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1

Regional White Matter Volumes Correlate with Delay Discounting  

PubMed Central

A preference for immediate gratification is a central feature in addictive processes. However, the neural structures underlying reward delay tolerance are still unclear. Healthy participants (n?=?121) completed a delay discounting questionnaire assessing the extent to which they prefer smaller immediate rewards to larger delayed reward after undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. Whole brain voxel-based morphometric analysis shows that delay discounting severity was negatively correlated with right prefrontal subgyral white matter volume and positively correlated with white matter volume in parahippocampus/hippocampus, after whole brain correction. This study might better our understanding of the neural basis of impulsivity and addiction. PMID:22393420

Yu, Rongjun

2012-01-01

2

Drinking History Associations with Regional White Matter Volumes in Alcoholic Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Alcoholism has been repeatedly associated with gray and white matter pathology. Although neuroimaging has shown alcoholism-related brain volume reductions and axonal compromise, the integrity of white matter volumes in chronic alcoholism has been challenging to measure on a regional level. Methods We first examined effects of alcoholism on cerebral white matter volumes by lobar and gyral subdivisions in 42 abstinent alcoholics and 42 control participants (split evenly by gender). We also examined cerebellar white matter and regions of the corpus callosum, as well as ventricular volumes. Next, relationships between white matter and ventricular volumes with measures of drinking patterns were assessed. Finally, an examination of early versus late abstinence was conducted. Within each examination, gender effects were explored. Results Differences in regional white matter volumes between alcoholics and controls were observed primarily in the corpus callosum, with a stronger group difference among men than among women. Years of heavy drinking had a strong negative impact on frontal and temporal white matter among alcoholic women, and on the corpus callosum among alcoholic men. Quantity of alcohol consumption was associated with smaller corpus callosum and larger ventricular volumes among alcoholic women, while abstinence duration was associated with larger corpus callosum volume among alcoholic men. Preliminary data indicated that alcoholic women showed stronger positive associations between sobriety duration and white matter volume than men within the first year of abstinence, while men showed this association more so than women after one year of abstinence. Conclusions Effects of drinking history on white matter and ventricular volumes vary by gender, with alcoholic women showing greatest sensitivity in frontal, temporal, ventricular, and corpus callosum regions, and alcoholic men showing effects mainly in the corpus callosum. Preliminary results indicate that recovery of white matter volume may occur sooner for women than for men. PMID:22725728

Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Valmas, Mary; Urban, Trinity; Harris, Gordon J.

2012-01-01

3

Regional White Matter Damage Predicts Speech Fluency in Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Recently, two different white matter regions that support speech fluency have been identified: the aslant tract and the anterior segment of the arcuate fasciculus (ASAF). The role of the ASAF was demonstrated in patients with post-stroke aphasia, while the role of the aslant tract shown in primary progressive aphasia. Regional white matter integrity appears to be crucial for speech production; however, the degree that each region exerts an independent influence on speech fluency is unclear. Furthermore, it is not yet defined if damage to both white matter regions influences speech in the context of the same neural mechanism (stroke-induced aphasia). This study assessed the relationship between speech fluency and quantitative integrity of the aslant region and the ASAF. It also explored the relationship between speech fluency and other white matter regions underlying classic cortical language areas such as the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Damage to these regions, except the ILF, was associated with speech fluency, suggesting synergistic association of these regions with speech fluency in post-stroke aphasia. These observations support the theory that speech fluency requires the complex, orchestrated activity between a network of pre-motor, secondary, and tertiary associative cortices, supported in turn by regional white matter integrity. PMID:25368572

Basilakos, Alexandra; Fillmore, Paul T.; Rorden, Chris; Guo, Dazhou; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

2014-01-01

4

Regional white matter anisotropy and reading ability in patients treated for embryonal tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose Children treated with cranial irradiation for brain tumors have reduced white matter volume and deficits in reading ability. This study prospectively examined the relationship between reading and white matter integrity within this patient group. Methods Patients (n=54) were treated with post-surgical radiation followed by 4 cycles of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support. At 12 months post-diagnosis, all patients completed a neuropsychology evaluation and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) exam. White matter integrity was determined through measures of fractional anisotropy (FA). Results Significant group differences in FA were found between above average readers and below average readers within the left and right posterior limb of the internal capsule, and right knee of the internal capsule with a trend within the left temporal-occipital region. Conclusions The integrity of the white matter in these regions may affect communication among visual, auditory, and language cortical areas that are engaged during reading. PMID:20502994

Palmer, Shawna L.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Ogg, Robert; Patay, Zoltan; Wallace, Dana; Gajjar, Amar

2012-01-01

5

Pattern of normal age-related regional differences in white matter microstructure is modified by vascular risk.  

PubMed

Even successful aging is associated with regional brain shrinkage and deterioration of the cerebral white matter. Aging also brings about an increase in vascular risk, and vascular impairment may be a potential mechanism behind the observed patterns of aging. The goals of this study were to characterize the normal age differences in white matter integrity in several brain regions across the adult life span and to assess the modifying effect of vascular risk on the observed pattern of regional white matter integrity. We estimated fractional anisotropy and diffusivity of white matter in nine cerebral regions of interest in 77 healthy adults (19-84 years old). There was a widespread reduction of white matter anisotropy with age, and prefrontal and occipital regions evidenced the greatest age-related differences. Diffusivity increased with age, and the magnitude of age differences increased beginning with the middle of the fifth decade. Vascular risk factors modified age differences in white matter integrity. Clinically diagnosed and treated arterial hypertension was associated with reduced white matter anisotropy and increased diffusivity beyond the effects of age. In the normotensive participants, elevation of arterial pulse pressure (a surrogate of arterial stiffness) was linked to deterioration of the white matter integrity in the frontal regions. Although the causal role of vascular risk in brain aging is unclear, the observed pattern of effects suggests that vascular risk may drive the expansion of age-related white matter damage from anterior to posterior regions. PMID:19712671

Kennedy, Kristen M; Raz, Naftali

2009-11-10

6

Regional white matter volume differences in nondemented aging and Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cerebral white matter (WM) influences normal aging, and further that WM degeneration may modulate the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we conducted a study of differences in WM volume across the adult age span and in AD employing a newly developed, automated method for regional parcellation of the subcortical WM that uses curvature

David H. Salat; Douglas N. Greve; Jennifer L. Pacheco; Brian T. Quinn; Karl G. Helmer; Randy L. Buckner; Bruce Fischl

2009-01-01

7

Aging White Matter and Cognition: Differential Effects of Regional Variations in Diffusion Properties on Memory, Executive Functions, and Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disruption of cerebral white matter has been proposed as an explanation for age-related cognitive declines. However, the role of specific regions in specific cognitive declines remains unclear. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the associations between regional microstructural integrity of the white matter and performance on…

Kennedy, Kristen M.; Raz, Naftali

2009-01-01

8

White Matter Abnormalities in Whole Brain and its Regional Specificity in Chronic Schizophrenia: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

E-print Network

,58)=15.690, p=0.000 ·Both Normal controls and first episode schizophrenia patients demonstrated differencesWhite Matter Abnormalities in Whole Brain and its Regional Specificity in Chronic Schizophrenia abnormalities in multiple fiber bundles in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, alterations in whole brain white matter

9

Regional Differences in White Matter Breakdown Between Frontotemporal Dementia and Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease1  

PubMed Central

Background White matter abnormalities have been associated with both behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective Using MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures, we compared white matter integrity between patients with bvFTD and those with early-onset AD and correlated these biomarkers with behavioral symptoms involving emotional blunting. Methods We studied 8 bvFTD and 12 AD patients as well as 12 demographically-matched healthy controls (NCs). Using four DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity), we assessed the frontal lobes (FWM) and genu of the corpus callosum (GWM), which are vulnerable late-myelinating regions, and a contrasting early-myelinating region (splenium of the corpus callosum). The Scale of Emotional Blunting Scale (SEB) was used to assess emotional functioning of the study participants. Results Compared to AD patients and NCs, the bvFTD subjects exhibited significantly worse FWM and GWM integrity on all four DTI metrics sensitive to myelin and axonal integrity. In contrast, AD patients showed a numerical trend toward worse splenium of the corpus callosum integrity than bvFTD and NC groups. Significant associations between SEB ratings and GWM DTI measures were demonstrated in the combined bvFTD and AD sample. When examined separately, these relationships remained robust for the bvFTD group but not the AD group. Conclusions The regional DTI alterations suggest that FTD and AD are each associated with a characteristic distribution of white matter degradation. White matter breakdown in late-myelinating regions was associated with symptoms of emotional blunting, particularly within the bvFTD group. PMID:24150110

Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Shapira, Jill; Jimenez, Elvira; Mather, Michelle J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George; Mendez, Mario F.

2014-01-01

10

Skeleton-based region competition for automated gray matter and white matter segmentation of human brain MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image segmentation is an essential process for quantitative analysis. Segmentation of brain tissues in magnetic resonance (MR) images is very important for understanding the structural-functional relationship for various pathological conditions, such as dementia vs. normal brain aging. Different brain regions are responsible for certain functions and may have specific implication for diagnosis. Segmentation may facilitate the analysis of different brain regions to aid in early diagnosis. Region competition has been recently proposed as an effective method for image segmentation by minimizing a generalized Bayes/MDL criterion. However, it is sensitive to initial conditions - the "seeds", therefore an optimal choice of "seeds" is necessary for accurate segmentation. In this paper, we present a new skeleton-based region competition algorithm for automated gray and white matter segmentation. Skeletons can be considered as good "seed regions" since they provide the morphological a priori information, thus guarantee a correct initial condition. Intensity gradient information is also added to the global energy function to achieve a precise boundary localization. This algorithm was applied to perform gray and white matter segmentation using simulated MRI images from a realistic digital brain phantom. Nine different brain regions were manually outlined for evaluation of the performance in these separate regions. The results were compared to the gold-standard measure to calculate the true positive and true negative percentages. In general, this method worked well with a 96% accuracy, although the performance varied in different regions. We conclude that the skeleton-based region competition is an effective method for gray and white matter segmentation.

Chu, Yong; Chen, Ya-Fang; Su, Min-Ying; Nalcioglu, Orhan

2005-04-01

11

Aging White Matter and Cognition: Differential Effects of Regional Variations in Diffusion Properties on Memory, Executive Functions, and Speed  

PubMed Central

Disruption of cerebral white matter has been proposed as an explanation for age-related cognitive declines. However, the role of specific regions in specific cognitive declines remains unclear. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the associations between regional microstructural integrity of the white matter and performance on age-sensitive cognitive tasks in a sample of healthy adults (N = 52, age 19–81 years). White matter integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in multiple regions of interest (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, internal capsule limbs, prefrontal, temporal, superior/posterior parietal, occipital white matter) and related to processing speed, working memory, inhibition, task switching, and episodic memory. We found that age and regional white matter integrity differentially influenced cognitive performance. Age-related degradation in anterior brain areas was associated with decreased processing speed and poorer working memory, whereas reduced inhibition and greater task switching costs were linked to decline in posterior areas. Poorer episodic memory was associated with age-related differences in central white matter regions. The observed multiple dissociations among specific age-sensitive cognitive skills and their putative neuroanatomical substrates support the view that age-related cognitive declines are unlikely to stem from a single cause. PMID:19166865

Kennedy, Kristen M.; Raz, Naftali

2009-01-01

12

Regional gray and white matter volume associated with Stroop interference: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.  

PubMed

During Stroop tasks, subjects experience cognitive interference when they resolve interferences such as identifying the ink color of a printed word while ignoring the word's identity. Stroop paradigms are commonly used as an index of attention deficits and a tool for investigating the functions of the frontal lobes and other associated structures. Despite these uses and the vast amount of attention given to Stroop paradigms, the regional gray matter volume/regional white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) correlates of Stroop interference have not yet been identified at the whole brain level in normal adults. We examined this issue using voxel-based morphometry in right-handed healthy young adults. We found significant negative relationships between the Stroop interference rate and rGMV in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right inferior frontal gyrus, and cerebellum. Furthermore, we found relationships between the Stroop interference rate and rWMV in bilateral anatomical clusters that extended around extensive WM regions in the dorsal part of the frontal lobe. These findings are the first to reveal rGMV/rWMV that underlie the performance of the Stroop task, a widely used psychological paradigm at the whole brain level. Of note, our findings support the notion that ACC contributes to Stroop performance and show the involvement of regions that have been implicated in response inhibition and attention. PMID:21988892

Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

2012-02-01

13

Regional white matter volume differences in nondemented aging and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cerebral white matter (WM) influences normal aging, and further that WM degeneration may modulate the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we conducted a study of differences in WM volume across the adult age span and in AD employing a newly developed, automated method for regional parcellation of the subcortical WM that uses curvature landmarks and gray matter (GM)/WM surface boundary information. This procedure measures the volume of gyral WM, utilizing a distance constraint to limit the measurements from extending into the centrum semiovale. Regional estimates were first established to be reliable across two scan sessions in 20 young healthy individuals. Next, the method was applied to a large clinically-characterized sample of 299 individuals including 73 normal older adults and 91 age-matched participants with very mild to mild AD. The majority of measured regions showed a decline in volume with increasing age, with strong effects found in bilateral fusiform, lateral orbitofrontal, superior frontal, medial orbital frontal, inferior temporal, and middle temporal WM. The association between WM volume and age was quadratic in many regions suggesting that WM volume loss accelerates in advanced aging. A number of WM regions were further reduced in AD with parahippocampal, entorhinal, inferior parietal and rostral middle frontal WM showing the strongest AD-associated reductions. There were minimal sex effects after correction for intracranial volume, and there were associations between ventricular volume and regional WM volumes in the older adults and AD that were not apparent in the younger adults. Certain results, such as the loss of WM in the fusiform region with aging, were unexpected and provide novel insight into patterns of age associated neural and cognitive decline. Overall, these results demonstrate the utility of automated regional WM measures in revealing the distinct patterns of age and AD associated volume loss that may contribute to cognitive decline. PMID:19027860

Salat, David H; Greve, Douglas N; Pacheco, Jennifer L; Quinn, Brian T; Helmer, Karl G; Buckner, Randy L; Fischl, Bruce

2009-02-15

14

Individual Differences in Verbal Abilities Associated with Regional Blurring of the Left Gray and White Matter Boundary  

PubMed Central

Blurring of the cortical gray and white matter border on MRI is associated with normal aging, pathological aging, and the presence of focal cortical dysplasia. However, it remains unclear whether normal variations in signal intensity contrast at the gray and white matter junction reflect the functional integrity of subjacent tissue. This study explores the relationship between verbal abilities and gray and white matter contrast (GWC) in healthy human adults. Participants were scanned at 3 T MRI and administered standardized measures of verbal expression and verbal working memory. GWC was estimated by calculating the non-normalized T1 image intensity contrast above and below the cortical gray/white matter interface. Spherical averaging and whole-brain correlational analyses were performed. Sulcal regions exhibited higher contrast compared to gyral regions. We found a strongly lateralized and regionally specific profile with reduced verbal expression abilities associated with blurring in left hemisphere inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole. Reduced verbal working memory was associated with blurring in widespread left frontal and temporal cortices. Such lateralized and focal results provide support for GWC as a measure of regional functional integrity and highlight its potential role in probing the neuroanatomical substrates of cognition in healthy and diseased populations. PMID:22031871

Blackmon, Karen; Halgren, Eric; Barr, William B.; Carlson, Chad; Devinsky, Orrin; DuBois, Jonathan; Quinn, Brian T.; French, Jacqueline; Kuzniecky, Ruben

2011-01-01

15

Regional characterization of longitudinal DT-MRI to study white matter maturation of the early developing brain.  

PubMed

The human brain undergoes rapid and dynamic development early in life. Assessment of brain growth patterns relevant to neurological disorders and disease requires a normative population model of growth and variability in order to evaluate deviation from typical development. In this paper, we focus on maturation of brain white matter as shown in diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI), measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), as well as axial and radial diffusivities (AD, RD). We present a novel methodology to model temporal changes of white matter diffusion from longitudinal DT-MRI data taken at discrete time points. Our proposed framework combines nonlinear modeling of trajectories of individual subjects, population analysis, and testing for regional differences in growth pattern. We first perform deformable mapping of longitudinal DT-MRI of healthy infants imaged at birth, 1 year, and 2 years of age, into a common unbiased atlas. An existing template of labeled white matter regions is registered to this atlas to define anatomical regions of interest. Diffusivity properties of these regions, presented over time, serve as input to the longitudinal characterization of changes. We use non-linear mixed effect (NLME) modeling where temporal change is described by the Gompertz function. The Gompertz growth function uses intuitive parameters related to delay, rate of change, and expected asymptotic value; all descriptive measures which can answer clinical questions related to quantitative analysis of growth patterns. Results suggest that our proposed framework provides descriptive and quantitative information on growth trajectories that can be interpreted by clinicians using natural language terms that describe growth. Statistical analysis of regional differences between anatomical regions which are known to mature differently demonstrates the potential of the proposed method for quantitative assessment of brain growth and differences thereof. This will eventually lead to a prediction of white matter diffusion properties and associated cognitive development at later stages given imaging data at early stages. PMID:23235270

Sadeghi, Neda; Prastawa, Marcel; Fletcher, P Thomas; Wolff, Jason; Gilmore, John H; Gerig, Guido

2013-03-01

16

White matter of the brain  

MedlinePLUS

White matter is tissue found in the brain. It contains nerve fibers. Many of these nerve fibers ( ... of fat called myelin. The myelin gives the white matter it's color. Myelin acts as an insulator. ...

17

Human brain white matter atlas: identification and assignment of common anatomical structures in superficial white matter.  

PubMed

Structural delineation and assignment are the fundamental steps in understanding the anatomy of the human brain. The white matter has been structurally defined in the past only at its core regions (deep white matter). However, the most peripheral white matter areas, which are interleaved between the cortex and the deep white matter, have lacked clear anatomical definitions and parcellations. We used axonal fiber alignment information from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to delineate the peripheral white matter, and investigated its relationship with the cortex and the deep white matter. Using DTI data from 81 healthy subjects, we identified nine common, blade-like anatomical regions, which were further parcellated into 21 subregions based on the cortical anatomy. Four short association fiber tracts connecting adjacent gyri (U-fibers) were also identified reproducibly among the healthy population. We anticipate that this atlas will be useful resource for atlas-based white matter anatomical studies. PMID:18692144

Oishi, Kenichi; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Faria, Andreia; Jiang, Hangyi; Li, Xin; Akhter, Kazi; Hua, Kegang; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur W; Pike, G Bruce; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Evans, Alan; Zhang, Jiangyang; Huang, Hao; Miller, Michael I; van Zijl, Peter C M; Mazziotta, John; Mori, Susumu

2008-11-15

18

White matter microstructure alterations in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetic, neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings support the presence of diffuse white matter cytoarchitectural disruption in bipolar disorder. In this study, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was applied to study cortical white matter microstructure organisation in 24 patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder and 35 matched normal controls. DWI images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla scanner and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were determined over regions of interest placed, bilaterally, in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital white matter. Significantly increased ADC values were found in bipolar patients with respect to normal controls in the right temporal lobe, left parietal lobe and bilateral occipital lobes. ADC values did not associate significantly with age or with clinical variables (p>0.05). Diffuse cortical white matter alterations on DWI in bipolar disorder denote widespread disruption of white matter integrity and may be due to altered myelination and/or axonal integrity. PMID:22687164

Bellani, Marcella; Perlini, Cinzia; Ferro, Adele; Cerruti, Stefania; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Isola, Miriam; Cerini, Roberto; Dusi, Nicola; Andreone, Nicola; Balestrieri, Matteo; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Tansella, Michele; Brambilla, Paolo

2012-01-01

19

White matter microstructure alterations in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Genetic, neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings support the presence of diffuse white matter cytoarchitectural disruption in bipolar disorder. In this study, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was applied to study cortical white matter microstructure organisation in 24 patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder and 35 matched normal controls. DWI images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla scanner and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were determined over regions of interest placed, bilaterally, in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital white matter. Significantly increased ADC values were found in bipolar patients with respect to normal controls in the right temporal lobe, left parietal lobe and bilateral occipital lobes. ADC values did not associate significantly with age or with clinical variables (p>0.05). Diffuse cortical white matter alterations on DWI in bipolar disorder denote widespread disruption of white matter integrity and may be due to altered myelination and/or axonal integrity. PMID:22687164

Bellani, Marcella; Perlini, Cinzia; Ferro, Adele; Cerruti, Stefania; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Isola, Miriam; Cerini, Roberto; Dusi, Nicola; Andreone, Nicola; Balestrieri, Matteo; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto; Tansella, Michele; Brambilla, Paolo

2012-01-01

20

White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

2013-02-01

21

White matter plasticity in adulthood.  

PubMed

CNS white matter is subject to a novel form of neural plasticity which has been termed "myelin plasticity". It is well established that oligodendrocyte generation and the addition of new myelin internodes continue throughout normal adulthood. These new myelin internodes maybe required for the de novo myelination of previously unmyelinated axons, myelin sheath replacement, or even myelin remodeling. Each process could alter axonal conduction velocity, but to what end? We review the changes that occur within the white matter over the lifetime, the known regulators and mediators of white matter plasticity in the mature CNS, and the physiological role this plasticity may play in CNS function. PMID:24161723

Wang, S; Young, K M

2014-09-12

22

Cerebral White Matter  

PubMed Central

Lesions of the cerebral white matter (WM) result in focal neurobehavioral syndromes, neuropsychiatric phenomena, and dementia. The cerebral WM contains fiber pathways that convey axons linking cerebral cortical areas with each other and with subcortical structures, facilitating the distributed neural circuits that subserve sensorimotor function, intellect, and emotion. Recent neuroanatomical investigations reveal that these neural circuits are topographically linked by five groupings of fiber tracts emanating from every neocortical area: (1) cortico-cortical association fibers; (2) corticostriatal fibers; (3) commissural fibers; and cortico-subcortical pathways to (4) thalamus and (5) pontocerebellar system, brain stem, and/or spinal cord. Lesions of association fibers prevent communication between cortical areas engaged in different domains of behavior. Lesions of subcortical structures or projection/striatal fibers disrupt the contribution of subcortical nodes to behavior. Disconnection syndromes thus result from lesions of the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, and WM tracts that link the nodes that make up the distributed circuits. The nature and the severity of the clinical manifestations of WM lesions are determined, in large part, by the location of the pathology: discrete neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms result from focal WM lesions, whereas cognitive impairment across multiple domains—WM dementia—occurs in the setting of diffuse WM disease. We present a detailed review of the conditions affecting WM that produce these neurobehavioral syndromes, and consider the pathophysiology, clinical effects, and broad significance of the effects of aging and vascular compromise on cerebral WM, in an attempt to help further the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of these disorders. PMID:18990132

Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Smith, Eric E.; Eichler, Florian S.; Filley, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

23

[White matter in developmental disorders].  

PubMed

The white matter is the main connection between different regions of the brain and helps them to work in a unified, coordinated way. Diffusion tensor imaging is an ideal technique with which to study it in order to detect the degree of integrity of these fibres. Nowadays, they are considered to play a significant role in the development and pathophysiology of different developmental disorders, and the aim of this study was to examine this role. On reviewing disorders such as autism, dyslexia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, certain fibres were found to be clearly involved. This was especially the case of the (arcuate) superior longitudinal fasciculus and the temporal-parietal network (related with the regulation of motor and attentional behaviour), the corpus callosum (which ensures the efficient and swift exchange of information between the hemispheres of the brain) and cingulate regions (which would be related with social cognition and self-consciousness). PMID:21894607

Guinea-Hidalgo, Ana; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

2011-09-16

24

Regional white matter volume and the relation with attentional functioning in survivors of malignant pediatric brain tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative assessment of MR examinations in 37 survivors of childhood cancer treated with central nervous system prophylaxis revealed that normal appearing white matter (NAWM) volume is associated with attention-related problems, localized specifically in the right prefrontal region. T1-, T2-, and PD-weighted images were segmented and divided into pre-frontal, frontal, parietal/temporal, and parietal/occipital regions for each hemisphere. These eight regions were analyzed in five slices centered at the level of the basal ganglia. The patient's age at diagnosis and time elapsed from diagnosis were used as covariates in the regressions. Attentional measures showed significant deficiency when compared to age and gender normative values. Total, frontal and/or prefrontal NAWM volumes from the range of slices examined were significantly associated with 5 of the 8 attentional measures. The frontal/prefrontal region of the brain is associated with executive functioning tasks and could potentially be spared as much as possible during therapy planning. The results of the present study further support the contention that NAWM is an important substrate for treatment-induced neurocognitive problems among survivors of malignant brain tumors of childhood.

Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; White, Holly A.; Wilkinson, Gina M.; Reddick, Wilburn E.

2003-05-01

25

Regional gray and white matter volume abnormalities in obsessive–compulsive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated both functional and structural abnormalities in the frontal–striatal–thalamic circuits in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to assess volume abnormalities not only of gray matter (GM), but also of white matter (WM) in patients with OCD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Subjects consisted of 23 patients with OCD and 26 normal control subjects. All

Osamu Togao; Takashi Yoshiura; Tomohiro Nakao; Maiko Nabeyama; Hirokuni Sanematsu; Akiko Nakagawa; Tomoyuki Noguchi; Akio Hiwatashi; Koji Yamashita; Eiki Nagao; Shigenobu Kanba; Hiroshi Honda

2010-01-01

26

The energetics of CNS white matter.  

PubMed

The energetics of CNS white matter are poorly understood. We derive a signaling energy budget for the white matter (based on data from the rodent optic nerve and corpus callosum) which can be compared with previous energy budgets for the gray matter regions of the brain, perform a cost-benefit analysis of the energetics of myelination, and assess mechanisms for energy production and glucose supply in myelinated axons. We show that white matter synapses consume ?0.5% of the energy of gray matter synapses and that this, rather than more energy-efficient action potentials, is the main reason why CNS white matter uses less energy than gray matter. Surprisingly, while the energetic cost of building myelin could be repaid within months by the reduced ATP cost of neuronal action potentials, the energetic cost of maintaining the oligodendrocyte resting potential usually outweighs the saving on action potentials. Thus, although it dramatically speeds action potential propagation, myelination need not save energy. Finally, we show that mitochondria in optic nerve axons could sustain measured firing rates with a plausible density of glucose transporters in the nodal membrane, without the need for energy transfer from oligodendrocytes. PMID:22219296

Harris, Julia J; Attwell, David

2012-01-01

27

White matter disintegration in cluster headache  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies in primary headache disorders showed microstructural alterations in the white matter as measured by diffusion imaging. However these investigations are not in full agreement and some of those, especially in cluster headache, restricted the analysis to only a limited number of diffusion parameters. Therefore, in the current study we examined white matter microstructure in cluster headache patients. Methods Diffusion weighted MRI images with 60 directions were acquired from thirteen patients with cluster headache and sixteen age-matched healthy controls. Tract based spatial statistics were used to compare white matter integrity in the core of the fibre bundles. Correlation of the diffusion parameters with cumulative number of headache days was examined. Results There was a significant increment of the mean, axial and perpendicular diffusivity in widespread white matter regions in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Reduced fractional anisotropy was found in the corpus callosum and some frontal and parietal white matter tracts mainly in the contralateral side of the pain. Axial diffusivity showed negative correlation to the number of the headache attacks. Conclusions The in vivo analysis of microstructural alterations in cluster headache provides important features of the disease, which might offer a deeper insight into the pathomechanism of the disease. PMID:23883140

2013-01-01

28

White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

PubMed Central

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P = 0.002), axial (P = 0.0003) and radial (P = 0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), with a generally symmetric pattern of involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P = 0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects. Neuropathological analysis showed diffuse astrocytic gliosis and activated microglia in the white matter, rare prion deposition and subtle subcortical microvacuolization, and patchy foci of demyelination with no evident white matter axonal degeneration. Decreased mean diffusivity on attenuation coefficient maps might be associated with astrocytic gliosis. We show for the first time significant global reduced mean diffusivity within the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggesting possible primary involvement of the white matter, rather than changes secondary to neuronal degeneration/loss. PMID:25367029

Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Hess, Christopher P.; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L.; Lobach, Irina V.; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D.; Henry, Roland G.

2014-01-01

29

White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  

PubMed

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P = 0.002), axial (P = 0.0003) and radial (P = 0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), with a generally symmetric pattern of involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P = 0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects. Neuropathological analysis showed diffuse astrocytic gliosis and activated microglia in the white matter, rare prion deposition and subtle subcortical microvacuolization, and patchy foci of demyelination with no evident white matter axonal degeneration. Decreased mean diffusivity on attenuation coefficient maps might be associated with astrocytic gliosis. We show for the first time significant global reduced mean diffusivity within the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggesting possible primary involvement of the white matter, rather than changes secondary to neuronal degeneration/loss. PMID:25367029

Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

2014-12-01

30

Whole brain-based analysis of regional white matter tract alterations in rare motor neuron diseases by diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

Different motor neuron disorders (MNDs) are mainly defined by the clinical presentation based on the predominance of upper or lower motor neuron impairment and the course of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mostly serves as a tool to exclude other pathologies, but novel approaches such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have begun to add information on the underlying pathophysiological processes of these disorders in vivo. The present study was designed to investigate three different rare MNDs, i.e., primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, N = 25), hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP, N = 24), and X-linked spinobulbar muscular atrophy (X-SBMA, N = 20), by use of whole-brain-based DTI analysis in comparison with matched controls. This analysis of white matter (WM) impairment revealed widespread and characteristic patterns of alterations within the motor system with a predominant deterioration of the corticospinal tract (CST) in HSP and PLS patients according to the clinical presentation and also in patients with X-SBMA to a lesser degree, but also WM changes in projections to the limbic system and within distinct areas of the corpus callosum (CC), the latter both for HSP and PLS. In summary, DTI was able to define a characteristic WM pathoanatomy in motor and extra-motor brain areas, such as the CC and the limbic projectional system, for different MNDs via whole brain-based FA assessment and quantitative fiber tracking. Future advanced MRI-based investigations might help to provide a fingerprint-identification of MNDs. PMID:20336652

Unrath, Alexander; Müller, Hans-Peter; Riecker, Axel; Ludolph, Albert C; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Kassubek, Jan

2010-11-01

31

Cigarette Smoking and White Matter Microstructure  

PubMed Central

Rationale Diffusion tensor imaging has been used before in testing associations between cigarette smoking and white matter integrity, with inconsistent results. Published reports indicate higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in some brain regions and lower FA in others in adult smokers compared to nonsmokers. Adolescent smokers exhibited elevated FA at several sites and a positive correlation of FA in the genu corpus callosum with exposure to smoking (pack-years). Objective To help resolve prior discrepancies, we studied adults, sampling multiple brain regions, and testing for relationships to clinical features of nicotine dependence and exposure to smoking. Methods Brain MRI scans (1.5T) were acquired, and FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were assayed in corpus callosum and prefrontal white matter, corona radiata, internal capsule, cingulum bundle, and hippocampal perforant fibers in 18 smokers (33.7±7.9 years of age) and 18 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers. Results ADC showed no group difference, but smokers had higher (4.3-21.1%) FA than nonsmokers. The differences were significant in right prefrontal white matter, cingulum, and genu corpus callosum. FA in several regions was negatively correlated with nicotine dependence or cigarettes/day. Conclusions Combined with earlier findings, these results suggest a model of changing trajectories whereby FA is higher with tobacco exposure during adolescence, and declines with continued smoking in adulthood. This notion is supported by the observation that, at multiple sampling sites, participants who had started smoking earlier in life had higher FA than those who had started later. PMID:22215225

Hudkins, Matthew; O'Neill, Joseph; Tobias, Marc C.; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

2014-01-01

32

Significance of White Matter Hyperintensities in MCI  

E-print Network

Significance of White Matter Hyperintensities in MCI Charles DeCarli University of California at Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center Imaging of Dementia and Aging (IDeA) Laboratory #12;MCI is Early ADMCI Hyperintensities and MCI White Matter Hyperintensities and MCI Predictor VariablePredictor Variable Adjusted RR and

California at Davis, University of

33

Astrocytes and Developmental White Matter Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an increasing awareness that the astrocytes in the immature periventricular white matter are vulnerable to ischemia and respond to inflammation. Here we provide a synopsis of the articles that have evaluated the causes and consequences of developmental brain injuries to white matter astrocytes as well as the consequences of several…

Sen, Ellora; Levison, Steven W.

2006-01-01

34

White Matter Changes in Stroke Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

White matter changes (WMC), detected by imaging techniques, are frequent in stroke patients. The aim of the study was to determine how WMC relate to stroke subtypes and to stroke outcome. We made a systematic Medline search for articles appearing with two of the following key words: either ‘WMC or white matter lesions or leukoencephalopathy or leukoaraiosis’ and ‘stroke or

Didier Leys; Elisabet Englund; Theodoro Del Ser; Domenico Inzitari; Franz Fazekas; Natan Bornstein; Timo Erkinjuntti; John V. Bowler; Leonardo Pantoni; Lucilla Parnetti; Jacques De Reuck; José Ferro; Julien Bogousslavsky

1999-01-01

35

Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter.  

PubMed

White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. GLIA 2014;62:1762-1779. PMID:24753049

Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos

2014-11-01

36

Brain maturation in adolescence and young adulthood: regional age-related changes in cortical thickness and white matter volume and microstructure.  

PubMed

The development of cortical gray matter, white matter (WM) volume, and WM microstructure in adolescence is beginning to be fairly well characterized by structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies. However, these aspects of brain development have rarely been investigated concurrently in the same sample and hence the relations between them are not understood. We delineated the age-related changes in cortical thickness, regional WM volume, and diffusion characteristics and investigated the relationships between these properties of brain development. One hundred and sixty-eight healthy participants aged 8-30 years underwent sMRI and DTI. The results showed regional age-related cortical thinning, WM volume increases, and changes in diffusion parameters. Cortical thickness was the most strongly age-related parameter. All classes of measures showed unique associations with age. The results indicate that cortical thinning in adolescence cannot be explained by WM maturation in underlying regions as measured by volumetry or DTI. Moderate associations between cortical thickness and both volume and diffusion parameters in underlying WM regions were also found, although the relationships were not strong. It is concluded that none of the measures are redundant and that the integration of the 3 will yield a more complete understanding of brain maturation. PMID:19520764

Tamnes, Christian K; Ostby, Ylva; Fjell, Anders M; Westlye, Lars T; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Walhovd, Kristine B

2010-03-01

37

White matter atlas generation using HARDI based automated parcellation.  

PubMed

Most diffusion imaging studies have used subject registration to an atlas space for enhanced quantification of anatomy. However, standard diffusion tensor atlases lack information in regions of fiber crossing and are based on adult anatomy. The degree of error associated with applying these atlases to studies of children for example has not yet been estimated but may lead to suboptimal results. This paper describes a novel technique for generating population-specific high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI)-based atlases consisting of labeled regions of homogenous white matter. Our approach uses a fiber orientation distribution (FOD) diffusion model and a data driven clustering algorithm. White matter regional labeling is achieved by our automated data driven clustering algorithm that has the potential to delineate white matter regions based on fiber complexity and orientation. The advantage of such an atlas is that it is study specific and more comprehensive in describing regions of white matter homogeneity as compared to standard anatomical atlases. We have applied this state of the art technique to a dataset consisting of adolescent and preadolescent children, creating one of the first examples of a HARDI-based atlas, thereby establishing the feasibility of the atlas creation framework. The white matter regions generated by our automated clustering algorithm have lower FOD variance than when compared to the regions created from a standard anatomical atlas. PMID:21893205

Bloy, Luke; Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Eavani, Harini; Schultz, Robert T; Roberts, Timothy P L; Verma, Ragini

2012-02-15

38

Development of white matter and reading skills.  

PubMed

White matter tissue properties are highly correlated with reading proficiency; we would like to have a model that relates the dynamics of an individual's white matter development to their acquisition of skilled reading. The development of cerebral white matter involves multiple biological processes, and the balance between these processes differs between individuals. Cross-sectional measures of white matter mask the interplay between these processes and their connection to an individual's cognitive development. Hence, we performed a longitudinal study to measure white-matter development (diffusion-weighted imaging) and reading development (behavioral testing) in individual children (age 7-15 y). The pattern of white-matter development differed significantly among children. In the left arcuate and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, children with above-average reading skills initially had low fractional anisotropy (FA) that increased over the 3-y period, whereas children with below-average reading skills had higher initial FA that declined over time. We describe a dual-process model of white matter development comprising biological processes with opposing effects on FA, such as axonal myelination and pruning, to explain the pattern of results. PMID:23045658

Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Wandell, Brian A

2012-10-30

39

Lower Orbital Frontal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with bipolar I disorder demonstrated white matter abnormalities in white matter regions as seen through the use of diffusion tensor imaging. The findings suggest that white matter abnormalities in pediatric bipolar disorder may be useful in constructing neurobiological models of the disorder.

Kafantaris, Vivian; Kingsley, Peter; Ardekani, Babak; Saito, Ema; Lencz, Todd; Lim, Kelvin; Szeszko, Philip

2009-01-01

40

Cerebral white matter analysis using diffusion imaging  

E-print Network

In this thesis we address the whole-brain tractography segmentation problem. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging can be used to create a representation of white matter tracts in the brain via a process called tractography. ...

O'Donnell, Lauren Jean

2006-01-01

41

Alcoholism Damages Brain's White Matter, Scans Show  

MedlinePLUS

... Brain's White Matter, Scans Show Areas tied to decision-making, such as how much to drink, seem most ... part of the brain mediates inhibitory control and decision-making, so tragically, it appears that some of the ...

42

Linking white matter integrity loss to associated cortical regions using structural connectivity information in Alzheimer's disease and fronto-temporal dementia: the Loss in Connectivity (LoCo) score.  

PubMed

It is well known that gray matter changes occur in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's (AD) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), and several studies have investigated their respective patterns of atrophy progression. Recent work, however, has revealed that diffusion MRI that is able to detect white matter integrity changes may be an earlier or more sensitive biomarker in both diseases. However, studies that examine white matter changes only are limited in that they do not provide the functional specificity of GM region-based analysis. In this study, we develop a new metric called the Loss in Connectivity (LoCo) score that gives the amount of structural network disruption incurred by a gray matter region for a particular pattern of white matter integrity loss. Leveraging the relative strengths of WM and GM markers, this metric links areas of WM integrity loss to their connected GM regions as a first step in understanding their functional implications. The LoCo score is calculated for three groups: 18AD, 18 FTD, and 19 age-matched normal controls. We show significant correlations of the LoCo with the respective atrophy patterns in AD (R=0.51, p=2.2 × 10(-9)) and FTD (R=0.49, p=2.5 × 10(-8)) for a standard 116 region gray matter atlas. In addition, we demonstrate that the LoCo outperforms a measure of gray matter atrophy when classifying individuals into AD, FTD, and normal groups. PMID:22484307

Kuceyeski, Amy; Zhang, Yu; Raj, Ashish

2012-07-16

43

Aerobic Fitness is Associated with Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Alterations in gray and white matter have been well documented in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Severity and extent of such brain tissue damage have been associated with cognitive impairment, disease duration and neurological disability, making quantitative indices of tissue damage important markers of disease progression. In this study, we investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of gray matter atrophy and white matter integrity. Employing a voxel-based approach to analyses of gray matter and white matter, we specifically examined whether higher levels of fitness in multiple sclerosis participants were associated with preserved gray matter volume and integrity of white matter. We found a positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness and regional gray matter volumes and higher focal fractional anisotropy values. Statistical mapping revealed that higher levels of fitness were associated with greater gray matter volume in the midline cortical structures including the medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. Further, we also found increasing levels of fitness were associated with higher fractional anisotropy in the left thalamic radiation and right anterior corona radiata. Both preserved gray matter volume and white-matter tract integrity were associated with better performance on measures of processing speed. Taken together, these results suggest that fitness exerts a prophylactic influence on the cerebral atrophy observed early on preserving neuronal integrity in multiple sclerosis, thereby reducing long-term disability. PMID:19560443

Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Snook, Erin M.; Motl, Robert W.; Kramer, Arthur F.

2009-01-01

44

Profiles of white matter tract pathology in frontotemporal dementia.  

PubMed

Despite considerable interest in improving clinical and neurobiological characterisation of frontotemporal dementia and in defining the role of brain network disintegration in its pathogenesis, information about white matter pathway alterations in frontotemporal dementia remains limited. Here we investigated white matter tract damage using an unbiased, template-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) protocol in a cohort of 27 patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) representing both major genetic and sporadic forms, in relation both to healthy individuals and to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Widespread white matter tract pathology was identified in the bvFTD group compared with both healthy controls and Alzheimer's disease group, with prominent involvement of uncinate fasciculus, cingulum bundle and corpus callosum. Relatively discrete and distinctive white matter profiles were associated with genetic subgroups of bvFTD associated with MAPT and C9ORF72 mutations. Comparing diffusivity metrics, optimal overall separation of the bvFTD group from the healthy control group was signalled using radial diffusivity, whereas optimal overall separation of the bvFTD group from the Alzheimer's disease group was signalled using fractional anisotropy. Comparing white matter changes with regional grey matter atrophy (delineated using voxel based morphometry) in the bvFTD cohort revealed co-localisation between modalities particularly in the anterior temporal lobe, however white matter changes extended widely beyond the zones of grey matter atrophy. Our findings demonstrate a distributed signature of white matter alterations that is likely to be core to the pathophysiology of bvFTD and further suggest that this signature is modulated by underlying molecular pathologies. PMID:24510641

Mahoney, Colin J; Ridgway, Gerard R; Malone, Ian B; Downey, Laura E; Beck, Jonathan; Kinnunen, Kirsi M; Schmitz, Nicole; Golden, Hannah L; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Schott, Jonathan M; Rossor, Martin N; Ourselin, Sebastien; Mead, Simon; Fox, Nick C; Warren, Jason D

2014-08-01

45

Developmental Differences in White Matter Architecture Between Boys and Girls  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have found developmental differences between males and females in brain structure. During childhood and adolescence, relative white matter volume increases faster in boys than in girls. Sex differences in the development of white matter microstructure were investigated in a cohort of normal children ages 5-18 in a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study. Greater fractional anisotropy (FA) in boys was shown in associative white matter regions (including the frontal lobes), while greater FA in girls was shown in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Greater mean diffusivity (MD) in boys was shown in the corticospinal tract and in frontal white matter in the right hemisphere; greater MD in girls was shown in occipito-parietal regions and the most superior aspect of the corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. Significant sex-age interactions on FA and MD were also shown. Girls displayed a greater rate of fiber density increase with age compared with boys in associative regions (reflected in MD values). However girls displayed a trend toward increased organization with age (reflected in FA values) only in the right hemisphere, while boys displayed this trend only in the left hemisphere. These results indicate differing developmental trajectories in white matter for boys and girls and the importance of taking sex into account in developmental DTI studies. The results also may have implications for the study of the relationship of brain architecture with intelligence. PMID:17598163

Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Dardzinski, Bernard J.

2007-01-01

46

Clinically relevant intronic splicing enhancer mutation in myelin proteolipid protein leads to progressive microglia and astrocyte activation in white and gray matter regions of the brain  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mutations in proteolipid protein (PLP), the most abundant myelin protein in the CNS, cause the X-linked dysmyelinating leukodystrophies, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) and spastic paraplegia type 2 (SPG2). Point mutations, deletion, and duplication of the PLP1 gene cause PMD/SPG2 with varying clinical presentation. Deletion of an intronic splicing enhancer (ISEdel) within intron 3 of the PLP1 gene is associated with a mild form of PMD. Clinical and preclinical studies have indicated that mutations in myelin proteins, including PLP, can induce neuroinflammation, but the temporal and spatial onset of the reactive glia response in a clinically relevant mild form of PMD has not been defined. Methods A PLP-ISEdel knockin mouse was used to examine the behavioral and neuroinflammatory consequences of a deletion within intron 3 of the PLP gene, at two time points (two and four months old) early in the pathological progression. Mice were characterized functionally using the open field task, elevated plus maze, and nesting behavior. Quantitative neuropathological analysis was for markers of astrocytes (GFAP), microglia (IBA1, CD68, MHCII) and axons (APP). The Aperio ScanScope was used to generate a digital, high magnification photomicrograph of entire brain sections. These digital slides were used to quantify the immunohistochemical staining in ten different brain regions to assess the regional heterogeneity in the reactive astrocyte and microglial response. Results The PLP-ISEdel mice exhibited behavioral deficits in the open field and nesting behavior at two months, which did not worsen by four months of age. A marker of axonal injury (APP) increased from two months to four months of age. Striking was the robust reactive astrocyte and microglia response which was also progressive. In the two-month-old mice, the astrocyte and microglia reactivity was most apparent in white matter rich regions of the brain. By four months of age the gliosis had become widespread and included both white as well as gray matter regions of the brain. Conclusions Our results indicate, along with other preclinical models of PMD, that an early reactive glia response occurs following mutations in the PLP gene, which may represent a potentially clinically relevant, oligodendrocyte-independent therapeutic target for PMD. PMID:24314267

2013-01-01

47

A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter  

PubMed Central

It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006). PMID:23140891

Beal, Deryk S.; Gracco, Vincent L.; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M.; De Nil, Luc F.

