pyrolysis and char wash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Jensen; B. Sander; K. Dam-Johansen

    2001-01-01

    Co-firing of straw and coal in existing pulverised coal-fired boilers is an option for biomass based power generation. However, the high chlorine and potassium content of straw may cause problems. Experiments with co-combustion of straw and coal in power plants have shown that when a moderate amount of straw is applied (up to 20% on a thermal basis), the most

  9. Research on the Straw biomass power generation in Shanxi Province of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lixia Qiu; Yanhong Hao

    2010-01-01

    As a kind of renewable energy utilization style, Straw biomass power generation will be developed vigorously in recent years in china. This paper attempts to made an overall estimate on the straw biomass generation resources in Shanxi Province of china; taking the 25 MW straw biomass power generation of typical unit configuration as an example, we analyze its economic and

  10. Enhanced malachite green removal from aqueous solution by citric acid modified rice straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renmin Gong; Youbin Jin; Fayang Chen; Jian Chen; Zhili Liu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, rice straw was thermochemically modified with citric acid (CA) as esterifying agent. Two introduced free carboxyl groups of esterified rice straw were further loaded with sodium ion to yield potentially biodegradable cationic sorbent. In order to investigate the effect of chemical modification on the cationic dye sorption of rice straw, the removal capacities of native and modified

  11. Characterizing pathways of invasive plant spread to Alaska: II. propagules from imported hay and straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the extent and nature of spread of exotic plant species to and within Alaska by shipment of hay and straw we conducted a study to determine the amounts of hay and straw imported into Alaska and the amounts and types of seed contained in hay/straw. Vendors were contacted to determine the...

  12. Dustiness of chopped straw as affected by lignosulfonate as a dust suppressant.

    PubMed

    Breum, N O; Nielsen, B H; Lyngbye, M; Midtgård, U

    1999-01-01

    Many sources add to the concentration of bioaerosols in livestock buildings, and source control is the number one priority for keeping a low concentration. Straw is a common but dusty bedding material in livestock buildings and the present study is focused on the dustiness of chopped straw (barley) as affected by lignosulfonate (LS) as a dust suppressant. A LS-solution was aerosolized in a spray chamber fitted to an existing bedding chopper to allow the chopped straw to adsorb the LS-solution. The dustiness of straw treated with LS was compared to non-treated straw. As storage conditions may affect dustiness, the study included treated straw kept for 4 weeks in sealed plastic bags. Dustiness of the chopped straw was measured in terms of the potential of the straw to emit bioaerosols in a rotating drum. The LS-treated straw proved low in dustiness compared to the non-treated straw. The dustiness with respect to the mass of dust was reduced by at least a factor of 6, and for fungi and endotoxin the factors of reduction were 4 and 3, respectively. Dustiness of LS-treated straw kept in plastic bags was reduced by a factor of 2 for mass of dust and by a factor of 4 for endotoxin, but dustiness for fungi was increased by a factor of 3. It is concluded that lignosulfonate has potential as a dust suppressant for chopped straw. PMID:10607994

  13. Capillarity of flax\\/linseed ( Linum usitatissimum L.) and fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) straw fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-R Kymäläinen; M Hautala; R Kuisma; A Pasila

    2001-01-01

    In a study of the wetting properties of the fractions of unretted and frost-retted fibre straws a method to separate fibre, fine shive, and coarse shive from fibre plants is introduced and tested on bast fibre plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Cannabis sativa L.) The method consists of optional drying of stalks, cutting of straws, milling the straws with a

  14. Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

  15. Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Whole Wheat Strawberry Muffins Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 1 cup strawberries, chopped 2 wheat flour 1/2 cup brown sugar, packed 1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda Directions 1. Heat oven to 400º bowl mix together whole wheat flour, brown sugar and baking soda. Mix well. 5. Add strawberry mixture

  16. A Microsatellite Map of Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion S. Roder; Victor Korzun; Katja Wendehake; Jens Plaschke; Marie-Helene Tixier; Philippe Leroy; Martin W. Ganal

    Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) is one of the world's most important crop plants and displays a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism. We report the development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers using procedures optimized for the large wheat genome. The isolation of microsatellite-containing clones from hypomethylated regions of the wheat genome increased the proportion of useful

  17. The influence of date and rate of seeding wheat on yield of grain

    E-print Network

    Shamma, Wifki Shakir El-

    1953-01-01

    ' or tne devree of MASTER OF SCIE'ACE Major Subject: Agronomy August, 1953 THE INFLUENCE OF DATE AND RATE OF SEEDING WHEAT ON YIELD OF GRAIN A Thesis By Wif'ki Shakir El-Shamma Approved as to style and content by Chairman of' Commi t t, ee Hsa o.... Number of Grains per Spikelet Grain Yield per plant in Grams. Total Yield of Grain in Grams Weight of Straw in Grams. Weight of Grain per Bushel Weight per 1OO Seeds in Grams Corr elation Between Developmental Characters and Yield of Grain per...

  18. The influence of date and rate of seeding wheat on yield of grain 

    E-print Network

    Shamma, Wifki Shakir El-

    1953-01-01

    humidity, and low humidity usually results fzam lack of rainfall. Sprague (36) p Waldl on (Q5) g and Hume, et al. (13) indi- cated a high positive correlation of grain yield of wheat with average number of spikes, an intermediate positive correlation...' or yield. Threshing was done with a small motor-driven nursery tnresner . )Velght of straw in grams, weight per bushel and per 100 sleds were recorded. The data wore analyzed according to methods recommended by Snedecor (3g). 13 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS...