2012-01-01

48

The Reduction of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Normal-Appearing White Matter Is Associated with the Severity of White Matter Lesions in Elderly: A Xeon-CT Study  

PubMed Central

White matter lesions (WMLs) in normal elderly are related to chronic ischemia, and progression of WML occurs mostly in moderate to severe disease. However, the mechanism is uncertain. Thus, we enrolled fifty-six normal elderly patients without large artery disease. The severity of WML on MRI was graded as grade 0, I, II and III using the modified Fazekas scale. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by Xenon-CT. We found that CBF (mL/100 g/min) within periventricular lesions and in the right and left centrum semiovales were 20.33, 21.27 and 21.03, respectively, in group I; 16.33, 15.55 and 15.91, respectively, in group II; and 14.05, 14.46 and 14.23, respectively, in group III. CBF of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) around periventricular areas and in the right and left centrum semiovales were 20.79, 22.26 and 22.15, respectively, in group 0; 21.12, 22.17 and 22.25, respectively, in group I; 18.02, 19.45 and 19.62, respectively, in group II; and 16.38, 18.18 and 16.74, respectively, in group III. Significant reductions in CBF were observed not only within lesions but also in NAWM surrounding the lesions. In addition, CBF was reduced significantly within lesions compared to NAWM of the same grade. Furthermore, CBF was reduced significantly in NAWM in grades II and III when compared to grades 0 and I. Our finding indicates that ischemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of WML. Additionally, our finding provides an alternative explanation for finding that the progression of WML occurred more commonly in patients with moderate to severe WML. PMID:25401786

Han, Jinghao; Hong, Zhen

2014-01-01

49

Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease.  

PubMed

Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities in white matter that may appear normal on brain imaging. The loss of integrity in such normal-appearing white matter may partly be due to small vessel disease and may play a role in causing gait disturbances. The white matter regions involved in these gait disturbances, both in white matter lesions and normal-appearing white matter, remain unclear. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the relation between the location of white matter lesions and gait using voxel-based morphometry analysis, as well as between white matter integrity and gait by applying tract-based spatial statistics to diffusion tensor imaging parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out on 429 individuals in the age range of 50 and 85 years, with cerebral small vessel disease without dementia or parkinsonism. Gait was assessed quantitatively. White matter lesions, especially in the centrum semiovale and periventricular frontal lobe, were related to a lower gait velocity, shorter stride length and broader stride width. Loss of white matter integrity, as indicated by a lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity, in numerous regions was related to a lower gait performance. Most of these regions were located in the normal-appearing white matter. The strongest significant association was found in the corpus callosum, particularly the genu. Most of the associations in the normal-appearing white matter disappeared after controlling for white matter lesions and lacunar infarcts, except for some in the corpus callosum. In conclusion, our study showed that using a combination of voxel-based morphometry analysis of the white matter lesions and diffusion tensor imaging is of added value in investigating the pathophysiology of gait disturbances in subjects with small vessel disease. Our data demonstrate that, in elderly subjects with small vessel disease, widespread disruption of white matter integrity, predominantly in the normal-appearing white matter, is involved in gait disturbances. In particular, loss of fibres interconnecting bilateral cortical regions, especially the prefrontal cortex that is involved in cognitive control on motor performance, may be important. The most important mechanisms underlying affected normal-appearing white matter are probably a direct effect of small vessel disease or, indirectly, remote effects of white matter lesions and lacunar infarcts. PMID:21156660

de Laat, Karlijn F; Tuladhar, Anil M; van Norden, Anouk G W; Norris, David G; Zwiers, Marcel P; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

2011-01-01

50

Impaired empathic abilities and reduced white matter integrity in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Empathic abilities are impaired in schizophrenia. Although the pathology of schizophrenia is thought to involve disrupted white matter integrity, the relationship between empathic disabilities and altered white matter in the disorder remains unclear. The present study tested associations between empathic disabilities and white matter integrity in order to investigate the neural basis of impaired empathy in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 69 age-, gender-, handedness-, education- and IQ level-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Empathic abilities were assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), the associations between empathic abilities and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, were examined in the patient group within brain areas that showed a significant FA reduction compared with the controls. The patients with schizophrenia reported lower perspective taking and higher personal distress according to the IRI. The patients showed a significant FA reduction in bilateral deep white matter in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, a large portion of the corpus callosum, and the corona radiata. In schizophrenia patients, fantasy subscales positively correlated with FA in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi and anterior thalamic radiation, and personal distress subscales negatively correlated with FA in the splenium of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that disrupted white matter integrity in these regions constitutes a pathology underpinning specific components of empathic disabilities in schizophrenia, highlighting that different aspects of empathic impairments in the disorder would have, at least partially, distinct neuropathological bases. PMID:24099786

Fujino, Junya; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Miyata, Jun; Sugihara, Genichi; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya

2014-01-01

51

Gestational iron deficiency differentially alters the structure and function of white and gray matter brain regions of developing rats.  

PubMed

Gestational iron deficiency (ID) has been associated with a wide variety of central nervous system (CNS) impairments in developing offspring. However, a focus on singular regions has impeded an understanding of the CNS-wide effects of this micronutrient deficiency. Because the developing brain requires iron during specific phases of growth in a region-specific manner, we hypothesized that maternal iron deprivation would lead to region-specific impairments in the CNS of offspring. Female rats were fed an iron control (Fe+) or iron-deficient (Fe-) diet containing 240 or 6 ?g/g iron during gestation and lactation. The corpus callosum (CC), hippocampus, and cortex of the offspring were analyzed at postnatal day 21 (P21) and/or P40 using structural and functional measures. In the CC at P40, ID was associated with reduced peak amplitudes of compound action potentials specific to myelinated axons, in which diameters were reduced by ?20% compared with Fe+ controls. In the hippocampus, ID was associated with a 25% reduction in basal dendritic length of pyramidal neurons at P21, whereas branching complexity was unaffected. We also identified a shift toward increased proximal branching of apical dendrites in ID without an effect on overall length compared with Fe+ controls. ID also affected cortical neurons, but unlike the hippocampus, both apical and basal dendrites displayed a uniform decrease in branching complexity, with no significant effect on overall length. These deficits culminated in significantly poorer performance of P40 Fe- offspring in the novel object recognition task. Collectively, these results demonstrate that non-anemic gestational ID has a significant and region-specific impact on neuronal development and may provide a framework for understanding and recognizing the presentation of clinical symptoms of ID. PMID:24744313

Greminger, Allison R; Lee, Dawn L; Shrager, Peter; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

2014-07-01

52

Quantitative Analysis of White Matter Fiber Properties along Geodesic Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is becoming a routine mag- netic resonance technique to study white matter properties and alter- ations of fiber integrity due to pathology. The advanced MRI technique needs postprocessing by adequate image processing and visualization tools. Analysis of DTI in clinical studies so far use manual definition of regions or interest or image matching followed by voxel-based

Pierre Fillard; John H. Gilmore; Joseph Piven; Weili Lin; Guido Gerig

2003-01-01

53

White matter predictors of cognitive functioning in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have applied multiple imaging modalities to examine cognitive correlates of white matter. We examined the utility of T2-weighted MRI-derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) to predict cognitive functioning among older adults. Methods Quantitative MRI and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 112 older participants from an ongoing study of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in African Americans. Regional WMH volumes and FA were measured in multiple regions of interest. We examined the association of regional WMH and an FA summary score with cognitive test performance. Differences in WMH and FA were compared across diagnostic groups (i.e., normal controls, mild cognitive impairment, and probable AD). Results Increased WMH volume in frontal lobes was associated with poorer delayed memory performance. FA did not emerge as a significant predictor of cognition. White matter hyperintensity volume in the frontal and parietal lobes was increased in MCI participants and more so in AD patients relative to controls. Discussion These results highlight the importance of regionally-distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease in memory performance and AD among African American older adults. White matter microstructural changes, quantified with DTI, appear to play a lesser role in our sample. PMID:22390883

Meier, Irene B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Louie, Karmen S.; Wasserman, Ben T.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Hector, Josina T.; Allocco, Elizabeth; Brickman, Adam M.

2013-01-01

54

Mattering: The African American Experience in Historically White Fraternities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the issues of race and mattering in relation to African American participation within historically White fraternities. Participant perspectives were obtained through six interviews with African American males at four collegial institutions within the Southeastern Region of the United States. Critical Race Theory was utilized to framed issues surrounding race in a

Eric J. Summers

2010-01-01

55

Brain white matter tracts: functional anatomy and clinical relevance.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging is increasingly available on clinical magnetic resonance scanners and can be acquired in a relatively short time. There has been an explosion of applications in the research field but the use to the practicing radiologist may seem obscure. This paper aims to highlight how diffusion tensor imaging can be used to prompt a dedicated neuroanatomical search for white matter lesions in clinical presentations relating to motor, sensory, language, and visuospatial deficits. The enhanced depiction of white matter tracts in the temporal stem is also highlighted, which is a region of importance in epilepsy surgery planning. PMID:25217297

Gerrish, Amy C; Thomas, Adam G; Dineen, Robert A

2014-10-01

56

Long-Term Vision and Non-Vision Dominant Behavioral Deficits in the 2-VO Rats Are Accompanied by Time and Regional Glial Activation in the White Matter  

PubMed Central

The permanent occlusion of common carotid arteries (2-VO) in rats has been shown to induce progressive and long-lasting deficits in cognitive performance, however, whether these aberrant behaviors are attributed to visual dysfunction or cognitive impairment and what are the underlying mechanisms, remain controversial. In the present study, vision dominant (Morris water maze) and non-vision dominant (voice-cued fear conditioning) behavioral tests were assigned to comprehensively evaluate the influence of 2-VO lesion on cognitive behaviors. In the Morris water maze test, escape latencies of 2-VO rats were markedly increased in both hidden and unfixed visible platform tasks, which were accompanied by severe retinal damage. In the voice-cued fear conditioning test, significant reduction in the percentage of freezing behavior was observed at 60 days after 2-VO lesion. Chronic lesion by 2-VO failed to cause noticeable changes in the grey matter, as indicated by intact hippocampal and prefrontal cortical structures, sustained synaptic protein levels and glial cell numbers. In contrast, aberrant arrangement of myelinated axons was observed in the optic tract, but not in the corpus callosum and inner capsule of 2-VO rats. Concurrently, marked astrocyte proliferation and microglia activation in the optic tract occurred at 3 days after 2-VO lesion, and continued for up to 60 days. Differently, robust glial activation was observed in the corpus callosum at 3 days after 2-VO surgery, and then gradually returned to the baseline level at 14 and 60 days. Our study reported for the first time about the effect of 2-VO on the long-term cognitive impairment in the non-vision dominant fear conditioning test, which may be more applicable than the Morris water maze test for assessing 2-VO associated cognitive function. The time and region specific glial activation in the white matter may relate to retinal impairment, even behavioral deficits, in the setting of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. PMID:24968196

Ruan, Zhi; Lei, Yun; Chen, Yu Ting; Zhang, Hai Yan

2014-01-01

57

DTI and MTI Parameters Correlate in Periventricular White Matter Hyperintensities in Old Age M. E. Bastin1  

E-print Network

DTI and MTI Parameters Correlate in Periventricular White Matter Hyperintensities in Old Age M. E Kingdom Introduction: Regions of diffuse periventricular white matter hyperintensities (PVWMH of this study was to characterize differences in water diffusion and magnetization transfer MRI parameters

Clayden, Jonathan D.

58

White Matter Morphometric Changes Uniquely Predict Children's Reading Acquisition.  

PubMed

This study examined whether variations in brain development between kindergarten and Grade 3 predicted individual differences in reading ability at Grade 3. Structural MRI measurements indicated that increases in the volume of two left temporo-parietal white matter clusters are unique predictors of reading outcomes above and beyond family history, socioeconomic status, and cognitive and preliteracy measures at baseline. Using diffusion MRI, we identified the left arcuate fasciculus and superior corona radiata as key fibers within the two clusters. Bias-free regression analyses using regions of interest from prior literature revealed that volume changes in temporo-parietal white matter, together with preliteracy measures, predicted 56% of the variance in reading outcomes. Our findings demonstrate the important contribution of developmental differences in areas of left dorsal white matter, often implicated in phonological processing, as a sensitive early biomarker for later reading abilities, and by extension, reading difficulties. PMID:25212581

Myers, Chelsea A; Vandermosten, Maaike; Farris, Emily A; Hancock, Roeland; Gimenez, Paul; Black, Jessica M; Casto, Brandi; Drahos, Miroslav; Tumber, Mandeep; Hendren, Robert L; Hulme, Charles; Hoeft, Fumiko

2014-10-01

59

Reproducible objective quantification method to segment white matter structures  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides a reproducible, objective quantification technique that reliably segments white matter structures. The technique receives a seed voxel within the white matter structure from an individual, determines thresholds and selection criteria, creates a binary mask based on the at least one threshold and the at least one selection criteria and calculates the boundary of the white matter structure based on the binary mask. A magnification factor is applied to each component of the eigenvectors of voxels. Boundary voxels are determined wherein each of the boundary voxels has a magnitude above a predetermined value and is located next to a voxel having a magnitude below the predetermined value. A vector is drawn from the seed voxel to a boundary voxel and the boundary voxels are connected together, thereby forming the region of interest within the connected boundary voxels.

2011-12-13

60

White matter connectivity of human hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macroscopic extrinsic white matter connectivity and the internal structure of the hypothalamus are still incompletely defined in humans. We investigated whether in-vivo diffusion tensor imaging tractography provides evidence of systematization according to hypothalamic compartmentalization. Six defined hypothalamic macroscopic compartments, preoptic, supraoptic, anteroventral, anterodorsal, lateral and posterior, were probed, within the right and left hemispheres of 14 subjects. Important new

Jean-Jacques Lemaire; Andrew J. Frew; David McArthur; Alessandra A. Gorgulho; Jeffry R. Alger; Noriko Salomon; Clive Chen; Eric J. Behnke; Antonio A. F. De Salles

2011-01-01

61

White matter alterations associated with chromosomal disorders.  

PubMed

White matter alterations in chromosomal disorders have been reported mainly in 18q-syndrome. Our aim was to evaluate white matter alterations in patients with chromosomal abnormalities detected through conventional cytogenetic techniques. Forty-four patients with chromosomal abnormalities, excluding trisomy 21, were diagnosed in our hospital between May 1999 and December 2002 (24 males, 20 females; mean age 6 years 4 months [SD 3 years 2 months], range 0 to 18 years). Of the 44 patients, 14 had brain magnetic resonance imaging (12 males, 2 females; mean age 4 years 2 months [SD 4 years 4 months]; five with sex chromosomal disorders [SCD] and nine with autosomal chromosomal disorders [ACD]). Of these 14 patients, eight (four with SCD and four with ACD) had abnormal white matter findings of similar patterns. These patients had pseudonodular, subcortical, and periventricular white matter high signal intensity images in T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences that were isolated or confluent. The images did not correlate with the neurological clinical state. Given that eight of the 14 patients showed these lesions, their prevalence in different chromosomal abnormalities appears to be high, even though they have not been well reported in the literature. To our knowledge, these alterations have never been described in SCD. We concluded that unknown factors related to the myelination processes may be localized in different chromosomes. PMID:14995083

García-Cazorla, Angels; Sans, Anna; Baquero, Miguel; García-Bargo, María Dolores; Arellano, Montse; Poo, Pilar; Gean, Esther; Campistol, Jaume

2004-03-01

62

White Matter Abnormalities and Animal Models Examining a Putative Role of Altered White Matter in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. Although the dopamine (DA) hypothesis is still keeping a dominant position in schizophrenia research, new advances have been emerging in recent years, which suggest the implication of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will briefly review some of recent human studies showing white matter abnormalities in schizophrenic brains and altered oligodendrocyte-(OL-) and myelin-related genes in patients with schizophrenia and will consider abnormal behaviors reported in patients with white matter diseases. Following these, we will selectively introduce some animal models examining a putative role of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The emphasis will be put on the cuprizone (CPZ) model. CPZ-fed mice show demyelination and OLs loss, display schizophrenia-related behaviors, and have higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These features suggest that the CPZ model is a novel animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:22937274

Xu, Haiyun; Li, Xin-Min

2011-01-01

63

Abnormal white matter microstructure in children with sensory processing disorders?  

PubMed Central

Sensory processing disorders (SPD) affect 5–16% of school-aged children and can cause long-term deficits in intellectual and social development. Current theories of SPD implicate primary sensory cortical areas and higher-order multisensory integration (MSI) cortical regions. We investigate the role of white matter microstructural abnormalities in SPD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI was acquired in 16 boys, 8–11 years old, with SPD and 24 age-, gender-, handedness- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls. Behavior was characterized using a parent report sensory behavior measure, the Sensory Profile. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to detect significant group differences in white matter integrity and to determine if microstructural parameters were significantly correlated with behavioral measures. Significant decreases in FA and increases in MD and RD were found in the SPD cohort compared to controls, primarily involving posterior white matter including the posterior corpus callosum, posterior corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiations. Strong positive correlations were observed between FA of these posterior tracts and auditory, multisensory, and inattention scores (r = 0.51–0.78; p < 0.001) with strong negative correlations between RD and multisensory and inattention scores (r = ? 0.61–0.71; p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate reduced white matter microstructural integrity in children with SPD. We find that the disrupted white matter microstructure predominantly involves posterior cerebral tracts and correlates strongly with atypical unimodal and multisensory integration behavior. These findings suggest abnormal white matter as a biological basis for SPD and may also distinguish SPD from overlapping clinical conditions such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24179836

Owen, Julia P.; Marco, Elysa J.; Desai, Shivani; Fourie, Emily; Harris, Julia; Hill, Susanna S.; Arnett, Anne B.; Mukherjee, Pratik

2013-01-01

64

RESEARCH Open Access Early white matter changes in CADASIL: evidence  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Early white matter changes in CADASIL: evidence of segmental intramyelinic- and hypertension-related cognitive decline and disability. Cerebral white matter changes are a consistent. Results: The principal cerebral white matter changes in TgPAC-Notch3R169C mice are microvacuoles (1 m

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

RESEARCH Open Access Brain white matter microstructure alterations in  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Brain white matter microstructure alterations in adolescent rhesus monkeys maltreatment to study the long-term effects of this early life stress on brain white matter integrity during: Diffusion tensor imaging and tract based spatial statistics were used to investigate white matter integrity

Maestripieri, Dario

66

MR Imaging of White Matter Disease in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three pediatric patients with white matter abnormalities on MR images were evaluated retrospectively to assess the contribution of MR compared with CT in diag- nosing these conditions. In addition, the MR findings in major categories of white matter diseases were analyzed for sensitivity in detecting the presence of an abnormality. White matter disease categories included demyelinating disease (five cases), dysmye-

Martha A. NowelF; Robert I. Grossman; Robert A. Zimmerman; Herbert I. Goldberg; Larissa T. Bilaniuk

67

Anisotropy Creases Delineate White Matter Structure in Diffusion Tensor MRI  

E-print Network

Anisotropy Creases Delineate White Matter Structure in Diffusion Tensor MRI Gordon Kindlmann1, University of Utah, USA Abstract. Current methods for extracting models of white matter architecture from for extracting a skeleton of white matter pathways, in that ridges of anisotropy coincide with interiors of fiber

Utah, University of

68

Neuroimaging of White Matter in Aging and Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical neuroscientists have focused increasing attention on white matter connections in the brain and on the effects of aging and disease on these connections. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis have given researchers new tools for quantifying and visualizing white matter to better relate white matter structure and function. The goals of this article are (a) to acquaint

Paul Malloy; Stephen Correia; Glenn Stebbins; David H. Laidlaw

2007-01-01

69

Diffusion imaging, white matter, and psychopathology.  

PubMed

The functional significance of the brain's white matter was not fully appreciated until new imaging methods were developed to visualize fiber pathways and connections in the living brain. Rapid advances in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have led to substantial insights into human brain development and disease processes and have thrust white matter into the focus of researchers and clinicians alike. The full clinical potential of this relatively new technique remains to be determined, but early indicators suggest that DTI will be a significant new technology in mapping mechanisms of human health and disease. Here we review brain changes that have been studied with DTI over the human lifespan and findings in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. We also suggest future areas where DTI is likely to have significant impact. PMID:21219189

Thomason, Moriah E; Thompson, Paul M

2011-01-01

70

Microglia of prefrontal white matter in suicide.  

PubMed

Immune functions in the brain are associated with psychiatric illness and temporary alteration of mental state. Microglia, the principal brain immunologic cells, respond to changes in the internal brain milieu through a sequence of activated states, each with characteristic function and morphology. To assess a possible association of frontal white matter pathology with suicide, we stained autopsy brain tissue samples from 11 suicide and 25 nonsuicide subjects for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, cluster of differentiation 68, and myelin. Groups were matched by age, sex, and psychiatric diagnosis. We classified ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1-immunoreactive cells based on shape, immunoreactivity to cluster of differentiation 68, and association with blood vessels to obtain stereologic estimates of densities of resting microglia, activated phagocytes, and perivascular cells. We found no effect of psychiatric diagnosis but 2 statistically significant effects of suicide: 1) The dorsal-ventral difference in activated microglial density was reversed such that, with suicide, the density was greater in ventral prefrontal white matter than in dorsal prefrontal white matter, whereas in the absence of suicide, the opposite was true; and 2) with suicide, there was a greater density of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1-immunoreactive cells within or in contact with blood vessel walls in dorsal prefrontal white matter. These observations could reflect a mechanism for the stress/diathesis (state/trait) model of suicide, whereby an acute stress activates a reactive process in the brain, either directly or by compromising the blood-brain barrier, and creates a suicidal state in an individual at risk. They also indicate the theoretical potential of imaging studies in living vulnerable individuals for the assessment of suicide risk. Further studies are needed to investigate specific phenotypes of perivascular cells and blood-brain barrier changes associated with suicide. PMID:25101704

Schnieder, Tatiana P; Trencevska, Iskra; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Stankov, Aleksandr; Mann, J John; Smiley, John; Dwork, Andrew J

2014-09-01

71

Mapping the brain pathways of declarative verbal memory: Evidence from white matter lesions in the living human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the contribution of the brain white matter pathways to declarative verbal memory processes has been hindered by the lack of an adequate model in humans. An attractive and underexplored approach to study white matter region functionality in the living human brain is through the use of non-aprioristic models which specifically search disrupted white matter pathways. For this purpose, we

Jorge Sepulcre; Joseph C. Masdeu; Jaume Sastre-Garriga; Joaquín Goñi; Nieves Vélez-de-Mendizábal; Beatriz Duque; Maria A. Pastor; Bartolomé Bejarano; Pablo Villoslada

2008-01-01

72

Abnormal gray and white matter volume in delusional infestation.  

PubMed

Little is known about the neural basis of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. Case series and the response to anti-dopaminergic medication indicate disruptions in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum (caudate, putamen), but did not allow for population-based inference. Here, we report the first whole-brain structural neuroimaging study to investigate gray and white matter abnormalities in DI compared to controls. In this study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter volume in 16 DI patients and 16 matched healthy controls. Lower gray matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in left medial, lateral and right superior frontal cortices, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left thalamus, right striatal areas and in lateral and medial temporal cortical regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). Higher white matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in right middle cingulate, left frontal opercular and bilateral striatal regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). This study shows that structural changes in prefrontal, temporal, insular, cingulate and striatal brain regions are associated with DI, supporting a neurobiological model of disrupted prefrontal control over somato-sensory representations. PMID:23791615

Wolf, Robert Christian; Huber, Markus; Depping, Malte Sebastian; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Karner, Martin; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W

2013-10-01

73

Developmental trajectories of grey and white matter in dyscalculia Ashish Ranpura a,d,n  

E-print Network

that cortical grey and white matter development varies both temporally and regionally during childhood. Such regional shifts in developmental trajectories may reflect longer-term influences on cortical matura- tion

Butterworth, Brian

74

White Matter Microstructural Integrity in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Decreased white and gray matter volumes have been reported in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but the effects of hyperglycemia on white matter integrity have not been quantitatively assessed during brain development. We performed diffusion tensor imaging, using two complimentary approaches—region-of-interest and voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics—to quantify white matter integrity in a large retrospective study of T1DM youth and control participants. Exposure to chronic hyperglycemia, severe hyperglycemic episodes, and severe hypoglycemia, as defined in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), were estimated through medical records review, HbA1c levels, and interview of parents and youth. We found lower fractional anisotropy in the superior parietal lobule and reduced mean diffusivity in the thalamus in the T1DM group. A history of three or more severe hyperglycemic episodes was associated with reduced anisotropy and increased diffusivity in the superior parietal lobule and increased diffusivity in the hippocampus. These results add microstructural integrity of white matter to the range of structural brain alterations seen in T1DM youth and suggest vulnerability of the superior parietal lobule, hippocampus, and thalamus to glycemic extremes during brain development. Longitudinal analyses will be necessary to determine how these alterations change with age or additional glycemic exposure. PMID:23139349

Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Meyer, Erin; Rutlin, Jerrel; Perantie, Dana C.; White, Neil H.; Arbelaez, Ana Maria; Shimony, Joshua S.; Hershey, Tamara

2013-01-01

75

Assessing white matter integrity as a function of abstinence duration in former cocaine-dependent individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current cocaine-dependent users show reductions in white matter (WM) integrity, especially in cortical regions associated with cognitive control that have been associated with inhibitory dysfunction. A key question is whether these white matter differences are present following abstinence from drug use. To address this, WM integrity was examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) obtained on 43 cocaine abstinent patients (abstinence

Ryan P. Bell; John J. Foxe; Jay Nierenberg; Matthew J. Hoptman; Hugh Garavan

2011-01-01

76

Pediatric neurodegenerative white matter processes: leukodystrophies and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric neurodegenerative white matter processes are complex, numerous and result from a vast array of causes ranging from\\u000a white matter injury or inflammation to congenital metabolic disorders. When faced with a neurodegenerative white matter process\\u000a on neuroimaging, the first step for the radiologist is to determine whether the findings represent a congenital metabolic\\u000a leukodystrophy or one of various other white

Jonathan A. Phelan; Lisa H. Lowe; Charles M. Glasier

2008-01-01

77

Diffusion features of white matter in tuberous sclerosis with tractography.  

PubMed

Normal-appearing white matter has been shown via diffusion tensor imaging to be affected in tuberous sclerosis complex. Under the hypothesis that some systems might be differentially affected, including the visual pathways and systems of social cognition, diffusion properties of various regions of white matter were compared. For 10 patients and 6 age-matched control subjects, 3 T magnetic resonance imaging was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging obtained in 35 directions. Three-dimensional volumes corresponding to the geniculocalcarine tracts were extracted via tractography, and two-dimensional regions of interest were used to sample other regions. Regression analysis indicated lower fractional anisotropy in the splenium of corpus callosum and geniculocalcarine tracts in tuberous sclerosis complex group, as well as lower axial diffusivity in the internal capsule, superior temporal gyrus, and geniculocalcarine tracts. Mean and radial diffusivity of the splenium of corpus callosum were higher in the tuberous sclerosis complex group. The differences in diffusion properties of white matter between tuberous sclerosis complex patients and control subjects suggest disorganized and structurally compromised axons with poor myelination. The visual and social cognition systems appear to be differentially involved, which might in part explain the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of the tuberous sclerosis complex population. PMID:20117745

Krishnan, Michelle L; Commowick, Olivier; Jeste, Shafali S; Weisenfeld, Neil; Hans, Arne; Gregas, Matthew C; Sahin, Mustafa; Warfield, Simon K

2010-02-01

78

Imaging White Matter in Human Brainstem  

PubMed Central

The human brainstem is critical for the control of many life-sustaining functions, such as consciousness, respiration, sleep, and transfer of sensory and motor information between the brain and the spinal cord. Most of our knowledge about structure and organization of white and gray matter within the brainstem is derived from ex vivo dissection and histology studies. However, these methods cannot be applied to study structural architecture in live human participants. Tractography from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide valuable insights about white matter organization within the brainstem in vivo. However, this method presents technical challenges in vivo due to susceptibility artifacts, functionally dense anatomy, as well as pulsatile and respiratory motion. To investigate the limits of MR tractography, we present results from high angular resolution diffusion imaging of an intact excised human brainstem performed at 11.1?T using isotropic resolution of 0.333, 1, and 2?mm, with the latter reflecting resolution currently used clinically. At the highest resolution, the dense fiber architecture of the brainstem is evident, but the definition of structures degrades as resolution decreases. In particular, the inferred corticopontine/corticospinal tracts (CPT/CST), superior (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP), and medial lemniscus (ML) pathways are clearly discernable and follow known anatomical trajectories at the highest spatial resolution. At lower resolutions, the CST/CPT, SCP, and MCP pathways are artificially enlarged due to inclusion of collinear and crossing fibers not inherent to these three pathways. The inferred ML pathways appear smaller at lower resolutions, indicating insufficient spatial information to successfully resolve smaller fiber pathways. Our results suggest that white matter tractography maps derived from the excised brainstem can be used to guide the study of the brainstem architecture using diffusion MRI in vivo. PMID:23898254

Ford, Anastasia A.; Colon-Perez, Luis; Triplett, William T.; Gullett, Joseph M.; Mareci, Thomas H.; FitzGerald, David B.

2013-01-01

79

Evaluation of white matter myelin water fraction in chronic stroke?  

PubMed Central

Multi-component T2 relaxation imaging (MCRI) provides specific in vivo measurement of myelin water content and tissue water environments through myelin water fraction (MWF), intra/extra-cellular water fraction (I/EWF) and intra/extracellular and global geometric mean T2 (GMT2) times. Quantitative MCRI assessment of tissue water environments has provided new insights into the progression and underlying white matter pathology in neural disorders such as multiple sclerosis. It has not previously been applied to investigate changes in white matter in the stroke-affected brain. Thus, the purposes of this study were to 1) use MCRI to index myelin water content and tissue water environments in the brain after stroke 2) evaluate relationships between MWF and diffusion behavior indexed by diffusion tensor imaging-based metrics and 3) examine the relationship between white matter status (MWF and fractional anisotropy) and motor behavior in the chronic phase of stroke recovery. Twenty individuals with ischemic stroke and 12 matched healthy controls participated. Excellent to good test/re-test and inter-rater reliability was observed for region of interest-based voxelwise MWF data. Reduced MWF was observed in whole-cerebrum white matter (p < 0.001) and in the ipsilesional (p = 0.017) and contralesional (p = 0.037) posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC) after stroke compared to whole-cerebrum and bilateral PLIC MWF in healthy controls. The stroke group also demonstrated increased I/EWF, I/E GMT2 and global GMT2 times for whole-cerebrum white matter. Measures of diffusion behavior were also significantly different in the stroke group across each region investigated (p < 0.001). MWF was not significantly correlated with specific tensor-based measures of diffusion in the PLIC for either group. Fractional anisotropy in the ipsilesional PLIC correlated with motor behavior in chronic stroke. These results provide novel insights into tissue-specific changes within white matter after stroke that may have important applications for the understanding of the neuropathology of stroke. PMID:24179808

Borich, M.R.; MacKay, A.L.; Vavasour, I.M.; Rauscher, A.; Boyd, L.A.

2013-01-01

80

The generation and validation of white matter connectivity importance maps  

PubMed Central

Both the size and location of injury in the brain influences the type and severity of cognitive or sensorimotor dysfunction. However, even with advances in MR imaging and analysis, the correspondence between lesion location and clinical deficit remains poorly understood. Here, structural and diffusion images from 14 healthy subjects are used to create spatially unbiased white matter connectivity importance maps that quantify the amount of disruption to the overall brain network that would be incurred if that region were compromised. Some regions in the white matter that were identified as highly important by such maps have been implicated in strategic infarct dementia and linked to various attention tasks in previous studies. Validation of the maps is performed by investigating the correlations of the importance maps’ predicted cognitive deficits in a group of 15 traumatic brain injury patients with their cognitive test scores measuring attention and memory. While no correlation was found between amount of white matter injury and cognitive test scores, significant correlations (r > 0.68, p < 0.006) were found when including location information contained in the importance maps. These tools could be used by physicians to improve surgical planning, diagnosis, and assessment of disease severity in a variety of pathologies like multiple sclerosis, trauma, and stroke. PMID:21722739

Kuceyeski, Amy; Maruta, Jun; Niogi, Sumit N.; Ghajar, Jamshid; Raj, Ashish

2011-01-01

81

Computational Representation of White Matter Fiber Orientations  

PubMed Central

We present a new methodology based on directional data clustering to represent white matter fiber orientations in magnetic resonance analyses for high angular resolution diffusion imaging. A probabilistic methodology is proposed for estimating intravoxel principal fiber directions, based on clustering directional data arising from orientation distribution function (ODF) profiles. ODF reconstructions are used to estimate intravoxel fiber directions using mixtures of von Mises-Fisher distributions. The method focuses on clustering data on the unit sphere, where complexity arises from representing ODF profiles as directional data. The proposed method is validated on synthetic simulations, as well as on a real data experiment. Based on experiments, we show that by clustering profile data using mixtures of von Mises-Fisher distributions it is possible to estimate multiple fiber configurations in a more robust manner than currently used approaches, without recourse to regularization or sharpening procedures. The method holds promise to support robust tractographic methodologies and to build realistic models of white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:24023538

Ferreira da Silva, Adelino R.

2013-01-01

82

Sex Differences in White Matter Alterations Accompanying Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Females with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show different psychological and physiological symptoms from males, which may be associated with sex-related variations in neural injury occurring with the disorder. To determine whether male- or female-specific brain injury is present in OSA, we assessed influences of sex on white matter changes in the condition. Design: Two-group factorial. Setting: University medical center. Patients or Participants: 80 subjects total, with newly diagnosed, untreated OSA groups of 10 female (age mean ± SE: 52.6 ± 2.4 years, AHI 22.5 ± 4.1 events/h) and 20 male (age 48.9 ± 1.7, AHI 25.5 ± 2.9) patients, and 20 female (age 50.3 ± 1.7) and 30 male (age 49.2 ± 1.4) healthy control subjects. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Brain fiber integrity was assessed with fractional anisotropy (FA), a diffusion tensor imaging-derived measure. Sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, depression, and anxiety were assessed with questionnaires. We identified regions of differing injury in male versus female OSA patients by assessing brain regions with significant interaction effects of OSA and sex on FA. Areas of sex-specific, OSA-related FA reductions appeared in females relative to males, including in the bilateral cingulum bundle adjacent to the mid hippocampus, right stria terminalis near the amygdala, prefrontal and posterior-parietal white matter, corpus callosum, and left superior cerebellar peduncle. Females with OSA showed higher daytime sleepiness, anxiety and depression levels, and reduced sleep quality. Conclusions: Sex differences in white matter structural integrity appeared in OSA patients, with females more affected than males. These female-specific structural changes may contribute to or derive from neuropsychological and physiological symptom differences between sexes. Citation: Macey PM; Kumar R; Yan-Go FL; Woo MA; Harper RM. Sex differences in white matter alterations accompanying obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1603-1613. PMID:23204603

Macey, Paul M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Yan-Go, Frisca L.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

2012-01-01

83

Histopathological and MRI correlates of perinatal white matter injury.  

E-print Network

??Objective: Although periventricular white matter injury (WMI) is the leading cause of chronic neurological disability and cerebral palsy in survivors of premature birth, the cellular-molecular… (more)

Riddle, Art

2011-01-01

84

Lipid composition of the normal human brain: gray matter, white matter, and myelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Gray matter, white matter, and myelin were isolated from the frontal lobes of humans aged 10 months, 6 yr, 9 yr, and 55 yr and the lipid compositions of each were determined. Myelin had a much higher lipid content (7841% of the dry weight) than white matter (49-66%) or gray matter (36-400\\/,). Myelin contained much higher molar percentages of

E. LOIS SAMPSON

85

Disrupted white matter in language and motor tracts in developmental stuttering.  

PubMed

White matter tracts connecting areas involved in speech and motor control were examined using diffusion-tensor imaging in a sample of people who stutter (n=29) who were heterogeneous with respect to age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. The goals were to replicate previous findings in developmental stuttering and to extend our knowledge by evaluating the relationship between white matter differences in people who stutter and factors such as age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. We replicated previous findings that showed reduced integrity in white matter underlying ventral premotor cortex, cerebral peduncles and posterior corpus callosum in people who stutter relative to controls. Tractography analysis additionally revealed significantly reduced white matter integrity in the arcuate fasciculus bilaterally and the left corticospinal tract and significantly reduced connectivity within the left corticobulbar tract in people who stutter. Region-of-interest analyses revealed reduced white matter integrity in people who stutter in the three pairs of cerebellar peduncles that carry the afferent and efferent fibers of the cerebellum. Within the group of people who stutter, the higher the stuttering severity index, the lower the white matter integrity in the left angular gyrus, but the greater the white matter connectivity in the left corticobulbar tract. Also, in people who stutter, handedness and age predicted the integrity of the corticospinal tract and peduncles, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine which of these white matter differences relate to the neural basis of stuttering and which reflect experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:23819900

Connally, Emily L; Ward, David; Howell, Peter; Watkins, Kate E

2014-04-01

86

White matter abnormalities and neurocognitive correlates in children and adolescents with myotonic dystrophy type 1: A diffusion tensor imaging study  

PubMed Central

Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to evaluate cerebral white matter in eight patients (ages 10–17) with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (3 congenital-onset, 5 juvenile-onset) compared to eight controls matched for age and sex. Four regions of interest were examined: inferior frontal, superior frontal, supracallosal, and occipital. The myotonic dystrophy group showed white matter abnormalities compared to controls in all regions. All indices of white matter integrity were abnormal: fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. With no evidence of regional variation, correlations between whole cerebrum white matter fractional anisotropy and neurocognitive functioning were examined in the patients. Strong correlations were observed between whole cerebrum fractional anisotropy and full-scale intelligence and a measure of executive functioning. Results indicate that significant white matter abnormality is characteristic of young patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 and that the white matter abnormality seen with neuroimaging has implications for cognitive functioning. PMID:21169018

Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Ward, Erin E.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Day, John W.

2011-01-01

87

White matter in learning, cognition and psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

White matter is the brain region underlying the gray matter cortex, composed of neuronal fibers coated with electrical insulation called myelin. Previously of interest in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, myelin is attracting new interest as an unexpected contributor to a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. This is stimulating research into myelin involvement in normal cognitive function, learning and IQ. Myelination continues for decades in the human brain; it is modifiable by experience, and it affects information processing by regulating the velocity and synchrony of impulse conduction between distant cortical regions. Cell-culture studies have identified molecular mechanisms regulating myelination by electrical activity, and myelin also limits the critical period for learning through inhibitory proteins that suppress axon sprouting and synaptogenesis. PMID:18538868

Fields, R. Douglas

2008-01-01

88

White matter injury: Ischemic and nonischemic.  

PubMed

Ischemic pathologies of white matter (WM) include a large proportion of stroke and developmental lesions while multiple sclerosis (MS) is the archetype nonischemic pathology. Growing evidence suggests other important diseases including neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders also involve a significant WM component. Axonal, oligodendroglial, and astroglial damage proceed via distinct mechanisms in ischemic WM and these mechanisms evolve dramatically with maturation. Axons may pass through four developmental stages where the pattern of membrane protein expression influences how the structure responds to ischemia; WM astrocytes pass through at least two and differ significantly in their ischemia tolerance from grey matter astrocytes; oligodendroglia pass through at least three, with the highly ischemia intolerant pre-oligodendrocyte (pre-Oli) stage linking the less sensitive precursor and mature phenotypes. Neurotransmitters play a central role in WM pathology at all ages. Glutamate excitotoxicity in WM has both necrotic and apoptotic components; the latter mediated by intracellular pathways which differ between receptor types. ATP excitotoxicity may be largely mediated by the P2X7 receptor and also has both necrotic and apoptotic components. Interplay between microglia and other cell types is a critical element in the injury process. A growing appreciation of the significance of WM injury for nonischemic neurological disorders is currently stimulating research into mechanisms; with curious similarities being found with those operating during ischemia. A good example is traumatic brain injury, where axonal pathology can proceed via almost identical pathways to those described during acute ischemia. GLIA 2014;62:1780-1789. PMID:25043122

Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos; Stys, Peter K

2014-11-01

89

White Matter Tractography by Anisotropic Wavefront Evolution and Diffusion Tensor  

E-print Network

White Matter Tractography by Anisotropic Wavefront Evolution and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Marcel the restricted diffusion of water molecules which can be used to infer the directionality of tissue components. In this paper, we introduce a white matter tractography method based on anisotropic wavefront propagation

Soatto, Stefano

90

Exploration of the Brain's White Matter Pathways with Dynamic Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging method that can be used to measure local information about the structure of white matter within the human brain. Combining DTI data with the computational methods of MR tractography, neuroscientists can estimate the locations and sizes of nerve bundles (white matter pathways) that course through the human brain. Neuroscientists have used

David Akers; Anthony Sherbondy; Rachel Mackenzie; Robert Dougherty; Brian A. Wandell

2004-01-01

91

Exploration of the Brain's White Matter Pathways with Dynamic Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging method that can be used to measure local information about the structure of white matter within the human brain. Combining DTI data with the computational methods of MR tractography, neurosci- entists can estimate the locations and sizes of nerve bundles (white matter pathways) that course through the human brain. Neurosci- entists

David AkersAnthony; Sherbondy Rachel

92

Exploring Connectivity of the Brain's White Matter with Dynamic Queries  

E-print Network

structure could help surgeons to avoid damaging important pathways. Motivated by such concerns, a newExploring Connectivity of the Brain's White Matter with Dynamic Queries Anthony Sherbondy, David of white matter within the human brain. Combining DTI data with the computational methods of MR

Dougherty, Bob

93

Diffusion imaging studies of white matter integrity in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a neuroimaging technique with a potential to elucidate white matter integrity. Recently, it has been used in the field of psychiatry to further understand the pathophysiology of major diseases, including bipolar disorder (BD). This review sought to focus on existing DTI findings on white matter organization in BD. PMID:21714360

Bellani, M; Brambilla, P

2011-06-01

94

Cortical demyelination and diffuse white matter injury in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal demyelinated plaques in white matter, which are the hallmark of multiple sclerosis pathology, only partially explain the patient's clinical deficits. We thus analysed global brain pathology in multiple sclerosis, focusing on the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and the cortex. Autopsy tissue from 52 multiple sclerosis patients (acute, relapsing-remitting, primary and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis) and from 30 controls was

Alexandra Kutzelnigg; Claudia F. Lucchinetti; Christine Stadelmann; Wolfgang Bruck; Helmut Rauschka; Markus Bergmann; Manfred Schmidbauer; Joseph E. Parisi; Hans Lassmann

2005-01-01

95

Quantitative Analysis of White Matter Fiber Properties along Geodesic Paths  

E-print Network

on anatomical and functional criteria. These fiber bundles are assessed in-vivo by techniques commonly calledQuantitative Analysis of White Matter Fiber Properties along Geodesic Paths 1,3 Pierre Fillard, 2 resonance technique to study white matter properties and alter- ations of fiber integrity due to pathology

Gerig, Guido

96

White Matter Development during Adolescence as Shown by Diffusion MRI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous volumetric developmental MRI studies of the brain have shown white matter development continuing through adolescence and into adulthood. This review presents current findings regarding white matter development and organization from diffusion MRI studies. The general trend during adolescence (age 12-18 years) is towards increasing…

Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong

2010-01-01

97

White Matter Development in Early Puberty: A Longitudinal Volumetric and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Twin Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

White matter microstructure and volume show synchronous developmental patterns in children. White matter volume increases considerably during development. Fractional anisotropy, a measure for white matter microstructural directionality, also increases with age. Development of white matter volume and development of white matter microstructure seem to go hand in hand. The extent to which the same or different genetic and\\/or environmental factors

Rachel M. Brouwer; René C. W. Mandl; Hugo G. Schnack; Inge L. C. van Soelen; G. Caroline van Baal; Jiska S. Peper; René S. Kahn; Dorret I. Boomsma; H. E. Hulshoff Pol

2012-01-01

98

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Reduced Frontal White Matter Volume in Long Term Childhood Leukemia Survivors: A Voxel- Based Morphometry Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS: VBM analysis revealed 2 specific regions of reduced white matter in the right frontal lobes of survivors of ALL compared with healthy controls. Survivors of ALL had lower performances on tests of attention, visual-constructional skills, mental flexibility, and math achievement compared with healthy individuals. Decreased performance on neuropsychological measures was associated with decreased regional white matter volumes. No differences

M. E. Carey; M. W. Haut; S. L. Reminger; J. J. Hutter; R. Theilmann; K. L. Kaemingk

99

Neurocognitive Correlates of White Matter Quality in Adolescent Substance Users  

PubMed Central

Background Progressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ+ALC) adolescents. Methods Thirty-six MJ+ALC adolescents (ages 16-19) and 36 demographically similar controls were evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging (Bava et al., 2009) and neurocognitive tests. Regions of group difference in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were analyzed in relation to cognitive performance. Results In users, lower FA in temporal areas related to poorer performance on attention, working memory, and speeded processing tasks. Among regions where users had higher FA than controls, occipital FA was positively associated with working memory and complex visuomotor sequencing, whereas FA in anterior regions was negatively associated with verbal memory performance. Conclusions Findings suggest differential influences of white matter development on cognition in MJ+ALC using adolescents than in non-using peers. Neuroadaptation may reflect additive and subtractive responses to substance use that are complicated by competing maturational processes. PMID:19932550

Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Mahmood, Omar; Yang, Tony T.; Tapert, Susan F.

2009-01-01

100

Deep White Matter in Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

White matter (WM) abnormalities have already been shown in presymptomatic (Pre-HD) and symptomatic HD subjects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the present study, we examined the microstructure of the long-range large deep WM tracts by applying two different MRI approaches: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) -based tractography, and T2*weighted (iron sensitive) imaging. We collected Pre-HD subjects (n?=?25), HD patients (n?=?25) and healthy control subjects (n?=?50). Results revealed increased axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) and iron levels in Pre-HD subjects compared to controls. Fractional anisotropy decreased between the Pre-HD and HD phase and AD/RD increased and although impairment was pervasive in HD, degeneration occurred in a pattern in Pre-HD. Furthermore, iron levels dropped for HD patients. As increased iron levels are associated with remyelination, the data suggests that Pre-HD subjects attempt to repair damaged deep WM years before symptoms occur but this process fails with disease progression. PMID:25340651

Phillips, Owen; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Elifani, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

2014-01-01

101

Disconnected aging: cerebral white matter integrity and age-related differences in cognition.  

PubMed

Cognition arises as a result of coordinated processing among distributed brain regions and disruptions to communication within these neural networks can result in cognitive dysfunction. Cortical disconnection may thus contribute to the declines in some aspects of cognitive functioning observed in healthy aging. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is ideally suited for the study of cortical disconnection as it provides indices of structural integrity within interconnected neural networks. The current review summarizes results of previous DTI aging research with the aim of identifying consistent patterns of age-related differences in white matter integrity, and of relationships between measures of white matter integrity and behavioral performance as a function of adult age. We outline a number of future directions that will broaden our current understanding of these brain-behavior relationships in aging. Specifically, future research should aim to (1) investigate multiple models of age-brain-behavior relationships; (2) determine the tract-specificity versus global effect of aging on white matter integrity; (3) assess the relative contribution of normal variation in white matter integrity versus white matter lesions to age-related differences in cognition; (4) improve the definition of specific aspects of cognitive functioning related to age-related differences in white matter integrity using information processing tasks; and (5) combine multiple imaging modalities (e.g., resting-state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI) with DTI to clarify the role of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging. PMID:24280637

Bennett, I J; Madden, D J

2014-09-12

102

Disconnected Aging: Cerebral White Matter Integrity and Age-Related Differences in Cognition  

PubMed Central

Cognition arises as a result of coordinated processing among distributed brain regions and disruptions to communication within these neural networks can result in cognitive dysfunction. Cortical disconnection may thus contribute to the declines in some aspects of cognitive functioning observed in healthy aging. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is ideally suited for the study of cortical disconnection as it provides indices of structural integrity within interconnected neural networks. The current review summarizes results of previous DTI aging research with the aim of identifying consistent patterns of age-related differences in white matter integrity, and of relationships between measures of white matter integrity and behavioral performance as a function of adult age. We outline a number of future directions that will broaden our current understanding of these brain-behavior relationships in aging. Specifically, future research should aim to (1) investigate multiple models of age-brain-behavior relationships; (2) determine the tract-specificity versus global effect of aging on white matter integrity; (3) assess the relative contribution of normal variation in white matter integrity versus white matter lesions to age-related differences in cognition; (4) improve the definition of specific aspects of cognitive functioning related to age-related differences in white matter integrity using information processing tasks; and (5) combine multiple imaging modalities (e.g., resting-state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI) with DTI to clarify the role of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging. PMID:24280637

Bennett, Ilana J.; Madden, David J.

2013-01-01

103

Alcohol Use and Cerebral White Matter Compromise in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, a period known to be critical in neurodevelopment. The adolescent brain may be particularly susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. While the cognitive deficits associated with alcohol use during adolescence have been well-documented, the neural substrates underlying these effects remain inadequately understood. Cerebral white matter has been suggested as a primary site of alcohol-related damage and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for the quantification of white matter integrity in vivo. This review summarizes results from both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies employing DTI that indicate that white matter tracts, particularly those thought to be involved in executive functioning, continue to develop throughout adolescence and into adulthood. Numerous DTI studies reveal a positive correlation between white matter integrity and neurocognitive performance and, in adults, the detrimental effects of prolonged alcohol-dependence on white matter integrity. We provide a comprehensive review of the DTI studies exploring the relationship between alcohol use and white matter integrity in adolescents. Results from most of these studies suggest that alcohol use is associated with reduced white matter integrity, particularly in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and some evidence suggests that this relationship may be influenced by sex. We conclude by highlighting confounds and limitations of the available research and suggesting directions for future research. PMID:23583835

Elofson, Jonathan; Gongvatana, Win; Carey, Kate B.

2013-01-01

104

Superficial white matter: effects of age, sex, and hemisphere.  

PubMed

Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies. PMID:23461767

Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

2013-01-01

105

Overlapping and Distinct Gray and White Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share common neurobiological mechanisms, but few studies have directly compared gray and white matter structure in these disorders. We used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and a region-of-interest based analysis to identify overlapping and distinct gray and white matter abnormalities in 35 patients with schizophrenia and 20 patients with bipolar I disorder in comparison to 56 healthy volunteers. Methods We examined fractional anisotropy within the white matter and mean diffusivity within the gray matter in 42 regions-of-interest defined on a probabilistic atlas following non-linear registration of the images to atlas space. Results Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in temporal (superior temporal and parahippocampal) and occipital (superior and middle occipital) white matter compared to patients with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. In contrast, both patient groups demonstrated significantly higher mean diffusivity in frontal (inferior frontal and lateral orbitofrontal) and temporal (superior temporal and parahippocampal) gray matter compared to healthy volunteers, but did not differ from each other. Discussion Our study implicates overlapping gray matter frontal and temporal lobe structural alterations in the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder, but suggests that temporal and occipital lobe white matter deficits may be an additional risk factor for schizophrenia. Our findings may have relevance for future diagnostic classification systems and the identification of susceptibility genes for these disorders. PMID:23796123

Anderson, Dana; Ardekani, Babak A.; Burdick, Katherine E.; Robinson, Delbert G.; John, Majnu; Malhotra, Anil K.; Szeszko, Philip R.

2013-01-01

106

Novel White Matter Tract Integrity Metrics Sensitive to Alzheimer Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Along with cortical abnormalities, white matter microstructural changes such as axonal loss and myelin breakdown are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Recently, a white matter model was introduced that relates non-Gaussian diffusional kurtosis imaging metrics to characteristics of white matter tract integrity, including the axonal water fraction, the intra-axonal diffusivity, and the extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study reports these white matter tract integrity metrics in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 12), Alzheimer disease (n = 14), and age-matched healthy controls (n = 15) in an effort to investigate their sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and associations with white matter changes through the course of Alzheimer disease. RESULTS With tract-based spatial statistics and region-of-interest analyses, increased diffusivity in the extra-axonal space (extra-axonal axial and radial diffusivities) in several white matter tracts sensitively and accurately discriminated healthy controls from those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.82–0.95), while widespread decreased axonal water fraction discriminated amnestic mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer disease (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Additionally, these white matter tract integrity metrics in the body of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with processing speed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (r= |0.80–0.82|, P< .001). CONCLUSIONS These findings have implications for the course and spatial progression of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer disease, suggest the mechanisms by which these changes occur, and demonstrate the viability of these white matter tract integrity metrics as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of the earliest stages of Alzheimer disease and disease progression. PMID:23764722

Fieremans, E.; Benitez, A.; Jensen, J.H.; Falangola, M.F.; Tabesh, A.; Deardorff, R.L.; Spampinato, M.V.S.; Babb, J.S.; Novikov, D.S.; Ferris, S.H.; Helpern, J.A.

2014-01-01

107

Selective reduction of diffusion anisotropy in white matter of Alzheimer disease brains measured by 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by cortical atrophy. Changes in the white matter and their relation to the pathogenesis of AD remain to be studied. To quantitatively investigate the integrity and organization of white matter fiber tracts in patients with AD, we used diffusion tensor (DT) imaging to study the diffusion anisotropy of white matter regions. DT imaging was

Satoshi Takahashi; Hisashi Yonezawa; Junko Takahashi; Masako Kudo; Takashi Inoue; Hideo Tohgi

2002-01-01

108

White Matter Maturation Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability Through its Influence on Processing Speed  

PubMed Central

The structure of the human brain changes in several ways throughout childhood and adolescence. Perhaps the most salient of these changes is the strengthening of white matter tracts that enable distal brain regions to communicate with one another more quickly and efficiently. Here, we sought to understand whether and how white matter changes contribute to improved reasoning ability over development. In particular, we sought to understand whether previously reported relationships between white matter microstructure and reasoning are mediated by processing speed. To this end, we analyzed diffusion tensor imaging data as well as data from standard psychometric tests of cognitive abilities from 103 individuals between the ages of 6 and 18. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the network of relationships between brain and behavior variables. Our analyses provide support for the hypothesis that white matter maturation (as indexed either by microstructural organization or volume) supports improved processing speed, which, in turn, supports improved reasoning ability. PMID:24118718

Ferrer, E.; Whitaker, K.J.; Steele, J.; Green, C.T.; Wendelken, C.; Bunge, S.A.

2013-01-01

109

Probing white-matter microstructure with higher-order diffusion tensors and susceptibility tensor MRI  

PubMed Central

Diffusion MRI has become an invaluable tool for studying white matter microstructure and brain connectivity. The emergence of quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) has provided another unique tool for assessing the structure of white matter. In the highly ordered white matter structure, diffusion MRI measures hindered water mobility induced by various tissue and cell membranes, while susceptibility sensitizes to the molecular composition and axonal arrangement. Integrating these two methods may produce new insights into the complex physiology of white matter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between diffusion and magnetic susceptibility in the white matter. Experiments were conducted on phantoms and human brains in vivo. Diffusion properties were quantified with the diffusion tensor model and also with the higher order tensor model based on the cumulant expansion. Frequency shift and susceptibility tensor were measured with quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging. These diffusion and susceptibility quantities were compared and correlated in regions of single fiber bundles and regions of multiple fiber orientations. Relationships were established with similarities and differences identified. It is believed that diffusion MRI and susceptibility MRI provide complementary information of the microstructure of white matter. Together, they allow a more complete assessment of healthy and diseased brains. PMID:23507987

Liu, Chunlei; Murphy, Nicole E.; Li, Wei

2012-01-01

110

Neurocognitive correlates of white matter quality in adolescent substance users  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProgressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ+ALC) adolescents.

Sunita Bava; Joanna Jacobus; Omar Mahmood; Tony T. Yang; Susan F. Tapert

2010-01-01

111

Quantitative analysis of cerebral white matter anatomy from diffusion MRI  

E-print Network

In this thesis we develop algorithms for quantitative analysis of white matter fiber tracts from diffusion MRI. The presented methods enable us to look at the variation of a diffusion measure along a fiber tract in a single ...

Maddah, Mahnaz

2008-01-01

112

Classification in DTI using shapes of white matter tracts.  

PubMed

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) provides unique information about the underlying tissue structure of brain white matter in vivo, including both the geometry of fiber bundles as well as quantitative information about tissue properties as characterized by measures such as tensor orientation, anisotropy, and size. Our objective in this paper is to evaluate the utility of shape representations of white matter tracts extracted from DTI data for classification of clinically different population groups (here autistic vs control). As a first step, our algorithm extracts fiber bundles passing through approximately marked regions of interest on affinely aligned brain volumes. The subsequent analysis is entirely based on the geometric modeling of the extracted tracts. A key advantage of using such an abstraction is that it allows us to capture invariant features of brains allowing for efficient large sample size studies. We demonstrate that with the use of an appropriate representation of the tract shapes, classifiers can be built with reasonable prediction accuracies without making heavy use of the spatial normalization machinery needed when using voxel based features. PMID:19964040

Adluru, Nagesh; Hinrichs, Chris; Chung, Moo K; Lee, Jee-Eun; Singh, Vikas; Bigler, Erin D; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E; Alexander, Andrew L

2009-01-01

113

Brain white matter structural properties predict transition to chronic pain  

PubMed Central

Neural mechanisms mediating the transition from acute to chronic pain remain largely unknown. In a longitudinal brain imaging study, we followed patients with a single subacute back pain (SBP) episode for over one year as their pain subsided (SBPr), or persisted (SBPp) representing a transition to chronic pain. We discovered brain white-matter structural abnormalities (in n=24 SBP; SBPp=12 and SBPr=12), as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), at entry into the study in SBPp in comparison to SBPr. These white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) differences accurately predicted pain persistence over the next year, which was validated in a second cohort (in n=22 SBP; SBPp=11 and SBPr=11), and showed no further alterations over a one-year period. Tractography analysis indicated that abnormal regional FA was linked to differential structural connectivity to medial vs. lateral prefrontal cortex. Local FA was correlated to functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in SBPr. As we have earlier shown that the latter functional connectivity accurately predicts transition to chronic pain, we can conclude that brain structural differences, most likely existing prior to the back pain inciting event and independent of the back pain, predisposes subjects to pain chronification. PMID:24040975

Mansour, Ali; Baliki, Marwan N.; Huang, Lejian; Torbey, Souraya; Herrmann, K.; Schnitzer, Thomas J.; Apkarian, A. Vania

2013-01-01

114

White matter microstructure is associated with cognitive control in children.  

PubMed

Cognitive control, which involves the ability to pay attention and suppress interference, is important for learning and achievement during childhood. The white matter tracts related to control during childhood are not well known. We examined the relationship between white matter microstructure and cognitive control in 61 children aged 7-9 years using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This technique enables an in vivo characterization of microstructural properties of white matter based on properties of diffusion. Such properties include fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity, measures thought to reflect specific biological properties of white matter integrity. Our results suggest that children with higher estimates of white matter integrity in the corona radiata, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiation, and cerebral peduncle were more accurate during incongruent (> > < > >, < < > < <) and neutral (-->-, --<--) trials of a task of cognitive control. Importantly, less interference during the task (i.e., incongruent and neutral difference scores) was associated with greater white matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiation and cerebral peduncle. Fiber tracts in a frontal-parietal-striatal-motor circuit seem to play a role in cognitive control in children. PMID:23714226

Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Voss, Michelle W; Powers, John P; Knecht, Anya M; Pontifex, Matthew B; Drollette, Eric S; Moore, R Davis; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

2013-09-01

115

Minocycline protects the immature white matter against hyperoxia.  

PubMed

Poor neurological outcome in preterm infants is associated with periventricular white matter damage and hypomyelination, often caused by perinatal inflammation, hypoxia-ischemia, and hyperoxia. Minocycline has been demonstrated in animal models to protect the immature brain against inflammation and hypoxia-ischemia by microglial inhibition. Here we studied the effect of minocycline on white matter damage caused by hyperoxia. To mimic the 3- to 4-fold increase of oxygen tension caused by preterm birth, we have used the hyperoxia model in neonatal rats providing 24h exposure to 4-fold increased oxygen concentration (80% instead of 21% O2) from P6 to P7. We analyzed whether minocycline prevents activation of microglia and damage of oligodendroglial precursor cell development, and whether acute treatment of hyperoxia-exposed rats with minocycline improves long term white matter integrity. Minocycline administration during exposure to hyperoxia resulted in decreased apoptotic cell death and in improved proliferation and maturation of oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPC). Minocycline blocked changes in microglial morphology and IL-1? release induced by hyperoxia. In primary microglial cell cultures, minocycline inhibited cytokine release while in mono-cultures of OPCs, it improved survival and proliferation. Long term impairment of white matter diffusivity in MRI/DTI in P30 and P60 animals after neonatal hyperoxia was attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline protects white matter development against oxygen toxicity through direct protection of oligodendroglia and by microglial inhibition. This study moreover demonstrates long term benefits of minocycline on white matter integrity. PMID:24491957

Schmitz, Thomas; Krabbe, Grietje; Weikert, Georg; Scheuer, Till; Matheus, Friederike; Wang, Yan; Mueller, Susanne; Kettenmann, Helmut; Matyash, Vitali; Bührer, Christoph; Endesfelder, Stefanie

2014-04-01

116

Constrained by Our Connections: White Matter's Key Role in Interindividual Variability in Visual Working Memory Capacity.  

PubMed

Visual working memory (VWM) plays an essential role in many perceptual and higher-order cognitive processes. Despite its reliance on a broad network of brain regions, VWM has a capacity limited to a few objects. This capacity varies substantially across individuals and relates closely to measures of overall cognitive function (Luck and Vogel, 2013). The mechanisms underlying these properties are not completely understood, although the amplitude of neural signal oscillations (Vogel and Machizawa, 2004) and brain activation in specific cortical regions (Todd and Marois, 2004) have been implicated. Variability in VWM performance may also reflect variability in white matter structural properties. However, data based primarily on diffusion tensor imaging approaches remain inconclusive. Here, we investigate the relationship between white matter and VWM capacity in human subjects using an advanced diffusion imaging technique, diffusion kurtosis imaging. Diffusion kurtosis imaging provides several novel quantitative white mater metrics, among them the axonal water fraction (faxon), an index of axonal density and caliber. Our results show that 59% of individual variability in VWM capacity may be explained by variations in faxon within a widely distributed network of white matter tracts. Increased faxon associates with increased VWM capacity. An additional 12% in VWM capacity variance may be explained by diffusion properties of the extra-axonal space. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the key role of white matter in limiting VWM capacity in the healthy adult brain and suggest that white matter may represent an important therapeutic target in disorders of impaired VWM and cognition. PMID:25378158

Golestani, Ali M; Miles, Laura; Babb, James; Castellanos, F Xavier; Malaspina, Dolores; Lazar, Mariana

2014-11-01

117

DCDC2 Polymorphism Is Associated with Left Temporoparietal Gray and White Matter Structures during Development.  

PubMed

Three genes, DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319, have been previously associated with dyslexia, neuronal migration, and ciliary function. Three polymorphisms within these genes, rs3743204 (DYX1C1), rs793842 (DCDC2), and rs6935076 (KIAA0319) have also been linked to normal variability of left temporoparietal white matter volume connecting the middle temporal cortex to the angular and supramarginal gyri. Here, we assessed whether these polymorphisms are also related to the cortical thickness of the associated regions during childhood development using a longitudinal dataset of 76 randomly selected children and young adults who were scanned up to three times each, 2 years apart. rs793842 in DCDC2 was significantly associated with the thickness of left angular and supramarginal gyri as well as the left lateral occipital cortex. The cortex was significantly thicker for T-allele carriers, who also had lower white matter volume and lower reading comprehension scores. There was a negative correlation between white matter volume and cortical thickness, but only white matter volume predicted reading comprehension 2 years after scanning. These results show how normal variability in reading comprehension is related to gene, white matter volume, and cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe. Possibly, the variability of gray and white matter structures could both be related to the role of DCDC2 in ciliary function, which affects both neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth. PMID:25339756

Darki, Fahimeh; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel

2014-10-22

118

Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matter  

E-print Network

Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matter Jennifer L Ziskin1, Akiko matter. Here we show that action potentials also induce the release of glutamate from axons in the corpus glutamate by vesicular fusion, which induces quantal AMPA receptor­mediated currents in NG21 glial

Bergles, Dwight

119

Contrasting gray and white matter changes in preclinical Huntington disease  

E-print Network

Contrasting gray and white matter changes in preclinical Huntington disease An MRI study DD ABSTRACT Background: In Huntington disease (HD), substantial striatal atrophy precedes clinical motor of view; GM gray matter; HD Huntington disease; MRI magnetic resonance imaging; pre-HD preclinical HD

Aron, Adam

120

White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal regions only in the Alzheimer’s group. The severity of white matter degeneration appears to be higher in advanced clinical stages, supporting the construct that these abnormalities are part of the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24086371

Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

2013-01-01

121

Fusion of white and gray matter geometry: A framework for investigating brain development.  

PubMed

Current neuroimaging investigation of the white matter typically focuses on measurements derived from diffusion tensor imaging, such as fractional anisotropy (FA). In contrast, imaging studies of the gray matter oftentimes focus on morphological features such as cortical thickness, folding and surface curvature. As a result, it is not clear how to combine findings from these two types of approaches in order to obtain a consistent picture of morphological changes in both gray and white matter. In this paper, we propose a joint investigation of gray and white matter morphology by combining geometrical information from white and the gray matter. To achieve this, we first introduce a novel method for computing multi-scale white matter tract geometry. Its formulation is based on the differential geometry of curve sets and is easily incorporated into a continuous scale-space framework. We then incorporate this method into a novel framework for "fusing" white and gray matter geometrical information. Given a set of fiber tracts originating in a particular cortical region, the key idea is to compute two scalar fields that represent geometrical characteristics of the white matter and of the surface of the cortical region. A quantitative marker is created by combining the distributions of these scalar values using Mutual Information. This marker can be then used in the study of normal and pathological brain structure and development. We apply this framework to a study on autism spectrum disorder in children. Our preliminary results support the view that autism may be characterized by early brain overgrowth, followed by reduced or arrested growth (Courchesne, 2004). PMID:25066750

Savadjiev, Peter; Rathi, Yogesh; Bouix, Sylvain; Smith, Alex R; Schultz, Robert T; Verma, Ragini; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

2014-12-01

122

White matter microstructure on diffusion tensor imaging is associated with conventional magnetic resonance imaging findings and  

E-print Network

and diffusion of water in the brain.7 In white matter, water diffusion is anisotropic, relatively unimpededWhite matter microstructure on diffusion tensor imaging is associated with conventional magnetic to evaluate white matter architecture after preterm birth. The goals were (1) to compare white matter

Grill-Spector, Kalanit

123

Different associations of white matter lesions with depression and cognition  

PubMed Central

Background To test the hypothesis that white matter lesions (WML) are primarily associated with regional frontal cortical volumes, and to determine the mediating effects of these regional frontal cortices on the associations of WML with depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Methods Structural brains MRIs were performed on 161 participants: cognitively normal, cognitive impaired but not demented, and demented participants. Lobar WML volumes, regional frontal cortical volumes, depressive symptom severity, and cognitive abilities were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify WML volume effects on frontal cortical volume. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the MRI-depression and the MRI-cognition path relationships. Results WML predicted frontal cortical volume, particularly in medial orbirtofrontal cortex, irrespective of age, gender, education, and group status. WML directly predicted depressive score, and this relationship was not mediated by regional frontal cortices. In contrast, the association between WML and cognitive function was indirect and mediated by regional frontal cortices. Conclusions These findings suggest that the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in older adults may differ. PMID:22920586

2012-01-01

124

NMDA receptor antibodies associated with distinct white matter syndromes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To report the clinical and radiologic findings of children with NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies and white matter disorders. Method: Ten children with significant white matter involvement, with or without anti-NMDAR encephalitis, were identified from 46 consecutive NMDAR antibody–positive pediatric patients. Clinical and neuroimaging features were reviewed and the treatment and outcomes of the neurologic syndromes evaluated. Results: Three distinct clinicoradiologic phenotypes were recognized: brainstem encephalitis (n = 3), leukoencephalopathy following herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) (n = 2), and acquired demyelination syndromes (ADS) (n = 5); 3 of the 5 with ADS had myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein as well as NMDAR antibodies. Typical NMDAR antibody encephalitis was seen in 3 patients remote from the first neurologic syndrome (2 brainstem, 1 post-HSVE). Six of the 7 patients (85%) who were treated acutely, during the original presentation with white matter involvement, improved following immunotherapy with steroids, IV immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange, either individually or in combination. Two patients had escalation of immunotherapy at relapse resulting in clinical improvement. The time course of clinical features, treatments, and recoveries correlated broadly with available serum antibody titers. Conclusion: Clinicoradiologic evidence of white matter involvement, often distinct, was identified in 22% of children with NMDAR antibodies and appears immunotherapy responsive, particularly when treated in the acute phase of neurologic presentation. When observed, this clinical improvement is often mirrored by reduction in NMDAR antibody levels, suggesting that these antibodies may mediate the white matter disease. PMID:25340058

Hacohen, Yael; Absoud, Michael; Hemingway, Cheryl; Jacobson, Leslie; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Pike, Mike; Pullaperuma, Sunil; Siddiqui, Ata; Wassmer, Evangeline; Waters, Patrick; Irani, Sarosh R.; Buckley, Camilla

2014-01-01

125

Spatial Characteristics of White Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

There is considerable evidence implicating brain white matter (WM) abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia; however, the spatial localization of WM abnormalities reported in the existing studies is heterogeneous. Thus, the goal of this study was to quantify the spatial characteristics of WM abnormalities in schizophrenia. One hundred and fourteen patients with schizophrenia and 138 matched controls participated in this multisite study involving the Universities of Iowa, Minnesota, and New Mexico, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in brain WM regions extracted using 3 different image-processing algorithms: regions of interest, tract-based spatial statistics, and the pothole approach. We found that FA was significantly lower in patients using each of the 3 image-processing algorithms. The region-of-interest approach showed multiple regions with lower FA in patients with schizophrenia, with overlap at all 4 sites in the corpus callosum and posterior thalamic radiation. The tract-based spatial statistic approach showed (1) global differences in 3 of the 4 cohorts and (2) lower frontal FA at the Iowa site. Finally, the pothole approach showed a significantly greater number of WM potholes in patients compared to controls at each of the 4 sites. In conclusion, the spatial characteristics of WM abnormalities in schizophrenia reflect a combination of a global low-level decrease in FA, suggesting a diffuse process, coupled with widely dispersed focal reductions in FA that vary spatially among individuals (ie, potholes). PMID:22987296

White, Tonya

2013-01-01

126

Soluble amyloid beta levels are elevated in the white matter of Alzheimer's patients, independent of cortical plaque severity.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of dementia. In addition to grey matter pathology, white matter changes are now recognized as an important pathological feature in the emergence of the disease. Despite growing recognition of the importance of white matter abnormalities in the pathogenesis of AD, the causes of white matter degeneration are still unknown. While multiple studies propose Wallerian-like degeneration as the source of white matter change, others suggest that primary white matter pathology may be due, at least in part, to other mechanisms, including local effects of toxic A? peptides. In the current study, we investigated levels of soluble amyloid-beta (A?) in white matter of AD patients (n=12) compared with controls (n=10). Fresh frozen white matter samples were obtained from anterior (Brodmann area 9) and posterior (Brodmann area 1, 2 and 3) areas of post-mortem AD and control brains. ELISA was used to examine levels of soluble A? -42 and A? -40. Total cortical neuritic plaque severity rating was derived from individual ratings in the following areas of cortex: mid-frontal, superior temporal, pre-central, inferior parietal, hippocampus (CA1), subiculum, entorhinal cortex, transentorhinal cortex, inferior temporal, amygdala and basal forebrain. Compared with controls, AD samples had higher white matter levels of both soluble A? -42 and A? -40. While no regional white matter differences were found in A? -40, A? -42 levels were higher in anterior regions than in posterior regions across both groups. After statistically controlling for total cortical neuritic plaque severity, differences in both soluble A? -42 and A? -40 between the groups remained, suggesting that white matter A? peptides accumulate independent of overall grey matter fibrillar amyloid pathology and are not simply a reflection of overall amyloid burden. These results shed light on one potential mechanism through which white matter degeneration may occur in AD. Given that white matter degeneration may be an early marker of disease, preceding grey matter atrophy, understanding the mechanisms and risk factors that may lead to white matter loss could help to identify those at high risk and to intervene earlier in the pathogenic process. PMID:25129614

Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Francis, Yitshak I; Griffith, Erica Y; Wiegman, Anne F; Urbach, Jonathan; Lawton, Arlene; Honig, Lawrence S; Cortes, Etty; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G; Canoll, Peter D; Goldman, James E; Brickman, Adam M

2014-01-01

127

Metabolic Maturation of White Matter Is Altered in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Significant physiological switches occur at birth such as the transition from fetal parallel blood flow to a two-circuit serial system with increased arterial oxygenation of blood delivered to all organs including the brain. In addition, the extra-uterine environment exposes premature infants to a host of stimuli. These events could conceivably alter the trajectory of brain development in premature infants. We used in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure absolute brain metabolite concentrations in term and premature-born infants without evidence of brain injury at equivalent post-conceptional age. Prematurity altered the developmental time courses of N-acetyl-aspartate, a marker for axonal and neuronal development, creatine, an energy metabolite, and choline, a membrane metabolite, in parietal white matter. Specifically, at term-equivalency, metabolic maturation in preterm infants preceded development in term infants, but then progressed at a slower pace and trajectories merged at ?340–370 post-conceptional days. In parieto/occipital grey matter similar trends were noticed but statistical significance was not reached. The timing of white matter development and synchronization of white matter and grey matter maturation in premature-born infants is disturbed. This may contribute to the greater risk of long-term neurological problems of premature infants and to their higher risk for white matter injury. PMID:24465731

Blüml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Paquette, Lisa; Panigrahy, Ashok

2014-01-01

128

Decreased white matter integrity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: a machine learning approach.  

PubMed

Statistical analysis on diffusion tensor imaging has been used extensively in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and most studies report decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) in multiple white matter regions. However, these findings vary across studies and between regions. Therefore, in this study, we used tract-based spatial statistics along with machine learning approaches to investigate the whole-brain white matter changes between 17 left mTLE patients and 15 right mTLE patients and 34 matched healthy controls. The results showed that the three groups could be distinguished from each other with promising accuracy. Compared with controls, the FA value of the most discriminating voxels was decreased in the ipsilateral limbic system, corpus callosum, and temporal white matter in both patient groups. Compared with right mTLE, left mTLE had decreased FA in the left temporal white matter, whereas right mTLE had decreased FA in the right frontal and temporal white matter, and right posterior corona radiata. These findings not only provide useful information for lateralization of the seizure focus but can also be used as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of the mTLE. This may be helpful in assessment of patients with mTLE when no lesion is detected on visual evaluation. PMID:24918460

An, Jie; Fang, Peng; Wang, Wensheng; Liu, Zhenyin; Hu, Dewen; Qiu, Shijun

2014-07-01

129

Tract-based evaluation of white matter damage in individuals with early-treated phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

Previous research has documented white matter abnormalities in the brains of individuals with early-treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU). The majority of these past studies have relied on a region-based approach which focused on a limited number of spatially-defined regions within the brain. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to perform an extensive examination of white matter tracts in the brains of ten individuals with ETPKU (mean age?=?23.2 years) and 12 healthy non-PKU individuals (mean age?=?23.5 years). Consistent with past research, we found that mean diffusivity (MD) was significantly restricted in the ETPKU group, and fractional anisotropy (FA) was comparable between the ETPKU and non-PKU groups. Moreover, we found restricted axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in our ETPKU in numerous white matter tracts, suggesting widespread white matter compromise in ETPKU. In addition, this white matter pathology was more evident in older ETPKU participants with higher blood phenylalanine (phe) levels as compared to younger participants with lower phe levels. PMID:24043380

Peng, Huiling; Peck, Dawn; White, Desirée A; Christ, Shawn E

2014-03-01

130

Diffuse Abnormality of Low to Moderately Organized White Matter in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal white matter is central to the pathophysiology and, potentially, the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ). The spatial distribution of observed abnormalities and the type of white matter involved remain to be elucidated. Seventeen chronically ill individuals with SCZ and 17 age- and gender-matched controls were studied using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tensor imaging protocol designed to examine the abnormalities of white matter by region and by level of architectural infrastructure as assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in native space. After assessing whole-brain FA, FA was divided into quartiles, capturing all brain regions with FA values from 0 to 0.25, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 0.75, and 0.75 to 1.0. Mean whole-brain FA was 4.6% smaller in the SCZ group than in healthy controls. This difference was largely accounted for by FA values from the second quartile (between 0.25 and 0.5). Second quartile FA was decreased in all 130 brain regions of the template in the SCZ group, with the difference reaching statistical significance in 41 regions. Correspondingly, the amount of brain tissue with an FA of ?0.4 was significantly reduced in the SCZ group, while the amount of brain tissue falling in the lowest quartile of FA was increased. These findings strongly imply a diffuse loss of white matter integrity in SCZ. Our finding that the loss of integrity disproportionately involves white matter of low to moderate organization suggests an approach to the specificity of white matter abnormalities in SCZ based on microstructure rather than spatial distribution. PMID:22500774

Reading, Sarah A. J.; Oishi, Kenichi; Redgrave, Graham W.; McEntee, Julie; Shanahan, Megan; Yoritomo, Nadine; Younes, Laurent; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I.; van Zijl, Peter; Ross, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

131

Genetic variation in homocysteine metabolism, cognition, and white matter lesions.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown an association between homocysteine concentration and cognitive performance or cerebral white matter lesions. However, variations in genes encoding for enzymes and other proteins that play a role in homocysteine metabolism have hardly been evaluated in relation to these outcome measures. In the population-based Rotterdam Scan Study, we examined the association of seven polymorphisms of genes involved in homocysteine metabolism (MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, RFC 80G>A, TC 776C>G, MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, and CBS 844ins68) with plasma total homocysteine, cognitive performance, and cerebral white matter lesions among 1011 non-demented elderly participants. Of all the studied polymorphisms, only MTHFR 677C>T was associated with homocysteine concentration. No significant relationship was observed for any of the polymorphisms with cognitive performance or severity of cerebral white matter lesions. PMID:19019492

de Lau, Lonneke M L; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Uitterlinden, André G; Smith, A David; Refsum, Helga; Johnston, Carole; Breteler, Monique M B

2010-11-01

132

Cognitive dysfunction and white matter abnormalities in antiphospholipid syndrome.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) requires that a patient have both a clinical event (thrombosis or pregnancy loss) and persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Although stroke and transient ischemic attack are the most common neurologic manifestations of APS, both cognitive dysfunction and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) white matter hyperintensities can occur in aPL-positive patients (with or without APS). Relatively little is known about the cognitive pattern in aPL-positive patients; MRI white matter hyperintensities may be related to underlying attentional and executive cognitive impairment. Studies with sophisticated neuroimaging techniques aimed to better understand MRI white matter hyperintensities may eventually facilitate our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in aPL-positive patients. PMID:20472406

Erkan, Doruk; Kozora, Elizabeth; Lockshin, Michael D

2011-02-01

133

Compression behavior of porcine spinal cord white matter.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury often results from a compressive load; however, the compression behavior of spinal cord white matter has not been clearly established. Quantifying the compression behavior is important for advancing our understanding of spinal cord injury mechanics and facilitating the use of finite element models to study injury. The objective of this study was to characterize the unconfined compression behavior of isolated white matter segments and determine the constitutive model which best captured the stress-strain behavior. Spinal cord white matter samples were harvested immediately following sacrifice from juvenile Yorkshire pigs (n=104). The samples were compressed to 40% strain at four strain rates (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0/s) and allowed to relax for 60s. The effects of preload, peak strain, sample aspect ratio, and time post mortem on peak stress, and constitutive model parameters were also examined. Strain rate had a significant effect on peak stress (p<0.001). A first-order Ogden model best captured the loading response of spinal cord white matter (R(2)=0.99) and a viscoelastic material model combining a first-order Ogden model with a 3-term Prony series effectively captured the effect of strain rate and the relaxation response. This study showed spinal cord white matter to be less stiff than previously estimated by inverse finite element methods, which will have a significant effect on finite element model predictions of the magnitude and distribution of stresses and strains in the spinal cord. This study is the first to quantify the unconfined compression response of spinal cord white matter. PMID:21353225

Sparrey, Carolyn J; Keaveny, Tony M

2011-04-01

134

Mechanisms of white matter change induced by meditation training  

PubMed Central

Training can induce changes in specific brain networks and changes in brain state. In both cases it has been found that the efficiency of white matter as measured by diffusion tensor imaging is increased, often after only a few hours of training. In this paper we consider a plausible molecular mechanism for how state change produced by meditation might lead to white matter change. According to this hypothesis frontal theta induced by meditation produces a molecular cascade that increases myelin and improves connectivity. PMID:25386155

Posner, Michael I.; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Lynch, Gary

2014-01-01

135

Scalable brain network construction on white matter fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DTI offers a unique opportunity to characterize the structural connectivity of the human brain non-invasively by tracing white matter fiber tracts. Whole brain tractography studies routinely generate up to half million tracts per brain, which serves as edges in an extremely large 3D graph with up to half million edges. Currently there is no agreed-upon method for constructing the brain structural network graphs out of large number of white matter tracts. In this paper, we present a scalable iterative framework called the ?-neighbor method for building a network graph and apply it to testing abnormal connectivity in autism.

Chung, Moo K.; Adluru, Nagesh; Dalton, Kim M.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.

2011-03-01

136

Infrared spectroscopic characterization of human white matter, grey matter, and multiple sclerosis lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to characterize white matter, grey matter, and multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques from human central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Discrimination among these three tissue types is possible due to variations in composition. Spectra of white matter exhibit strong lipid absorptions. In contrast, spectra of grey matter reveal a reduced lipid contribution and a significant absorption from water. MS plaques exhibit spectra indicative of lipid loss and, depending upon whether the plaques are chronic or acute, changes in the protein and/or water content.

Choo, Lin-P'ing; Jackson, Michael; Halliday, William C.; Mantsch, Henry H.

1994-01-01

137

Coronary Heart Disease and Cortical Thickness, Gray Matter and White Matter Lesion Volumes on MRI  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been linked with cognitive decline and dementia in several studies. CHD is strongly associated with blood pressure, but it is not clear how blood pressure levels or changes in blood pressure over time affect the relation between CHD and dementia-related pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between CHD and cortical thickness, gray matter volume and white matter lesion (WML) volume on MRI, considering CHD duration and blood pressure levels from midlife to three decades later. The study population included 69 elderly at risk of dementia who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study. CAIDE participants were examined in midlife, re-examined 21 years later, and then after additionally 7 years (in total up to 30 years follow-up). MRIs from the second re-examination were used to calculate cortical thickness, gray matter and WML volume. CHD diagnoses were obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, follow-up time and scanner type, and additionally total intracranial volume in GM volume analyses. Adding diabetes, cholesterol or smoking to the models did not influence the results. CHD was associated with lower thickness in multiple regions, and lower total gray matter volume, particularly in people with longer disease duration (>10 years). Associations between CHD, cortical thickness and gray matter volume were strongest in people with CHD and hypertension in midlife, and those with CHD and declining blood pressure after midlife. No association was found between CHD and WML volumes. Based on these results, long-term CHD seems to have detrimental effects on brain gray matter tissue, and these effects are influenced by blood pressure levels and their changes over time. PMID:25302686

Vuorinen, Miika; Damangir, Soheil; Niskanen, Eini; Miralbell, Julia; Rusanen, Minna; Spulber, Gabriela; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

2014-01-01

138

Extent and distribution of white matter hyperintensities in normal aging, MCI, and AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the extent and spatial distribution of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in brain regions from cognitively normal older individuals (CN) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: We studied 26 mild AD, 28 MCI, and 33 CN. MRI analysis included quantification of WMH volume, nonlinear mapping onto a common anatomic image, and spatial

M. Yoshita; E. Fletcher; D. Harvey; M. Ortega; O. Martinez; D. M. Mungas; B. R. Reed; C. S. DeCarli

2006-01-01

139

Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109…

Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

140

White matter pathways in reading Michal Ben-Shachar, Robert F Dougherty and Brian A Wandell  

E-print Network

spread across the brain, a full understanding of this cognitive ability involves the identification in multiple, often distant brain regions. In the specific case of reading, the brain integrates signals from of specific white matter connections during development. Skilled reading requires proficient processing

Wandell, Brian A.

141

COMT genotype affects prefrontal white matter pathways in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging is widely used to evaluate the development of white matter. Information about how alterations in major neurotransmitter systems, such as the dopamine (DA) system, influence this development in healthy children, however, is lacking. Catechol-O-metyltransferase (COMT) is the major enzyme responsible for DA degradation in prefrontal brain structures, for which there is a corresponding genetic polymorphism (val158met) that confers either a more or less efficient version of this enzyme. The result of this common genetic variation is that children may have more or less available synaptic DA in prefrontal brain regions. In the present study we examined the relation between diffusion properties of frontal white matter structures and the COMT val158met polymorphism in 40 children ages 9-15. We found that the val allele was associated with significantly elevated fractional anisotropy values and reduced axial and radial diffusivities. These results indicate that the development of white matter in healthy children is related to COMT genotype and that alterations in white matter may be related to the differential availability of prefrontal DA. This investigation paves the way for further studies of how common functional variants in the genome might influence the development of brain white matter. PMID:20083203

Thomason, Moriah E; Dougherty, Robert F; Colich, Natalie L; Perry, Lee M; Rykhlevskaia, Elena I; Louro, Hugo M; Hallmayer, Joachim F; Waugh, Christian E; Bammer, Roland; Glover, Gary H; Gotlib, Ian H

2010-11-15

142

Microstructural white matter changes are correlated with the stage of psychiatric illness  

PubMed Central

Microstructural white matter changes have been reported in the brains of patients across a range of psychiatric disorders. Evidence now demonstrates significant overlap in these regions in patients with affective and psychotic disorders, thus raising the possibility that these conditions share common neurobiological processes. If affective and psychotic disorders share these disruptions, it is unclear whether they occur early in the course or develop gradually with persistence or recurrence of illness. Utilisation of a clinical staging model, as an adjunct to traditional diagnostic practice, is a viable mechanism for measuring illness progression. It is particularly relevant in young people presenting early in their illness course. It also provides a suitable framework for determining the timing of emergent brain alterations, including disruptions of white matter tracts. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated the integrity of white matter tracts in 74 patients with sub-syndromal psychiatric symptoms as well as in 69 patients diagnosed with established psychosis or affective disorder and contrasted these findings with those of 39 healthy controls. A significant disruption in white matter integrity was found in the left anterior corona radiata and in particular the anterior thalamic radiation for both the patients groups when separately contrasted with healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with sub-syndromal symptoms exhibit discernable early white matter changes when compared with healthy control subjects and more significant disruptions are associated with clinical evidence of illness progression. PMID:23612047

Lagopoulos, J; Hermens, D F; Hatton, S N; Battisti, R A; Tobias-Webb, J; White, D; Naismith, S L; Scott, E M; Ryder, W J; Bennett, M R; Hickie, I B

2013-01-01

143

A Role for White Matter Abnormalities in the Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is a chronically disabling psychiatric disorder characterized by manic states that is often interspersed with periods of depression whose neurobiology remains largely unknown. There is, however, increasing evidence that white matter (WM) abnormalities may play an important role in the neurobiology of the disorder. In this review we critically evaluate evidence for WM abnormalities in bipolar disorder obtained from neuroimaging, neuropathological, and genetic research. Increased rates of white matter hyperintensities, regional volumetric abnormalities, abnormal water diffusion along prefrontal-subcortical tracts, fewer oligodendrocytes in prefrontal WM, and alterations in the expression of myelin-and oligodendrocyte-related genes are among the most consistent findings. Abnormalities converge in the prefrontal WM and, in particular, tracts that connect prefrontal regions and subcortical gray matter structures known to be involved in emotion. Taken together, the evidence supports and clarifies a model of bipolar disorder that involves disconnectivity in regions implicated in emotion generation and regulation. PMID:19896972

Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E.; Szeszko, Philip R.

2010-01-01

144

White matter integrity, language, and childhood onset schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background The heterogeneity of symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can be explained by abnormal connectivity between brain regions. Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a particularly severe form of schizophrenia, with an onset during a key time period for both cerebral pruning and myelination. Methods Diffusion tensor images were acquired from 18 children and adolescents with COS and 25 controls. The COS group was divided into two sub-groups--one with linguistic impairment (LI) and the other without (NLI). The fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) data from the two COS sub-groups were compared to each other and to the controls using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses, which is a voxel-based method used to identify regions of white matter abnormalities. Results TBSS identified several regions in the left hemisphere where the LI group had increased AD and RD relative to the NLI and the control groups. These areas primarily localized to linguistic tracts: left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Regions of increased RD overlapped regions of increased AD, with the former showing more pronounced effects. Conclusions Studies of adult-onset schizophrenia typically identify areas of higher RD but unchanged AD; however, normal development studies have shown that while RD decreases are pronounced over this age range, smaller decreases in AD can also be detected. The observed increases in both RD and AD suggest that developmental disturbances affecting the structural connectivity of these pathways are more severe in COS accompanied by severe linguistic impairments. PMID:22405729

Clark, Kristi; Narr, Katherine L.; O’Neill, Joseph; Levitt, Jennifer; Siddarth, Prabha; Phillips, Owen; Toga, Arthur; Caplan, Rochelle

2012-01-01

145

Mechanisms of white matter changes induced by meditation  

PubMed Central

Using diffusion tensor imaging, several recent studies have shown that training results in changes in white matter efficiency as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). In our work, we found that a form of mindfulness meditation, integrative body–mind training (IBMT), improved FA in areas surrounding the anterior cingulate cortex after 4-wk training more than controls given relaxation training. Reductions in radial diffusivity (RD) have been interpreted as improved myelin but reductions in axial diffusivity (AD) involve other mechanisms, such as axonal density. We now report that after 4-wk training with IBMT, both RD and AD decrease accompanied by increased FA, indicating improved efficiency of white matter involves increased myelin as well as other axonal changes. However, 2-wk IBMT reduced AD, but not RD or FA, and improved moods. Our results demonstrate the time-course of white matter neuroplasticity in short-term meditation. This dynamic pattern of white matter change involving the anterior cingulate cortex, a part of the brain network related to self-regulation, could provide a means for intervention to improve or prevent mental disorders. PMID:22689998

Tang, Yi-Yuan; Lu, Qilin; Fan, Ming; Yang, Yihong; Posner, Michael I.

2012-01-01

146

Anaerobic function of CNS white matter declines with age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is generally believed to be completely dependent on the presence of oxygen (O2) to maintain energy levels necessary for excitability. However, previous studies on CNS white matter (WM) have shown that a large subset of CNS-myelinated axons of mice aged 4 to 6 weeks remains excitable in the absence of O2. We investigated whether

Margaret A Hamner; Thomas Möller; Bruce R Ransom

2011-01-01

147

The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

White dwarfs and neutron stars are stellar objects with masses comparable to that of our sun. However, as the endpoint stages of stellar evolution, these objects do not sustain any thermonuclear burning and therefore can no longer support the gravitational load of their own mass by generating thermal pressure. Rather, matter in their interiors is compressed to much higher densities

Shmuel Balberg; Stuart L. Shapiro

2000-01-01

148

Bilirubin and its oxidation products damage brain white matter.  