  19. Environmentally friendly education: A passive solar, straw-bale school

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.; Dickinson, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Waldorf students in the Roaring Fork Valley of western Colorado are learning their reading, writing and arithmetic in the cozy confines of a solar heated, naturally lit, straw-bale school. The Waldorf education system, founded in 1919 by Austrian Rudolph Steiner, stresses what's appropriate for the kids, not what's easiest to teach. In constructing a new school, the Waldorf community wanted a building that would reflect their philosophy. There was a long list of requirements: natural, energy efficient, light, warm, alive, and earthy. Passive solar straw-bale construction brought together all those qualities.

  20. The large size straw drift chambers of the COMPASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Dedek, N.; Dünnweber, W.; Faessler, M.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Geyer, R.; Gousakov, Yu. V.; Grünemaier, A.; Heinsius, F. H.; Ilgner, C.; Ivanchenko, I. M.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Königsmann, K.; Livinski, V. V.; Lysan, V. M.; Marzec, J.; Matveev, D. A.; Mishin, S. V.; Mialkovski, V. V.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Platzer, K.; Sans, M.; Schmidt, Th.; Shokin, V. I.; Sissakian, A. N.; Viriasov, K. S.; Wiedner, U.; Zaremba, K.; Zhukov, I. A.; Zlobin, Yu. L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2006-01-01

    Straw drift chambers are used for the Large Area Tracking (LAT) of the Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN. An active area of 130 m 2 in total is covered by 12 440 straw tubes, which are arranged in 15 double layers. The design has been optimized with respect to spatial resolution, rate capability, low material budget and compactness of the detectors. Mechanical and electrical design considerations of the chambers are discussed as well as new production techniques. The mechanical precision of the chambers has been determined using a CCD X-ray scanning apparatus. Results about the performance during data taking in COMPASS are described.

  1. Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" concern the state of composition instruction at the secondary and college levels. The titles and authors are "Monologues or Dialogues? A Plea for Literacy" by Dr. Alfred J. Lindsey, "Teaching Composition: Curiouser and Curiouser" by Denny Brandon, and "Teaching Writing to High…

  2. Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu

    2012-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing levels of dietary camelina meal. Weight gain (p < 0.01) and feed intake (p = 0.08) were linearly reduced as the level of camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p < 0.01). Birds fed diets containing 15% camelina meal had significantly higher (p < 0.01) levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total n-3 fatty acids, total n-6 fatty acids and a significantly lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.01) than birds fed canola meal. In conclusion, the inclusion of camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197

  3. Long-Term Monitoring of Rainfed Wheat Yield and Soil Water at the Loess Plateau Reveals Low Water Use Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Chi, Baoliang; Oenema, Oene

    2013-01-01

    Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was grown for 30 consecutive years and soil water content (0–200 cm) was measured every 10 days. The monitoring data were used to calibrate the AquaCrop model and then to analyse the components of the water balance. There was a strong positive relationship between total available water and mean cereal yield. However, only one-third of the available water was actually used by the winter wheat for crop transpiration. The remaining two-thirds were lost by soil evaporation, of which 40 and 60% was lost during the growing and fallow seasons, respectively. Wheat yields ranged from 0.6 to 3.9 ton/ha and WUE from 0.3 to 0.9 kg/m3. Results of model experiments suggest that minimizing soil evaporation via straw mulch or plastic film covers could potentially double wheat yields and WUE. We conclude that the relatively low wheat yields and low WUE were mainly related to (i) limited rainfall, (ii) low soil water storage during fallow season due to large soil evaporation, and (iii) poor synchronisation of the wheat growing season to the rain season. The model experiments suggest significant potential for increased yields and WUE. PMID:24302987

  4. Discovery of microorganisms and enzymes involved in high-solids decomposition of rice straw using metagenomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Amitha P; Simmons, Christopher W; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Khudyakov, Jane; Burd, Helcio; Hadi, Masood; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W; Thelen, Michael P; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2013-01-01

    High-solids incubations were performed to enrich for microbial communities and enzymes that decompose rice straw under mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Thermophilic enrichments yielded a community that was 7.5 times more metabolically active on rice straw than mesophilic enrichments. Extracted xylanase and endoglucanse activities were also 2.6 and 13.4 times greater, respectively, for thermophilic enrichments. Metagenome sequencing was performed on enriched communities to determine community composition and mine for genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes. Proteobacteria were found to dominate the mesophilic community while Actinobacteria were most abundant in the thermophilic community. Analysis of protein family representation in each metagenome indicated that cellobiohydrolases containing carbohydrate binding module 2 (CBM2) were significantly overrepresented in the thermophilic community. Micromonospora, a member of Actinobacteria, primarily housed these genes in the thermophilic community. In light of these findings, Micromonospora and other closely related Actinobacteria genera appear to be promising sources of thermophilic lignocellulolytic enzymes for rice straw deconstruction under high-solids conditions. Furthermore, these discoveries warrant future research to determine if exoglucanases with CBM2 represent thermostable enzymes tolerant to the process conditions expected to be encountered during industrial biofuel production. PMID:24205054

  5. Discovery of Microorganisms and Enzymes Involved in High-Solids Decomposition of Rice Straw Using Metagenomic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    D’haeseleer, Patrik; Khudyakov, Jane; Burd, Helcio; Hadi, Masood; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; Thelen, Michael P.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2013-01-01

    High-solids incubations were performed to enrich for microbial communities and enzymes that decompose rice straw under mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Thermophilic enrichments yielded a community that was 7.5 times more metabolically active on rice straw than mesophilic enrichments. Extracted xylanase and endoglucanse activities were also 2.6 and 13.4 times greater, respectively, for thermophilic enrichments. Metagenome sequencing was performed on enriched communities to determine community composition and mine for genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes. Proteobacteria were found to dominate the mesophilic community while Actinobacteria were most abundant in the thermophilic community. Analysis of protein family representation in each metagenome indicated that cellobiohydrolases containing carbohydrate binding module 2 (CBM2) were significantly overrepresented in the thermophilic community. Micromonospora, a member of Actinobacteria, primarily housed these genes in the thermophilic community. In light of these findings, Micromonospora and other closely related Actinobacteria genera appear to be promising sources of thermophilic lignocellulolytic enzymes for rice straw deconstruction under high-solids conditions. Furthermore, these discoveries warrant future research to determine if exoglucanases with CBM2 represent thermostable enzymes tolerant to the process conditions expected to be encountered during industrial biofuel production. PMID:24205054

  6. Enhancing the quality of bio-oil and selectivity of phenols compounds from pyrolysis of anaerobic digested rice straw.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiajin; Lin, Yunqin; Wu, Shubin; Liu, Chao; Lei, Ming; Zeng, Chao

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the thermal decomposition characteristics and pyrolytic products of anaerobic digested rice straw (ADRS) by thermogravimetric (TG) and pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) analysis. Compared with the raw rice straw (RS), the thermal decomposition temperature of ADRS was shifted to higher temperature zone and the second decomposition zone of cellulose (Toffset(c)-Tpeak) became narrower (14 °C less), which indicated that the composition of rice straw were changed significantly by the anaerobic digestion pretreatment. Py-GC/MS analysis showed that the quality of the bio-oil and the selectivity of pyrolytic products could be obviously improved by anaerobic digestion. The total yields of alcohols, acids, aldehydes, furans, anhydrosugars, and ketones pyrolysis substances decreased, while the yield of phenols increased. The yield of 4-Vinylphenol (4-VP) increased from 29.33%, 8.21% and 5.76% to 34.93%, 12.46% and 7.68% at 330, 450 and 650 °C, respectively, after anaerobic digestion. PMID:25647031

  7. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J

    2006-01-25

    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic. PMID:16417290

  8. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  9. Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

  10. Drinking-Straw Microbalance and Seesaw: Stability and Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Peter; Glasser, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    The mechanics of a beam balance are little appreciated and seldom understood. We here consider the conditions that result in a stable balance, with center of gravity below the fulcrum (pivot point), while an unstable balance results when the center of gravity is above the fulcrum. The highly sensitive drinking-straw microbalance, which uses a…

  11. Use of ground miscanthus straw in container nursery substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine bark (PB) is the primary component in nursery substrates in the U.S. Availability of pine bark is decreasing and price is increasing. The objective of this research was to determine if miscanthus straw (MS) can replace all or part of the pine bark fraction in nursery container substrates. F...

  12. Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on N-use by wheat under different irrigation frequencies.

    PubMed

    Ichir, Lalla Laaziza; Ismaili, Mohamed; Van Cleemput, Oswald

    2003-04-01

    A field trial was established in Errachidia, southern Morocco, to investigate the interaction between wheat residue management and mineral 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate, under different irrigation treatments, applied to wheat (Triticum durum var. Karim). In treatments I1, I2, I3 and I4, plots were irrigated every 10, 15, 21 and 30 days. Each plot contained three sub-plots that received three fertilization treatments: T1 received 42 kg N ha-1 of ammonium sulphate before seedling, 42 kg N ha-1 of ammonium sulphate labelled with 9.764 at % 15N excess at tillering and 84 N kg ha-1 of ammonium sulphate at flowering; T2 received 42 kg N ha-1 of ammonium sulphate labelled with 9.764 at % 15N excess at seedling, 42 kg N ha-1 at tillering and 42 kg N ha-1 at flowering; T3 received 4800 kg ha-1 of wheat residue labelled with 1.504 at % 15N excess and 42 kg N ha-1 of ammonium sulphate before seedling and 42 kg N ha-1 of ammonium sulphate at flowering. Nitrogen fertilization with 168 kg N ha-1 did no significantly increase grain and straw yields in comparison to the 126 kg N ha-1 application. The combination of the organic input and supplementary application of mineral fertilizer N has been found as a more attractive management option. For all irrigation treatments, the % recovery of N in the whole plant was higher in plants that received 15N at tillering (63%, 49% respectively for irrigation intervals between 10 and 30 d) than in plants that received 15N just after seeding (28% for irrigation each 10- and 30-d intervals). For the irrigation treatment each 10 and 15 days, the 15N was mainly recovered by the grain for all fertilization treatments, whereas for irrigation treatment each 30 days, the grain and straw recovered nearly equal amounts of fertilizer. For grain and straw of wheat, nitrogen in the plant derived from the fertilizer was low, while most of the N was derived from the soil for all irrigation and fertilization treatments. The % nitrogen in the plant derived from the fertilizer values showed no significant difference between the different plant parts. The results suggested a dominant influence of moisture availability on the fertilizer N uptake by wheat. Under dry conditions the losses of N can be allotted to denitrification and volatilisation. PMID:12876891