PubMed

Brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs in cortex and white matter and may be mediated by blood breakdown products, including hemoglobin and heme. Effects of blood breakdown products, bilirubin and bilirubin oxidation products, have not been widely investigated in adult brain. Here, we first determined the effect of bilirubin and its oxidation products on the structure and function of white matter in vitro using brain slices. Subsequently, we determined whether these compounds have an effect on the structure and function of white matter in vivo. In all, 0.5?mmol/L bilirubin treatment significantly damaged both the function and the structure of myelinated axons but not the unmyelinated axons in brain slices. Toxicity of bilirubin in vitro was prevented by dimethyl sulfoxide. Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) may be responsible for the toxicity of bilirubin. In in vivo experiments, unmyelinated axons were found more susceptible to damage from bilirubin injection. These results suggest that unmyelinated axons may have a major role in white-matter damage in vivo. Since bilirubin and BOXes appear in a delayed manner after ICH, preventing their toxic effects may be worth investigating therapeutically. Dimethyl sulfoxide or its structurally related derivatives may have a potential therapeutic value at antagonizing axonal damage after hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:25160671

Lakovic, Katarina; Ai, Jinglu; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Tariq, Asma; Sabri, Mohammed; Alarfaj, Abdullah K; Vasdev, Punarjot; Macdonald, Robert Loch

2014-11-01

149

Original Research White Matter Lesion Load Is Associated With  

E-print Network

frequency fluctuation (fALFF) were obtained for resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). White matter lesion on availability of data. Default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity and fractional amplitude of low; resting state- fMRI; Alzheimer disease; fractional amplitude at low fre- quency fluctuation; default mode

Duong, Timothy Q.

150

Comparative Aspects of Microglia Reaction in White and Gray Matter  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Microglia are considered as the primary immune effector cells in the brain and have a critical role in all brain lesions. We wanted to find out if there is any difference in the way that white and gray matter microglia react to the same type of lesion. Material and Method: We used 14-16 weeks old single transgenic CX3CR1-EGFP mice, whereon microglia were labeled by expression of the green fluorescent protein EGFP and the L1-L2 dorsal spinal columns were exposed. After 10 min of continuous base line image acquisition, we made a micro-lesion by focusing and raising the power of the laser and, than, we monitored it for an additional hour. Laser-lesion and image recording were also made in the right somato-sensory cortex. We quantified microglial response and compared white vs. grey matter. Results: 5-10 min after the lesion, microglia already showed signs of polarization by extending their processes both in white and gray matter. Processes were sent by the microglial bodies situated at a distance of 50 to 100 µm, depending on the lesion size. Microglial processes did not display a preferred target site from the lesion; in contrast, they formed a uniform “shielding” ring around the lesion. Conclusions: Microglia showed targeted responses to acute injuries in grey and white matter also; no major differences were observed besides the speed of the process, due probably to particular cortex and spine architecture. PMID:24778858

Catalin, B.; Mitran, Smaranda; Albu, Carmen; Iancau, Maria

2013-01-01

151

Bilateral White Matter Diffusion Changes Persist after Epilepsy Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Purpose: Bilateral white matter diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) abnormalities have been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), but it is unknown whether these are functional or structural changes. We performed a longitudinal study in pa- tients with unilateral MTS who were seizure-free for 1 year after surgery to determine whether the

Luis Concha; Christian Beaulieu; B. Matt Wheatley; Donald W. Gross

2007-01-01

152

Altered white matter microstructure in adolescent substance users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic marijuana use during adolescence is frequently comorbid with heavy alcohol consumption and associated with CNS alterations, yet the influence of early cannabis and alcohol use on microstructural white matter integrity is unclear. Building on evidence that cannabinoid receptors are present in myelin precursors and affect glial cell processing, and that excessive ethanol exposure is associated with persistently impaired myelination,

Sunita Bava; Lawrence R. Frank; Tim McQueeny; Brian C. Schweinsburg; Alecia D. Schweinsburg; Susan F. Tapert

2009-01-01

153

White Matter Hyperintensities and Working Memory: An Explorative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly observed in elderly people and may have the most profound effect on executive functions, including working memory. Surprisingly, the Digit Span backward, a frequently employed working memory task, reveals no association with WMH. In the present study, it was investigated whether more detailed analyses of WMH variables and study sample selection are important when

Joukje M. Oosterman; Barbera van Harten; Henry C. Weinstein; Philip Scheltens; Joseph A. Sergeant; Erik J. A. Scherder

2008-01-01

154

Connecting cerebral white matter lesions and hypertensive target organ damage.  

PubMed

Chronic hypertension leads to concomitant remodeling of the cardiac and vascular systems and various organs, especially the brain, kidney, and retina. The brain is an early target of organ damage due to high blood pressure, which is the major modifiable risk factor for stroke and small vessel disease. Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability worldwide and over 80% of strokes occur in the elderly. Preclinical hypertensive lesions in most target organs are clearly identified: left ventricular hypertrophy for the heart, microalbuminuria for the kidney, fundus abnormalities for the eye, and intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity for the vessels. However, early hypertensive brain damage is not fully studied due to difficulties in access and the expense of techniques. After age, hypertension is the most-important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions, which are an important prognostic factor for stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia, and death. Studies have shown an association between white matter lesions and a number of extracranial systems affected by high BP and also suggest that correct antihypertensive treatment could slow white matter lesions progression. There is strong evidence that cerebral white matter lesions in hypertensive patients should be considered a silent early marker of brain damage. PMID:21837275

Sierra, Cristina; López-Soto, Alfons; Coca, Antonio

2011-01-01

155

Compression behavior of porcine spinal cord white matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury often results from a compressive load; however, the compression behavior of spinal cord white matter has not been clearly established. Quantifying the compression behavior is important for advancing our understanding of spinal cord injury mechanics and facilitating the use of finite element models to study injury. The objective of this study was to characterize the unconfined compression

Carolyn J. Sparrey; Tony M. Keaveny

2011-01-01

156

Improved Sensitivity to Cerebral White Matter Abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease with Spherical Deconvolution Based Tractography  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based fiber tractography (FT) is the most popular approach for investigating white matter tracts in vivo, despite its inability to reconstruct fiber pathways in regions with “crossing fibers.” Recently, constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) has been developed to mitigate the adverse effects of “crossing fibers” on DTI based FT. Notwithstanding the methodological benefit, the clinical relevance of CSD based FT for the assessment of white matter abnormalities remains unclear. In this work, we evaluated the applicability of a hybrid framework, in which CSD based FT is combined with conventional DTI metrics to assess white matter abnormalities in 25 patients with early Alzheimer’s disease. Both CSD and DTI based FT were used to reconstruct two white matter tracts: one with regions of “crossing fibers,” i.e., the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and one which contains only one fiber orientation, i.e. the midsagittal section of the corpus callosum (CC). The DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), obtained from these tracts were related to memory function. Our results show that in the tract with “crossing fibers” the relation between FA/MD and memory was stronger with CSD than with DTI based FT. By contrast, in the fiber bundle where one fiber population predominates, the relation between FA/MD and memory was comparable between both tractography methods. Importantly, these associations were most pronounced after adjustment for the planar diffusion coefficient, a measure reflecting the degree of fiber organization complexity. These findings indicate that compared to conventionally applied DTI based FT, CSD based FT combined with DTI metrics can increase the sensitivity to detect functionally significant white matter abnormalities in tracts with complex white matter architecture. PMID:22952880

Reijmer, Yael D.; Leemans, Alexander; Heringa, Sophie M.; Wielaard, Ilse; Jeurissen, Ben; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Biessels, Geert Jan

2012-01-01

157

Aerobic fitness is associated with gray matter volume and white matter integrity in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in gray and white matter have been well documented in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Severity and extent of such brain tissue damage have been associated with cognitive impairment, disease duration and neurological disability, making quantitative indices of tissue damage important markers of disease progression. In this study, we investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of gray matter

Ruchika Shaurya Prakash; Erin M. Snook; Robert W. Motl; Arthur F. Kramer

2010-01-01

158

Decreased frontal white-matter volume in chronic substance abuse.  

PubMed

There is quite a body of work assessing functional brain changes in chronic substance abuse, much less is known about structural brain abnormalities in this patient population. In this study we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine if structural brain differences exist in patients abusing illicit drugs compared to healthy controls. Sixteen substance abusers who abused heroin, cocaine and cannabis but not alcohol and 16 age-, sex- and race-matched controls were imaged on a MRI scanner. Contiguous, 5-mm-thick axial slices were acquired with simultaneous T2 and proton density sequences. Volumes were estimated for total grey and white matter, frontal grey and white matter, ventricles, and CSF using two different methods: a conventional segmentation and a stereological method based on the Cavalieri principle. Overall brain volume differences were corrected for by expressing the volumes of interest as a percentage of total brain volume. Volume measures obtained with the two methods were highly correlated (r=0.65, p<0.001). Substance abusers had significantly less frontal white-matter volume percentage than controls. There were no significant differences in any of the other brain volumes measured. This difference in frontal lobe white matter might be explained by a direct neurotoxic effect of drug use on white matter, a pre-existing abnormality in the development of the frontal lobe or a combination of both effects. This last explanation might be compelling based on the fact that newer concepts on shared aspects of some neuropsychiatric disorders focus on the promotion and inhibition of the process of myelination throughout brain development and subsequent degeneration. PMID:16004619

Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Lancaster, Eric; Heidbreder, Rebecca; Strain, Eric C; Kosel, Markus; Fisch, Hans-Ulrich; Pearlson, Godfrey D

2006-04-01

159

White matter alterations in temporal lobe epilepsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In This study, we used Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (D), parallel diffusivity (D//) and perpendicular diffusivity (D), to localize the regions where occur axonal lesion and demyelization. TBSS was applied to analyze the FA data. After, the regions with alteration were studied with D, D// and D maps. Patients exhibited widespread degradation of FA. With D, D// and D maps analysis we found alterations in corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, internal capsule, corona radiate, Sagittal stratum, cingulum, fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exist demyelization and axonal damage in patients with TLE.

Diniz, P. B.; Salmon, C. E.; Velasco, T. R.; Sakamoto, A. C.; Leite, J. P.; Santos, A. C.

2011-03-01

160

Spatial Patterns of Whole Brain Grey and White Matter Injury in Patients with Occult Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy(SDCP)is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP), which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were collected and the data were acquired on a 3T MR system. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis to investigate whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. By using VBM method, the grey matter volume reduction was revealed in the bilateral basal ganglia regions, thalamus, insula, and left cerebral peduncle, whereas the white matter atrophy was found to be located in the posterior part of corpus callosum and right posterior corona radiata in the occult SDCP patients. By using TBSS, reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in multiple white matter regions, including bilateral white matter tracts in prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, internal and external capsule, corpus callosum, cingulum, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Additionally, several regions of white matter tracts injury were found to be significantly correlated with motor dysfunction. These results collectively revealed the spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. PMID:24964139

Wang, Hong; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Zan; Dai, Guanghui; Ma, Qiaozhi; Shan, Baoci; Ma, Lin

2014-01-01

161

Degradation of Association and Projection White Matter Systems in Alcoholism Detected with Quantitative Fiber Tracking  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive alcohol use can cause macrostructural tissue shrinkage with regional preference for frontal systems. The extent and locus of alcoholism’s effect on white matter microstructure is less known. Methods Quantitative fiber tracking derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) assessed the integrity of samples of 11 major white matter bundles in 87 alcoholics (59 men, 28 women) and 88 healthy control subjects (42 men, 46 women). Fiber integrity was expressed as fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), quantified separately for longitudinal diffusivity (?L), a putative index of axonal integrity, and transverse diffusivity (?T), a putative index of myelin integrity. Results Alcoholism affected FA and diffusivity, particularly ?T, of several fiber bundles. Frontal and superior sites (frontal forceps, internal and external capsules, fornix, and superior cingulate and longitudinal fasciculi) showed greatest abnormalities in alcoholics relative to control subjects. More posterior and inferior bundles were relatively spared. Lifetime alcohol consumption correlated with regional DTI measures in alcoholic men but not women. When matched for alcohol exposure, alcoholic women showed more DTI signs of white matter degradation than alcoholic men in several fiber bundles. Among all alcoholics, poorer performance on speeded tests correlated with DTI signs of regional white matter degradation. Conclusions This survey of multiple brain fiber systems revealed a differential pattern of alcoholism’s effect on regional FA and diffusivity with functional consequences attributable in part to compromised fiber microstructure with prominence in signs of myelin degradation. Sex-based differences suggest that women are at enhanced risk for alcoholism-related degradation in selective white matter systems. PMID:19103436

Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rosenbloom, Margaret; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V.

2009-01-01

162

Early gray-matter and white-matter concentration in infancy predict later language skills: A whole brain voxel-based morphometry study  

PubMed Central

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children’s language scores at 12 months. Early gray-matter concentration in the right cerebellum, early white-matter concentration in the right cerebellum, and early white-matter concentration in the left posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC)/cerebral peduncle were positively and strongly associated with infants’ receptive language ability at 12 months. Early gray-matter concentration in the right hippocampus was positively and strongly correlated with infants’ expressive language ability at 12 months. Our results suggest that the cerebellum, PLIC/cerebral peduncle, and the hippocampus may be associated with early language development. Potential links between these structural predictors and infants’ linguistic functions are discussed. PMID:23274797

Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia

2012-01-01

163

Early Gray-Matter and White-Matter Concentration in Infancy Predict Later Language Skills: A Whole Brain Voxel-Based Morphometry Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months.…

Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K.

2013-01-01

164

Altered White Matter Architecture in BDNF Met Carriers  

PubMed Central

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates the pruning of synaptically silent axonal arbors. The Met allele of the BDNF gene is associated with a reduction in the neurotrophin's activity-dependent release. We used diffusion-weighted imaging to construct structural brain networks for 36 healthy subjects with known BDNF genotypes. Through permutation testing we discovered clear differences in connection strength between subjects carrying the Met allele and those homozygotic for the Val allele. We trained a Gaussian process classifier capable of identifying the subjects' allelic group with 86% accuracy and high predictive value. In Met carriers structural connectivity was greatly increased throughout the forebrain, particularly in connections corresponding to the anterior and superior corona radiata as well as corticothalamic and corticospinal projections from the sensorimotor, premotor, and prefrontal portions of the internal capsule. Interhemispheric connectivity was also increased via the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, and extremely high connectivity values were found between inferior medial frontal polar regions via the anterior forceps. We propose that the decreased availability of BDNF leads to deficits in axonal maintenance in carriers of the Met allele, and that this produces mesoscale changes in white matter architecture. PMID:23935975

Ziegler, Erik; Foret, Ariane; Mascetti, Laura; Muto, Vincenzo; Le Bourdiec-Shaffii, Anahita; Stender, Johan; Balteau, Evelyne; Dideberg, Vinciane; Bours, Vincent; Maquet, Pierre; Phillips, Christophe

2013-01-01

165

Intra-operative Real-time Querying of White Matter Tracts during Frameless Stereotactic Neuronavigation  

PubMed Central

Background Brain surgery faces important challenges when trying to achieve maximum tumor resection while avoiding post-operative neurological deficits. Objective In order for surgeons to have optimal intraoperative information concerning white matter anatomy, we developed a platform that allows the intra-operative real-time querying of tractography datasets during frameless stereotactic neuronavigation. Methods Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on 5 patients before undergoing lesion resection using neuronavigation. During the procedure, the tracked surgical tool tip position was transferred from the navigation system to the 3D Slicer software package, which used this position to seed the white matter tracts around the tool tip location, rendering a geometric visualization of these tracts on the pre-operative images previously loaded onto the navigation system. The clinical feasibility of this approach was evaluated during five cases of lesion resection. In addition, system performance was evaluated by measuring the latency between surgical tool tracking and visualization of the seeded white matter tracts. Results Lesion resection was performed successfully in all five patients. The seeded white matter tracts close to the lesion and other critical structures, as defined by the functional and structural images, were interactively visualized during the intervention to determine their spatial relationships relative to the lesion and critical cortical areas. Latency between tracking and visualization of tracts was less than a second for fiducial radius size of 4–5mm. Conclusion Interactive tractography can provide an intuitive way of inspecting critical white matter tracts in the vicinity of the surgical region, allowing the surgeon to have increased intra-operative white matter information to execute the planned surgical resection. PMID:21135719

Elhawary, Haytham; Liu, Haiying; Patel, Pratik; Norton, Isaiah; Rigolo, Laura; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hata, Nobuhiko; Golby, Alexandra J.

2011-01-01

166

White Matter Tract Damage in the Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal and Corticobasal Dementia Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The phenotypes of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and the corticobasal syndrome present considerable clinical and anatomical overlap. The respective patterns of white matter damage in these syndromes have not been directly contrasted. Beyond cortical involvement, damage to white matter pathways may critically contribute to both common and specific symptoms in both conditions. Here we assessed patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and corticobasal syndrome with whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging to identify the white matter networks underlying these pathologies. Twenty patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, 19 with corticobasal syndrome, and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Differences in tract integrity between (i) patients and controls, and (ii) patients with the corticobasal syndrome and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia were assessed with whole brain tract-based spatial statistics and analyses of regions of interest. Behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and the corticobasal syndrome shared a pattern of bilaterally decreased white matter integrity in the anterior commissure, genu and body of the corpus callosum, corona radiata and in the long intrahemispheric association pathways. Patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia showed greater damage to the uncinate fasciculus, genu of corpus callosum and forceps minor. In contrast, corticobasal syndrome patients had greater damage to the midbody of the corpus callosum and perirolandic corona radiata. Whereas several compact white matter pathways were damaged in both the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and corticobasal syndrome, the distribution and degree of white matter damage differed between them. These findings concur with the distinctive clinical manifestations of these conditions and may improve the in vivo neuroanatomical and diagnostic characterization of these disorders. PMID:25054218

Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Bramati, Ivanei Edson; Zahn, Roland; Cavanagh, Alyson; Tierney, Michael; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

2014-01-01

167

Age-related decline in oligodendrogenesis retards white matter repair in mice  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose Aging is one of the major risk factors for white matter injury in cerebrovascular disease. However, the effects of age on the mechanisms of injury/repair in white matter remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we ask if compared to young brains, white matter regions in older brains may be more vulnerable in part due to decreased rates of compensatory oligodendrogenesis after injury. Methods A mouse model of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion was prepared by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis in 2-month and 8-month old mice. Matching in vitro studies were performed by subjecting oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to sub-lethal 7-day CoCl2 treatment to induce chemical hypoxic stress. Results Baseline myelin density in the corpus callosum was similar in 2-month and 8-month old mice. But after induction of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion, older mice showed more severe white matter injury together with worse deficits in working memory. The numbers of newborn oligodendrocytes and their precursors were increased by cerebral hypoperfusion in young mice, whereas these endogenous responses were significantly dampened in older mice. Defects in CREB signaling may be involved because activating CREB with the type-III phosphodiesterase inhibitor cilostazol in older mice restored the differentiation of OPCs, alleviated myelin loss and improved cognitive dysfunction during cerebral hypoperfusion. Cell culture systems confirmed that cilostazol promoted the differentiation of OPCs. Conclusions An age-related decline in CREB-mediated oligodendrogenesis may compromise endogenous white matter repair mechanisms, and therefore, drugs that activate CREB signaling provide a potential therapeutic approach for treating white matter injury in aging brains. PMID:23881957

Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Pham, Loc-Duyen D.; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Matsuzaki, Toshinori; Seo, Ji Hae; Magnain, Caroline; Ayata, Cenk; Kim, Kyu-Won; Boas, David; Lo, Eng H.; Arai, Ken

2013-01-01

168

Adolescent Toluene Inhalation in Rats Affects White Matter Maturation with the Potential for Recovery Following Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Inhalant misuse is common during adolescence, with ongoing chronic misuse associated with neurobiological and cognitive abnormalities. While human imaging studies consistently report white matter abnormalities among long-term inhalant users, longitudinal studies have been lacking with limited data available regarding the progressive nature of such abnormalities, including the potential for recovery following periods of sustained abstinence. We exposed adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 27) to chronic intermittent inhaled toluene (3,000 ppm) for 1 hour/day, 3 times/week for 8 weeks to model abuse patterns observed in adolescent and young adult human users. This dosing regimen resulted in a significant retardation in weight gain during the exposure period (p<0.05). In parallel, we performed longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (T2-weighted) and diffusion tensor imaging prior to exposure, and after 4 and 8 weeks, to examine the integrity of white matter tracts, including the anterior commissure and corpus callosum. We also conducted imaging after 8 weeks of abstinence to assess for potential recovery. Chronic intermittent toluene exposure during adolescence and early adulthood resulted in white matter abnormalities, including a decrease in axial (p<0.05) and radial (p<0.05) diffusivity. These abnormalities appeared region-specific, occurring in the anterior commissure but not the corpus callosum and were not present until after at least 4 weeks of exposure. Toluene-induced effects on both body weight and white matter parameters recovered following abstinence. Behaviourally, we observed a progressive decrease in rearing activity following toluene exposure but no difference in motor function, suggesting cognitive function may be more sensitive to the effects of toluene. Furthermore, deficits in rearing were present by 4 weeks suggesting that toluene may affect behaviour prior to detectable white matter abnormalities. Consequently, exposure to inhalants that contain toluene during adolescence and early adulthood appear to differentially affect white matter maturation and behavioural outcomes, although recovery can occur following abstinence. PMID:23028622

Egan, Gary; Kolbe, Scott; Gavrilescu, Maria; Wright, David; Lubman, Dan Ian; Lawrence, Andrew John

2012-01-01

169

Visuotopic Cortical Connectivity Underlying Attention Revealed with White-Matter Tractography  

PubMed Central

Visual attention selects behaviorally relevant information for detailed processing by resolving competition for representation among stimuli in retinotopically organized visual cortex. The signals that control this attentional biasing are thought to arise in a frontoparietal network of several brain regions, including posterior parietal cortex. Recent studies have revealed a topographic organization in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) that mirrors the retinotopic organization in visual cortex, suggesting that connectivity between these regions might provide the mechanism by which attention acts on early cortical representations. Using white-matter imaging and functional MRI, we examined the connectivity between two topographic regions of IPS and six retinotopically defined areas in visual cortex. We observed a strong positive correlation between attention modulations in visual cortex and connectivity of posterior IPS, suggesting that these white-matter connections mediate the attention signals that resolve competition among stimuli for representation in visual cortex. Furthermore, we found that connectivity between IPS and V1 consistently respects visuotopic boundaries, whereas connections to V2 and V3/VP disperse by 60%. This pattern is consistent with changes in receptive field size across regions and suggests that a primary role of posterior IPS is to code spatially specific visual information. In summary, we have identified white-matter pathways that are ideally suited to carry attentional biasing signals in visuotopic coordinates from parietal control regions to sensory regions in humans. These results provide critical evidence for the biased competition theory of attention and specify neurobiological constraints on the functional brain organization of visual attention. PMID:22357860

Greenberg, Adam S.; Verstynen, Timothy; Chiu, Yu-Chin; Yantis, Steven; Schneider, Walter; Behrmann, Marlene

2012-01-01

170

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING 1 White Matter Fiber Tractography Via Anisotropic  

E-print Network

orientation of fibers, extracted from the water anisotropic diffusion in white matter, forms the basisIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING 1 White Matter Fiber Tractography Via Anisotropic Diffusion approach to noninvasively tracing brain white matter fiber tracts is presented using diffusion tensor

Zhang, Jun

171

Shape Modeling and Clustering of White Matter Fiber Tracts Using Fourier Descriptors  

E-print Network

the Brownian motion of water molecules [1] and has been used to study white matter fiber structures of humanShape Modeling and Clustering of White Matter Fiber Tracts Using Fourier Descriptors Xuwei Liang, Qi Zhuang, Ning Cao, and Jun Zhang Abstract-- Reliable shape modeling and clustering of white matter

Zhang, Jun

172

Assessing the effects of age on long white matter tracts using diffusion tensor tractography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is associated with significant white matter deterioration and this deterioration is assumed to be at least partly a consequence of myelin degeneration. The present study investigated specific predictions of the myelodegeneration hypothesis using diffusion tensor tractography. This technique has several advantages over other methods of assessing white matter architecture, including the possibility of isolating individual white matter tracts and

Simon W. Davis; Nancy A. Dennis; Norbou G. Buchler; Leonard E. White; David J. Madden; Roberto Cabeza

2009-01-01

173

High-Resolution Line Scan Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging of White Matter Fiber Tract Anatomy  

E-print Network

of white matter anatomy had been limited to the evaluation of gross brain sections with myelinHigh-Resolution Line Scan Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging of White Matter Fiber Tract Anatomy Hatsuho fiber direction. We present findings of normal white matter fiber tract anatomy at high resolution

174

Assessment of white matter abnormalities in paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

White matter abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) diseases from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies respectively, while the empirical evidences about the diagnostic specificity of white matter abnormalities in these disorders are still limited. This study sought to investigate the alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter throughout the entire brain of patients

Liqian Cui; Zhuangfei Chen; Wei Deng; Xiaoqi Huang; Mingli Li; Xiaohong Ma; Chaohua Huang; Lijun Jiang; Yingcheng Wang; Qiang Wang; David A. Collier; Qiyong Gong; Tao Li

175

Vanishing White Matter Disease: A Review with Focus on Its Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an autosomal recessive brain disorder, most often with a childhood onset. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy indicate that, with time, increasing amounts of cerebral white matter vanish and are replaced by fluid. Autopsy confirms white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration. The…

Pronk, Jan C.; van Kollenburg, Barbara; Scheper, Gert C.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

2006-01-01

176

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS 1 Exploring Connectivity of the Brain's White Matter  

E-print Network

's White Matter with Dynamic Queries Anthony Sherbondy, David Akers, Rachel Mackenzie, Robert Dougherty imaging method that can be used to measure local information about the structure of white matter within estimate the locations and sizes of nerve bundles (white matter pathways) that course through the human

Stanford University

177

A tract-specific framework for white matter morphometry combining macroscopic and microscopic tract features  

E-print Network

A tract-specific framework for white matter morphometry combining macroscopic and microscopic tract: Available online 26 May 2010 Keywords: White matter Tract-specific morphometry Shape analysis Diffusion understanding of white matter both in normal popula- tions and in populations with brain disorders. Existing

Utah, University of

178

Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD. PMID:24663245

Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

2014-01-01

179

Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: Contributions of perceptual speed and cerebral white matter integrity  

PubMed Central

Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT) measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual speed. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms of perceptual speed. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test the hypothesis that white matter integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA), serves as one mechanism of perceptual slowing in episodic memory retrieval. Results indicated that declines in FA in the pericallosal frontal region and in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in other regions, mediated the relationship between perceptual speed and episodic retrieval RT. This relation held, though to a different degree, for both hits and correct rejections. These findings suggest that white matter integrity in prefrontal regions is one mechanism underlying the relation between individual differences in perceptual speed and episodic retrieval. PMID:17383774

Bucur, Barbara; Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Provenzale, James M.; Cabeza, Roberto; White, Leonard E.; Huettel, Scott A.

2007-01-01

180

Local White Matter Geometry from Diffusion Tensor Gradients  

PubMed Central

We introduce a mathematical framework for computing geometrical properties of white matter fibres directly from diffusion tensor fields. The key idea is to isolate the portion of the gradient of the tensor field corresponding to local variation in tensor orientation, and to project it onto a coordinate frame of tensor eigenvectors. The resulting eigenframe-centered representation then makes it possible to define scalar indices (or measures) that describe the local white matter geometry directly from the diffusion tensor field and its gradient, without requiring prior tractography. We derive new scalar indices of (1) fibre dispersion and (2) fibre curving, and we demonstrate them on synthetic and in vivo data. Finally, we illustrate their applicability to a group study on schizophrenia. PMID:20426006

Savadjiev, Peter; Kindlmann, Gordon L.; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

2010-01-01

181

Local White Matter Geometry from Diffusion Tensor Gradients  

PubMed Central

We introduce a mathematical framework for computing geometrical properties of white matter fibres directly from diffusion tensor fields. The key idea is to isolate the portion of the gradient of the tensor field corresponding to local variation in tensor orientation, and to project it onto a coordinate frame of tensor eigenvectors. The resulting eigenframe-centered representation then makes it possible to define scalar indices (or measures) that describe the local white matter geometry directly from the diffusion tensor field and its gradient, without requiring prior tractography. We derive new scalar indices of (1) fibre dispersion and (2) fibre curving, and we demonstrate them on synthetic and in vivo data. Finally, we illustrate their applicability to a group study on schizophrenia. PMID:19896542

Savadjiev, Peter; Kindlmann, Gordon L.; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

2009-01-01

182

Cigarette Smoking and White Matter Microstructure in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The majority of patients with schizophrenia smoke cigarettes. Both nicotine use and schizophrenia have been associated with alterations in brain white matter microstructure as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The purpose of this study was to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in smoking and non-smoking patients with schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. A total of 43 patients (28 smoking and 15 non-smoking) with schizophrenia and 40 healthy, non-smoking participants underwent DTI. Mean FA was calculated in four global regions of interest (ROIs) (whole brain, cerebellum, brainstem, and total cortical) as well as in four regional ROIs (frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes). The non-smoking patient group had a significantly higher IQ compared to the patients who smoked and our results depended on whether IQ was included as a covariate. Without IQ correction, significant between-group effects for FA were found in four ROIs: total brain, total cortical, frontal lobe and the occipital lobe. In all cases the FA was lower among the smoking patient group, and highest in the control group. Smoking patients differed significantly from non-smoking patients in the frontal lobe ROI. However, these differences were no longer significant after IQ correction. FA differences between non-smoking patients and controls were not significant. Among smoking and non-smoking patients with schizophrenia but not healthy controls, FA was correlated with IQ. In conclusion, group effects of smoking on FA in schizophrenia might be mediated by IQ. Further, low FA in specific brain areas may be a neural marker for complex pathophysiology and risk for diverse problems such as schizophrenia, low IQ, and nicotine addiction. PMID:22386966

Cullen, Kathryn R.; Wallace, Stuart; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Bockholt, Jeremy; Erlich, Stephan; Gollub, Randy L.; Manoach, Dara; Ho, Beng C.; Clark, Vincent P.; Lauriello, John; Bustillo, Juan R.; Schulz, S. Charles; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Lim, Kelvin O.; White, Tonya

2011-01-01

183

White Matter in Aging and Cognition: A Cross-sectional Study of Microstructure in Adults Aged Eighteen to Eighty-Three  

PubMed Central

Structural brain change and concomitant cognitive decline are the seemingly unavoidable escorts of aging. Despite accumulating studies detailing the effects of age on the brain and cognition, the relationship between white matter features and cognitive function in aging have only recently received attention and remain incompletely understood. White matter microstructure can be measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), but whether DTI can provide unique information on brain aging that is not explained by white matter volume is not known. In the current study, the relationship between white matter microstructure, age and neuropsychological function was assessed using DTI in a statistical framework that employed white matter volume as a voxel-wise covariate in a sample of 120 healthy adults across a broad age range (18–83). Memory function and executive function were modestly correlated with the DTI measures while processing speed showed the greatest extent of correlation. The results suggest that age-related white matter alterations underlie age-related declines in cognitive function. Mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy in several white matter brain regions exhibited a non-linear relationship with age, while white matter volume showed a primarily linear relationship with age. The complex relationships between cognition, white matter microstructure, and white matter volume still require further investigation. PMID:20446132

Bendlin, Barbara B.; Fitzgerald, Michele E.; Ries, Michele L.; Xu, Guofan; Kastman, Erik K.; Thiel, Brent W.; Rowley, Howard A.; Lazar, Mariana; Alexander, Andrew L.; Johnson, Sterling C.

2010-01-01

184

Attenuation of Brain White Matter Lesions After Lacunar Stroke  

PubMed Central

White matter lesions (WMLs) are commonly observed in stroke patients with small vessel disease (SVD) and are thought to result from a progressive, irreversible disease process following arteriolosclerosis. In this study, we report a case of partial disappearance of WMLs 1 year after a lacunar stroke in a 69-year-old man with evidence of SVD. We also discuss possible mechanisms associated with this observation. PMID:22347611

Durand-Birchenall, Julia; Leclercq, Claire; Daouk, Joel; Monet, Pauline; Godefroy, Olivier; Bugnicourt, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

185

White Matter Correlates of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus have similar levels of neuropsychological dysfunction (i.e., 20–50%) as those with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE). We hypothesized a gradient between cognition and white matter integrity, such that strongest brain-behavior relationships would emerge in NPSLE, intermediate in non-NPSLE, and minimal in controls. We studied thirty-one patients (16 non-NPSLE; 15 NPSLE), ranging in age from

Rex E. Jung; Robert S. Chavez; Ranee A. Flores; Clifford Qualls; Wilmer L. Sibbitt; Carlos A. Roldan

2012-01-01

186

Inferior frontal white matter volume and suicidality in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurobiology of suicidality in schizophrenia is largely unknown. We therefore assessed gray and white matter volumes associated with past suicidality and current self-aggression in schizophrenia. Fifty-five outpatients with schizophrenia (n=55) and healthy controls (n=55), matched for age, gender and handedness, were recruited. Ten patients had a life-time history of one or more suicide attempts. Current self-aggression was assessed using

Nicolas Rüsch; Ilaria Spoletini; Marko Wilke; Giovanni Martinotti; Pietro Bria; Alberto Trequattrini; Giuseppina Bonaviri; Carlo Caltagirone; Gianfranco Spalletta

2008-01-01

187

White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing. To address the roles of basic sensory, sensory association and early attentional processes in sensory responsiveness in ASD, our investigation focused on five white matter fiber tracts known to be involved in these various stages of sensory processing: superior corona radiata, centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and splenium. We acquired high angular resolution diffusion images from 32 children with ASD and 26 typically developing children between the ages of 5 and 8. We also administered sensory assessments to examine brain-behavior relationships between white matter integrity and sensory variables. Our findings suggest a modulatory role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and splenium in atypical sensorimotor and early attention processes in ASD. Increased tactile defensiveness was found to be related to reduced fractional anisotropy in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which may reflect an aberrant connection between limbic structures in the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal cortex. Our findings also corroborate the modulatory role of the splenium in attentional orienting, but suggest the possibility of a more diffuse or separable network for social orienting in ASD. Future investigation should consider the use of whole brain analyses for a more robust assessment of white matter microstructure. PMID:25379451

Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Schauder, Kimberly B.; Anderson, Adam W.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Loring, Whitney A.; Cascio, Carissa J.

2014-01-01

188

White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults  

PubMed Central

Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18–30 years) and 25 healthy older adults (range 62–82 years). Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations) were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA) was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over) on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait. PMID:24959139

Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Van Impe, Annouchka; Duysens, Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P.

2014-01-01

189

Clinical associations of prenatal ischaemic white matter injury.  

PubMed Central

Neuropathological examinations were carried out at necropsy on 274 cases of intrauterine death or neonatal death at or before three days after birth. Fifty six (20.4%) subjects had evidence of prenatal ischaemic brain damage. On review of the maternal case notes to ascertain antenatal clinical associations there was an increased incidence of intrauterine growth retardation, either based on birth weight for gestational age (odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 3.7) or diagnosed antenatally (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.6). Oligohydramnios was also more common (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 7.0). The association of intrauterine growth retardation and white matter damage remained after excluding fetuses with a major congenital anomaly (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.1). The findings suggest that chronic intrauterine hypoxia may be associated with damage to cerebral white matter among fetuses and infants who die. The relation between ischaemic white matter damage and cerebral palsy among survivors remains speculative. PMID:8154901

Gaffney, G; Squier, M V; Johnson, A; Flavell, V; Sellers, S

1994-01-01

190

Longitudinal Characterization of White Matter Maturation During Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Background: Late adolescence is comprised of considerable developmental transitions, though brain maturational changes during this period are subtle and difficult to quantitatively evaluate from standard brain imaging acquisitions. To date, primarily cross-sectional studies have characterized typical developmental changes during adolescence, but these processes need further description within a longitudinal framework. Method: To assess the developmental trajectory of typical white matter development, we examined 22 healthy adolescents with serial diffusion tensor images (DTI) collected at a mean age of 17.8 years and 16-months later. Diffusion parameters fractional anisotropy, and mean, radial, and axial diffusivity were subjected to whole-brain voxelwise time point comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. Results: At follow-up, adolescents showed significant change (? 153 contiguous voxels each at p<.01) in diffusion properties, including in bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi, superior corona radiata, anterior thalamic radiations, and posterior limb of the internal capsule. Overall, correlations with cognitive performances suggested behavioral improvement corresponding with white matter changes. Conclusion: These longitudinal DTI findings support continued microstructural change in white matter during late adolescence, and suggest ongoing refinement of projection and association fibers into early adulthood. PMID:20206151

Bava, Sunita; Thayer, Rachel; Jacobus, Joanna; Ward, Megan; Jernigan, Terry L.; Tapert, Susan F.

2010-01-01

191

White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults.  

PubMed

Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18-30 years) and 25 healthy older adults (range 62-82 years). Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations) were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA) was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over) on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait. PMID:24959139

Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Van Impe, Annouchka; Duysens, Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P

2014-01-01

192

White matter connectivity and aerobic fitness in male adolescents.  

PubMed

Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on the brain and behavior throughout various stages of the lifespan. However, little is known about the impact of exercise on neurodevelopment during the adolescent years, particularly with regard to white matter microstructure, as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Both tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and tractography-based along-tract statistics were utilized to examine the relationship between white matter microstructure and aerobic exercise in adolescent males, ages 15-18. Furthermore, we examined the data by both (1) grouping individuals based on aerobic fitness self-reports (high fit (HF) vs. low fit (LF)), and (2) using VO2 peak as a continuous variable across the entire sample. Results showed that HF youth had an overall higher number of streamline counts compared to LF peers, which was driven by group differences in corticospinal tract (CST) and anterior corpus callosum (Fminor). In addition, VO2 peak was negatively related to FA in the left CST. Together, these results suggest that aerobic fitness relates to white matter connectivity and microstructure in tracts carrying frontal and motor fibers during adolescence. Furthermore, the current study highlights the importance of considering the environmental factor of aerobic exercise when examining adolescent brain development. PMID:24333926

Herting, Megan M; Colby, John B; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Nagel, Bonnie J

2014-01-01

193

MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN) underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (DR) from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM) volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy. PMID:23762488

Zhang, Yu; Schuff, Norbert; Camacho, Monica; Chao, Linda L; Fletcher, Thomas P; Yaffe, Kristine; Woolley, Susan C; Madison, Catherine; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Weiner, Michael W

2013-01-01

194

MRI Markers for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Comparisons between White Matter Integrity and Gray Matter Volume Measurements  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN) underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (DR) from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM) volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy. PMID:23762488

Zhang, Yu; Schuff, Norbert; Camacho, Monica; Chao, Linda L.; Fletcher, Thomas P.; Yaffe, Kristine; Woolley, Susan C.; Madison, Catherine; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Weiner, Michael W.

2013-01-01

195

White matter microstructure correlates of inhibition and task-switching in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Although protracted prefrontal grey matter development is associated with concomitant executive function (EF) development in adolescents, few studies have explored the relationship between white matter and EF. This study examined the relationship between white matter microstructure and two aspects of EF, inhibition and task-switching, in a sample of 84 adolescents using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) were used to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Adolescents completed the Color-Word Interference task from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, a modification of the Stroop task. Inhibition and task-switching performance were group normalized and measured using both reaction time and errors. Performance and the interaction of age and performance were regressed on FA and MD white matter skeletons, controlling for age and IQ, separately for inhibition and task-switching. Follow up analyses examined the relative contributions of axial and radial diffusivities. Greater FA in the anterior corona radiata (ACR) was associated with better inhibition, independent of age. Greater FA in the SCR and precentral gyrus white matter were associated with better task-switching, regardless of age, whereas an association between FA in the ACR and task-switching was dependent on age. There were no significant associations between MD and performance. Results suggest better inhibition and task-switching are associated with greater integrity of white matter microstructure in regions supporting cross-cortical and cortical-subcortical connections stemming from the prefrontal cortex. These findings are consistent with functional studies of cognitive control and models of EF that propose separate, yet related, latent factors. PMID:23811486

Mackiewicz Seghete, Kristen L.; Herting, Megan M.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2013-01-01

196

Common genetic variants and gene expression associated with white matter microstructure in the human brain.  

PubMed

Identifying genes that contribute to white matter microstructure should provide insights into the neurobiological processes that regulate white matter development, plasticity and pathology. We detected five significant SNPs using genome-wide association analysis on a global measure of fractional anisotropy in 776 individuals from large extended pedigrees. Genetic correlations and genome-wide association results indicated that the genetic signal was largely homogeneous across white matter regions. Using RNA transcripts derived from lymphocytes in the same individuals, we identified two genes (GNA13 and CCDC91) that are likely to be cis-regulated by top SNPs, and whose expression levels were also genetically correlated with fractional anisotropy. A transcript of HTR7 was phenotypically associated with FA, and was associated with an intronic genome-wide significant SNP. These results encourage further research in the mechanisms by which GNA13, HTR7 and CCDC91 influence brain structure, and emphasize a role for g-protein signaling in the development and maintenance of white matter microstructure in health and disease. PMID:24736177

Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; McKay, D Reese; Göring, Harald H; Curran, Joanne E; Kent, Jack W; Carless, Melanie A; Dyer, Thomas D; Drigalenko, Eugene I; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Kochunov, Peter; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

2014-08-15

197

White Matter Integrity, Creativity, and Psychopathology: Disentangling Constructs with Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

PubMed Central

That creativity and psychopathology are somehow linked remains a popular but controversial idea in neuroscience research. Brain regions implicated in both psychosis-proneness and creative cognition include frontal projection zones and association fibers. In normal subjects, we have previously demonstrated that a composite measure of divergent thinking (DT) ability exhibited significant inverse relationships in frontal lobe areas with both cortical thickness and metabolite concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA). These findings support the idea that creativity may reside upon a continuum with psychopathology. Here we examine whether white matter integrity, assessed by Fractional Anisotropy (FA), is related to two measures of creativity (Divergent Thinking and Openness to Experience). Based on previous findings, we hypothesize inverse correlations within fronto-striatal circuits. Seventy-two healthy, young adult (18–29 years) subjects were scanned on a 3 Tesla scanner with Diffusion Tensor Imaging. DT measures were scored by four raters (??=?.81) using the Consensual Assessment Technique, from which a composite creativity index (CCI) was derived. We found that the CCI was significantly inversely related to FA within the left inferior frontal white matter (t?=?5.36, p?=?.01), and Openness was inversely related to FA within the right inferior frontal white matter (t?=?4.61, p?=?.04). These findings demonstrate an apparent overlap in specific white matter architecture underlying the normal variance of divergent thinking, openness, and psychotic-spectrum traits, consistent with the idea of a continuum. PMID:20339554

Jung, Rex E.; Grazioplene, Rachael; Caprihan, Arvind; Chavez, Robert S.; Haier, Richard J.

2010-01-01

198

White matter integrity, creativity, and psychopathology: disentangling constructs with diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

That creativity and psychopathology are somehow linked remains a popular but controversial idea in neuroscience research. Brain regions implicated in both psychosis-proneness and creative cognition include frontal projection zones and association fibers. In normal subjects, we have previously demonstrated that a composite measure of divergent thinking (DT) ability exhibited significant inverse relationships in frontal lobe areas with both cortical thickness and metabolite concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA). These findings support the idea that creativity may reside upon a continuum with psychopathology. Here we examine whether white matter integrity, assessed by Fractional Anisotropy (FA), is related to two measures of creativity (Divergent Thinking and Openness to Experience). Based on previous findings, we hypothesize inverse correlations within fronto-striatal circuits. Seventy-two healthy, young adult (18-29 years) subjects were scanned on a 3 Tesla scanner with Diffusion Tensor Imaging. DT measures were scored by four raters (alpha = .81) using the Consensual Assessment Technique, from which a composite creativity index (CCI) was derived. We found that the CCI was significantly inversely related to FA within the left inferior frontal white matter (t = 5.36, p = .01), and Openness was inversely related to FA within the right inferior frontal white matter (t = 4.61, p = .04). These findings demonstrate an apparent overlap in specific white matter architecture underlying the normal variance of divergent thinking, openness, and psychotic-spectrum traits, consistent with the idea of a continuum. PMID:20339554

Jung, Rex E; Grazioplene, Rachael; Caprihan, Arvind; Chavez, Robert S; Haier, Richard J

2010-01-01

199

Alterations of White Matter Integrity Related to the Season of Birth in Schizophrenia: A DTI Study  

PubMed Central

In schizophrenia there is a consistent epidemiological finding of a birth excess in winter and spring. Season of birth is thought to act as a proxy indicator for harmful environmental factors during foetal maturation. There is evidence that prenatal exposure to harmful environmental factors may trigger pathologic processes in the neurodevelopment, which subsequently increase the risk of schizophrenia. Since brain white matter alterations have repeatedly been found in schizophrenia, the objective of this study was to investigate whether white matter integrity was related to the season of birth in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Differences in the fractional anisotropy maps of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls born in different seasons were analysed with tract-based spatial statistics. A significant main effect of season of birth and an interaction of group and season of birth showed that patients born in summer had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter regions than those born in the remainder of the year. Additionally, later age of schizophrenia onset was found in patients born in winter months. The current findings indicate a relationship of season of birth and white matter alterations in schizophrenia and consequently support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of early pathological mechanisms in schizophrenia. PMID:24086548

Giezendanner, Stephanie; Walther, Sebastian; Razavi, Nadja; Van Swam, Claudia; Fisler, Melanie Sarah; Soravia, Leila Maria; Andreotti, Jennifer; Schwab, Simon; Jann, Kay; Wiest, Roland; Horn, Helge; Muller, Thomas Jorg; Dierks, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea

2013-01-01

200

Multivariate pattern analysis of DTI reveals differential white matter in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have revealed group differences in white matter between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls. However, the results of these studies were based on average differences between the two groups, and therefore had limited clinical applicability. The objective of this study was to investigate whether fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter can be used to discriminate between patients with OCD and healthy controls at the level of the individual. DTI data were acquired from 28 OCD patients and 28 demographically matched healthy controls, scanned using a 3T MRI system. Differences in FA values of white matter between OCD and healthy controls were examined using a multivariate pattern classification technique known as support vector machine (SVM). SVM applied to FA images correctly identified OCD patients with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 82% resulting in a statistically significant accuracy of 84% (P ? 0.001). This discrimination was based on a distributed network including bilateral prefrontal and temporal regions, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior fronto-parietal fasciculus, splenium of corpus callosum and left middle cingulum bundle. The present study demonstrates subtle and spatially distributed white matter abnormalities in individuals with OCD, and provides preliminary support for the suggestion that that these could be used to aid the identification of individuals with OCD in clinical practice. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2643–2651, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24048702

Li, Fei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Tang, Wanjie; Yang, Yanchun; Li, Bin; Kemp, Graham J; Mechelli, Andrea; Gong, Qiyong

2014-01-01

201

Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting.  

PubMed

Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent-child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001). Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ? .05), with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations. PMID:25379418

Sheikh, Haroon I; Joanisse, Marc F; Mackrell, Sarah M; Kryski, Katie R; Smith, Heather J; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

2014-01-01

202

Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting  

PubMed Central

Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent–child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001). Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ? .05), with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations. PMID:25379418

Sheikh, Haroon I.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Mackrell, Sarah M.; Kryski, Katie R.; Smith, Heather J.; Singh, Shiva M.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

2014-01-01

203

Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the development of white matter volume and change in executive function  

PubMed Central

Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a wide range of deficits in executive function that persist throughout life, but little is known about how changes in brain structure relate to cognition in affected individuals. In the current study, we predicted that the rate of white matter volumetric development would be atypical in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) when compared to typically developing children, and that the rate of change in cognitive function would relate to differential white matter development between groups. Data were available for 103 subjects [49 with FASD, 54 controls, age range 6–17, mean age = 11.83] with 153 total observations. Groups were age-matched. Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and an executive function (EF) battery. Using white matter volumes measured bilaterally for frontal and parietal regions and the corpus callosum, change was predicted by modeling the effects of age, intracranial volume, sex, and interactions with exposure status and EF measures. While both groups showed regional increases in white matter volumes and improvement in cognitive performance over time, there were significant effects of exposure status on age-related relationships between white matter increases and EF measures. Specifically, individuals with FASD consistently showed a positive relationship between improved cognitive function and increased white matter volume over time, while no such relationships were seen in controls. These novel results relating improved cognitive function with increased white matter volume in FASD suggest that better cognitive outcomes could be possible for FASD subjects through interventions that enhance white matter plasticity. PMID:24918069

Gautam, P.; Nunez, S.C.; Narr, K.L.; Kan, E.C.; Sowell, E.R.

2014-01-01

204

Q-ball imaging of macaque white matter architecture  

PubMed Central

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging holds substantial promise as a technique for non-invasive imaging of white matter (WM) axonal projections. For diffusion imaging to be capable of providing new insight into the connectional neuroanatomy of the human brain, it will be necessary to histologically validate the technique against established tracer methods such as horseradish peroxidase and biocytin histochemistry. The macaque monkey provides an ideal model for histological validation of the diffusion imaging method due to the phylogenetic proximity between humans and macaques, the gyrencephalic structure of the macaque cortex, the large body of knowledge on the neuroanatomic connectivity of the macaque brain and the ability to use comparable magnetic resonance acquisition protocols in both species. Recently, it has been shown that high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) can resolve multiple axon orientations within an individual imaging voxel in human WM. This capability promises to boost the accuracy of tract reconstructions from diffusion imaging. If the macaque is to serve as a model for histological validation of the diffusion tractography method, it will be necessary to show that HARDI can also resolve intravoxel architecture in macaque WM. The present study therefore sought to test whether the technique can resolve intravoxel structure in macaque WM. Using a HARDI method called q-ball imaging (QBI) it was possible to resolve composite intravoxel architecture in a number of anatomic regions. QBI resolved intravoxel structure in, for example, the dorsolateral convexity, the pontine decussation, the pulvinar and temporal subcortical WM. The paper concludes by reviewing remaining challenges for the diffusion tractography project. PMID:16087432

Tuch, David S; Wisco, Jonathan J; Khachaturian, Mark H; Ekstrom, Leeland B; Ko?tter, Rolf; Vanduffel, Wim

2005-01-01

205

White-matter microstructure and gray-matter volumes in adolescents with subthreshold bipolar symptoms  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in white-matter (WM) microstructure, as lower fractional anisotropy (FA), have been reported in adolescent-onset bipolar disorder and in youth at familial risk for bipolarity. We sought to determine whether healthy adolescents with subthreshold bipolar symptoms (SBP) would have early WM microstructural alterations and whether those alterations would be associated with differences in gray-matter (GM) volumes. Forty-two adolescents with three core manic symptoms and no psychiatric diagnosis, and 126 adolescents matched by age and sex, with no psychiatric diagnosis or symptoms, were identified after screening the IMAGEN database of 2223 young adolescents recruited from the general population. After image quality control, voxel-wise statistics were performed on the diffusion parameters using tract-based spatial statistics in 25 SBP adolescents and 77 controls, and on GM and WM images using voxel-based morphometry in 30 SBP adolescents and 106 controls. As compared with healthy controls, adolescents with SBP displayed lower FA values in a number of WM tracts, particularly in the corpus callosum, cingulum, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, uncinate fasciculi and corticospinal tracts. Radial diffusivity was mainly higher in posterior parts of bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi and right cingulum. As compared with controls, SBP adolescents had lower GM volume in the left anterior cingulate region. This is the first study to investigate WM microstructure and GM morphometric variations in adolescents with SBP. The widespread FA alterations in association and projection tracts, associated with GM changes in regions involved in mood disorders, suggest altered structural connectivity in those adolescents. PMID:23628983

Paillere Martinot, M-L; Lemaitre, H; Artiges, E; Miranda, R; Goodman, R; Penttila, J; Struve, M; Fadai, T; Kappel, V; Poustka, L; Conrod, P; Banaschewski, T; Barbot, A; Barker, G J; Buchel, C; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Lawrence, C; Loth, E; Mann, K; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Schumann, G; Martinot, J-L; L, Reed; S, Williams; A, Lourdusamy; S, Costafreda; A, Cattrell; C, Nymberg; L, Topper; L, Smith; S, Havatzias; K, Stueber; C, Mallik; TK, Clarke; D, Stacey; Wong C, Peng; H, Werts; S, Williams; C, Andrew; S, Desrivieres; S, Zewdie; I, Häke; N, Ivanov; A, Klär; J, Reuter; C, Palafox; C, Hohmann; C, Schilling; K, Lüdemann; A, Romanowski; A, Ströhle; E, Wolff; M, Rapp; R, Brühl; A, Ihlenfeld; B, Walaszek; F, Schubert; C, Connolly; J, Jones; E, Lalor; E, McCabe; A, Ní Shiothcháin; R, Whelan; R, Spanagel; F, Leonardi-Essmann; W, Sommer; S, Vollstaedt-Klein; F, Nees; S, Steiner; M, Buehler; E, Stolzenburg; C, Schmal; F, Schirmbeck; P, Gowland; N, Heym; C, Newman; T, Huebner; S, Ripke; E, Mennigen; K, Muller; V, Ziesch; C, Büchel; U, Bromberg; L, Lueken; J, Yacubian; J, Finsterbusch; N, Bordas; S, de Bournonville; Z, Bricaud; Briand F, Gollier; J, Massicotte; JB, Poline; H, Vulser; Y, Schwartz; C, Lalanne; V, Frouin; B, Thyreau; J, Dalley; A, Mar; N, Subramaniam; D, Theobald; N, Richmond; M, de Rover; A, Molander; E, Jordan; E, Robinson; L, Hipolata; M, Moreno; M, Arroyo; D, Stephens; T, Ripley; H, Crombag; Y, Pena; M, Lathrop; D, Zelenika; S, Heath; D, Lanzerath; B, Heinrichs; T, Spranger; B, Fuchs; C, Speiser; F, Resch; J, Haffner; P, Parzer; R, Brunner; A, Klaassen; I, Klaassen; P, Constant; X, Mignon; T, Thomsen; S, Zysset; A, Vestboe; J, Ireland; J, Rogers

2014-01-01

206

Posterior cingulum white matter disruption and its associations with verbal memory and stroke risk in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Medial temporal lobe and temporoparietal brain regions are among the earliest neocortical sites to undergo pathophysiologic alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the underlying white matter changes in these regions is less well known. We employed diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate early alterations in regional white matter integrity in participants diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The following regions of interests (ROIs) were examined: 1) anterior cingulum (AC); 2) posterior cingulum (PC); 3) genu of the corpus callosum; 4) splenium of the corpus callosum; and 5) as a control site for comparison, posterior limb of the internal capsule. Forty nondemented participants were divided into demographically-similar groups based on cognitive status (MCI: n = 20; normal control: n = 20), and fractional anisotropy (FA) estimates of each ROI were obtained. MCI participants showed greater posterior white matter (i.e., PC, splenium) but not anterior white matter (i.e., AC, genu) changes, after adjusting for age, stroke risk, and whole brain volume. FA differences of the posterior white matter were best accounted for by changes in radial but not axial diffusivity. PC FA was also significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume as well as with performance on tests of verbal memory, whereas stroke risk was significantly correlated with genu FA and was unrelated to PC FA. When investigating subtypes of our MCI population, amnestic MCI participants showed lower PC white matter integrity relative to those with non-amnestic MCI. Findings implicate involvement of posterior microstructural white matter degeneration in the development of MCI-related cognitive changes and suggest that reduced FA of the PC may be a candidate neuroimaging marker of AD risk. PMID:22466061

Delano-Wood, Lisa; Stricker, Nikki H; Sorg, Scott F; Nation, Daniel A; Jak, Amy J; Woods, Steven P; Libon, David J; Delis, Dean C; Frank, Lawrence R; Bondi, Mark W

2012-01-01

207

Correlation between gray\\/white matter volume and cognition in healthy elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray\\/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109 community-dwelling healthy elderly individuals. We used the Information and Digit

Yasuyuki Taki; Shigeo Kinomura; Kazunori Sato; Ryoi Goto; Kai Wu; Ryuta Kawashima; Hiroshi Fukuda

2011-01-01

208

White matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder: insights from diffusion tensor imaging studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a neuroimaging technique with the potential to elucidate white matter abnormalities. Recently,\\u000a it has been applied to help in better understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). This review sought to\\u000a synthesise existing literature on DTI studies in BD, summarise current findings and highlight brain regions that have consistently\\u000a been implicated in BD, as

Serene Heng; Allen W. Song; Kang Sim

2010-01-01

209

Perinatal Clinical Antecedents of White Matter Microstructural Abnormalities on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Extremely Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify perinatal clinical antecedents of white matter microstructural abnormalities in extremely preterm infants. Methods A prospective cohort of extremely preterm infants (N?=?86) and healthy term controls (N?=?16) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at term equivalent age. Region of interest-based measures of white matter microstructure - fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity - were quantified in seven vulnerable cerebral regions and group differences assessed. In the preterm cohort, multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to identify independent clinical factors associated with microstructural abnormalities. Results Preterm infants had a mean (standard deviation) gestational age of 26.1 (1.7) weeks and birth weight of 824 (182) grams. Compared to term controls, the preterm cohort exhibited widespread microstructural abnormalities in 9 of 14 regional measures. Chorioamnionitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, white matter injury on cranial ultrasound, and increasing duration of mechanical ventilation were adversely correlated with regional microstructure. Conversely, antenatal steroids, female sex, longer duration of caffeine therapy, and greater duration of human milk use were independent favorable factors. White matter injury on cranial ultrasound was associated with a five weeks or greater delayed maturation of the corpus callosum; every additional 10 days of human milk use were associated with a three weeks or greater advanced maturation of the corpus callosum. Conclusions Diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive in detecting the widespread cerebral delayed maturation and/or damage increasingly observed in extremely preterm infants. In our cohort, it also aided identification of several previously known or suspected perinatal clinical antecedents of brain injury, aberrant development, and neurodevelopmental impairments. PMID:24009724

Pogribna, Ulana; Yu, Xintian; Burson, Katrina; Zhou, Yuxiang; Lasky, Robert E.; Narayana, Ponnada A.; Parikh, Nehal A.

2013-01-01

210

White Matter Integrity Pre- and Post Marijuana and Alcohol Initiation in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Characterizing the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on adolescent brain development is important for understanding potential alterations in neurodevelopment. Several cross sectional studies have identified group differences in white matter integrity after initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use, however none have explored white matter trajectories in adolescents pre- and post initiation of use, particularly for marijuana users. This study followed 16 adolescents with minimal alcohol and marijuana use at ages 16–18 over three years. At follow-up, teens were 19–22 years old; half of the participants initiated heavy alcohol use and half initiated heavy alcohol and marijuana use. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed 20 clusters in association and projection fibers tracts (p < 0.01) in which a group by time interaction was found. Most consistently, white matter integrity (i.e., fractional anisotropy) decreased for those who initiated both heavy alcohol and marijuana use over the follow-up interval. No effect of time or change in white matter integrity was seen for those who initiated alcohol use only in the majority of clusters. In most regions, at the baseline time point, teens who would later initiate both alcohol and marijuana use demonstrated white matter integrity greater than or equal to teens that initiated alcohol use only. Findings suggest poorer tissue integrity associated with combined initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use in late adolescence. While pre-existing differences may also be related to likelihood of substance use, the present data suggest an effect on tissue integrity for these teens transitioning to combined alcohol and marijuana use in later adolescence. PMID:23914300

Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Infante, M. Alejandra; Bava, Sunita; Tapert, Susan F.

2013-01-01

211

Mapping Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropies of White Matter in vivo in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla  

PubMed Central

High-resolution magnetic resonance phase- or frequency- shift images acquired at high field show contrast related to magnetic susceptibility differences between tissues. Such contrast varies with the orientation of the organ in the field, but the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has made it possible to reproducibly image the intrinsic tissue susceptibility contrast. However, recent studies indicate that magnetic susceptibility is anisotropic in brain white matter and, as such, needs to be described by a symmetric second-rank tensor (?¯¯). To fully determine the elements of this tensor, it would be necessary to acquire frequency data at six or more orientations. Assuming cylindrical symmetry of the susceptibility tensor in myelinated white matter fibers, we propose a simplified method to reconstruct the susceptibility tensor in terms of a mean magnetic susceptibility, MMS = (?? + 2??)/3 and a magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, MSA = ?? ? ??, where ?? and ?? are susceptibility parallel and perpendicular to the white matter fiber direction, respectively. Computer simulations show that with a practical head rotation angle of around 20°–30°, four head orientations suffice to reproducibly reconstruct the tensor with good accuracy. We tested this approach on whole brain 1×1×1 mm3 frequency data acquired from five healthy subjects at 7 T. The frequency information from phase images collected at four head orientations was combined with the fiber direction information extracted from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to map the white matter susceptibility tensor. The MMS and MSA were quantified for regions in several large white matter fiber structures, including the corona radiata, posterior thalamic radiation and corpus callosum. MMS ranged from ?0.037 to ?0.053 ppm (referenced to CSF being about zero). MSA values could be quantified without the need for a reference and ranged between 0.004 and 0.029 ppm, in line with the expectation that the susceptibility perpendicular to the fiber is more diamagnetic than the one parallel to it. PMID:22561358

Li, Xu; Vikram, Deepti S; Lim, Issel Anne L; Jones, Craig K; Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

2012-01-01

212

Cognitive processing speed and the structure of white matter pathways: convergent evidence from normal variation and lesion studies.  

PubMed

We investigated the relation between cognitive processing speed and structural properties of white matter pathways via convergent imaging studies in healthy and brain-injured groups. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to diffusion tensor imaging data from thirty-nine young healthy subjects in order to investigate the relation between processing speed, as assessed with the Digit-Symbol subtest from WAIS-III, and fractional anisotropy, an index of microstructural organization of white matter. Digit-Symbol performance was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy of white matter in the parietal and temporal lobes bilaterally and in the left middle frontal gyrus. Fiber tractography indicated that these regions are consistent with the trajectories of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. In a second investigation, we assessed the effect of white matter damage on processing speed using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis of data from seventy-two patients with left-hemisphere strokes. Lesions in left parietal white matter, together with cortical lesions in supramarginal and angular gyri were associated with impaired performance. These findings suggest that cognitive processing speed, as assessed by the Digit-Symbol test, is closely related to the structural integrity of white matter tracts associated with parietal and temporal cortices and left middle frontal gyrus. Further, fiber tractography applied to VBM results and the patient findings suggest that the superior longitudinal fasciculus, a major tract subserving fronto-parietal integration, makes a prominent contribution to processing speed. PMID:18602840

Turken, Andu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Bammer, Roland; Baldo, Juliana V; Dronkers, Nina F; Gabrieli, John D E

2008-08-15

213

Quantitative fiber tracking of lateral and interhemispheric white matter systems in normal aging: Relations to timed performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrity of white matter, as measured in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is disrupted in normal aging. A current consensus is that in adults advancing age affects anterior brain regions disproportionately more than posterior regions; however, the mainstay of studies supporting this anterior–posterior gradient is based primarily on measures of the corpus callosum. Using our quantitative fiber tracking

Edith V. Sullivan; Torsten Rohlfing; Adolf Pfefferbaum

2010-01-01

214

Neuropathologic basis of white matter hyperintensity accumulation with advanced age  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine which vascular pathology measure most strongly correlates with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) accumulation over time, and whether Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology correlates with WMH accumulation. Methods: Sixty-six older persons longitudinally followed as part of an aging study were included for having an autopsy and >1 MRI scan, with last MRI scan within 36 months of death. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the associations between longitudinal WMH accumulation and the following neuropathologic measures: myelin pallor, arteriolosclerosis, microvascular disease, microinfarcts, lacunar infarcts, large-vessel infarcts, atherosclerosis, neurofibrillary tangle rating, and neuritic plaque score. Each measure was included one at a time in the model, adjusted for duration of follow-up and age at death. A final model included measures showing an association with p < 0.1. Results: Mean age at death was 94.5 years (5.5 SD). In the final mixed-effects models, arteriolosclerosis, myelin pallor, and Braak score remained significantly associated with increased WMH accumulation over time. In post hoc analysis, we found that those with Braak score 5 or 6 were more likely to also have high atherosclerosis present compared with those with Braak score 1 or 2 (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Accumulating white matter changes in advanced age are likely driven by small-vessel ischemic disease. Additionally, these results suggest a link between AD pathology and white matter integrity disruption. This may be due to wallerian degeneration secondary to neurodegenerative changes. Alternatively, a shared mechanism, for example ischemia, may lead to both vascular brain injury and neurodegenerative changes of AD. The observed correlation between atherosclerosis and AD pathology supports the latter. PMID:23935177

Woltjer, Randall; Kaye, Jeffrey; Mattek, Nora; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Green, Sarah; Tran, Huong; Howieson, Diane B.; Wild, Katherine; Silbert, Lisa C.

2013-01-01

215

White matter tractography in early psychosis: clinical and neurocognitive associations  

PubMed Central

Background While many diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) investigations have noted disruptions to white matter integrity in individuals with chronic psychotic disorders, fewer studies have been conducted in young people at the early stages of disease onset. Using whole tract reconstruction techniques, the aim of this study was to identify the white matter pathology associated with the common clinical symptoms and executive function impairments observed in young people with psychosis. Methods We obtained MRI scans from young people with psychosis and healthy controls. Eighteen major white matter tracts were reconstructed to determine group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) and then were subsequently correlated with symptomatology and neurocognitive performance. Results Our study included 42 young people with psychosis (mean age 23 yr) and 45 healthy controls (mean age 25 yr). Compared with the control group, the psychosis group had reduced FA and AD in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and forceps major indicative of axonal disorganization, reduction and/or loss. These changes were associated with worse overall psychiatric symptom severity, increases in positive and negative symptoms, and worse current levels of depression. The psychosis group also showed FA reductions in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus that were associated with impaired neurocognitive performance in attention and semantic fluency. Limitations Our analysis grouped 4 subcategories of psychosis together, and a larger follow-up study comparing affective and nonaffective psychoses is warranted. Conclusion Our findings suggest that impaired axonal coherence in the left ILF and forceps major underpin psychiatric symptoms in young people in the early stages of psychosis. PMID:25111788

Hatton, Sean N.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.; Scott, Elizabeth; Bennett, Maxwell R.

2014-01-01

216

Longitudinal relaxographic imaging of white matter hyperintensities in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Incidental white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are common findings on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the aged brain and have been associated with cognitive decline. While a variety of pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of WMHs and the extent to which lesions in the deep and periventricular white matter reflect distinct etiologies remains unclear. Our aim was to quantify the fractional blood volume (vb) of small WMHs in vivo using a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach and examine the contribution of blood–brain barrier disturbances to WMH formation in the deep and periventricular white matter. Methods Twenty-three elderly volunteers (aged 59–82 years) underwent 7 Tesla relaxographic imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI. Maps of longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1) were prepared before contrast reagent (CR) injection and throughout CR washout. Voxelwise estimates of vb were determined by fitting temporal changes in R1 values to a two-site model that incorporates the effects of transendothelial water exchange. Average vb values in deep and periventricular WMHs were determined after semi-automated segmentation of FLAIR images. Ventricular permeability was estimated from the change in CSF R1 values during CR washout. Results In the absence of CR, the total water fraction in both deep and periventricular WMHs was increased compared to normal appearing white matter (NAWM). The vb of deep WMHs was 1.8?±?0.6 mL/100 g and was significantly reduced compared to NAWM (2.4?±?0.8 mL/100 g). In contrast, the vb of periventricular WMHs was unchanged compared to NAWM, decreased with ventricular volume and showed a positive association with ventricular permeability. Conclusions Hyperintensities in the deep WM appear to be driven by vascular compromise, while those in the periventricular WM are most likely the result of a compromised ependyma in which the small vessels remain relatively intact. These findings support varying contributions of blood–brain barrier and brain-CSF interface disturbances in the pathophysiology of deep and periventricular WMHs in the aged human brain. PMID:25379172

2014-01-01

217

Antidepressant Treatment Normalizes White Matter Volume in Patients with Major Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate white matter volume abnormalities in patients with major depression and the effects of antidepressant treatment on white matter volume. Method Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 32 treatment-naïve depressed patients, 17 recovered patients who had received antidepressant treatment and subsequently achieved clinical recovery and 34 matched controls. Results Relative to the healthy controls, the treatment-naïve depressed patients showed increased white matter volumes in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left putamen and reduced white matter volumes in the left cerebellum posterior lobe and left inferior parietal lobule. For the treatment-naïve patients, the length in months of the current depressive episode was positively correlated with the white matter volumes in both the left DLPFC and left putamen. In the recovered patients, the differences in white matter volume were no longer statistically significant relative to healthy controls. No significant difference was found in the total white matter volume among the three groups. Conclusions This study demonstrates that there were alterations in the white matter volumes of depressed patients, which might disrupt the neural circuits that are involved in emotional and cognitive function and thus contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. The finding of the significant correlations between refractoriness and the white matter volumes in the left DLPFC and left putamen combined with the finding that antidepressant treatment normalized the white matter volume of recovered patients, suggests that a quantitative, structural MRI measurement could act as a potential biomarker in depression therapy for individual subjects. PMID:22957005

Liu, Yadong; Shen, Hui; Li, Yaming; Hu, Dewen

2012-01-01

218

Unmyelinated White Matter Loss in the Preterm Brain Is Associated with Early Increased Levels of End-Tidal Carbon Monoxide  

PubMed Central

Objective Increased levels of end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCOc) in preterm infants during the first day of life are associated with oxidative stress, inflammatory processes and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age. Therefore, we hypothesized that early ETCOc levels may also be associated with impaired growth of unmyelinated cerebral white matter. Methods From a cohort of 156 extremely and very preterm infants in which ETCOc was determined within 24 h after birth, in 36 infants 3D-MRI was performed at term-equivalent age to assess cerebral tissue volumes of important brain regions. Results Linear regression analysis between cerebral ventricular volume, unmyelinated white matter/total brain volume-, and cortical grey matter/total brain volume-ratio and ETCOc showed a positive, negative and positive correlation, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that solely ETCOc was positively related to cerebral ventricular volume and cortical grey matter/total brain volume ratio, and that solely ETCOc was inversely related to the unmyelinated white matter/total brain volume ratio, suggesting that increased levels of ETCOc, associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, were related with impaired growth of unmyelinated white matter. Conclusion Increased values of ETCOc, measured within the first 24 hours of life may be indicative of oxidative stress and inflammation in the immediate perinatal period, resulting in impaired growth of the vulnerable unmyelinated white matter of the preterm brain. PMID:24622422

Blok, Cornelie A.; Kersbergen, Karina J.; van der Aa, Niek E.; van Kooij, Britt J.; Anbeek, Petronella; Isgum, Ivana; de Vries, Linda S.; Krediet, Tannette G.; Groenendaal, Floris; Vreman, Hendrik J.; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon J.

2014-01-01

219

Grammar learning in older adults is linked to white matter microstructure and functional connectivity.  

PubMed

Age-related decline in cognitive function has been linked to alterations of white matter and functional brain connectivity. With regard to language, aging has been shown to be associated with impaired syntax processing, but the underlying structural and functional correlates are poorly understood. In the present study, we used an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task to determine the ability to extract grammatical rules from new material in healthy older adults. White matter microstructure and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of task-relevant brain regions were assessed using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). AGL performance correlated positively with fractional anisotropy (FA) underlying left and right Brodmann areas (BA) 44/45 and in tracts originating from left BA 44/45. An inverse relationship was found between task performance and FC of left and right BA 44/45, linking lower performance to stronger inter-hemispheric functional coupling. Our results suggest that white matter microstructure underlying specific prefrontal regions and their functional coupling affect acquisition of syntactic knowledge in the aging brain, offering further insight into mechanisms of functional decline in older adults. PMID:22659480

Antonenko, Daria; Meinzer, Marcus; Lindenberg, Robert; Witte, A Veronica; Flöel, Agnes

2012-09-01

220

Microstructural abnormalities in white matter and their effect on depressive symptoms after stroke.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the existence of microstructural abnormalities in the white matter of the brain in stroke patients, as well as the relationship between these microstructural abnormalities and changes in depressive symptoms over 6 months. Participants were 29 acute ischemic stroke patients and 37 healthy control subjects. Depressive symptoms were assessed in all subjects using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Whole brain voxel-based analysis was used to compare diffusion tensor imaging measures of Fractional Anisotropy (FA) between the groups. Six-month follow-up examinations were conducted. Patients showed significantly lower white matter FA values in the left and right anterior limbs of the internal capsule, and 6 months after the stroke they showed significantly increased FA values in these regions. We found a significant negative correlation between the increased ratio of the FA values and the change in depression scale scores at 6-month follow-up. Regional white matter damage may reflect abnormalities in neuroanatomical pathways related to the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:24816338

Yasuno, Fumihiko; Taguchi, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Kazui, Hiroaki; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Kitamura, Soichiro; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kosaka, Jun; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Iida, Hidehiro; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

2014-07-30

221

Segregation of the Brain into Gray and White Matter: A Design Minimizing Conduction Delays  

PubMed Central

A ubiquitous feature of the vertebrate anatomy is the segregation of the brain into white and gray matter. Assuming that evolution maximized brain functionality, what is the reason for such segregation? To answer this question, we posit that brain functionality requires high interconnectivity and short conduction delays. Based on this assumption we searched for the optimal brain architecture by comparing different candidate designs. We found that the optimal design depends on the number of neurons, interneuronal connectivity, and axon diameter. In particular, the requirement to connect neurons with many fast axons drives the segregation of the brain into white and gray matter. These results provide a possible explanation for the structure of various regions of the vertebrate brain, such as the mammalian neocortex and neostriatum, the avian telencephalon, and the spinal cord. PMID:16389299

Wen, Quan; Chklovskii, Dmitri B

2005-01-01

222

Research Report Gray and white matter reduction in hyposmic subjects --A  

E-print Network

Research Report Gray and white matter reduction in hyposmic subjects -- A voxel-based morphometry of the gray and white matter in a group of subjects with an impaired but not complete loss of olfaction in a Matlab environment. The analysis revealed significant gray matter volume loss in the insular cortex

Gaser, Christian

223

White matter integrity of the whole brain is disrupted in rst-episode schizophrenia  

E-print Network

White matter integrity of the whole brain is disrupted in ¢rst-episode schizophrenia Yihui Haoa; revised 8 November 2005; accepted 9 November 2005 Di¡usion tensor imaging studies in schizophrenia have matter integrity.We have examined whether white matter is abnormal in ¢rst-episode schizophrenia by using

Jiang,Tianzi

224

An Evaluation of White Matter Injury After Spinal Cord Ischemia in Rats: A Comparison with Gray Matter Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantitatively assessed both gray and white matter injury after spinal cord ischemia in rats, and the rela- tionship between the magnitude of gray and white matter injury was determined. Twenty-five male rats were anesthetized with isoflurane, and spinal cord ischemia (SCI) was induced by balloon intraaortic oc- clusion combined with hypotension. The animals wererandomlyallocatedtooneofthefollowingthree groups: animals with SCI for

Naoko Kurita; Masahiko Kawaguchi; Toshinori Horiuchi; Satoki Inoue; Takanori Sakamoto; Mitsutoshi Nakamura; Noboru Konishi; Hitoshi Furuya

2005-01-01

225

High Connectivity Between Reduced Cortical Thickness and Disrupted White Matter Tracts in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Previous studies have observed disruptions in brain white and gray matter structure in individuals with type 1 diabetes, and these structural differences have been associated with neurocognitive testing deficiencies. This study investigated the relationship between cerebral cortical thickness reductions and white matter microstructural integrity loss in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes and in healthy control subjects using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-five subjects with type 1 diabetes for at least 15 years and 25 age- and sex-matched control subjects underwent structural T1 and proton-density and DTI on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Fractional anisotropy measurements were made on major cerebral white matter tracts, and DTI tractography was performed to identify cortical regions with high connectivity to these tracts. RESULTS Posterior white matter tracts with reduced fractional anisotropy (optic radiations, posterior corona radiata, and the splenium region of the corpus callosum) were found to have high connectivity with a number of posterior cortical regions, including the cuneus, precuneus, fusiform, and posterior parietal cortical regions. A significant reduction in cortical thickness in the diabetic group was observed in the regions with high connectivity to the optic radiations and posterior corona radiata tracts (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The direct relationship between white and gray matter structural pathology has not been previously demonstrated in subjects with long-standing type 1 diabetes. The relationship between posterior white matter microstructural integrity disruption and lower cortical thickness demonstrated using a novel DTI connectivity technique suggests a common or interrelated pathophysiological mechanism in type 1 diabetes. PMID:20980455

Franc, Daniel T.; Kodl, Christopher T.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Muetzel, Ryan L.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

2011-01-01

226

Lifespan maturation and degeneration of human brain white matter.  

PubMed

Properties of human brain tissue change across the lifespan. Here we model these changes in the living human brain by combining quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of R1 (1/T1) with diffusion MRI and tractography (N=102, ages 7-85). The amount of R1 change during development differs between white-matter fascicles, but in each fascicle the rate of development and decline are mirror-symmetric; the rate of R1 development as the brain approaches maturity predicts the rate of R1 degeneration in aging. Quantitative measurements of macromolecule tissue volume (MTV) confirm that R1 is an accurate index of the growth of new brain tissue. In contrast to R1, diffusion development follows an asymmetric time-course with rapid childhood changes but a slow rate of decline in old age. Together, the time-courses of R1 and diffusion changes demonstrate that multiple biological processes drive changes in white-matter tissue properties over the lifespan. PMID:25230200

Yeatman, Jason D; Wandell, Brian A; Mezer, Aviv A

2014-01-01

227

White Matter Integrity is Reduced in Bulimia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate brain white matter (WM) functionality in bulimia nervosa (BN) in relation to anxiety. Method Twenty-one control (CW, mean age 27±7 years) and 20 BN women (mean age 25±5 years) underwent brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure fractional anisotropy (FA; an indication of WM axon integrity) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC; reflecting WM cell damage). Results FA was decreased in BN in the bilateral corona radiata extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the corpus callosum, the right sub-insular white matter and right fornix. In CW but not BN trait anxiety correlated negatively with fornix, corpus callosum and left corona radiata FA. ADC was increased in BN compared to CW in the bilateral corona radiata, corpus callosum, inferior fronto-occipital and uncinate fasciculus. Alterations in BN WM functionality were not due to structural brain alterations. Discussion WM integrity is disturbed in BN, especially in the corona radiate, which has been associated with taste and brain reward processing. Whether this is a premorbid condition or an effect from the illness is yet uncertain. The relationships between WM FA and trait anxiety in CW but not BN may suggest that altered WM functionality contributes to high anxious traits in BN. PMID:23354827

Mettler, Lisa N.; Shott, Megan E.; Pryor, Tamara; Yang, Tony T.; Frank, Guido K.W.

2013-01-01

228

Frontal White Matter Integrity Predictors of Adult Alcohol Treatment Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has associated abnormalities in frontal lobe functioning with alcohol relapse. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether frontal white matter integrity measured at the start of treatment differs between persons with alcohol use disorders (AUD) who sustain treatment gains and those who return to heavy use after treatment. Methods Forty-five treatment-seeking AUD inpatients and 30 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Six months after completing treatment, 16 of the AUD participants had resumed heavy use (RHU) and 29 others remained abstinent or drank minimally (treatment sustainers [TS]). Voxel-wise group comparisons (TS vs. RHU) were performed on fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity maps generated from each subject’s diffusion tensor imaging scan at the start of treatment. Results We found significantly lower FA and significantly higher RD in the frontal lobes of the RHU group, relative to the TS group. The RHU group data are consistent with previous reports of abnormal frontal white matter tract abnormalities in persons with AUD. Conclusions It is possible that the lower FA and higher RD in the RHU group reflect microstructural injury to frontal circuitries, and these may underlie the reduced cognitive control amid heightened reward sensitivity associated with resumption of heavy drinking. PMID:22047719

Sorg, Scott F.; Taylor, Michael J.; Alhassoon, Omar M.; Gongvatana, Assawin; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Frank, Lawrence R.; Grant, Igor

2013-01-01

229

A Comparative White Matter Study with Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's Disease with Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are among the most common neurodegenerative disorders affecting older populations. AD is characterized by impaired memory and cognitive decline while the primary symptoms of PD include resting tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity. In PD, mild cognitive changes are frequently present, which could progress to dementia (PD dementia (PDD)). PDD and AD dementias are different in pathology although the difference in microstructural changes remains unknown. To further understand these diseases, it is essential to understand the distinct mechanism of their microstructural changes. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter tract differences between early stage individuals with AD (n=14), PD (n=12), PDD (n=9), and healthy non-demented controls (CON) (n=13). We used whole brain tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) and a region of interest (ROI) analysis focused on the substantia nigra (SN). We found that individuals with PDD had more widespread white matter degeneration compared to PD, AD, and CON. Individuals with AD had few regional abnormalities in the anterior and posterior projections of the corpus callosum while PD and CON did not appear to have significant white matter degeneration when compared to other groups. ROI analyses showed that PDD had the highest diffusivity in the SN and were significantly different from CON. There were no significant ROI differences between CON, PD, or AD. In conclusion, global white matter microstructural deterioration is evident in individuals with PDD, and DTI may provide a means with which to tease out pathological differences between AD and PD dementias. PMID:24724042

Perea, Rodrigo D; Rada, Rebecca C; Wilson, Jessica; Vidoni1, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Lyons, Kelly E; Pahwa, Rajesh; Burns, Jeffrey M; Honea, Robyn A

2014-01-01

230

Disruption of brain white matter microstructure in women with anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Background The etiology of anorexia nervosa is still unknown. Multiple and distributed brain regions have been implicated in its pathophysiology, implying a dysfunction of connected neural circuits. Despite these findings, the role of white matter in anorexia nervosa has been rarely assessed. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize alterations of white matter microstructure in a clinically homogeneous sample of patients with anorexia nervosa. Methods Women with anorexia nervosa (restricting subtype) and healthy controls underwent brain DTI. We used tract-based spatial statistics to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps between the groups. Furthermore, axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) measures were extracted from regions showing group differences in either FA or MD. Results We enrolled 19 women with anorexia nervosa and 19 healthy controls in our study. Patients with anorexia nervosa showed significant FA decreases in the parietal part of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF; pFWE < 0.05), with increased MD and RD but no differences in AD. Patients with anorexia nervosa also showed significantly increased MD in the fornix (pFWE < 0.05), accompanied by decreased FA and increased RD and AD. Limitations Limitations include our modest sample size and cross-sectional design. Conclusion Our findings support the presence of white matter pathology in patients with anorexia nervosa. Alterations in the SLF and fornix might be relevant to key symptoms of anorexia nervosa, such as body image distortion or impairments in body–energy–balance and reward processes. The differences found in both areas replicate those found in previous DTI studies and support a role for white matter pathology of specific neural circuits in individuals with anorexia nervosa. PMID:24913136

Via, Esther; Zalesky, Andrew; Sanchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Harrison, Ben J.; Pujol, Jesus; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Menchon, Jose Manuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcis; Fornito, Alex

2014-01-01

231

Quantitative tractography metrics of white matter integrity in diffusion-tensor MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new quantitative diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) tractography-based metrics for assessing cerebral white matter integrity. These metrics extend prior work in this area. Tractography models of cerebral white matter were produced from each subject's DTI data. The models are a set of curves (e.g., “streamtubes”) derived from DTI data that represent the underlying topography of the cerebral white matter. Nine

Stephen Correia; Stephanie Y. Lee; Thom Voorn; David F. Tate; Robert H. Paul; Song Zhang; Stephen P. Salloway; Paul F. Malloy; David H. Laidlaw

2008-01-01

232

Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white matter–cognition relation reduces the magnitude of age–cognition relation. In this

David J. Madden; Julia Spaniol; Matthew C. Costello; Barbara Bucur; Leonard E. White; Roberto Cabeza; Simon W. Davis; Nancy A. Dennis; James M. Provenzale; Scott A. Huettel

2008-01-01

233

Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has established that age-related decline oc- curs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) con- tribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of age-cognition relation.

David J. Madden; Julia Spaniol; Matthew C. Costello; Barbara Bucur; Leonard E. White; Roberto Cabeza; Simon W. Davis; Nancy A. Dennis; James M. Provenzale; Scott A. Huettel

2009-01-01

234

Magnetization Transfer Imaging of Periventricular Hyperintense White Matter in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To characterize with magnetization transfer imaging the pathologic substrate of the nonspecific periventricular hyperintense white matter changes seen on T2-weighted images of elderly patients. METHODS: Twenty-one elderly patients with periventricular hyperintense white matter on T2-weighted MR images and eleven control subjects were studied using MT technique. Magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) were calculated for the periventricular hyperintense white matter and

Kin T. Wong; Robert I. Grossman; Jeffrey M. Boorstein; Frank J. Lexa; Joseph C. McGowan

1995-01-01

235

Differential vulnerability of gray matter and white matter to intrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants at 12 months corrected age.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a high risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Underlying neuroanatomical substrates are partially documented. We hypothesized that at 12 months preterm infants would evidence specific white-matter microstructure alterations and gray-matter differences induced by severe IUGR. Twenty preterm infants with IUGR (26-34 weeks of gestation) were compared with 20 term-born infants and 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age. Preterm groups showed no evidence of brain abnormalities. At 12 months, infants were scanned sleeping naturally. Gray-matter volumes were studied with voxel-based morphometry. White-matter microstructure was examined using tract-based spatial statistics. The relationship between diffusivity indices in white matter, gray matter volumes, and perinatal data was also investigated. Gray-matter decrements attributable to IUGR comprised amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus and insula bilaterally, left occipital and parietal lobes, and right perirolandic area. Gray-matter volumes positively correlated with birth weight exclusively. Preterm infants had reduced FA in the corpus callosum, and increased FA in the anterior corona radiata. Additionally, IUGR infants had increased FA in the forceps minor, internal and external capsules, uncinate and fronto-occipital white matter tracts. Increased axial diffusivity was observed in several white matter tracts. Fractional anisotropy positively correlated with birth weight and gestational age at birth. These data suggest that IUGR differentially affects gray and white matter development preferentially affecting gray matter. At 12 months IUGR is associated with a specific set of structural gray-matter decrements. White matter follows an unusual developmental pattern, and is apparently affected by IUGR and prematurity combined. PMID:24361462

Padilla, Nelly; Junqué, Carme; Figueras, Francesc; Sanz-Cortes, Magdalena; Bargalló, Núria; Arranz, Angela; Donaire, Antonio; Figueras, Josep; Gratacos, Eduard

2014-01-30

236

Effect of clozapine on white matter integrity in patients with schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study.  