  13. A comparative LCA of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2013-12-01

    Life cycle assessment of four rice straw utilization systems including; (1) direct combustion for electricity, (2) biochemical conversion to bio-ethanol and biogas, (3) thermo-chemical conversion to bio-DME, and (4) incorporation into the soil as fertilizer have been conducted to compare their environmental performances. The results showed that per ton of dry rice straw, the bio-ethanol pathway resulted in the highest environmental sustainability with regards to reductions in global warming and resource depletion potentials. Rice straw bio-DME was preferable vis-à-vis reduction in acidification potential. Rice straw electricity and fertilizer also brought about several environmental benefits. The key environmental benefit of rice straw utilization came from avoiding the deleterious effects from burning straw in situ in the field. Recommendations for enhancing environmental sustainability of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer are provided. PMID:24076147

  14. Microbial biomass production from rice straw hydrolysate in airlift bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Long; Wang, Zhao

    2005-09-10

    Rice straw is a by-product of rice production, and a great bioresource as raw biomass material for manufacturing value-adding protein for animal feedstock, which has been paid more and more attention. In the present work, utilizing rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate for microbial biomass production in 11.5L external-loop airlift bioreactors was investigated. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through acid-hydrolyzing rice straw was used for the culture of yeast Candida arborea AS1.257. The influences of gas flow rate, initial liquid volume, hole diameter of gas sparger and numbers of sieve plates on microbial biomass production were examined. The best results in the external-loop airlift bioreactor were obtained under 9.0 L initial liquid volume, 1.1 (v/v)/min gas flow rate during culture time of 0-24 h and 1.4 (v/v)/min gas flow rate of 24-48 h at 29+/-1 degrees C. The addition of the sieve plates in the riser of the external-loop airlift bioreactor increased productivity. After 48 h, under optimized operation conditions, crude protein productivity with one sieve and two sieves were 13.6 mg/mL and 13.7 mg/mL, respectively, comparing 12.7 mg/mL without sieves in the airlift bioreactor and 11.7 mg/mL in the in the 10-L mechanically stirred tank bioreactor. It is feasible to operate the external-loop airlift bioreactors and possible to reduce the production cost for microbial biomass production from the rice straw hydrolysate. PMID:15978690

  15. Registration of 'Juniper' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Juniper’ (PI 639951) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in February 2006. Juniper, named for the town of Juniper, Idaho, was released for its superior yield and quality compared with previous full stature hard red...

  16. Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-1041, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ and was tested under the experimental number VA02W-370. J...

  17. Registration of ‘Shirley’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Shirley’ (Reg. No. CV-1039, PI 656753) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), developed and tested as VA03W-409 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2008. Shirley was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25/‘Coker 9835’//VA96-54-234. Shirley is wid...

  18. Wheat Production in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Merkle, O. G.; Lahr, K. A.; Gilmore, E. C.

    1970-01-01

    half of the Tesr; acreage. The acreages of varieties and percent- age of the State total, by research testing area.;. are given in Table 7. Tascosa now occupie: TABLE 7. ACREAGES AND PERCENT OF TOTAL FOR WHEAT VARIETIES GROWN IN TEXAS IN 1968' I...

  19. Registration of Colter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colter’ (Reg. No. CV-1099, PI 670156) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Stations in September 2013. Colter was derived from the cross MT9982*2/BZ9W96-895. MT9982 is a sib selection of 'Yellowstone', and BZ9W96-895 is an unr...

  20. Registration of ‘Judee’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Judee’ (Reg. No. CV-1084, PI 665227) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2011. Judee has the pedigree ‘Vanguard’/‘Norstar’//‘Judith’ dwarf selection/3/‘NuHorizon’. Judee was developed using a modif...

  1. Registration of ‘Alice’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Alice’ (Reg. No. CV-1023, PI 644223) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2006 to seed producers by the developing institution and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station. Alice was selected from the cr...

  2. Registration of ‘Jamestown’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Jamestown’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI 653731) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. Jamestown was derived from the cross ‘Roane’ (PI 612958)/Pioneer Brand ‘2691’ (PI 590941 PVPO) and was tested under the experim...

  3. Registration of 'Chesapeake' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Chesapeake’ (Reg. No. CV-1011, PI 643935) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. Ches...

  4. Registration of ‘Shirley’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Shirley’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Shirley was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25 / ‘Coker 9835’ (PI 548846 PVPO) // VA96-54-234. Shirley is widely adapted ...

  5. Registration of Camelot Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Camelot ' (PI 653832) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2008. In addition to researchers at the releasing institutions, USDA-ARS researchers at Manhattan, KS, and St. Paul, MN, ...

  6. Registration of ‘Darrell’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Darrell’ (Reg. No. CV-1024, PI 644224) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the South Dakota State University–Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2006 to seed producers by the South Dakota State University–Agricultural Experiment Station and the University of Ne...

  7. Registration of ‘MDM’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘MDM’ (J980628, WA007936) hard white winter wheat (HWW) (Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-XXX, PI 634716) was released in 2005 by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University (WSU) in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. MDM is a semi dwarf cultivar adapted to the low- to intermediat...

  8. REGISTRATION OF 'BAUERMEISTER' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Bauermeister' (J981107, WA007939) hard red winter wheat (HRW)(Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-XXX, PI 634717) was released in 2005 by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University (WSU) in cooperation with the USDA-ARS. Bauermeister is a semidwarf cultivar adapted to the low- ...

  9. REGISTRATION OF GOODSTREAK WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goodstreak¿ (Reg. No. Cv- , PI ) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2000 by the developing institutions and the Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station. Goodstreak was re...

  10. Registration of 'Guymon' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Guymon' (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 643133) is a hard white (HW) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed and released cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2005. It is recommended for grain-only and dual-purpose production systems in an area of the so...