PubMed

Several diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported disturbed white matter integrity in various brain regions in patients with schizophrenia, whereas only a few studied the effect of antipsychotics on DTI measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of clozapine treatment on DTI findings in patients with schizophrenia, and to compare the findings with those in unaffected controls. The study included 16 patients with schizophrenia who were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, a neurocognitive test battery, and DTI at baseline and 12 weeks after the initiation of clozapine treatment. Eight unaffected controls were assessed once with the neurocognitive test battery and DTI. Voxel-wise analysis of DTI data was performed via tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Compared with the control group, the patient group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in 16 brain regions, including the bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, superior and inferior parietal lobules, cingulate bundles, cerebellum, middle cerebellar peduncles, and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, whereas the patients had higher FA in six regions, including the right parahippocampus, left anterior thalamic radiation, and right posterior limb of the internal capsule before clozapine treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine, white matter FA was increased in widespread brain regions. In two of the regions where FA had initially been lower in patients compared with controls (left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and superior parietal lobule), clozapine appeared to increase FA. An improvement in semantic fluency was correlated with the increase in FA value in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. An increase in FA following 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine suggests that this treatment alters white matter microstructural integrity in patients with schizophrenia previously treated with typical and/or atypical antipsychotics and, in some locations, reverses a previous deficit. PMID:25012780

Ozcelik-Eroglu, Elcin; Ertugrul, Aygun; Oguz, Kader Karli; Has, Arzu Ceylan; Karahan, Sevilay; Yazici, Mumin Kazim

2014-09-30

237

Recent findings on the role of white matter pathology in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience difficulties in information processing and in the cognitive control of emotions. Mood-congruent biases, which parallel illness episodes, find a neural correlate in abnormal reactivity to stimuli in specific brain regions, and in disrupted functional connectivity among brain areas pertaining to corticolimbic circuitries. It is suggested that a reduced integrity of white matter tracts could underpin dysfunctions in networks implicated in the generation and control of affect. Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging techniques found that (1) independent of drug treatment, patients with BD show widespread signs of disrupted white matter microstructure, suggesting significant demyelination/dysmyelination without axonal loss, and (2) effective long-term treatment with lithium is associated with increased axial connectivity, proportional to the duration of treatment. These findings suggest that changes of white matter microstructure in specific brain networks could parallel disrupted neural connectivity during illness episodes in BD and that these changes might play a major role in the mechanistic explanation of the biological underpinnings of BD psychopathology. PMID:25377606

Benedetti, Francesco; Bollettini, Irene

2014-01-01

238

Development of superficial white matter and its structural interplay with cortical gray matter in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Healthy human brain undergoes significant changes during development. The developmental trajectory of superficial white matter (SWM) is less understood relative to cortical gray matter (GM) and deep white matter. In this study, a multimodal imaging strategy was applied to vertexwise map SWM microstructure and cortical thickness to characterize their developmental pattern and elucidate SWM-GM associations in children and adolescents. Microscopic changes in SWM were evaluated with water diffusion parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in 133 healthy subjects aged 10-18 years. Results demonstrated distinct maturational patterns in SWM and GM. SWM showed increasing FA and decreasing MD and RD underneath bilateral motor sensory cortices and superior temporal auditory cortex, suggesting increasing myelination. A second developmental pattern in SWM was increasing FA and AD in bilateral orbitofrontal regions and insula, suggesting improved axonal coherence. These SWM patterns diverge from the more widespread GM maturation, suggesting that cortical thickness changes in adolescence are not explained by the encroachment of SWM myelin into the GM-WM boundary. Interestingly, age-independent intrinsic association between SWM and cortical GM seems to follow functional organization of polymodal and unimodal brain regions. Unimodal sensory areas showed positive correlation between GM thickness and FA whereas polymodal regions showed negative correlation. Axonal coherence and differences in interstitial neuron composition between unimodal and polymodal regions may account for these SWM-GM association patterns. Intrinsic SWM-GM relationships unveiled by neuroimaging in vivo can be useful for examining psychiatric disorders with known WM/GM disturbances. PMID:24038932

Wu, Minjie; Lu, Lisa H; Lowes, Allison; Yang, Shaolin; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Zhou, Xiaohong J; Pavuluri, Mani N

2014-06-01

239

Roles of white matter in central nervous system pathophysiologies  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic enlargement of cerebral cortex culminating in the human brain imposed greater communication needs that have been met by the massive expansion of WM (white matter). Damage to WM alters brain function, and numerous neurological diseases feature WM involvement. In the current review, we discuss the major features of WM, the contributions of WM compromise to brain pathophysiology, and some of the mechanisms mediating WM injury. We will emphasize the newly appreciated importance of neurotransmitter signalling in WM, particularly glutamate and ATP signalling, to understanding both normal and abnormal brain functions. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to WM damage will generate much-needed insights for developing therapies for acute and chronic diseases with WM involvement. PMID:22313331

Matute, Carlos; Ransom, Bruce R

2012-01-01

240

The corpus callosum: white matter or terra incognita  

PubMed Central

The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of 200–250 million contralateral axonal projections and the major commissural pathway connecting the hemispheres of the human brain. The pathology of the corpus callosum includes a wide variety of entities that arise from different causes such as congenital, inflammatory, tumoural, degenerative, infectious, metabolic, traumatic, vascular and toxic agents. The corpus callosum, or a specific part of it, can be affected selectively. Numerous pathologies of the corpus callosum are encountered during CT and MRI. The aim of this study is to facilitate a better understanding and thus treatment of the pathological entities of the corpus callosum by categorising them according to their causes and their manifestations in MR and CT imaging. Familiarity with its anatomy and pathology is important to the radiologist in order to recognise its disease at an early stage and help the clinician establish the optimal therapeutic approach. PMID:21172964

Fitsiori, A; Nguyen, D; Karentzos, A; Delavelle, J; Vargas, M I

2011-01-01

241

White Matter Asymmetry in the Human Brain: A Diffusion Tensor MRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language ability and handedness are likely to be associated with asymmetry of the cerebral cortex (grey matter) and connectivity (white matter). Grey matter asymmetry, most likely linked to language has been identified with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using T1-weighted images. Differences in white matter obtained with this technique are less consistent, probably due to the relative insen- sitivity of the T1

C. Buchel; T. Raedler; M. Sommer; M. Sach; C. Weiller; M. A. Koch

2004-01-01

242

Histone deacetylase expression in white matter oligodendrocytes after stroke.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) constitute a super-family of enzymes grouped into four major classes (Class I-IV) that deacetylate histone tails leading to chromatin condensation and gene repression. Whether stroke-induced oligodendrogenesis is related to the expression of individual HDACs in the oligodendrocyte lineage has not been investigated. We found that 2 days after stroke, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and mature oligodendrocytes (OLGs) were substantially reduced in the peri-infarct corpus callosum, whereas at 7 days after stroke, a robust increase in OPCs and OLGs was observed. Ischemic brains isolated from rats sacrificed 7 days after stroke were used to test levels of individual members of Class I (1 and 2) and Class II (4 and 5) HDACs in white matter oligodendrocytes during stroke-induced oligodendrogenesis. Double immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that stroke substantially increased the number of NG2+OPCs with nuclear HDAC1 and HDAC2 immunoreactivity and cytoplasmic HDAC4 which were associated with augmentation of proliferating OPCs, as determined by BrdU and Ki67 double reactive cells after stroke. A decrease in HDAC1 and an increase in HDAC2 immunoreactivity were detected in mature adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) positive OLGs, which paralleled an increase in newly generated BrdU positive OLGs in the peri-infarct corpus callosum. Concurrently, stroke substantially decreased the acetylation levels of histones H3 and H4 in both OPCs and OLGs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that stroke induces distinct profiles of Class I and Class II HDACs in white matter OPCs and OLGs, suggesting that the individual members of Class I and II HDACs play divergent roles in the regulation of OPC proliferation and differentiation during brain repair after stroke. PMID:24657831

Kassis, Haifa; Chopp, Michael; Liu, Xian Shuang; Shehadah, Amjad; Roberts, Cynthia; Zhang, Zheng Gang

2014-11-01

243

Hemodynamic and Metabolic Correlates of Perinatal White Matter Injury Severity  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Although the spectrum of perinatal white matter injury (WMI) in preterm infants is shifting from cystic encephalomalacia to milder forms of WMI, the factors that contribute to this changing spectrum are unclear. We hypothesized that the variability in WMI quantified by immunohistochemical markers of inflammation could be correlated with the severity of impaired blood oxygen, glucose and lactate. Methods We employed a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero moderate hypoxemia and global severe but not complete cerebral ischemia that reproduces the spectrum of human WMI. Since there is small but measurable residual brain blood flow during occlusion, we sought to determine if the metabolic state of the residual arterial blood was associated with severity of WMI. Near the conclusion of hypoxia-ischemia, we recorded cephalic arterial blood pressure, blood oxygen, glucose and lactate levels. To define the spectrum of WMI, an ordinal WMI rating scale was compared against an unbiased quantitative image analysis protocol that provided continuous histo-pathological outcome measures for astrogliosis and microgliosis derived from the entire white matter. Results A spectrum of WMI was observed that ranged from diffuse non-necrotic lesions to more severe injury that comprised discrete foci of microscopic or macroscopic necrosis. Residual arterial pressure, oxygen content and blood glucose displayed a significant inverse association with WMI and lactate concentrations were directly related. Elevated glucose levels were the most significantly associated with less severe WMI. Conclusions Our results suggest that under conditions of hypoxemia and severe cephalic hypotension, WMI severity measured using unbiased immunohistochemical measurements correlated with several physiologic parameters, including glucose, which may be a useful marker of fetal response to hypoxia or provide protection against energy failure and more severe WMI. PMID:24416093

Riddle, Art; Maire, Jennifer; Cai, Victor; Nguyen, Thuan; Gong, Xi; Hansen, Kelly; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Hohimer, A. Roger; Back, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

244

Detection of white matter lesions in cerebral small vessel disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White matter lesions (WML) are diffuse white matter abnormalities commonly found in older subjects and are important indicators of stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia and other disorders. We present an automated WML detection method and evaluate it on a dataset of small vessel disease (SVD) patients. In early SVD, small WMLs are expected to be of importance for the prediction of disease progression. Commonly used WML segmentation methods tend to ignore small WMLs and are mostly validated on the basis of total lesion load or a Dice coefficient for all detected WMLs. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that is designed to detect individual lesions, large or small, and we validate the detection performance of our system with FROC (free-response ROC) analysis. For the automated detection, we use supervised classification making use of multimodal voxel based features from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including intensities, tissue probabilities, voxel locations and distances, neighborhood textures and others. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, intensity normalization, and nonlinear registration, ventricle segmentation is performed and features are calculated for each brain voxel. A gentle-boost classifier is trained using these features from 50 manually annotated subjects to give each voxel a probability of being a lesion voxel. We perform ROC analysis to illustrate the benefits of using additional features to the commonly used voxel intensities; significantly increasing the area under the curve (Az) from 0.81 to 0.96 (p<0.05). We perform the FROC analysis by testing our classifier on 50 previously unseen subjects and compare the results with manual annotations performed by two experts. Using the first annotator results as our reference, the second annotator performs at a sensitivity of 0.90 with an average of 41 false positives per subject while our automated method reached the same level of sensitivity at approximately 180 false positives per subject.

Riad, Medhat M.; Platel, Bram; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Karssemeijer, Nico

2013-02-01

245

Thrombogenic microvesicles and white matter hyperintensities in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the association of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, markers of platelet activation, and thrombogenic blood-borne microvesicles with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) load and progression in recently menopausal women. Methods: Women (n = 95) enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study underwent MRI at baseline and at 18, 36, and 48 months after randomization to hormone treatments. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-medial thickness, coronary arterial calcification, plasma lipids, markers of platelet activation, and thrombogenic microvesicles were measured at baseline. WMH volumes were calculated using a semiautomated segmentation algorithm based on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI. Correlations of those parameters with baseline WMH and longitudinal change in WMH were adjusted for age, months past menopause, and APOE ?4 status in linear regression analysis. Results: At baseline, WMH were present in all women. The WMH to white matter volume fraction at baseline was 0.88% (0.69%, 1.16%). WMH volume increased by 122.1 mm3 (95% confidence interval: ?164.3, 539.5) at 36 months (p = 0.003) and 155.4 mm3 (95% confidence interval: ?92.13, 599.4) at 48 months (p < 0.001). These increases correlated with numbers of platelet-derived and total thrombogenic microvesicles at baseline (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Associations of platelet-derived, thrombogenic microvesicles at baseline and increases in WMH suggest that in vivo platelet activation may contribute to a cascade of events leading to development of WMH in recently menopausal women. PMID:23408873

Raz, Limor; Jayachandran, M.; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Wille, Samantha M.; Murphy, Matthew C.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jack, Clifford R.; Miller, Virginia M.

2013-01-01

246

Computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensities related to subcortical vascular dementia in brain MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) regions for the diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) based on magnetic resonance (MR) images, and implemented the proposed method as a graphical interface program. The WMH regions were segmented using either a region growing technique or a level set method, one of which was selected by using a support vector machine. We applied the proposed method to MR images acquired from 10 patients with a diagnosis of VaD. The mean similarity index between WMH regions determined by a manual method and the proposed method was 78.2+/-11.0%. The proposed method could effectively assist neuroradiologists in evaluating WMH regions.

Arimura, Hidetaka; Kawata, Yasuo; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro

2010-03-01

247

Axonal Integrity of Brain White Matter Tracts in 22q11del Syndrome Subjects: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

E-print Network

Axonal Integrity of Brain White Matter Tracts in 22q11del Syndrome Subjects: A Diffusion Tensor hemisphere. Here we are analyzing the same subjects for the anisotropic measures radial and axial diffusivity of region 22q11 and from 9 healthy subjects matched on age, sex, and parental socioeconomic status. Voxel

248

A Voxel-Based Method for the Statistical Analysis of Gray and White Matter Density Applied to Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel technique for characterizing regional cerebral gray and white matter differences in structural magnetic resonance images by the application of methods derived from functional imaging. The technique involves automatic scalp-editing of images followed by segmentation, smoothing, and spatial normalization to a symmetrical template brain in stereotactic Talairach space. The basic idea is (i) to convert structural magnetic

I. C. Wright; P. K. McGuire; J.-B. Poline; J. M. Travere; R. M. Murray; C. D. Frith; R. S. J. Frackowiak; K. J. Friston

1995-01-01

249

A non-invasive method to relate the timing of neural activity to white matter microstructural integrity  

PubMed Central

The neurophysiological basis of variability in the latency of evoked neural responses has been of interest for decades. We describe a method to identify white matter pathways that may contribute to inter-individual variability in the timing of neural activity. We investigated the relation of the latency of peak visual responses in occipital cortex as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) to fractional anisotropy (FA) in the entire brain as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in eight healthy young adults. This method makes no assumptions about the anatomy of white matter connections. Visual responses were evoked during a saccadic paradigm and were time-locked to arrival at a saccadic goal. The latency of the peak visual response was inversely related to FA in bilateral parietal and right lateral frontal white matter adjacent to cortical regions that modulate early visual responses. These relations suggest that biophysical properties of white matter affect the timing of early visual responses. This preliminary report demonstrates a non-invasive, unbiased method to relate the timing information from evoked-response experiments to the biophysical properties of white matter measured with DTI. PMID:18565766

Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Witzel, Thomas; Mikulski, Szymon; Hamalainen, Matti S.; Temereanca, Simona; Barton, Jason J. S.; Tuch, David S.; Manoach, Dara S.

2008-01-01

250

Understanding white matter integrity stability for bilinguals on language status and reading performance.  

PubMed

Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have described overall white matter integrity in bilinguals but have not related structural neural pathways to language functions. The current study examined white matter integrity and its relationship to reading skill in monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English speakers. Eleven monolingual speakers (mean age 28.5 years) and 13 bilingual speakers (mean age 24.2 years; English as a second language was acquired post 5 years of age) participated. Behavioural response times and accuracy rates to name regular and exception words were recorded. Participants were then scanned using a standardized DTI protocol. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity values were derived from a voxelwise statistical analysis for comparisons between participant groups. Tests for relationships between response time and FA were also conducted. Our results show minimal regions of higher FA for monolinguals when compared to bilinguals and no regions of higher FA for bilinguals when compared to monolinguals, which indicates that white matter integrity may not stabilize in bilinguals until late adulthood. We do show several regions where an increase in FA is associated with faster response times. Interestingly, the FA-response time relationship varies between groups and between word types, which may reflect an increased processing demand for retrieval of difficult words (e.g., exception words). These results provide some support for the interference control and reduced frequency hypotheses outlined by Jones et al. (Cerebr Cortex 22:892-902, 2012). The current findings advance our understanding of the underlying cortical networks associated with language status and reading skill in monolingual and bilingual adults. PMID:23097036

Cummine, Jacqueline; Boliek, Carol A

2013-03-01

251

Widespread reductions of white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercortisolism leads to various physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms, which may partly persist after the treatment of Cushing's disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate abnormalities in white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease, and their relation with psychological symptoms, cognitive impairment and clinical characteristics. Methods In patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease (n = 22) and matched healthy controls (n = 22) we examined fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter in a region-of-interest (ROI; bilateral cingulate cingulum, bilateral hippocampal cingulum, bilateral uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum) and the whole brain, using 3 T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach. Psychological and cognitive functioning were assessed with validated questionnaires and clinical severity was assessed using the Cushing's syndrome Severity Index. Results The ROI analysis showed FA reductions in all of the hypothesized regions, with the exception of the bilateral hippocampal cingulum, in patients when compared to controls. The exploratory whole brain analysis showed multiple regions with lower FA values throughout the brain. Patients reported more apathy (p = .003) and more depressive symptoms (p < .001), whereas depression symptom severity in the patient group was negatively associated with FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analyses showed increased radial and mean diffusivity in the patient group. Conclusion Patients with a history of endogenous hypercortisolism in present remission show widespread changes of white matter integrity in the brain, with abnormalities in the integrity of the uncinate fasciculus being related to the severity of depressive symptoms, suggesting persistent structural effects of hypercortisolism. PMID:24936417

van der Werff, Steven J.A.; Andela, Cornelie D.; Nienke Pannekoek, J.; Meijer, Onno C.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.

2014-01-01

252

White matter maturation in visual and motor areas predicts the latency of visual activation in children.  

PubMed

In humans, white matter maturation is important for the improvement of cognitive function and performance with age. Across studies the variables of white matter maturity and age are highly correlated; however, the unique contributions of white matter to information processing speed remain relatively unknown. We investigated the relations between the speed of the visually-evoked P100m response and the biophysical properties of white matter in 11 healthy children performing a simple, visually-cued finger movement. We found that: (1) the latency of the early, visually-evoked response was related to the integrity of white matter in both visual and motor association areas and (2) white matter maturation in these areas accounted for the variations in visual processing speed, independent of age. Our study is a novel investigation of spatial-temporal dynamics in the developing brain and provides evidence that white matter maturation accounts for age-related decreases in the speed of visual response. Developmental models of cortical specialization should incorporate the unique role of white matter maturation in mediating changes in performance during tasks involving visual processing. PMID:21432944

Dockstader, Colleen; Gaetz, William; Rockel, Conrad; Mabbott, Donald J

2012-01-01

253

Voxel-Based MRI Intensitometry Reveals Extent of Cerebral White Matter Pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral  

E-print Network

Voxel-Based MRI Intensitometry Reveals Extent of Cerebral White Matter Pathology in Amyotrophic Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons Intensitometry Reveals Extent of Cerebral White Matter Pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PLoS ONE 9

Gaser, Christian

254

Edinburgh Research Explorer Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth, 'Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age' Neurobiology of Aging): 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.05.032 Link: Link to publication record in Edinburgh Research Explorer

Millar, Andrew J.

255

Two siblings with microcephaly associated with calcification of cerebral white matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two male siblings with microcephaly are described. Cranial CT scanning revealed calcification of cerebral white matter in both cases. The clinical features of these patients were compared with those of other reported cases with microcephaly. Microcephaly with calcification of cerebral white matter had not been previously reported. Therefore, our cases seem to be a previously undescribed genetic disease.

Takateru Ishitsu; Shoji Chikazawa; Ichiro Matsuda

1985-01-01

256

Tractography reveals diffuse white matter abnormalities in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.  

PubMed

Cerebral involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) is well-established but not well characterized. This study applied new Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) tractography to characterize white matter disturbance in adults with DM1. Forty-five participants with DM1 and 44 control participants had MRIs on a Siemens 3T TIM Trio scanner. Data were processed with TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA) and 7 tracts were evaluated. Bilateral disturbances in white matter integrity were seen in all tracts in participants with DM1 compared to controls. There were no right-left hemisphere differences. The resulting DTI metrics were correlated with cognitive functioning, particularly working memory and processing speed. Motor speed was not significantly correlated with white matter microstructural integrity and, thus, was not the core explanation for the working memory and processing speed findings. White matter integrity was correlated with important clinical variables including the muscular impairment rating scale (MIRS). CTG repeat length was moderately associated with white matter status in corticospinal tract and cingulum. Sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) was moderately associated with white matter status in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum. Overall, the results add to an emerging literature showing widespread white matter disturbances in both early-onset and adult-onset DM1. Results suggest that further investigation of white matter pathology is warranted in DM1 and that non-invasive measures such as DTI have a potentially important clinical value in characterizing the status of individuals with DM1. PMID:24768314

Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura S; Day, John W

2014-06-15

257

Comparison between Brain Tissue Gray and White Matters in Tension Including Necking Phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterizing the differences between the mechanical properties of brain tissue gray and white matters is of importance in biomechanics of brain tissue and may find a variety of different applications in medicine. In this study, a comparison has been made between mechanical behavior of bovine brain tissue white and gray matters. Through a linear elastic theory and using Bridgman method,

Sina Mehdizadeh; Mehdi Khoshgoftar; Siamak Najarian; Farhad Farmanzad

2008-01-01

258

Deleterious Effect of Hyperoxia at Birth on White Matter Damage in the Newborn Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

White matter damage (WMD) remains the leading cause of cerebral palsy in children born prematurely. The release of an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species is recognized as a risk factor for WMD. We hypothesize that free radical injury during reoxygenation at birth may be harmful to the immature white matter and may underlie, at least in part, the pathogenesis

Gaelle Vottier; Hoa Pham; Julien Pansiot; Valérie Biran; Pierre Gressens; Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue; Olivier Baud

2011-01-01

259

A developmental study of the structural integrity of white matter in autism  

E-print Network

A developmental study of the structural integrity of white matter in autism Timothy A. Keller in Autism (CPEA) Grant HD35469 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Received in the organization of white matter in a large sample of male participants with autism and controls between the ages

260

White-matter astrocytes, axonal energy metabolism, and axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a diffuse axonal degeneration occurring throughout the white matter of the central nervous system causes progressive neurologic disability. The underlying mechanism is unclear. This review describes a number of pathways by which dysfunctional astrocytes in MS might lead to axonal degeneration. White-matter astrocytes in MS show a reduced metabolism of adenosine triphosphate-generating phosphocreatine, which

Melissa Cambron; Miguel D'Haeseleer; Guy Laureys; Ralph Clinckers; Jan Debruyne; Jacques De Keyser

2012-01-01

261

Growth of White Matter in the Adolescent Brain: Myelin or Axon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

White matter occupies almost half of the human brain. It contains axons connecting spatially segregated modules and, as such, it is essential for the smooth flow of information in functional networks. Structural maturation of white matter continues during adolescence, as reflected in age-related changes in its volume, as well as in its…

Paus, Tomas

2010-01-01

262

Decrease in nerve fibres in cerebral white matter in progressive subcortical vascular encephalopathy of binswanger type  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study white matter changes in the frontal lobes and to investigate the histopathological basis for the dementia in progressive subcortical vascular encephalopathy (PSVE), the frontal white matter was examined by electron microscopy in seven cases with PSVE, and compared with that in a control group and in cases with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). The number of nerve

H. Yamanouchi; S. Sugiura; M. Tomonaga

1989-01-01

263

Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia: Variability of Injuries to White Matter Tracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conventional MR imaging shows evidence of brain injury and\\/or malde- velopment in 70%-90% of children with cerebral palsy (CP), though its capability to identify specific white matter tract injury is limited. The great variability of white matter lesions in CP already demonstrated by postmortem studies is thought to be one of the reasons why response to treatment

L. M. Nagae; A. H. Hoon; E. Stashinko; D. Lin; W. Zhang; E. Levey; S. Wakana; H. Jiang; C. C. Leite; L. T. Lucato; P. C. M. van Zijl; M. V. Johnston; S. Mori

2007-01-01

264

Perinatal White Matter Injury: The Changing Spectrum of Pathology and Emerging Insights into Pathogenetic Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perinatal brain injury in survivors of premature birth has a unique and unexplained predilection for periventricular cerebral white matter. Periventricular white-matter injury (PWMI) is now the most common cause of brain injury in preterm infants and the leading cause of chronic neurological morbidity. The spectrum of chronic PWMI includes focal…

Back, Stephen A.

2006-01-01

265

CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING CAUSALITY FROM EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE  

E-print Network

Ritchie 1 CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING of interest. Running title : caffeine and white matter lesions inserm-00457699,version1-19Feb2010 Author for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

White Matter Lesions and Brain Atrophy: More than Shared Risk Factors? A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: White matter lesions (WML) and brain atrophy are often found on MRI in the elderly. Shared vascular risk factors may be an explanation for their concomitance. However, disturbances of white matter integrity could also be involved in the pathogenesis of brain atrophy. Our objective was to systematically review studies that investigated the relation between WML and brain atrophy on

Auke P. A. Appelman; Lieza G. Exalto; Yolanda van der Graaf; Geert Jan Biessels; Willem P. T. M. Mali; Mirjam I. Geerlings

2009-01-01

267

Quantifying Cerebellum Grey Matter and White Matter Perfusion Using Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling  

PubMed Central

To facilitate quantification of cerebellum cerebral blood flow (CBF), studies were performed to systematically optimize arterial spin labeling (ASL) parameters for measuring cerebellum perfusion, segment cerebellum to obtain separate CBF values for grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM), and compare FAIR ASST to PICORE. Cerebellum GM and WM CBF were measured with optimized ASL parameters using FAIR ASST and PICORE in five subjects. Influence of volume averaging in voxels on cerebellar grey and white matter boundaries was minimized by high-probability threshold masks. Cerebellar CBF values determined by FAIR ASST were 43.8 ± 5.1?mL/100?g/min for GM and 27.6 ± 4.5?mL/100?g/min for WM. Quantitative perfusion studies indicated that CBF in cerebellum GM is 1.6 times greater than that in cerebellum WM. Compared to PICORE, FAIR ASST produced similar CBF estimations but less subtraction error and lower temporal, spatial, and intersubject variability. These are important advantages for detecting group and/or condition differences in CBF values. PMID:24949416

Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N.; Purdy, David E.; Briggs, Richard W.

2014-01-01

268

Crosstalk between oligodendrocytes and cerebral endothelium contributes to vascular remodeling after white matter injury  

PubMed Central

After stroke and brain injury, cortical gray matter recovery involves mechanisms of neurovascular matrix remodeling. In white matter however, the mechanisms of recovery remain unclear. In this present study, we demonstrate that oligodendrocytes secrete matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which accelerates the angiogenic response after white matter injury. In primary oligodendrocyte cultures, treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?) induced an upregulation and secretion of MMP-9. Conditioned media from IL-1?-stimulated oligodendrocytes significantly amplified matrigel tube formation in brain endothelial cells, indicating that MMP-9 from oligodendrocytes can promote angiogenesis in vitro. Next we asked whether similar signals and substrates operate after white matter injury in vivo. Focal white matter injury and demyelination was induced in mice via stereotactic injection of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into corpus callosum. Western blot analysis showed that IL-1? expression was increased in damaged white matter. Immunostaining demonstrated MMP-9 signals in MOBP (myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein)-positive oligodendrocytes. Treatment with an IL-1?-neutralizing antibody suppressed the MMP-9 response in oligodendrocytes. Finally, we confirmed that the broad spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 inhibited angiogenesis around the injury area in this white matter injury model. In gray matter, a neurovascular niche promotes cortical recovery after brain injury. Our study suggests that an analogous oligovascular niche may mediate recovery in white matter. PMID:22392631

Pham, Loc-Duyen D.; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Seo, Ji Hae; Nguyen, Minh-Nguyet; Som, Angel T.; Lee, Brian J.; Guo, Shuzhen; Kim, Kyu-Won; Lo, Eng H.; Arai, Ken

2012-01-01

269

Voxelwise Correlational Analyses of White Matter Integrity in Multiple Cognitive Domains in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in several neurocognitive domains. However, the relationship between white matter integrity and performance in these domains is poorly understood. The authors conducted neurocognitive testing and diffusion tensor imaging in 25 patients with schizophrenia. Performance was examined for tests of verbal declarative memory, attention, and executive function. Relationships between fractional anisotropy and cognitive performance were examined by using voxelwise correlational analyses. In each case, better performance on these tasks was associated with higher levels of fractional anisotropy in task-relevant regions. PMID:17074956

Lim, Kelvin O.; Ardekani, Babak A.; Nierenberg, Jay; Butler, Pamela D.; Javitt, Daniel C.; Hoptman, Matthew J.

2007-01-01

270

Voxelwise correlational analyses of white matter integrity in multiple cognitive domains in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in several neurocognitive domains. However, the relationship between white matter integrity and performance in these domains is poorly understood. The authors conducted neurocognitive testing and diffusion tensor imaging in 25 patients with schizophrenia. Performance was examined for tests of verbal declarative memory, attention, and executive function. Relationships between fractional anisotropy and cognitive performance were examined by using voxelwise correlational analyses. In each case, better performance on these tasks was associated with higher levels of fractional anisotropy in task-relevant regions. PMID:17074956

Lim, Kelvin O; Ardekani, Babak A; Nierenberg, Jay; Butler, Pamela D; Javitt, Daniel C; Hoptman, Matthew J

2006-11-01

271

Frontostriatal white matter integrity mediates adult age differences in probabilistic reward learning.  

PubMed

Frontostriatal circuits have been implicated in reward learning, and emerging findings suggest that frontal white matter structural integrity and probabilistic reward learning are reduced in older age. This cross-sectional study examined whether age differences in frontostriatal white matter integrity could account for age differences in reward learning in a community life span sample of human adults. By combining diffusion tensor imaging with a probabilistic reward learning task, we found that older age was associated with decreased reward learning and decreased white matter integrity in specific pathways running from the thalamus to the medial prefrontal cortex and from the medial prefrontal cortex to the ventral striatum. Further, white matter integrity in these thalamocorticostriatal paths could statistically account for age differences in learning. These findings suggest that the integrity of frontostriatal white matter pathways critically supports reward learning. The findings also raise the possibility that interventions that bolster frontostriatal integrity might improve reward learning and decision making. PMID:22496578

Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Levens, Sara M; Perry, Lee M; Dougherty, Robert F; Knutson, Brian

2012-04-11

272

White Matter Hyperintensities, Exercise and Improvement in Gait Speed: Does the Type of Gait Rehabilitation Matter?  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on brain MRI are associated with cognitive and mobility impairment in older adults. We examined whether WMH in tracts in older adults with mobility impairment are linked to outcomes of gait rehabilitation interventions. Design A 12-week randomized controlled single-blind trial. Setting University-based mobility research laboratory. Participants Ambulatory adults aged 65 and older with mobility impairment. Intervention A conventional gait intervention focusing on walking, endurance, balance, and strength (WEBS, n=21) compared to a task-oriented intervention focused on timing and coordination of gait (TC, n=23). Measurements We measured self-paced gait speed over an instrumented walkway, pre and post intervention, and quantified WMH and brain volumes on pre-intervention brain MRI using an automated segmentation process. We overlaid a white matter tract atlas on the segmented images to measure tract WMH volumes and normalized WMH volumes to total brain volume. Aggregate WMH volumes in all white matter tracts and individual WMH volumes in specific longitudinal tracts (the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the fronto-occipital fasciculus) and cingulum were obtained. Results Gait speed gains in the TC group were of the same magnitude, independent of the WMH volume measures in all except the cingulum. However, in the WEBS group, gain in gait speed was smaller with greater overall tract WMH volumes (P<0.001) and with greater WMH volume in the three longitudinal tracts (P< 0.001 to 0.025). Conclusion Gains in gait speed with two types of gait rehabilitation are associated with individual differences in WMH. Task-oriented therapy that targets timing and coordination of gait may particularly benefit older adults with WMH in brain tracts that influence gait and cognition. PMID:23590257

Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Perera, Subashan; Rosano, Caterina; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Brach, Jennifer S.; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.

2013-01-01

273

White Matter Abnormalities and Working Memory Impairment in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Objective/Background Many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have working memory deficits. Few studies have evaluated working memory performance and neurometabolite profile using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in SLE. Methods We gave the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), a measure of working memory, to 73 patients with SLE. We calculated total score, dyads, chunking, and cognitive fatigue. Using MRS, we determined the ratio of choline to creatine (Ch/Cr) in normal-looking right and left frontal lobe white matter. Results Twenty-nine percent of patients showed impaired working memory on the PASAT. Total PASAT score inversely correlated with right and left frontal white matter Ch/Cr. Left frontal white matter Ch/Cr correlated with percent chunking and inversely correlated with total and percent of dyads. Right frontal white matter Ch/Cr correlated with percent chunking and inversely correlated with total and percent dyads. There was no relationship between cognitive fatigue and either left or right frontal white matter Ch/Cr. Longer disease duration was associated with higher left frontal white matter Ch/Cr. Correlations remained significant between left frontal white matter Ch/Cr and total PASAT score and total dyads when disease duration was considered. Conclusions Patients with SLE were impaired on the PASAT. Lower total PASAT score and fewer dyads correlated with higher left frontal microstructural white matter damage, while cognitive fatigue did not. This pattern suggests that early white matter damage interferes with working memory in SLE and provides further insight into the neurobiological basis of mild cognitive dysfunction related to microstructural white matter injury. PMID:23812169

Kozora, Elizabeth; Arciniegas, David B.; Duggan, Emily; West, Sterling; Brown, Mark; Filley, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

274

Altered Topological Organization of White Matter Structural Networks in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the topological alterations of the whole-brain white-matter (WM) structural networks in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Methods The present study involved 26 NMO patients and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. WM structural connectivity in each participant was imaged with diffusion-weighted MRI and represented in terms of a connectivity matrix using deterministic tractography method. Graph theory-based analyses were then performed for the characterization of brain network properties. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on each network metric between the NMO and control groups. Results The NMO patients exhibited abnormal small-world network properties, as indicated by increased normalized characteristic path length, increased normalized clustering and increased small-worldness. Furthermore, largely similar hub distributions of the WM structural networks were observed between NMO patients and healthy controls. However, regional efficiency in several brain areas of NMO patients was significantly reduced, which were mainly distributed in the default-mode, sensorimotor and visual systems. Furthermore, we have observed increased regional efficiency in a few brain regions such as the orbital parts of the superior and middle frontal and fusiform gyri. Conclusion Although the NMO patients in this study had no discernible white matter T2 lesions in the brain, we hypothesize that the disrupted topological organization of WM networks provides additional evidence for subtle, widespread cerebral WM pathology in NMO. PMID:23144994

Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; He, Yong; Wang, Jun; Xia, Mingrui; Yu, Chunshui; Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing; Butzkueven, Helmut; Li, Kuncheng; Shu, Ni

2012-01-01

275

White matter structural connectivity underlying semantic processing: evidence from brain damaged patients.  

PubMed

Widely distributed brain regions in temporal, parietal and frontal cortex have been found to be involved in semantic processing, but the anatomical connections supporting the semantic system are not well understood. In a group of 76 right-handed brain-damaged patients, we tested the relationship between the integrity of major white matter tracts and the presence of semantic deficits. The integrity of white matter tracts was measured by percentage of lesion voxels obtained in structural imaging and mean fractional anisotropy values obtained in diffusion tensor imaging. Semantic deficits were assessed by jointly considering the performance on three semantic tasks that vary in the modalities of input (visual and auditory stimuli) and output (oral naming and associative judgement). We found that the lesion volume and fractional anisotropy value of the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left anterior thalamic radiation, and left uncinate fasciculus significantly correlated with severity of impairment in all three semantic tasks. These associations remained significant even when we controlled for a wide range of potential confounding variables, including overall cognitive state, whole lesion volume, or type of brain damage. The effects of these three white matter tracts could not be explained by potential involvement of relevant grey matter, and were (relatively) specific to object semantic processing, as no correlation with performance on non-object semantic control tasks (oral repetition and number processing tasks) was observed. These results underscore the causal role of left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left anterior thalamic radiation, and left uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing, providing direct evidence for (part of) the anatomical skeleton of the semantic network. PMID:23975453

Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; He, Yong; Caramazza, Alfonso; Bi, Yanchao

2013-10-01

276

Hot water extract of wheat bran attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of vascular dementia.  

PubMed

Vascular dementia is characterized by white matter lesions involving the demyelination and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In a previous study, we showed that the supernatant of a laboratory-scale, hot water extract of ground whole wheat (TALE) attenuated white matter injury and astrocytic activation in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). In the present study, we made several modifications to the hot water extraction process to remove starch and enable large-scale production. We used wheat bran (WB), which contains less starch, instead of ground whole wheat. In addition, we removed starch granules with a decanter before hot water extraction. The final product, wheat bran extract (WBE), contained 2.42% arabinose, a surrogate marker of arabinoxylan, which is an active constituent of WBE. Supplementation of the rat model of BCCAO with WBE (400 mg/kg/day) for 33 days attenuated white matter injury, which was assessed by Luxol Fast Blue staining, in the corpus callosum (cc) and optic tract (opt) regions. Attenuation of white matter injury in the opt region was accompanied by improvement of the pupillary light reflex. Immunochemical staining revealed that supplementation with WBE reduced astrocytic activation in the cc and opt regions and reduced microglial activation in the opt region. These findings indicate that supplementation with WBE is effective at attenuating white matter injury accompanied by the inhibition of astrocytic and microglial activation. Therefore, extracts from WB, a cheap by-product of wheat milling, can be developed as a nutraceutical to prevent vascular dementia, a disease for which there is no approved pharmaceutical treatment. PMID:25320711

Lim, Sun Ha; Lee, Jongwon

2014-09-01

277

Hot Water Extract of Wheat Bran Attenuates White Matter Injury in a Rat Model of Vascular Dementia  

PubMed Central

Vascular dementia is characterized by white matter lesions involving the demyelination and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In a previous study, we showed that the supernatant of a laboratory-scale, hot water extract of ground whole wheat (TALE) attenuated white matter injury and astrocytic activation in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). In the present study, we made several modifications to the hot water extraction process to remove starch and enable large-scale production. We used wheat bran (WB), which contains less starch, instead of ground whole wheat. In addition, we removed starch granules with a decanter before hot water extraction. The final product, wheat bran extract (WBE), contained 2.42% arabinose, a surrogate marker of arabinoxylan, which is an active constituent of WBE. Supplementation of the rat model of BCCAO with WBE (400 mg/kg/day) for 33 days attenuated white matter injury, which was assessed by Luxol Fast Blue staining, in the corpus callosum (cc) and optic tract (opt) regions. Attenuation of white matter injury in the opt region was accompanied by improvement of the pupillary light reflex. Immunochemical staining revealed that supplementation with WBE reduced astrocytic activation in the cc and opt regions and reduced microglial activation in the opt region. These findings indicate that supplementation with WBE is effective at attenuating white matter injury accompanied by the inhibition of astrocytic and microglial activation. Therefore, extracts from WB, a cheap by-product of wheat milling, can be developed as a nutraceutical to prevent vascular dementia, a disease for which there is no approved pharmaceutical treatment.

Lim, Sun Ha; Lee, Jongwon

2014-01-01

278

Human adult white matter progenitor cells are multipotent neuroprogenitors similar to adult hippocampal progenitors.  

PubMed

Adult neural progenitor cells (aNPC) are a potential autologous cell source for cell replacement in neurologic diseases or for cell-based gene therapy of neurometabolic diseases. Easy accessibility, long-term expandability, and detailed characterization of neural progenitor cell (NPC) properties are important requisites for their future translational/clinical applications. aNPC can be isolated from different regions of the adult human brain, including the accessible subcortical white matter (aNPCWM), but systematic studies comparing long-term expanded aNPCWM with aNPC from neurogenic brain regions are not available. Freshly isolated cells from subcortical white matter and hippocampus expressed oligodendrocyte progenitor cell markers such as A2B5, neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2), and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) in ?20% of cells but no neural stem cell (NSC) markers such as CD133 (Prominin1), Nestin, SOX2, or PAX6. The epidermal growth factor receptor protein was expressed in 18% of aNPCWM and 7% of hippocampal aNPC (aNPCHIP), but only a small fraction of cells, 1 of 694 cells from white matter and 1 of 1,331 hippocampal cells, was able to generate neurospheres. Studies comparing subcortical aNPCWM with their hippocampal counterparts showed that both NPC types expressed mainly markers of glial origin such as NG2, A2B5, and OLIG2, and the NSC/NPC marker Nestin, but no pericyte markers. Both NPC types were able to produce neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in amounts comparable to fetal NSC. Whole transcriptome analyses confirmed the strong similarity of aNPCWM to aNPCHIP. Our data show that aNPCWM are multipotent NPC with long-term expandability similar to NPC from hippocampus, making them a more easily accessible source for possible autologous NPC-based treatment strategies. PMID:24558163

Lojewski, Xenia; Hermann, Andreas; Wegner, Florian; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Hallmeyer-Elgner, Susanne; Kirsch, Matthias; Schwarz, Johannes; Schöler, Hans R; Storch, Alexander

2014-04-01

279

Parahippocampal white matter volume predicts Alzheimer's disease risk in cognitively normal old adults.  

PubMed

An in vivo marker of the underlying pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is atrophy in select brain regions detected with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although gray matter changes have been documented to be predictive of cognitive decline culminating in AD among healthy older adults, very little attention has been given to alterations in white matter as a possible MRI biomarker predictive of AD. In this investigation, we examined parahippocampal white matter (PWM) volume derived from baseline MRI scans in 2 independent samples of 65 cognitively normal older adults, followed longitudinally, to determine if it was predictive of AD risk. The average follow-up period for the 2 samples was 8.5 years. Comparisons between the stable participants (N = 50) and those who declined to AD (N = 15) over time revealed a significant difference in baseline PWM volume (p < 0.001). Furthermore, baseline PWM volume was predictive not only of time to AD (hazard ratio = 3.1, p < 0.05), but also of baseline episodic memory performance (p = 0.041). These results demonstrate that PWM atrophy provides a sensitive MRI biomarker of AD dementia risk among those with normal cognitive function. PMID:24656833

Stoub, Travis R; Detoledo-Morrell, Leyla; Dickerson, Bradford C

2014-08-01

280

Tract-Based Morphometry for White Matter Group Analysis  

PubMed Central

We introduce an automatic method that we call tract-based morphometry, or TBM, for measurement and analysis of diffusion MRI data along white matter fiber tracts. Using subject-specific tractography bundle segmentations, we generate an arc length parameterization of the bundle with point correspondences across all fibers and all subjects, allowing tract-based measurement and analysis. In this paper we present a quantitative comparison of fiber coordinate systems from the literature and we introduce an improved optimal match method that reduces spatial distortion and improves intra- and inter-subject variability of FA measurements. We propose a method for generating arc length correspondences across hemispheres, enabling a TBM study of interhemispheric diffusion asymmetries in the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and cingulum bundle (CB). The results of this study demonstrate that TBM can detect differences that may not be found by measuring means of scalar invariants in entire tracts, such as the mean diffusivity (MD) differences found in AF. We report TBM results of higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left hemisphere in AF (caused primarily by lower ?3, the smallest eigenvalue of the diffusion tensor, in the left AF), and higher left hemisphere FA in CB (related to higher ?1, the largest eigenvalue of the diffusion tensor, in the left CB). By mapping the significance levels onto the tractography trajectories for each structure, we demonstrate the anatomical locations of the interhemispheric differences. The TBM approach brings analysis of DTI data into the clinically and neuroanatomically relevant framework of the tract anatomy. PMID:19154790

O'Donnell, Lauren J.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Golby, Alexandra J.

2009-01-01

281

White Matter Hyperintensity Burden and Susceptibility to Cerebral Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose White matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden increases risk of ischemic stroke; furthermore, it predicts infarct growth in acute cerebral ischemia. We hypothesized that WMH would be less severe in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA), as compared to those with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and completed infarct. Methods Cases (TIA, n=30) and controls (AIS, n=120) were selected from an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of patients with stroke and matched for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. All subjects had brain MRI within 48 hours of presentation to evaluate for acute cerebral ischemia. WMH burden on MRI was quantified using a validated computer-assisted program with high inter-rater reliability. Results Median WMH in individuals with TIA was 3.7 cm3 (IQR 1.5 - 8.33cm3) compared to 6.9 cm3 (IQR 3.1 - 11.9 cm3) in AIS (p<0.04). In multivariable analysis, the odds of completed infarct were higher (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.27 - 3.77, p<0.005) in subjects with larger volumes of WMH. Conclusions WMH burden was significantly less in subjects with TIA as opposed to ischemic stroke. These data provide further evidence to support a detrimental role of WMH burden on the capacity of cerebral tissue to survive acute ischemia. PMID:20947843

Rost, Natalia S; Fitzpatrick, Kaitlin; Biffi, Alessandro; Kanakis, Allison; Devan, William; Anderson, Christopher D.; Cortellini, Lynelle; Furie, Karen L; Rosand, Jonathan

2010-01-01

282

Bilateral white matter abnormality in children with frontal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

In frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), interictal discharges and seizures are more likely to spread to contralateral hemisphere and become secondarily generalized. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) integrity in children with FLE using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Children with FLE and normal MRI, and healthy controls with no neurological or psychiatric disorders underwent DTI on 3T MRI. Whole brain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were compared between right and left FLE with controls. 43 children with FLE, consisting of 28 left and 15 right FLE, and 44 healthy controls were recruited. Patients with left FLE had significant FA reductions in left (p=0.002) and right (p=0.003 and p=0.034) superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLF), genu/body (p=0.0002) and splenium (p=0.011) of corpus callosum. Patients with right FLE had significant FA reductions in left (p=0.016) and right (p=0.033) SLF, genu (p=0.001) and body of corpus callosum (p=0.001 and p=0.008), and significant MD elevation in right thalamus (p=0.032). There was no significant association between FA or MD and clinical seizure parameters. The abnormal WM both ipsilateral and contralateral to seizure focus may be due to seizure activity or abnormal brain development. PMID:24380759

Widjaja, Elysa; Kis, Antonella; Go, Cristina; Snead, O Carter; Smith, Mary Lou

2014-02-01

283

White matter degeneration in schizophrenia: a comparative diffusion tensor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schizophrenia is a serious and disabling mental disorder. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed on schizophrenia have demonstrated white matter degeneration either due to loss of myelination or deterioration of fiber tracts although the areas where the changes occur are variable across studies. Most of the population based studies analyze the changes in schizophrenia using scalar indices computed from the diffusion tensor such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and relative anisotropy (RA). The scalar measures may not capture the complete information from the diffusion tensor. In this paper we have applied the RADTI method on a group of 9 controls and 9 patients with schizophrenia. The RADTI method converts the tensors to log-Euclidean space where a linear regression model is applied and hypothesis testing is performed between the control and patient groups. Results show that there is a significant difference in the anisotropy between patients and controls especially in the parts of forceps minor, superior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule and genu of corpus callosum. To check if the tensor analysis gives a better idea of the changes in anisotropy, we compared the results with voxelwise FA analysis as well as voxelwise geodesic anisotropy (GA) analysis.

Ingalhalikar, Madhura A.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Kim, Jinsuh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Magnotta, Vincent A.

2010-03-01

284

Longitudinal white matter changes after traumatic axonal injury.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been useful in showing compromise after traumatic axonal injury (TAI) at the chronic stage; however, white matter (WM) compromise from acute stage of TAI to chronic stage is not yet well understood. This study aims to examine changes in WM integrity following TAI by obtaining DTI, on average, 1?d post injury and again approximately seven months post-injury. Sixteen patients with complicated mild to severe brain injuries consistent with TAI were recruited in the intensive care unit of a Level I trauma center. Thirteen of these patients were studied longitudinally over the course of the first seven months post-injury. The first scan occurred, on average, 1?d after injury and the second an average of seven months post-injury. Ten healthy individuals, similar to the cohort of patients, were recruited as controls. Whole brain WM and voxel-based analyses of DTI data were conducted. DTI metrics of interest included: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). tract-based spatial statistics were used to examine DTI metrics spatially. Acutely, AD and RD increased and RD positively correlated with injury severity. Longitudinal analysis showed reduction in FA and AD (p<0.01), but no change in RD. Possible explanations for the microstructural changes observed over time are discussed. PMID:24738754

Perez, Alison M; Adler, Justin; Kulkarni, Nimay; Strain, Jeremy F; Womack, Kyle B; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Marquez de la Plata, Carlos D

2014-09-01

285

GRIN2B Gene and Associated Brain Cortical White Matter Changes in Bipolar Disorder: A Preliminary Combined Platform Investigation  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in glutamate signaling and glutamate toxicity are thought to be important in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Whilst previous studies have found brain white matter changes in BD, there is paucity of data about how glutamatergic genes affect brain white matter integrity in BD. Based on extant neuroimaging data, we hypothesized that GRIN2B risk allele is associated with reductions of brain white matter integrity in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital regions and cingulate gyrus in BD. Fourteen patients with BD and 22 healthy controls matched in terms of age, gender and handedness were genotyped using blood samples and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Compared to G allele, brain FA values were significantly lower in BD patients with risk T allele in left frontal region (P = 0.001), right frontal region (P = 0.002), left parietal region (P = 0.001), left occipital region (P = 0.001), right occipital region (P < 0.001), and left cingulate gyrus (P = 0.001). Further elucidation of the interactions between different glutamate genes and their relationships with such structural, functional brain substrates will enhance our understanding of the link between dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuroimaging endophenotypes in BD. PMID:24490167

Thng, Christopher Ren Zhi; Zhang, Yi Bin; Nowinski, Wieslaw Lucjan; Low, Chian Ming

2013-01-01

286

GRIN2B gene and associated brain cortical white matter changes in bipolar disorder: a preliminary combined platform investigation.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in glutamate signaling and glutamate toxicity are thought to be important in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Whilst previous studies have found brain white matter changes in BD, there is paucity of data about how glutamatergic genes affect brain white matter integrity in BD. Based on extant neuroimaging data, we hypothesized that GRIN2B risk allele is associated with reductions of brain white matter integrity in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital regions and cingulate gyrus in BD. Fourteen patients with BD and 22 healthy controls matched in terms of age, gender and handedness were genotyped using blood samples and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Compared to G allele, brain FA values were significantly lower in BD patients with risk T allele in left frontal region (P = 0.001), right frontal region (P = 0.002), left parietal region (P = 0.001), left occipital region (P = 0.001), right occipital region (P < 0.001), and left cingulate gyrus (P = 0.001). Further elucidation of the interactions between different glutamate genes and their relationships with such structural, functional brain substrates will enhance our understanding of the link between dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuroimaging endophenotypes in BD. PMID:24490167

Kuswanto, Carissa Nadia; Sum, Min Yi; Thng, Christopher Ren Zhi; Zhang, Yi Bin; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw Lucjan; Sitoh, Yih Yian; Low, Chian Ming; Sim, Kang

2013-01-01

287

Atrophy, hypometabolism and white matter abnormalities in semantic dementia tell a coherent story.  