  11. REGISTRATION OF 'HATCHER' WHEAT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hatcher (Reg. no. CV-971, PI 638512) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released to seed producers in August 2004. Hatcher was released based on its resistance to the original North American biotype, designated as Biotype 1...

  12. REGISTRATION OF 'DELIVER' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Deliver’ (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 639232) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was released to certified seed growers with permission of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2004. Deliver, an awnletted cultivar, was named for its unique and competitive abil...

  13. Registration of "Merl" Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

  14. Registration of 'Otto' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to strawbreaker foot rot (caused by Oculimacula yallundae Crous & W. Gams and O. acuformis Crous & W. Gams) and to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) are important traits for winter wheat cultivars produced in the Pacifi Northwest region of the Uni...

  15. Wheat Breeding Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

  16. Registration of ‘5205’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘5205’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Cultivar 5205 was derived from the three-way cross Pioneer Brand ‘2684’ (PI 566923 PVPO) / VA93-54-185 // ’Pocahontas’ ...

  17. Registration of ‘Brick’ Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Glover; J. C. Rudd; R. N. Devkota; R. G. Hall; Y. Jin; L. E. Osborne; J. A. Ingemansen; J. R. Rickertsen; D. D. Baltensperger; G. A. Hareland

    2010-01-01

    Alice' (Reg. No. CV-1023, PI 644223) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2006 to seed producers by the developing institution and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station. Alice was selected from the cross 'Abilene' (PI 511307)\\/'Karl' (PI 527480) made in 1992 at Brookings, SD. Alice was selected as

  18. REGISTRATION OF ‘CHOPTANK’ WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Choptank’ (Reg. no. CV-976, PI 639724) is a soft red winter wheat (triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Natural Resource Sciences and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2...

  19. Registration of ‘3434’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 3434 (Reg. No. CV-1040, PI 656754) developed and tested as VA03W-434 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Cultivar 3434 was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’/‘Coker 9835’//VA96W-270. Cultivar 34...

  20. REGISTRATION OF 'GLENN' WHEAT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glenn (Reg. no. CV- , PI 639273), is a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed at North Dakota State university and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in July 2005. Glenn was released because it combines a very high level of resistance to Fusarium head bli...

  1. REGISTRATION OF 'JERRY' WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Jerry' is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the USDA-ARS and released in 2001. Jerry was tested as ND9257 and is an F3-derived line from the cross 'Roughrider'/ND7571//'Arapahoe' made in 1987 by...

  2. Registration of ‘Decade’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Decade’ (Reg. No. CV-1058, PI 660291) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released jointly by the Montana and North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Stations in 2010. The name “Decade” denotes the extended time period (1997–2010) during which the Montana State Univers...

  3. Registration of ‘Colter’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Colter’ (Reg. No. CV-1099, PI 670156) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Stations in September 2013. Colter was derived from the cross MT9982*2/BZ9W96-895. MT9982 is a sib selection of ‘Yellowstone’, and BZ9W96-895 is an un...

  4. [Characteristics of alpha-amylase isozymes in cytologenetically different wheat cultivars].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Badaeva, E D

    2014-07-01

    The isoenzyme composition of alpha-amylase is studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris-glycine (pH 8.3) system in wheat cultivars with different genome composition. We show that durum wheat (Triticum durum, 2n=4x=28, BBAA) lacks the isoenzymes encoded by 6D and 7D chromosomes that are present in common wheat zymograms (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, BBAADD). A similar pattern is observed in a synthetic allohexaploid carrying the BBAA genomes of wheat and the HchHch genome of barley (Hordeum chilense). Our method of electrophoresis fails to reveal additional variants of alpha-amylase encoded by the barley genome, although C-banding analysis confirms the genomic structure BBAAHChHCh of this allopolyploid. The electrophoretic spectrum of the spring common wheat cultivar Dobrynya with the wheat-Agropyron translocation 7DL-7AiL contains all of the alpha-amylase isoenzymes typical for common wheat (2n=6x=42, BBAADD) except for the zymotype encoded by the long arm of chromosome 7D. This observation confirms the results of cytogenetic analysis that identified a 7DL-7AiL translocation in this cultivar. No additional alpha-amylase isoenzymes encoded by Agropyron chromosome have been observed. Our data indicate that analysis of wheat-alien hybrids or introgressive forms should be carried out using a complex of different methods. PMID:25720140

  5. Catalytic hydrothermal upgradation of wheat husk.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rawel; Bhaskar, Thallada; Dora, Sambha; Balagurumurthy, Bhavya

    2013-12-01

    Catalytic hydrothermal upgradation of wheat husk was performed at 280°C for 15 min in the presence of alkaline catalysts (KOH and K2CO3). The effect of alkaline catalysts on the yield of bio-oil products and composition of bio-oils obtained were discussed. Total bio-oil yield (31%) comprising of bio-oil1 (ether fraction) and bio-oil2 (acetone fraction) was maximum with K2CO3 solution. Powder XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis of wheat husk as well as bio-residue samples show that the peaks due to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin become weak in bio-residue samples which suggest that these components have undergone hydrolytic cleavage/decomposition. The FTIR spectra of bio-oils indicate that the lignin in the wheat husk samples was decomposed to low molecular weight phenolic compounds. (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum of bio-oil1 shows more than 50% of the protons resonate in the up field region from 0.5 ppm to 3.0 ppm. PMID:24140848

  6. Neutron Multiplicity Measurements With 3He Alternative: Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2015-01-01

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as ‘‘ship effect ’’) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. A prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called ‘‘straws’’ that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions of neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system to collect neutron multiplicity information from spontaneous fission sources using a single panel consisting of 60 straws equally distributed over three rows in high-density polyethylenemoderator. In the following year, we developed the field-programmable gate array and associated DAQ software. This SDRD effort successfully produced a prototype NMC with*33% detection efficiency compared to a commercial fission meter.

  7. Adherence within biological multilayered systems: Development and application of a peel test on wheat grain peripheral tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Martelli; C. Barron; F. Mabille; X. Rouau; A. Sadoudi

    2010-01-01

    The wheat grain is surrounded by a multilayered system composed of different tissues differing in their composition and mechanical properties. Up to now, these properties have been determined using classical tensile tests. However no methodology exists to evaluate the inter-tissular adherence. With this purpose, a micromechanical device adapted to wheat tissue (5 tissues with thickness varying from 2 to 55 ?m)

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat grain proteins reveals differential effects of silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes in transgenic lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel wheat lines with altered flour compositions can be used to decipher the roles of specific gluten proteins in flour quality. Grain proteins from transgenic wheat lines in which genes encoding the omega-5 gliadins were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) were analyzed in detail by quantitative 2...

  9. Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

    2014-11-01

    Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (P<0.001). However, penmate-directed behaviour was not reduced with an increased amount of straw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P<0.001), but the amount of penmate-directed behaviour was similar (P>0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy pigs more than one daily allocation did. In conclusion, there was no difference in penmate-directed behaviour of the pigs when given 25 or 50 g of straw/pig per day compared with 100 g of straw/pig per day, nor were there any difference when 100 g of straw/pig per day was provided more frequently. PMID:25076383

  10. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    . Infected wheat plants normally are stunted, with leaves mottled and streaked in green-yellow, parallel and discontinuous patterns (Fig. 1). This disease?s negative impact varies from year to year depending on its severity and distribution...; in the Southern Great Plains states, crop losses due to WSMV exceed $30 million in some years but are in- significant in others. High Plains Virus High Plains Virus (HPV), occasionally called High Plains Disease, is a relatively new virus identified...

  11. Genomics of Wheat Domestication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Pozzi; Francesco Salamini

    The review covers several issues concerning the state of molecular knowledge of the effects induced by domestication and breeding\\u000a on the wheat crop. Genes at the root of the domestication syndrome are currently the focus of an active research which frequently\\u000a uses comparative genomics approaches. Conclusions drawn on available data indicate that the domestication syndrome is originated\\u000a by “sudden” genetic

  12. Field study on the uptake and translocation of PBDEs by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Qu, Ronghui; Yan, Liangguo; Guo, Weilin; Ma, Yibing

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted to explore the effects of different sewage sludge amendment strategies on the accumulation and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil-wheat systems. Two types of application methods (single or annual application) and four annual application rates (5, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1) year(-1)) were investigated. BDE 209 was detected in all of the sewage sludge amended soils and different parts of wheat plants collected from the contaminated soils. However, the other seven PBDE congeners (BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153, BDE 154, and BDE 183) were not detected or were only observed at very low levels. A single application of sewage sludge in large quantities would likely increase accumulation of BDE 209 in soil and its subsequent uptake and translocation by wheat. The concentrations of BDE 209 in soils, wheat roots and straws increased with the increasing sewage sludge application rate. There is a negative correlation between the root accumulation factors (the ratios of concentrations in wheat roots to those in soils) and soil total organic carbon (R(2)=0.84,P<0.05), demonstrating that the bioavailability of BDE 209 was controlled by the soil total organic carbon. BDE 209 concentrations in the grains from the sewage sludge amended soils were not significantly different from those of the control soils, suggesting that atmospheric deposition was the main source of BDE 209 detected in the grains. PMID:25563166

  13. Effect of biological pretreatments in enhancing corn straw biogas production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weizhang Zhong; Zhongzhi Zhang; Yijing Luo; Shanshan Sun; Wei Qiao; Meng Xiao

    2011-01-01

    A biological pretreatment with new complex microbial agents was used to pretreat corn straw at ambient temperature (about 20°C) to improve its biodegradability and anaerobic biogas production. A complex microbial agent dose of 0.01% (w\\/w) and pretreatment time of 15days were appropriate for biological pretreatment. These treatment conditions resulted in 33.07% more total biogas yield, 75.57% more methane yield, and

  14. Straw burning over Great Britain detected by AVHRR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Muirhead; A. P. Cracknell

    1985-01-01

    Using imagery from the AVHRR 3·8 ?m channel on the NOAA-Series of satellites we have examined the national extent of straw and stubble burning across Great Britain in the summer of 1984 and found 300-400 burning fields on a typical midweek day. We have also investigated the adherence of fanners to a Voluntary Code of Practice restricting burning at weekends

  15. Spontaneous use of tools as straws in great apes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Héctor Marín Manrique; Josep Call

    2011-01-01

    Great apes can use multiple tools to extract food embedded in substrates and can invent new ways to exploit those resources.\\u000a We tested five bonobos, five chimpanzees, and six orangutans in a task in which they had to use (and modify) a tool as a straw\\u000a to drink the juice located inside a container. Experiment 1 showed that four orangutans

  16. The thermal behaviour of the co-combustion between paper sludge and rice straw.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zeqiong; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2013-10-01