PubMed

Semantic dementia, in which there is progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge, is associated with focal, typically asymmetric, temporal lobe degeneration. The ventrorostral temporal lobe is most severely affected and there is concordance between atrophy and reduced metabolic activity. In this study, we confirmed the veracity of this claim using ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and anatomical magnetic resonance images. The principal aim, however, was to understand the impact on neuronal projections from the ventrorostral temporal cortex lesion by studying the full extent of white matter changes, with no a priori assumptions about the nature or spatial location of the tracts involved. Using an unbiased voxel-wise approach known as tract-based spatial statistics, we compared results of whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging--absolute metrics of axial, radial and mean diffusion as well as fractional anisotropy--from 10 patients with mild/moderate semantic dementia and 21 matched controls. Distributions of increased absolute diffusivity and reduced fractional anisotropy for patients with semantic dementia were spatially concordant with each other. Abnormalities in all metrics were highly statistically significant in ventrorostral temporal white matter, more extreme on the left side, thus closely matching results from structural and functional imaging of grey matter. The most sensitive marker of change was radial diffusion. Local white matter tract abnormalities extended rostrally towards the frontal lobe and dorsocaudally towards the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri. To examine more remote changes, we performed a skeletonized probabilistic tractography analysis--'seeding' the rostral temporal voxels identified as abnormal in the patient group--in a healthy control group. Three major neural pathways were found to emanate from this 'seed region': uncinate, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. At a less conservative threshold, tensor abnormalities in the semantic dementia group mapped onto the tractographies for the uncinate and arcuate bundles well beyond the rostral temporal lobe; this was not the case for the inferior longitudinal bundle, where abnormalities in semantic dementia did not extend caudal to the atrophic/hypometabolic zone. The results offer direct evidence for how the ventrorostral temporal lesion, proposed to be responsible for deteriorating semantic knowledge in semantic dementia and separate from 'classic' language areas, is associated with degeneration of efferent white matter projections to such language areas. PMID:21646331

Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Patterson, Karalyn; Fryer, Tim D; Hodges, John R; Pengas, George; Williams, Guy B; Nestor, Peter J

2011-07-01

288

Localization of deep white matter lymphoma using VARETA: a case study.  

PubMed

Methods have recently been proposed for localization of multiple brain sources of particular EEG frequencies recorded from the scalp, to identify their most probable neuroanatomical generators. This paper reports the accurate localization of a deep white matter lymphoma, using Variable Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (VARETA). The accuracy of this localization was confirmed by MRI studies. The patient was referred for a quantitative EEG evaluation, two weeks following an automobile accident, with no known loss of consciousness. There was marked excess and asymmetry of frontal slow wave activity, with highly significant hypocoherence. Significant gradient shifts within the left hemisphere were also seen. Visual inspection of the EEG tracings revealed theta paroxysms in left dorsolateral and mesial frontal regions. The MRI revealed a large space-occupying lesion deep within the white matter of the left frontal lobe, with evidence of subependymal spread and significant surrounding vasogenic edema. Localization of the sources of the maximal QEEG abnormalities using VARETA was consistent with the lesion location seen in the MRI images. This case demonstrates that VARETA can achieve highly sensitive and accurate localization of sources of QEEG abnormalities which lie in the deepest brain regions. PMID:11360722

Prichep, L S; John, E R; Tom, M L

2001-04-01

289

Reading performance correlates with white-matter properties in preterm and term children  

PubMed Central

Aim We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate the association between white-matter integrity and reading ability in a cohort of 28 children. Nineteen preterm children (14 males, five females; mean age 11y 11mo [SD 1y 10mo], mean gestational age 30.5wks (SD 3.2), mean birthweight was 1455g [SD 625]); and nine term children (five males, four females; mean age 12y 8mo [SD 2y 5mo], mean gestational age 39.6 weeks (SD 1.2), and mean birthweight 3877g [SD 473]). Method We tested whether fractional anisotropy in a left hemisphere temporoparietal region and in the corpus callosum correlates with birthweight and scores on the following three subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement: word identification, word attack, and passage comprehension. Results Preterm children had lower reading scores than a comparison group for all reading subtests (p<0.05). We found significant correlations between birthweight and fractional anisotropy in the whole corpus callosum (p=0.001), and between fractional anisotropy and reading skill in the genu (p=0.001) and body (p=0.001) of the corpus callosum. The correlation between reading skill and fractional anisotropy in a left temporoparietal region previously associated with reading disability was not significant (p=0.095). Interpretation We conclude that perinatal white-matter injury of the central corpus callosum may have long-term developmental implications for reading performance. PMID:19747208

Andrews, James S; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Yeatman, Jason D; Flom, Lynda L; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M

2010-01-01

290

Information-theoretic approach for automated white matter fiber tracts reconstruction.  

PubMed

Fiber tracking is the most popular technique for creating white matter connectivity maps from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This approach requires a seeding process which is challenging because it is not clear how and where the seeds have to be placed. On the other hand, to enhance the interpretation of fiber maps, segmentation and clustering techniques are applied to organize fibers into anatomical structures. In this paper, we propose a new approach to automatically obtain bundles of fibers grouped into anatomical regions. This method applies an information-theoretic split-and-merge algorithm that considers fractional anisotropy and fiber orientation information to automatically segment white matter into volumes of interest (VOIs) of similar FA and eigenvector orientation. For each VOI, a number of planes and seeds is automatically placed in order to create the fiber bundles. The proposed approach avoids the need for the user to define seeding or selection regions. The whole process requires less than a minute and minimal user interaction. The agreement between the automated and manual approaches has been measured for 10 tracts in a DTI brain atlas and found to be almost perfect (kappa >?0.8) and substantial (kappa >?0.6). This method has also been evaluated on real DTI data considering 5 tracts. Agreement was substantial (kappa >?0.6) in most of the cases. PMID:22467471

Prados, Ferran; Boada, Imma; Feixas, Miquel; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Blasco, Gerard; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salvador

2012-07-01

291

Changes in white matter integrity follow excitatory rTMS treatment of post-stroke aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose In this study, we examine whether an excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol called intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to the affected left hemisphere leads to changes in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA). Methods Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were collected in 8 aphasic stroke patients before and after 10 daily iTBS treatments. Alignment of structural and DTI data and derivation of diffusion index maps were performed using Analysis of Functional NeuroImages software followed by Tract-Based Spatial Statistics using FMRIB Software Library. Paired t-tests were performed to compare pre- to post-rTMS changes in FA. Results There were significant (p<0.001) left-hemispheric FA increases near the inferior and superior frontal gyri and anterior corpus callosum. FA also increased in the right midbrain and bilaterally near temporal, parietal and posterior cingulate regions. FA decreased bilaterally near the fusiform gyrus and in left cerebellum. Conclusions Overall, left-hemispheric regions that showed increased FA corresponded to areas previously shown to have increases in fMRI language activation after iTBS. The increased white matter integrity near the stimulation sites may reflect improvements in cortical function mediated by excitatory rTMS through its ability to facilitate synaptic connections. PMID:22233802

Allendorfer, Jane B.; Storrs, Judd M.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

2012-01-01

292

White matter alterations differ in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains uncertain. To detect in vivo structural differences between the two disorders, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts was carried out in 19 patients with primary lateral sclerosis, 18 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 19 age-matched controls. Fibre tracking was used to reconstruct the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract and three regions of the corpus callosum: the genu, splenium and callosal fibres connecting the motor cortices. Both patient groups had reduced fractional anisotropy, a measure associated with axonal organization, and increased mean diffusivity of the reconstructed corticospinal and callosal motor fibres compared with controls, without changes in the genu or splenium. Voxelwise comparison of the whole brain white matter using tract-based spatial statistics confirmed the differences between patients and controls in the diffusion properties of the corticospinal tracts and motor fibres of the callosum. This analysis further revealed differences in the regional distribution of white matter alterations between the patient groups. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the greatest reduction in fractional anisotropy occurred in the distal portions of the intracranial corticospinal tract, consistent with a distal axonal degeneration. In patients with primary lateral sclerosis, the greatest loss of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity occurred in the subcortical white matter underlying the motor cortex, with reduced volume, suggesting tissue loss. Clinical measures of upper motor neuron dysfunction correlated with reductions in fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and increased mean diffusivity and volume loss of the corticospinal tract in patients with primary lateral sclerosis. Changes in the diffusion properties of the motor fibres of the corpus callosum were strongly correlated with changes in corticospinal fibres in patients, but not in controls. These findings indicate that degeneration is not selective for corticospinal neurons, but affects callosal neurons within the motor cortex in motor neuron disorders. PMID:21798965

Iwata, Nobue K.; Kwan, Justin Y.; Danielian, Laura E.; Butman, John A.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bayat, Elham

2011-01-01

293

Sequential relationships between grey matter and white matter atrophy and brain metabolic abnormalities in early Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

abnormalities in early Alzheimer's disease Nicolas Villain, PhD1 , Marine Fouquet, MSc1 , Jean-Claude Baron, MD3 Alzheimer's disease Keywords: Alzheimers disease, MRI/fMRI, PET imaging, white matter, hippocampus-matter tract disruption are well-described early macroscopic events in Alzheimers disease. The relationships

Boyer, Edmond

294

Age-Related Total Gray Matter and White Matter Changes in Normal Adult Brain. Part I: Volumetric MR Imaging Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A technique of segmenting total gray matter (GM) and total white matter (WM) in human brain is now available. We investigated the effects of age and sex on total fractional GM (%GM) and total fractional WM (%WM) volumes by using volumetric MR imaging in healthy adults. METHODS: Fifty-four healthy volunteers (22 men, 32 women) aged 20 -

Yulin Ge; Robert I. Grossman; James S. Babb; Marcie L. Rabin; Lois J. Mannon; Dennis L. Kolson

2002-01-01

295

Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in schizophrenia--can white matter changes be reliably detected with VBM?  

E-print Network

the integrity of white matter (by means of the properties of water diffusion in human brain tissue) (Basser etVoxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in schizophrenia--can white matter changes be reliably anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, between patients and healthy controls. The number

296

Identification, Isolation, and Promoter-Defined Separation of Mitotic Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells from the Adult Human Subcortical White Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested the persistence of oligoden- drocyte progenitor cells in the adult mammalian subcortical white matter. To identify oligodendrocyte progenitors in the adult human subcortical white matter, we transfected dissoci- ates of capsular white matter with plasmid DNA bearing the gene for green fluorescence protein (hGFP), placed under the control of the human early promoter (P2) for the

Neeta Singh Roy; Su Wang; Catherine Harrison-Restelli; Abdellatif Benraiss; Richard A. R. Fraser

1999-01-01

297

Altered Glutamatergic Metabolism Associated with Punctate White Matter Lesions in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Preterm infants (?10% of all births) are at high-risk for long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities, most often resulting from white matter injury sustained during the neonatal period. Glutamate excitotoxicity is hypothesized to be a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of white matter injury; however, there has been no in vivo demonstration of glutamate excitotoxicity in preterm infants. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we tested the hypothesis that glutamate and glutamine, i.e., markers of glutamatergic metabolism, are altered in association with punctate white matter lesions and “diffuse excessive high signal intensity” (DEHSI), the predominant patterns of preterm white matter injury. We reviewed all clinically-indicated MRS studies conducted on preterm infants at a single institution during a six-year period and determined the absolute concentration of glutamate, glutamine, and four other key metabolites in the parietal white matter in 108 of those infants after two investigators independently evaluated the studies for punctate white matter lesions and DEHSI. Punctate white matter lesions were associated with a 29% increase in glutamine concentration (p?=?0.002). In contrast, there were no differences in glutamatergic metabolism in association with DEHSI. Severe DEHSI, however, was associated with increased lactate concentration (p?=?0.001), a marker of tissue acidosis. Findings from this study support glutamate excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of punctate white matter lesions, but not necessarily in DEHSI, and suggest that MRS provides a useful biomarker for determining the pathogenesis of white matter injury in preterm infants during a period when neuroprotective agents may be especially effective. PMID:23468888

Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Bluml, Stefan; Paquette, Lisa; Zelinski, Elizabeth; Nelson, Marvin D.; Painter, Michael J.; Damasio, Hanna; Gilles, Floyd; Panigrahy, Ashok

2013-01-01

298

Diffusion tensor imaging evaluation of white matter in adolescents with myelomeningocele and Chiari II malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Macrostructural abnormalities in cerebral white matter in patients with myelomeningocele are well known, but microstructural\\u000a abnormalities are not as well studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The aim of this study was to evaluate cerebral white matter in adolescents with myelomeningocele using diffusion tensor imaging\\u000a (DTI), and to investigate the effects of ventricular dilation and CSF shunt presence on white matter microstructure in these\\u000a patients.

Xiawei Ou; Charles M. Glasier; Jeffrey H. Snow

299

Diffusion Tensor Imaging in PSEN1-Related Spastic Paraparesis Reveals Widespread White Matter Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate white matter changes in familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) patients with spastic paraparesis (SP) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Background: Though FAD due to PSEN1 mutations typically recapitulates late onset AD, it can have unusual clinical features including SP. SP is seen with specific PSEN1 mutations and is frequently associated with “cotton wool” amyloid plaques. The pathophysiology underlying SP in FAD is not well understood, though disproportionate degeneration of the corticospinal tracts has been implicated. Design/Methods: We compared white matter integrity in two persons with the A431E PSEN1 mutation with early and severe SP to that of 8 symptomatic PSEN1 mutation carriers without SP from DTI images obtained on a 3T Siemens Trio scanner using 64 direction EPI sequence. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) images were generated using FSL Diffusion Toolbox. FA images were then processed using FSL Tract Based Spatial Statistics toolbox to obtain group level voxel-based statistical maps. Results: The patients with SP were men, mean age of 48, duration of illness of 5.5 years, and CDR SOB scores of 8.5. The 8 subjects without SP (5 men) had various PSEN1 mutations, mean age of 54 years, illness duration of 4.6 years, and CDR SOB scores of 6.1 (all P-values > .05). Using the false discovery rate to correct for multiple comparisons, significantly lower FA were seen in subjects with SP in widespread areas including in the orbitofrontal region, corpus callosum, bilateral precentral gyri, and the anterior limb of the right internal capsule. The reverse contrast revealed no areas in which persons without SP had lower FA relative to those with SP. Conclusions: SP is the most evident clinical manifestation of widespread FA decreases in persons with the A431E PSEN1 mutation, suggesting it may be mediated by a generalized effect of this mutation on white matter.

Braskie, Meredith N; Alger, Jeffry; Bordelon, Yvette M; Wharton, David; Ringman, John M

2014-01-01

300

Delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure abnormalities in youth with a family history of alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH?). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH? = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH? youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH? youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth. PMID:20586754

Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2011-01-01

301

Unsupervised White Matter Fiber Clustering and Tract Probability Map Generation: Applications of a Gaussian Process framework for white matter fibers  

PubMed Central

With the increasing importance of fiber tracking in diffusion tensor images for clinical needs, there has been a growing demand for an objective mathematical framework to perform quantitative analysis of white matter fiber bundles incorporating their underlying physical significance. This paper presents such a novel mathematical framework that facilitates mathematical operations between tracts using an inner product based on Gaussian processes, between fibers which span a metric space. This metric facilitates combination of fiber tracts, rendering operations like tract membership to a bundle or bundle similarity simple. Based on this framework, we have designed an automated unsupervised atlas-based clustering method that does not require manual initialization nor an a priori knowledge of the number of clusters. Quantitative analysis can now be performed on the clustered tract volumes across subjects thereby avoiding the need for point parametrization of these fibers, or the use of medial or envelope representations as in previous work. Experiments on synthetic data demonstrate the mathematical operations. Subsequently, the applicability of the unsupervised clustering framework has been demonstrated on a 21 subject dataset. PMID:20079439

Wassermann, D.; Bloy, L.; Kanterakis, E.; Verma, R.; Deriche, R.

2010-01-01

302

Regional gray matter correlates of vocational interests  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have identified brain areas related to cognitive abilities and personality, respectively. In this exploratory study, we extend the application of modern neuroimaging techniques to another area of individual differences, vocational interests, and relate the results to an earlier study of cognitive abilities salient for vocations. Findings First, we examined the psychometric relationships between vocational interests and abilities in a large sample. The primary relationships between those domains were between Investigative (scientific) interests and general intelligence and between Realistic (“blue-collar”) interests and spatial ability. Then, using MRI and voxel-based morphometry, we investigated the relationships between regional gray matter volume and vocational interests. Specific clusters of gray matter were found to be correlated with Investigative and Realistic interests. Overlap analyses indicated some common brain areas between the correlates of Investigative interests and general intelligence and between the correlates of Realistic interests and spatial ability. Conclusions Two of six vocational-interest scales show substantial relationships with regional gray matter volume. The overlap between the brain correlates of these scales and cognitive-ability factors suggest there are relationships between individual differences in brain structure and vocations. PMID:22591829

2012-01-01

303

White matter integrity and late-life depression in community-dwelling individuals: diffusion tensor imaging study using tract-based spatial statistics.  

PubMed

Background Late-life depression has been associated with white matter changes in studies using the regions of interest approach. Aims To investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between white matter integrity and depression in community-dwelling individuals using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics. Method The sample comprised 381 participants aged between 72 and 92 years who were assessed twice within 2 years. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Tract-based spatial statistics were applied to investigate white matter integrity in currently depressed v. non-depressed elderly people and in those with a history of depression v. no history of depression. The relationship between white matter integrity and development of depressive symptoms after 2 years were analysed with logistic regression. Results Individuals with current depression had widespread white matter integrity reduction compared with non-depressed elderly people. Significant fractional anisotropy reductions were found in 45 brain areas with the most notable findings in the frontal lobe, association and projection fibres. A history of depression was not associated with reduced fractional anisotropy. White matter changes in the superior frontal gyrus, posterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the body of corpus callosum predicted depression at follow-up. Conclusions Reduced white matter integrity is associated with late-life depression and predicts future depressive symptoms whereas a history of depression is not related to white matter changes. Disruption to white matter integrity may be a biomarker to predict late-life depression. PMID:25147370

Reppermund, Simone; Zhuang, Lin; Wen, Wei; Slavin, Melissa J; Trollor, Julian N; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder S

2014-10-01

304

Quantitative fiber tracking of lateral and interhemispheric white matter systems in normal aging  

PubMed Central

The integrity of white matter, as measured in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is disrupted in normal aging. A current consensus is that in adults advancing age affects anterior brain regions disproportionately more than posterior regions; however, the mainstay of studies supporting this anterior-posterior gradient is based primarily on measures of the corpus callosum. Using our quantitative fiber tracking approach, we assessed fiber tract integrity of samples of major white matter cortical, subcortical, interhemispheric, and cerebellar systems (11 bilateral and 2 callosal) on DTI data collected at 1.5 T magnet strength. Participants were 55 men (age 20-78 years) and 65 women (age 28-81 years), deemed healthy and cognitively intact following interview and behavioral testing. Fiber integrity was measured as orientational diffusion coherence (fractional anisotropy, FA) and magnitude of diffusion, which was quantified separately for longitudinal diffusivity (?L), an index of axonal length or number, and transverse diffusivity (?T), an index of myelin integrity. Aging effects were more evident in diffusivity than FA measures. Men and women, examined separately, showed similar age-related increases in longitudinal and transverse diffusivity in fibers of the internal and external capsules bilaterally and the fornix. FA was lower and diffusivity higher in anterior than posterior fibers of regional paired comparisons (genu versus splenium and frontal versus occipital forceps). Diffusivity with older age was generally greater or FA lower in the superior than inferior fiber systems (longitudinal fasciculi, cingulate bundles), with little to no evidence for age-related degradation in pontine or cerebellar systems. The most striking sex difference emerged for the corpus callosum, for which men showed significant decline in FA and increase in longitudinal and transverse diffusivity in the genu but not splenium. By contrast, in women the age effect was present in both callosal regions, albeit modestly more so in the genu than splenium. Functional meaningfulness of these age-related differences was supported by significant correlations between DTI signs of white matter degradation and poorer performance on cognitive or motor tests. This survey of multiple fiber systems throughout the brain revealed a differential pattern of age’s effect on regional FA and diffusivity and suggests mechanisms of functional degradation, attributed at least in part to compromised fiber microstructure affecting myelin and axonal morphology. PMID:18495300

Sullivan, Edith V.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

2009-01-01

305

Trajectory of white matter hyperintensity burden preceding mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the time of acceleration in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden, a common indicator of cerebrovascular pathology, in relation to conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the elderly. Methods: A total of 181 cognitively intact elderly volunteers from the longitudinal, prospective, Oregon Brain Aging Study underwent yearly evaluations, including brain MRI, and cognitive testing. MRIs were analyzed for imaging markers of neurodegeneration: WMH and ventricular CSF (vCSF) volumes. The time before MCI, when the changes in WMH and vCSF burden accelerate, was assessed using a mixed-effects model with a change point for subjects who developed MCI during follow-up. Results: During a follow-up duration of up to 19.6 years, 134 subjects converted to MCI. Acceleration in %WMH volume increase occurred 10.6 years before MCI onset. On average, the annual rate of change in %WMH increased an additional 3.3% after the change point. Acceleration in %vCSF volume increase occurred 3.7 years before the onset of MCI. Out of 63 subjects who converted to MCI and had autopsy, only 28.5% had Alzheimer disease (AD) as the sole etiology of their dementia, while almost just as many (24%) had both AD and significant ischemic cerebrovascular disease present. Conclusions: Acceleration in WMH burden, a common indicator of cerebrovascular disease in the elderly, is a pathologic change that emerges early in the presymptomatic phase leading to MCI. Longitudinal changes in WMH may thus be useful in determining those at risk for cognitive impairment and for planning strategies for introducing disease-modifying therapies prior to dementia onset. PMID:22843262

Dodge, Hiroko H.; Perkins, Louie G.; Sherbakov, Lena; Lahna, David; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Woltjer, Randall; Shinto, Lynne; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

306

Children with new-onset epilepsy exhibit diffusion abnormalities in cerebral white matter in the absence of volumetric differences.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the diffusion properties of cerebral white matter in children with recent onset epilepsy (n=19) compared to healthy controls (n=11). Subjects underwent DTI with quantification of mean diffusion (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (D(ax)) and radial diffusivity (D(rad)) for regions of interest including anterior and posterior corpus callosum, fornix, cingulum, and internal and external capsules. Quantitative volumetrics were also performed for the corpus callosum and its subregions (anterior, midbody and posterior) and total lobar white and gray matter for the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. The results demonstrated no group differences in total lobar gray or white matter volumes or volume of the corpus callosum and its subregions, but did show reduced FA and increased D(rad) in the posterior corpus callosum and cingulum. These results provide the earliest indication of microstructural abnormality in cerebral white matter among children with idiopathic epilepsies. This abnormality occurs in the context of normal volumetrics and suggests disruption in myelination processes. PMID:20044239

Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Pulsipher, Dalin; Dabbs, Kevin; Myers y Gutierrez, Adan; Sheth, Raj; Jones, Jana; Seidenberg, Michael; Meyerand, Elizabeth; Hermann, Bruce

2010-02-01

307

White Matter Integrity and Reaction Time Intraindividual Variability in Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) have been shown to be associated with increased RT intraindividual variability (IIV, as reflected by the coefficient of variation) and an exaggeration of the slow tail of the RT distribution in attentional control tasks, based on ex-Gaussian analyses. The current study examined associations between white matter volume, IIV, and ex-Gaussian RT distribution parameters in cognitively normal aging and early-stage AD. Three RT attention tasks (Stroop, Simon, and a consonant-vowel odd-even switching task) in conjunction with MRI-based measures of cerebral and regional white matter volume were obtained in 133 cognitively normal and 33 early-stage AD individuals. Larger volumes were associated with less IIV and less slowing in the tail of the RT distribution, and larger cerebral and inferior parietal white matter volumes were associated with faster modal reaction time. Collectively, these results support a role of white matter integrity in IIV and distributional skewing, and are consistent with the hypothesis that IIV and RT distributional skewing are sensitive to breakdowns in executive control processes in normal and pathological aging. PMID:22172547

Jackson, Jonathan D.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.; Head, Denise

2011-01-01

308

The Chimpanzee Brain Shows Human-Like Perisylvian Asymmetries in White Matter  

PubMed Central

Modern neuroimaging technologies allow scientists to uncover inter-species differences and similarities in hemispheric asymmetries that may shed light onto the origin of brain asymmetry and its functional correlates. We analyzed asymmetries in white to grey matter ratios of the lateral aspect of the lobes of the brains of chimpanzees. We found marked leftward asymmetries for all lobar regions. This asymmetry was particularly pronounced in the frontal region and was found to be related to handedness for communicative manual gestures as well as for tool use. These results point to a continuity in asymmetry patterns between the human and chimpanzee brain, and support the notion that the anatomical substrates for lateralization of communicative functions and complex manipulative activities may have been present in the common hominid ancestor. PMID:19614754

Cantalupo, Claudio; Oliver, Joanne; Smith, Jarrod; Nir, Talia; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Hopkins, William D.

2009-01-01

309

White versus gray matter function as seen on neuropsychological testing following bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia in childhood  

PubMed Central

Current theory suggests that neurocognitive late effects of treatments for childhood cancer such as difficulties with attention, processing speed and visual-motor ability are the result of white matter damage. Neuroimaging studies have produced a variety of white matter findings. However, although white matter is thought to be differentially affected, previous studies have not demonstrated a discrepancy between white and gray matter function. The present study included 36 children treated for childhood leukemia with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). Their performance on neurocognitive measures traditionally thought to measure white matter was compared to performance on measures thought to measure gray matter function. Composite white and gray matter standard scores were created based on neuropsychological measures that individuals with known white or gray matter damage perform poorly. As predicted, composite white matter scores (mean = 98.1) were significantly lower (t = 2.26, p = 0.03) than composite gray matter scores (mean = 102.5). Additionally, as gray matter performance increased, the difference between gray and white matter scores increased (R = 0.353, p = 0.035). Overall, the results of this study support the current theory that white matter damage is responsible for the more subtle neurocognitive late effects resulting from treatment for childhood leukemia. PMID:18728772

Anderson, Fiona S; Kunin-Batson, Alicia S; Perkins, Joanna L; Scott Baker, K

2008-01-01

310

Atlas-based whole brain white matter analysis using large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping: Application to normal elderly and Alzheimer's disease participants  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to establish single-participant white matter atlases based on diffusion tensor imaging. As one of the applications of the atlas, automated brain segmentation was performed and the accuracy was measured using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM). High-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from a single-participant were B0-distortion-corrected and transformed to the ICBM-152 atlas or to Talairach coordinates. The deep white matter structures, which have been previously well documented and clearly identified by DTI, were manually segmented. The superficial white matter areas beneath the cortex were defined, based on a population-averaged white matter probability map. The white matter was parcellated into 176 regions based on the anatomical labeling in the ICBM-DTI-81 atlas. The automated parcellation was achieved by warping this parcellation map to normal controls and to Alzheimer’s disease patients with severe anatomical atrophy. The parcellation accuracy was measured by a kappa analysis between the automated and manual parcellation at 11 anatomical regions. The kappa values were 0.70 for both normal controls and patients while the inter-rater reproducibility was 0.81 (controls) and 0.82 (patients), suggesting “almost perfect” agreement. A power analysis suggested that the proposed method is suitable for detecting FA and size abnormalities of the white matter in clinical studies. PMID:19385016

Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia; Jiang, Hangyi; Li, Xin; Akhter, Kazi; Zhang, Jiangyang; Hsu, John T.; Miller, Michael I.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Albert, Marilyn; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur W.; Pike, G. Bruce; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Evans, Alan; Mazziotta, John; Mori, Susumu

2010-01-01

311

Stereotaxic White Matter Atlas Based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in an ICBM Template  

PubMed Central

Brain registration to a stereotaxic atlas is an effective way to report anatomic locations of interest and to perform anatomic quantification. However, existing stereotaxic atlases lack comprehensive coordinate information about white matter structures. In this paper, white matter specific atlases in stereotaxic coordinates are introduced. As a reference template, the widely-used ICBM-152 was used. The atlas contains fiber orientation maps and hand-segmented white matter parcellation maps based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Registration accuracy by linear and nonlinear transformation was measured, and automated template-based white matter parcellation was tested. The results showed high correlation between the manual ROI-based and the automated approaches for normal adult populations. The atlases are freely available and believed to be a useful resource as a target template and for automated parcellation methods. PMID:18255316

Mori, Susumu; Oishi, Kenichi; Jiang, Hangyi; Jiang, Li; Li, Xin; Akhter, Kazi; Hua, Kegang; Faria, Andreia V.; Mahmood, Asif; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur; Pike, Bruce; Neto, Pedro Rosa; Evans, Alan; Zhang, Jiangyang; Huang, Hao; Miller, Michael I.; Zijl, Peter van; Mazziotta, John

2008-01-01

312

J Neurosci . Author manuscript Relationships between hippocampal atrophy, white matter disruption, and  

E-print Network

, encompassing the whole memory circuit of Papez (consistent with the key location of this white matter tract ; Brain Mapping ; Case-Control Studies ; Female ; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 ; metabolism ; Hippocampus Resonance Imaging ; methods ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Neuroglia ; pathology ; radionuclide imaging ; Neurons

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Diffusion imaging of cerebral white matter in persons who stutter: evidence for network-level anomalies  

E-print Network

Deficits in brain white matter have been a main focus of recent neuroimaging studies on stuttering. However, no prior study has examined brain connectivity on the global level of the cerebral cortex in persons who stutter ...

Cai, Shanqing

314

White matter hyperintensities are associated with visual search behavior independent of generalized slowing in aging.  

PubMed

A fundamental controversy is whether cognitive decline with advancing age can be entirely explained by decreased processing speed, or whether specific neural changes can elicit cognitive decline, independent of slowing. These hypotheses are anchored by studies of healthy older individuals where age is presumed the sole influence. Unfortunately, advancing age is also associated with asymptomatic brain white matter injury. We hypothesized that differences in white matter injury extent, manifest by MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH), mediate differences in visual attentional control in healthy aging, beyond processing speed differences. We tested young and cognitively healthy older adults on search tasks indexing speed and attentional control. Increasing age was associated with generally slowed performance. WMH were also associated with slowed search times independent of processing speed differences. Consistent with evidence attributing reduced network connectivity to WMH, these results conclusively demonstrate that clinically silent white matter injury contributes to slower search performance indicative of compromised cognitive control, independent of generalized slowing of processing speed. PMID:24183716

Lockhart, Samuel N; Roach, Alexandra E; Luck, Steven J; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

2014-01-01

315

White matter diffusion alterations in normal women at risk of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Increased white matter mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) has been observed in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether similar alterations of white matter occur in normal individuals at risk of AD. Diffusion tensor images were acquired in 42 cognitively normal right-handed women with both a family history of dementia and at least one apolipoprotein E4 allele. These were compared with images from 23 normal women without either AD risk factor. Group analyses were performed using tract-based spatial statistics. Reduced FA was observed in the fronto-occipital and inferior temporal fasciculi (particularly posteriorly), the splenium of the corpus callosum, subcallosal white matter and the cingulum bundle. These findings demonstrate that specific white matter pathways are altered in normal women at increased risk of AD years before the expected onset of cognitive symptoms. PMID:18801597

Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Andersen, Anders H; Powell, David A; Lovell, Mark A; Xiong, Shuling; Gold, Brian T

2010-07-01

316

Genes Differentially Expressed by Acutely Isolated Resident Progenitor Cells of the Human White Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a method of modulating production of neurons and/or oligodendrocytes from neural progenitor cells of human white matter and to a method of treating a subject for a condition modulated by underproduction of oligodendrocytes...

S. A. Goldman, F. Sim

2004-01-01

317

Neutrino Emission and Oscillations in White Dwarf Matter Accreting onto a Primordial Black Hole  

SciTech Connect

Properties of the neutrinos emitted during an accretion of white dwarf matter by a primordial black hole are considered. The possibility of detecting these neutrinos and their oscillations is discussed.

Tikhomirov, V.V.; Yuralevich, S.E. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarussian State University, Minsk, 220050 (Belarus)

2004-11-01

318

White matter changes in an untreated, newly diagnosed case of classical homocystinuria.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a 4-year-old boy who developed progressive unilateral weakness and developmental delays prior to his diagnosis of classical homocystinuria. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated diffuse white matter changes, raising the concern for a secondary diagnosis causing leukoencephalopathy, since classical homocystinuria is not typically associated with these changes. Other inborn errors of the transsulfuration pathway have been reported as causing these changes. Once begun on therapy for his homocystinuria, his neurologic deficits resolved and his delays rapidly improved. Repeat MRI performed one year after instating therapy showed resolution of his white matter abnormalities. This case illustrates the need to consider homocystinuria and other amino acidopathies in the differential diagnosis of childhood white matter diseases and lends weight to the hypothesis that hypermethioninemia may induce white matter changes. PMID:23155204

Brenton, J Nicholas; Matsumoto, Julie A; Rust, Robert S; Wilson, William G

2014-01-01

319

A Preliminary Study of White Matter in Adolescent Depression: Relationships with Illness Severity, Anhedonia, and Irritability  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) during adolescence is a common and disabling psychiatric condition; yet, little is known about its neurobiological underpinning. Evidence indicates that MDD in adults involves alterations in white and gray matter; however, sparse research has focused on adolescent MDD. Similarly, little research has accounted for the wide variability of symptom severity among depressed teens. Here, we aimed to investigate white matter (WM) microstructure between 17 adolescents with MDD and 16 matched healthy controls (HC) using diffusion tensor imaging. We further assessed within the MDD group relationships between WM integrity and depression severity, as well as anhedonia and irritability – two core symptoms of adolescent MDD. As expected, adolescents with MDD manifested decreased WM integrity compared to HC in the anterior cingulum and anterior corona radiata. Within the MDD group, greater depression severity was correlated with reduced WM integrity in the genu of corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiation, anterior cingulum, and sagittal stratum. However, anhedonia and irritability were associated with alterations in distinct WM tracts. Specifically, anhedonia was associated with disturbances in tracts related to reward processing, including the anterior limb of the internal capsule and projection fibers to the orbitofrontal cortex. Irritability was associated with decreased integrity in the sagittal stratum, anterior corona radiata, and tracts leading to prefrontal and temporal cortices. Overall, these preliminary findings provide further support for the hypotheses that there is a disconnect between prefrontal and limbic emotional regions in depression, and that specific clinical symptoms involve distinct alterations in WM tracts. PMID:24324445

Henderson, Sarah E.; Johnson, Amy R.; Vallejo, Ana I.; Katz, Lev; Wong, Edmund; Gabbay, Vilma

2013-01-01

320

Automated Fiber Tracking of Human Brain White Matter Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of white matter tracts based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is currently widely used in clinical research. This reconstruction allows us to identify coordinates of specific white matter tracts and to investigate their anatomy. Fiber reconstruction, however, relies on manual identification of anatomical landmarks of a tract of interest, which is based on subjective judgment and thus a potential source of experimental variability. Here, an automated tract reconstruction approach is introduced. A set of reference regions of interest (rROIs) known to select a tract of interest was marked in our DTI brain atlas. The atlas was then linearly transformed to each subject, and the rROI set was transferred to the subject for tract reconstruction. Agreement between the automated and manual approaches was measured for 11 tracts in 10 healthy volunteers and found to be excellent (kappa > 0.8) and remained high up to 4–5 mm of the linear transformation errors. As a first example, the automated approach was applied to brain tumor patients and strategies to cope with severe anatomical abnormalities are discussed. PMID:18554930

Zhang, Weihong; Olivi, Alessandro; Hertig, Samuel J.; van Zijl, Peter; Mori, Susumu

2008-01-01

321

The gene for leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is located on chromosome 3q27.  

PubMed Central

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an autosomal recessive disorder with normal early development and, usually, childhood-onset neurological deterioration. At present, diagnosis of VWM is based on clinical examination and the results of repeat magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which show that, with time, increasing amounts of the cerebral white matter vanish and are replaced by cerebrospinal fluid. We have performed a genome linkage screening of a panel of 19 families of different ethnic origins. Significant linkage to chromosome 3q27 was observed in a 7-cM interval between markers D3S3730 and D3S3592, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.1 calculated from the entire data set. The results of genealogical studies have suggested that seven parents in four Dutch families with VWM may have inherited an allele for the disease from a common ancestor who lived at least eight generations ago. Analysis of these families provided further evidence for the localization of the gene for VWM to 3q27. The patients shared a haplotype spanning 5 cM between markers D3S1618 and D3S3592. In one family of a different ethnic background, the patient had, in the same region, homozygosity for 13 consecutive markers spanning at least 12 cM, suggesting consanguinity between the parents. A healthy sibling of this patient had the same homozygous haplotype, which suggests that the healthy sibling is presymptomatic for the disease. PMID:10441579

Leegwater, P A; Konst, A A; Kuyt, B; Sandkuijl, L A; Naidu, S; Oudejans, C B; Schutgens, R B; Pronk, J C; van der Knaap, M S

1999-01-01

322

The gene for leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is located on chromosome 3q27.  

PubMed

Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an autosomal recessive disorder with normal early development and, usually, childhood-onset neurological deterioration. At present, diagnosis of VWM is based on clinical examination and the results of repeat magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which show that, with time, increasing amounts of the cerebral white matter vanish and are replaced by cerebrospinal fluid. We have performed a genome linkage screening of a panel of 19 families of different ethnic origins. Significant linkage to chromosome 3q27 was observed in a 7-cM interval between markers D3S3730 and D3S3592, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.1 calculated from the entire data set. The results of genealogical studies have suggested that seven parents in four Dutch families with VWM may have inherited an allele for the disease from a common ancestor who lived at least eight generations ago. Analysis of these families provided further evidence for the localization of the gene for VWM to 3q27. The patients shared a haplotype spanning 5 cM between markers D3S1618 and D3S3592. In one family of a different ethnic background, the patient had, in the same region, homozygosity for 13 consecutive markers spanning at least 12 cM, suggesting consanguinity between the parents. A healthy sibling of this patient had the same homozygous haplotype, which suggests that the healthy sibling is presymptomatic for the disease. PMID:10441579

Leegwater, P A; Könst, A A; Kuyt, B; Sandkuijl, L A; Naidu, S; Oudejans, C B; Schutgens, R B; Pronk, J C; van der Knaap, M S

1999-09-01

323

A diffusion-tensor-based white matter atlas for rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Atlases of key white matter (WM) structures in humans are widely available, and are very useful for region of interest (ROI)-based analyses of WM properties. There are histology-based atlases of cortical areas in the rhesus macaque, but none currently of specific WM structures. Since ROI-based analysis of WM pathways is also useful in studies using rhesus diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, we have here created an atlas based on a publicly available DTI-based template of young rhesus macaques. The atlas was constructed to mimic the structure of an existing human atlas that is widely used, making results translatable between species. Parcellations were carefully hand-drawn on a principle-direction color-coded fractional anisotropy image of the population template. The resulting atlas can be used as a reference to which registration of individual rhesus data can be performed for the purpose of white-matter parcellation. Alternatively, specific ROIs from the atlas may be warped into individual space to be used in ROI-based group analyses. This atlas will be made publicly available so that it may be used as a resource for DTI studies of rhesus macaques. PMID:25203614

Zakszewski, Elizabeth; Adluru, Nagesh; Tromp, Do P M; Kalin, Ned; Alexander, Andrew L

2014-01-01

324

Microembolism Induces Anhedonia but No Detectable Changes in White Matter Integrity in Aged Rats  

PubMed Central

Microvascular disease leads to alterations of cerebral vasculature including the formation of microembolic (ME) strokes. Though ME are associated with changes in mood and the severity and progression of cognitive decline, the effect of ME strokes on cerebral microstructure and its relationship to behavioral endpoints is unknown. Here, we used adult and aged male rats to test the hypotheses that ME lesions result in subtle changes to white and gray matter integrity as detected by high-throughput diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and that these structural disruptions correspond to behavioral deficits. Two weeks post-surgery, aged animals showed depressive-like behaviors in the sucrose consumption test in the absence of altered cerebral diffusivity as assessed by ex-vivo DTI. Furthermore, DTI indices did not correlate with the degree of behavioral disruption in aged animals or in a subset of animals with observed tissue cavitation and subtle DTI alterations. Together, data suggest that behavioral deficits are not the result of damage to brain regions or white matter tracts, rather the activity of other systems may underlie functional disruption and recovery. PMID:24811070

Nemeth, Christina L.; Gutman, David A.; Majeed, Waqas; Keilholz, Shella D.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

2014-01-01

325

Soccer Heading Is Associated with White Matter Microstructural and Cognitive Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate the association of soccer heading with subclinical evidence of traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods: With institutional review board approval and compliance with HIPAA guidelines, 37 amateur soccer players (mean age, 30.9 years; 78% [29] men, 22% [eight] women) gave written informed consent and completed a questionnaire to quantify heading in the prior 12 months and lifetime concussions. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T was performed (32 directions; b value, 800 sec/mm2; 2 × 2 × 2-mm voxels). Cognitive function was measured by using a computerized battery of tests. Voxelwise linear regression (heading vs fractional anisotropy [FA]) was applied to identify significant regional associations. FA at each location and cognition were tested for a nonlinear relationship to heading by using an inverse logit model that incorporated demographic covariates and history of concussion. Results: Participants had headed 32–5400 times (median, 432 times) over the previous year. Heading was associated with lower FA at three locations in temporo-occipital white matter with a threshold that varied according to location (885–1550 headings per year) (P < .00001). Lower levels of FA were also associated with poorer memory scores (P < .00001), with a threshold of 1800 headings per year. Lifetime concussion history and demographic features were not significantly associated with either FA or cognitive performance. Conclusion: Heading is associated with abnormal white matter microstructure and with poorer neurocognitive performance. This relationship is not explained by a history of concussion. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:23757503

Kim, Namhee; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Kim, Mimi; Stewart, Walter F.; Branch, Craig A.

2013-01-01

326

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Analysis of Regional Whiter Matter Changes along the Cingulum in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

E-print Network

of specific white matter (WM) pathways. The cingulum tracts, connecting hippocampal, thalamic and association not be studied effectively due to its curvilinear feature in the posterior and anterior regions, which causes the left cingulum paths with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy value in the MCI subjects

Zhang, Jun

327

White matter alterations following thromboembolic stroke: a ?-amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemical study in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thromboembolic stroke in rats leads to a well-described pattern of histopathological and behavioral abnormalities. However,\\u000a limited data are available in animal models concerning the response of the white matter to embolic events. The purpose of\\u000a this study was to document patterns of white matter abnormalities using ?-amyloid precursor protein (?APP) immunocytochemistry\\u000a as a marker of axonal damage. Twelve male Wistar

W. Dalton Dietrich; Susan Kraydieh; Ricardo Prado; Nancy E. Stagliano

1998-01-01

328

AMPA\\/Kainate Receptor Activation Mediates Hypoxic Oligodendrocyte Death and Axonal Injury in Cerebral White Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an in situ model to investigate the hypothesis that AMPA\\/kainate (AMPA\\/KA) receptor activation contributes to hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury in the adult brain. Acute coronal brain slices, including corpus callosum, were prepared from adult mice. After exposure to transient oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), white matter injury was as- sessed by electrophysiology and immunofluorescence for oli- godendrocytes and

Selva Baltan Tekkok; Mark P. Goldberg

2001-01-01

329

Disrupted white matter integrity of corticopontine-cerebellar circuitry in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for white matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia is increasing. Decreased fractional anisotropy (FA)\\u000a in interhemispheric commissural fibers as well as long-ranging fronto-parietal association fibers belongs to the most frequent\\u000a findings. The present study used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate white matter integrity in 35 patients with\\u000a schizophrenia and 35 healthy volunteers. We found that patients exhibited significantly decreased

Kathrin KochGerd; Gerd Wagner; Robert Dahnke; Claudia Schachtzabel; Christoph Schultz; Martin Roebel; Daniel Güllmar; Jürgen R. Reichenbach; Heinrich Sauer; Ralf G. M. Schlösser

2010-01-01

330

Prestroke statins, progression of white matter hyperintensities, and cognitive decline in stroke patients with confluent white matter hyperintensities.  