    The thermal characteristics and kinetics of paper sludge, rice straw and their blends were evaluated under combustion condition. The paper sludge was blended with rice straw in the range of 10-95 wt.% to investigate their co-combustion behaviour. There was significant interaction between rice straw and paper sludge in high temperature. The combustion of paper sludge and rice straw could be divided into two stages. The value of the activation energy obtained by the Friedman and the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) first decreased and then increased with the conversion degree rising. The average activation energy did not monotonically decrease with increasing the percentage of rice straw in the blends. When the percentage of rice straw in the blends was 80%, the value of the average activation energy was the smallest, which was 139 kJ/mol obtained by OFW and 132 kJ/mol obtained by Friedman, respectively. PMID:23973983

  17. Influence of deposit formation on corrosion at a straw-fired boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lone A Hansen; Hanne P Nielsen; Flemming J Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Steffen Hørlyck; Asger Karlsson

    2000-01-01

    Straw-fired boilers generally experience severe problems with deposit formation and are expected to suffer from severe superheater corrosion at high steam temperatures due to the large alkali and chlorine content in straw. In this study, deposits collected (1) on air-cooled probes and (2) directly at the existing heat transfer surfaces of a straw-fired boiler have been examined. Deposits collected on

  18. Mapping a gene conferring resistance to Wheat yellow mosaic virus in European winter wheat cultivar `Ibis'

    E-print Network

    Murray, Timothy D.

    Mapping a gene conferring resistance to Wheat yellow mosaic virus in European winter wheat cultivar Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract Wheat yellow mosaic, caused by Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV), is one of the most devastating soil-borne diseases of winter wheat (Trit- icum aestivum L

  19. Optimizing dilute-acid pretreatment of rapeseed straw for extraction of hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Su; Um, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Kyeong-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Biological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars prior to fermentation. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically or with mineral acids. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the pretreatment of rapeseed straw. The purpose of this study is to optimize the pretreatment process in a 15-mL bomb tube reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time. These parameters influence hemicellulose removal and production of sugars (xylose, glucose, and arabinose) in the hydrolyzate as well as the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid). Statistical analysis was based on a model composition corresponding to a 3(3) orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology to optimize the pretreatment conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylan, mannan, and galactan (XMG) extraction from hemicellulose of rapeseed straw. The obtained optimum conditions were: H2SO4 concentration of 1.76% and temperature of 152.6 degrees C with a reaction time of 21 min. Under these optimal conditions, 85.5% of the total sugar was recovered after acid hydrolysis (78.9% XMG and 6.6% glucan). The hydrolyzate contained 1.60 g/L glucose, 0.61 g/L arabinose, 10.49 g/L xylose, mannose, and galactose, 0.39 g/L cellobiose, 0.94 g/L fructose, 0.02 g/L 1,6-anhydro-glucose, 1.17 g/L formic acid, 2.94 g/L acetic acid, 0.04 g/L levulinic acid, 0.04 g/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 0.98 g/L furfural. PMID:20087686

  20. Registration of Vision 40 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential exists to develop and market hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the eastern United States, where a majority of the mills, bakeries, and consumers reside. The primary objective of this study was to develop adapted and competitive hard winter wheat cultivars possessing high-valu...

  1. Registration of 'Bill Brown' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

  2. Registration of 'Thunder CL' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Thunder CL' (Reg. No. CV- , PI XXXXXX) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2008 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

  3. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  4. Varietal Trials Results Wheat, Hard Red Winter

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Varietal Trials Results Wheat, Hard Red Winter 47 Winter wheat varieties were compared in trial plots at Crookston, Lamberton, Roseau and St. Paul. Wheat varieties were grown in replicated plots. These winter wheat trials are not designed for crop (species) compar- isons because the various crops are grown

  5. BREEDING WHEAT FOR RESISTANCE TO INSECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-plant resistance plays an important role in the management of the insect pests of wheat (Triticum sp.). Five pests, Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia), wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana), greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) and the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus s...

  6. Dietary effects on lipid and fatty acid composition of Clistoronia magnifica (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Hanson; K. W. Cummins; A. S. II Cargill; R. R. Lowry

    1983-01-01

    Dietary influences on growth and biochemical composition of the caddisfly Clistoronia magnifica were examined with a variety of diets including wheat, microbially conditioned alder, and wheat plus alder. Larvae receiving wheat were able to override direct temperature effects, while those on alder could not. Based on larval growth rates, and pupal weights and lipid contents, the authors concluded that alder

  7. Wheat Production in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Lahr, Keith; Merkle, Owen G.; Futrell, M. C.

    1960-01-01

    susceptible to stem rust but usually es- capes damage because of its early maturity. Vermillion is a sister strain of Knox wheat. Its yield record is equal to that of Knox and re- cently has been introduced to the State by com- mercial seedsmen... are satisfactory but Concho and Tascosa may be damaged seriously by the !+usts. Vermillion, Knox and Frisco are moder- ately resistant to leaf rust and also may escape damage because of their earliness. AREA 4 Area 4 of Central Texas differs from area 3...

  8. [Effects of straw incorporation on rice carbon sequestration characteristics and grain yield formation].

    PubMed

    Pei, Peng-Gang; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Zhu, Lian-Feng; Yu, Sheng-Miao; Hu, Zhi-Hua

    2014-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of straw incorporation on rice dry matter accumulation and transportation, rice carbon sequestration and grain yield formation. The experiment included four levels of straw incorporation: 0 (control), 4000, 6000 and 8000 kg · hm(-2). Hybrid rice cultivar Zhongzheyou 1 was used in this experiment. The results showed that the average rice dry matter accumulation amount of the three straw incorporation treatments was increased by 63.03 g · m(-2) compared with the control, and that of straw incorporation of 6000 kg · hm(-2) showed the most favorable result, which was 154.40 g · m(-2) higher than the control. Effects of straw incorporation on rice dry matter accumulation showed the best performance from the maximum tillering stage to the full heading stage, and the dry matter accumulation at this stage was 71.25 g · m(-2) higher than the control. Compared with the control, the average dry matter exportation rate and apparent transformation rate from rice stem and leaf in the straw incorporation treatments were increased by 4.2% and 3.7%, respectively. The highest dry matter exportation rate and apparent transformation rate from rice stem and leaf were observed in the straw incorporation treatment of 6000 kg · hm(-2), which were increased by 12.8% and 11.1% compared to the control, respectively. The average rice carbon sequestration from the straw incorporation treatments was increased by 55.38 g · m(-2) compared with the control, and straw incorporation of 6000 kg · hm(-2) performed best with an increase of 17.8% compared with the control. Straw incorporation played a positive role in regulating the carbon sequestration of stem and leaf at the early growth stage and carbon sequestration of spike at the late growth stage. The average grain yield from the straw incorporation treatments was increased by 794.59 kg · hm(-2) (9.5% higher) compared with the control. Rice grain yields from the straw incorporation treatments of 6000 and 4000 kg · hm(-2) were significantly higher than the control, while rice grain yield from the straw incorporation treatment of 8000 kg · hm(-2) did not show a significant increase compared to the control. The rice grain yield was closely related to the yield components, and the increase of effective panicles may be the main reason for the higher grain yields in the straw incorporation treatments. Effective panicles in the straw incorporation treatments was averagely 8.41 spikes · m(-2) more than the control. PMID:25796896

  9. Seasonal Dynamics of Cereal Aphids on Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) Susceptible and Resistant Wheats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J. Schotzko; Nilsa A. Bosque-Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1997 and 1998 to evaluate the impact of resistance to Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), on the cereal aphid complex in wheat. Two spring wheats were planted: the variety \\

  10. Variation in polar lipids located on the surface of wheat starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The starch granule surface contributes the greatest proportion of surface area in a dough, and it is unknown whether starch isolated before dough development would have the same surface lipid composition as starch isolated after dough development. The compositional structure of the surface of wheat...

  11. Effect of shearing on the reinforcement properties of vital wheat gluten

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous dispersion of vital wheat gluten and styrene-butadiene rubber was subjected to high-shear mixing in an attempt to reduce the aggregate size and enhance filler-matrix interactions with the goal of improving the reinforcement properties of the overall composite. Composites were formulated u...

  12. Drought tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  13. Composting of Food Waste with Straw and other Carbon Sources for Nitrogen Catching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Brink

    1995-01-01

    Food waste, straw, paper and topsoil were composted in different combinations. The catching of nitrogen was more than 90% when using different amounts of straw and of a small amount of paper. It was above 50% in paper composts at high maximum temperature and below 46% at low temperatures. A cultivation test with tomato, cucumber and white cabbage in one

  14. Reduction of Odor and Odorant Emissions from Slurry Stores by Means of Straw Covers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Blanes-Vidal; Martin N. Hansen; Patricia Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Swine (Sus scrofa) slurry stored in open storages is a source of airborne contaminants. A customary practice for ammonia and odor control consists of covering the surface of the slurry with fl oating materials, such as straw. Although straw covers have been proven to generally reduce gaseous emissions, more knowledge is needed regarding how age, moisture content, and microbiological development

  15. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Aderemi; E. Abu; B. K. Highina

    In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells of Aspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size decreased from 425 to 75 µm, while the optimal temperature and pH were found within the range of 45 - 50°C and 4.5 - 5 respectively.

  16. METHANE PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC SOIL AMENDED WITH RICE STRAW AND NITROGEN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted on the effects of rice straw application and inorganic N fertilization on methane (CH4) production from a flooded Louisiana, USA, rice soil. ignificant increase of CH4 production was observed following rice straw application. ethane productio...

  17. Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle WX Zhang JK Yuan 466000, Henan, China In a recent experiment with beef cattle, three types of straw were used : a 5 % urea head of Simmental-Chinese Yellow cross beef cattle, approximately 122 months old and weighing 200 kg

  18. The effect of microwave irradiation on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengdong Zhu; Yuanxin Wu; Ziniu Yu; Xia Zhang; Hui Li; Ming Gao

    2006-01-01

    A series of experiments involving microwave irradiation were carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave irradiation on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Compared with microwave irradiation free hydrolysis, rice straw pretreated by combining microwave irradiation with alkali could increase the initial hydrolysis rate but the hydrolysis yield remained unchanged. When the enzyme solution was treated by microwave irradiation, the

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentation of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse and rice straw for bioethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alkaline wet oxidation was used as pretreatment method of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice straw (RS) prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At high enzyme loadings, the enzymatic hydrolysis of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse (SBWO) resulted in the highest degree of saccharification compared to wet oxidized rice straw (RSWO). However, at enzyme concentrations below 10 FPU\\/g-cellulose,

  20. Methane production from anaerobic soil amended with rice straw and nitrogen fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengping Wang; Ronald D. Delaune; Charles W. Lindau; William H. Patrick Jr

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted on the effects of rice straw application and N fertilization on methane (CH4) production from a flooded Louisiana, USA, rice soil incubated under anaerobic conditions. Rice straw application significantly increased CH4 production; CH4 production increased in proportion to the application rate. Urea fertilization also enhanced CH4 production. The maximum production rate was 17% higher, and occurred