PubMed

Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a consequence of cerebral small vessel disease. Statins have been shown to reduce recurrent stroke among patients with various stroke subtypes, including lacunar stroke, which also arises from small vessel disease. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that prestroke statin use would reduce the progression of WMH and/or cognitive decline among stroke patients with confluent WMH. Patients (n?=?100) were participants of the VITAmins To Prevent Stroke magnetic resonance imaging substudy. All patients had confluent WMH on magnetic resonance imaging at baseline. Eighty-one patients completed the 2-year follow-up. We assessed general cognition and executive function using the mini-mental state examination and Mattis dementia rating scale-initiation/perseveration subscale, respectively. We compared the change in volume of WMH and cognition between prestroke statin use and prestroke nonstatin use groups. We also evaluated the effects of prestroke statin use on incident lacunes and microbleeds. The prestroke statin use group (n?=?51) had less WMH volume progression (1.54?±?4.52 cm(3) vs 5.01?±?6.00 cm(3), p?=?0.02) compared with the prestroke nonstatin use group (n?=?30). Multivariate linear regression modeling identified prestroke statin use as an independent predictor of WMH progression (??=?-0.31, p?=?0.008). Prestroke statin use was also associated with less decline (Mattis dementia rating scale-initiation/perseveration subscale; ??=?0.47, p?=?0.001). No association was observed with changes in mini-mental state examination scores. There were no between group differences on incident lacunes or incident microbleeds. Prestroke statin use may reduce WMH progression and decline in executive function in stroke patients with confluent WMH. PMID:24692001

Xiong, Yunyun; Wong, Adrian; Cavalieri, Margherita; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chu, Winnie W C; Liu, Xinfeng; Wong, Ka Sing; Mok, Vincent

2014-07-01

331

White matter integrity is associated with alcohol cue reactivity in heavy drinkers.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies have shown that white matter damage accompanies excessive alcohol use, but the functional correlates of alcohol-related white matter disruption remain unknown. This study applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 332 heavy drinkers (mean age = 31.2 ± 9.4; 31% female) to obtain averaged fractional anisotropy (FA) values of 18 white matter tracts. Statistical analyses examined correlations of FA values with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to an alcohol taste cue, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FA values of nine white matter tracts (anterior corona radiata, body of corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, external capsule, fornix, inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, posterior corona radiata, retrolenticular limb of internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) were significantly, negatively correlated with BOLD activation in medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, cingulum, thalamus, caudate, putamen, insula, and cerebellum. The inverse relation between white matter integrity and functional activation during the alcohol taste cue provides support for the hypothesis that lower white matter integrity in frontoparietal and corticolimbic networks is a factor in loss of control over alcohol consumption. PMID:24683509

Monnig, Mollie A; Thayer, Rachel E; Caprihan, Arvind; Claus, Eric D; Yeo, Ronald A; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

2014-03-01

332

Mapping joint grey and white matter reductions in Alzheimer's disease using joint independent component analysis  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease concomitant with grey and white matter damages. However, the interrelationship of volumetric changes between grey and white matter remains poorly understood in AD. Using joint independent component analysis, this study identified joint grey and white matter volume reductions based on structural magnetic resonance imaging data to construct the covariant networks in twelve AD patients and fourteen normal controls (NC). We found that three networks showed significant volume reductions in joint grey–white matter sources in AD patients, including (1) frontal/parietal/temporal-superior longitudinal fasciculus/corpus callosum, (2) temporal/parietal/occipital-frontal/occipital, and (3) temporal-precentral/postcentral. The corresponding expression scores distinguished AD patients from NC with 85.7%, 100% and 85.7% sensitivity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 75.0%, 66.7% and 75.0% specificity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore, the combined source of three significant joint sources best predicted the AD/NC group membership with 92.9% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. Our findings revealed joint grey and white matter loss in AD patients, and these results can help elucidate the mechanism of grey and white matter reductions in the development of AD. PMID:23123779

Guo, Xiaojuan; Han, Yuan; Chen, Kewei; Wang, Yan; Yao, Li

2013-01-01

333

Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: reasoning training alters structural connectivity  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA), have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n = 23) who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), a test that places strong demands on reasoning skills, as well as age- and IQ-matched controls planning to take the LSAT in the future (n = 22). DTI data were collected at two scan sessions scheduled three months apart. In trained participants but not controls, we observed decreases in radial diffusivity (RD) in white matter connecting frontal cortices, and in mean diffusivity (MD) within frontal and parietal lobe white matter. Further, participants exhibiting larger gains on the LSAT exhibited greater decreases in MD in the right internal capsule. In summary, reasoning training altered multiple measures of white matter structure in young adults. While the cellular underpinnings are unknown, these results provide evidence of experience-dependent white matter changes that may not be limited to myelination. PMID:22936899

Mackey, Allyson P.; Whitaker, Kirstie J.; Bunge, Silvia A.

2012-01-01

334

Altered White Matter Integrity in the Congenital and Late Blind People  

PubMed Central

The blind subjects have experienced a series of brain structural and functional alterations due to the visual deprivation. It remains unclear as to whether white matter changes differ between blind subjects with visual deprivation before and after a critical developmental period. The present study offered a direct comparison in changes of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) between congenital blind (CB) and late blind (LB) individuals. Twenty CB, 21 LB (blindness onset after 18 years old), and 40 sight control (SC) subjects were recruited. Both the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based analysis (VBA) showed lower FA in the bilateral optic radiations in both blind groups, suggesting that the loss of white matter integrity was the prominent hallmark in the blind people. The LB group showed more extensive white matter impairment than the CB group, indicating the mechanisms of white matter FA changes are different between the CB and LB groups. Using a loose threshold, a trend of an increased FA was found in the bilateral corticospinal tracts in the LB but with a smaller spatial extent relative to the CB. These results suggest that white matter FA changes in the blind subjects are the reflection of multiple mechanisms, including the axonal degeneration, deafferentation, and plasticity. PMID:23710371

Wang, Dawei; Qin, Wen; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yunting; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

2013-01-01

335

Aberrant white matter microstructure in children with 16p11.2 deletions.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) of the chromosomal locus 16p11.2, consisting of either deletions or duplications, have been implicated in autism, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Since abnormal white matter microstructure can be seen in these more broadly defined clinical disorders, we used diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to investigate white matter microstructural integrity in human children with 16p11.2 deletions. We show that deletion carriers, compared with typically developing matched controls, have increased axial diffusivity (AD) in many major central white matter tracts, including the anterior corpus callosum as well as bilateral internal and external capsules. Higher AD correlated with lower nonverbal IQ in the deletion carriers, but not controls. Increases in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were also found in some of the same tracts with elevated AD. Closer examination with neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging revealed that fiber orientation dispersion was decreased in some central white matter tracts. Notably, these alterations of white matter are unlike microstructural differences reported for any other neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders that have phenotypic overlap with the deletion carriers. These findings suggest that deletion of the 16p11.2 locus is associated with a unique widespread pattern of aberrant white matter microstructure that may underlie the impaired cognition characteristic of this CNV. PMID:24790192

Owen, Julia P; Chang, Yi Shin; Pojman, Nicholas J; Bukshpun, Polina; Wakahiro, Mari L J; Marco, Elysa J; Berman, Jeffrey I; Spiro, John E; Chung, Wendy K; Buckner, Randy L; Roberts, Timothy P L; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Sherr, Elliott H; Mukherjee, Pratik

2014-04-30

336

Vestibular loss and balance training cause similar changes in human cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy.  

PubMed

Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that are related to skill level or disease progression respectively. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter diffusivity between these two study groups and their age- and sex-matched controls. We found that vestibular patients and balance-trained subjects show a reduction of fractional anisotropy in similar white matter tracts, due to a relative increase in radial diffusivity (perpendicular to the main diffusion direction). Reduced fractional anisotropy was not only found in sensory and motor areas, but in a widespread network including long-range connections, limbic and association pathways. The reduced fractional anisotropy did not correlate with any cognitive, disease-related or skill-related factors. The similarity in FA between the two study groups, together with the absence of a relationship between skill or disease factors and white matter changes, suggests a common mechanism for these white matter differences. We propose that both study groups must exert increased effort to meet their respective usual balance requirements. Since balance training has been shown to effectively reduce the symptoms of vestibular failure, the changes in white matter shown here may represent a neuronal mechanism for rehabilitation. PMID:24776524

Hummel, Nadine; Hüfner, Katharina; Stephan, Thomas; Linn, Jennifer; Kremmyda, Olympia; Brandt, Thomas; Flanagin, Virginia L

2014-01-01

337

Effects of White Matter Injury on Resting State fMRI Measures in Prematurely Born Infants  

PubMed Central

The cerebral white matter is vulnerable to injury in very preterm infants (born prior to 30 weeks gestation), resulting in a spectrum of lesions. These range from severe forms, including cystic periventricular leukomalacia and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, to minor focal punctate lesions. Moderate to severe white matter injury in preterm infants has been shown to predict later neurodevelopmental disability, although outcomes can vary widely in infants with qualitatively comparable lesions. Resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly utilized in neurodevelopmental investigations and may provide complementary information regarding the impact of white matter injury on the developing brain. We performed resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent postmenstrual age in fourteen preterm infants with moderate to severe white matter injury secondary to periventricular hemorrhagic infarction. In these subjects, resting state networks were identifiable throughout the brain. Patterns of aberrant functional connectivity were observed and depended upon injury severity. Comparisons were performed against data obtained from prematurely-born infants with mild white matter injury and healthy, term-born infants and demonstrated group differences. These results reveal structural-functional correlates of preterm white matter injury and carry implications for future investigations of neurodevelopmental disability. PMID:23874510

Smyser, Christopher D.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Blazey, Tyler M.; Inder, Terrie E.; Neil, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

338

White matter integrity is associated with alcohol cue reactivity in heavy drinkers  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies have shown that white matter damage accompanies excessive alcohol use, but the functional correlates of alcohol-related white matter disruption remain unknown. This study applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 332 heavy drinkers (mean age = 31.2 ± 9.4; 31% female) to obtain averaged fractional anisotropy (FA) values of 18 white matter tracts. Statistical analyses examined correlations of FA values with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to an alcohol taste cue, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FA values of nine white matter tracts (anterior corona radiata, body of corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, external capsule, fornix, inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, posterior corona radiata, retrolenticular limb of internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) were significantly, negatively correlated with BOLD activation in medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, cingulum, thalamus, caudate, putamen, insula, and cerebellum. The inverse relation between white matter integrity and functional activation during the alcohol taste cue provides support for the hypothesis that lower white matter integrity in frontoparietal and corticolimbic networks is a factor in loss of control over alcohol consumption. PMID:24683509

Monnig, Mollie A; Thayer, Rachel E; Caprihan, Arvind; Claus, Eric D; Yeo, Ronald A; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

2014-01-01

339

Vestibular Loss and Balance Training Cause Similar Changes in Human Cerebral White Matter Fractional Anisotropy  

PubMed Central

Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that are related to skill level or disease progression respectively. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter diffusivity between these two study groups and their age- and sex-matched controls. We found that vestibular patients and balance-trained subjects show a reduction of fractional anisotropy in similar white matter tracts, due to a relative increase in radial diffusivity (perpendicular to the main diffusion direction). Reduced fractional anisotropy was not only found in sensory and motor areas, but in a widespread network including long-range connections, limbic and association pathways. The reduced fractional anisotropy did not correlate with any cognitive, disease-related or skill-related factors. The similarity in FA between the two study groups, together with the absence of a relationship between skill or disease factors and white matter changes, suggests a common mechanism for these white matter differences. We propose that both study groups must exert increased effort to meet their respective usual balance requirements. Since balance training has been shown to effectively reduce the symptoms of vestibular failure, the changes in white matter shown here may represent a neuronal mechanism for rehabilitation. PMID:24776524

Hummel, Nadine; Hufner, Katharina; Stephan, Thomas; Linn, Jennifer; Kremmyda, Olympia; Brandt, Thomas; Flanagin, Virginia L.

2014-01-01

340

Relative phosphocreatine and nucleoside triphosphate concentrations in cerebral gray and white matter measured in vivo by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of ATP metabolism generally are higher in cerebral gray matter compared to white matter. In order to study the physiology of this regional difference in vivo, the 1-dimensional chemical shift imaging technique (1D-CSI) was used to acquire 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra from 2.5 mm slices of 4-week old piglet brains. Spectra from predominantly gray matter slices (estimated 76%

Miles K. Tsuji; Robert V. Mulkern; Colin U. Cook; Ron L. Meyers; David Holtzman

1996-01-01

341

One-Year Change in Anterior Cingulate Cortex White Matter Microstructure: Relationship with Late-Life Depression Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Differences in white matter structure measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are associated with late-life depression, but results examining how these differences relate to antidepressant remission are mixed. To better describe these relationships, we examined how one-year change in DTI measures are related to one-year course of depression. Design One-year cross-sectional follow-up to a 12-week clinical trial of sertraline. Setting Outpatients at an academic medical center. Participants 29 depressed and 20 never-depressed elderly subjects. Over the one-year period, 16 depressed subjects achieved and maintained remission, while 13 did not. Measurements One-year change in fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity in frontal white matter, as measured by DTI. Results Contrary to our hypotheses, depressed subjects who did not remit over the study interval exhibited significantly less change in anterior cingulate cortex white matter FA than did never-depressed or depressed-remitted subjects. There were no group differences in other frontal or central white matter regions. Moreover, there was a significant positive relationship between change in MADRS and change in anterior cingulate cortex FA, wherein greater interval decline in FA was associated with greater interval decline in MADRS. Conclusions Older depressed individuals who remit exhibit white matter changes comparable to what is observed in never-depressed individuals, while nonremitters exhibit significantly less change in anterior cingulate cortex FA. Such a finding may be related to either antidepressant effects on brain structure or the effects of chronic stress on brain structure. Further work is needed to better understand this relationship. PMID:20808126

Taylor, Warren D.; MacFall, James R.; Boyd, Brian; Payne, Martha E.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali

2010-01-01

342

Chemical Abundance Constraints on White Dwarfs as Halo Dark Matter  

E-print Network

We examine the chemical abundance constraints on a population of white dwarfs in the Halo of our Galaxy. We are motivated by microlensing evidence for massive compact halo objects (Machos) in the Galactic Halo, but our work constrains white dwarfs in the Halo regardless of what the Machos are. We focus on the composition of the material that would be ejected as the white dwarfs are formed; abundance patterns in the ejecta strongly constrain white dwarf production scenarios. Using both analytical and numerical chemical evolution models, we confirm that very strong constraints come from Galactic Pop II and extragalactic carbon abundances. We also point out that depending on the stellar model, significant nitrogen is produced rather than carbon. The combined constraints from C and N give $\\Omega_{WD} h < 2 \\times 10^{-4}$ from comparison with the low C and N abundances in the Ly$\\alpha$ forest. We note, however, that these results are subject to uncertainties regarding the nucleosynthesis of low-metallicity stars. We thus investigate additional constraints from D and $^4$He, finding that these light elements can be kept within observational limits only for $\\Omega_{WD} \\la 0.003$ and for a white dwarf progenitor initial mass function sharply peaked at low mass (2$M_\\odot$). Finally, we consider a Galactic wind, which is required to remove the ejecta accompanying white dwarf production from the galaxy. We show that such a wind can be driven by Type Ia supernovae arising from the white dwarfs themselves, but these supernovae also lead to unacceptably large abundances of iron. We conclude that abundance constraints exclude white dwarfs as Machos. (abridged)

Brian D. Fields; Katherine Freese; David S. Graff

1999-04-21

343

Grey and white matter abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy with and without mesial temporal sclerosis.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy with (TLE-mts) and without (TLE-no) mesial temporal sclerosis display different patterns of cortical neuronal loss, suggesting that the distribution of white matter damage may also differ between the sub-groups. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of white matter damage in TLE-mts and TLE-no and to determine if identified changes are related to neuronal loss at the presumed seizure focus. The 4 T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T1-weighted data were acquired for 22 TLE-mts, 21 TLE-no and 31 healthy controls. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to identify grey matter (GM) volume atrophy. Correlation analysis was conducted between the FA maps and neuronal loss at the presumed seizure focus. In TLE-mts, reduced FA was identified in the genu, body and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, cingulum, external capsule, ipsilateral internal capsule and uncinate fasciculus. In TLE-no, FA decreases were identified in the genu, the body of the corpus callosum and ipsilateral anterior corona radiata. The FA positively correlated with ipsilateral hippocampal volume. Widespread extra-focal GM atrophy was associated with both sub-groups. Despite widespread and extensive GM atrophy displaying different anatomical patterns in both sub-groups, TLE-mts demonstrated more extensive FA abnormalities than TLE-no. The microstructural organization in the corpus callosum was related to hippocampal volume in both patients and healthy subjects demonstrating the association of these distal regions. PMID:23754695

Scanlon, Cathy; Mueller, Susanne G; Cheong, Ian; Hartig, Miriam; Weiner, Michael W; Laxer, Kenneth D

2013-09-01

344

White matter alterations following thromboembolic stroke: a beta-amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemical study in rats.  

PubMed

Thromboembolic stroke in rats leads to a well-described pattern of histopathological and behavioral abnormalities. However, limited data are available in animal models concerning the response of the white matter to embolic events. The purpose of this study was to document patterns of white matter abnormalities using beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) immunocytochemistry as a marker of axonal damage. Twelve male Wistar rats underwent photochemically induced right common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) or sham procedures. At 3 days after CCAT, rats were perfusion-fixed and sections immunostained for the visualization of betaAPP or stained with hematoxylin and eosin for routine histopathological analysis. As previously described, CCAT produced small ipsilateral embolic infarcts and ischemic cell change within gray matter structures including the medial cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and thalamus. In areas of frank infarction, numerous reactive profiles were observed within borderzones of the damaged site. However, betaAPP immunocytochemistry also revealed reactive axonal profiles within various white matter tracts including the corpus callosum, external capsule and fimbria of the hippocampus. In many cases, the presence of axonal damage could not be appreciated with routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. These data indicate that CCAT leading to platelet embolization to the brain not only produces embolic infarcts but also produces more subtle white matter abnormalities. Previously undetected white matter damage would be expected to participate in the sensorimotor and cognitive behavioral deficits following embolic stroke. PMID:9600599

Dietrich, W D; Kraydieh, S; Prado, R; Stagliano, N E

1998-05-01

345

White Matter Integrity Linked To Functional Impairments in Aging and Early Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with changes in cerebral white matter (WM) but the functional significance of such findings is not yet established. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) might reveal links between regional WM changes and specific neuropsychologically and psychophysically defined impairments in early AD. Methods Older adult control subjects (OA, n=18) and mildly impaired AD patients (n=14) underwent neuropsychological and visual perceptual testing along with DTI of cerebral WM. DTI yielded factional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity () maps for nine ROIs in three brain regions that were then compared to the performance measures. Results AD patients showed non-significant trends toward lower FAs in the posterior region’s callosal and sub-cortical ROIs. However, posterior callosal FA was significantly correlated with verbal fluency and figural memory impairments, whereas posterior subcortical FA was correlated with delayed verbal memory, figural memory, and optic flow perceptual impairments. Conclusions WM changes in early AD are concentrated in posterior cerebral areas with distributions that correspond to specific functional impairments. DTI can be used to assess regional pathology related to individual’s deficits in early AD. PMID:19012862

Kavcic, Voyko; Ni, Hongyan; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Duffy, Charles J.

2008-01-01

346

Cognitive State following Stroke: The Predominant Role of Preexisting White Matter Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Stroke is a major cause of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults, however the role of the ischemic lesions themselves, on top of other risk factors known in the elderly, remains controversial. This study used structural equation modeling to determine the respective impact of the new ischemic lesions' volume, preexisting white matter lesions and white matter integrity on post stroke cognitive state. Methods Consecutive first ever mild to moderate stroke or transient ischemic attack patients recruited into the ongoing prospective TABASCO study underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans within seven days of stroke onset and were cognitively assessed one year after the event using a computerized neuropsychological battery. The volumes of both ischemic lesions and preexisting white matter lesions and the integrity of the normal appearing white matter tissue were measured and their contribution to cognitive state was assessed using structural equation modeling path analysis taking into account demographic parameters. Two models were hypothesized, differing by the role of ischemic lesions' volume. Results Structural equation modeling analysis of 142 patients confirmed the predominant role of white matter lesion volume (standardized path coefficient ??=??0.231) and normal appearing white matter integrity (??=??0.176) on the global cognitive score, while ischemic lesions' volume showed no such effect (??=?0.038). The model excluding the ischemic lesion presented better fit to the data (comparative fit index 0.9 versus 0.092). Conclusions Mild to moderate stroke patients with preexisting white matter lesions are more vulnerable to cognitive impairment regardless of their new ischemic lesions. Thus, these patients can serve as a target group for studies on cognitive rehabilitation and neuro-protective therapies which may, in turn, slow their cognitive deterioration. PMID:25153800

Kliper, Efrat; Ben Assayag, Einor; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Artzi, Moran; Korczyn, Amos D.; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Aizenstein, Orna; Hallevi, Hen; Mike, Anat; Shopin, Ludmila; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bashat, Dafna Ben

2014-01-01

347

Grey and White Matter Correlates of Recent and Remote Autobiographical Memory Retrieval – Insights from the Dementias  

PubMed Central

The capacity to remember self-referential past events relies on the integrity of a distributed neural network. Controversy exists, however, regarding the involvement of specific brain structures for the retrieval of recently experienced versus more distant events. Here, we explored how characteristic patterns of atrophy in neurodegenerative disorders differentially disrupt remote versus recent autobiographical memory. Eleven behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, 10 semantic dementia, 15 Alzheimer's disease patients and 14 healthy older Controls completed the Autobiographical Interview. All patient groups displayed significant remote memory impairments relative to Controls. Similarly, recent period retrieval was significantly compromised in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease, yet semantic dementia patients scored in line with Controls. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses, for all participants combined, were conducted to investigate grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval. Neural correlates common to both recent and remote time periods were identified, including the hippocampus, medial prefrontal, and frontopolar cortices, and the forceps minor and left hippocampal portion of the cingulum bundle. Regions exclusively implicated in each time period were also identified. The integrity of the anterior temporal cortices was related to the retrieval of remote memories, whereas the posterior cingulate cortex emerged as a structure significantly associated with recent autobiographical memory retrieval. This study represents the first investigation of the grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval in neurodegenerative disorders. Our findings demonstrate the importance of core brain structures, including the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, irrespective of time period, and point towards the contribution of discrete regions in mediating successful retrieval of distant versus recently experienced events. PMID:25396740

Irish, Muireann; Hornberger, Michael; El Wahsh, Shadi; Lam, Bonnie Y. K.; Lah, Suncica; Miller, Laurie; Hsieh, Sharpley; Hodges, John R.; Piguet, Olivier

2014-01-01

348

Improved prediction of Alzheimer's disease with longitudinal white matter/gray matter contrast changes.  

PubMed

Brain morphometry measures derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to test whether we could improve morphometry-based detection and prediction of disease state by use of white matter/gray matter (WM/GM) signal intensity contrast obtained from conventional MRI scans. We hypothesized that including WM/GM contrast change along with measures of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampi would yield better classification of AD patients, and more accurate prediction of early disease progression. T1 -weighted MRI scans from two sessions approximately 2 years apart from 78 participants with AD (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0.5-2) and 71 age-matched controls were used to calculate annual change rates. Results showed that WM/GM contrast decay was larger in AD compared with controls in the medial temporal lobes. For the discrimination between AD and controls, entorhinal WM/GM contrast decay contributed significantly when included together with decrease in entorhinal cortical thickness and hippocampal volume, and increased the area under the curve to 0.79 compared with 0.75 when using the two morphometric variables only. Independent effects of WM/GM contrast decay and improved classification were also observed for the CDR-based subgroups, including participants converting from either a non-AD status to very mild AD, or from very mild to mild AD. Thus, WM/GM contrast decay increased diagnostic accuracy beyond what was obtained by well-validated morphometric measures alone. The findings suggest that signal intensity properties constitute a sensitive biomarker for cerebral degeneration in AD. PMID:22674625

Grydeland, Håkon; Westlye, Lars T; Walhovd, Kristine B; Fjell, Anders M

2013-11-01

349

Associations of white matter integrity and cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.  

PubMed

Typical brain development includes coordinated changes in both white matter (WM) integrity and cortical thickness (CT). These processes have been shown to be disrupted in schizophrenia, which is characterized by abnormalities in WM microstructure and by reduced CT. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between WM markers and cortex-wide CT in healthy controls (HCs) and patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Using diffusion tensor imaging and structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study (130 HC and 111 SCZ), we tested for associations between (a) fractional anisotropy in selected manually labeled WM pathways (corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiation, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) and CT, and (b) the number of lesion-like WM regions ("potholes") and CT. In HC, but not SCZ, we found highly significant negative associations between WM integrity and CT in several pathways, including frontal, temporal, and occipital brain regions. Conversely, in SCZ the number of WM potholes correlated with reduced CT in the left lateral temporal gyrus, left fusiform, and left lateral occipital brain area. Taken together, we found differential patterns of association between WM integrity and CT in HC and SCZ. Although the pattern in HC can be explained from a developmental perspective, the reduced gray matter CT in SCZ patients might be the result of focal but spatially heterogeneous disruptions of WM integrity. PMID:23661633

Ehrlich, Stefan; Geisler, Daniel; Yendiki, Anastasia; Panneck, Patricia; Roessner, Veit; Calhoun, Vince D; Magnotta, Vincent A; Gollub, Randy L; White, Tonya

2014-05-01

350

Compromised white matter microstructural integrity after mountain climbing: evidence from diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate cerebral microstructural alterations after single short-term mountain climbing. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) analysis of WM fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were carried out on 14 mountaineers before and after mountain climbing (6206?m). In addition, verbal and spatial 'two-back' tasks and serial reaction time task were also tested. No significant changes were detected in total and regional volumes of GM, WM, and cerebral spinal fluid after mountain climbing. Significant decreased FA values were found in the bilateral corticospinal tract, corpus callosum (anterior and posterior body, splenium), reticular formation of dorsal midbrain, left superior longitudinal fasciculus, right posterior cingulum bundles, and left middle cerebellar peduncle. In all the above regions, the radial diffusivity values tended to increase, except in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus the change was statistically significant. There were no significant changes in the two cognitive tests after mountain climbing. These findings indicate that short-term high-altitude exposure leads to disturbances mainly in cerebral WM, showing compromised fiber microstructural integrity, which may clarify the mechanisms underlining some cognitive and motor deficits tested previously. PMID:22724615

Zhang, Haiyan; Lin, Jianzhong; Sun, Yingchun; Huang, Yongxia; Ye, Huiming; Wang, Xiaochuan; Yang, Tianhe; Jiang, Xingtang; Zhang, Jiaxing

2012-06-01

351

Diffusion tensor imaging reveals widespread white matter abnormalities in children and adolescents with myotonic dystrophy type 1  

PubMed Central

Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to evaluate cerebral white matter in 16 patients (ages 9–18) with myotonic dystrophy type 1 compared to 15 matched controls. Patients with myotonic dystrophy showed abnormalities in mean diffusivity compared to controls in frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital white matter and in all individual tracts examined. Whole cerebrum mean diffusivity was 8.6% higher overall in patients with myotonic dystrophy compared to controls. Whole cerebrum fractional anisotropy was also abnormal (10.8% low overall) in all regions and tracts except corticospinal tracts. Follow-up analysis of parallel and perpendicular diffusivity suggests possible relative preservation of myelin in corticospinal tracts. Correlations between Wechsler working memory performance and mean diffusivity were strong for all regions. Frontal and temporal fractional anisotropy were correlated with working memory as well. Results are consistent with earlier studies demonstrating that significant white matter disturbances are characteristic in young patients with myotonic dystrophy and that these abnormalities are associated with the degree of working memory impairment seen in this disease. PMID:23192171

Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Bell, Christopher J.; Muetzel, Ryan L.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Day, John W.

2012-01-01

352

Additional resources and the default mode network: Evidence of increased connectivity and decreased white matter integrity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Abstract In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cognition is affected. Cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal areas has been associated with the cognitive profile of patients. Additionally, reduced metabolic turnover and regional cerebral blood flow in frontal areas indicative of reduced neural activity have been reported for ALS. We hypothesize that functional connectivity in non-task associated functional default mode network (DMN) is associated with cognitive profile and white matter integrity. This study focused on specific cognitive tasks known to be impaired in ALS such as verbal fluency and attention, and the relationship with functional connectivity in the DMN and white matter integrity. Nine patients and 11 controls were measured with an extensive neuropsychological battery. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired. Results showed that ALS patients performed significantly worse in attention and verbal fluency task. Patients showed increased functional connectivity in parahippocampal and parietal areas of the non-task associated DMN compared to controls. The more pronounced the cognitive deficits, the stronger the increase in functional connectivity in those areas. White matter integrity was reduced in frontal areas in the patients. In conclusion, increased connectivity in the DMN in parahippocampal and parietal areas might represent recruitment of accessory brain regions to compensate for dysfunctional frontal networks. PMID:24862983

Heimrath, Johanna; Gorges, Martin; Kassubek, Jan; Müller, Hans-Peter; Birbaumer, Niels; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

2014-12-01

353

Persistent homological sparse network approach to detecting white matter abnormality in maltreated children: MRI and DTI multimodal study.  

PubMed

We present a novel persistent homological sparse network analysis framework for characterizing white matter abnormalities in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Traditionally TBM is used in quantifying tissue volume change in each voxel in a massive univariate fashion. However, this obvious approach cannot be used in testing, for instance, if the change in one voxel is related to other voxels. To address this limitation of univariate-TBM, we propose a new persistent homological approach to testing more complex relational hypotheses across brain regions. The proposed methods are applied to characterize abnormal white matter in maltreated children. The results are further validated using fractional anisotropy (FA) values in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). PMID:24505679

Chung, Moo K; Hanson, Jamie L; Lee, Hyekyoung; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

2013-01-01

354

Persistent Homological Sparse Network Approach to Detecting White Matter Abnormality in Maltreated Children: MRI and DTI Multimodal Study  

PubMed Central

We present a novel persistent homological sparse network analysis framework for characterizing white matter abnormalities in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Traditionally TBM is used in quantifying tissue volume change in each voxel in a massive univariate fashion. However, this obvious approach cannot be used in testing, for instance, if the change in one voxel is related to other voxels. To address this limitation of univariate-TBM, we propose a new persistent homological approach to testing more complex relational hypotheses across brain regions. The proposed methods are applied to characterize abnormal white matter in maltreated children. The results are further validated using fractional anisotropy (FA) values in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). PMID:24505679

Chung, Moo K.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Lee, Hyekyoung; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

2014-01-01

355

Anatomy of the visual word form area: adjacent cortical circuits and long-range white matter connections  

PubMed Central

Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion selective human cortex. Three distinct white matter fascicles pass within close proximity to the VWFA: (1) the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, (2) the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus and (3) the vertical occipital fasciculus. The vertical occipital fasciculus terminates in or adjacent to the functionally defined VWFA voxels in every individual. The vertical occipital fasciculus projects dorsally to language and reading related cortex. The combination of functional responses from cortex and anatomical measures in the white matter provides an overview of how the written word is encoded and communicated along the ventral occipital-temporal circuitry for seeing words. PMID:22632810

Yeatman, Jason D.; Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Wandell, Brian A.

2012-01-01

356

Could Iron Accumulation Be an Etiology of the White Matter Change in Alzheimer’s Disease: Using Phase Imaging to Detect White Matter Iron Deposition Based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To investigate if and where abnormal iron accumulation in white matter fibers occurs in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by phase imaging and to relate these findings to white matter tract degeneration assessed by diffusion tensor imaging. Methods: Twenty-five patients with AD and 20 normal controls underwent phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging with a 3.0-tesla system. White matter

Hua-Wei Ling; Bei Ding; Tao Wang; Huan Zhang; Ke-Min Chen

2011-01-01

357

White-Etching Matter in Bearing Steel. Part II: Distinguishing Cause and Effect in Bearing Steel Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The premature failure of large bearings of the type used in wind turbines, possibly through a mechanism called "white-structure flaking", has triggered many studies of microstructural damage associated with "white-etching areas" created during rolling contact fatigue, although whether they are symptoms or causes of failure is less clear. Therefore, some special experiments have been conducted to prove that white-etching areas are the consequence, and not the cause, of damage. By artificially introducing a fine dispersion of microcracks in the steel through heat treatment and then subjecting the sample to rolling contact fatigue, manifestations of hard white-etching matter have been created to a much greater extent than samples similarly tested without initial cracks. A wide variety of characterization tools has been used to corroborate that the white areas thus created have the same properties as reported observations on real bearings. Evidence suggests that the formation mechanism of the white-etching regions involves the rubbing and beating of the free surfaces of cracks, debonded inclusions, and voids under repeated rolling contact. It follows that the focus in avoiding early failure should be in enhancing the toughness of the bearing steel in order to avoid the initial microscopic feature event.

Solano-Alvarez, W.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

2014-10-01

358

High-throughput, automated quantification of white matter neurons in mild malformation of cortical development in epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction In epilepsy, the diagnosis of mild Malformation of Cortical Development type II (mMCD II) predominantly relies on the histopathological assessment of heterotopic neurons in the white matter. The exact diagnostic criteria for mMCD II are still ill-defined, mainly because findings from previous studies were contradictory due to small sample size, and the use of different stains and quantitative systems. Advance in technology leading to the development of whole slide imaging with high-throughput, automated quantitative analysis (WSA) may overcome these differences, and may provide objective, rapid, and reliable quantitation of white matter neurons in epilepsy. This study quantified the density of NeuN immunopositive neurons in the white matter of up to 142 epilepsy and control cases using WSA. Quantitative data from WSA was compared to two other systems, semi-automated quantitation, and the widely accepted method of stereology, to assess the reliability and quality of results from WSA. Results All quantitative systems showed a higher density of white matter neurons in epilepsy cases compared to controls (P?=?0.002). We found that, in particular, WSA with user-defined region of interest (manual) was superior in terms of larger sampled size, ease of use, time consumption, and accuracy in region selection and cell recognition compared to other methods. Using results from WSA manual, we proposed a threshold value for the classification of mMCD II, where 78% of patients now classified with mMCD II were seizure-free at the second post-operatively follow up. Conclusion This study confirms the potential role of WSA in future quantitative diagnostic histology, especially for the histopathological diagnosis of mMCD. PMID:24927775

2014-01-01

359

Altered white matter microstructure is associated with social cognition and psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

22q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a highly penetrant genetic mutation associated with a significantly increased risk for psychosis. Aberrant neurodevelopment may lead to inappropriate neural circuit formation and cerebral dysconnectivity in 22q11DS, which may contribute to symptom development. Here we examined: (1) differences between 22q11DS participants and typically developing controls in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures within white matter tracts; (2) whether there is an altered age-related trajectory of white matter pathways in 22q11DS; and (3) relationships between DTI measures, social cognition task performance, and positive symptoms of psychosis in 22q11DS and typically developing controls. Sixty-four direction diffusion weighted imaging data were acquired on 65 participants (36 22q11DS, 29 controls). We examined differences between 22q11DS vs. controls in measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), using both a voxel-based and region of interest approach. Social cognition domains assessed were: Theory of Mind and emotion recognition. Positive symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. Compared to typically developing controls, 22q11DS participants showed significantly lower AD and RD in multiple white matter tracts, with effects of greatest magnitude for AD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Additionally, 22q11DS participants failed to show typical age-associated changes in FA and RD in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Higher AD in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO) and left uncinate fasciculus was associated with better social cognition in 22q11DS and controls. In contrast, greater severity of positive symptoms was associated with lower AD in bilateral regions of the IFO in 22q11DS. White matter microstructure in tracts relevant to social cognition is disrupted in 22q11DS, and may contribute to psychosis risk.

Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Villalon-Reina, Julio E.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Senturk, Damla; Chow, Carolyn; Thompson, Paul M.; Bearden, Carrie E.

2014-01-01

360

White and Black Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Does Relational Demography Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on the impact of student, teacher, and principal racial and gender composition in urban schools on teacher work outcomes are limited. This study, a secondary data analysis of White and Black urban public school teachers using data taken from the restricted use 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), examines the effects of relational…

Fairchild, Susan; Tobias, Robert; Corcoran, Sean; Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Noguera, Pedro

2012-01-01

361

Microstructural White Matter Abnormalities and Cognitive Functioning in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine whether type 2 diabetes is associated with microstructural abnormalities in specific cerebral white matter tracts and to relate these microstructural abnormalities to cognitive functioning. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-five nondemented older individuals with type 2 diabetes (mean age 71 ± 5 years) and 35 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects underwent a 3 Tesla diffusion-weighted MRI scan and a detailed cognitive assessment. Tractography was performed to reconstruct several white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor imaging measures, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), were compared between groups and related to cognitive performance. RESULTS MD was significantly increased in all tracts in both hemispheres in patients compared with control subjects (P < 0.05), reflecting microstructural white matter abnormalities in the diabetes group. Increased MD was associated with slowing of information-processing speed and worse memory performance in the diabetes but not in the control group after adjustment for age, sex, and estimated IQ (group × MD interaction, all P < 0.05). These associations were independent of total white matter hyperintensity load and presence of cerebral infarcts. CONCLUSIONS Individuals with type 2 diabetes showed microstructural abnormalities in various white matter pathways. These abnormalities were related to worse cognitive functioning. PMID:22961577

Reijmer, Yael D.; Brundel, Manon; de Bresser, Jeroen; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Leemans, Alexander; Biessels, Geert Jan

2013-01-01

362

Hypomyelination and reversible white matter attenuation in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency.  

PubMed

White matter abnormalities are a feature of many inborn errors of metabolism and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain has become an important tool in the diagnostic work-up of these disorders. Recently, patients were reported with a potentially treatable disorder of serine biosynthesis. They presented with congenital microcephaly, severe psychomotor retardation and intractable seizures. Low concentrations of the amino acids serine, glycine as well as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate were found in plasma and CSF and were due to a deficiency of the enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH). We studied four patients aged 10 months to 7 years by MRI before and after treatment with amino acids with a follow-up of 16 months to 6 years. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed in two patients at 4 and 16 months of treatment. Pre-treatment MRI demonstrated hypomyelination and profound white matter attenuation in all patients. During treatment, a significant increase in white matter volume was found and a progress of myelination in two patients. The most striking finding on MRS during treatment was an elevated level of white matter choline. Serine biosynthesis defects have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with mental retardation, microcephaly, seizures, and on MRI hypomyelination and white matter attenuation. PMID:11508546

de Koning, T J; Jaeken, J; Pineda, M; Van Maldergem, L; Poll-The, B T; van der Knaap, M S

2000-12-01

363

Oxidative Stress Interferes With White Matter Renewal After Prolonged Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose White matter injury caused by cerebral hypoperfusion may contribute to the pathophysiology of vascular dementia and stroke, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully defined. Here, we test the hypothesis that oxidative stress interferes with endogenous white matter repair by disrupting renewal processes mediated by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Methods In vitro, primary rat OPCs were exposed to sublethal CoCl2 for 7 days to induce prolonged chemical hypoxic stress. Then, OPC proliferation/differentiation was assessed. In vivo, prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis in mice. Then, reactive oxygen species production, myelin density, oligodendrocyte versus OPC counts, and cognitive function were evaluated. To block oxidative stress, OPCs and mice were treated with the radical scavenger edaravone. Results Prolonged chemical hypoxic stress suppressed OPC differentiation in vitro. Radical scavenging with edaravone ameliorated these effects. After 28 days of cerebral hypoperfusion in vivo, reactive oxygen species levels were increased in damaged white matter, along with the suppression of OPC-to-oligodendrocyte differentiation and loss of myelin staining. Concomitantly, mice showed functional deficits in working memory. Radical scavenging with edaravone rescued OPC differentiation, ameliorated myelin loss, and restored working memory function. Conclusions Our proof-of-concept study demonstrates that after prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion, oxidative stress interferes with white matter repair by disrupting OPC renewal mechanisms. Radical scavengers may provide a potential therapeutic approach for white matter injury in vascular dementia and stroke. PMID:24072001

Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Maki, Takakuni; Pham, Loc-Duyen D.; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Seo, Ji Hae; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Kim, Kyu-Won; Lo, Eng H.; Arai, Ken

2013-01-01

364

Diffusion tensor imaging detects white matter abnormalities and associated cognitive deficits in chronic adolescent TBI  

PubMed Central

Primary objective This study examined long-term alterations in white matter microstructure following TBI in adolescence using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). It was hypothesized that white matter integrity would be compromised in adolescents with TBI and would correlate with measures of executive functioning and cognitive abilities. Research design This study employed whole-brain, voxel-wise, statistical comparison of DTI indices in youth of 12–17 years old (mean = 15.06) with TBI vs an age- and gender-matched cohort (mean age = 15.37). Methods and procedures This study scanned 17 adolescents with complicated-mild-to-severe TBI, 1–3 years after injury, and 13 healthy adolescents. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was employed for DTI analysis. Main outcomes and results Overall diffusivity elevations were found in the TBI group with increases in axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere. White matter integrity was associated with word reading, planning and processing times in the TBI group, but not healthy controls. Conclusions The detected abnormalities in axial diffusivity may reflect neuronal regeneration and cerebral reorganization after injury. These findings provide tentative evidence of persistent white matter alteration following TBI in adolescence. Associations of DTI indices with cognitive performance following TBI provide tentative support for links between white matter integrity and performance post-TBI. PMID:23472581

ADAMSON, CHRIS; YUAN, WEIHONG; BABCOCK, LYNN; LEACH, JAMES L.; SEAL, MARC L.; HOLLAND, SCOTT K.; WADE, SHARI L.

2014-01-01

365

Frontoparietal white matter diffusion properties predict mental arithmetic skills in children.  

PubMed

Functional MRI studies of mental arithmetic consistently report blood oxygen level-dependent signals in the parietal and frontal regions. We tested whether white matter pathways connecting these regions are related to mental arithmetic ability by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure these pathways in 28 children (age 10-15 years, 14 girls) and assessing their mental arithmetic skills. For each child, we identified anatomically the anterior portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF), a pathway connecting parietal and frontal cortex. We measured fractional anisotropy in a core region centered along the length of the aSLF. Fractional anisotropy in the left aSLF positively correlates with arithmetic approximation skill, as measured by a mental addition task with approximate answer choices. The correlation is stable in adjacent core aSLF regions but lower toward the pathway endpoints. The correlation is not explained by shared variance with other cognitive abilities and did not pass significance in the right aSLF. These measurements used DTI, a structural method, to test a specific functional model of mental arithmetic. PMID:19948963

Tsang, Jessica M; Dougherty, Robert F; Deutsch, Gayle K; Wandell, Brian A; Ben-Shachar, Michal

2009-12-29

366

Diffusion imaging of cerebral white matter in persons who stutter: evidence for network-level anomalies.  

PubMed

Deficits in brain white matter have been a main focus of recent neuroimaging studies on stuttering. However, no prior study has examined brain connectivity on the global level of the cerebral cortex in persons who stutter (PWS). In the current study, we analyzed the results from probabilistic tractography between regions comprising the cortical speech network. An anatomical parcellation scheme was used to define 28 speech production-related ROIs in each hemisphere. We used network-based statistic (NBS) and graph theory to analyze the connectivity patterns obtained from tractography. At the network-level, the probabilistic corticocortical connectivity from the PWS group were significantly weaker than that from persons with fluent speech (PFS). NBS analysis revealed significant components in the bilateral speech networks with negative correlations with stuttering severity. To facilitate comparison with previous studies, we also performed tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and regional fractional anisotropy (FA) averaging. Results from tractography, TBSS and regional FA averaging jointly highlight the importance of several regions in the left peri-Rolandic sensorimotor and premotor areas, most notably the left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) and middle primary motor cortex, in the neuroanatomical basis of stuttering. PMID:24611042

Cai, Shanqing; Tourville, Jason A; Beal, Deryk S; Perkell, Joseph S; Guenther, Frank H; Ghosh, Satrajit S

2014-01-01

367

Diffusion imaging of cerebral white matter in persons who stutter: evidence for network-level anomalies  

PubMed Central

Deficits in brain white matter have been a main focus of recent neuroimaging studies on stuttering. However, no prior study has examined brain connectivity on the global level of the cerebral cortex in persons who stutter (PWS). In the current study, we analyzed the results from probabilistic tractography between regions comprising the cortical speech network. An anatomical parcellation scheme was used to define 28 speech production-related ROIs in each hemisphere. We used network-based statistic (NBS) and graph theory to analyze the connectivity patterns obtained from tractography. At the network-level, the probabilistic corticocortical connectivity from the PWS group were significantly weaker than that from persons with fluent speech (PFS). NBS analysis revealed significant components in the bilateral speech networks with negative correlations with stuttering severity. To facilitate comparison with previous studies, we also performed tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and regional fractional anisotropy (FA) averaging. Results from tractography, TBSS and regional FA averaging jointly highlight the importance of several regions in the left peri-Rolandic sensorimotor and premotor areas, most notably the left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) and middle primary motor cortex, in the neuroanatomical basis of stuttering. PMID:24611042

Cai, Shanqing; Tourville, Jason A.; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph